WorldWideScience

Sample records for biology based study

  1. Sleep and Multisystem Biological Risk: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Judith E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Seeman, Teresa E

    2015-01-01

    Background Short sleep and poor sleep quality are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and mortality. This study examines the contribution of sleep duration and sleep quality on a multisystem biological risk index that is known to be associated with morbidity and mortality. Methods Analyses include a population-based sample from the Midlife Development in the United States survey recruited to the Biomarker substudy. A total of 1,023 participants aged 54.5 years (S...

  2. Cyanoacetamide based Barbiturates, Thiobarbiturates and their Biological Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various cyanoacetamide based Knoevenagel adducts were coupled with barbituric acid / thiobarbituric acid and triethylorthoformate via a one pot three component reaction in 2-butanol availing the desired compound in excellent yields. All the synthesized compounds (2-15) were extensively characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Mass spectrometry and elemental analysis and were screened for antibacterial, antiurease, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and chymotrypsin inhibition studies. In case of antibacterial studies 2 was found appreciably active against the six selected strains whereas the rest of the compounds were moderately active. The urease inhibition studies revealed compound 5 and 12 as potent whereas the rest were found inactive where thiourea was used as control. Antioxidant activity results exhibited with 2 as the most active and rest of compounds showed good activity. In case of chymotrypsin inhibition studies all the synthesized compounds were found inactive with the exception of 6 which was moderately active. (author)

  3. Biologically based epidemiological studies of electric power and cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, R G

    1993-01-01

    As societies industrialize, the health profile of the population changes; in general, acute infectious disease declines and chronic disease increases. Use of electricity is a hallmark of the industrialization process, but there has been no suspicion that electricity could increase the risk of cancer. Recently, however, a number of epidemiologic studies have suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMF) may do just that. Although few cancer experiments have been done yet, there are a number of b...

  4. Inquiry-based Science Instruction in High School Biology Courses: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Eze

    A lack of research exists about how secondary school science teachers use inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how science teachers used inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning in high school biology courses. The conceptual framework was based on Banchi and Bell's model of increasing levels of complexity for inquiry-based instruction. A multiple case study research design was conducted of biology programs at 3 high schools in an urban school district in the northeastern region of the United States. Participants included 2 biology teachers from each of the 3 high schools. Data were collected from individual interviews with biology teachers, observations of lessons in biology, and documents related to state standards, assessments, and professional development. The first level of data analysis involved coding and categorizing the interview and observation data. A content analysis was used for the documents. The second level of data analysis involved examining data across all sources and all cases for themes and discrepancies. According to study findings, biology teachers used confirmation, structure, and guided inquiry to improve student learning. However, they found open inquiry challenging and frustrating to implement because professional development about scaffolding of instruction over time was needed, and students' reading and writing skills needed to improve. This study contributes to positive social change by providing educators and researchers with a deeper understanding about how to scaffold levels of inquiry-based science instruction in order to help students become scientifically literate citizens.

  5. Theoretical study of the molecular bases that control photochemical processes with biological and nanotechnological interest

    OpenAIRE

    Saurí Peris, Vicenta

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo desarrollado en la tesis doctoral que lleva por título "Theoretical study of the molecular bases that control photochemical processes with biological and nanotechnological interest" se enmarca en las líneas de investigación del grupo QCEXVAL (Quantum Chemistry of the Excited State University of Valencia), que nació en el seno del departamento de Química Física de la Universitat de València en 1993. Se han abordado temas de interés metodológico, biológico y nanotecnológico. La prime...

  6. [Study on action mechanism of Danhong injection based on computational system biology approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan-ni; Wei, Xiao-hua; Xiao, Pin

    2015-02-01

    Danhong injection is a compound preparation of traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius, and has been widely applied in treating coronary heart diseases and ischemic encephalopathy in clinic. Despite the complexity of its chemical compounds and the diversity of targets, especially in system biology, there have not a report for its action mechanism as a whole regulatory biological network. In this study, protein data of S. miltiorrhiza and C. tinctorius were searched in TCMGeneDIT database and agilent literature search (ALS) system to establish the multi-component protein network of S. miltiorrhiza, C. tinctorius and Danhong injection. Besides, the protein interaction network was built based on the protein-protein interaction in Genecards, BIND, BioGRID, IntAct, MINT and other databases. According to the findings, 10 compounds of S. miltiorrhiza and 14 compounds of C. tinctorius were correlated with proteins. The 24 common compounds had interactions with 81 proteins, and formed a protein interaction network with 60 none-isolated nodes. The Cluster ONE module was applied to make an enrichment analysis on the protein interaction network and extract one sub-network with significant difference P <0.05. The sub-network contains 23 key proteins, which involved five signaling pathways, namely Nod-like receptor signaling pathway, epithelial cell signaling in helicobacter pylori infection, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway and neurotrophin signaling pathway through KEGG signaling pathway mapping. In this study, the computational system biology approach was adopted to preliminarily explain the molecular mechanism of main compounds of Danhong injection in preventing and treating diseases and provide reference for systematic studies on traditional Chinese medicine compounds. PMID:26084184

  7. Humin-based complexes and study of their biological activity under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Several experimental studies have indicated that humin acids has features such as antioxidant activity, antiradiation activity and other. It is known that the humin acids are biologically active organic compounds with characteristics of high polyfunctional and complexing acids. The biological activity of these compounds is connected with presence of phenolic and hydroxyl groups. The main goal of this research is to increase biological activity and sorption properties of humin acids and obtaining of their modified and enriched forms with organic minerals and their analysis on model plant objects. Humin acids solutions can stimulate the life activity of irradiated plants with critical doses and plants growing in the polluted soils with radionuclides

  8. Spectroscopic studies and biological activity of some transition metal complexes of unusual Schiff base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Al-Nasr, Ahmad K.; Ramadan, Ramadan M.

    2013-03-01

    Unusual Schiff base ligand, 4-ethanimidoyl-6-[(1E)-N-(2-hydroxy-4-methylphenyl)ethanimidoyl]benzene-1,3-diol, L, was synthesized via catalytic process involving the interaction of some metal ions with a macrocyclic Schiff base (MSB). The transition metal derivatives [ML(H2O)4](NO3)3, M = Cr(III) and Fe(III), [NiL(H2O)4](NO3)2, [ML(H2O)2](NO3)2, M = Zn(II) and Cd(II), [Cl2Pd(μ-Cl)2PdL], [PtL(Cl)2] and [PtL(Cl)4] were also synthesized from the corresponding metal species with L. The Schiff bases and complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of L was determined by X-ray analysis. The spectroscopic studies revealed a variety of structure arrangements for the complexes. The biological activities of L and metal complexes against the Escherchia coli as Gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria, and the two fungus Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans were screened. The cytotoxicity of [PtL(Cl)2] complex, a cis-platin analogous, was checked as an antitumor agent on two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and T47D) and human liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2).

  9. STUDY OF PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF MOLASSES-BASED DISTILLERY EFFLUENT

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Chaudhary* AK Sharma and Birbal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Molasses based distilleries are recognized as of major polluting industries with a large amount of annual effluent production. Modi Distillery, located at Modi Nagar in western Uttar Pradesh, is a molasses-based distillery with a capacity of 26 KLPD. Being an alcohol-processing unit, we estimated capacity and efficiency of Modi distillery that discharges highly polluted effluent to small drainage with a very high biological oxygen demand (BOD) (42,000-51,000mg/ltr) and chemical oxygen demand ...

  10. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2013-03-01

    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  11. The Effectiveness of a Case Study-Based First-Year Biology Class at a Black Women's College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; Benning, Tracy; Woods, Natasha; McGinnis, Gene; Chu, Joanne; Netherton, Josh; Bauerle, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The authors used a case study-based approach in the introductory biology course at Spelman College. The course taught to entering freshmen was divided into three modules--ecology, evolution, and biodiversity, each designed around a case study. They noted that (1) case study teaching was dramatically more effective than the traditional lecture…

  12. Biological methanation of hydrogen within biogas plants: A model-based feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simulation study about direct methanation of hydrogen within biogas plants. • In stationary operation two limitations, namely biological and transfer limit. • Biological limit at 4mH23/mCO23 due to stoichiometry. • Dynamic behaviour shows three qualitatively different step responses. • A simple control scheme to meet the output quality was developed. - Abstract: One option to utilize excess electric energy is its conversion to hydrogen and the subsequent methanation. An alternative to the classical chemical Sabatier process is the biological methanation (methanogenesis) within biogas plants. In conventional biogas plants methane and carbon dioxide is produced. The latter can be directly converted to methane by feeding hydrogen into the reactor, since hydrogenotrophic bacteria are present. In the present contribution, a comprehensive simulation study with respect to stationary operating conditions and disturbances is presented. It reveals two qualitative different limitations, namely a biological limit (appr. at 4mH23/mCO23 corresponds to 4.2mH2,STP3/mliq3/d) as well as a transfer limit. A parameter region for a safe operation was defined. The temporary operation with stationary unfeasible conditions was analysed and thereby three qualitatively different disturbances can be distinguished. In one of these the operation for several days is possible. On the basis of these results, a controller was proposed and tested that meets the demands on the conversion of hydrogen and also prevents the washout of the microbial community due to hydrogen overload

  13. Study on the radiation-induced biological responses based on the analysis of metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Objectives □ Establishment of basis of biological radiation response study by metabolite analysis 2. Project results □ Establishment of analytical basis of radiation-responsive metabolites in biological samples - Large scale collection of tissue samples from irradiated animal for radiation metabolomics research - Establishment of mass spectromety (GC MS, LC MS-MS) analysis methods of biological samples - 3 Standard Operation Protocols (SOP) for ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS, Q-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites from biological samples - Establishment of database for radiation metabolites □ Basic research on radiation-responsive metabolites and the interpretation of their functions - Validation of spermidine as a candidate biomarker of acute radiation response in mouse blood - Verification of 5 radiation-responsive steroid hormones and alteration of their metabolic enzyme activities in mouse blood - Verification of 13 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain -Verification of 10 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain - Verification of 74 radiation-responsive metabolites in whole rat brain by ultra high resolution FT-ICR MS and Q-TOF MS analysis 3. Expected benefits and plan of application □ Establishment of research basis of radiation metabolomics in Korea □ Provision of core technology in radiation bioscience and safety field by application of radiation metabolomics results to the technology development in radiation biodosimetry, and radiation response evaluation and modulation

  14. Study on the radiation-induced biological responses based on the analysis of metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Haeran; Roh, Changhyun; Shin, Heejune; Ryu, Dongkyoung

    2013-01-15

    1. Objectives □ Establishment of basis of biological radiation response study by metabolite analysis 2. Project results □ Establishment of analytical basis of radiation-responsive metabolites in biological samples - Large scale collection of tissue samples from irradiated animal for radiation metabolomics research - Establishment of mass spectromety (GC MS, LC MS-MS) analysis methods of biological samples - 3 Standard Operation Protocols (SOP) for ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS, Q-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites from biological samples - Establishment of database for radiation metabolites □ Basic research on radiation-responsive metabolites and the interpretation of their functions - Validation of spermidine as a candidate biomarker of acute radiation response in mouse blood - Verification of 5 radiation-responsive steroid hormones and alteration of their metabolic enzyme activities in mouse blood - Verification of 13 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain -Verification of 10 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain - Verification of 74 radiation-responsive metabolites in whole rat brain by ultra high resolution FT-ICR MS and Q-TOF MS analysis 3. Expected benefits and plan of application □ Establishment of research basis of radiation metabolomics in Korea □ Provision of core technology in radiation bioscience and safety field by application of radiation metabolomics results to the technology development in radiation biodosimetry, and radiation response evaluation and modulation.

  15. Biological studies and electrical conductivity of paper sheet based on PANI/PS/Ag-NPs nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A M; Mohamed, S A; Abdel-Aziz, M S; Abdel-Aziz, M E; Turky, G; Kamel, S

    2016-08-20

    Polyaniline (PANI) with/without polystyrene (PS), was successfully manufactured in the occurrence of dispersed pulp fibers via the oxidative polymerization reaction of aniline monomer to produce conductive paper sheets containing PANI, PANI/PS composites. Additionally, sliver nitrate (Ag-NO3) was added by varied loadings to the oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer to provide sliver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) emptied into the prepared paper sheets. The prepared paper sheets were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), the mechanical properties of the prepared paper sheets were evaluated. Moreover, the electrical conductivity and biological studies such as cellulases assay, Microorganism & culture condition and detection of the released of Ag-NPs were evaluated. Furthermore, the prepared paper sheets were displayed good antibacterial properties contrary to gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Consequently, the prepared paper sheet may be used as novel materials for packaging applications. PMID:27178939

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological studies of transition metal complexes of novel schiff bases derived from amoxicillin and sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe (II), Co (II) and Ni (II) metal complexes of new Schiff bases derived from amoxicillin with sugars (D-Glucose, D-Galactose and D-Mannose) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, electronic absorption, and atomic absorption spectroscopy, magnetic moment measurements and thermal analysis. It has been found that Schiff bases behave as bi-dentate ligands forming complexes with 1:2 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry. The complexes were neutral as confirmed by their low conductance values. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on two gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) microorganisms by Agar diffusion disc method. It has been found that all the complexes have higher biological activities than the pure amoxicillin. (author)

  17. Student and Teacher Perceptions of a Mobile-Based Biology Vocabulary Study Tool for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maria B.

    English language learners studying biology face a dual challenge of mastering both content and language. Teaching ELLs how to engage in scientific discourse using appropriate language to ask, answer, explain, and make predictions about science requires a foundational knowledge of content-specific vocabulary. This study used qualitative interviews with intermediate-level ELLs at an American high school to learn how a supplemental iPod-based vocabulary review tool influenced their perceptions of learning biology vocabulary outside of classroom hours. Interviews with their biology teacher were also used to complement student testimony from the point of view of an educational professional with ELL teaching experience. Past studies in the area of mobile learning have primarily employed questionnaires to gather feedback from participants. This research study adds greater participant voice to the body of literature that encompasses mobile language learning, second language acquisition, and science education by presenting nuanced opinions from both students and teachers. This dissertation concludes with a discussion on the influence that this study could have on further research in the fields of mobile learning, academic vocabulary, and student learning behaviors.

  18. Microfluidics-Based in Vivo Mimetic Systems for the Study of Cellular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Donghyuk; Wu, Xiaojie; Young, Ashlyn T.; Haynes, Christy L.

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus The human body is a complex network of molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, and organs: an uncountable number of interactions and transformations interconnect all the system’s components. In addition to these biochemical components, biophysical components, such as pressure, flow, and morphology, and the location of all of these interactions play an important role in the human body. Technical difficulties have frequently limited researchers from observing cellular biology as it oc...

  19. Generation of Rab-based transgenic lines for in vivo studies of endosome biology in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Brian S.; Winter, Mark; Cohen, Andrew R.; Link, Brian A

    2011-01-01

    The Rab family of small GTPases function as molecular switches regulating membrane and protein trafficking. Individual Rab isoforms define and are required for specific endosomal compartments. To facilitate in vivo investigation of specific Rab proteins, and endosome biology in general, we have generated transgenic zebrafish lines to mark and manipulate Rab proteins. We also developed software to track and quantify endosome dynamics within time-lapse movies. The established transgenic lines u...

  20. Derivatives of phosphate Schiff base transition metal complexes: synthesis, studies and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahab, Z. H. Abd; El-Sarrag, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    We report the synthesis and structural characterization of series of tetra- and hexacoordinate metal chelate complexes of phosphate Schiff base ligands having the general composition LMX n·H 2O and L 2MX n (L=phosphate Schiff base ligand; M=Ag +, Mn 2+, Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+, or Fe 3+ and X=NO 3-, Br - or Cl -). The structure of the prepared compounds was investigated using elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 31P NMR, UV-vis, mass spectra, solid reflectance, magnetic susceptibility and conductance measurements as well as conductometric titration. In all the complexes studied, the ligands act as a chelate ligand with coordination involving the phosphateO-atom and the azomethineN-atom. IR, solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurement are used to infer the structure and to illustrate the coordination capacity of ligand. IR spectra show the presence of coordinated nitrate and water molecule, the magnetic moments of all complexes show normal magnetic behavior and the electronic spectra of the metal complexes indicate a tetra- and octahedral structure for Mn 2+, octahedral structure of Fe 3+ and both square-planar and distorted octahedral structure for Cu 2+ complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their complexes were tested using the disc diffusion method and the chosen strains include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aereuguinosa, Klebsiella penumoniae, Escherichia coli, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophyte and Trichophyton rubrum. Some known antibiotics are included for the sake of comparison and the chosen antibiotic are Amikacin, Doxycllin, Augmantin, Sulperazon, Unasyn, Septrin, Cefobid, Ampicillin, Nitrofurantion, Traivid and Erythromycin.

  1. Biological mode of action of a nitrophenolates-based biostimulant: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz ePrzybysz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges facing modern plant production involve (i responding to the demand for food and resources of plant origin from the world’s rapidly growing population, (ii coping with the negative impact of stressful conditions mainly due to anthropopressure, and (iii meeting consumers’ new requirements and preferences for food that is high in nutritive value, natural, and free from harmful chemical additives.Despite employing the most modern plant cultivation technologies and the progress that has been made in breeding programs, the genetically-determined crop potential is still far from being fully exploited. Consequently yield and quality are often reduced, making production less, both profitable and attractive. There is an increasing desire to reduce the chemical input in agriculture and there has been a change towards integrated plant management and sustainable, environmentally-friendly systems. Biostimulants are a category of relatively new products of diverse formulations that positively affect a plant’s vital processes and whose impact is usually more evident under stressful conditions. In this paper, information is provided on the mode of action of a nitrophenolates-based biostimulant, Atonik, in model species and economically important crops grown under both field and controlled conditions in a growth chamber. The effects of Atonik on plant morphology, physiology, biochemistry (crops and model plant and yield and yield parameters (crops is demonstrated. Effects of other biostimulants on studied in this work processes/parameters are also presented in discussion.

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological studies of transition metal complexes of novel schiff bases derived from cephradine and sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) metal complexes of novel schiff bases derived from Cephradine and sugars (D-Glucose, L. Arabinose and D-Galactose) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analysis, electronic absorption and FT-IR spectral studies. It has been found that schiff bases behave as bi-dentate-ligands forming complexes with 1:2 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry. the neutral nature of the complexes was confirmed by their low conductance values. The biological activities of complexes have been evaluated against two gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and staphylococcus aureus) bacteria by Agar diffusion disc method. It has been found that the complexes have higher activity as compared to the pure Cephradine against the same bacteria. (author)

  3. Psychological, social and biological determinants of ill health (pSoBid: Study Protocol of a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinty Agnes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disadvantaged communities suffer higher levels of physical and mental ill health than more advantaged communities. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychosocial, behavioural and biological determinants of ill health within population groups in Glasgow that differed in socioeconomic status and in their propensity to develop chronic disease especially coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Participants were selected at random from areas known to be at the extremes of the socioeconomic continuum in Glasgow. Within the categories of least deprived and most deprived, recruitment was stratified by sex and age to achieve an overall sample containing approximately equal numbers of males and females and an even distribution across the age categories 35–44, 45–54 and 55–64 years. Individuals were invited by letter to attend for assessment of their medical history, risk factor status, cognitive function and psychological profile, morbidity, and carotid intima-media thickness and plaque count as indices of atherosclerosis. Anonymised data on study subjects were collected from the General Practice Administration System for Scotland to analyse characteristics of participants and non-participants. Results 700 subjects were recruited. The response (active participants per 100 invitation letters in the least deprived group was 35.1% and in the most deprived group was 20.3%. Lowest response was seen in young males (least deprived 22.4% and most deprived 14.1%. Conclusion This cross-sectional study recruited the planned sample of subjects from least deprived and most deprived areas within Glasgow. As evident in other studies response differed between the most and least deprived areas. This study brought together researchers/academics from diverse disciplines to build a more sophisticated understanding of the determinants of health inequalities than can be achieved through unidisciplinary approaches

  4. Using Zebrafish to Implement a Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience to Study Teratogenesis in Two Biology Laboratory Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Chism, Grady W; Vaughan, Martin A; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, Jim A; Marrs, Kathleen A

    2016-08-01

    A course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) spanning three semesters was introduced into freshman and sophomore biology classes, with the hypothesis that participation in a CURE affects skills in research, communication, and collaboration, which may help students persist in science. Student research projects were centered on the hypothesis that nicotine and caffeine exposure during early development affects gastrulation and heart development in zebrafish. First, freshmen generated original data showing distinct effects of embryonic nicotine and caffeine exposure on zebrafish heart development and function. Next, Cell Biology laboratory students continued the CURE studies and identified novel teratogenic effects of nicotine and caffeine during gastrulation. Finally, new freshmen continued the CURE research, examining additional toxicant effects on development. Students designed new protocols, made measurements, presented results, and generated high-quality preliminary data that were studied in successive semesters. By implementing this project, the CURE extended faculty research and provided a scalable model to address national goals to involve more undergraduates in authentic scientific research. In addition, student survey results support the hypothesis that CUREs provide significant gains in student ability to (1) design experiments, (2) analyze data, and (3) make scientific presentations, translating into high student satisfaction and enhanced learning. PMID:26829498

  5. The Biological Bases of Conformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ThomasJoshau HenryMorgan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favour adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective use of social information in decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behaviour in nonhuman animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history and ontogeny of conformity and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behaviour conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subject’s behaviour is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behaviour may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for

  6. Application of Wavelet-Based Tools to Study the Dynamics of Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Makarov, V. A.; Mosekilde, Erik;

    2006-01-01

    The article makes use of three different examples (sensory information processing in the rat trigeminal complex, intracellular interaction in snail neurons and multimodal dynamics in nephron autoregulation) to demonstrate how modern approaches to time-series analysis based on the wavelet-transfor......The article makes use of three different examples (sensory information processing in the rat trigeminal complex, intracellular interaction in snail neurons and multimodal dynamics in nephron autoregulation) to demonstrate how modern approaches to time-series analysis based on the wavelet...

  7. A CMOS active pixel sensor system for laboratory- based x-ray diffraction studies of biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohndiek, Sarah E; Cook, Emily J; Arvanitis, Costas D; Olivo, Alessandro; Royle, Gary J; Clark, Andy T; Prydderch, Mark L; Turchetta, Renato; Speller, Robert D

    2008-02-01

    X-ray diffraction studies give material-specific information about biological tissue. Ideally, a large area, low noise, wide dynamic range digital x-ray detector is required for laboratory-based x-ray diffraction studies. The goal of this work is to introduce a novel imaging technology, the CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) that has the potential to fulfil all these requirements, and demonstrate its feasibility for coherent scatter imaging. A prototype CMOS APS has been included in an x-ray diffraction demonstration system. An industrial x-ray source with appropriate beam filtration is used to perform angle dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD). Optimization of the experimental set-up is detailed including collimator options and detector operating parameters. Scatter signatures are measured for 11 different materials, covering three medical applications: breast cancer diagnosis, kidney stone identification and bone mineral density calculations. Scatter signatures are also recorded for three mixed samples of known composition. Results are verified using two independent models for predicting the APS scatter signature: (1) a linear systems model of the APS and (2) a linear superposition integral combining known monochromatic scatter signatures with the input polychromatic spectrum used in this case. Cross validation of experimental, modelled and literature results proves that APS are able to record biologically relevant scatter signatures. Coherent scatter signatures are sensitive to multiple materials present in a sample and provide a means to quantify composition. In the future, production of a bespoke APS imager for x-ray diffraction studies could enable simultaneous collection of the transmitted beam and scattered radiation in a laboratory-based coherent scatter system, making clinical transfer of the technique attainable. PMID:18199908

  8. Chalcone based azacarboline analogues as novel antitubulin agents: design, synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sahil; Kaur, Charanjit; Budhiraja, Abhishek; Nepali, Kunal; Gupta, Manish K; Saxena, A K; Bedi, P M S

    2014-10-01

    The present study involves the design of a series of 3-aryl-9-acetyl-pyridazino[3,4-b]indoles as constrained chalcone analogues. A retrosynthetic route was proposed for the synthesis of target compounds. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for in-vitro cytotoxicity against THP-1, COLO-205, HCT-116 and A-549 human cancer cell lines. The results indicated that 2a, 3a, 5a and 6a possessed significant cytotoxic potential with an IC50 value ranging from 1.13 to 5.76 μM. Structure activity relationship revealed that the nature of both Ring A and Ring B influences the activity. Substitution of methoxy groups on the phenyl ring (Ring A) and unsubstituted phenyl ring (Ring B) were found to be the preferred structural features. The most potent compound 2a was further tested for tubulin inhibition. Compound 2a was found to significantly inhibit the tubulin polymerization (IC50 value - 2.41 μM against THP-1). Compound 2a also caused disruption of microtubule assembly as evidenced by Immunoflourescence technique. The significant cytotoxicity and tubulin inhibition by 2a was rationalized by molecular modelling studies. The most potent structure was docked at colchicine binding site (PDB ID-1SA0) and was found to be stabilized in the cavity via various hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions. PMID:25128667

  9. Preparation, characterization, biological activity, and transport study of polystyrene based calcium–barium phosphate composite membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium–barium phosphate (CBP) composite membrane with 25% polystyrene was prepared by co-precipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the membrane. The membrane was found to be crystalline in nature with consistent arrangement of particles and no indication of visible cracks. The electrical potentials measured across the composite membrane in contact with univalent electrolytes (KCl, NaCl and LiCl), have been found to increase with decrease in concentrations. Thus the membrane was found to be cation-selective. Transport properties of developed membranes may be utilized for the efficient desalination of saline water and more importantly demineralization process. The antibacterial study of this composite membrane shows good results for killing the disease causing bacteria along with waste water treatment. Highlights: • Transport properties of composite membrane are evaluated. • The composite membrane was found to be stable in all media. • TMS method is used for electrochemical characterization. • The membrane was found to be cation selective. • The order of surface charge density was found to be LiCl < NaCl < KCl

  10. A Study of the Biology Questions in the 6th Grade Science and Technology Test of the Level Assessment Examination Based on the Revised Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİN, Melike ÖZER; AYDIN, Solmaz

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study and compare the biology questions in the sixth grade Science and Technology Tests of the Level Assessment Examinations (SBS) administered in 2008 and 2009 based on the knowledge and cognitive process dimensions of the Revised Taxonomy. The study looked at a total of ten biology questions, five in 2008 and five in 2009. Three doctoral and three master's students worked independently on the classification of the questions according to the Revised Taxonomy, as required b...

  11. Biological study in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schizophrenia is associated with enormous morbidity, mortality, personal disability, and social cost. Although considerable research on schizophrenia has been performed, the etiology of this disease has not been fully elucidated. In recent years, imaging and genetic technologies have been developed dramatically. Disturbances in glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We attempted an integrative review, of studies pertaining to recent advances of schizophrenia research with a focus on neuroimaging and genetic studies. Additionally, we present the preliminary findings of the clinical research in our outpatient unit, specialized for early intervention, at the University of Tokyo Hospital. (author)

  12. Studies on some metal complexes of quinoxaline based unsymmetric ligand: Synthesis, spectral characterization, in vitro biological and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanaraj, Chellaian Justin; Johnson, Jijo

    2016-08-01

    Mononuclear Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of an unsymmetric Schiff base ligand, 3-(-(3-(-3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)propylimino)methyl)quinoxalin-2(1H) -one (L) were synthesized and characterized by various analytical and spectral techniques. The molar conductance values of metal complexes indicate non-electrolytic behavior of the metal complexes. The Schiff base act as tetra dentate ONNO donor ligand in Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) complexes and tridentate NNO donor in Cu(II) complex. Thermal stabilities of the newly synthesized compounds were determined by thermal analysis. Crystallinity, average grain size and unit cell parameters were determined from powder X-ray diffraction study. Electrochemical behaviors of the compounds were examined by cyclic voltammetry technique. The Schiff base and its complexes have been screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against some bacterial and fungal strains by disc diffusion method. The interaction of the compounds with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) has been investigated by electronic absorption spectral titration and viscosity measurement (hydrodynamic) methods. Furthermore, the pUC18 DNA cleavage activities of the complexes have been explored. The compounds were also subjected to in vitro antioxidant, anticancer activity screening, druglikeness and bioactivity predictions using Molinspiration software. Molecular docking studies of the present compounds were carried out against B-DNA dodecamer d(CGCGAATTCGCG)2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2) kinase. Quantum chemical calculations were done with DFT method to determine the optimum geometry of the ligand and its metal complexes. From the quantum chemical parameters, the reactivity parameters of the compounds were established. PMID:27236046

  13. Multitarget Strategy to Address Alzheimer's Disease: Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Computational Studies of Coumarin-Based Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Serena; Bartolini, Manuela; Neviani, Paolo; Belluti, Federica; Gobbi, Silvia; Pruccoli, Letizia; Tarozzi, Andrea; Falchi, Federico; Andrisano, Vincenza; Miszta, Przemysław; Cavalli, Andrea; Filipek, Sławomir; Bisi, Alessandra; Rampa, Angela

    2016-06-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major public health challenge that faces an aging global population. Current drug treatment has demonstrated only symptomatic efficacy, leaving an unmet medical need for a new generation of disease-modifying therapies. Following the multitarget-directed ligand approach, a small library of coumarin-based derivatives was designed and synthesized as a follow-up to our studies on AP2238, aimed at expanding its biological profile. The coumarin substitution pattern at the 6- or 7-position was modified by introducing alkyl chains of variable lengths and with different terminal amino functional groups. 3-(4-{[Benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-6-({5-[(7-methoxy-6H-indeno[2,1-b]quinolin-11-yl)amino]pentyl}oxy)-2H-chromen-2-one, bearing the bulkiest amine, emerged as a non-neurotoxic dual acetylcholinesterase (AChE)/butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitor, potentially suitable for the treatment of the middle stage of AD. Furthermore, the introduction of a diethylamino spacer, as in 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-6-{[5-(diethylamino)pentyl]oxy}-2H-chromen-2-one and 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-7-[4-(diethylamino)butoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one, led to nanomolar human AChE inhibitors endowed with significant inhibitory activity toward Aβ42 self-aggregation, whereas the reference compound was completely ineffective. Furthermore, 3-(4-{[benzyl(ethyl)amino]methyl}phenyl)-7-[4-(diethylamino)butoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one also showed promising neuroprotective behavior, which makes it a potential candidate for development into a disease-modifying agent. PMID:26507467

  14. Language Based Techniques for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik

    calculi have similarly been used for the study of bio-chemical reactive systems. In this dissertation it is argued that techniques rooted in the theory and practice of programming languages, language based techniques if you will, constitute a strong basis for the investigation of models of biological......Process calculus is the common denominator for a class of compact, idealised, domain-specific formalisms normally associated with the study of reactive concurrent systems within Computer Science. With the rise of the interactioncentred science of Systems Biology a number of bio-inspired process...... systems as formalised in a process calculus. In particular it is argued that Static Program Analysis provides a useful approach to the study of qualitative properties of such models. In support of this claim a number of static program analyses are developed for Regev’s BioAmbients – a bio-inspired variant...

  15. Nuclear biological studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author)

  16. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1949-11-16

    This paper discusses procedures for research on biological effects of radiation, using mouse tissue: activation trace analysis including methods and proceedures for handling samples before during and after irradiation; methods and procedures for ion exchange study; method of separation and recovery of copper, iron, zinc, cobalt, pubidium and cesium. Also included are studies of trace elements with radioactive isotopes: the distribution of cobalt 60, zinc 65, and copper 64 in the cytoplasm and nuclei of normal mice and those with tumors. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Receptor studies in biological psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of endogenous psychosis have led to the development of biological studies in psychiatry. Studies on neurotransmitter receptors were reviewed in order to apply positron-emission tomograph (PET) for biological psychiatry. The dopamine (DA) hypothesis for schizophrenia was advanced on the basis of the observed effects of neuroleptics and methamphetamine, and DA(D2) receptor supersensitivity measured by PET and receptor binding in the schizophrenic brain. The clinical potencies of neuroleptics for schizophrenia were correlated with their abilities to inhibit the D2 receptor, and not other receptors. The σ receptor was expected to be a site of antipsychotic action. However, the potency of drugs action on it was not correlated with clinical efficacy. Haloperidol binds with high affinity to the σ receptor, which may mediate acute dystonia, an extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptics. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by methamphetamine treatment were studied as an animal model of schizophrenia, and both a decrease of D2 receptor density and an increase of DA release were detected. The monoamine hypothesis for manic-depressive psychosis was advanced on the basis of the effect of reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antidepressants. 3H-clonidine binding sites were increased in platelet membranes of depressive patients, 3H-imipramine binding sites were decreased. The GABAA receptor is the target site for the action of anxiolytics and antiepileptics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have revealed the structure of receptor proteins, which are classified into two receptor families, the G-protein coupled type (D2) and the ion-channel type (GABAA). (J.P.N.)

  18. Is Biology based on Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-04-01

    The equation on Boltsmann's tomb is S = K log W, giving 137 = 10E60 where 10E60 closely stands for the age of the universe in Plank times. We wish we could add ``137 = 10E60'' on his tomb as a contribution leading physics towards information in biology as explained in our book ``Quantum Consciousness - the Road to Reality.'' (1) We draft our speculation that such a step may explain the underlying physical cause for mutations. Tiny immeasurable and slow changes well beyond the tenth digit of fine structure constant may suffice to change the information system in constituent particles of nucleotides with their external effects forcing changes in the genetic code with successful changes resulting into mutations. (2) Our quantum mechanical published derivation of the strong coupling implies gravity as a cumulative effect of quantum mechanical particles further implying that the universal constant of gravity (G) can not be constant everywhere. (1) and (2) put together should remove Darwin's confusion about the constancy of gravity. Moving planets and Sunstorms should also cause changes in G on earth unnoticeable to mankind, but large enough to have an impact on the internal particles of nucleotides which should implicitly have an external effect on the genetic code per our theory.

  19. Machine learning based methods for the study of metabolism and its effect on the behavior of biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Higuera Cabañes, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Las disciplinas de bioinformática y biología computacional, que se sirven de técnicas informáticas para dar solución a problemas en biología, se han posicionado como piezas clave en la investigación en biología molecular. Tanto por la gran cantidad de información compleja generada en los laboratorios como por la necesidad de simular in silico determinados procesos biológicos para su estudio, actualmente es esencial el desarrollo de nuevos métodos computacionales que asistan en la investigació...

  20. Biological and Spectral Studies of Newly Synthesized Triazole Schiff Bases and Their Si(IV, Sn(IV Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Schiff bases HL1-3 have been prepared by the reaction of 5-bromothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde with 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/propyl/isopropyl-s-triazole, respectively. Organosilicon(IV and organotin(IV complexes of formulae (CH32MCl(L1-3, (CH32M(L1-32 were synthesized from the reaction of (CH32MCl2 and the Schiff bases in 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 molar ratio, where M=Si and Sn. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been characterized with the aid of various physicochemical techniques like elemental analyses, molar conductance, UV, IR, 1H, 13C, 29Si, and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy. Based on these studies, the trigonal bipyramidal and octahedral geometries have been proposed for these complexes. The ligands and their metal complexes have been screened in vitro against some bacteria and fungi.

  1. Stability Study and Kinetic Monitoring of Cefquinome Sulfate Using Cyclodextrin-Based Ion-Selective Electrode: Application to Biological Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Ali M; Arafa, Reham M; Abbas, Samah S; Amer, Sawsan M

    2016-01-01

    Two novel cefquinome sulfate (CFQ)-selective electrodes were performed with dibutyl sebacate as a plasticizer using a polymeric matrix of polyvinyl chloride. Sensor 1 was prepared using sodium tetraphenylborate as a cation exchanger without incorporation of ionophore, whereas 2-hydroxy propyl β-cyclodextrin was used as ionophore in sensor 2. A stable, reliable, and linear response was obtained in concentration ranges 3.2 × 10(-5) to 1 × 10(-2) mol/L and 1 × 10(-5) to 1 × 10(-2) mol/L for sensors 1 and 2, respectively. Both sensors could be sufficiently applied for quantitative determination of CFQ in the presence of degradation products either in bulk powder or in pharmaceutical formulations. Sensor 2 provided better selectivity and sensitivity, wider linearity range, and higher performance. Therefore it was used successfully for accurate determination of CFQ in biological fluids such as spiked plasma and milk samples. Furthermore, an online kinetic study was applied to the CFQ alkaline degradation process to estimate the reaction rate and half-life with feasible real-time monitoring. The developed sensors were found to be fast, accurate, sensitive, and precise compared with the manufacturer's reversed-phase chromatographic method. PMID:26822094

  2. Genomics-Based Discovery of Plant Genes for Synthetic Biology of Terpenoid Fragrances: A Case Study in Sandalwood oil Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, J M; Bohlmann, J

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoid fragrances are powerful mediators of ecological interactions in nature and have a long history of traditional and modern industrial applications. Plants produce a great diversity of fragrant terpenoid metabolites, which make them a superb source of biosynthetic genes and enzymes. Advances in fragrance gene discovery have enabled new approaches in synthetic biology of high-value speciality molecules toward applications in the fragrance and flavor, food and beverage, cosmetics, and other industries. Rapid developments in transcriptome and genome sequencing of nonmodel plant species have accelerated the discovery of fragrance biosynthetic pathways. In parallel, advances in metabolic engineering of microbial and plant systems have established platforms for synthetic biology applications of some of the thousands of plant genes that underlie fragrance diversity. While many fragrance molecules (eg, simple monoterpenes) are abundant in readily renewable plant materials, some highly valuable fragrant terpenoids (eg, santalols, ambroxides) are rare in nature and interesting targets for synthetic biology. As a representative example for genomics/transcriptomics enabled gene and enzyme discovery, we describe a strategy used successfully for elucidation of a complete fragrance biosynthetic pathway in sandalwood (Santalum album) and its reconstruction in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We address questions related to the discovery of specific genes within large gene families and recovery of rare gene transcripts that are selectively expressed in recalcitrant tissues. To substantiate the validity of the approaches, we describe the combination of methods used in the gene and enzyme discovery of a cytochrome P450 in the fragrant heartwood of tropical sandalwood, responsible for the fragrance defining, final step in the biosynthesis of (Z)-santalols. PMID:27480682

  3. Synthetic, structural and biological studies of organosilicon(IV complexes of Schiff bases derived from pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRAN SING

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Selected new organosilicon(IV complexes having the general formula R2SiCl[L] and R2Si[L] 2 were synthesized by the reactions of Me2SiCl2 with Schiff bases (5-mercapto-4-[(1H-pyrrol-2ylmethyleneamino]-s-triazole, 5-mercapto-3-methyl-4-[(1H-pyrrol-2ylmethyleneamino]-s-triazole and 3-ethyl-5-mercapto-4-[(1H-pyrrol-2ylmethyleneamino]-s-triazole in 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratios. All of the compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, and IR, UV, 1H-, 13C- and 29Si-NMR spectral studies. All the spectral data suggest an involvement with an azomethine nitrogen in coordination to the central silicon atom. With the help of above-mentioned spectral studies, penta and hexacoordinated environments around the central silicon atoms in the 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, respectively, are proposed. Finally, the free ligands and their metal complexes were tested in vitro against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi to assess their antimicrobial properties.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel s-triazine based aryl/heteroaryl entities: Design, rationale and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirali S. Mewada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need in search of new biological entities to fight back with recent drug-resistant microbial flora, has led us report a library of s-triazine derivatives. The intermediate 4-((4-chloro-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylaminobenzonitrile 3 was substituted with various thiophenol, phenol, aniline and piperazine/piperidine/morpholine moieties to furnish the final 35 target compounds i.e. (4a–j, (5a–j, (6a–g and (7a–h, respectively. These compounds were screened for in vitro antibacterial evaluation against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus MTCC 619, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 and antifungal activity against fungi (Candida albicans MTCC 183, Aspergillus niger MTCC 282, and Aspergillus clavatus MTCC 1323. The title compounds were further subjected for antituberculosis activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain using the BACTEC MGIT method. In this biological evaluation, thiophenol derivatives were found to be more active than the rest (i.e. -Thiophenol > -piperazine > -Aniline > -phenol. The final compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis.

  5. Design, spectral characterization, DFT and biological studies of transition metal complexes of Schiff base derived from 2-aminobenzamide, pyrrole and furan aldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B. S.; Sharma, Deepansh

    2015-05-01

    A series of two biologically active Schiff base ligands L1, L2 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 2-aminobenzamide with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde and furan-2-carboxaldehyde. The synthesized Schiff bases were used for complexation with different metal ions like Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by using a molar ratio of ligand: metal as 2:1. The characterization of newly formed complexes was done by 1H NMR, UV-Vis, TGA, IR, mass spectrophotometry, EPR and molar conductivity studies. The thermal studies suggested that the complexes are more stable as compared to ligand. In DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes and distorted octahedral geometry for Cu(II) complexes. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antimicrobial activities, against four bacterial strains and two fungal strains by using serial dilution method. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  6. Feasibility study on the investigation of age-dependent effects of high-fre quency electromagnetic fields based on relevant biophysical and biological parameters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a comprehensive literature study on the potential health hazard for children due to high frequency electromagnetic fields compared to adults the actual status of scientific knowledge is compiled and documented. The analysis of the available scientific literature can neither divert nor confirm indications on age dependent effects of electromagnetic fields. Concerning dosimetry the open questions result mainly from the missing representative detailed anatomic body or head models for children and missing data on possible age dependent dielectric tissue properties. There is also missing information on the maximum transmission power fluctuation range and the maximum antenna current close to the head of children using the mobile telephone which is dependent on the telephone type. The dosimetry related open questions can be defined and categorized, - the questions concerning the biological effects are more complicated, since up to now no assured low-dose mechanism is available. The so far published papers are controversial and were performed mostly with small animals and whole-body exposure. Due to the multitude of open questions concerning doses and biological effects it is not yet clear whether the health hazards for children due to HF fields are higher compared to adults or not. The study recommends the main research fields to be treated in the next future

  7. Synthesis, spectral, characterization, catalytic and biological studies of new RuII N2O Schiff base complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of the type (RuCl(CO)(B)(L)) (B = PPh3, AsPh3, py or pip; L monobasic tridentate Schiff base) have been synthesized by the reaction of equimolar amounts of (RuHCl(CO)(EPh3)2(B)) and Schiff bases in benzene. The resulting complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, electronic, NMR) data. An octahedral structure has been assigned to all these complexes. The new complexes have been exhibit catalytic activity for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and cyclohexanol in the presence of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide as co-oxidant. (author)

  8. O2-Acetoxymethyl-protected diazeniumdiolate-based NSAIDs (NONO-NSAIDs): Synthesis, nitric oxide release, and biological evaluation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez, Carlos A.; Rao, P.N. Praveen; Citro, Michael L.; Keefer, Larry K.; Knaus, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    A novel group of O2-acetoxymethyl-protected diazeniumdiolate-based non-steroidal anti-inflammatory prodrugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were synthesized by esterifying the carboxylate group of aspirin, ibuprofen, or indomethacin with O2-acetoxymethyl 1-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-methylamino]diazeniumdiolate. The resulting nitric oxide (•NO)-releasing prodrugs (7–9) did not exhibit in vitro cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity against the COX-1 and COX-2 isozymes (IC50s > 100 μM). In contrast, prodrugs 7 and...

  9. Biological Based Risk Assessment for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) - made up of high-energy protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, and solar particle events (SPEs) - comprised largely of low- to medium-energy protons are the primary health concern for astronauts for long-term space missions. Experimental studies have shown that HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation, making risk assessments for cancer and degenerative risks, such as central nervous system effects and heart disease, highly uncertain. The goal for space radiation protection at NASA is to be able to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessments for Mars exploration to be small enough to ensure acceptable levels of risks are not exceeded and to adequately assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as shielding or biological countermeasures. We review the recent BEIR VII and UNSCEAR-2006 models of cancer risks and their uncertainties. These models are shown to have an inherent 2-fold uncertainty as defined by ratio of the 95% percent confidence level to the mean projection, even before radiation quality is considered. In order to overcome the uncertainties in these models, new approaches to risk assessment are warranted. We consider new computational biology approaches to modeling cancer risks. A basic program of research that includes stochastic descriptions of the physics and chemistry of radiation tracks and biochemistry of metabolic pathways, to emerging biological understanding of cellular and tissue modifications leading to cancer is described.

  10. Synthesis, spectral characterization, molecular modeling, thermal study and biological evaluation of transition metal complexes of a bidentate Schiff base ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Bargujar, Savita; Nirwal, Rita; Qanungo, Kushal; Sharma, Saroj K.

    2013-09-01

    Complexes of copper(II) and nickel(II) of general composition M(L)2X2, have been synthesized [where L = 3-Bromoacetophenone thiosemicarbazone and X = CH3COO-, Cl- and NO3-]. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic moments, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The ligand behaved as bidentate and coordinated through sulfur of sbnd Cdbnd S group and nitrogen atoms of sbnd Cdbnd N group. The copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes were found to have magnetic moments 1.94-2.02 BM, 2.96-3.02 BM respectively which was corresponding to one and two unpaired electrons respectively. The molar conductance of the complexes in solution of DMSO lies in the range of 10-20 Ω-1 cm2 mol-1 indicating their non-electrolytic behavior. On the basis of EPR, electronic and infrared spectral studies, tetragonal geometry has been assigned for copper(II) complexes and an octahedral geometry for nickel(II) complexes. The values of Nephelauxetic parameter β lie in the range 0.19-0.37 which indicated the covalent character in metal ligand ‘σ' bond. Synthesized ligand and its copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes have also been screened against different bacterial and fungal species which suggested that complexes are more active than the ligands in antimicrobial activities.

  11. Sol-gel silica-based nanocomposites containing a high PEG amount: Chemical characterization and study of biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Gloria, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to synthesize and to characterize Silica/polyethylene glycol (SiO2/PEG) organic-inorganic hybrid materials containing a high polymer amount (60 and 70 wt%) for biomedical applications. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the samples are homogeneous on the nanometer scale, confirming that they are nanocomposites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) proved that the materials are class I hybrids because the two phases (SiO2 and PEG) interact by hydrogen bonds. To evaluate the possibility of using them in the biomedical field, the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the synthesized hybrids have been ascertained. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer was observed on the hybrid surface by SEM/EDX and FTIR after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, their biocompatibility was assessed by performing WST-8 cytotoxicity assay in vitro.

  12. Study on the uptake and distribution of gadolinium based contrast agents in biological samples using laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadolinium based contrast agents are used for magnetic resonance imaging. After their excretion by medicated patients they reach surface water passing waste water treatment plants where they are not removed sufficiently. The behavior of the contrast agents in the environment and the interaction with organisms was investigated in this work due to the toxicity of the free Gd3+ ion and the associated risks, such as accumulation in the human food chain. In this work, the two elemental analytical imaging methods laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) have been used to investigate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of Gd-based contrast agents by various biological systems. Both methods were analytically characterized and compared for this application. The detection limits of gadolinium were determined under optimized conditions by LA-ICP-MS and SRXRF. With calibration by remains of dried elemental standard droplets detection limits of 0.78 pg absolute amount of gadolinium (LA-ICP-MS), respectively 89 pg (SRXRF) were reached. Based on filamentous algae as water plants the uptake and the excretion of Gd-based contrast agents were revealed. The dependence on concentration of the contrast agent in the exposition solution and the independence of temporal uptake within one to seven days were studied for duckweed. By LA-ICP-MS gadolinium was quantified in a leaf of cress plant. The verification of the results was performed by SRXRF and ICP-MS after digestion. Furthermore, the uptake and distribution of Gd-based contrast agents in higher organisms (water flea) were observed. The exact location of gadolinium was resolved by three-dimensional μ-computed tomography by the comparison of an exposed with a Gd-free water flea. In all studies, gadolinium was detected in the investigated exposed model organisms. It can be concluded that the contrast agents were taken from the environment.

  13. Histological image classification using biologically interpretable shape-based features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic cancer diagnostic systems based on histological image classification are important for improving therapeutic decisions. Previous studies propose textural and morphological features for such systems. These features capture patterns in histological images that are useful for both cancer grading and subtyping. However, because many of these features lack a clear biological interpretation, pathologists may be reluctant to adopt these features for clinical diagnosis. We examine the utility of biologically interpretable shape-based features for classification of histological renal tumor images. Using Fourier shape descriptors, we extract shape-based features that capture the distribution of stain-enhanced cellular and tissue structures in each image and evaluate these features using a multi-class prediction model. We compare the predictive performance of the shape-based diagnostic model to that of traditional models, i.e., using textural, morphological and topological features. The shape-based model, with an average accuracy of 77%, outperforms or complements traditional models. We identify the most informative shapes for each renal tumor subtype from the top-selected features. Results suggest that these shapes are not only accurate diagnostic features, but also correlate with known biological characteristics of renal tumors. Shape-based analysis of histological renal tumor images accurately classifies disease subtypes and reveals biologically insightful discriminatory features. This method for shape-based analysis can be extended to other histological datasets to aid pathologists in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions

  14. Target Image Classification through Encryption Algorithm Based on the Biological Features

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiwu Chen; Qing E. Wu; Weidong Yang

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively make biological image classification and identification, this paper studies the biological owned characteristics, gives an encryption algorithm, and presents a biological classification algorithm based on the encryption process. Through studying the composition characteristics of palm, this paper uses the biological classification algorithm to carry out the classification or recognition of palm, improves the accuracy and efficiency of the existing biological classifica...

  15. Development of a web-based register for the Dutch national study on biologicals in JIA : www.ABC-register.nl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prince, F H M; Ferket, I S; Kamphuis, S; Armbrust, W; Ten Cate, R; Hoppenreijs, E P A H; Koopman-Keemink, Y; van Rossum, M A J; van Santen-Hoeufft, M; Twilt, M; van Suijlekom-Smit, L W A

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Most clinical studies use paper case record forms (CRFs) to collect data. In the Dutch multi-centre observational study on biologicals we encountered several disadvantages of using the paper CRFs. These are delay in data collection, lack of overview in collected data and difficulties in

  16. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of

  17. Photonic engineering for biological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei

    My dissertation focuses on designing and developing prototypes of optical tools in the laboratory that can facilitate practical medical therapies. More specifically, this dissertation examines two novel biophotonic techniques: (1) a frequency multiplexed confocal microscope with the potential to provide rational therapy of congestive heart failure (CHF), and (2) the "optical comb" with the potential to improve results of retina reattachment surgery and accelerate post surgical recovery. Next, I will discuss the background, design and initial experimental results of each study individually. Part I: The Frequency Multiplexed Confocal Microscope. To overcome the limitations of existing confocal microscope technology, this dissertation proposes a non-scanning, real-time, high resolution technique (a multi-point frequency multiplexed confocal microscope) to measure 3-D intracellular calcium ion concentration in a living cardiac myocyte. This method can be also applied to measure the intracellular sodium ion concentration, or other ions in which high quantum-yield fluorescent probes are available. The novelty of the proposed research lies in the introduction of carrier frequency multiplexing techniques which can differentiate fluorescence emitted at different spatial locations in cardiac myocyte by their modulated frequency. It therefore opens the possibility to visualize the transient dynamics of intracellular dynamics at multiple locations in cells simultaneously, which will shine a new light on our understanding of CHF. The procedure for frequency multiplexing proposed is described below. Multiple incident laser beams are focused onto different locations in an isolated rat cardiac myocyte with each beam modulated at a different carrier frequency. The fluorescence emission at each location therefore bears the same modulated frequency as the stimulation laser beam. Each fluorescence signal is sent to the photo multiplier tube (PMT) after being spatially filtered by a

  18. What is infidelity? Perceptions based on biological sex and personality

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton V; Nagurney AJ

    2011-01-01

    Victoria Thornton, Alexander NagurneyTexas State University – San Marcos, San Marcos, Texas, USAAbstract: The study examines perceptions of infidelity, paying particular attention to how these perceptions differ based on biological sex and personality traits, specifically agency and communion and their unmitigated counterparts. The study utilizes a sample of 125 male and 233 female college students. In addition to the personality measures, participants completed a 19-item checklist ...

  19. Status of Austro-Asiatic groups in the peopling of India: An exploratory study based on the available prehistoric, linguistic and biological evidences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikrant Kumar; B Mohan Reddy

    2003-06-01

    Among the most contentious currently debated issues is about the people who had settled first in the Indian subcontinent. It has been suggested that the communities affiliated to the Austro-Asiatic linguistic family are perhaps the first to settle in India and the palaeoanthropological evidences suggest the earliest settlement probably around 60,000 years BP. Recent speculations, based on both traditional genetic markers and DNA markers, seem to corroborate the aforesaid view. However, these studies are inadequate both in terms of the representation of the constituent groups within this broad linguistic category as well as the number of samples that represent each of them. We strongly feel that, before making any formidable conclusions on the peopling of India and/or the history of settlement, it is necessary to ascertain that the Austro-Asiatic speakers, represented by over 30 different tribal groups, either genetically constitute a homogenous single entity or are a heterogeneous conglomeration, derived from different sources. As a first step towards this we tried to collate and analyse the existing information – geographic, ethno-historic, cultural and biological. The results of the analyses of anthropometric and genetic marker data indicate that the Austro-Asiatic groups, particularly the Mundari speakers, with certain exceptions, show greater homogeneity among them when compared to the other linguistic groups, although certain groups show as outliers. However, traditional genetic markers show lower within population heterozygosity compared to Dravidian and other Indian populations. This is contrary to what has been claimed in case of certain DNA markers. Given that relatively greater heterozygosity among the Austro-Asiatic populations has been taken as one of the important evidences supporting greater antiquity of these populations one should await results of detailed DNA studies being currently undertaken by us, involving a number of Austro-Asiatic and other

  20. A Study of the Information Literacy of Biomedical Graduate Students: Based on the Thesis Topic Discovery Process in Molecular Biology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhao-Yen Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomedical information environment is in a state of constant and rapid change due to the increase in research data and rapid technological advances. In Taiwan, few research has investigated the information literacy of biomedical graduate students. This exploratory study examined the information literacy abilities and training of biomedical graduate students in Taiwan. Semi-structured interviews based on the Association of College and Research Libraries Information Literacy Competency Standards for Science and Engineering/Technology were conducted with 20 molecular biological graduate students. The interview inquired about their information-seeking channels and information literacy education. The findings show that the biomedical graduate students developed a workable thesis topic with their advisors. Through various information-seeking channels and retrieval strategies, they obtained and critically evaluated information to address different information needs for their thesis research. Through seminars, annual conferences and papers, the interviewees were informed of current developments in their field. Subsequently, through written or oral communications, they were able to integrate and exchange the information. Most interviewees cared about the social, economic, legal, and ethical issues surrounding the use of information. College courses and labs were the main information literacy education environment for them to learn about research skills and knowledge. The study concludes four areas to address for the information literacy of biomedical graduate students, i.e., using professional information, using the current information, efficiency in assessing the domain information, and utilization of diverse information channels. Currently, the interviewees showed rather low usage of library resources, which is a concern for biomedical educators and libraries. [Article content in Chinese

  1. Prototype Biology-Based Radiation Risk Module Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald G.; Patel, Zarana; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of space radiation and risk mitigation are strategic knowledge gaps for the Evolvable Mars Campaign. The current epidemiology-based NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model contains large uncertainties (HAT #6.5a) due to lack of information on the radiobiology of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and lack of human data. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. Our proposed study will compare DNA damage, histological, and cell kinetic parameters after irradiation in normal 2D human cells versus 3D tissue models, and it will use a multi-scale computational model (CHASTE) to investigate various biological processes that may contribute to carcinogenesis, including radiation-induced cellular signaling pathways. This cross-disciplinary work, with biological validation of an evolvable mathematical computational model, will help reduce uncertainties within NSCR and aid risk mitigation for radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  2. Studies on Semantic Systems Chemical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Current "one disease, one target and one drug" drug development paradigm is under question as relatively few drugs have reached the market in the last two decades. Increasingly research focus is being placed on the study of drug action against biological systems as a whole rather than against a single component (called "Systems…

  3. II. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1948-05-24

    With the completion of the 184 inch cyclotron in Berkeley and the successful construction of a deflector system, it was possible to bring the 190 Mev deuteron and the 380 Mev alpha beams out into the air and to begin a study of the effects of high-energy deuteron beams by direct irradiation of biological specimens. The direct biological use of deuteron beams was attempted earlier in Berkeley by Marshak, MacLeish, and Walker in 1940. These and other investigators have been aware for some time of the potential usefulness of high energy particle beams for radio-biological studies and their suitability for biological investigations. R.R. Wilson advanced the idea of using fast proton beams to deliver radiation and intervening tissues. R.E. Zirkle pointed out that such particle beams may be focused or screened until a cross-section of the beam is small enough to study effects of irradiation under the microscope on single cells or on parts of single cells. This article gives an overview of the radiological use of high energy deuteron beams, including the following topics: potential uses of high energy particle beams; experiments on the physical properties of the beam; lethal effect of the deuteron beam on mice.

  4. Network-Based Models in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas

    Biological systems are characterized by a large number of diverse interactions. Interaction maps have been used to abstract those interactions at all biological scales ranging from food webs at the ecosystem level down to protein interaction networks at the molecular scale.

  5. NMR Studies on Organic and Biological Solids

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies on biomolecules and organic molecular crystals are presented here. The biological part of the work is focused on improving resolution and sensitivity of SSNMR techniques for larger protein systems, while the studies on organic molecular crystals extend the application of SSNMR to determining the crystal structure of a photoreaction intermediate. First, a long-observation-window band-selective homonuclear decoupling scheme is introduced. The homonuclear decoupli...

  6. The potential of standards-based agriculture biology as an alternative to traditional biology in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellu, George Sahr

    schools. Thoron & Meyer (2011) suggested that research into the contribution of integrated science courses toward higher test scores yielded mixed results. This finding may have been due in part to the fact that integrated science courses only incorporate select topics into agriculture education courses. In California, however, agriculture educators have developed standards-based courses such as Agriculture Biology (AgBio) that cover the same content standards as core traditional courses such as traditional biology. Students in both AgBio and traditional biology take the same standardized biology test. This is the first time there has been an opportunity for a fair comparison and a uniform metric for an agriscience course such as AgBio to be directly compared to traditional biology. This study will examine whether there are differences between AgBio and traditional biology with regard to standardized test scores in biology. Furthermore, the study examines differences in perception between teachers and students regarding teaching and learning activities associated with higher achievement in science. The findings of the study could provide a basis for presenting AgBio as a potential alternative to traditional biology. The findings of this study suggest that there are no differences between AgBio and traditional biology students with regard to standardized biology test scores. Additionally, the findings indicate that co-curricular activities in AgBio could contribute higher student achievement in biology. However, further research is required to identify specific activities in AgBio that contribute to higher achievement in science.

  7. Bacterial Diversity Studies Using the 16S rRNA Gene Provide a Powerful Research-Based Curriculum for Molecular Biology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Boomer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a ten-week curriculum for molecular biology that uses 16S ribosomal RNA genes to characterize and compare novel bacteria from hot spring communities in Yellowstone National Park. The 16S rRNA approach bypasses selective culture-based methods. Our molecular biology course offered the opportunity for students to learn broadly applicable methods while contributing to a long-term research project. Specifically, students isolated and characterized clones that contained novel 16S rRNA inserts using restriction enzyme, DNA sequencing, and computer-based phylogenetic methods. In both classes, students retrieved novel bacterial 16S rRNA genes, several of which were most similar to Green Nonsulfur bacterial isolates. During class, we evaluated student performance and mastery of skills and concepts using quizzes, formal lab notebooks, and a broad project assignment. For this report, we also assessed student performance alongside data quality and discussed the significance, our goal being to improve both research and teaching methods.

  8. Bacterial Diversity Studies Using the 16S rRNA Gene Provide a Powerful Research-Based Curriculum for Molecular Biology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan E. Dutton

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a ten-week curriculum for molecular biology that uses 16S ribosomal RNA genes to characterize and compare novel bacteria from hot spring communities in Yellowstone National Park. The 16S rRNA approach bypasses selective culture-based methods. Our molecular biology course offered the opportunity for students to learn broadly applicable methods while contributing to a long-term research project. Specifically, students isolated and characterized clones that contained novel 16S rRNA inserts using restriction enzyme, DNA sequencing, and computer-based phylogenetic methods. In both classes, students retrieved novel bacterial 16S rRNA genes, several of which were most similar to Green Nonsulfur bacterial isolates. During class, we evaluated student performance and mastery of skills and concepts using quizzes, formal lab notebooks, and a broad project assignment. For this report, we also assessed student performance alongside data quality and discussed the significance, our goal being to improve both research and teaching methods.

  9. Biological behavior and disease pattern of carcinoma gallbladder shown on 64-slice CT scanner: A hospital-based retrospective observational study and our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AND Dwivedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this diagnostic observational study was to assess the spread and biological behavior of gallbladder cancer using 64-slice computerized tomography (CT scanner in this particular geographic belt (eastern Uttar Pradesh, western Bihar, and northern Madhya Pradesh provinces of North India. Indians are ethnically and culturally different from their Western counterparts among whom the incidence of this disease is comparatively low. Subjects and Methods: After systemic examination, all patients (87 were subjected to ultrasonographic examination. All cases were histopathologically proven. Confirmed cases were subjected to volumetric CT examination of abdomen and pelvis, plain, post contrast and delayed phase. Results: Majority of the cases were adenocarcinoma. There was female preponderance with majority belonging to fifth and sixth decades. Commonest presentation was diffuse, irregular, enhancing wall thickening in 49.4%. Majority had invasion of liver parenchyma (74.7%. Cholelithiasis was seen in 48.3% cases. Invasion of biliary radicals was high (13.8-18.4%. Eleven cases had invasion of portal vein and tumor thrombus, with hepatic artery invasion in one case. In two cases, both hepatic artery and portal vein invasion was seen. Portal and peripancreatic nodal metastasis was seen in 58.5%. Distant metastasis was reported. Conclusion: Few studies involving the Indian population have attempted to use multi-row detector CT to define the biological behavior of carcinoma gallbladder. The opinion whether the pathology is operable or non-operable can reasonably be given. This large-scale, single-center study gives insight about the epidemiology and biological behavior of carcinoma gallbladder.

  10. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanodevices in Biological Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Veetil, Aneesh T; Jaffrey, Samie R; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2016-06-01

    The nanoscale engineering of nucleic acids has led to exciting molecular technologies for high-end biological imaging. The predictable base pairing, high programmability, and superior new chemical and biological methods used to access nucleic acids with diverse lengths and in high purity, coupled with computational tools for their design, have allowed the creation of a stunning diversity of nucleic acid-based nanodevices. Given their biological origin, such synthetic devices have a tremendous capacity to interface with the biological world, and this capacity lies at the heart of several nucleic acid-based technologies that are finding applications in biological systems. We discuss these diverse applications and emphasize the advantage, in terms of physicochemical properties, that the nucleic acid scaffold brings to these contexts. As our ability to engineer this versatile scaffold increases, its applications in structural, cellular, and organismal biology are clearly poised to massively expand. PMID:27294440

  11. Competency-based reforms of the undergraduate biology curriculum: integrating the physical and biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Katerina V; Chmielewski, Jean; Gaines, Michael S; Hrycyna, Christine A; LaCourse, William R

    2013-06-01

    The National Experiment in Undergraduate Science Education project funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is a direct response to the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians report, which urged a shift in premedical student preparation from a narrow list of specific course work to a more flexible curriculum that helps students develop broad scientific competencies. A consortium of four universities is working to create, pilot, and assess modular, competency-based curricular units that require students to use higher-order cognitive skills and reason across traditional disciplinary boundaries. Purdue University; the University of Maryland, Baltimore County; and the University of Miami are each developing modules and case studies that integrate the biological, chemical, physical, and mathematical sciences. The University of Maryland, College Park, is leading the effort to create an introductory physics for life sciences course that is reformed in both content and pedagogy. This course has prerequisites of biology, chemistry, and calculus, allowing students to apply strategies from the physical sciences to solving authentic biological problems. A comprehensive assessment plan is examining students' conceptual knowledge of physics, their attitudes toward interdisciplinary approaches, and the development of specific scientific competencies. Teaching modules developed during this initial phase will be tested on multiple partner campuses in preparation for eventual broad dissemination. PMID:23737624

  12. Synthesis, spectral characterization, molecular modeling, biological activity and potentiometric studies of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl-S-triazole Schiff's base complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Zayed, Mohamed E.; Alharbi, Suliman A.

    2015-03-01

    The Schiff's base derived from condensation of s-triazole (4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl-S-triazole) with pyridine-2-aldehyde and their corresponding Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized. The isolated solid complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, spectral (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, mass), magnetic moment and thermal measurements. The IR spectral data suggest that the ligand coordinate in a tridentate manner (SNN) via the one thiol (SH), one pyridine ring and the azomethine (Cdbnd N) groups. The data show that the complexes have composition of ML2 type. The activation of thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern, Horowitz-Metzger (HM), and Piloyan-Novikova (PN). The octahedral geometry of the complexes is confirmed using DFT method from DMOL3 calculations and ligand field parameters. Protonation constants of Schiff base and stability constants of their binary metal complexes have been determined potentiometrically in 50% DMSO-water media at 25 °C and ionic strength 0.10 M potassium nitrate. The biological activity of these compounds against various fungi has been investigated.

  13. Photonic applications based on biological/inorganic nano hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Pengfei; Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    2016-02-01

    Biological Retinal is an effective and efficient photochromic compounds and one of the best candidates for photon conversion, transmission and storage, from the view of bionics and natural selection. We observed large optical nonlinearity by using new fabricated films of photoactive Retinol hybrid materials. Based on reversible photoinduced anisotropy and transient optical characteristics, the Retinol hybrids can be used to design novel photonic devices, such as holographic elements, all-optical switch and spatial light modulator. Also, the study is important for further understanding the photochemical mechanism of vision process.

  14. Image-based surface matching algorithm oriented to structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merelli, Ivan; Cozzi, Paolo; D'Agostino, Daniele; Clematis, Andrea; Milanesi, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Emerging technologies for structure matching based on surface descriptions have demonstrated their effectiveness in many research fields. In particular, they can be successfully applied to in silico studies of structural biology. Protein activities, in fact, are related to the external characteristics of these macromolecules and the ability to match surfaces can be important to infer information about their possible functions and interactions. In this work, we present a surface-matching algorithm, based on encoding the outer morphology of proteins in images of local description, which allows us to establish point-to-point correlations among macromolecular surfaces using image-processing functions. Discarding methods relying on biological analysis of atomic structures and expensive computational approaches based on energetic studies, this algorithm can successfully be used for macromolecular recognition by employing local surface features. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be employed both to identify surface similarities in context of macromolecular functional analysis and to screen possible protein interactions to predict pairing capability. PMID:21566253

  15. An in-depth analysis of the biological functional studies based on the NMR M2 channel structure of influenza A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-sought three-dimensional structure of the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus was successfully determined recently by the high-resolution NMR [J.R. Schnell, J.J. Chou, Structure and mechanism of the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus, Nature 451 (2008) 591-595]. Such a milestone work has provided a solid structural basis for studying drug-resistance problems. However, the action mechanism revealed from the NMR structure is completely different from the traditional view and hence prone to be misinterpreted as 'conflicting' with some previous biological functional studies. To clarify this kind of confusion, an in-depth analysis was performed for these functional studies, particularly for the mutations D44N, D44A and N44D on position 44, and the mutations on positions 27-38. The analyzed results have provided not only compelling evidences to further validate the NMR structure but also very useful clues for dealing with the drug-resistance problems and developing new effective drugs against H5N1 avian influenza virus, an impending threat to human beings.

  16. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  17. Experimental models to study cholangiocyte biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pamela S. Tietz; Xian-Ming Chen; Ai-Yu Gong; Robert C. Huebert; Anatoliy Masyuk; Tatyana Masyuk; Patrick L. Splinter; Nicholas F. LaRusso

    2002-01-01

    Cholangiocytes-the epithelial cells which line the bileducts-are increasingly recognized as importanttransporting epithelia actively involved in the absorptionand secretion of water, ions, and solutes. Thisrecognition is due in part to the recent development ofnew experimental models. New biologic concepts haveemerged including the identification and topography ofreceptors and flux proteins on the apical and/orbasolateral membrane which are involved in the molecularmechanisms of ductal bile secretion. Individually isolatedand/or perfused bile duct units from livers of rats andmice serve as new, physiologically relevant in vitromodels to study cholangiocyte transport. Biliary treedimensions and novel insights into anatomic remodeling ofproliferating bile ducts have emerged from three-dimensional reconstruction using CT scanning andsophisticated software. Moreover, new pathologicconcepts have arisen regarding the interaction ofcholangiocytes with pathogens such as Cryptosporidiumparvum. These concepts and associated methodologiesmay provide the framework to develop new therapies for the cholangiopathies, a group of important hepatobiliarydiseases in which cholangiocytes are the target cell.Tietz PS, Chen XM, Gong AY, Huebert RC, Masyuk A, MasyukT, Splinter PL, LaRusso NF. Experimental models to studycoholangiocyte biology.

  18. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  19. Mathematical Biology Modules Based on Modern Molecular Biology and Modern Discrete Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Robeva, Raina; Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to introduce students to mathematical methods beyond the interface of biology with calculus. Based on ongoing research, and designed to use the project-...

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and biological evaluation studies of Schiff's base derived from naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide with 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin and its metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halli, M. B.; Sumathi, R. B.; Kinni, Mallikarjun

    2012-12-01

    Metal complexes of the type ML2, where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and L = Schiff's base derived from the condensation of naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide with 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin have been synthesized. The chelation of the complexes have been elucidated in the light of analytical, IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR, mass, ESR spectral data, thermal and magnetic studies. The measured molar conductance values indicate that, the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. The redox behavior of one of the synthesized metal complexes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The Schiff's base and its metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities by MIC method. The DNA cleavage activities of all the complexes were studied by agarose gel electrophoresis method. In addition, the free ligand along with its complexes has been studied for their antioxidant activity.

  1. Studies on complexation of a tridentate ONS Schiff base with lighter and heavier metals ions, and investigation into their biological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several new complexes of a tridentate ONS Schiff base derived from the condensation of S-benzyldithiocarbazate with salicylaldehyde have been characterised by elemental analyses, molar conductivity measurements, infrared, and electronic spectral studies. The tridentate Schiff base (HONSH) behaves as a dinegatively charged ligand coordinating through the thiolo sulphur, the azomethine nitrogen atom and the hydroxyl oxygen atom. It forms mono-ligand complexes of the general formula, [M(ONS)X], [M = Ni(II), Cu(II), Cr(III), Sb(III), Zn(II), Zr(IV) or U(VI) and X = H2O, Cl]. The ligand produced bis-chelated complex with Th(IV) of composition, [Th(ONS)2]. Square-planar structures were proposed for the Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. Antimicrobial tests indicated that the Schiff base and five of the metal complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), U(VI), Zn(II) and Sb(III) were found to be strongly active against bacteria. Ni(II) and Sb(III) complexes were the most effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative) while the Cu(II) complex proved to be the best against Bacillus cereus (gram positive bacteria). Antifungal activities were also noted with the Schiff base and the U(VI) complex. These compounds have shown results against Candida albicans fungi. But none of these compounds were effective against Aspergillus ochraceous fungi. (author)

  2. Semantic Search among Heterogeneous Biological Databases Based on Gene Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Liang CAO; Lei QIN; Wei-Zhong HE; Yang ZHONG; Yang-Yong ZHU; Yi-Xue LI

    2004-01-01

    Semantic search is a key issue in integration of heterogeneous biological databases. In thispaper, we present a methodology for implementing semantic search in BioDW, an integrated biological datawarehouse. Two tables are presented: the DB2GO table to correlate Gene Ontology (GO) annotated entriesfrom BioDW data sources with GO, and the semantic similarity table to record similarity scores derived fromany pair of GO terms. Based on the two tables, multifarious ways for semantic search are provided and thecorresponding entries in heterogeneous biological databases in semantic terms can be expediently searched.

  3. The biological bases of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is based on a large number of human data collected during the past 80 years. For dose levels of a few hundred rads, risks can be evaluated very accurately. Yet it is difficult to derive from them the risks due to low doses because of the uncertainty on the dose-effect relationship. In the practice, pessimistic assumptions are used, which involves an over-estimation of risks. However, even in these unfavorable conditions, risks associated to occupational activities implying radiation exposure seem to be less important than in most industries. Radiation protection has played a historical and essential part in the quantitative assessment of risks and opened a new era of occupational medicine and environmental health investigations. Many substances, such as radiations, are mutagenic and/or carcinogenic at very low doses, and in many cases human exposure cannot be avoided. Therefore, a policy advocating refusal of any risk whatsoever and absolute safety will lure with unattainable and misleading prospects. The only method is to assess the quantitative importance of the various risks in order to decide how far a damage may be tolerable in the various cases when exposure cannot be avoided

  4. Biological dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in hematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes cytokinetic blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=c+ α D+β D2 where. Y is the number micronuclei per cell and D the dose. the curve is compared with those produced elsewhere

  5. Biological Dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes citokinetics blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree centigree has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=C+ αD+BD''2 where Y is the number of micronuclei per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 24 refs

  6. On optimizing distance-based similarity search for biological databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rui; Xu, Weijia; Ramakrishnan, Smriti; Nuckolls, Glen; Miranker, Daniel P

    2005-01-01

    Similarity search leveraging distance-based index structures is increasingly being used for both multimedia and biological database applications. We consider distance-based indexing for three important biological data types, protein k-mers with the metric PAM model, DNA k-mers with Hamming distance and peptide fragmentation spectra with a pseudo-metric derived from cosine distance. To date, the primary driver of this research has been multimedia applications, where similarity functions are often Euclidean norms on high dimensional feature vectors. We develop results showing that the character of these biological workloads is different from multimedia workloads. In particular, they are not intrinsically very high dimensional, and deserving different optimization heuristics. Based on MVP-trees, we develop a pivot selection heuristic seeking centers and show it outperforms the most widely used corner seeking heuristic. Similarly, we develop a data partitioning approach sensitive to the actual data distribution in lieu of median splits. PMID:16447992

  7. STS-based education in non-majors college biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Phyllis Lee

    The study explored the effect of the science-technology-society (STS) and traditional teaching methods in non-majors biology classes at a community college. It investigated the efficacy of the two methods in developing cognitive abilities at Bloom's first three levels of learning. It compared retention rates in classes taught in the two methods. Changes in student attitude relating to anxiety, fear, and interest in biology were explored. The effect of each method on grade attainment among men and women was investigated. The effect of each method on grade attainment among older and younger students was examined. Results of the study indicated that no significant differences, relating to retention or student attitude, existed in classes taught in the two methods. The study found no significant cognitive gains at Bloom's first three levels in classes taught in the traditional format. In the STS classes no significant gains were uncovered at Bloom's first level of cognition. Statistically significant gains were found in the STS classes at Bloom's second and third levels of cognition. In the classes taught in the traditional format no difference was identified in grade attainment between males and females. In the STS-based classes a small correlational difference between males and females was found with males receiving lower grades than expected. No difference in grade attainment was found between older and younger students taught in the traditional format. In the STS-based classes a small statistically significant difference in grade attainment was uncovered between older and younger students with older students receiving more A's and fewer C's than expected. This study found no difference in the grades of older, female students as compared to all other students in the traditionally taught classes. A weak statistically significant difference was discovered between grade attainment of older, female students and all other students in the STS classes with older, female

  8. 2-Aminopyrimidine based 4-aminoquinoline anti-plasmodial agents. Synthesis, biological activity, structure-activity relationship and mode of action studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamaljit; Kaur, Hardeep; Chibale, Kelly; Balzarini, Jan; Little, Susan; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2012-06-01

    2-Aminopyrimidine based 4-aminoquinolines were synthesized using an efficacious protocol. Some of the compounds showed in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against drug-sensitive CQ(S) (3D7) and drug-resistant CQ(R) (K1) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in the nM range. In particular, 5-isopropyloxycarbonyl-6-methyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-2-[(7-chloroquinolin-4-ylamino)butylamino] pyrimidine depicted the lowest IC(50) (3.6 nM) value (56-fold less than CQ) against CQ(R) strain. Structure-activity profile and binding with heme, μ-oxo-heme have been studied. Binding assays with DNA revealed better binding with target parasite type AT rich pUC18 DNA. Most compounds were somewhat cytotoxic, but especially cytostatic. Molecular docking analysis with Pf DHFR allowed identification of stabilizing interactions. PMID:22459876

  9. 15N in biological nitrogen fixation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliography with 298 references on the use of the stable nitrogen isotope 15N in the research on the biological fixation of dinitrogen is presented. The literature pertaining to this bibliography covers the period from 1975 to the middle of 1985. (author)

  10. Science-Technology-Society literacy in college non-majors biology: Comparing problem/case studies based learning and traditional expository methods of instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John S.

    This study used a multiple response model (MRM) on selected items from the Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) survey to examine science-technology-society (STS) literacy among college non-science majors' taught using Problem/Case Studies Based Learning (PBL/CSBL) and traditional expository methods of instruction. An initial pilot investigation of 15 VOSTS items produced a valid and reliable scoring model which can be used to quantitatively assess student literacy on a variety of STS topics deemed important for informed civic engagement in science related social and environmental issues. The new scoring model allows for the use of parametric inferential statistics to test hypotheses about factors influencing STS literacy. The follow-up cross-institutional study comparing teaching methods employed Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to model the efficiency and equitability of instructional methods on STS literacy. A cluster analysis was also used to compare pre and post course patterns of student views on the set of positions expressed within VOSTS items. HLM analysis revealed significantly higher instructional efficiency in the PBL/CSBL study group for 4 of the 35 STS attitude indices (characterization of media vs. school science; tentativeness of scientific models; cultural influences on scientific research), and more equitable effects of traditional instruction on one attitude index (interdependence of science and technology). Cluster analysis revealed generally stable patterns of pre to post course views across study groups, but also revealed possible teaching method effects on the relationship between the views expressed within VOSTS items with respect to (1) interdependency of science and technology; (2) anti-technology; (3) socioscientific decision-making; (4) scientific/technological solutions to environmental problems; (5) usefulness of school vs. media characterizations of science; (6) social constructivist vs. objectivist views of theories; (7

  11. Chemical approaches to studying stem cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlin Li; Kai Jiang; Wanguo Wei; Yan Shi; Sheng Ding

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells,including both pluripotent stem cells and multipotent somatic stem cells,hold great potential for interrogating the mechanisms of tissue development,homeostasis and pathology,and for treating numerous devastating diseases.Establishment of in vitro platforms to faithfully maintain and precisely manipulate stem cell fates is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of stem cell biology,and to translate stem cells into regenerative medicine.Chemical approaches have recently provided a number of small molecules that can be used to control cell selfrenewal,lineage differentiation,reprogramming and regeneration.These chemical modulators have been proven to be versatile tools for probing stem cell biology and manipulating cell fates toward desired outcomes.Ultimately,this strategy is promising to be a new frontier for drug development aimed at endogenous stem cell modulation.

  12. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking study of some novel indole and pyridine based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives as potential antitubercular agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, N C; Somani, Hardik; Trivedi, Amit; Bhatt, Kandarp; Nawale, Laxman; Khedkar, Vijay M; Jha, Prakash C; Sarkar, Dhiman

    2016-04-01

    A series of indole and pyridine based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives 5a-t were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (MTB) and Mycobacterium bovis BCG both in active and dormant state. Compounds 5b, 5e, 5g and 5q exhibited very good antitubercular activity. All the newly synthesized compounds 5a-t were further evaluated for anti-proliferative activity against HeLa, A549 and PANC-1 cell lines using modified MTT assay and found to be noncytotoxic. On the basis of cytotoxicity and MIC values against Mycobacterium bovis BCG, selectivity index (SI) of most active compounds 5b, 5e, 5g and 5q was calculated (SI=GI50/MIC) in active and dormant state. Compounds 5b, 5e and 5g demonstrated SI values ⩾10 against all three cell lines and were found to safe for advance screening. Compounds 5a-t were further screened for their antibacterial activity against four bacteria strains to assess their selectivity towards MTB. In addition, the molecular docking studies revealed the binding modes of these compounds in active site of enoyl reductase (InhA), which in turn helped to establish a structural basis of inhibition of mycobacteria. The potency, low cytotoxicity and selectivity of these compounds make them valid lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:26920799

  13. Triazole tethered C5-curcuminoid-coumarin based molecular hybrids as novel antitubulin agents: Design, synthesis, biological investigation and docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harbinder; Kumar, Mandeep; Nepali, Kunal; Gupta, Manish K; Saxena, Ajit K; Sharma, Sahil; Bedi, Preet Mohinder S

    2016-06-30

    Keeping in view the confines allied with presently accessible antitumor agents and success of C5-curcuminoid based bifunctional hybrids as novel antitubulin agnets, molecular hybrids of C5-curcuminoid and coumarin tethered by triazole ring have been synthesized and investigated for in-vitro cytotoxicity against THP-1, COLO-205, HCT-116 and PC-3 human tumor cell lines. The results revealed that the compounds A-2 to A-9, B-2, B-3, B-7 showed significant cytotoxic potential against THP-1, COLO-205 and HCT-116 cell lines, while the PC-3 cell line among these was found to be almost resistant. Structure activity relationship revealed that the nature of Ring X and the length of carbon-bridge (n) connecting triazole ring with coumarin moiety considerably influence the activity. Methoxy substituted phenyl ring as Ring X and two carbon-bridges were found to be the ideal structural features. The most potent compounds (A-2, A-3 and A-7) were further tested for tubulin polymerization inhibition. Compound A-2 was found to significantly inhibit the tubulin polymerization (IC50 = 0.82 μM in THP-1 tumor cells). The significant cytotoxicity and tubulin polymerization inhibition by A-2 was further rationalized by docking studies where it was docked at the curcumin binding site of tubulin. PMID:27060762

  14. Biological Impact of Music and Software-Based Auditory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-based communication skills are developed at a young age and are maintained throughout our lives. However, some individuals--both young and old--encounter difficulties in achieving or maintaining communication proficiency. Biological signals arising from hearing sounds relate to real-life communication skills such as listening to speech in…

  15. A Project-Based Biologically-Inspired Robotics Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, R. M.; Zauner, K.-P.

    2013-01-01

    The design of any robotic system requires input from engineers from a variety of technical fields. This paper describes a project-based module, "Biologically-Inspired Robotics," that is offered to Electronics and Computer Science students at the University of Southampton, U.K. The overall objective of the module is for student groups to…

  16. Studies about space radiation promote new fields in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astronauts are constantly exposed to space radiation of various types of energy with a low dose-rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to determine correctly the biological effects of space radiation on human health. Studies about biological the effects at a low dose and a low dose-rate include various aspects of microbeams, bystander effects, radioadaptive responses and hormesis which are important fields in radiation biology. In addition, space radiations contain high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. In particular, neutrons may cause reverse effectiveness at a low dose-rate in comparison to ionizing radiation. We are also interested in p53-centered signal transduction pathways involved in the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis induced by space radiations. We must also study whether the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation is affected by microgravity which is another typical component in space. To confirm this, we must prepare centrifuge systems in an International Space Station (ISS). In addition, we must prepare many types of equipment for space experiments in an ISS, because we cannot use conventional equipment from our laboratories. Furthermore, the research for space radiation might give us valuable information about the birth and evolution of life on the Earth. We can also realize the importance of preventing the ozone layer from depletion by the use of exposure equipment to sunlight in an ISS. For these reasons, we desire to educate space researchers of the next generation based on the consideration of the preservation of the Earth from research about space radiation. (author)

  17. New advances in pollination biology and the studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Pollination biology is the study of the various biological features in relation to the event of pollen transfer. It is one of the central concerns of plant reproductive ecology and evolutionary biology. In this paper, we attempt to introduce the main advances and some new interests in pollination biology and make a brief review of the research work that has been done in China in recent years. We also give some insights into the study that we intend to carry out in this field in the future.

  18. Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-based communication skills are developed at a young age and are maintained throughout our lives. However, some individuals – both young and old – encounter difficulties in achieving or maintaining communication proficiency. Biological signals arising from hearing sounds relate to real-life communication skills such as listening to speech in noisy environments and reading, pointing to an intersection between hearing and cognition. Musical experience, amplification, and software-based ...

  19. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Espaux, Leo; Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Li, Rachel; Keasling, Jay D

    2015-12-01

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. We further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing. PMID:26479184

  20. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...... binding domain (LBD) has been associated with EDCs, a significant number of EDCs do not appear to influence the LBDs of these receptors. Therefore, we evaluated the potential biological effects of EDCs in humans with the aim to rationalize the etiology of certain disorders associated with the reproductive...

  1. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR BIOLOGI SEL PADA PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI UIN ALAUDDIN MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    Muriati, St

    2015-01-01

    Learning in UIN Alauddin is still limited knowledge to students, while, one mission to improve the quality of educators Biology in terms of belief, moral and scientific attitudes have not been implemented. This is caused by a lack of learning resources that connects Biology Science and its relation to scientific Qur'an. Cell Biology as subjects that reveal about the phenomenon of the smallest unit of life, it can be studied with scientific Qur'an. Therefore, it is necessary to develop teachin...

  2. Studies of cell toxicity of complexes of magnetic fluids and biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we performed a comparative investigation of the binding properties of two surface-coated (carboxymethyldextran/glucuronic acid), magnetite-based biocompatible magnetic fluids with different biological macromolecules (BSA, HSA, and LDL). We also investigated the in vitro toxicity of the complex formed between the magnetic fluid and the biological macromolecule in the neoplastic cell line J774-A

  3. Studies of cell toxicity of complexes of magnetic fluids and biological macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaroff, Patrícia P.; Oliveira, Daniela M.; Ribeiro, Karina F.; Lacava, Zulmira G. M.; Lima, Emília C. D.; Morais, Paulo C.; Tedesco, Antonio C.

    2005-05-01

    In this study, we performed a comparative investigation of the binding properties of two surface-coated (carboxymethyldextran/glucuronic acid), magnetite-based biocompatible magnetic fluids with different biological macromolecules (BSA, HSA, and LDL). We also investigated the in vitro toxicity of the complex formed between the magnetic fluid and the biological macromolecule in the neoplastic cell line J774-A.

  4. EUD-based biological optimization for carbon ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Treatment planning for carbon ion therapy requires an accurate modeling of the biological response of each tissue to estimate the clinical outcome of a treatment. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) accounts for this biological response on a cellular level but does not refer to the actual impact on the organ as a whole. For photon therapy, the concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) represents a simple model to take the organ response into account, yet so far no formulation of EUD has been reported that is suitable to carbon ion therapy. The authors introduce the concept of an equivalent uniform effect (EUE) that is directly applicable to both ion and photon therapies and exemplarily implemented it as a basis for biological treatment plan optimization for carbon ion therapy. Methods: In addition to a classical EUD concept, which calculates a generalized mean over the RBE-weighted dose distribution, the authors propose the EUE to simplify the optimization process of carbon ion therapy plans. The EUE is defined as the biologically equivalent uniform effect that yields the same probability of injury as the inhomogeneous effect distribution in an organ. Its mathematical formulation is based on the generalized mean effect using an effect-volume parameter to account for different organ architectures and is thus independent of a reference radiation. For both EUD concepts, quadratic and logistic objective functions are implemented into a research treatment planning system. A flexible implementation allows choosing for each structure between biological effect constraints per voxel and EUD constraints per structure. Exemplary treatment plans are calculated for a head-and-neck patient for multiple combinations of objective functions and optimization parameters. Results: Treatment plans optimized using an EUE-based objective function were comparable to those optimized with an RBE-weighted EUD-based approach. In agreement with previous results from photon

  5. EUD-based biological optimization for carbon ion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brüningk, Sarah C., E-mail: sarah.brueningk@icr.ac.uk; Kamp, Florian; Wilkens, Jan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Str. 22, München 81675, Germany and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, Garching 85748 (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Treatment planning for carbon ion therapy requires an accurate modeling of the biological response of each tissue to estimate the clinical outcome of a treatment. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) accounts for this biological response on a cellular level but does not refer to the actual impact on the organ as a whole. For photon therapy, the concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) represents a simple model to take the organ response into account, yet so far no formulation of EUD has been reported that is suitable to carbon ion therapy. The authors introduce the concept of an equivalent uniform effect (EUE) that is directly applicable to both ion and photon therapies and exemplarily implemented it as a basis for biological treatment plan optimization for carbon ion therapy. Methods: In addition to a classical EUD concept, which calculates a generalized mean over the RBE-weighted dose distribution, the authors propose the EUE to simplify the optimization process of carbon ion therapy plans. The EUE is defined as the biologically equivalent uniform effect that yields the same probability of injury as the inhomogeneous effect distribution in an organ. Its mathematical formulation is based on the generalized mean effect using an effect-volume parameter to account for different organ architectures and is thus independent of a reference radiation. For both EUD concepts, quadratic and logistic objective functions are implemented into a research treatment planning system. A flexible implementation allows choosing for each structure between biological effect constraints per voxel and EUD constraints per structure. Exemplary treatment plans are calculated for a head-and-neck patient for multiple combinations of objective functions and optimization parameters. Results: Treatment plans optimized using an EUE-based objective function were comparable to those optimized with an RBE-weighted EUD-based approach. In agreement with previous results from photon

  6. Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills In A Marine Biology Class Through Problem-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Magsino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine students' perspectives of their learning in marine biology in the collaborative group context of Problem-based Learning (PBL. Students’ higher order thinking skills (HOTS using PBL involves the development of their logical thinking and reasoning abilities which stimulates their curiosity and associative thinking. This study aimed to investigate how critical thinking skills, particularly analysis, synthesis and evaluation were enhanced in a marine biology class through PBL. Qualitative research approach was used to examine student responses in a questionnaire involving 10 open-ended questions that target students’ HOTS on a problem presented in a marine biology class for BS Biology students. Using axial coding as a qualitative data analysis technique by which grounded theory can be performed, the study was able to determine how students manifest their higher reasoning abilities when confronted with a marine biology situation. Results show student responses yielding affirmative remarks on the 10 questions intended to know their level of analysis (e.g., analyzing, classifying, inferring, discriminating and relating or connecting, synthesis (e.g., synthesizing and collaborating, and evaluation (e.g., comparing, criticizing, and convincing of information from the presented marine biology problem. Consequently, students were able to effectively design experiments to address the presented issue through problem-based learning. Results of the study show that PBL is an efficient instructional strategy embedded within a conventional curriculum used to develop or enhance critical thinking in marine biology.

  7. Geant4-based comprehensive study of the absorbed fraction for electrons and gamma-photons using various geometrical models and biological tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ziaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geant4-based comprehensive model has been developed to predict absorbed fraction values for both electrons and gamma photons in spherical, ellipsoidal, and cylindrical geometries. Simulations have been carried out for water, ICRP soft-, brain-, lung-, and ICRU bone tissue for electrons in 0.1 MeV-4 MeV and g-photons in the 0.02 MeV-2.75 MeV energy range. Consistent with experimental observations, the Geant4-simulated values of absorbed fractions show a decreasing trend with an increase in radiation energy. Compared with NIST XCOM and ICRU data, the Geant4-based simulated values of the absorbed fraction remain within a 4.2% and 1.6% deviation, respectively. For electrons and g-photons, the relative difference between the Geant4-based comprehensive model predictions and those of Stabin and Konijnenberg's re-evaluation remains within a 6.8% and 7.4% range, respectively. Ellipsoidal and cylindrical models show 4.9% and 10.1% higher respective values of absorbed dose fractions relative to the spherical model. Target volume dependence of the absorbed fraction values has been found to follow a logical behavior for electrons and Belehradek's equation for g-photons. Gamma-ray absorbed fraction values have been found to be sensitive to the material composition of targets, especially at low energies, while for elections, they remain insensitive to them.

  8. Organization of a radioisotope based molecular biology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the application of molecular techniques to medicine. Together with other molecular biology techniques it is being increasingly applied to human health for identifying prognostic markers and drug resistant profiles, developing diagnostic tests and genotyping systems and for treatment follow-up of certain diseases in developed countries. Developing Member States have expressed their need to also benefit from the dissemination of molecular advances. The use of radioisotopes, as a step in the detection process or for increased sensitivity and specificity is well established, making it ideally suitable for technology transfer. Many molecular based projects using isotopes for detecting and studying micro organisms, hereditary and neoplastic diseases are received for approval every year. In keeping with the IAEA's programme, several training activities and seminars have been organized to enhance the capabilities of developing Member States to employ in vitro nuclear medicine technologies for managing their important health problems and for undertaking related basic and clinical research. The background material for this publication was collected at training activities and from feedback received from participants at research and coordination meetings. In addition, a consultants' meeting was held in June 2004 to compile the first draft of this report. Previous IAEA TECDOCS, namely IAEA-TECDOC-748 and IAEA-TECDOC-1001, focused on molecular techniques and their application to medicine while the present publication provides information on organization of the laboratory, quality assurance and radio-safety. The technology has specific requirements of the way the laboratory is organized (e.g. for avoiding contamination and false positives in PCR) and of quality assurance in order to provide accurate information to decision makers. In addition while users of the technology accept the scientific rationale of using radio

  9. Geant4-based comprehensive study of the absorbed fraction for electrons and gamma-photons using various geometrical models and biological tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman Ziaur; Rehman Shakeel Ur.; Mirza Sikander M.; Arshed Waheed; Mirza Nasir M.

    2013-01-01

    The Geant4-based comprehensive model has been developed to predict absorbed fraction values for both electrons and gamma photons in spherical, ellipsoidal, and cylindrical geometries. Simulations have been carried out for water, ICRP soft-, brain-, lung-, and ICRU bone tissue for electrons in 0.1 MeV-4 MeV and g-photons in the 0.02 MeV-2.75 MeV energy range. Consistent with experimental observations, the Geant4-simulated values of absorbed fractions show a ...

  10. 2-Aminopyrimidine based 4-aminoquinoline anti-plasmodial agents. Synthesis, biological activity, structure-activity relationship and mode of action studies

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kamaljit; Kaur, Hardeep; Chibale, Kelly; Balzarini, Jan; Little, Susan; Prasad V. Bharatam

    2012-01-01

    2-Aminopyrimidine based 4-aminoquinolines were synthesized using an efficacious protocol. Some of the compounds showed in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against drug-sensitive CQ(S) (3D7) and drug-resistant CQ(R) (K1) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in the nM range. In particular, 5-isopropyloxycarbonyl-6-methyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-2-[(7-chloroquinolin-4-ylamino)butylamino] pyrimidine depicted the lowest IC(50) (3.6 nM) value (56-fold less than CQ) against CQ(R) strain. Structure-activity prof...

  11. Microbubble generation by piezotransducer for biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Alkhazal, M.; Cho, M.; Xiao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Bubbles induced by blast waves or shocks are speculated to be the major cause of damages in biological cells in mild traumatic brain injuries. Microbubble collapse was found to induce noticeable cell detachment from the cell substrate, changes in focal adhesion and biomechanics. To better understand the bubble mechanism, we would like to construct a system, which allows us to clearly differentiate the impact of bubbles from that of shocks. Such a generator needs to be low profile in order to place under a microscope. A piezoelectric transducer system was designed to meet the need. The system uses either a flat or a spherical focusing piezoelectric transducer to produce microbubbles in a cuvette loaded with cell-culture medium. The transducer is placed on the side of the cuvette with its axis lining horizontally. A cover slip is placed on the top of the cuvette. The impact of the waves to the cells is minimized as the cover slip is parallel to the direction of the wave. Only bubbles from the medium reach the cover slip and interact with cells. The effect of bubbles therefore can be separated that of pressure waves. The bubbles collected on a cover slip range in size from 100 μm to 10 μm in radius, but the dominant size is 20-30 μm.

  12. Identifying discriminative classification-based motifs in biological sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Vens, Celine; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Danchin, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Identification of conserved motifs in biological sequences is crucial to unveil common shared functions. Many tools exist for motif identification, including some that allow degenerate positions with multiple possible nucleotides or amino acids. Most efficient methods available today search conserved motifs in a set of sequences, but do not check for their specificity regarding to a set of negative sequences. Results: We present a tool to identify degenerate motifs, based on a giv...

  13. Applications of Case-Based Reasoning in Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jurisica, Igor; Glasgow, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a computational reasoning paradigm that involves the storage and retrieval of past experiences to solve novel problems. It is an approach that is particularly relevant in scientific domains, where there is a wealth of data but often a lack of theories or general principles. This article describes several CBR systems that have been developed to carry out planning, analysis, and prediction in the domain of molecular biology.

  14. Biologically-inspired Microfluidic Platforms and Aptamer-based Nanobiosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hansang

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in micro/nano- technologies have shown high potentials in the field of quantitative biology, biomedical science, and analytical chemistry. However, micro/nano fluidics still requires multi-layered structures, complex plumbing/tubing, and external equipments for large-scale applications and nanotechnology-based sensors demand high cost. Interestingly, nature has much simpler and more effective solutions. The goal of this dissertation is to develop novel microfluidic platforms a...

  15. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics in cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, T. C.; Mann, M

    2010-01-01

    The global analysis of protein composition, modifications, and dynamics are important goals in cell biology. Mass spectrometry (MS)–based proteomics has matured into an attractive technology for this purpose. Particularly, high resolution MS methods have been extremely successful for quantitative analysis of cellular and organellar proteomes. Rapid advances in all areas of the proteomic workflow, including sample preparation, MS, and computational analysis, should make the technology more eas...

  16. Bioinformatics glossary based Database of Biological Databases: DBD

    OpenAIRE

    Siva Kiran RR; Setty MVN; Hanumatha Rao G

    2009-01-01

    Database of Biological/Bioinformatics Databases (DBD) is a collection of 1669 databases and online resources collected from NAR Database Summary Papers (http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/a/) & Internet search engines. The database has been developed based on 437 keywords (Glossary) available in http://falcon.roswellpark.org/labweb/glossary.html. Keywords with their relevant databases are arranged in alphabetic order which enables quick accession of databases by researchers. Dat...

  17. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Geider, R. [Delaware Univ., Lewes, DE (United States). Coll. of Marine Studies

    1992-07-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies.

  18. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Geider, R. (Delaware Univ., Lewes, DE (United States). Coll. of Marine Studies)

    1992-01-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies.

  19. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies

  20. A Biologically Based Chemo-Sensing UAV for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F.M.J. Verschure

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Antipersonnel mines, weapons of cheap manufacture but lethal effect, have a high impact on the population even decades after the conflicts have finished. Here we investigate the use of a chemo-sensing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (cUAV for demining tasks. We developed a blimp based UAV that is equipped with a broadly tuned metal-thin oxide chemo-sensor. A number of chemical mapping strategies were investigated including two biologically based localization strategies derived from the moth chemical search that can optimize the efficiency of the detection and localization of explosives and therefore be used in the demining process. Additionally, we developed a control layer that allows for both fully autonomous and manual controlled flight, as well as for the scheduling of a fleet of cUAVs. Our results confirm the feasibility of this technology for demining in real-world scenarios and give further support to a biologically based approach where the understanding of biological systems is used to solve difficult engineering problems.

  1. Synthesis, Spectroscopy, Thermal Analysis, Magnetic Properties and Biological Activity Studies of Cu(II and Co(II Complexes with Schiff Base Dye Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Amani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three azo group-containing Schiff base ligands, namely 1-{3-[(3-hydroxy-propyliminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-4-nitrobenzene (2a, 1-{3-[(3-hydroxypropyl-iminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (2b and 1-{3-[(3-hydroxy-propyliminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-4-chloro-3-nitrobenzene (2c were prepared. The ligands were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, 13C- and 1H-NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Next the corresponding copper(II and cobalt(II metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the physicochemical and spectroscopic methods of elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, magnetic moment measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and (DSC. The room temperature effective magnetic moments of complexes are 1.45, 1.56, 1.62, 2.16, 2.26 and 2.80 B.M. for complexes 3a, 3b, 3c, 4a 4b, and 4c, respectively, indicating that the complexes are paramagnetic with considerable electronic communication between the two metal centers.

  2. Liquid scintillation based quantitative measurement of dual radioisotopes ({sup 3}H and {sup 45}Ca) in biological samples for bone remodeling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Susanta K., E-mail: huixx019@umn.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Mayo Mail Code 494, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Sharma, M. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Mayo Mail Code 494, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bhattacharyya, M.H. [Department of Medicine and Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Acute and prolonged bone complications associated with radiation and chemotherapy in cancer survivors underscore the importance of establishing a laboratory-based complementary dual-isotope tool to evaluate short- as well as long-term bone remodeling in an in vivo model. To address this need, a liquid scintillation dual-label method was investigated using different scintillation cocktails for quantitative measurement of {sup 3}H-tetracycline ({sup 3}H-TC) and {sup 45}Ca as markers of bone turnover in mice. Individual samples were prepared over a wide range of known {sup 45}Ca/{sup 3}H activity ratios. Results showed that {sup 45}Ca/{sup 3}H activity ratios determined experimentally by the dual-label method were comparable to the known activity ratios (percentage difference {approx}2%), but large variations were found in samples with {sup 45}Ca/{sup 3}H activity ratios in range of 2-10 (percentage difference {approx}20-30%). Urine and fecal samples from mice administered with both {sup 3}H-TC and {sup 45}Ca were analyzed with the dual-label method. Positive correlations between {sup 3}H and {sup 45}Ca in urine (R=0.93) and feces (R=0.83) indicate that {sup 3}H-TC and {sup 45}Ca can be interchangeably used to monitor longitudinal in vivo skeletal remodeling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liquid scintillation cocktails support accurate dual-label analysis of {sup 3}H and {sup 45}Ca. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 3}H-tetracycline and {sup 45}Ca were highly correlated in mice urine and feces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 3}H-tetracylcine and {sup 45}Ca can be used to monitor in vivo temporal bone remodeling.

  3. Biological Basis of Exercise-Based Treatments for Musculoskeletal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Tarabishy, Ayman; Kadic, Fawzi; Brown, Elke H.P.; Sowa, Gwendolyn

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-based therapies are the cornerstone of rehabilitation programs. While the benefits of exercise on systemic and tissue function are generally accepted, mechanisms underlying these benefits are sometimes poorly understood. An improved understanding of the effects of mechanical loading on molecular and cellular processes has the potential to lead to more disease-specific and efficacious exercise-based therapies. The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature examining the role of mechanical signaling on muscle and cartilage biology. PMID:21703582

  4. Systems biology studies of Aspergilli - from sequence to science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2008-01-01

    The recent dawn of the new biological mindset called systems biology has put forth a new way of analyzing and understanding biology. Carried by the notion that no element of a cell is an island, systems biology takes a holistic approach, and attempts to understand life as systems that have co...... transcriptomic to mention a few. The recent publication of the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus species (Aspergilli), has, along with the accumulation of years of reductionist studies, been a catalyst for the application of systems biology to this interesting group of fungi. Among...... the genome sequenced Aspergilli are a known human pathogen (Aspergillus fumigatus), a model organism for cellular mechanisms (Aspergillus nidulans) and two industrial workhorses (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae). In the presented work, new analytical and computational tools have been designed...

  5. Using Team-Based Learning to Teach Grade 7 Biology: Student Satisfaction and Improved Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjoura, Christiane; Tayeh, Paula Abou; Zgheib, Nathalie K.

    2015-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an innovative form of collaborative learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBL's effect on the performance and satisfaction of grade 7 students in biology in a private school in Lebanon, as well as teachers' willingness to implement this new methodology. An exploratory study was performed whereby two…

  6. New group 6 metal carbonyl complexes with 4,5-dimethyl-N,N-bis(pyridine-2-yl-methylene)benzene-1,2-diimine Schiff base: Synthesis, spectral, cyclic voltammetry and biological activity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Rania G.; Elantabli, Fatma M.; Helal, Nadia H.; El-Medani, Samir M.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal reaction of M(CO)6 (M = Cr, Mo or W) with a Schiff base (DMPA) derived from the condensation of 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine and pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde in THF in absence and presence of a secondary ligand; 2-aminobenzimidazole (Abz), thiourea (Tu) or 2-(2‧-pyridyl)benzimidazole (pybz) were studied. The reaction of Cr(CO)6 gave the four complexes Cr2(CO)2(DMPA)2; 1, Cr(DMPA)2(Abz)2; 2, Cr2(CO)4(DMPA)2(Tu)2; 3 and Cr(DMPA)2(Pybz); 4, while the thermal reaction of Mo(CO)6 resulted in the formation of the two complexes Mo2(O)6(DMPA)2; 5, and Mo2(O)2(CO)2(DMPA)2(Tu)2; 6. Thermal reaction of W(CO)6 and the Schiff base DMPA gave the complex W(O)2(DMPA)2; 7. The ligand DMPA and its metal complexes have been reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, magnetic measurements, and thermal analysis. Cyclic voltammetry and biological activity were also investigated.

  7. Web-based software tool for constraint-based design specification of synthetic biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberortner, Ernst; Densmore, Douglas

    2015-06-19

    miniEugene provides computational support for solving combinatorial design problems, enabling users to specify and enumerate designs for novel biological systems based on sets of biological constraints. This technical note presents a brief tutorial for biologists and software engineers in the field of synthetic biology on how to use miniEugene. After reading this technical note, users should know which biological constraints are available in miniEugene, understand the syntax and semantics of these constraints, and be able to follow a step-by-step guide to specify the design of a classical synthetic biological system-the genetic toggle switch.1 We also provide links and references to more information on the miniEugene web application and the integration of the miniEugene software library into sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools for synthetic biology ( www.eugenecad.org ). PMID:25426642

  8. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem...

  9. Prospects for the study of biological systems with high power sources of terahertz radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of intense sources of terahertz radiation based on lasers and electron accelerators has considerable potential for research on biological systems. This perspective gives a brief survey of theoretical work and the results of experiments on biological molecules and more complex biological systems. Evidence is accumulating that terahertz radiation influences biological systems and this needs to be clarified in order to establish safe levels of human exposure to this radiation. The use of strong sources of terahertz radiation may contribute to the resolution of controversies over the mechanism of biological organization. However the potential of these sources will only be realized if they are accompanied by the development of sophisticated pump–probe and multidimensional experimental techniques and by the study of biological systems in the controlled environments necessary for their maintenance and viability. (perspective)

  10. Rethinking biology instruction: The application of DNR-based instruction to the learning and teaching of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Lee

    Educational studies report that secondary and college level students have developed only limited understandings of the most basic biological processes and their interrelationships from typical classroom experiences. Furthermore, students have developed undesirable reasoning schemes and beliefs that directly affect how they make sense of and account for biological phenomena. For these reasons, there exists a need to rethink instructional practices in biology. This dissertation discusses how the principles of Harel's (1998, 2001) DNR-based instruction in mathematics could be applied to the teaching and learning of biology. DNR is an acronym for the three foundational principles of the system: Duality, Necessity, and Repeated-reasoning. This study examines the application of these three principles to ecology instruction. Through clinical and teaching interviews, I developed models of students' existing ways of understanding in ecology and inferred their ways of thinking. From these models a hypothetical learning trajectory was developed for 16 college level freshmen enrolled in a 10-week ecology teaching experiment. Through cyclical, interpretive analysis I documented and analyzed the evolution of the participants' progress. The results provide empirical evidence to support the claim that the DNR principles are applicable to ecology instruction. With respect to the Duality Principle, helping students develop specific ways of understanding led to the development of model-based reasoning---a way of thinking and the cognitive objective guiding instruction. Through carefully structured problem solving tasks, the students developed a biological understanding of the relationship between matter cycling, energy flow, and cellular processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, and used this understanding to account for observable phenomena in nature. In the case of intellectual necessity, the results illuminate how problem situations can be developed for biology learners

  11. Biological and ecological responses to carbon-based nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A.

    This dissertation examines the biological and ecological responses to carbon nanoparticles, a major class of nanomaterials which have been mass produced and extensively studied for their rich physical properties and commercial values. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review on the structures, properties, applications, and implications of carbon nanomaterials, especially related to the perspectives of biological and ecosystems. Given that there are many types of carbon nanomaterials available, this chapter is focused on three major types of carbon-based nanomaterials only, namely, fullerenes, single walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. On the whole organism level, specifically, Chapter II presents a first study on the fate of fullerenes and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in rice plants, which was facilitated by the self assembly of these nanomaterials with NOM. The aspects of fullerene uptake, translocation, biodistribution, and generational transfer in the plants were examined and quantified using bright field and electron microscopy, FT-Raman, and FTIR spectroscopy. The uptake and transport of fullerene in the plant vascular system were attributed to water transpiration, convection, capillary force, and the fullerene concentration gradient from the roots to the leaves of the plants. On the cellular level, Chapter III documents the differential uptake of hydrophilic C60(OH)20 vs. amphiphilic C70-NOM complex in Allium cepa plant cells and HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. This study was conducted using a plant cell viability assay, and complemented by bright field, fluorescence and electron microscopy imaging. In particular, C60(OH)20 and C70-NOM showed contrasting uptake in both the plant and mammalian cells, due to their significant differences in physicochemistry and the presence of an extra hydrophobic plant cell wall in the plant cells. Consequently, C60(OH)20 was found to induce toxicity in Allium cepa cells but not in HT-29 cells, while C70

  12. Performance-based assessment of biology teachers: Promises and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Angelo

    BioTAP, the biology component of the Teacher Assessment Project, explored three modes of performance-based teacher assessment: portfolios, simulations, and portfolio-based simulations. Assessments were designed by a team of university-based researchers and classroom teachers. Assessments were completed by 15 high school biology teachers from a variety of teaching contexts. Portfolios are defined as collections of evidence gathered on site, such as videotapes of instruction. The portfolios had four sections: planning, instruction, assessment, and professional development. Simulation exercises are replications of critical tasks of teaching in a standardized setting, for example, an interview about adapting a textbook. Portfolio-based simulations take advantage of the contextual aspects of portfolios and the standardization of simulations, for example, an interview on student misconceptions about the laboratory experience that was presented in the portfolio. Using a holistic process, teachers were rated in categories derived from the five core propositions of teacher knowledge and skill proposed by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Teachers reported that the assessments had a high degree of fidelity to teaching and provided stimuli to improving teaching. The description presented in this article provides a foundation for those who wish to advance the research in science teacher assessment.

  13. Molecular biology-based diagnosis and therapy for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainly described are author's investigations of the title subject through clinical and basic diagnosis/therapeutic approach. Based on their consideration of carcinogenesis and pathological features of pancreatic cancer (PC), analysis of expression of cancer-related genes in clinically available samples like pancreatic juice and cells biopsied can result in attaining their purposes. Desmoplasia, a pathological feature of PC, possibly induces resistance to therapy and one of strategies is probably its suppression. Targeting stem cells of the mesenchyma as well as those of PC is also a strategy in future. Authors' studies have revealed that quantitation of hTERT (coding teromerase) mRNA levels in PC cells micro-dissected from cytological specimens is an accurate molecular biological diagnostic method applicable clinically. Other cancer-related genes are also useful for the diagnosis and mucin (MUC) family genes are shown to be typical ones for differentiating the precancerous PC, PC and chronic pancreatisis. Efficacy of standard gemcitabine chemotherapy can be individualized with molecular markers concerned to metabolism of the drug like dCK. Radiotherapy/radio-chemotherapy are not so satisfactory for PC treatment now. Authors have found elevated MMP-2 expression and HGF/c-Met signal activation in irradiated PC cells, which can increase the invasive capability; and stimulation of phosphorylation and activation of c-Met/MARK in co-culture of irradiated PC cells with messenchymal cells from PC, which possibly leads to progression of malignancy of PC through their interaction, of which suppression, therefore, can be a new approach to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. Authors are making effort to introducing adenovirus therapy in clinic; exempli gratia (e.g.), the virus carrying wild type p53, a cancer-suppressive gene, induces apoptosis of PC cells often having its mutated gene. (T.T.)

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difference between intracellular and extracellular proton relaxation rates provides the basis for the determination of the mean hemoglobin concentration (MHC) in red blood cells. The observed water T1 relaxation data from red blood cell samples under various conditions were fit to the complete equation for the time-dependent decay of magnetization for a two-compartment system including chemical exchange. The MHC for each sample was calculated from the hematocrit and the intracellular water fraction as determined by NMR. The binding of the phosphorylcholine (PC) analogue, 2-(trimethylphosphonio)-ethylphosphate (phosphoryl-phosphocholine, PPC) to the PC binding myeloma proteins TEPC-15, McPC 603, and MOPC 167 was studied by 31P NMR

  15. Information fluency for undergraduate biology majors: applications of inquiry-based learning in a developmental biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Kathleen M; Eastman, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Many initiatives for the improvement of undergraduate science education call for inquiry-based learning that emphasizes investigative projects and reading of the primary literature. These approaches give students an understanding of science as a process and help them integrate content presented in courses. At the same time, general initiatives to promote information fluency are being promoted on many college and university campuses. Information fluency refers to discipline-specific processing of information, and it involves integration of gathered information with specific ideas to form logical conclusions. We have implemented the use of inquiry-based learning to enhance and study discipline-specific information fluency skills in an upper-level undergraduate Developmental Biology course. In this study, an information literacy tutorial and a set of linked assignments using primary literature analysis were integrated with two inquiry-based laboratory research projects. Quantitative analysis of student responses suggests that the abilities of students to identify and apply valid sources of information were enhanced. Qualitative assessment revealed a set of patterns by which students gather and apply information. Self-assessment responses indicated that students recognized the impact of the assignments on their abilities to gather and apply information and that they were more confident about these abilities for future biology courses and beyond. PMID:18316808

  16. A Trade Study of Two Membrane-Aerated Biological Water Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Ram; Lange, Kevin; Vega. Leticia; Roberts, Michael S.; Jackson, Andrew; Anderson, Molly; Pickering, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Biologically based systems are under evaluation as primary water processors for next generation life support systems due to their low power requirements and their inherent regenerative nature. This paper will summarize the results of two recent studies involving membrane aerated biological water processors and present results of a trade study comparing the two systems with regards to waste stream composition, nutrient loading and system design. Results of optimal configurations will be presented.

  17. Learning Cell Biology as a Team: A Project-Based Approach to Upper-Division Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Boggs, James

    2002-01-01

    To help students develop successful strategies for learning how to learn and communicate complex information in cell biology, we developed a quarter-long cell biology class based on team projects. Each team researches a particular human disease and presents information about the cellular structure or process affected by the disease, the cellular…

  18. MathBench Biology Modules: Web-Based Math for All Biology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karen C.; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Schneider, Katie; Thompson, Katerina V.; Shields, Patricia A.; Fagan, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, biology has not been a heavily quantitative science, but this is changing rapidly (Ewing 2002; Gross 2000; Hastings and palmer 2003; Jungck 2005; Steen 2005). Quantitative approaches now constitute a key tool for modern biologists, yet undergraduate biology courses remain largely qualitative and descriptive. Although biology majors…

  19. Preparing Biology Teachers to Teach Evolution in a Project-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle; Park Rogers, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a project-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching evolution to inform efforts in teacher preparation. Data analysis of a secondary biology educator teaching evolution through a PBL approach illuminated: (1) active student voice, which allowed students to reflect on their positioning on evolution and consider multiple…

  20. Effects of Conceptual Change Text Based Instruction on Ecology, Attitudes toward Biology and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Gülcan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the conceptual change text based instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of ecological concepts, and attitudes toward biology and environment. Participants were 82 ninth grade students in a public high school in the Northwestern Turkey. A treatment was employed over a…

  1. Biofilm growth of Chlorella sorokiniana in a rotating biological contactor based photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, W.M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Cuaresma, M.; Libor, Z.; Bhaiji, T.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae biofilms could be used as a production platform for microalgae biomass. In this study, a photobioreactor design based on a rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used as a production platform for microalgae biomass cultivated in biofilm. In the photobioreactor, referred to as Algadisk, m

  2. Design Strategies of Fluorescent Biosensors Based on Biological Macromolecular Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Morii

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent biosensors to detect the bona fide events of biologically important molecules in living cells are increasingly demanded in the field of molecular cell biology. Recent advances in the development of fluorescent biosensors have made an outstanding contribution to elucidating not only the roles of individual biomolecules, but also the dynamic intracellular relationships between these molecules. However, rational design strategies of fluorescent biosensors are not as mature as they look. An insatiable request for the establishment of a more universal and versatile strategy continues to provide an attractive alternative, so-called modular strategy, which permits facile preparation of biosensors with tailored characteristics by a simple combination of a receptor and a signal transducer. This review describes an overview of the progress in design strategies of fluorescent biosensors, such as auto-fluorescent protein-based biosensors, protein-based biosensors covalently modified with synthetic fluorophores, and signaling aptamers, and highlights the insight into how a given receptor is converted to a fluorescent biosensor. Furthermore, we will demonstrate a significance of the modular strategy for the sensor design.

  3. Rethinking biology instruction : the application of DNR-based instruction to the learning and teaching of biology

    OpenAIRE

    Maskiewicz, April Lee

    2006-01-01

    Educational studies report that secondary and college level students have developed only limited understandings of the most basic biological processes and their interrelationships from typical classroom experiences. Furthermore, students have developed undesirable reasoning schemes and beliefs that directly affect how they make sense of and account for biological phenomena. For these reasons, there exists a need to rethink instructional practices in biology. This dissertation discusses how th...

  4. Directing experimental biology: a case study in mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Hibbs

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Computational approaches have promised to organize collections of functional genomics data into testable predictions of gene and protein involvement in biological processes and pathways. However, few such predictions have been experimentally validated on a large scale, leaving many bioinformatic methods unproven and underutilized in the biology community. Further, it remains unclear what biological concerns should be taken into account when using computational methods to drive real-world experimental efforts. To investigate these concerns and to establish the utility of computational predictions of gene function, we experimentally tested hundreds of predictions generated from an ensemble of three complementary methods for the process of mitochondrial organization and biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The biological data with respect to the mitochondria are presented in a companion manuscript published in PLoS Genetics (doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000407. Here we analyze and explore the results of this study that are broadly applicable for computationalists applying gene function prediction techniques, including a new experimental comparison with 48 genes representing the genomic background. Our study leads to several conclusions that are important to consider when driving laboratory investigations using computational prediction approaches. While most genes in yeast are already known to participate in at least one biological process, we confirm that genes with known functions can still be strong candidates for annotation of additional gene functions. We find that different analysis techniques and different underlying data can both greatly affect the types of functional predictions produced by computational methods. This diversity allows an ensemble of techniques to substantially broaden the biological scope and breadth of predictions. We also find that performing prediction and validation steps iteratively allows us to more completely

  5. What Trends Do Turkish Biology Education Studies Indicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, Unsal Umdu; Calik, Muammer; Cavus, Ragip

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine what trends Turkish biology education studies indicate. To achieve this aim, the researchers examined online databases of the Higher Education Council and open access archives of graduate theses in web sites of Turkish universities. Finally, totally 138 graduate theses were elicited to analyze in regard to…

  6. Psychological and biological foundations of time preference : evidence from a day reconstruction study with biological tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Harmon, Colm

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between the economic concept of time preference and relevant concepts from psychology and biology. Using novel data from a time diary study conducted in Ireland that combined detailed psychometric testing with medical testing and real-time bio-tracking, we examine the distribution of a number of psychometric measures linked to the economic concept of time preferences and test the extent to which these measures form coherent clusters and the degree to whic...

  7. Studies on the biological half-lives of tritium released at Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one of important parameter involved in the calculation of internal radiation dose to the human body is the biological half-life of the radionuclide. The biological half-life is population specific and may differ from one population group to another. So the effective half-life of tritium exposure based on urinal bioassay measurement of Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants was investigated and studied

  8. Studies on the biological half-lives of tritium released at Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. G.; Eum, H. M. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, S. C.; Kim, M. C. [Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants, Gyungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-15

    The one of important parameter involved in the calculation of internal radiation dose to the human body is the biological half-life of the radionuclide. The biological half-life is population specific and may differ from one population group to another. So the effective half-life of tritium exposure based on urinal bioassay measurement of Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants was investigated and studied.

  9. Laser-based micro/nanoengineering for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, E.; Ranella, A.; Farsari, M.; Fotakis, C.

    2009-09-01

    Controlling the interactions of light with matter is crucial for the success and scalability for materials processing applications at micro and nano-scales. The use of ultrafast pulsed lasers (i.e. lasers emitting pulses of duration shorter than 10 -12 s) for the micro/nano engineering of biomaterials or materials relevant to biological applications opens up several exciting possibilities in this respect. These possibilities rely on several attractive features of ultrafast laser-matter interaction processes which allow nanoscale spatial resolution, non-thermal and non-destructive engineering to take place. This article presents a review of novel laser-based techniques for the printing and micro- and nano- scale surface modification of materials for biological applications. Emphasis is placed on techniques appropriate for biochip and tissue engineering applications, for which there is an increasing demand over the last years. Besides presenting recent advances achieved by these techniques, this work also delineates existing limitations and highlights emerging possibilities and future prospects in this field.

  10. Modeling to Improve Vegetation-Based Wetland Biological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    To meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act (1972), natural resource managers need to be able to detect biological degradation in wetland ecosystems. Biological indices are commonly used by managers to assess wetland biological condition. The accuracy and precision of wetland condition assessments are directly related to the performance of these indices, and biological index performance is thought to be related to how well an index controls for the effects of environmental attributes on b...

  11. RegenBase: a knowledge base of spinal cord injury biology for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Alison; Abeyruwan, Saminda W; Al-Ali, Hassan; Sakurai, Kunie; Ferguson, Adam R; Popovich, Phillip G; Shah, Nigam H; Visser, Ubbo; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) research is a data-rich field that aims to identify the biological mechanisms resulting in loss of function and mobility after SCI, as well as develop therapies that promote recovery after injury. SCI experimental methods, data and domain knowledge are locked in the largely unstructured text of scientific publications, making large scale integration with existing bioinformatics resources and subsequent analysis infeasible. The lack of standard reporting for experiment variables and results also makes experiment replicability a significant challenge. To address these challenges, we have developed RegenBase, a knowledge base of SCI biology. RegenBase integrates curated literature-sourced facts and experimental details, raw assay data profiling the effect of compounds on enzyme activity and cell growth, and structured SCI domain knowledge in the form of the first ontology for SCI, using Semantic Web representation languages and frameworks. RegenBase uses consistent identifier schemes and data representations that enable automated linking among RegenBase statements and also to other biological databases and electronic resources. By querying RegenBase, we have identified novel biological hypotheses linking the effects of perturbagens to observed behavioral outcomes after SCI. RegenBase is publicly available for browsing, querying and download.Database URL:http://regenbase.org. PMID:27055827

  12. Methemoglobin-Based Biological Dose Assessment for Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Zhao, Su-Ying; Xie, Li-Hua; Miao, Yu-Ji; Li, Qun; Min, Rui; Liu, Pei-Dang; Zhang, Hai-Qian

    2016-07-01

    Methemoglobin is an oxidative form of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. The authors' aim was to develop a new biological dosimeter based on a methemoglobin assay. Methemoglobin in peripheral blood (of females or males) that was exposed to a Co source (0.20 Gy min) was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The dose range was 0.5-8.0 Gy. In a time-course experiment, the time points 0, 0.02, 1, 2, 3, 7, 15, 21, and 30 d after 4-Gy irradiation of heparinized peripheral blood were used. Methemoglobin levels in a lysed erythrocyte pellet from the irradiated blood of females and males increased with the increasing dose. Methemoglobin levels in female blood irradiated with γ-doses more than 4 Gy were significantly higher than those in male samples at the same doses. Two dose-response relations were fitted to the straight line: one is with the correlation coefficient of 0.98 for females, and the other is with the correlation coefficient of 0.99 for males. The lower limit of dose assessment based on methemoglobin is about 1 Gy. Methemoglobin levels in blood as a result of auto-oxidation increase after 7-d storage at -20 °C. The upregulation of methemoglobin induced by γ-radiation persists for ∼3 d. The absorbed doses that were estimated using the two dose-response relations were close to the actual doses. The results suggest that methemoglobin can be used as a rapid and accurate biological dosimeter for early assessment of absorbed γ-dose in human blood. PMID:27218292

  13. Stable isotope methods in biological and ecological studies of arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hood-Nowotny, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This is an eclectic review and analysis of contemporary and promising stable isotope methodologies to study the biology and ecology of arthropods. It is augmented with literature from other disciplines, indicative of the potential for knowledge transfer. It is demonstrated that stable isotopes can b

  14. Learning Experiences of University Biology Faculty: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this article incorporates qualitative research through in-depth, individual, structured interviews with 12 biology faculty from two Midwestern universities to explore perceptions about how they have learned to teach and how they work to improve their skills.

  15. Vitamin D biology and heart failure : Clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meems, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, vitamin D biology has been studied more extensively than ever before.. The use of vitamin D supplements is common, and so is determination of plasma vitamin D status. Besides its role in bone homeostasis, vitamin D is thought to be an important player in the development and treat

  16. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  17. Considerations for clinical pharmacology studies for biologics in emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Bharat; White, Robert; Wang, Huifen Faye

    2015-03-01

    Registration of innovative biologics in Emerging Markets (EMs) poses many opportunities and challenges. The BRIC-MT countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, Mexico, and Turkey) that are the fastest growing markets and regulators in these countries have imposed certain requirements, including the need for local clinical studies, for registration of biologics. The regulatory landscape in these countries is rapidly evolving, which necessitates an up-to-date understanding of such requirements. There is growing evidence which suggests that race, after accounting for body weight differences, may not influence the pharmacokinetics of biologics to the same extent that it does for small molecules. Thus, the requirements for clinical pharmacology trials in EMs are driven mainly by regulatory needs set forth by local Ministry of Health. In addition to the clinical Phase I to III studies done in the global program that supports registration in large geographies, countries such as China require local single and multiple dose Phase I studies. Participating in global studies with clinical sites within their country may be sufficient for some markets, while other regulators may be satisfied with a Certificate of Pharmaceutical Product. This paper discusses the current requirements for registration of innovative biologics in key EMs. PMID:25707959

  18. Systems Biology Approaches to Epidemiological Studies of Complex Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongzhe

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology approaches to epidemiological studies of complex diseases include collection of genetic, genomic, epigenomic and metagenomic data in large-scale epidemiological studies of complex phenotypes. Designs and analyses of such studies raise many statistical challenges. This paper reviews some issues related to integrative analysis of such high dimensional and inter-related data sets and outline some possible solutions. I focus my review on integrative approaches for genome-wide gene...

  19. Structural and Computational Studies of Small Organic and Biological Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Casal, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Over the last three decades high-pressure X-ray diffraction techniques have been widely utilised to perform structural studies in many areas of research. For example, physicists make use of these experimental techniques to investigate metals, conductor and semi-conductor compounds among others, whereas geochemists apply them to study the conditions deep within the Earth’s interior. Furthermore, pressure studies have reached an important status in chemistry, biology and planetary science, and ...

  20. Studies on Biological Development of Hybrid Bees Families

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Pârvu; Ioana Cristina Andronie; Violeta-Elena Simion; Carmen Bergheş; Adriana Amfim

    2010-01-01

    It has made a study concerning the biological development of hybrid bee’s families (Italian x Carpathian) comparative with Carpathian bee’s families. The bees were housed in multi-storey hives. The following parameters were studied: the queen bee prolificacy, the flight intensity during harvesting, the flight intensity during bad weather the irascibility, the behaviour of the bees during the survey and the predisposition to swarming. At the hybrid families, queen bee prolificacy and the rate ...

  1. Best Practices for Promoting Functional Biology Education: Activity-Based, Laboratory-Oriented Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Mgboyibo Osuafor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of science education is fostering students’ intellectual competencies. This goal can only be achieved when students are actively involved in the teaching-learning process. This study therefore, investigated the extent to which the biology teachers employ pupil-centered activities such as laboratory/practical instructional methods in order to improve the learning outcome of their students. The descriptive survey involved 73 Biology teachers randomly selected from all the six education zones of Anambra state, Nigeria. Four research questions and two hypotheses guided the conduct of the study. A 32-item structured questionnaire which has reliability co-efficient of 0.82 was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. Results show that Biology teachers adopt practical-oriented strategies in teaching biology, conduct practical activities to a high extent, and perceive practical exercises as essential to effective teaching and learning of the subject. Provision of adequate number of laboratory materials, employment of adequate number of biology teachers, making provision for well designed laboratory activities in the curriculum and training of teachers on how to effectively combine theory with practical are some of the strategies that will encourage biology teachers to conduct practical lessons. There was no significant difference between male and female biology teachers in their responses to the different aspects investigated. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made which include that curriculum designers should incorporate guides for practical activities that go with each topic in the curriculum so as to encourage the teachers to teach theory with practical.

  2. Some biologically active oxovanadium(IV) complexes of triazole derived Schiff bases: their synthesis, characterization and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Zahid H; Sumrra, Sajjad H

    2010-10-01

    A series of biologically active oxovanadium(IV) complexes of triazole derived Schiff bases L(1)-L(5) have been synthesized and characterized by their physical, analytical, and spectral data. The synthesized ligands potentially act as bidentate, in which the oxygen of furfural and nitrogen of azomethine coordinate with the oxovanadium atom to give a stoichiometry of vanadyl complexes 1:2 (M:L) in a square-pyramidal geometry. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities on different species of pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, S. flexneri, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, and B. subtilis) and fungi (T. longifusus, C. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis, F. solani, and C. glabrata) have been studied. All compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains and good antifungal activity against most of the fungal strains. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to check the cytotoxicity of coordinated and uncoordinated synthesized compounds. PMID:20429776

  3. SYNTHESIS OF SULFONAMIDE BASED SCHIFF’S BASES AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION TOWARDS COLLETOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Siliveru Swamy; Parthasarathy, T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of research was to synthesize the better antifungal compounds, different substituted aromatic aldehydes are chosen as the starting materials for the synthesis of Schiff’s bases with sulfonamides in presence of alcohol and acidic reagent. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by HRMS spectral analysis data. The derivatives were subjected to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides spore germination to evaluate their biological activity.

  4. Quantum mechanical simulation methods for studying biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most known biological mechanisms can be explained using fundamental laws of physics and chemistry and a full understanding of biological processes requires a multidisciplinary approach in which all the tools of biology, chemistry and physics are employed. An area of research becoming increasingly important is the theoretical study of biological macromolecules where numerical experimentation plays a double role of establishing a link between theoretical models and predictions and allowing a quantitative comparison between experiments and models. This workshop brought researchers working on different aspects of the development and application of quantum mechanical simulation together, assessed the state-of-the-art in the field and highlighted directions for future research. Fourteen lectures (theoretical courses and specialized seminars) deal with following themes: 1) quantum mechanical calculations of large systems, 2) ab initio molecular dynamics where the calculation of the wavefunction and hence the energy and forces on the atoms for a system at a single nuclear configuration are combined with classical molecular dynamics algorithms in order to perform simulations which use a quantum mechanical potential energy surface, 3) quantum dynamical simulations, electron and proton transfer processes in proteins and in solutions and finally, 4) free seminars that helped to enlarge the scope of the workshop. (N.T.)

  5. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment

  6. Structural biology studies of CagA from Helicobacter pylori and histone chaperone CIA/ASF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal structures of proteins and their complexes have become critical information for molecular-based life science. Biochemical and biological analysis based on tertiary structural information is a powerful tool to unveil complex molecular processes in the cell. Here, we present two examples of the structure-based life science study, structural biology studies of CagA, an effector protein from Helicobacter pylori, and histone chaperone CIA/ASF1, which is involved in transcription initiation. (author)

  7. Radiolabelled substrates for studying biological effects of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of coordinated isotopic tracer-aided investigations of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture, initiated in 1973, was reviewed. The current status of representative investigations from the point of view of techniques and priorities was assessed. Such investigations involved radioactive substrates for studying DNA injury and its repair; 14C-labelled acetylcholine as substrate for measuring enzyme inhibition due to the presence of, or exposure to, anticholinesteratic contaminants; radioactive substrates as indication of side-effects in non-target organisms and of their comparative susceptibilities; radioactive substrates as indicators of persistence or biodegradability of trace contaminants of soil or water; and labelled pools for studying the biological side-effects of trace contaminants. Priorities were identified

  8. Biological and Environmental Transformations of Copper-Based Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhongying; von dem Bussche, Annette; Kabadi, Pranita K.; Kane, Agnes B.; Hurt, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Copper-based nanoparticles are an important class of materials with applications as catalysts, conductive inks, and antimicrobial agents. Environmental and safety issues are particularly important for copper-based nanomaterials because of their potential large-scale use and their high redox activity and toxicity reported from in vitro studies. Elemental nanocopper oxidizes readily upon atmospheric exposure during storage and use, so copper oxides are highly relevant phases to consider in stud...

  9. Indoor biology pollution control based on system-based humidity priority control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚昱; 谢慧; 石博强

    2009-01-01

    Indoor biological contamination and HVAC system secondary contamination problems caused wide public concerns. Biological contamination control will be the next step to achieve better IAQ. The most efficient and safe way to control biological contamination was to limit relative humidity in HVAC system and conditioned environment in the range that is more unsuitable for microorganism to survive. In this paper,by referring to bio-clean project experiences,a system-based humidity priority control manner came into being by lowering outdoor air humidity ratio to eliminate all indoor latent load and using self recirculation units to bear indoor sensible load. Based on the whole-course residue humidity contaminant control concept,dynamic step models for coil and conditioned zone were developed to describe mass and energy conservation and transformation processes. Then,HVAC system and conditioned zone dynamic models were established on LabVIEW+Matlab platform to investigate optimized regulation types,input signatures and control logics. Decoupling between cooling and dehumidification processes can be achieved and a more simplified and stable control system can be acquired by the system-based humidity priority control strategy. Therefore,it was a promising way for controlling biological pollution in buildings in order to achieve better IAQ.

  10. Marine Sponges and Symbionts: Chemical and Biological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Eric W.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis concerns two quite different types of research that are separated into distinct sections of the thesis, but which seek to answer the same question using diametrically opposite approaches. The first part (Chapters 1-8) covers research leading to novel, bioactive compounds in marine sponges, while the second (Chapters 9-10) involves molecular biological studies of symbiosis between microbes and sponges. Although these topics seem at first glance completely separate, they are in real...

  11. Algebraic Systems Biology: A Case Study for the Wnt Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Elizabeth; Harrington, Heather A.; Rosen, Zvi; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Steady state analysis of dynamical systems for biological networks give rise to algebraic varieties in high-dimensional spaces whose study is of interest in their own right. We demonstrate this for the shuttle model of the Wnt signaling pathway. Here the variety is described by a polynomial system in 19 unknowns and 36 parameters. Current methods from computational algebraic geometry and combinatorics are applied to analyze this model.

  12. Supramolecular approaches to cryorelaxors for biological NMR studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cuda, F.

    2010-01-01

    The work reported in this thesis concerns the development of Cryorelaxors having potential applications in very low temperature NMR studies of biological materials. Two approaches have been explored, namely calixarene host-guest complexes incorporating rotationally labile methyl groups, and endohedral fullerene complexes. The first chapter provides an overview of the background of the project and of potential approaches to the problem of low temperature relaxation agents, particularly thos...

  13. Physicochemical and biological treatability study of textile dye wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgone, Christine Ann

    1995-01-01

    The textile industry discharges a highly colored wastewater characterized by high organic levels. Industrial wastewater with these characteristics can be harmful to receiving streams and municipal plants, and must be treated prior to discharge. In this project, a yam dyeing facility was studied that uses biological treatment followed by chemical coagulation to treat their highly colored wastewater prior to discharging to the local river. Occasionally, color, organic, and metal ...

  14. Effects of Web Based Inquiry Science Environment on Cognitive Outcomes in Biological Science in Correlation to Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, T. I.; Devanathan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research study is the report of an experiment conducted to find out the effects of web based inquiry science environment on cognitive outcomes in Biological science in correlation to Emotional intelligence. Web based inquiry science environment (WISE) provides a platform for creating inquiry-based science projects for students to work…

  15. Inquiry-based training improves teaching effectiveness of biology teaching assistants

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, P William; Ellefson, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are used extensively as undergraduate science lab instructors at universities, yet they often have having minimal instructional training and little is known about effective training methods. This blind randomized control trial study assessed the impact of two training regimens on GTA teaching effectiveness. GTAs teaching undergraduate biology labs (n = 52) completed five hours of training in either inquiry-based learning pedagogy or general instructional “b...

  16. Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills In A Marine Biology Class Through Problem-Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Richard M. Magsino

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine students' perspectives of their learning in marine biology in the collaborative group context of Problem-based Learning (PBL). Students’ higher order thinking skills (HOTS) using PBL involves the development of their logical thinking and reasoning abilities which stimulates their curiosity and associative thinking. This study aimed to investigate how critical thinking skills, particularly analysis, synthesis and evaluation were enhanced ...

  17. Biological performance of titania containing phosphate-based glasses for bone tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Neel, E. A.; W. Chrzanowski; Knowles, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between glass chemistry, structure, degradation kinetics, and biological activity provides flexibility for the development of scaffolds with highly specific cellular response. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the role of titania inclusion into the phosphate-based glass on its ability to stimulate osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to adhere, proliferate and differentiate. In depth morphological and biochemical characterisation was performed on HOS c...

  18. Challenges and Opportunities for Learning Biology in Distance-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallyburton, Chad L.; Lunsford, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    The history of learning biology through distance education is documented. A review of terminology and unique problems associated with biology instruction is presented. Using published research and their own teaching experience, the authors present recommendations and best practices for managing biology in distance-based formats. They offer ideas…

  19. Science for Survival: The Modern Synthesis of Evolution and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lisa Anne

    2012-01-01

    In this historical dissertation, I examined the process of curriculum development in the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) in the United States during the period 1959-1963. The presentation of evolution in the high school texts was based on a more robust form of Darwinian evolution which developed during the 1930s and 1940s called…

  20. Synthesis and biological activity evaluation of hydrazone derivatives based on a Tröger's base skeleton

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplánek, R.; Havlík, M.; Dolenský, B.; Rak, J.; Džubák, P.; Konečný, P.; Hajdúch, M.; Králová, Jarmila; Král, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 7 (2015), s. 1651-1659. ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/1291 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0060; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Anticancer agents * Cancer treatment * Complexation studies * Hydrazone * Troger's base Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2014

  1. Mathematical Biology Modules Based on Modern Molecular Biology and Modern Discrete Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeva, Raina; Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to…

  2. Mass Spectrometry-based Proteomics and Peptidomics for Systems Biology and Biomarker Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Robert; Ma, Di; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    The scientific community has shown great interest in the field of mass spectrometry-based proteomics and peptidomics for its applications in biology. Proteomics technologies have evolved to produce large datasets of proteins or peptides involved in various biological and disease progression processes producing testable hypothesis for complex biological questions. This review provides an introduction and insight to relevant topics in proteomics and peptidomics including biological material sel...

  3. Unmanned Aircraft Systems complement biologging in spatial ecology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Barasona, Jose Ángel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Vicente, Joaquín; Negro, Juan José

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge about the spatial ecology and distribution of organisms is important for both basic and applied science. Biologging is one of the most popular methods for obtaining information about spatial distribution of animals, but requires capturing the animals and is often limited by costs and data retrieval. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have proven their efficacy for wildlife surveillance and habitat monitoring, but their potential contribution to the prediction of animal distribution patterns and abundance has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, we assess the usefulness of UAS overflights to (1) get data to model the distribution of free-ranging cattle for a comparison with results obtained from biologged (GPS-GSM collared) cattle and (2) predict species densities for a comparison with actual density in a protected area. UAS and biologging derived data models provided similar distribution patterns. Predictions from the UAS model overestimated cattle densities, which may be associated with higher aggregated distributions of this species. Overall, while the particular researcher interests and species characteristics will influence the method of choice for each study, we demonstrate here that UAS constitute a noninvasive methodology able to provide accurate spatial data useful for ecological research, wildlife management and rangeland planning. PMID:26640661

  4. The use of analysis of variance procedures in biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is widely used in biological studies, yet there remains considerable confusion among researchers about the interpretation of hypotheses being tested. Ambiguities arise when statistical designs are unbalanced, and in particular when not all combinations of design factors are represented in the data. This paper clarifies the relationship among hypothesis testing, statistical modelling and computing procedures in ANOVA for unbalanced data. A simple two-factor fixed effects design is used to illustrate three common parametrizations for ANOVA models, and some associations among these parametrizations are developed. Biologically meaningful hypotheses for main effects and interactions are given in terms of each parametrization, and procedures for testing the hypotheses are described. The standard statistical computing procedures in ANOVA are given along with their corresponding hypotheses. Throughout the development unbalanced designs are assumed and attention is given to problems that arise with missing cells.

  5. Study of nanoscale structural biology using advanced particle beam microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseman, Adam J.

    This work investigates developmental and structural biology at the nanoscale using current advancements in particle beam microscopy. Typically the examination of micro- and nanoscale features is performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but in order to decrease surface charging, and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface. As magnification increases, this layer begins to limit the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. A new technology, Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), is used to examine uncoated surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant fruit flies. Corneal nanostructures observed with HIM are further investigated by FIB/SEM to provide detailed three dimensional information about internal events occurring during early structural development. These techniques are also used to reconstruct a mosquito germarium in order to characterize unknown events in early oogenesis. Findings from these studies, and many more like them, will soon unravel many of the mysteries surrounding the world of developmental biology.

  6. Biological studies of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Roger K; Rasmusson, Ann M; Koenen, Karestan C; Shin, Lisa M; Orr, Scott P; Gilbertson, Mark W; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only major mental disorder for which a cause is considered to be known: that is, an event that involves threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others and induces a response of intense fear, helplessness or horror. Although PTSD is still largely regarded as a psychological phenomenon, over the past three decades the growth of the biological PTSD literature has been explosive, and thousands of references now exist. Ultimately, the impact of an environmental event, such as a psychological trauma, must be understood at organic, cellular and molecular levels. This Review attempts to present the current state of this understanding on the basis of psychophysiological, structural and functional neuroimaging, and endocrinological, genetic and molecular biological studies in humans and in animal models. PMID:23047775

  7. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  8. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, Lilian; Le-Clech, Pierre; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Ayoub, George M; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  9. Team-Based Learning Enhances Performance in Introductory Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Given the problems associated with the traditional lecture method, the constraints associated with large classes, and the effectiveness of active learning, continued development and testing of efficient student-centered learning approaches are needed. This study explores the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) in a large-enrollment…

  10. Participation in introductory biology laboratories: An integrated assessment based on surveys, behavioral observations, and qualitative interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Connie Adelle

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender, major, and prior knowledge of and attitude toward biology on participation in introductory biology laboratories. Subjects for this study were 3,527 students enrolled in college-level introductory biology courses. During the study, three introductory courses were replaced with one mixed-majors course. The new course adopted a different pedagological approach from the previous courses in that an inquiry-based approach was used in lectures and laboratories. All subjects completed a survey that measured content knowledge using the NABT/NSTA High School Biology Examination Version 1990 and attitude using Russell and Hollander's Biology Attitude Scale. I used and discuss the merits of using ethological methods and data collection software, EthoScribeTM (Tima Scientific) to collect behavioral data from 145 students. I also evaluated participation using qualitative interviews of 30 students. I analyzed content knowledge and attitude data using ANOVA and Pearson correlation, and behavioral data using Contingency Table Analysis. I analyzed interviews following methods outlined by Rubin and Rubin. Findings. Course style and gender were the most useful variables in distinguishing differences among groups of students with regard to attitude, content knowledge, and participation in laboratories. Attitude toward biology and achievement measured by the surveys were found to be positively correlated; however, gender, major, class standing, course style and interactions between these variables also had effects on these variables. I found a positive association among attitude, achievement and participation in hands-on activities in laboratories. Differences in participation also were associated group type. In a traditional introductory biology course, females in single-gender groups, gender-equal, or groups in which females were the majority spent more time performing hands-on science

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans - A model system for space biology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas E.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in studies spanning aspects of development, aging, and radiobiology is reviewed. These topics are interrelated via cellular and DNA repair processes especially in the context of oxidative stress and free-radical metabolism. The relevance of these research topics to problems in space biology is discussed and properties of the space environment are outlined. Exposure to the space-flight environment can induce rapid changes in living systems that are similar to changes occurring during aging; manipulation of these environmental parameters may represent an experimental strategy for studies of development and senescence. The current and future opportunities for such space-flight experimentation are presented.

  12. Study on the biological characteristics of Homalotglus flaminus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Homalotglus flaminus (Dalman) is an important natural enemy of the Chilocorus kuwanae. Its biological characteristic, life history, the action style on hosts were studied at Hongqi Forest Farm, Daqing City, Heilongjiang Province from June 1998 to October 2000, in order to control H. flaminus and raise the control ability of Chilocorus kuwanae to Quadraspidiotus gigas pest. The observed results indicated that H. flaminus has two generation one year in study area, the pupating span is 12.7 d, life span of females and males is 17.6 d and 10.8 d respectively, egg span is 10 d, and the sex ratio of females to males is 1:3.

  13. Algebraic Systems Biology: A Case Study for the Wnt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Elizabeth; Harrington, Heather A; Rosen, Zvi; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Steady-state analysis of dynamical systems for biological networks gives rise to algebraic varieties in high-dimensional spaces whose study is of interest in their own right. We demonstrate this for the shuttle model of the Wnt signaling pathway. Here, the variety is described by a polynomial system in 19 unknowns and 36 parameters. It has degree 9 over the parameter space. This case study explores multistationarity, model comparison, dynamics within regions of the state space, identifiability, and parameter estimation, from a geometric point of view. We employ current methods from computational algebraic geometry, polyhedral geometry, and combinatorics. PMID:26645985

  14. Student Perception of Relevance of Biology Content to Everyday Life: A Study in Higher Education Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himschoot, Agnes Rose

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method case study was to examine the effects of methods of instruction on students' perception of relevance in higher education non-biology majors' courses. Nearly ninety percent of all students in a liberal arts college are required to take a general biology course. It is proposed that for many of those students, this is…

  15. Probability-based model of protein-protein interactions on biological timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bates Paul A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation methods can assist in describing and understanding complex networks of interacting proteins, providing fresh insights into the function and regulation of biological systems. Recent studies have investigated such processes by explicitly modelling the diffusion and interactions of individual molecules. In these approaches, two entities are considered to have interacted if they come within a set cutoff distance of each other. Results In this study, a new model of bimolecular interactions is presented that uses a simple, probability-based description of the reaction process. This description is well-suited to simulations on timescales relevant to biological systems (from seconds to hours, and provides an alternative to the previous description given by Smoluchowski. In the present approach (TFB the diffusion process is explicitly taken into account in generating the probability that two freely diffusing chemical entities will interact within a given time interval. It is compared to the Smoluchowski method, as modified by Andrews and Bray (AB. Conclusion When implemented, the AB & TFB methods give equivalent results in a variety of situations relevant to biology. Overall, the Smoluchowski method as modified by Andrews and Bray emerges as the most simple, robust and efficient method for simulating biological diffusion-reaction processes currently available.

  16. A Knowledge Base for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Brekelmans, Mieke; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2011-10-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge concerning genetic testing and the related consequences for decision-making indicate the societal relevance of such a situated learning approach. What content knowledge do biology teachers need for teaching genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing? This study describes the required content knowledge by exploring the educational practice and clinical genetic practices. Nine experienced teachers and 12 respondents representing the clinical genetic practices (clients, medical professionals, and medical ethicists) were interviewed about the biological concepts and ethical, legal, and social aspects (ELSA) of testing they considered relevant to empowering students as future health care clients. The ELSA suggested by the respondents were complemented by suggestions found in the literature on genetic counselling. The findings revealed that the required teacher knowledge consists of multiple layers that are embedded in specific genetic test situations: on the one hand, the knowledge of concepts represented by the curricular framework and some additional concepts (e.g. multifactorial and polygenic disorder) and, on the other hand, more knowledge of ELSA and generic characteristics of genetic test practice (uncertainty, complexity, probability, and morality). Suggestions regarding how to translate these characteristics, concepts, and ELSA into context-based genetics education are discussed.

  17. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (φ/ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13Ca, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  18. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, David D.

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone ({phi}/{psi}) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined {sup 13}C{sub a}, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly {beta}-sheet.

  19. Biological studies of the US Subseabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) of the US is assessing the feasibility of emplacing high level radioactive wastes (HLW) within deep-sea sediments and is developing the means for assessing the feasibility of the disposal practices of other nations. This paper discusses the role and status of biological research in the SDP. Studies of the disposal methods and of the conceived barriers (canister, waste form and sediment) suggest that biological knowledge will be principally needed to address the impact of accidental releases of radionuclides. Current experimental work is focusing on the deep-sea ecosystem to determine: (1) the structure of benthic communities, including their microbial component; (2) the faunal composition of deep midwater nekton; (3) the biology of deep-sea amphipods; (4) benthic community metabolism; (5) the rates of bacterial processes; (6) the metabolism of deep-sea animals, and (7) the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. A multicompartment model is being developed to assess quantitatively the impact (on the environment and on man) of releases of radionuclides into the sea

  20. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Topical report: Bioreactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H{sub 2} from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; evaluation of biological synthesis gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses. The purpose of this report is to present results from bioreactor studies involving H{sub 2} production by water gas shift and H{sub 2}S removal to produce elemental sulfur. Many of the results for H{sub 2} production by Rhodospirillum rubrum have been presented during earlier contracts. Thus, this report concentrates mainly on H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur by R. rubrum.

  1. Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): Biological lifestyle factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): Biological lifestyle factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  2. Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2-3, and 0.5-1 mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

  3. Usefulness and limits of biological dosimetry based on cytogenetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage from occupational or accidental exposure to ionising radiation is often assessed by monitoring chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and these procedures have, in several cases, assisted physicians in the management of irradiated persons. Thereby, circulating lymphocytes, which are in the G0 stage of the cell cycle are stimulated with a mitogenic agent, usually phytohaemagglutinin, to replicate in vitro their DNA and enter cell division, and are then observed for abnormalities. Comparison with dose response relationships obtained in vitro allows an estimate of exposure based on scoring: - Unstable aberrations by the conventional, well-established analysis of metaphases for chromosome abnormalities or for micronuclei; - So-called stable aberrations by the classical G-banding (Giemsa-Stain-banding) technique or by the more recently developed fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) method using fluorescent-labelled probes for centromeres and chromosomes. Three factors need to be considered in applying such biological dosimetry: (1) Radiation doses in the body are often inhomogeneous. A comparison of the distribution of the observed aberrations among with that expected from a normal poisson distribution can allow conclusions to be made with regard to the inhomogeneity of exposure by means of the so-called contaminated poisson distribution method; however, its application requires a sufficiently large number of aberrations, i.e. an exposure to a rather large dose at a high dose rate. (2) Exposure can occur at a low dose rate (e.g. from spread or lost radioactive sources) rendering a comparison with in vitro exposure hazardous. Dose-effect relationships of most aberrations that were scored, such as translocations, follow a square law. Repair intervening during exposure reduces the quadratic component with decreasing dose rate as exposure is spread over a longer period of time. No valid solution for this problem has yet been developed, although

  4. Usefulness and limits of biological dosimetry based on cytogenetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Rueff, J; Gerber, G B; Léonard, E D

    2005-01-01

    Damage from occupational or accidental exposure to ionising radiation is often assessed by monitoring chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and these procedures have, in several cases, assisted physicians in the management of irradiated persons. Thereby, circulating lymphocytes, which are in the G0 stage of the cell cycle are stimulated with a mitogenic agent, usually phytohaemagglutinin, to replicate in vitro their DNA and enter cell division, and are then observed for abnormalities. Comparison with dose-response relationships obtained in vitro allows an estimate of exposure based on scoring: Unstable aberrations by the conventional, well-established analysis of metaphases for chromosome abnormalities or for micronuclei; So-called stable aberrations by the classical G-banding (Giemsa-Stain-banding) technique or by the more recently developed fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) method using fluorescent-labelled probes for centromeres and chromosomes. Three factors need to be considered in applying such biological dosimetry: (1) Radiation doses in the body are often inhomogeneous. A comparison of the distribution of the observed aberrations among cells with that expected from a normal poisson distribution can allow conclusions to be made with regard to the inhomogeneity of exposure by means of the so-called contaminated poisson distribution method; however, its application requires a sufficiently large number of aberrations, i.e. an exposure to a rather large dose at a high dose rate. (2) Exposure can occur at a low dose rate (e.g. from spread or lost radioactive sources) rendering a comparison with in vitro exposure hazardous. Dose-effect relationships of most aberrations that were scored, such as translocations, follow a square law. Repair intervening during exposure reduces the quadratic component with decreasing dose rate as exposure is spread over a longer period of time. No valid solution for this problem has yet been developed, although

  5. SYNTHESIS OF SULFONAMIDE BASED SCHIFF’S BASES AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION TOWARDS COLLETOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliveru Swamy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was to synthesize the better antifungal compounds, different substituted aromatic aldehydes are chosen as the starting materials for the synthesis of Schiff’s bases with sulfonamides in presence of alcohol and acidic reagent. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by HRMS spectral analysis data. The derivatives were subjected to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides spore germination to evaluate their biological activity.

  6. Schiff base triphenylphosphine palladium (II) complexes: Synthesis, structural elucidation, electrochemical and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Safeer; Shafiq, Maryam; Mirza, Bushra; McKee, Vickie; Munawar, Khurram Shahzad; Ashraf, Ahmad Raza

    2016-08-01

    The complexes N-(2-oxidophenyl)salicylideneiminatotriphenylphosphine palladium(II) (1) and N-(2-sulfidophenyl)salicylideneiminato triphenylphosphine palladium(II) (2) of tridentate Schiff bases derived from salicylaldehyde and an amino- or thiophenol, have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic, analytical and electro-analytical techniques. X-ray single crystal analysis of complex 1 has revealed its square planar geometry. The thermal analysis has shown the absence of coordinated water and final degradation product is PdO. The alkaline phosphatase studies have indicated that enzymatic activity is concentration dependent which is inversely proportional to the concentration of the compounds. The biological assays (brine shrimp cytotoxicity, DPPH) have reflected their biologically active and mild antioxidant nature. However, results of DNA protection assay have shown that they possess moderate protective activity against hydroxyl free radicals (rad OH). The voltammetric studies ascertain two-electron reduction of the compounds through purely diffusion controlled process and reveal intercalative mode of drug DNA interactions.

  7. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  8. Beach cleaning in Belgium: a social and biological study

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Tejo, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    A study on beach cleaning in Belgium was conducted from a social and biological perspective, to confront the lack of information regarding the two methods used: manual and mechanical beach cleaning. Through direct participation in the pilot project on manual beach cleaning of the municipality of Koksijde, during summer 2004, around 42 kg of man-made waste/km/month were estimated during July and September, and 87 kg during August. An average 1.5h/km was needed for two persons to manually clean...

  9. Functionalised isocoumarins as antifungal compounds: Synthesis and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Paunovic, Nikola; Boric, Ivan; Randjelovic, Jelena; Vojnovic, Sandra; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Pekmezovic, Marina; Savic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-substituted isocoumarins was prepared via Pd-catalysed coupling processes and screened in vitro for antifungal activity against Candida species. The study revealed antifungal potential of isocoumarins possessing the azole substituents, which, in some cases, showed biological properties equal to those of clinically used voriconazole. Selected compounds were also screened against voriconazole resistant Candida krusei 6258 and a clinical isolate Candida parapsilosis CA-27. Although the activity against these targets needs to be improved further, the results emphasise additional potential of this new class of antifungal compounds. PMID:26586600

  10. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final report describes the general biology and ecology of the 15 holothurians, 3 asteroids, 2 zoanthids and 1 crustacea species studied in Reports I-XIII, the sampling methods used and the station data. A summary of the histological, histochemical and biochemical results for the species examined is given. The data suggest that the reproductive processes in the deep-sea species examined are highly unlikely to be part of a pathway for the transfer of radionuclides from the deep-sea back to man. (author)

  11. Bemisia tabaci: A new clip-cage for biological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Muñiz, M.; Nombela, G.

    2001-01-01

    This new clip-cage has been designed in our laboratory. It is a transparent plastic truncated cone clip-cage (3.6 cm x 2.6 cm diameter; 4 cm high). A very thin polypropylene mesh (30 holes/inch) is attached to the bottom by paraffin wax. We have used this clip-cage attached to the under surface of the leaves in our studies on the biology of both B and Q biotypes of Bemisia tabaci with excellent results.

  12. Integrative biological studies of anti-tumour agents

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    3, 11-difluoro-6, 8, 13-trimethyl-8H- quino [4, 3, 2-kl] acridinium methosulfate (RHPS4) is a member of a series of pentacyclic acridines developed at the University of Nottingham, which bind to, and stabilise the structure of G-quadruplex DNA and inhibit the action of telomerase at sub-micromolar concentrations in the cell free TRAP assay and limit cancer cell growth therefore leading to the conclusion that RHPS4 has potential anti-tumour activity. Previous biological studies, however, have...

  13. Chamber bioaerosol study: human emissions of size-resolved fluorescent biological aerosol particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bhangar, Seema; Adams, Rachel I.; Pasut, Wilmer; Huffman, Alex; Arens, Edward A.; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Tom D; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    Humans are a prominent source of airborne biological particles in occupied indoor spaces, but few studies have quantified human bioaerosol emissions. The chamber investigation reported here employs a fluorescence-based technique to evaluate bioaerosols with high temporal and particle size resolution. In a 75-m3 chamber, occupant emission rates of coarse (2.5–10 μm) fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) under seated, simulated office-work conditions averaged 0.9 ± 0.3 million partic...

  14. Emergence of biological markers of musicianship with school-based music instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Strait, Dana L

    2015-03-01

    Musician children and adults demonstrate biological distinctions in auditory processing relative to nonmusicians. For example, musician children and adults have more robust neural encoding of speech harmonics, more adaptive sound processing, and more precise neural encoding of acoustically similar sounds; these enhancements may contribute to musicians' linguistic advantages, such as for hearing speech in noise and reading. Such findings have inspired proposals that the auditory and cognitive stimulation induced by musical practice renders musicians enhanced according to biological metrics germane to communication. Cross-sectional methodologies comparing musicians with nonmusicians, however, are limited by the inability to disentangle training-related effects from demographic and innate qualities that may predistinguish musicians. Over the past several years, our laboratory has addressed this problem by examining the emergence of neural markers of musicianship in children and adolescents using longitudinal approaches to track the development of biological indices of speech processing. This work was conducted in partnership with successful community-based music programs, thus avoiding reliance on a synthetic program for the purposes of laboratory study. Outcomes indicate that many of musicians' auditory-related biological enhancements emerge with training and may promote the acquisition of language skills, including in at-risk populations. PMID:25773631

  15. Atomic Force Microscopy Application in Biological Research: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM is a three-dimensional topographic technique with a high atomic resolution to measure surface roughness. AFM is a kind of scanning probe microscope, and its near-field technique is based on the interaction between a sharp tip and the atoms of the sample surface. There are several methods and many ways to modify the tip of the AFM to investigate surface properties, including measuring friction, adhesion forces and viscoelastic properties as well as determining the Young modulus and imaging magnetic or electrostatic properties. The AFM technique can analyze any kind of samples such as polymers, adsorbed molecules, films or fibers, and powders in the air whether in a controlled atmosphere or in a liquid medium. In the past decade, the AFM has emerged as a powerful tool to obtain the nanostructural details and biomechanical properties of biological samples, including biomolecules and cells. The AFM applications, techniques, and -in particular- its ability to measure forces, are not still familiar to most clinicians. This paper reviews the literature on the main principles of the AFM modality and highlights the advantages of this technique in biology, medicine, and- especially- dentistry. This literature review was performed through E-resources, including Science Direct, PubMed, Blackwell Synergy, Embase, Elsevier, and Scholar Google for the references published between 1985 and 2010.

  16. Banking of biological fluids for studies of disease-associated protein biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Kohn, Elise;

    2008-01-01

    biological fluids, especially serum and plasma, intended for study of protein biomarkers. In biomarker studies the process from the decision to take a sample from an individual to the moment the sample is safely placed in the biobank consists of several phases including collection of samples, transport of...... biobank as well as conclusions and clinical recommendations based on analysis of such material may be severely affected....

  17. Student perception of relevance of biology content to everyday life: A study in higher education biology courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himschoot, Agnes Rose

    The purpose of this mixed method case study was to examine the effects of methods of instruction on students' perception of relevance in higher education non-biology majors' courses. Nearly ninety percent of all students in a liberal arts college are required to take a general biology course. It is proposed that for many of those students, this is the last science course they will take for life. General biology courses are suspected of discouraging student interest in biology with large enrollment, didactic instruction, covering a huge amount of content in one semester, and are charged with promoting student disengagement with biology by the end of the course. Previous research has been aimed at increasing student motivation and interest in biology as measured by surveys and test results. Various methods of instruction have been tested and show evidence of improved learning gains. This study focused on students' perception of relevance of biology content to everyday life and the methods of instruction that increase it. A quantitative survey was administered to assess perception of relevance pre and post instruction over three topics typically taught in a general biology course. A second quantitative survey of student experiences during instruction was administered to identify methods of instruction used in the course lecture and lab. While perception of relevance dropped in the study, qualitative focus groups provided insight into the surprising results by identifying topics that are more relevant than the ones chosen for the study, conveying the affects of the instructor's personal and instructional skills on student engagement, explanation of how active engagement during instruction promotes understanding of relevance, the roll of laboratory in promoting students' understanding of relevance as well as identifying external factors that affect student engagement. The study also investigated the extent to which gender affected changes in students' perception of

  18. NMR spectroscopy, Hammett correlations and biological activity of some Schiff bases derived from piperonal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, Aurea [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Itaguai, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nascimento, Maria da Graca; Geronimo, Vanilde [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Miller, Joseph [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Giesbrecht, Astrea [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    1999-07-01

    A series of eleven Schiff Bases have been synthesized. They were obtained by condensation of piperonal (3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde) with the corresponding aromatic primary amines. Their {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra have been obtained and the Hammett correlations including chemical shifts and the substituent constants ({sigma}{sub p}, {sigma}R e {sigma}I) were studied. Linear and bilinear significant correlations were observed for iminic carbon (C-{alpha}) and C-1{sup '}, showing a more significant resonance effect on chemical shifts. The chemical shifts for C-4{sup '} were highly affected by substituent effects, especially for halogens in the expected direction. Their biological activity against microorganisms has also been measured and significant activity was showed against Epidermophyton floccosum. The biological activity did not give a reasonable relationship with electronic effects. (author)

  19. NMR spectroscopy, Hammett correlations and biological activity of some Schiff bases derived from piperonal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of eleven Schiff Bases have been synthesized. They were obtained by condensation of piperonal (3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde) with the corresponding aromatic primary amines. Their 1H and 13C-NMR spectra have been obtained and the Hammett correlations including chemical shifts and the substituent constants (σp, σR e σI) were studied. Linear and bilinear significant correlations were observed for iminic carbon (C-α) and C-1', showing a more significant resonance effect on chemical shifts. The chemical shifts for C-4' were highly affected by substituent effects, especially for halogens in the expected direction. Their biological activity against microorganisms has also been measured and significant activity was showed against Epidermophyton floccosum. The biological activity did not give a reasonable relationship with electronic effects. (author)

  20. Small-angle scattering studies of biological macromolecules in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-angle scattering (SAS) of x-rays and neutrons is a fundamental tool in the study of biological macromolecules. The major advantage of the method lies in its ability to provide structural information about partially or completely disordered systems. SAS allows one to study the structure of native particles in near physiological environments and to analyse structural changes in response to variations in external conditions. In this review we concentrate on SAS studies of isotropic systems, in particular, solutions of biological macromolecules, an area where major progress has been achieved during the last decade. Solution scattering studies are especially important, given the challenge of the 'post-genomic' era with vast numbers of protein sequences becoming available. Numerous structural initiatives aim at large-scale expression and purification of proteins for subsequent structure determination using x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. Because of the requirement of good crystals for crystallography and the low molecular mass requirement of NMR, a significant fraction of proteins cannot be analysed using these two high-resolution methods. Progress in SAS instrumentation and novel analysis methods, which substantially improve the resolution and reliability of the structural models, makes the method an important complementary tool for these initiatives. The review covers the basics of x-ray and neutron SAS, instrumentation, mathematical methods used in data analysis and major modelling techniques. Examples of applications of SAS to different types of biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, macromolecular complexes, polyelectrolytes) are presented. A brief account of the new opportunities offered by third and fourth generation synchrotron radiation sources (time-resolved studies, coherent scattering and single molecule scattering) is also given

  1. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Ina; Meierhofer, David

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology. PMID:27128910

  2. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Aretz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology.

  3. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Ina; Meierhofer, David

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology. PMID:27128910

  4. Studies on Biological Development of Hybrid Bees Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pârvu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It has made a study concerning the biological development of hybrid bee’s families (Italian x Carpathian comparative with Carpathian bee’s families. The bees were housed in multi-storey hives. The following parameters were studied: the queen bee prolificacy, the flight intensity during harvesting, the flight intensity during bad weather the irascibility, the behaviour of the bees during the survey and the predisposition to swarming. At the hybrid families, queen bee prolificacy and the rate of old bee’s replacement were significantly higher (p≤0.01. In terms of the flight intensity during bad weather and the swarming instinct, were not found significant differences (p≥0.05.

  5. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaohong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focus on the phytochemical progress and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora (Balanophoraceae over the past few decades, in which most plants growth in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Oceania, and nearly 20 species ranged in southwest China. These dioeciously parasitic plants are normally growing on the roots of the evergreen broadleaf trees, especially in the family of Leguminosae, Ericaceae, Urticaceae, and Fagaceae. The plants are mainly used for clearing away heat and toxic, neutralizing the effect of alcoholic drinks, and as a tonic for the treatment of hemorrhoids, stomachache and hemoptysis. And it has been used widely throughtout local area by Chinese people. Cinnamic acid derivative tannins, possessing a phenylacrylic acid derivative (e. g. caffeoyl, coumaroyl, feruloyl or cinnamoyl, which connected to the C(1 position of a glucosyl unit by O-glycosidic bond, are the characteristic components in genus Balanophora. In addition, several galloyl, caffeoyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of dihydrochalcone glucosides are found in B. tobiracola, B. harlandii, and B. papuana. Other compounds like phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols are also existed. And their biological activities, such as radical scavenging activities, HIV inhibiting effects, and hypoglycemic effects are highlighted in the review.

  6. Chemical Biology Studies on Molecular Diversity of Annonaceous Acetogenins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu-Jun

    2004-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins, isolated from the Annonaceae plants, have been attracting worldwide attention in recent years due to their biological activities, especially as growth inhibitors of certain tumor ceils [ 1 ]. They have been shown to function by blocking complex I in mitochondria [2] as well as ubiquinone-linked NADPH oxidase in the cells of specific tumor cell lines, including some multidrug-resistant ones [3]. These features make these acetogenins excellent leads for the new antitumor agents. In our previous work, the compounds 1a to 1d (Figure 1), which relies on structure simplification while maintaining all essential functionalities of the acetogenins, was in vitro tested against several human solid tumor cell lines and showed interesting cell selectivity [4]. All four analogues show remarkable activity against the HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines, while compound 1c was found the best [4bi. In order to further investigate the effects of key structural features, a convergent parallel fragments assembly strategy was developed [4e]. In addition, the biological relevancies of typical annonaceous acetogenin mimetics were also studied [4f].

  7. SBML-PET: a Systems Biology Markup Language-based parameter estimation tool

    OpenAIRE

    Zi, Z.; Klipp, E.

    2006-01-01

    The estimation of model parameters from experimental data remains a bottleneck for a major breakthrough in systems biology. We present a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) based Parameter Estimation Tool (SBML-PET). The tool is designed to enable parameter estimation for biological models including signaling pathways, gene regulation networks and metabolic pathways. SBML-PET supports import and export of the models in the SBML format. It can estimate the parameters by fitting a variety of...

  8. Application of the protocol for marine biological valuation to selected case study areas

    OpenAIRE

    Derous, S.; Courtens, W; Deckers, P.; Deneudt, K.; Forero, C.E.; Hostens, K.; Moulaert, I.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Vanden Eede, S.; Van Lancker, V. R. M; Verfaillie, E; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Marine biological valuation integrates all biological and ecological information that is available for a study area into a relative biological value. The resulting biological valuation map (BVM) is easy to interpret and translates complex scientific data into a tool that can be used by policy makers as a baseline layer for spatial planning at sea. When such BVM is lacking, managers can only trust on the available best expert judgement to include biological aspects into their decisions, a proc...

  9. Aqueous biological graphene based formulations for ink-jet printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybowska-Sarapuk Łucja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce heterophasic graphene nanoplatelets based formulation designed for ink-jet printing and biomedical applications. The compositions should meet two conditions: should be cytocompatible and have the rheological properties that allow to apply it with ink-jet printing technique. In view of the above conditions, the selection of suspensions components, such as binder, solvent and surfactants was performed. In the first stage of the research the homogeneity of the dispersion of nanoplatelets and their sedimentation behaviour in diverse solutions were tested. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of each ink on human mesenchymal stem cells was examined using the Alamar Blue Test. At the same time the rheology of the resulting suspensions was tested. As a result of these tests the best ink composition was elaborated: water, polyethylene glycol, graphene nanoplatelets and the surfactant from DuPont company.

  10. Wavelet-based detection of transients in biological signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzaik, Tahsin; Jagadeesh, Jogikal M.

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents two multiresolution algorithms for detection and separation of mixed signals using the wavelet transform. The first algorithm allows one to design a mother wavelet and its associated wavelet grid that guarantees the separation of signal components if information about the expected minimum signal time and frequency separation of the individual components is known. The second algorithm expands this idea to design two mother wavelets which are then combined to achieve the required separation otherwise impossible with a single wavelet. Potential applications include many biological signals such as ECG, EKG, and retinal signals.

  11. Developing a biological dosimeter based on mitochondrial DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurement of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage from ionizing radiation may be advantageous in determining radiation radiation exposures and assessing their effects on atomic radiation workers. The mitochondrial DNA molecule is one potential cellular DNA target which is: fully defined and sequenced; present in many copies per cell; not vital to cellular survival; and less subject to DNA repair than nuclear DNA. A method is described to isolate and analyse normal mitochondrial DNA. We describe the developments needed to determine DNA damage in mitochondrial DNA. The target is to make a biological dosimeter. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  12. Epistemological Syncretism in a Biology Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William D.; Park, Soonhye

    2011-02-01

    In teaching science, the beliefs of teachers may come into conflict and inhibit the implementation of reformed teaching practice. An experienced biology teacher, Mr. Hobbs, was found to have two different sets of epistemological beliefs while his classroom practice was predominantly teacher-centered. A case study was then performed in order to investigate the underlying issues that contributed to his classroom practice. Data sources included preliminary and follow-up interviews and classroom observations. Data analysis indicated that factors that prevented the epistemological conflict from reaching a resolution included Mr. Hobbs' beliefs about learning, contextual teaching factors, personal experiences as a student, and views of the nature of science. The findings from this case indicate that science teachers possess complex belief systems that are not immediately obvious to either the teacher or science teacher educators, and science teacher educators need to address teacher beliefs when they encourage teachers to implement reformed teaching practices.

  13. Current studies on physiological functions and biological production of lactosucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanmeng; Chen, Qiuming; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is a trisaccharide formed from lactose and sucrose by enzymatic transglycosylation. This rare trisaccharide is a kind of indigestible carbohydrate, has good prebiotic effect, and promotes intestinal mineral absorption. It has been used as a functional ingredient in a range of food products which are approved as foods for specified health uses in Japan. Using lactose and sucrose as substrates, lactosucrose can be produced through transfructosylation by β-fructofuranosidase from Arthrobacter sp. K-1 or a range of levansucrases, or through transgalactosylation by β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. This article presented a review of recent studies on the physiological functions of lactosucrose and the biological production from lactose and sucrose by different enzymes. PMID:23828605

  14. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  15. An ESR study on biological dosimeters: Human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, characteristic features of the radicals found in untreated, gamma and UV-irradiated and mechanical damaged human hair samples were investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Heights of the resonance peaks measured with respect to the spectrum base line were used to monitor microwave power, dose-response, storage time and temperature dependent kinetic features of the radical species contributing to the formation of recorded experimental ESR spectra. Peak heights and g-values (2.0037-2.0052) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent with ΔHpp-0.47 mT. The act of cutting hair samples gene rates sulfur centered radicals which are found in the a-keratin structure of hair. The variations of the peak heights with temperature were related with the water content found in the hair samples. In the 6-1100 Gy dose range, a linear + quadratic dose-response curve was recorded for hair and the mean radiation yield (Gmean) was calculated to be 0.4. The gamma radiation induced radicals were stable for a several hours at room temperature storage conditions. Based on these findings it was concluded that human hair samples could be used as biological/personnel dosimeters and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring its dosimetric behaviours.

  16. An ESR study on biological dosimeters: Human hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colak, Seyda, E-mail: seyda@hacettepe.edu.t [Hacettepe University, Physics Engineering Department, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Ozbey, Turan [Hacettepe University, Physics Engineering Department, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    In the present work, characteristic features of the radicals found in untreated, gamma and UV-irradiated and mechanical damaged human hair samples were investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Heights of the resonance peaks measured with respect to the spectrum base line were used to monitor microwave power, dose-response, storage time and temperature dependent kinetic features of the radical species contributing to the formation of recorded experimental ESR spectra. Peak heights and g-values (2.0037-2.0052) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent with {Delta}Hpp-0.47 mT. The act of cutting hair samples gene rates sulfur centered radicals which are found in the a-keratin structure of hair. The variations of the peak heights with temperature were related with the water content found in the hair samples. In the 6-1100 Gy dose range, a linear + quadratic dose-response curve was recorded for hair and the mean radiation yield (G{sub mean}) was calculated to be 0.4. The gamma radiation induced radicals were stable for a several hours at room temperature storage conditions. Based on these findings it was concluded that human hair samples could be used as biological/personnel dosimeters and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring its dosimetric behaviours.

  17. Preliminary Study on the Changes of TOC in Main Body of Water Based on Biological Stability of Drinking Water%基于饮用水生物稳定性的主体水TOC变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英姿; 于天鹏

    2016-01-01

    在供水管网中,TOC是支持微生物生长的重要因素,也是严重影响饮用水生物稳定性的因素之一。研究了在加氯之前与加氯之后主体水中TOC的变化规律,并对出现这种变化的原因做出了分析。研究表明,在这两种情况下,TOC都呈现出衰减的趋势,但加氯后的主体水中TOC的衰减速率明显受到了很大影响。%In the water supply pipe network, TOC is an important support for the growth of microorganisms and one of the serious impact of drinking water biological stability factors. This paper makes a preliminary study on the variation of TOC in main body of water chlorination before and after adding chlorination in water and makes an analysis on the reasons for this change. Studies have shown that TOC are showing a decline trend in these two cases, but after adding chlorination, decay rate of TOC in main body of water is affected significantly.

  18. Studies on influence of biological factors on concentration of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological factors influencing the concentration of radionuclides were studied from the points of uptake through digestive tract, food as pathways, and metabolic activities. The uptake of radionuclides by marine fishes through digestive tract was determined by whole body counter. 137Cs, 65Zn, 131I, 54Mn, 60Co, 85Sr, and 144Ce were used as tracers and was given with solid feed. The feed given was excreated 24 to 48 hours later in small of middle sized fishes, and 20 to 48 hours later in large sized fishes. The uptake rate of 137Cs and 65Zn was high absorption of 20 to 80 per cent, that of 131I, 60Co and 54Mn was not remarkable, and that of 85Sr and 144Ce was low absorption. The biological concentration of 137Cs through pathways of food. In fishes taking up radionuclides through contaminated food, concentration factor increased in accordance with contamination level. In addition, radionuclides with small uptake but delayed excretion and those with high concentration rate could be the factors to decide the concentration factors of marine organisms. In order to study the relationship between metabolic activities and concentration, the uptake of one-year old fishes and adult fishes, and fishes fed and those non-fed were compared. One-year fishes took up large amount of 85Sr during short period, however, concentration by metabolism in adult fishes was slow. Comparing feeding group and non-feeding group, the former showed 85Sr concentration factor of 1.5 to 2 times that of the later, and the later showed 137Cs concentration factor of 2 to 4 times that of the former. However, both uptake and excretion were rapid suggesting that taking food activated the metabolism of substances. (Kanao, N.)

  19. Scheffersomyces stipitis: a comparative systems biology study with the Crabtree positive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Marta; Nookaew, Intawat; Uhlén, Mathias;

    2012-01-01

    regulated by a decrease in oxygen levels. Even though S. stipitis has been extensively studied due to its potential application in pentoses fermentation, a limited amount of information is available about its metabolism during aerobic growth on glucose. Here, we provide a systems biology based comparison...... useful results and allows for the possibility to incorporate these data into recently developed genome-scaled metabolic, thus contributing to improve future industrial applications of S. stipitis as cell factory....

  20. Extraction from Natural Planktonic Microorganisms of DNA Suitable for Molecular Biological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jed A. Fuhrman; Comeau, Dorothy E.; Hagström, Åke; Chan, Amy M.

    1988-01-01

    We developed a simple technique for the high-yield extraction of purified DNA from mixed populations of natural planktonic marine microbes (primarily bacteria). This is a necessary step for several molecular biological approaches to the study of microbial communities in nature. The microorganisms from near-shore marine and brackish water samples, ranging in volume from 8 to 40 liters, were collected on 0.22-μm-pore-size fluorocarbon-based filters, after prefiltration through glass fiber filte...

  1. Studies of biological aerosols as ice nuclei: Existing constraints and new measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Georgakopoulos, D. G.; Franc, G. D.; Sullivan, R. C.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    The sources, abundance and nature of atmospheric particles that serve as ice nuclei (IN) for cold cloud formation remain some of the most important, yet poorly-characterized, features of aerosol-cloud interactions that indirectly affect climate. Although much is known about mineral dusts as important sources of atmospheric IN, much less is known about various carbonaceous particles, which also make up a significant fraction of atmospheric IN based on past elemental composition measurements. Among carbonaceous IN and other known atmospheric IN, certain biological particles (bacteria with a known IN gene) are the most efficient ice nucleators. These bacteria are highly efficient at freezing water at just a few degrees below 0°C. This characteristic has raised the possibility that these and other biological particles may represent a population in the atmosphere that influences mixed-phase clouds, precipitation and climate in important and dynamic ways. Significant, enigmatic, questions are the activation properties, source strengths, and number concentrations (and their variability) of all biological ice nuclei in cold cloud regions of the free troposphere. In this presentation we describe constraints on the contribution of biological particles to atmospheric IN populations based on our existing IN measurements, and based on measurements of specific known biological IN in air and precipitation made by other groups. Then we describe new measurement efforts targeted toward identification of the proportion of active IN as a function of temperature below 0°C that are of biological origin, using an ice nucleation instrument to activate and measure total IN concentrations, collection of activated particles, and analyses of the IN using the same DNA analyses used for identifying biological particles and biological IN types in total air and precipitation samples. This new method permits direct quantification of the number concentrations of biological IN. Our first studies

  2. Summary of diamino pyrazoles derived and study their biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work involves the synthesis of new heterocyclic structures diamino pyrazoles derivatives that are present in many natural products and products of pharmacological and therapeutic interests and study their biological activities. In order to develop a radiotracer interest and use in diagnostic nuclear medicine, we are interested to synthesis a pyrazole derivative with the precursor [Re(CO)5Br] and studying the antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3.5-diamino pyrazole and even thioamide complex rhenium. The objectives of our workout: 1/ Synthesis of molecules 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide. 2/ Synthesis of 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium complex. 3/ The in vitro study: Bacteriological Tests (Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide). The first part of this work concerns the chemical synthesis of molecules such as: thioamide, Amp z1 Ampz2 and then we had synthesized the complex 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium. Similarly we determined the physicochemical characteristics of the compounds synthesized by CLHP, CCM and RMN (1H, 13C). The second part is devoted to the study in vitro of biological activities of the synthesized molecules and complex 3,5 diaminopyrazole-rhenium with concentration 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. The results allow us to say that the thioamide and Ampz2 have antibacterial activity against S. enterica and Ampz2 has low activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginossa. Other pyrazole derivatives have no significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results also show that the synthesized compounds of concentration 2 mg/mL in relation to the inhibition zones of amoxicillin and DMSO: 1/ Escherichia coli, there is antibacterial activity for thioamide, and the Amp z1-Re Ampz2 compound. 2/ Staphylococcus aureus, the complex Ampz 1-Re and the thioamide have significant antibacterial activity. 3/ Salmonella, we observe that the thioamide molecules, Ampz2 and Amp z1-Re have significant antibacterial activity while

  3. A case study of two exemplary biology teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.

    Research has indicated that most science classrooms are not intellectually demanding and place little emphasis on small group discussions and laboratory activities. However, successful science programs and competent science teaching that can provide models for other science teachers do exist. This study sought to document the teaching practices of two exemplary biology teachers of grades 11 and 12 by means of an interpretive research methodology. Both teachers had a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the content they were to teach and had a range of teaching strategies that could be used without a great deal of thought. Their expectations for student performance were high, consistent, and firm. Students were expected to complete a high level of academic work in discussions, in problem work, and in laboratory activities, and were encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning. A distinctive feature of these biology classes was the high level of managerial efficiency, where lessons were busy occasions for both teacher and students; students had little opportunity for off-task behavior. Both teachers actively monitored the behavior of both high- and low-ability students by moving around the room and speaking with individuals, while still maintaining control of the entire class. By manipulating questioning and the social environment, both teachers encouraged students to engage in work, gave effective praise to the whole class and to individuals, encouraged student input by referring to it, helped students to effectively use their time, and gave marks for completion of set work. Compared to research with less-successful teachers, these teaching behaviors contributed to exemplary practice.

  4. Study on biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, M.; Takeuchi, Y.; Hisanaga, N.; Ono, Y.

    1983-03-01

    n-Hexane is one of the solvents widely used in industry well known to be neurotoxic. Recently it was clearly revealed that n-hexane is metabolized in vivo and its metabolites are excreted in the urine. However, the relationship between the exposed dose of n-hexane and the metabolites in the urine has not yet been substantially determined. Therefore, this investigation was intended to clarify the above relationship in order to establish its usefulness for biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure. The exposed dose was measured by means of a personal monitoring badge worn by workers in seven factories manufacturing vinyl sandals. The timeweighted average (TWA) concentration of n-hexane was 0.2-47.4 ppm. The n-hexane metabolites in the urine of 22 workers were measured with modified Perbellini's method (12) in the early morning (6:00-7:00 hrs) and at 17:00 hrs, 2,5-Dimethylfuran, 2,5-hexanedione and ..gamma..-valerolactone were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometory. At 17:00 hrs the means +- SD of the metabolites were 0.21+-0.11 mg/l for 2,5-dimethylfuran, 1.13+-0.71 mg/l for 2,5-hexanedione, and 2.04+-2.31 mg/l for ..gamma..-valerolactone. The metabolites were also found in the urine in the early morning. 2-Hexanol was not detected in the urine of any worker examined. A strong correlation between TWA concentration of n-hexane and 2,5-hexanedione in the urine was found at 17:00 hrs (r=0.895, P<0.001). The results suggest that the urinary metabolites of n-hexane, especially 2,5-hexanedione, could be useful indicators for biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure. Furthermore the present study offers the advantage of a better estimate of n-hexane TWA.

  5. Competency-Based Reforms of the Undergraduate Biology Curriculum: Integrating the Physical and Biological Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Katerina V.; Chmielewski, Jean; Gaines, Michael S.; Hrycyna, Christine A.; Lacourse, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Experiment in Undergraduate Science Education project funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is a direct response to the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians report, which urged a shift in premedical student preparation from a narrow list of specific course work to a more flexible curriculum that helps students develop broad scientific competencies. A consortium of four universities is working to create, pilot, and assess modular, competency-based curricular units ...

  6. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps

  7. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L.; Pribbenow, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants (“scholars”) from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010–2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and

  8. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The American Society for Microbiology (ASM established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation Biology Scholars Program (BSP to promote undergraduate education reform by 1 supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2 engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3 participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL to more than 270 participants (“scholars” from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER. To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010­–2014 scholars (n = 127 and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life

  9. Biologically based strategies to augment rotator cuff tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Schaer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC are among the most frequent tendon injuries. In spite of the developments in both open and arthroscopic surgery, RC repair still very often fails. In order to reduce the failure rate after surgery, several experimental in vitro and in vivo therapy methods have been developed for biological improvement of the reinsertion. This article provides an overview of the current evidence for augmentation of RC reconstruction with growth factors. Furthermore, potential future therapeutic approaches are discussed. We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed database using various combinations of the keywords "tendon," "rotator cuff," "augmentation," "growth factor," "platelet-rich fibrin," and "platelet-rich plasma" for publications up to 2011. Given the linguistic capabilities of the research team, we considered publications in English, German, French, and Spanish. We excluded literature reviews, case reports, and letters to the editor.

  10. Studying of ion implantation effect on the biology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since low energy ion effect on the biology was observed, the ion implantation as a new mutagenic source has been widely used in improving crops and modifying microbes in China. The basic phenomenon of ion implantation effect on the biology and analytical results are reported, and the examples of its application and its further development are shown

  11. An Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Special Materials Approach to Teaching Biology to the Slow Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, John Mack

    Students (comparable in intelligence and ability) in slow-learning classes using either "Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Special Materials" or some other slow-learner biology materials, were compared on the basis of scores on the "Nelson Biology Test", the "Biological Sciences; Patterns and Processes Final Examination", and two short…

  12. Proceedings First Workshop on Applications of Membrane computing, Concurrency and Agent-based modelling in POPulation biology

    CERN Document Server

    Milazzo, Paolo; 10.4204/EPTCS.33

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the first International Workshop on Applications of Membrane Computing, Concurrency and Agent-based Modelling in Population Biology (AMCA-POP 2010) held in Jena, Germany on August 25th, 2010 as a satellite event of the 11th Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). The aim of the workshop is to investigate whether formal modelling and analysis techniques could be applied with profit to systems of interest for population biology and ecology. The considered modelling notations include membrane systems, Petri nets, agent-based notations, process calculi, automata-based notations, rewriting systems and cellular automata. Such notations enable the application of analysis techniques such as simulation, model checking, abstract interpretation and type systems to study systems of interest in disciplines such as population biology, ecosystem science, epidemiology, genetics, sustainability science, evolution and other disciplines in which population dynamics and interactions...

  13. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bal-Ram; Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Chen, Aicheng

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH), and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics. PMID:26404304

  14. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Ram Adhikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, reduced graphene oxide (rGO, SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH, and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics.

  15. Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a...

  16. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  17. Network-based analysis of affected biological processes in type 2 diabetes models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manway Liu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder associated with multiple genetic, epigenetic, developmental, and environmental factors. Animal models of type 2 diabetes differ based on diet, drug treatment, and gene knockouts, and yet all display the clinical hallmarks of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in peripheral tissue. The recent advances in gene-expression microarray technologies present an unprecedented opportunity to study type 2 diabetes mellitus at a genome-wide scale and across different models. To date, a key challenge has been to identify the biological processes or signaling pathways that play significant roles in the disorder. Here, using a network-based analysis methodology, we identified two sets of genes, associated with insulin signaling and a network of nuclear receptors, which are recurrent in a statistically significant number of diabetes and insulin resistance models and transcriptionally altered across diverse tissue types. We additionally identified a network of protein-protein interactions between members from the two gene sets that may facilitate signaling between them. Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of integrating high-throughput microarray studies, together with protein-protein interaction networks, in elucidating the underlying biological processes associated with a complex disorder.

  18. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lanlan; Liang, Xiao Huan [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ferrara, Napoleone, E-mail: nf@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF is a mediator of angiogenesis. {yields} VEGF inhibitors have clinical applications in cancer and eye disorders. {yields} Five protein VEGF inhibitors were compared for their ability to inhibit. {yields} VEGF-induced activities in cultured endothelial cells. -- Abstract: VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length variant of ranibizumab (Mab Y0317), bevacizumab, the VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG in bioassays measuring VEGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells or chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitors were also compared for their ability to inhibit MAP kinase activation in HUVECs following VEGF addition. Ranibizumab, VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG had very similar potencies in the bioassays tested. Bevacizumab was over 10-fold less potent than these molecules. Mab Y0317 was over 30-fold more potent than bevacizumab. The findings reported in this manuscript describe important intrinsic characteristics of several VEGF inhibitors that may be useful to design and interpret preclinical or clinical studies.

  19. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PULSED SHORT WAVE TREATMENT. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogaru Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed short waves are short electromagnetic waves emitted as intermittent trains with a fixed duration, separated by free intervals of variable duration. The biological effects of pulsed short waves could be explained according to most of the authors by an activation of cellular enzymatic reactions, a stimulation of energy metabolism, a stimulation of liver function, of adrenal gland function and of the reticulocyte system, changes in cell permeability, by an increase of peripheral blood flow through the enhancement of local vascularization. This research aimed to investigate the biological effects of exposure to pulsed short waves at different doses on the adrenal glands of experimental animals, by structural and ultrastructural studies. The study included 35 animals assigned to 4 groups. Group I included 10 experimental animals exposed to radiation at a dose of 1/80 impulses/sec, group II, 10 animals exposed to a dose of 4/400 impulses/sec, group III, 10 animals exposed to a dose of 6/600 impulses/sec, for 10 min/day, and the control group consisted of 5 unexposed animals. Structural and ultrastructural changes of adrenal glands induced by the dose of 4/400 impulses/sec, compared to the unexposed control group and the dose of 1/80 impulses/sec, include an intensification of protein synthesis processes, an enhancement of energy metabolism in providing the energy required for an increased production of hormones, an intensification of collagen fiber synthesis processes in the capsule, necessary for healing. It was demonstrated that this dose induced an intensification of hormone synthesis and secretion, a stimulation of adrenal function. At the dose of 6/600 cycles/sec, a slight diminution of hormone synthesis and secretion activity was found, which was not below the limits existing in the unexposed control group, but was comparable to group II. This dose is probably too strong for experimental animals, inducing them a state of stress. The

  20. Synthesis of potentially bioactive compounds and tools for biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR spectroscopy is one of the most versatile tools for studying structural parameters of organic and bioorganic compounds. It became a highly suitable method to achieve spectra simplification of macromolecules in combination with isotope labeling techniques. This technique is used to study protein structures, folding properties and mechanisms of chemical and biochemical reactions. Proteins typically feature a high molecular mass showing a high number of spin systems, being responsible for increasingly difficult to interpret NMR spectra, which is why it is essential to introduce 13C- and 15N- isotopes to obtain reasonable signal intensities. The development of a new synthetic route towards 13C-isotope labeled Phenylalanine or precursors thereof, starting from inexpensive and easily accessible labeled starting materials, is the main purpose of this work. Label sources such as [13C]-acetic acid, [13C]-formaldehyde, [13C]-allyl alcohol and [13C]-glycine will be used. The synthetic pathway will be carried out in a way where the position-selective incorporation of labeled isotopes can be performed. This important feature of the synthesis may open access towards newly designed NMR-experiments. Key steps for the tested route are ring closing metatheses as well as indium mediated reactions. The second part of this work focuses on the field of sugar chemistry, in particular on the family of deoxy sugars, components of many natural products, found in different plants, fungi and bacteria. Deoxy sugars also participate in a wide range of biological processes. Special focus is given to 3-deoxy sugars and the research of a versatile and flexible synthetic route for their preparation starting from the easily accessible D-glyceraldehyde. These sugars are found on Gram-negative bacteria where they are a key component of the lipopolysaccharides, or where they can take place in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in bacteria and plants. Being able to perform this synthesis on a

  1. Cost-utility and biological underpinnings of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) versus a psychoeducational programme (FibroQoL) for fibromyalgia: a 12-month randomised controlled trial (EUDAIMON study)

    OpenAIRE

    Feliu-Soler, Albert; Borràs, Xavier; Peñarrubia-María, María T.; Rozadilla-Sacanell, Antoni; d'Amico, Francesco; Moss-Morris, Rona; Howard, Matthew A; Fayed, Nicolás; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Pérez-Aranda, Adrián; Tuccillo, Raffaele; Luciano, Juan V

    2016-01-01

    Background: The EUDAIMON study focuses on fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), a prevalent chronic condition characterized by pain, fatigue, cognitive problems and distress. According to recent reviews and meta-analyses, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a promising therapeutic approach for patients with FMS. The measurement of biomarkers as part of the analysis of MBSR effects would help to identify the neurobiological underpinnings of MBSR and increase our knowledge of FMS pathophysiolog...

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of gelatin-based scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Tronci, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development of entropy-elastic gelatin based networks in the form of films or scaffolds. The materials have good prospects for biomedical applications, especially in the context of bone regeneration. Entropy-elastic gelatin based hydrogel films with varying crosslinking densities were prepared with tailored mechanical properties. Gelatin was covalently crosslinked above its sol gel transition, which suppressed the gelatin chain helicity. Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)...

  3. Investigation of biological effects of some Mannich Bases containing Bis-1,2,4- Triazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, A E; Celik, S; Karatepe, M; Turkoglu, S; Alayunt, N O; Dastan, S D; Ulas, M; Sandal, S; Tekin, S; Koparir, M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of Mannich bases containing bis-1,2,4-triazole on the levels of in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant vitamins (A, E, C) were examined in serum, livers and kidneys of rats. DA and vitamin (A, E, C) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Antioxidant effect was investigated by determining the MDA levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as in vitro. Furthermore, the antitumor effects of compounds were investigated against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Interrelations of results among control and compound groups were evaluated using SPSS statistical software package. As a result, some of the compounds showed effective biological activity when compared to control conditions. The test compounds used in this study may be effective for utilization in the selection and design of model compounds for further studies. PMID:27453272

  4. Application of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Medicinal Plant Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG You-ping; AI Jun-mei; XIAO Pei-gen

    2010-01-01

    One important purpose to investigate medicinal plants is to understand genes and enzymes that govern the biological metabolic process to produce bioactive compounds.Genome wide high throughput technologies such as genomics,transcriptomics,proteomics and metabolomics can help reach that goal.Such technologies can produce a vast amount of data which desperately need bioinformatics and systems biology to process,manage,distribute and understand these data.By dealing with the"omics"data,bioinformatics and systems biology can also help improve the quality of traditional medicinal materials,develop new approaches for the classification and authentication of medicinal plants,identify new active compounds,and cultivate medicinal plant species that tolerate harsh environmental conditions.In this review,the application of bioinformatics and systems biology in medicinal plants is briefly introduced.

  5. Cahaba River: Biological and Water Quality Studies, Birmingham, AL,

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Excessive sedimentation and nutrient enrichment are affecting the biology of the Cahaba Riverwatershed. Deleterious effects of sediment deposition on the fish and...

  6. A study on biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, M.; Takeuchi, Y.; Hisanaga, N.; Ono, Y.

    1983-01-01

    n-Hexane is one of the solvents widely used in industry and well known to be neurotoxic. Recently it was clearly revealed that n-hexane is metabolized in vivo and its metabolites are excreted in the urine. However, the relationship between the exposed dose of n-hexane and the metabolites in the urine has not yet been substantially determined. Therefore, in this investigation we intended to clarify the above relationship in order to establish its usefulness for biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure. The exposed dose was measured by means of a personal monitoring badge worn by workers in seven factories manufacturing vinyl sandals. The time-weighted average (TWA) concentration of n-hexane was 0.2-47.4 ppm. The n-hexane metabolites in the urine of 22 workers were measured with modified Perbellini's method (12) in the early morning (6:00-7:00 hrs) and at 17:00 hrs. 2,5-Dimethylfuran, 2,5-hexanedione and gamma-valerolactone were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometory. At 17:00 hrs the means +/- SD of the metabolites were 0.21 +/- 0.11 mg/l for 2,5-dimethylfuran, 1.13 +/- 0.71 mg/l for 2,5-hexanedione, and 2.04 +/- 2.31 mg/l for gamma-valerolactone. The metabolites were also found in the urine in the early morning. 2-Hexanol was not detected in the urine of any worker examined. A strong correlation between TWA concentration of n-hexane and 2,5-hexanedione in the urine was found at 17:00 hrs (r . 0.895, P less than 0.001). The results suggest that the urinary metabolites of n-hexane, especially 2,5-hexanedione, could be useful indicators for biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure. Furthermore the present study offers the advantage of a better estimate of n-hexane TWA.

  7. Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation Project ECOLOGICAL STUDY 1998 Biological monitoring program

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, L.; Haowen, Yin

    1998-01-01

    Suzhou Creek, flowing through the central parts of Shanghai, is heavy polluted by sewage, metals and organic micro pollutants. Due to the pollution, lower parts of the creek have virtually no life of fish or macro-invertebrates, and the other biological communities are totally disturbed. Even at upstream sections the flora and fauna suffer from pollution. During the last decade the contamination has been slightly reduced in the creek. A biological monitoring program was designed for the creek...

  8. Study of Transport of Biologically Important Compounds in\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Vodičková, H.; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Gál, M.

    Singapore: IACSIT Press, 2015, s. 43-50. (International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering. Vol. 90). ISBN 978-981-09-7382-7. [International Conference on Environment, Chemistry and Biology (ICECB 2015) /4./. Auckland (NZ), 19.11.2015-21.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : membrane * cell * protoplast Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Gelatin-based Scaffolds

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, G

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the development of entropy-elastic gelatin based networks in the form of films or scaffolds. The materials have good prospects for biomedical applications, especially in the context of bone regeneration. Entropy-elastic gelatin based hydrogel films with varying crosslinking densities were prepared with tailored mechanical properties. Gelatin was covalently crosslinked in water above its sol gel transition, which suppressed the gelatin chain helicity. Amorphous films were prepared with tailorable degrees of swelling and wet state Young's modulus. The knowledge gained with this bulk material was transferred to the integrated process of foaming and crosslinking to obtain porous gelatin-based scaffolds. A gelatin solution was foamed in the presence of saponin and the resulting foam was fixed by chemical crosslinking with a diisocyanate. The scaffolds were analyzed in the dry state by micro computed tomography (\\mu CT, porosity: 65\\pm 11-73\\pm 14 vol.-%), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM,...

  10. A knowledge base for teaching biology situated in the context of genetic testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, P.A.M.; Waarlo, A.J.; Brekelmans, M.; Akkerman, S.F.; Vermunt, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testin

  11. A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

  12. A Knowledge Base for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Brekelmans, Mieke; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  13. Integrated Ecological River Health Assessments, Based on Water Chemistry, Physical Habitat Quality and Biological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yoon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs, based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI, nutrient pollution index (NPI, and index of biological integrity (IBI in four different longitudinal regions (Groups I–IV. For the calculations of IHRs values, multi-metric QHEI, NPI, and IBI models were developed and their criteria for the diagnosis of the health were determined. The longitudinal patterns of the river were analyzed by a self-organizing map (SOM model and the key major stressors in the river were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Our model scores of integrated health responses (IHRs suggested that mid-stream and downstream regions were impaired, and the key stressors were closely associated with nutrient enrichment (N and P and organic matter pollutions from domestic wastewater disposal plants and urban sewage. This modeling approach of IHRs may be used as an effective tool for evaluations of integrative ecological river health..

  14. A Preliminary Study of the Microbial Resources and Their Biological Activities of the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available East China Sea is one of the four sea areas in China, which possesses peculiar ecological environment and many kinds of living creatures, especially the microorganisms. We established the East China Sea microorganism library (during 2006–2010 for the first time, which stored about 30000 strains that covered most kinds of the species. In this paper, 395 pure strains of East China Sea microorganism library which belong to 33 different genera were mainly introduced. Sulfitobacter, Halomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, and Idiomarina were the most dominant species. On the large-scale biological activity screening of the 395 strains, 100 strains possess different biological activities based on different screening models, of which 11.4% strains have antibacterial activities, 15.9% have cytotoxicity activities, and 6.1% have antioxidation activities. Besides, the secondary metabolites of 6 strains with strong biological activities were studied systematically; diketopiperazines and macrocyclic lactones are the active secondary metabolites. The species and the biological activity of microorganisms diversity, the abundant structure type of the secondary metabolites, and their bioactivities all indicate that East China Sea is a potent marine microorganisms-derived developing resource for drug discovery.

  15. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Johanna F.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  16. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Johanna F; van Zyl, Willem H; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  17. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-producing Fusarium species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Francina Alberts

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof or clay minerals pre- and postharvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Postharvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, postharvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP production and storage management

  18. Estimating Escherichia coli loads in streams based on various physical, chemical, and biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2013-05-01

    Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system- or site-specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian neural network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regard to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli load estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (load estimator (LOADEST), U.S. Geological Survey) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli load estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli load estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (threefold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that 6 of 13 factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; and biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that

  19. Experimental study of the biological properties of 188Re-Hepama-1 biologic superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate a new biologic-superparamagnetic nanoparticles's characteristics of immunological activity, biological distributing in vivo, targeting and inhibiting tumor effect. Methods: The experimental group 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and control groups, including 188ReO4-, 188Re-Hepama-1, and 188Re-superparamagnetic nanoparticles, were set up. The distributions were measured after injection 4 h and 24 h by caudal vein of Kuming mice. The magnetic targeting experiments in vivo were clone with and without magnetic field in liver after injection in New Zealand rabbit. The inhibiting tumor effect on hepatic cancer cell lines SMMC-7721 of the above four 188Re labeled products were measured by mono nuclear cell direct cytotoxicity assay method. Results: After injection 4 h and 24 h by vein, the liver taking was highest in group 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The radiative activity in liver in magnetism zoo was higher than in non magnetism zoo in 188Re- Hepama-1-superparamagnetic nanoparticles after applying magnetic field in left lobe of liver, and the ratio of in magnetism zoo to non magnetism zoo was 1.87. And the half effective inhibition radioactive concentrations (IC50) in 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles was one forth of 188ReO4-. Conclusion: 188Re- Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles showed its fine stability in intro, good immunological activity and significant liver target. (authors)

  20. A Taxonomy of Causality-Based Biological Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Bodei, Chiara; Chiarugi, Davide; Gori, Roberta; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.8

    2010-01-01

    We formally characterize a set of causality-based properties of metabolic networks. This set of properties aims at making precise several notions on the production of metabolites, which are familiar in the biologists' terminology. From a theoretical point of view, biochemical reactions are abstractly represented as causal implications and the produced metabolites as causal consequences of the implication representing the corresponding reaction. The fact that a reactant is produced is represented by means of the chain of reactions that have made it exist. Such representation abstracts away from quantities, stoichiometric and thermodynamic parameters and constitutes the basis for the characterization of our properties. Moreover, we propose an effective method for verifying our properties based on an abstract model of system dynamics. This consists of a new abstract semantics for the system seen as a concurrent network and expressed using the Chemical Ground Form calculus. We illustrate an application of this fr...

  1. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necemer, Marijan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: marijan.necemer@ijs.si; Kump, Peter; Scancar, Janez; Jacimovic, Radojko; Simcic, Jurij; Pelicon, Primoz; Budnar, Milos; Jeran, Zvonka [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-15

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission-micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast, sensitive and

  2. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission-micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast, sensitive and

  3. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Ščančar, Janez; Jaćimović, Radojko; Simčič, Jurij; Pelicon, Primož; Budnar, Miloš; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

    2008-11-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission—micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast

  4. {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Lemire, Bernard D., E-mail: bernard.lemire@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Systems Medicine (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  5. 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  6. Compression-based classification of biological sequences and structures via the Universal Similarity Metric: experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzini Giovanni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarity of sequences is a key mathematical notion for Classification and Phylogenetic studies in Biology. It is currently primarily handled using alignments. However, the alignment methods seem inadequate for post-genomic studies since they do not scale well with data set size and they seem to be confined only to genomic and proteomic sequences. Therefore, alignment-free similarity measures are actively pursued. Among those, USM (Universal Similarity Metric has gained prominence. It is based on the deep theory of Kolmogorov Complexity and universality is its most novel striking feature. Since it can only be approximated via data compression, USM is a methodology rather than a formula quantifying the similarity of two strings. Three approximations of USM are available, namely UCD (Universal Compression Dissimilarity, NCD (Normalized Compression Dissimilarity and CD (Compression Dissimilarity. Their applicability and robustness is tested on various data sets yielding a first massive quantitative estimate that the USM methodology and its approximations are of value. Despite the rich theory developed around USM, its experimental assessment has limitations: only a few data compressors have been tested in conjunction with USM and mostly at a qualitative level, no comparison among UCD, NCD and CD is available and no comparison of USM with existing methods, both based on alignments and not, seems to be available. Results We experimentally test the USM methodology by using 25 compressors, all three of its known approximations and six data sets of relevance to Molecular Biology. This offers the first systematic and quantitative experimental assessment of this methodology, that naturally complements the many theoretical and the preliminary experimental results available. Moreover, we compare the USM methodology both with methods based on alignments and not. We may group our experiments into two sets. The first one, performed via ROC

  7. Organization principles of biological networks: An explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohestani, Havva; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    The definition of general topological principles allowing for graph characterization is an important pre-requisite for investigating structure-function relationships in biological networks. Here we approached the problem by means of an explorative, data-driven strategy, building upon a size-balanced data set made of around 200 distinct biological networks from seven functional classes and simulated networks coming from three mathematical graph models. A clear link between topological structure and biological function did emerge in terms of class membership prediction (average 67% of correct predictions, p<0.0001) with a varying degree of 'peculiarity' across classes going from a very low (25%) recognition efficiency for neural and brain networks to the extremely high (80%) peculiarity of amino acid-amino acid interaction (AAI) networks. We recognized four main dimensions (principal components) as main organization principles of biological networks. These components allowed for an efficient description of network architectures and for the identification of 'not-physiological' (in this case cancer metabolic networks acting as test set) wiring patterns. We highlighted as well the need of developing new theoretical generative models for biological networks overcoming the limitations of present mathematical graph idealizations. PMID:26845173

  8. Biological network module-based model for the analysis of differential expression in shotgun proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Wang, Lily; Li, Jing

    2014-12-01

    Protein differential expression analysis plays an important role in the understanding of molecular mechanisms as well as the pathogenesis of complex diseases. With the rapid development of mass spectrometry, shotgun proteomics using spectral counts has become a prevailing method for the quantitative analysis of complex protein mixtures. Existing methods in differential proteomics expression typically carry out analysis at the single-protein level. However, it is well-known that proteins interact with each other when they function in biological processes. In this study, focusing on biological network modules, we proposed a negative binomial generalized linear model for differential expression analysis of spectral count data in shotgun proteomics. In order to show the efficacy of the model in protein expression analysis at the level of protein modules, we conducted two simulation studies using synthetic data sets generated from theoretical distribution of count data and a real data set with shuffled counts. Then, we applied our method to a colorectal cancer data set and a nonsmall cell lung cancer data set. When compared with single-protein analysis methods, the results showed that module-based statistical model which takes account of the interactions among proteins led to more effective identification of subtle but coordinated changes at the systems level. PMID:25327611

  9. Feasibility Studies on Si-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Renis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paperis to summarize the efforts carried out so far in the fabrication of Si-based biosensors by a team of researchers in Catania, Italy. This work was born as a collaboration between the Catania section of the Microelectronic and Microsystem Institute (IMM of the CNR, the Surfaces and Interfaces laboratory (SUPERLAB of the Consorzio Catania Ricerche and two departments at the University of Catania: the Biomedical Science and the Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology Departments. The first goal of our study was the definition and optimization of an immobilization protocol capable of bonding the biological sensing element on a Si-based surface via covalent chemical bonds. We chose SiO2 as the anchoring surface due to its biocompatibility and extensive presence in microelectronic devices. The immobilization protocol was tested and optimized, introducing a new step, oxide activation, using techniques compatible with microelectronic processing. The importance of the added step is described by the experimental results. We also tested different biological molecule concentrations in the immobilization solutions and the effects on the immobilized layer. Finally a MOS-like structure was designed and fabricated to test an electrical transduction mechanism. The results obtained so far and the possible evolution of the research field are described in this review paper.

  10. In vitro DNA binding, pBR322 plasmid cleavage and molecular modeling study of chiral benzothiazole Schiff-base-valine Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes to evaluate their enantiomeric biological disposition for molecular target DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Rahman; Afzal, Mohd; Arjmand, Farukh

    2014-10-01

    Bicyclic heterocyclic compounds viz. benzothiazoles are key components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules and participate directly in the encoding of genetic information. Benzothiazoles, therefore, represent a potent and selective class of antitumor compounds. The design and synthesis of chiral antitumor chemotherapeutic agents of Cu(II) and Zn(II), L- and -D benzothiazole Schiff base-valine complexes 1a &b and 2a &b, respectively were carried out and thoroughly characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Interaction of 1a and b and 2a and b with CT DNA by employing UV-vis, florescence, circular dichroic methods and cleavage studies of 1a with pBR322 plasmid, molecular docking were done in order to demonstrate their enantiomeric disposition toward the molecular drug target DNA. Interestingly, these studies unambiguously demonstrated the greater potency of L-enantiomer in comparison to D-enantiomer.

  11. Laser-based printing and patterning for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sones, C. L.; Katis, I.N.; He, P.; Mills, B.; A. Mosayyebi; Butement, J.; Feinäugle, M.; Eason, R. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the use of pulsed lasers as patterning and printing tools for the end applications of micro-contact printing and paper-based fluidics. A fs-laser was used with a digital multi-mirror device (DMD) to structure a mould via ablation or photo-polymerisation. The patterns in this mould were then cast into polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS)-mould which was used for micro-contact printing. With the end-goal of producing a microfluidic diagnostic sensor on paper, a ns-laser was used for laser-ind...

  12. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  13. Studies on floral biology of passion fruit (passiflora spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floral biology of purple, yellow, giant and Passiflora foetida was studied at the ICAR Research Complex, Mizoram Centre, Kolasib, Mizoram, India during 2005-07. Purple, giant and P. foetida had major bloom during March-April, July-August and September-October. While major bloom in yellow was mainly during May-June and September-October. Purple, giant and P. foetida had the maximum duration of bloom of 42.4, 22.5 and 32.6 days, respectively during March-April with the maximum duration of effective bloom of 12.5 8.6 and 10.4 days in purple, giant and P. foetida, respectively. Yellow had the maximum duration of bloom for 28.4 days and effective bloom of 10.5 days during May-June. Most of the flowers of purple (54.5%) and giant (58.5%) opened between 6-7 hrs, while the maximum per cent of anthesis in yellow (70%) took place between 12-13 hrs. Pollen dehiscence and pollination in purple and giant mainly occurred between 7-8 hrs, while 13-14 hrs was the major period of pollen dehiscence and pollination in yellow. The earliest anthesis (5-6 hrs), anther dehiscence (6-7 hrs) and pollination (6-7 hrs) were recorded in P. foetida. The maximum stigma receptivity was recorded on the day of anthesis in all the passion fruits. Completely curved style was more common in all passion fruits that gave the maximum fruit set. The maximum number of bees observed between 7-8 hrs in purple and giant and between 13-14 hrs in yellow. The most common pollinating bee in purple, giant and yellow was Apis mellifera, while A. cerena was in P. foetida. (author)

  14. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H., Jr.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Fredrickson, L.H.; Mushet, D.M.; Swanson, G.A.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Nelson, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a conceptual model, the wetland continuum, which allows wetland managers, scientists, and ecologists to consider simultaneously the influence of climate and hydrologic setting on wetland biological communities. Although multidimensional, the wetland continuum is most easily represented as a two-dimensional gradient, with ground water and atmospheric water constituting the horizontal and vertical axis, respectively. By locating the position of a wetland on both axes of the continuum, the potential biological expression of the wetland can be predicted at any point in time. The model provides a framework useful in the organization and interpretation of biological data from wetlands by incorporating the dynamic changes these systems undergo as a result of normal climatic variation rather than placing them into static categories common to many wetland classification systems. While we developed this model from the literature available for depressional wetlands in the prairie pothole region of North America, we believe the concept has application to wetlands in many other geographic locations.

  15. The reduction of biological production induced by mesoscale mixing: a modelling study in the Benguela upwelling

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Carrasco, Ismael; Hernández-García, Emilio; Garçon, Veronique; López, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies, both based on remote sensed data and coupled models, showed a reduction of biological productivity due to vigorous horizontal mixing in upwelling systems. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we have considered a system of oceanic flow in the Benguela area coupled with a simple biogeochemical model of Nutrient-Phyto-Zooplankton (NPZ) type. For the flow three different surface velocity fields are considered: one derived from satellite altimetry data, and the other two from a regional numerical model at two different spatial resolutions. We computed horizontal particle dispersion in terms of Lyapunov Exponents, and analyzed their correlations with phytoplankton concentrations. Our modelling approach confirms that in the south Benguela, there is a reduction of biological activity when stirring is increased. Two-dimensional offshore advection seems to be the dominant process involved. In the northern area, other factors not taken into account in our simulation are influencing the ecosyst...

  16. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Bun Y.;

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored...... thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid...... structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-atocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid...

  17. Toward Biological Diagnosis System Based on Digital Versatile Disc Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tomofumi; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kumar, Penmetcha K. R.; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Awazu, Koichi; Tominaga, Junji

    2007-06-01

    A novel biosensor utilizing an interference of light reflected at the interfaces of a multilayer structure is proposed. This biosensor detects analytes by monitoring the changes in reflection intensity due to their adsorption to the sensor surface, on which functional biomolecules are immobilized to specifically bind to the analytes. The proposed biosensing instrument is based on a commercial digital versatile disc (DVD) system, which allows the instrument to be small and inexpensive. For the preliminary examination, SiO2 thin films with a well-defined thickness were deposited on the sensor surface. The reflection intensity varied almost linearly depending on the thickness of the SiO2 films in a thickness range of 2-10 nm. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that biotin-streptavidin binding events were clearly detectable on a rotating disc substrate at a constant linear velocity of 4.0 m/s. We named this interference-based biosensor BioDVD, which is expected to be useful for high-throughput multi-analyte bioassays.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new sydnone based derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh M. Patel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An extensive characterization study on the novel series of synthesized sydnone, chalcone and pyrimidine is reported in this paper. A series of 3-(4-chlorophenyl-4-{[4-(3-substitutedphenylacryloylphenyl]sulfamoyl}-sydnone and 3-(4-chlorophenyl-4-[4-(4-aminophenyl-6-substitutedphenylpyrimidin-2-aminesulfonyl]-sydnone are synthesized. The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy. An exclusive study on microbial activity using various microbial strains was also undertaken to support and confirm our experimental findings.

  19. Phytochemical and biological studies of plants from the genus Meconopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao-Xing; Wang, Jin-Hui; He, Xi-Rui; Fan, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Ru-Xue; Jia, Zheng-Ping

    2010-08-01

    In this review, the literature data on the phytochemical and biological investigations on the genus of Meconopsis are summarized from 49 references. Up to now, more than 95 compounds were isolated from 19 Meconopsis plant species. The chemical constituents are mostly alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, and terpenes, together with minor constituents of essential oil, and others. The crude extracts and metabolites have been found to possess various bioactivities including antitumor activity, central action, cardiovascular system effects, antibiosis, antiviral activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and other biological activities. PMID:20730958

  20. Aqueous biphasic system based on cholinium ionic liquids: extraction of biologically active phenolic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Sónia Isabel Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic acids are aromatic secondary plant metabolites, widely spread throughout the plant kingdom. Due to their biological and pharmacological properties, they have been playing an important role in phytotherapy and consequently techniques for their separation and purification are in need. This thesis aims at exploring new sustainable separation processes based on ionic liquids (ILs) in the extraction of biologically active phenolic acids. For that purpose, three phenolic acids with simi...

  1. Miniaturized droplets-based microarray of chemical and biological high-throughput tests

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Ana I.; Correia, Clara R.; Custódio, Catarina A.; Mano, J.F

    2013-01-01

    Publicado em "Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, vol. 7, supp. 1 (2013) The development of high-throughput and combinatorial technologies is helping to speed up research that is applicable in many areas of chemistry, engineering and biology. We propose a simple, versatile high-efficient and new superhydrophobic platform, which permits to arrange of quasi-spherical aqueous-based droplets with the capability to support and monitor a series of chemical/biolog...

  2. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Field-Effect Transistors for Label-Free Chemical/Biological Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    PingAn Hu; Jia Zhang; Le Li; Zhenlong Wang; William O’Neill; Pedro Estrela

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has advantages of high sensitivity, low decreased energy consumption and potentially highly miniaturized integration. Owing to their particular structu...

  3. Synthesis, characterization, biological and electrochemical evaluation of novel ether based ON donor bidentate Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Safeer; Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra; McKee, Vickie; Bolte, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Four novel ON donor Schiff bases (E)-2-((4-phenoxyphenylimino)methyl)phenol (HL1), (E)-2-((4-(4-biphenyloxy)phenylimino)methyl)phenol(HL2), (E)-2-((4-(naphthalen-1-yloxy) phenylimino)methyl)phenol(HL3)and(E)-2-((4-(2-naphthoxy)phenylimino)methyl)phenol (HL4)have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic, analytical and electro-analytical techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of Schiff base (HL3) revealed that phenol and anthracene rings are inclined at 30.25(9)° and 89.64(4)° to the central phenyl ring, respectively. Intra and inter molecular interactions are observed in single crystal analysis of HL3 Intramolecular interactions are hydrogen bonding but most of the intermolecular interactions are of the C-H … π type. There is a bit of π … π stacking between the anthracene groups. Only compounds (HL1) and (HL3) have been investigated for the biological activities due to slight solubility of (HL2) and (HL4) in DMSO. The results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay indicated LD50 values order of 104 M-1.

  4. A Systems’ Biology Approach to Study MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are potent effectors in gene regulatory networks where aberrant miRNA expression can contribute to human diseases such as cancer. For a better understanding of the regulatory role of miRNAs in coordinating gene expression, we here present a systems biology approach combining data-driven modeling and model-driven experiments. Such an approach is characterized by an iterative process, including biological data acquisition and integration, network construction, mathematical modeling and experimental validation. To demonstrate the application of this approach, we adopt it to investigate mechanisms of collective repression on p21 by multiple miRNAs. We first construct a p21 regulatory network based on data from the literature and further expand it using algorithms that predict molecular interactions. Based on the network structure, a detailed mechanistic model is established and its parameter values are determined using data. Finally, the calibrated model is used to study the effect of different miRNA expression profiles and cooperative target regulation on p21 expression levels in different biological contexts.

  5. BETAview: a digital β-imaging system for dynamic studies of biological phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a digital autoradiography (DAR) system, named BETAview, based on semiconductor pixel detectors and a single particle counting chip, for quantitative analysis of β-emitting radioactive tracers in biological samples. The system is able to perform a real time monitoring of time-dependent biological phenomena. BETAview could be equipped either with GaAs or with Si semiconductor pixellated detectors. In this paper, we describe the results obtained with an assembly based on a Si detector, 300 μm thick, segmented into 64x64 170 μm size square pixels. The detector is bump-bonded to the low threshold, single particle counting chip named Medipix1, developed by a CERN-based European collaboration. The sensitive area is about 1 cm2. Studies of background noise and detection efficiency have been performed. Moreover, time-resolved cellular uptake studies with radiolabelled molecules have been monitored. Specifically, we have followed in vivo and in real time, the [14C]L-leucine amino acid uptake by eggs of Octopus vulgaris confirming the preliminary results of a previous paper. This opens the field of biomolecular kynetic studies with this new class of semiconductor DAR systems, whose evolution (using the Medipix2 chip, 256x256 pixels, 55 μm pixel size) is soon to come

  6. Studying of Phenomenon of Biological Adaptation to Heavy Water

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Mosin; Ignat Ignatov; Dmitry Skladnev; Vitaly Shvets

    2014-01-01

    Biological influence of deuterium on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eucaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates (methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum, chemoheterotrophic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, photo-organotrophic halobacteria Halobacterium halobium, and green micro algae Chlorella vulgaris) was investigated at the growth on media with heavy wate...

  7. Mössbauer study of some biological iron complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sikander Ali; Alimuddin; V R Reddy

    2005-12-01

    Some biological complexes containing iron are investigated experimentally at room temperature using the Mössbauer resonance. The complexes show quadrupole doublet and Kramer's degeneracy is found to exist. The electric field gradient, difference in -electron densities and quadrupole coupling constant have been calculated in each case. These parameters are used to obtain information on the surroundings of the Mössbauer atom.

  8. Study on Biological Characters of Asparagus macowanii Baker.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Asparagus macowanfi Baker, is a climbing herbaceous foliage species in genus Asparagus of Liliaceae, This paper summarized its multiple uses, morphologi- cal characteristics, biological habit, reproduction methods, management after cultiva- tion, prevention and control of pests and disease, as well as harvest and grading, with the objective to provide references for the exploitation and utilization of As- paragus macowanii Baker.

  9. Quantum Dot- and Aptamer-Based Nanostructures for Biological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshik, Xenia

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanoparticles that have gained popularity in optical and electronic applications in recent years. Aptamers are short man-made oligonucleotides with high binding affinity for a specific target. One part of this work presents an optical FRET-based sensor for K+ and Pb2+ consisting of a fluorescent quantum dot, an aptamer, and a gold nanoparticle quencher. Additionally, an electrochemical sensor for K+ and Pb2+ is also presented, which consists of an aptamer with an electron donor bound to graphene. Both sensors are shown to detect K+ and Pb2+ at concentrations critical for human health. The emission spectrum of the optical sensor is also shown to shift in response to strong electric fields. UV-excited TiO 2 quantum dots are also investigated for their ability to influence the dynamics of voltage gated ion channels in cells. It was found that the activation voltage is shifted in the presence of UV-excited TiO2 quantum dots. Electrostatic force measurements and theoretical calculations confirm that electric fields in TiO2 can in fact be optically induced. ZnO quantum dots are also synthesized and their optical and electrical properties are similarly investigated. Additionally, Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is used in this work to find previously-unknown spectra of the aptamer Apt-alphavbeta3 and the peptide thymosin-beta4.

  10. Biological Properties Of Benzopyran-Based Platinum (Ii Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowska Katarzyna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the physicochemical synthesized complex 3 [(1,3- thiazol -2- ylimino methyl]-4H- chromene -4 -one with tetrachloroplatinate(II dipotassium and determination peroxidase activity and glutathione (GPX in red blood cells of cancer patients and healthy subjects. Materials and methods. Tests were carried out with the approval of the Bioethics Committee No. RNN/260/08/KB. Blood was collected into tubes with anticoagulant (heparin lithium. Determination of glutathione peroxidase activity was performed by methods of Little and O’Brien in 20 person groups hospitalized at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery Veterans General Hospital in Łódź. Results. The study was an increase of activity in the control without the compound and after the introduction of the complex relative to the treatment groups. In healthy subjects, without the use of glutathione peroxidase complex averaged 73.25 ± 23.88 U / g Hb after application of the compound corresponds to the reference group 81.01 ± 25.94 U / g Hb. In contrast, in patients without the use of the complex activity amounted to 42.85 ± 27.49 U / g Hb. In the study group, which uses synthesized complex GPX activity corresponds to 67.72 ± 13.44 U / g Hb. Conclusions. The obtained results underline that the introduction of significant blood antioxidant complex research has a significant impact on the results of the determinations. Statistically significant (p < 0.05 difference occurred in both test and no relation to the administration of the complex in relation to the control of 1. 2.

  11. Evaluation of biological sample preparation for immunosignature-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Brian Andrew; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Legutki, Joseph Barten

    2012-03-01

    To address the need for a universal system to assess health status, we previously described a method termed "immunosignaturing" which splays the entire humoral antibody repertoire across a peptide microarray. Two important issues relative to the potential broad use of immunosignatures are sample preparation and stability. In the present study, we compared the immunosignatures developed from serum, plasma, saliva, and antibodies eluted from blood dried onto filter paper. We found that serum and plasma provide identical immunosignatures. Immunosignatures derived from dried blood also correlated well with those from nondried serum from the same individual. Immunosignatures derived from dried blood were capable of distinguishing naïve mice from those infected with influenza virus. Saliva was applied to the arrays, and the IgA immunosignature correlated strongly with that from dried blood. Finally, we demonstrate that dried blood retains immunosignature information even when exposed to high temperature. This work expands the potential diagnostic uses for immunosignatures. These features suggest that different forms of archival samples can be used for diagnosis development and that in prospective studies samples can be easily procured. PMID:22237890

  12. Defining the biological bases of individual differences in musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Honing, Henkjan; Peretz, Isabelle; Trainor, Laurel J; Fisher, Simon E

    2015-03-19

    Advances in molecular technologies make it possible to pinpoint genomic factors associated with complex human traits. For cognition and behaviour, identification of underlying genes provides new entry points for deciphering the key neurobiological pathways. In the past decade, the search for genetic correlates of musicality has gained traction. Reports have documented familial clustering for different extremes of ability, including amusia and absolute pitch (AP), with twin studies demonstrating high heritability for some music-related skills, such as pitch perception. Certain chromosomal regions have been linked to AP and musical aptitude, while individual candidate genes have been investigated in relation to aptitude and creativity. Most recently, researchers in this field started performing genome-wide association scans. Thus far, studies have been hampered by relatively small sample sizes and limitations in defining components of musicality, including an emphasis on skills that can only be assessed in trained musicians. With opportunities to administer standardized aptitude tests online, systematic large-scale assessment of musical abilities is now feasible, an important step towards high-powered genome-wide screens. Here, we offer a synthesis of existing literatures and outline concrete suggestions for the development of comprehensive operational tools for the analysis of musical phenotypes. PMID:25646515

  13. Data base management study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Data base management techniques and applicable equipment are described. Recommendations which will assist potential NASA data users in selecting and using appropriate data base management tools and techniques are presented. Classes of currently available data processing equipment ranging from basic terminals to large minicomputer systems were surveyed as they apply to the needs of potential SEASAT data users. Cost and capabilities projections for this equipment through 1985 were presented. A test of a typical data base management system was described, as well as the results of this test and recommendations to assist potential users in determining when such a system is appropriate for their needs. The representative system tested was UNIVAC's DMS 1100.

  14. Toward the characterization of biological toxins using field-based FT-IR spectroscopic instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiering, David W.; Walton, Robert B.; Brown, Christopher W.; Norman, Mark L.; Brewer, Joseph; Scott, James

    2004-12-01

    IR spectroscopy is a broadly applicable technique for the identification of covalent materials. Recent advances in instrumentation have made Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy available for field characterization of suspect materials. Presently, this instrumentation is broadly deployed and used for the identification of potential chemical hazards. This discussion concerns work towards expanding the analytical utility of field-based FT-IR spectrometry in the characterization of biological threats. Two classes of materials were studied: biologically produced chemical toxins which were non-peptide in nature and peptide toxin. The IR spectroscopic identification of aflatoxin-B1, trichothecene T2 mycotoxin, and strychnine was evaluated using the approach of spectral searching against large libraries of materials. For pure components, the IR method discriminated the above toxins at better than the 99% confidence level. The ability to identify non-peptide toxins in mixtures was also evaluated using a "spectral stripping" search approach. For the mixtures evaluated, this method was able to identify the mixture components from ca. 32K spectral library entries. Castor bean extract containing ricin was used as a representative peptide toxin. Due to similarity in protein spectra, a SIMCA pattern recognition methodology was evaluated for classifying peptide toxins. In addition to castor bean extract the method was validated using bovine serum albumin and myoglobin as simulants. The SIMCA approach was successful in correctly classifying these samples at the 95% confidence level.

  15. Particle-based model to simulate the micromechanics of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Liedekerke, P.; Tijskens, E.; Ramon, H.; Ghysels, P.; Samaey, G.; Roose, D.

    2010-06-01

    This paper is concerned with addressing how biological cells react to mechanical impulse. We propose a particle based model to numerically study the mechanical response of these cells with subcellular detail. The model focuses on a plant cell in which two important features are present: (1) the cell’s interior liquidlike phase inducing hydrodynamic phenomena, and (2) the cell wall, a viscoelastic solid membrane that encloses the protoplast. In this particle modeling framework, the cell fluid is modeled by a standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. For the viscoelastic solid phase (cell wall), a discrete element method (DEM) is proposed. The cell wall hydraulic conductivity (permeability) is built in through a constitutive relation in the SPH formulation. Simulations show that the SPH-DEM model is in reasonable agreement with compression experiments on an in vitro cell and with analytical models for the basic dynamical modes of a spherical liquid filled shell. We have performed simulations to explore more complex situations such as relaxation and impact, thereby considering two cell types: a stiff plant type and a soft animal-like type. Their particular behavior (force transmission) as a function of protoplasm and cell wall viscosity is discussed. We also show that the mechanics during and after cell failure can be modeled adequately. This methodology has large flexibility and opens possibilities to quantify problems dealing with the response of biological cells to mechanical impulses, e.g., impact, and the prediction of damage on a (sub)cellular scale.

  16. The Use of Interrupted Case Studies to Enhance Critical Thinking Skills in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K. White

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the availability of case studies for use in the biology classroom, and perceptions of the effectiveness of case-study-based learning are overwhelmingly positive. Here we report the results of a study in which we evaluated the ability of interrupted case studies to improve critical thinking in the context of experimental design and the conventions of data interpretation. Students were assessed using further case studies designed to evaluate their ability to recognize and articulate problematic approaches to these elements of experimentation. Our work reveals that case studies have broad utility in the classroom. In addition to demonstrating a small but statistically significant increase in the number of students capable of critically evaluating selected aspects of experimental design, we also observed increased student engagement and documented widespread misconceptions regarding the conventions of data acquisition and analysis.

  17. An individual-based predator-prey model for biological coevolution: Fluctuations, stability, and community structure

    CERN Document Server

    Rikvold, Per Arne

    2007-01-01

    We study an individual-based predator-prey model of biological coevolution, using linear stability analysis and large-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The model exhibits approximate 1/f noise in diversity and population-size fluctuations, and it generates a sequence of quasi-steady communities in the form of simple food webs. These communities are quite resilient toward the loss of one or a few species, which is reflected in different power-law exponents for the durations of communities and the lifetimes of species. The exponent for the former is near -1, while the latter is close to -2. Statistical characteristics of the evolving communities, including degree (predator and prey) distributions and proportions of basal, intermediate, and top species, compare reasonably with data for real food webs.

  18. State-of-the-art exposure chamber for highly controlled and reproducible THz biological effects studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna, Cesario Z.; Elam, David P.; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Sloan, Mark A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2014-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used at international airports for security screening purposes and at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis. The emergence of new THz applications has directly resulted in an increased interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. Knowledge of THz biological effects is also desired for the safe use of THz systems, identification of health hazards, and development of empirically-based safety standards. In this study, we developed a state-of-the-art exposure chamber that allowed for highly controlled and reproducible studies of THz biological effects. This innovative system incorporated an industry grade cell incubator system that permitted a highly controlled exposure environment, where temperatures could be maintained at 37 °C +/- 0.1 °C, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels at 5% +/- 0.1%, and relative humidity (RH) levels at 95% +/- 1%. To maximize the THz power transmitted to the cell culture region inside the humid incubator, a secondary custom micro-chamber was fabricated and incorporated into the system. This micro-chamber shields the THz beam from the incubator environment and could be nitrogen-purged to eliminate water absorption effects. Additionally, a microscope that allowed for real-time visualization of the live cells before, during, and after THz exposure was integrated into the exposure system.

  19. Bioorthogonal chemistry:a covalent strategy for the study of biological systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM; Reyna; K.V.

    2010-01-01

    The development of genetically encoded,wavelength-tunable fluorescent proteins has provided a powerful imaging tool to the study of protein dynamics and functions in cellular and organismal biology.However,many biological functions are not directly encoded in the protein primary sequence,e.g.,dynamic regulation afforded by protein posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation.To meet this challenge,an emerging field of bioorthogonal chemistry has promised to offer a versatile strategy to selectively label a biomolecule of interest and track their dynamic regulations in its native habitat.This strategy has been successfully applied to the studies of all classes of biomolecules in living systems,including proteins,nucleic acids,carbohydrates,and lipids.Whereas the incorporation of a bioorthogonal reporter site-selectively into a biomolecule through either genetic or metabolic approaches has been well established,the development of bioorthogonal reactions that allow fast ligation of exogenous chemical probes with the bioorthogonal reporter in living systems remains in its early stage.Here,we review the recent development of bioorthogonal reactions and their applications in various biological systems,with a detailed discussion about our own work―the development of the tetrazole-based,photoinducible 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction.

  20. Biological invasions and the study of vertebrate dispersal of plants: Opportunities and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, David A.; Fletcher, Cameron S.

    2011-11-01

    Biological invasions are a key threat to natural ecosystems and consequently a major focus of ecological research. Even though it is dispersal processes that result in the movement of invasive populations through landscapes, dispersal ecology has played a relatively minor role in invasion ecology research. This is particularly true for vertebrate-dispersed plants. To encourage thinking around these issues and a greater involvement of dispersal ecologists in invasion research, we review contributions made to invasion ecology by dispersal ecology and highlight opportunities that the study of biological invasions offers for improving our understanding of dispersal processes. We suggest that by working in the context of invasions dispersal ecologists are not only able to contribute to the development of process-based management but also gain new opportunities for developing and testing predictions in their field. Because biological invasions are perturbations of natural systems they provide excellent opportunities for both natural and manipulative experimentation with potential for a range of forms of replication. Significantly, the need to develop a predictive understanding of population-level patterns of spread in order to manage invasives demands a shift away from studying individual vectors to developing predictions that integrate across all vectors and processes in the dispersal loop. This is a significant development for dispersal ecology and is a major opportunity for dispersal ecologists to contribute to a current environmental issue.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT. PMID:25708404

  2. Synthesis, characterization, thermal study and biological evaluation of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of Schiff base ligand containing thiazole moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagesh, G. Y.; Mahendra Raj, K.; Mruthyunjayaswamy, B. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The novel Schiff base ligand 2-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)-N-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazinecarboxamide (L) obtained by the condensation of N-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazinecarboxamide with 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and its newly synthesized Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been characterized by microanalysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, thermal analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, ESI mass, UV-Visible, ESR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction data. The newly synthesized ligand behaves as a bidentate ON donor. The IR results confirmed the bidentate binding of the ligand involving oxygen atom of amide carbonyl and azomethine nitrogen. 1H NMR spectral data of the ligand (L) and its Zn(II) complex agreed well with the proposed structures. In order to evaluate the effect of antimicrobial activity of metal ions upon chelation, the newly synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage activities were studied using plasmid DNA pBR322 as a target molecule by agarose gel electrophoresis method. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study the in vitro cytotoxicity properties of all the compounds against Artemia salina. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the ligand (L) and its metal complexes were determined in vitro by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), the ligand exhibited potent in vitro - antioxidant activity than its metal complexes.

  3. Review for carrageenan-based pharmaceutical biomaterials: favourable physical features versus adverse biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhan, Xiudan; Wan, Jianbo; Wang, Yitao; Wang, Chunming

    2015-05-01

    Carrageenan (CRG) is a family of natural polysaccharides derived from seaweeds and has widely been used as food additives. In the past decade, owing to its attractive physicochemical properties, CRG has been developed into versatile biomaterials vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, studies also emerged to reveal its adverse effects on the biological system. In this review, we critically appraise the latest literature (two thirds since 2008) on the development of CRG-based pharmaceutical vehicles and the perspective of using CRG for broader biomedical applications. We focus on how current strategies exploit the unique gelling mechanisms, strong water absorption and abundant functional groups of the three major CRG varieties. Notably, CRG-based matrices are demonstrated to increase drug loading and drug solubility, enabling release of orally administrated drugs in zero-order or in a significantly prolonged period. Other amazing features, such as pH-sensitivity and adhesive property, of CRG-based formulations are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the adverse influence of CRG on the human body and then suggest some future directions for the development of CRG-based biomaterials for broader applications in biomedicine. PMID:25659668

  4. Agent-based Models in Synthetic Biology: Tools for Simulation and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V.Krishnamurthy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiset of agents based modeling and simulation paradigm for synthetic biology. The multiset of agents –based programming paradigm, can be interpreted as the outcome arising out of deterministic, nondeterministic or stochastic interaction among elements in a multiset object space, that includes the environment. These interactions are like chemical reactions and the evolution of the multiset can emulate the system biological functions. Since the reaction rules are inherently parallel, any number of actions can be performed cooperatively or competitively among the subsets of elements, so that the elements evolve toward equilibrium or emergent state. Practical realization of this paradigm for system biological simulation is achieved through the concept of transactional style programming with agents, as well as soft computing (neural- network principles. Also we briefly describe currently available tools for agent-based-modeling, simulation and animation.

  5. Mass spectrometry based proteomics in cell biology and signaling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Proteomics is one of the most powerful post-genomics technologies. Recently accomplishments include large scale protein-protein interaction mapping, large scale mapping of phosphorylation sites and the cloning of key signaling molecules. In this talk, current state of the art of the technology will be reviewed. Applications of proteomics to the mapping of multiprotein complexes will be illustrated with recent work on the spliceosome and the nucleolus. More than 300 proteins have been mapped to each of these complexes. Quantitative techniques are becoming more and more essential in proteomics. They are usually performed by the incorporation of stable isotopes - a light form in cell state 'A' and a heavy form in cell state 'E' - and subsequent comparison of mass spectrometric peak heights. A new technique called, SILAC for Stable isotope Incorporation by Amino acids in Cell culture, has been applied to studying cell differentiation and mapping secreted proteins from adipocytes. A number of known and novel proteins important in adipocyte differentiation have been identified by this technique. Some of these proved to be upregulated at the 1 mRNA level, too, whereas others appear to be regulated post-translationally. We have also applied the SILAC method to protein-protein interaction mapping. For example, we compared immunoprecipitates from stimulated and non-stimulated cells to find binding partners recruited to the bait due to the stimulus. Several novel substrates in the EGF pathway were found in this way. An important application of proteomics in the signaling field is the mapping of post-translational modifications. In particular, there are a number of techniques for phosphotyrosine phosphorylation mapping which have proven very useful. Making use of the mass deficiency of the phosphogroup, 'parent ion scans' con be performed, which selectively reveal phosphotyrosine peptides from complex peptides mixtures. This technique has been used to clone several

  6. Emerging systems biology approaches in nanotoxicology: Towards a mechanism-based understanding of nanomaterial hazard and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro M; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-05-15

    Engineered nanomaterials are being developed for a variety of technological applications. However, the increasing use of nanomaterials in society has led to concerns about their potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. During the first decade of nanotoxicological research, the realization has emerged that effective risk assessment of the multitudes of new nanomaterials would benefit from a comprehensive understanding of their toxicological mechanisms, which is difficult to achieve with traditional, low-throughput, single end-point oriented approaches. Therefore, systems biology approaches are being progressively applied within the nano(eco)toxicological sciences. This novel paradigm implies that the study of biological systems should be integrative resulting in quantitative and predictive models of nanomaterial behaviour in a biological system. To this end, global 'omics' approaches with which to assess changes in genes, proteins, metabolites, etc. are deployed allowing for computational modelling of the biological effects of nanomaterials. Here, we highlight omics and systems biology studies in nanotoxicology, aiming towards the implementation of a systems nanotoxicology and mechanism-based risk assessment of nanomaterials. PMID:26721310

  7. Intravital microscopy: a novel tool to study cell biology in living animals

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Roberto; Sramkova, Monika; Parente, Laura; Masedunskas, Andrius

    2010-01-01

    Intravital microscopy encompasses various optical microscopy techniques aimed at visualizing biological processes in live animals. In the last decade, the development of non-linear optical microscopy resulted in an enormous increase of in vivo studies, which have addressed key biological questions in fields such as neurobiology, immunology and tumor biology. Recently, few studies have shown that subcellular processes can be imaged dynamically in the live animal at a resolution comparable to t...

  8. YeastMed: an XML-Based System for Biological Data Integration of Yeast

    CERN Document Server

    Briache, Abdelaali; Kerzazi, Amine; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Montes, Jose F Aldana; Hassani, Badr D Rossi; Lairini, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    A key goal of bioinformatics is to create database systems and software platforms capable of storing and analysing large sets of biological data. Hundreds of biological databases are now available and provide access to huge amount of biological data. SGD, Yeastract, CYGD-MIPS, BioGrid and PhosphoGrid are five of the most visited databases by the yeast community. These sources provide complementary data on biological entities. Biologists are brought systematically to query these data sources in order to analyse the results of their experiments. Because of the heterogeneity of these sources, querying them separately and then manually combining the returned result is a complex and laborious task. To provide transparent and simultaneous access to these sources, we have developed a mediator-based system called YeastMed. In this paper, we present YeastMed focusing on its architecture.

  9. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PULSED SHORT WAVE TREATMENT. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dogaru Gabriela; Crăciun Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed short waves are short electromagnetic waves emitted as intermittent trains with a fixed duration, separated by free intervals of variable duration. The biological effects of pulsed short waves could be explained according to most of the authors by an activation of cellular enzymatic reactions, a stimulation of energy metabolism, a stimulation of liver function, of adrenal gland function and of the reticulocyte system, changes in cell permeability, by an increase of peripheral blood flo...

  10. Hazardous wastes in aquatic environments: Biological uptake and metabolism studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, J.; Apblett, A.; Ensley, H. [and others

    1996-05-02

    The projects discussed in this article include the following: the uptake, accumulation, metabolism, toxicity and physiological effects of various environmentally-important contaminants, inorganic and organic, in several wetland species that are interrelated through food webs; and investigation of the potential for developing and linking chemical and biological methods of remediation so as to encapsulate bioaccummulated ions in stable wasteforms such as ceramics and/or zeolites. 24 refs.

  11. Incubation Station for the Bacterial Growth Study in Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Rafael Duharte Rodríguez; Ibrain Ceballo Acosta; Carmen B. Busoch Morlán; Ángel Regueiro Gómez

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the designing and characterization of a prototype of laboratory incubator as support of Microbiology research, in particular for the research of the bacterial growth in biological samples through optic methods (Turbidimetry) and electrometric measurements of bioimpedance. It shows the results of simulation and experimentation of the design proposed for the canals of measurement of the variables: temperature and humidity, with a high linearity from the adequate selection of the...

  12. Synthesis, characterization, biological and electrochemical evaluation of novel ether based ON donor bidentate Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Safeer; Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra; McKee, Vickie; Bolte, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Four novel ON donor Schiff bases (E)-2-((4-phenoxyphenylimino)methyl)phenol (HL1), (E)-2-((4-(4-biphenyloxy)phenylimino)methyl)phenol(HL2), (E)-2-((4-(naphthalen-1-yloxy) phenylimino)methyl)phenol(HL3)and(E)-2-((4-(2-naphthoxy)phenylimino)methyl)phenol (HL4)have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic, analytical and electro-analytical techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of Schiff base (HL3) revealed that phenol and anthracene rings are inclined at 30.25(9)° and 89.64(4)° to the central phenyl ring, respectively. Intra and inter molecular interactions are observed in single crystal analysis of HL3 Intramolecular interactions are hydrogen bonding but most of the intermolecular interactions are of the C-H … π type. There is a bit of π … π stacking between the anthracene groups. Only compounds (HL1) and (HL3) have been investigated for the biological activities due to slight solubility of (HL2) and (HL4) in DMSO. The results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay indicated LD50 values <1 μg/ml showing significant antitumor activity with IC50 values 14.20 and 4.54 μg/ml respectively. The compounds were highly active in protecting DNA against hydroxyl free radicals in concentration dependent manner. Voltammetric results indicated that one electron irreversible oxidation product is formed due to hydroxyl moiety and the process is diffusion controlled. On exposing to DNA environment the electrooxidised product developed electrostatic linkage and groove binding intercalation while consuming the DNA concentration substantially. The binding strength was quantitative in terms of drug-DNA binding of the order of 104 M-1.

  13. Developing integrated TOF-SIMS/MALDI IMS system in studying biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ligang

    Using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) techniques (including TOF-SIMS and MALDI IMS) to study biological systems is a relatively new concept and quickly gained popularity in recent years. Imaging mass spectrometry is a discovery technology that utilizes a focused ion beam or laser beam to desorb ions from sample surface. By detecting the desorbed ions, the chemical distributions and biological changes of a sample surface can be analyzed. These techniques offer a new analytical imaging approach to investigate biological processes at the cellular and tissue level. In this research, a novel integrated TOF-SIMS/MALDI IMS system as well as IMS based biological-sample-preparation techniques and data-reduction methods are developed. We then demonstrate the power of these techniques in studying different biological systems, including monosaccharides isomers, human breast cancer cell lines, mouse embryo tissues and mouse kidney sections. Using TOF-SIMS and statistical analysis methods, seven monosaccharide isomers are fully differentiated by analyzing their characteristic spectral pattern. In addition, a deep understanding of the fragmentation pathway of these isomers under ion bombardment is gained. In an application of TOF-SIMS to the differentiation of three human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231, we show that principal component analysis (PCA) data reduction of TOF-SIMS spectra can differentiate cellular compartments (cytosol, nuclear and particulate) within the cell types, as well as homogenates from among the three cell lines. In a tissue-specific application, we extend the analytical capabilities of TOF-SIMS and PCA by imaging and differentiating Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) mouse embryo tissues. We demonstrate reproducible differentiation of six tissue types based on the remaining small molecules after paraffin-embedding and the fragments of the cellular proteins. In a unique study of fresh frozen mouse kidney tissues, both TOF

  14. Ni-Cr based dental alloys; Ni release, corrosion and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reclaru, L., E-mail: lucien.reclaru@pxgroup.com [PX Holding S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Unger, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, C.J. [Institute for Pathology, REPAIR Lab, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstr.1, D-55101 Mainz (Germany); Susz, C.; Eschler, P.-Y.; Zuercher, M.-H. [PX Holding S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Antoniac, I. [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, Politehnica of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Luethy, H. [Institute of Dental Materials Science and Technology, University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 3, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-08-01

    In the last years the dental alloy market has undergone dramatic changes for reasons of economy and biocompatibility. Nickel based alloys have become widely used substitute for the much more expensive precious metal alloys. In Europe the prevalence of nickel allergy is 10-15% for female adults and 1-3% for male adults. Despite the restrictions imposed by the EU for the protection of the general population in contact dermatitis, the use of Ni-Cr dental alloys is on the increase. Some questions have to be faced regarding the safety risk of nickel contained in dental alloys. We have collected based on many EU markets, 8 Ni-Cr dental alloys. Microstructure characterization, corrosion resistance (generalized, crevice and pitting) in saliva and the quantities of cations released in particular nickel and CrVI have been evaluated. We have applied non parametric classification tests (Kendall rank correlation) for all chemical results. Also cytotoxicity tests and an evaluation specific to TNF-alpha have been conducted. According to the obtained results, it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak but that nickel release was high. The quantities of nickel released are higher than the limits imposed in the EU concerning contact with the skin or piercing. Surprisingly the biological tests did not show any cytotoxic effect on Hela and L929 cells or any change in TNF-alpha expression in monocytic cells. The alloys did not show any proinflammatory response in endothelial cells as demonstrated by the absence of ICAM-1 induction. We note therefore that there is really no direct relationship between the in vitro biological evaluation tests and the physico-chemical characterization of these dental alloys. Clinical and epidemiological studies are required to clarify these aspects. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nickel released was higher than the limits imposed in EU in contact with the skin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No direct relationship between the

  15. Ni–Cr based dental alloys; Ni release, corrosion and biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years the dental alloy market has undergone dramatic changes for reasons of economy and biocompatibility. Nickel based alloys have become widely used substitute for the much more expensive precious metal alloys. In Europe the prevalence of nickel allergy is 10–15% for female adults and 1–3% for male adults. Despite the restrictions imposed by the EU for the protection of the general population in contact dermatitis, the use of Ni–Cr dental alloys is on the increase. Some questions have to be faced regarding the safety risk of nickel contained in dental alloys. We have collected based on many EU markets, 8 Ni–Cr dental alloys. Microstructure characterization, corrosion resistance (generalized, crevice and pitting) in saliva and the quantities of cations released in particular nickel and CrVI have been evaluated. We have applied non parametric classification tests (Kendall rank correlation) for all chemical results. Also cytotoxicity tests and an evaluation specific to TNF-alpha have been conducted. According to the obtained results, it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak but that nickel release was high. The quantities of nickel released are higher than the limits imposed in the EU concerning contact with the skin or piercing. Surprisingly the biological tests did not show any cytotoxic effect on Hela and L929 cells or any change in TNF-alpha expression in monocytic cells. The alloys did not show any proinflammatory response in endothelial cells as demonstrated by the absence of ICAM-1 induction. We note therefore that there is really no direct relationship between the in vitro biological evaluation tests and the physico-chemical characterization of these dental alloys. Clinical and epidemiological studies are required to clarify these aspects. - Highlights: ► Nickel released was higher than the limits imposed in EU in contact with the skin. ► No direct relationship between the biological evaluation and chemical degradation.

  16. Multiparametric imaging of biological systems by force-distance curve-based AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrêne, Yves F; Martínez-Martín, David; Medalsy, Izhar; Alsteens, David; Müller, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    A current challenge in the life sciences is to understand how biological systems change their structural, biophysical and chemical properties to adjust functionality. Addressing this issue has been severely hampered by the lack of methods capable of imaging biosystems at high resolution while simultaneously mapping their multiple properties. Recent developments in force-distance (FD) curve-based atomic force microscopy (AFM) now enable researchers to combine (sub)molecular imaging with quantitative mapping of physical, chemical and biological interactions. Here we discuss the principles and applications of advanced FD-based AFM tools for the quantitative multiparametric characterization of complex cellular and biomolecular systems under physiological conditions. PMID:23985731

  17. Biological performance of titania containing phosphate-based glasses for bone tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali, E-mail: eabouneel@kau.edu.sa [Division of Biomaterials, Conservative Dental Sciences Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Division of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, 256 Gray' s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD (United Kingdom); Chrzanowski, Wojciech [The University of Sydney, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmacy and Bank Building, NSW2006 (Australia); Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Reserch Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Knowles, Jonathan Campbell, E-mail: j.knowles@ucl.ac.uk [Division of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, 256 Gray' s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD (United Kingdom); Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Reserch Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    The interplay between glass chemistry, structure, degradation kinetics, and biological activity provides flexibility for the development of scaffolds with highly specific cellular response. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the role of titania inclusion into the phosphate-based glass on its ability to stimulate osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to adhere, proliferate and differentiate. In depth morphological and biochemical characterisation was performed on HOS cells cultured on the surface of glass discs. Cell proliferation was also studied in the presence of the glass extract. Cell differentiation, through osteoblast phenotype genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production, was carried out using normal or osteogenic media. Both Thermanox® and titania free glass were used as controls. The data demonstrated that titania inclusion provides desired cytocompatible surface that supported initial cell attachment, sustained viability, and increased cell proliferation similar or significantly higher than Thermanox®. The modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation as detected by osteoblast phenotype gene transcription and upregulated ALP and osteocalcin expression. Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on ALP activity and osteocalcin expression. Therefore, titania modified phosphate glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. - Highlights: • This study investigated the role of titania on the biological response of phosphate glasses. • Incorporation of titania improved HOS cell attachment, viability and proliferation. • Titania modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation. • Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on cell differentiation. • Titania modified glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  18. Biological performance of titania containing phosphate-based glasses for bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interplay between glass chemistry, structure, degradation kinetics, and biological activity provides flexibility for the development of scaffolds with highly specific cellular response. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the role of titania inclusion into the phosphate-based glass on its ability to stimulate osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to adhere, proliferate and differentiate. In depth morphological and biochemical characterisation was performed on HOS cells cultured on the surface of glass discs. Cell proliferation was also studied in the presence of the glass extract. Cell differentiation, through osteoblast phenotype genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production, was carried out using normal or osteogenic media. Both Thermanox® and titania free glass were used as controls. The data demonstrated that titania inclusion provides desired cytocompatible surface that supported initial cell attachment, sustained viability, and increased cell proliferation similar or significantly higher than Thermanox®. The modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation as detected by osteoblast phenotype gene transcription and upregulated ALP and osteocalcin expression. Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on ALP activity and osteocalcin expression. Therefore, titania modified phosphate glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. - Highlights: • This study investigated the role of titania on the biological response of phosphate glasses. • Incorporation of titania improved HOS cell attachment, viability and proliferation. • Titania modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation. • Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on cell differentiation. • Titania modified glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds

  19. Gene Network Biological Validity Based on Gene-Gene Interaction Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Gómez-Vela; Norberto Díaz-Díaz

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, gene networks have become one of the most useful tools for modeling biological processes. Many inference gene network algorithms have been developed as techniques for extracting knowledge from gene expression data. Ensuring the reliability of the inferred gene relationships is a crucial task in any study in order to prove that the algorithms used are precise. Usually, this validation process can be carried out using prior biological knowledge. The metabolic pathways stored in...

  20. In vitro biological models in order to study BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) lacks an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of 10B-boronated compounds by some tumours, followed by irradiation with an appropriate neutron beam. The radioactive boron originated (11B) decays releasing 7Li, gamma rays and alpha particles, and these latter will destroy the tumour. In order to explore the possibility of applying BNCT to UTC we have studied the biodistribution of BPA. In vitro studies: the uptake of p-10borophenylalanine (BPA) by the UTC cell line ARO, primary cultures of normal bovine thyroid cells (BT) and human follicular adenoma (FA) thyroid was studied. No difference in BPA uptake was observed between proliferating and quiescent ARO cells. The uptake by quiescent ARO, BT and FA showed that the ARO/BT and ARO/FA ratios were 4 and 5, respectively (p< 0.001). The present experimental results open the possibility of applying BNCT for the treatment of UTC. (author)

  1. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se H; Kim, Moon S; Lee, Bun Y; Lee, Pyung C

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4'-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli. PMID:26902326

  2. Application of systems biology to the study of chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yu-han; L(U) Lin-li; ZHANG Jian-dong; LIU Bi-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem that affects about 10% of the general population.Current approaches to characterize the category and progression of CKD are normally based on renal histopathological results and clinical parameters.However,this information is not sufficient to predict CKD progression risk reliably or to guide preventive interventions.Nowadays,the appearance of systems biology has brought forward the concepts of "-omics"technologies,including genomics,transcriptomics,proteomics,and metabolomics.Systems biology,together with molecular analysis approaches such as microarray analysis,genome-wide association studies (GWAS),and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE),has provided the framework for a comprehensive analysis of renal disease and serves as a starting point for generating novel molecular diagnostic tools for use in nephrology.In particular,analysis of urinary mRNA and protein levels is rapidly evolving as a non-invasive approach for CKD monitoring.All these systems biological molecular approaches are required for application of the concept of "personalized medicine" to progressive CKD,which will result in tailoring therapy for each patient,in contrast to the "one-size-fits-all" therapies currently in use.

  3. Teaching Statistics in Biology: Using Inquiry-based Learning to Strengthen Understanding of Statistical Analysis in Biology Laboratory Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Anneke M.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing need for students in the biological sciences to build a strong foundation in quantitative approaches to data analyses. Although most science, engineering, and math field majors are required to take at least one statistics course, statistical analysis is poorly integrated into undergraduate biology course work, particularly at the lower-division level. Elements of statistics were incorporated into an introductory biology course, including a review of statistics concepts ...

  4. BOWiki: an ontology-based wiki for annotation of data and integration of knowledge in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Sergio E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Ontology development and the annotation of biological data using ontologies are time-consuming exercises that currently require input from expert curators. Open, collaborative platforms for biological data annotation enable the wider scientific community to become involved in developing and maintaining such resources. However, this openness raises concerns regarding the quality and correctness of the information added to these knowledge bases. The combination of a collaborative web-based platform with logic-based approaches and Semantic Web technology can be used to address some of these challenges and concerns. Results We have developed the BOWiki, a web-based system that includes a biological core ontology. The core ontology provides background knowledge about biological types and relations. Against this background, an automated reasoner assesses the consistency of new information added to the knowledge base. The system provides a platform for research communities to integrate information and annotate data collaboratively. Availability The BOWiki and supplementary material is available at http://www.bowiki.net/. The source code is available under the GNU GPL from http://onto.eva.mpg.de/trac/BoWiki.

  5. Metal Complexes of Macrocyclic Schiff-Base Ligand: Preparation, Characterisation, and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Riyadh M.; Yousif, Enaam I.; Hasan, Hasan A.; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J.

    2013-01-01

    A new macrocyclic multidentate Schiff-base ligand Na4L consisting of two submacrocyclic units (10,21-bis-iminomethyl-3,6,14,17-tricyclo[17.3.1.18,12]tetracosa-1(23),2,6,8,10,12(24),13,17,19,21,-decaene-23,24-disodium) and its tetranuclear metal complexes with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) are reported. Na4L was prepared via a template approach, which is based on the condensation reaction of sodium 2,4,6-triformyl phenolate with ethylenediamine in mole ratios of 2 : 3. The tetranuclear macrocyclic-based complexes were prepared from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligand. The mode of bonding and overall geometry of the compounds were determined through physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. These studies revealed tetrahedral geometries about Mn, Co, and Zn atoms. However, square planar geometries have been suggested for NiII and CuII complexes. Biological activity of the ligand and its metal complexes against Gram positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli revealed that the metal complexes become more potentially resistive to the microbial activities as compared to the free ligand. However, these metal complexes do not exhibit any effects on the activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. There is therefore no inhibition zone. PMID:23935414

  6. Incubation Station for the Bacterial Growth Study in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rafael Duharte Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the designing and characterization of a prototype of laboratory incubator as support of Microbiology research, in particular for the research of the bacterial growth in biological samples through optic methods (Turbidimetry and electrometric measurements of bioimpedance. It shows the results of simulation and experimentation of the design proposed for the canals of measurement of the variables: temperature and humidity, with a high linearity from the adequate selection of the corresponding sensors and the analogue components of every canal, controlled with help of a microcontroller AT89C51 (ATMEL with adequate benefi ts for this type of application.

  7. Antibody-Based Biologics and Their Promise to Combat Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sause, William E; Buckley, Peter T; Strohl, William R; Lynch, A Simon; Torres, Victor J

    2016-03-01

    The growing incidence of serious infections mediated by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains poses a significant risk to public health. This risk is exacerbated by a prolonged void in the discovery and development of truly novel antibiotics and the absence of a vaccine. These gaps have created renewed interest in the use of biologics in the prevention and treatment of serious staphylococcal infections. In this review, we focus on efforts towards the discovery and development of antibody-based biologic agents and their potential as clinical agents in the management of serious S. aureus infections. Recent promising data for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting anthrax and Ebola highlight the potential of antibody-based biologics as therapeutic agents for serious infections. PMID:26719219

  8. Understanding the biological concept "bird": A kindergarten case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Dilek

    The purpose of this qualitative, multiple case study of 14 students in a metropolitan public school in the Deep South was to find out, during a period of three months, what these kindergarten-aged children knew about birds, whether this knowledge represented current scientific thought, if such science instruction meaningfully affected their prior knowledge, and if so, what the factors during instruction that seemed to influence their understanding of the concept of bird were. The research was conducted in three phases; preinstruction interviews, instruction, and postinstruction interviews. The theoretical framework for this research was based on the Human Constructivism theory of learning (Mintzes, Wandersee and Novak, 1997). Instructional materials consisted of carefully chosen books (both fiction and non-fiction), guest speakers, field trips, a live bird in the classroom, students' observation journals, teacher-made classification and sorting activities, and picture-based concept maps. The findings suggest that young children's knowledge of birds was limited chiefly to birds' anatomical and morphological characteristics, with repeated references being made by the children to human characteristics. There was a positive, significant difference in young children's pre- and postinstruction scientific knowledge of birds. Although performance varied from child to child after instruction, most children were able to identify some common birds by name. Just one child resisted conceptual change. Kindergarten children's basic knowledge of bird behavior was limited to flight and eating. Although the children had more conceptual knowledge at the end, understanding still appeared to be shallow. The children did develop their skill in observing markedly. It also became evident that these kindergarten children needed more (a) experience in asking questions, (b) practice in techniques of visual representation, and (c) language development in order to be able to explain what they

  9. Non conventional biological treatment based on Trametes versicolor for the elimination of recalcitrant anticancer drugs in hospital wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrando Climent, Laura; Cruz Morató, Carles; Marco Urrea, Ernest; Vicent, Teresa; Sarrà i Adroguer, Montserrat; Rodríguez Mozaz, Sara; Barceló i Cullerés, Damià

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a study about the elimination of anticancer drugs, a group of pollutants considered recalcitrant during conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, using a biological treatment based on the fungus Trametes versicolor. A 10-L fluidized bed bioreactor inoculated with this fungus was set up in order to evaluate the removal of 10 selected anticancer drugs in real hospital wastewater. Almost all the tested anticancer drugs were completely removed from the wastewater at ...

  10. What controls biological productivity in coastal upwelling systems? Insights from a comparative modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lachkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the biological productivity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS is traditionally viewed as directly reflecting the upwelling intensity. Yet, different EBUS show different sensitivities of productivity to upwelling-favorable winds (Carr and Kearns, 2003. Here, using a comparative modeling study of the California Current System (California CS and Canary Current System (Canary CS, we show how physical and environmental factors, such as light, temperature and cross-shore circulation modulate the response of biological productivity to upwelling strength. To this end, we made a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the California CS and Canary CS using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS, coupled to a nitrogen based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD ecosystem model. We find the nutrient content of the euphotic zone to be 20 % smaller in the Canary CS relative to the California CS. Yet, the biological productivity is 50 % smaller in the latter. This is due to: (1 a faster nutrient-replete growth in the Canary CS relative to the California CS, related to a more favorable light and temperature conditions in the Canary CS, and (2 the longer nearshore water residence times in the Canary CS which lead to larger buildup of biomass in the upwelling zone, thereby enhancing the productivity. The longer residence times in the Canary CS appear to be associated with the wider continental shelves and the lower eddy activity characterizing this upwelling system. This results in a weaker offshore export of nutrients and organic matter, thereby increasing local nutrient recycling and enhancing the coupling between new and export production in the Northwest African system. Our results suggest that climate change induced perturbations such as upwelling favorable wind intensification might lead to contrasting biological responses in the California CS and the Canary CS, with major implications for the biogeochemical cycles

  11. RDX biodegradation column study: comparison of electron donors for biologically induced reductive transformation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of column studies, using site-specific soil and groundwater, were conducted to determine the feasibility of biologically active zone enhancement (BAZE) process for reductive biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater. This treatability study examined the use of four amendments (acetate, ethanol, soluble starch, and acetate plus ammonium), which served as electron donors. Triplicate columns, with groundwater residence time of about 27.5 h, were used for each amendment treatment and the amendment control. In treatment columns amendment dosing was 500 mg/L C for carbon sources and 100 mg/L N for ammonium. Each of the amendment treatments reduced RDX inlet concentrations of 100 μg/L to less than 1 μg/L. The highest first-order RDX biodegradation rate ranged between 0.140 and 0.447 h-1 for acetate amended columns as compared to 0.037 to 0.083 h-1 in control columns (no amendment). The addition of soluble starch resulted in increased toxicity (based on Microtox[reg] analysis) that was partially removed by biological activity in the columns. Ethanol addition itself did not result in increased toxicity but biological activity in this system did induce Microtox[reg] toxicity. Acetate did not have any Microtox[reg] toxicity associated with it. The addition of ammonium as a nitrogen source did not significantly increase the removal rate of RDX. Based on these observations acetate was selected for the field demonstration

  12. RDX biodegradation column study: comparison of electron donors for biologically induced reductive transformation in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jeffrey L.; Wani, Altaf H.; O' Neal, Brenda R.; Hansen, Lance D

    2004-08-09

    A series of column studies, using site-specific soil and groundwater, were conducted to determine the feasibility of biologically active zone enhancement (BAZE) process for reductive biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater. This treatability study examined the use of four amendments (acetate, ethanol, soluble starch, and acetate plus ammonium), which served as electron donors. Triplicate columns, with groundwater residence time of about 27.5 h, were used for each amendment treatment and the amendment control. In treatment columns amendment dosing was 500 mg/L C for carbon sources and 100 mg/L N for ammonium. Each of the amendment treatments reduced RDX inlet concentrations of 100 {mu}g/L to less than 1 {mu}g/L. The highest first-order RDX biodegradation rate ranged between 0.140 and 0.447 h{sup -1} for acetate amended columns as compared to 0.037 to 0.083 h{sup -1} in control columns (no amendment). The addition of soluble starch resulted in increased toxicity (based on Microtox[reg] analysis) that was partially removed by biological activity in the columns. Ethanol addition itself did not result in increased toxicity but biological activity in this system did induce Microtox[reg] toxicity. Acetate did not have any Microtox[reg] toxicity associated with it. The addition of ammonium as a nitrogen source did not significantly increase the removal rate of RDX. Based on these observations acetate was selected for the field demonstration.

  13. A CLINICAL STUDY ON THE INCIDENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF BIOLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS IN IMPLANT THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae VASILE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the study was to evidence the methods recommended for avoiding, managing and implementing an efficient treatment capable of reducing the biological complications accompanying implant therapies. Materials and method. The study evaluates the patients with prosthesis charged implants - or during their osseointegration period - inserted in the Clinic of The Emergency Military Hospital of Sibiu, over a 5 year period (2009-2014. Retrospective investigation was based on the evaluation of the treatment files and on the imagistic and clinical analyses of the 125 patients to whom 385 implants had been inserted. Results and discussion. The study demonstrates that, when implants are the support of an overdenture, surrounded by either limited keratinized gingiva or mobile tissues, the presence of the bacterial plaque is considerable, the peri-implant pocket exceeds 5 mm, and sensitivity and bleeding are produced on contact with the probe. In susceptible patients, or in those with pathological periodontal antecedents, the re-infection potential has been always higher. The clinical study confirms that, invariably, peri-implantitis is associated with the existence of the bacterial plaque and also with the presence of a peri-implant pocket exceeding 4 mm (8.9%, with partial exposure of the covering screw (4.5% and fixed restaurations without self-cleaning spaces (2%. Conclusions. Out of the post-surgery biological complications, peri-implantitis is the most frequent one, causing a – sometimes total – loss of the alveolar bone around the osseointegrated implant.

  14. Capacity for DNA-barcode based taxonomy in support of Great Lakes biological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enumerating organisms collected via nets and sediment grabs is a mainstay of aquatic ecology. Since morphological taxonomy can require considerable resources and expertise, DNA barcode-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers a valuable tool in support of biological...

  15. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Casper Nyamukondiwa; Frank Chidawanyika; Pride Mudavanhu

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such oppor...

  16. Designing and Implementing a Hands-On, Inquiry-Based Molecular Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Laura B.; Morrison-Shetlar, Alison I.

    2007-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning was used to enhance an undergraduate molecular biology course at Georgia Southern University, a primarily undergraduate institution in rural southeast Georgia. The goal was to use a long-term, in-class project to accelerate higher-order thinking, thereby enabling students to problem solve and apply their knowledge to novel…

  17. Students' Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Tutorial Program for College Biology Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. S.; Prevost, L.; Lemons, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of core concepts and processes of science in solving problems is important to successful learning in biology. We have designed and developed a Web-based, self-directed tutorial program, "SOLVEIT," that provides various scaffolds (e.g., prompts, expert models, visual guidance) to help college students enhance their…

  18. Integrating biological knowledge based on functional annotations for biclustering of gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Juan A; Troncoso, Alicia; Nepomuceno-Chamorro, Isabel A; Aguilar-Ruiz, Jesús S

    2015-05-01

    Gene expression data analysis is based on the assumption that co-expressed genes imply co-regulated genes. This assumption is being reformulated because the co-expression of a group of genes may be the result of an independent activation with respect to the same experimental condition and not due to the same regulatory regime. For this reason, traditional techniques are recently being improved with the use of prior biological knowledge from open-access repositories together with gene expression data. Biclustering is an unsupervised machine learning technique that searches patterns in gene expression data matrices. A scatter search-based biclustering algorithm that integrates biological information is proposed in this paper. In addition to the gene expression data matrix, the input of the algorithm is only a direct annotation file that relates each gene to a set of terms from a biological repository where genes are annotated. Two different biological measures, FracGO and SimNTO, are proposed to integrate this information by means of its addition to-be-optimized fitness function in the scatter search scheme. The measure FracGO is based on the biological enrichment and SimNTO is based on the overlapping among GO annotations of pairs of genes. Experimental results evaluate the proposed algorithm for two datasets and show the algorithm performs better when biological knowledge is integrated. Moreover, the analysis and comparison between the two different biological measures is presented and it is concluded that the differences depend on both the data source and how the annotation file has been built in the case GO is used. It is also shown that the proposed algorithm obtains a greater number of enriched biclusters than other classical biclustering algorithms typically used as benchmark and an analysis of the overlapping among biclusters reveals that the biclusters obtained present a low overlapping. The proposed methodology is a general-purpose algorithm which allows

  19. Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong

    2008-01-01

    This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow

  20. Study on Biological Control Of Rhizoctonia solani via Trichoderma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Strain T02-25 was selected from approximately 30 rhizosphere isolates of Trichoderma species isolated from roots of crops. Its biological activity against Rhizoctonia solani was determined for the control efficacy to pepper seedling blight caused by R. solani in the field. The assay methods were treating R. solani sclerotia by Trichoderma conidial suspension (106cfu ml-1) and scattering Thichoderma rice bran over the pepper root medium. The results showed that T02-25 was active against R. solani in both ways, and its control efficacy was 82.7% and 78.0%, respectively. In addition to comparison of the efficacy of the two application methods, the relationship of different factors in the control efficacy of Trichoderma against R. solani was discussed.

  1. Biological studies of matrix metalloproteinase sensitive drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Thermann

    for delivery of drugs to specific tissues or cells utilizing biological knowledge of cancer tissue is getting increased attention. In this thesis a novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) sensitive poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) coated liposomal drug delivery system for treatment of cancer was developed......Cancer, which is a group of diseases characterized by cells with elevated replication rate and compromised DNA damage response, is often treated with cytotoxic drugs, chemotherapeutics, inducing DNA damage that results in cell death. The use of chemotherapeutics in the clinic, however, is limited...... due to severe side effects as a result of drug distribution to healthy tissues. To enhance ecacy of treatment and improve life quality of patients, tumor specific drug delivery strategies, such as liposome encapsulated drugs, which accumulate in tumor tissue, has gained increased attention. Several...

  2. Phytochemical and biological study of radal Lomatia hirsuta (Proteaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo, S; García, R; Backhouse, N; Lemus I 1st; Delporte, C; Andrade, C

    1997-07-01

    The anti-inflammatory property of Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels ex Macbr. (Proteaceae), leaves (radal), a plant used in Chilean traditional medicine for bronchial troubles and asthma, was evaluated. The biological assays showed infusion of L. hirsuta leaves inhibits the inflammation induced by lambda-carrageenan corresponding to a 29.2% anti-inflammatory effect, and to 53.5% of the maximum effect observed with sodium naproxen (4 mg/kg) in the same experimental conditions. The coumarins, umbelliferone and scopoletin, were the major compounds isolated, along with quercetine, rhamnetin and iso-rhamnetin, with minor quantities or quercitrine and no presence of toxic naphthoquinone derivates. These results supported the folk use of L. hirsuta. PMID:9254109

  3. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep sea megabenthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specimens of six species of aspidochirota from depths between 1245 and 2315m in the N.E. Atlantic have been examined and their reproductive biology determined. Two species Paelopatides grisea and Benthothuria funebris produce the large eggs typical of direct development. Mesothuria lactea and M. verrilli have an intermediate egg size of c. 400μm whilst Bathyplotes natans has an egg size of c. 280μm, which may be indicative of indirect development. The last species Paroriza pallens is an hermaphrodite producing an egg of c. 250μm. With the exception of Bathyplotes natans, which appears to show periodic reproduction if not seasonal, the species show no evidence of reproductive seasonality. (author)

  4. Sample validity in biological trace element and organic nutrient research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the art of the biological trace element investigations is overviewed. Questions of biological validity, such as the influence of the 'status of sampling' of human subjects on the concentrations of selected elements are studied. Analytical validity problems, e.g. stability of Cd, Hg and Pb concentration in selected specimens, stability of selected organic nutrients in NBS SRMs, etc. are also discussed. Finally, it is concluded that the development of new biological reference materials should take into account the multidisciplinary demands of biological trace element investigations. (author) 20 refs.; 6 tables

  5. A Comprehensive Systems Biology Approach to Studying Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Meghan; Relich, Ryan F

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for an ongoing and intensifying epidemic in the Western Hemisphere. We examined the complete predicted proteomes, glycomes, and selectomes of 33 ZIKV strains representing temporally diverse members of the African lineage, the Asian lineage, and the current outbreak in the Americas. Derivation of the complete selectome is an 'omics' approach to identify distinct evolutionary pressures acting on different features of an organism. Employment of the M8 model did not show evidence of global diversifying selection acting on the ZIKV polyprotein; however, a mixed effect model of evolution showed strong evidence (P<0.05) for episodic diversifying selection acting on specific sites. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predictably frequent across strains relative to the derived consensus sequence. None of the 9 published detection procedures utilize targets that share 100% identity across the 33 strains examined, indicating that ZIKV escape from molecular detection is predictable. The predicted O-linked glycome showed marked diversity across strains; however, the N-linked glycome was highly stable. All Asian and American strains examined were predicted to include glycosylation of E protein ASN154, a modification proposed to mediate neurotropism, whereas the modification was not predicted for African strains. SNP diversity, episodic diversifying selection, and differential glycosylation, particularly of ASN154, may have major biological implications for ZIKV disease. Taken together, the systems biology perspective of ZIKV indicates: a.) The recently emergent Asian/American N-glycotype is mediating the new and emerging neuropathogenic potential of ZIKV; and b.) further divergence at specific sites is predictable as endemnicity is established in the Americas. PMID:27584813

  6. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bal-Ram Adhikari; Maduraiveeran Govindhan; Aicheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based el...

  7. GUBS, a Behavior-based Language for Open System Dedicated to Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Basso-Blandin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a domain specific language, GUBS (Genomic Unified Behavior Specification, dedicated to the behavioral specification of synthetic biological devices, viewed as discrete open dynamical systems. GUBS is a rule-based declarative language. By contrast to a closed system, a program is always a partial description of the behavior of the system. The semantics of the language accounts the existence of some hidden non-specified actions possibly altering the behavior of the programmed device. The compilation framework follows a scheme similar to automatic theorem proving, aiming at improving synthetic biological design safety.

  8. Safety Evaluation of CNS Administered Biologics-Study Design, Data Interpretation, and Translation to the Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillemenot, Brian R; Korte, Sven; Wright, Teresa L; Adams, Eric L; Boyd, Robert B; Butt, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    Many central nervous system (CNS) diseases are inadequately treated by systemically administered therapies due to the blood brain barrier (BBB), which prevents achieving adequate drug concentrations at sites of action. Due to the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases and the inability of most systemically administered therapies to cross the BBB, direct CNS delivery will likely play an increasing role in treatment. Administration of large molecules, cells, viral vectors, oligonucleotides, and other novel therapies directly to the CNS via the subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or parenchyma overcomes this obstacle. Clinical experience with direct CNS administration of small molecule therapies suggests that this approach may be efficacious for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using biological therapies. Risks of administration into the brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid include local damage from implantation of the delivery system and/or administration of the therapeutic and reactions affecting the CNS. Preclinical safety studies on CNS administered compounds must differentiate between the effects of the test article, the delivery device, and/or the vehicle, and assess exacerbations of reactions due to combinations of effects. Animal models characterized for safety assessment of CNS administered therapeutics have enabled human trials, but interpretation can be challenging. This manuscript outlines the challenges of preclinical intrathecal/intracerebroventricular/intraparenchymal studies, evaluation of results, considerations for special endpoints, and translation of preclinical findings to enable first-in-human trials. Recommendations will be made based on the authors' collective experience with conducting these studies to enable clinical development of CNS-administered biologics. PMID:27354708

  9. Efifciency of Concrete Crack-healing based on Biological Carbonate Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Mian; QIAN Chunxiang; LI Ruiyang; RONG Hui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the capacity for crack-repair in concrete by developing a new way. The self-healing agent based on biological carbonate precipitation was developed. Crack-healing capacity of the cement paste specimens with this biochemical agent was researched. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the precipitation in cracks. The healing efficiency was evaluated by measuring the water permeability after crack healing as well.The experimental results show that the applied biochemical agent can successfully improve the self-healing capacity of the cement paste specimens as larger cracks can be healed. The cracks with a width of 0.48 mm in the specimens with the biochemical agent are nearly fully healed by the precipitation after 80d repair. SEM and XRD analysis results demonstrate that the white precipitation in cracks is calcium carbonate, which displays spherical crystal morphology. Meanwhile, the water permeability test result shows that the biochemical agent can significantly decrease the water permeability of the cement paste specimens, the water permeability of specimens with the biochemical agent respectively decreases by 84%and 96%after 7 d and 28 d immersion in water, however the control specimens only respectively decrease by 41%and 60%, which indicates that the bacteria-based concrete appears to be a promising approach to increase concrete durability.

  10. A systematic literature review on reviews and meta-analyses of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Lunde, Anita; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    for the improvement of quality of life. Breast cancer was the most common single type of cancer reviewed (8 reviews), all focused on the relief of side effects, primarily by supplements containing soy/plant hormones. The use of these supplements should be discouraged due to a risk for progression of breast cancer...... patients. There is a need for future studies on specific type of practices in relation to side effects and quality of life parameters. Research Methods: -Systematic reviews, meta analysis Funding: The research was funded by The Danish Cancer Society and the University of Southern Denmark.......Purpose To provide an overview and evaluate the evidence of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients. Methods Pubmed, Social Science Citation Index, AMED and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for reviews on effects of biologically based CAM-practices, including herbal...

  11. Setup for studying kinetics of fluorescence anisotropy decay in biological objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimov, A.V.; Dem`yanov, G.V.; Kurek, N.K. [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    A setup for studying the decay of the fluorescence intensity and anisotropy in biological objects, brought into use at an S-60 FIAN synchrotron radiation source, is described. The setup allows one to extend investigations of a spatial structure of biological membranes and lipoproteins. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  12. 丛生竹秆基各笋目的出笋成竹生物学特性研究%Study on Biological Characteristics of Bamboo Shooting from Base of Sympodial Bamboo Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周益权; 顾小平; 吴晓丽; 郑仁红; 朱维双

    2011-01-01

    year, and the mother bamboo almost lost reproductive capacity in the third year. For different bamboo buds locations, the shooting rate and survival rate of bamboo shoots were in the order of second bud > first bud > third bud > fourth bud, the first and the second buds were significantly higher than the third and the fourth buds. The result of analyzing the effect of age of mother bamboo and bud location on the ability of bamboo shooting showed the germination ability of the first and the second buds at one-year-old mother bamboo were the optimal. By sequential sample duster analysis, the shooting period was divided into three stages: initial, abundant and final stage. The number of shoots at the initial shooting stage was few, but the survival rate of bamboo shoots was very high,the abundant and final stage showed the opposite situation. Germination age and shooting time of bamboo buds were related with the buds locations, the germination age and shooting time of the first and the second bamboo buds located in middle and lower location were earlier than that of the third and the fourth bamboo buds. Based on their study, the authors proposed some suggestions for tending, intermediate cutting, fertilization and shooting control.

  13. Applied Bayesian statistical studies in biology and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    D’Amore, G; Scalfari, F

    2004-01-01

    It was written on another occasion· that "It is apparent that the scientific culture, if one means production of scientific papers, is growing exponentially, and chaotically, in almost every field of investigation". The biomedical sciences sensu lato and mathematical statistics are no exceptions. One might say then, and with good reason, that another collection of bio­ statistical papers would only add to the overflow and cause even more confusion. Nevertheless, this book may be greeted with some interest if we state that most of the papers in it are the result of a collaboration between biologists and statisticians, and partly the product of the Summer School th "Statistical Inference in Human Biology" which reaches its 10 edition in 2003 (information about the School can be obtained at the Web site http://www2. stat. unibo. itleventilSito%20scuolalindex. htm). is common experience - and not only This is rather important. Indeed, it in Italy - that encounters between statisticians and researchers are spora...

  14. Preliminary Study of Greywater Treatment through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the greywater vary from country to country and it depends upon the cultural and social behavior of the respective country. There was a considerable need to characterize and recycle the greywater. In this regard greywater was separated from the black water and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters. Among various greywater recycling treatment technologies, RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is more effective treatment technique in reducing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and organic matters from the greywater. But this technology was not applied and tested in Pakistan. There was extensive need to investigate the RBC technology for greywater recycling at small scale before applying at mass scale. To treat the greywater, a single-stage RBC simulator was designed and developed at laboratory scale. An electric motor equipped with gear box to control the rotations of the disks was mounted on the tank. The simulator was run at the rate of 1.7 rpm. The disc area of the RBC was immersed about 40% in the greywater. Water samples were collected at each HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time and analyzed for the parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, salinity, BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD and suspended solids by using standard methods. The results are encouraging with percentage removal of BOD5 and COD being 53 and 60% respectively.

  15. Studying of Phenomenon of Biological Adaptation to Heavy Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological influence of deuterium on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eucaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates (methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum, chemoheterotrophic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, photo-organotrophic halobacteria Halobacterium halobium, and green micro algae Chlorella vulgaris was investigated at the growth on media with heavy water (2H2O. For investigated microorganisms are submitted the data on growth and adaptation on the growth media containing as sources of deuterated substrates 2H2O, [2H]methanol and hydrolisates of deutero-biomass of methylotrophic bacteria B. methylicum, obtained after multistage adaptation to 2H2O. The qualitative and quantitative composition of intra- and endocellular amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates and fatty acids in conditions of adaptation to 2H2O is investigated. It is shown, that the effects observed at adaptation to 2H2O, possess a complex multifactorial character and connected to cytological, morphological and physiological changes – the magnitude of the lag- period, time of cellular generation, output of biomass, a parity ratio of synthesized amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, and also with an evolutionary level of the organization of the investigated object and the pathways of assimilation of carbon substrates as well.

  16. Extraction, characterization and biological studies of phytochemicals from Mammea suriga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahesha M. Poojary; Kanivebagilu A.Vishnumurthy; Airody Vasudeva Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    The present work involves extraction of phytochemicals from the root bark of a well-known Indian traditional medicinal plant, viz. Mammea suriga, with various solvents and evaluation of their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of some interesting secondary metabolites like flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins and tannins in the extracts. Also, the solvent extracts displayed promising anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Cryptococcus neoformans with inhibition zone in a range of 20–33 mm. Further, results of their antioxidant screening revealed that aqueous extract (with IC50 values of 111.51±1.03 and 31.05±0.92μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively) and ethanolic extract (with IC50 values of 128.00±1.01 and 33.25±0.89μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively) were better antioxidants than standard ascorbic acid. Interestingly, FT-IR analysis of each extract established the presence of various biologically active functional groups in it.

  17. Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization and Biological Activities of Transition Metal Complexes Derived from a Tridentate Schiff Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Senthil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of Cu (II, Ni (II, Co (II and Zn (II complexes have been synthesized from the Schiff base derived from 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidine-4-aminoantipyrine and 2-aminophenol. The structural features have been determined from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, Mass, IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESR spectral studies. The redox behavior of the copper complex has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The data confirm that the complexes have composition of ML2 type. The electronic absorption spectral data of the complexes propose an octahedral geometry around the central metal ion. All the metal complexes with DNA structure were guided by the presence of inter-molecular C–H⋯O and C–H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The biological activity of the synthesized compounds were tested against the bacterial species such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and fungal species such as Candida albicans by the well-diffusion method.

  18. Biological performance of titania containing phosphate-based glasses for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Knowles, Jonathan Campbell

    2014-02-01

    The interplay between glass chemistry, structure, degradation kinetics, and biological activity provides flexibility for the development of scaffolds with highly specific cellular response. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the role of titania inclusion into the phosphate-based glass on its ability to stimulate osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to adhere, proliferate and differentiate. In depth morphological and biochemical characterisation was performed on HOS cells cultured on the surface of glass discs. Cell proliferation was also studied in the presence of the glass extract. Cell differentiation, through osteoblast phenotype genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production, was carried out using normal or osteogenic media. Both Thermanox® and titania free glass were used as controls. The data demonstrated that titania inclusion provides desired cytocompatible surface that supported initial cell attachment, sustained viability, and increased cell proliferation similar or significantly higher than Thermanox®. The modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation as detected by osteoblast phenotype gene transcription and upregulated ALP and osteocalcin expression. Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on ALP activity and osteocalcin expression. Therefore, titania modified phosphate glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:24411382

  19. Chamber bioaerosol study: human emissions of size-resolved fluorescent biological aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangar, S; Adams, R I; Pasut, W; Huffman, J A; Arens, E A; Taylor, J W; Bruns, T D; Nazaroff, W W

    2016-04-01

    Humans are a prominent source of airborne biological particles in occupied indoor spaces, but few studies have quantified human bioaerosol emissions. The chamber investigation reported here employs a fluorescence-based technique to evaluate bioaerosols with high temporal and particle size resolution. In a 75-m(3) chamber, occupant emission rates of coarse (2.5-10 μm) fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) under seated, simulated office-work conditions averaged 0.9 ± 0.3 million particles per person-h. Walking was associated with a 5-6× increase in the emission rate. During both walking and sitting, 60-70% or more of emissions originated from the floor. The increase in emissions during walking (vs. while sitting) was mainly attributable to release of particles from the floor; the associated increased vigor of upper body movements also contributed. Clothing, or its frictional interaction with human skin, was demonstrated to be a source of coarse particles, and especially of the highly fluorescent fraction. Emission rates of FBAPs previously reported for lecture classes were well bounded by the experimental results obtained in this chamber study. In both settings, the size distribution of occupant FBAP emissions had a dominant mode in the 3-5 μm diameter range. PMID:25704637

  20. Identification of biological and environmental risk factors for language delay: The Let's Talk STEPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpilahti, Pirjo; Kaljonen, Anne; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to identify demographic factors for language delays at an early age. The risk analysis covered 11 biological and 8 environmental factors. The mothers' concerns regarding language development were also examined. A total of 226 children from a Finnish cohort study were invited to participate in language assessments at 36 months. The test results for word finding and language comprehension were compared with parental questionnaires about children's vocabulary at 13 and 24 months. Regression analysis revealed that the father's social class (t=-2.79, p=0.006) and working full time (t=-2.86, p=0.005) significantly predicted children's language delay. In addition, language comprehension was significantly predicted by the mother's social class (t=-2.06, p=0.041) and by gender, with an advantage to girls (t=-2.71, p=0.008). Vocabulary at 24 months was a powerful predictor for lexical development (t=4.58, pparents needed special education during school years. At the population-level, gender was the most powerful biological factor in predicting language delays. Similarly, both parents' social status had predictive value for the child's language development. In addition, it was found that the mother's concern about her child's slow language acquisition should be taken into account when making decisions regarding special support. PMID:26700576

  1. Clinical evaluation of the biological width following surgical crown-lengthening procedure: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the positional changes of the periodontal tissues, particularly the biological width, following surgical crown-lengthening in human subjects. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial study involving 15 patients was carried out for a period of 6 months. Sites were divided into 3 groups: treated (TT sites, adjacent (AD sites and nonadjacent (NAD sites. Free gingival margin [FGM], attachment level, pocket depth, bone level, biological width [BW] were recorded at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Direct bone level after flap reflection was recorded before and after osseous resection at baseline only. Level of osseous crest was lowered based on BW, and supracrestal tooth structure needed using a combination of rotary and hand instruments. Statistical Analysis: Student t test and ANOVA were used. Results: Overall, apical displacement of FGM at TT, AD and NAD sites was statistically significant compared to baseline. The apical displacement of FGM at TT site was more when compared to that at AD and NAD sites at 3 and 6 months. The BW at the TT site was smaller at 1, 3 and 6 months compared to that at baseline. However, at all sites, BW was reestablished to the baseline value at the end of 6 months. Interpretation and Conclusion: The BW at TT sites was reestablished to its original vertical dimension by 6 months. In addition, a consistent 2-mm gain of coronal tooth structure was observed at the 1, 3 and 6-month examinations.

  2. Manufacturing Economics of Plant-Made Biologics: Case Studies in Therapeutic and Industrial Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tusé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of recombinant biologics in plants has received considerable attention as an alternative platform to traditional microbial and animal cell culture. Industrially relevant features of plant systems include proper eukaryotic protein processing, inherent safety due to lack of adventitious agents, more facile scalability, faster production (transient systems, and potentially lower costs. Lower manufacturing cost has been widely claimed as an intuitive feature of the platform by the plant-made biologics community, even though cost information resides within a few private companies and studies accurately documenting such an advantage have been lacking. We present two technoeconomic case studies representing plant-made enzymes for diverse applications: human butyrylcholinesterase produced indoors for use as a medical countermeasure and cellulases produced in the field for the conversion of cellulosic biomass into ethanol as a fuel extender. Production economics were modeled based on results reported with the latest-generation expression technologies on Nicotiana host plants. We evaluated process unit operations and calculated bulk active and per-dose or per-unit costs using SuperPro Designer modeling software. Our analyses indicate that substantial cost advantages over alternative platforms can be achieved with plant systems, but these advantages are molecule/product-specific and depend on the relative cost-efficiencies of alternative sources of the same product.

  3. Two Studies on the Interplay between Social Preferences and Individual Biological Features

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Pages, Santiago; Turiegano, E.

    2013-01-01

    Biological features and social preferences have been studied separately as factors influencing human strategic behavior. We run two studies in order to explore the interplay between these two sets of factors. In the first study, we investigate to what extent social preferences may have some biological underpinnings. We use simple one-shot distribution experiments to attribute subjects one out of four types of social preferences: Self-interested (SI), Competitive (C), Inequality averse (IA), a...

  4. Biological science learning model based on Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwari, Nahdi, Maizer Said; Sulistyowati, Eka

    2016-02-01

    Local wisdom as product of local knowledge has been giving a local context in science development. Local wisdom is important to connect scientific theories and local conditions; hence science could be accessed by common people. Using local wisdom as a model for learning science enables students to build contextual learning, hence learning science becomes more meaningful and becomes more accessible for students in a local community. Based on this consideration, therefore, this research developed a model for learning biology based on Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity. For this purpose, Turgo's biodiversity was mapped, and any local values that are co-existing with the biodiversity were recorded. All of these informations were, then, used as a hypohetical model for developing materials for teaching biology in a senior high school adjacent to Turgo. This research employed a qualitative method. We combined questionnaries, interviews and observation to gather the data. We found that Turgo community has been practicing local wisdom on using traditional plants for many uses, including land management and practicing rituals and traditional ceremonies. There were local values that they embrace which enable them to manage the nature wisely. After being cross-referenced with literature regarding educational philoshophy, educational theories and teachings, and biology curriculum for Indonesia's senior high school, we concluded that Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity can be recommended to be used as learning materials and sources for biological learning in schools.

  5. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Dale L; Alvarez, Consuelo J

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic "parts," students construct a "reporter plasmid" expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a "sensor plasmid," the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p < 0.05) for all learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses. PMID:26753032

  6. Optical Properties and In Vitro Biological Studies of Oligonucleotide-Modified Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie A. Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble semiconducting nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs have attracted much interest in recent years due to their tuneable emission and potential applications in photonics and biological imaging. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET processes are very important for elucidating biochemical mechanisms in vitro, and QDs constitute an excellent substrate for this purpose. In this work, new oligonucleotide-functionalised CdTe-based QDs were prepared, characterised and biologically tested. These QDs demonstrated interesting optical properties as well as remarkable in vitro behaviour and potential for a range of biological applications.

  7. Studying Plant-Rhizobium Mutualism in the Biology Classroom: Connecting the Big Ideas in Biology through Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Tomomi; Williamson, Brad

    2014-01-01

    We present a guided-inquiry biology lesson, using the plant-rhizobium symbiosis as a model system. This system provides a rich environment for developing connections between the big ideas in biology as outlined in the College Board's new AP Biology Curriculum. Students gain experience with the practice of scientific investigation, from…

  8. Ways of incorporating photographic images in learning and assessing high school biology: A study of visual perception and visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Brenda Chaumont

    This study evaluated the cognitive benefits and costs of incorporating biology-textbook and student-generated photographic images into the learning and assessment processes within a 10th grade biology classroom. The study implemented Wandersee's (2000) 20-Q Model of Image-Based Biology Test-Item Design (20-Q Model) to explore the use of photographic images to assess students' understanding of complex biological processes. A thorough review of the students' textbook using ScaleMaster R with PC Interface was also conducted. The photographs, diagrams, and other representations found in the textbook were measured to determine the percentage of each graphic depicted in the book and comparisons were made to the text. The theoretical framework that guided the research included Human Constructivist tenets espoused by Mintzes, Wandersee and Novak (2000). Physiological and cognitive factors of images and image-based learning as described by Robin (1992), Solso (1997) and Wandersee (2000) were examined. Qualitative case study design presented by Yin (1994), Denzin and Lincoln (1994) was applied and data were collected through interviews, observations, student activities, student and school artifacts and Scale Master IIRTM measurements. The results of the study indicate that although 24% of the high school biology textbook is devoted to photographic images which contribute significantly to textbook cost, the teacher and students paid little attention to photographic images other than as aesthetic elements for creating biological ambiance, wasting valuable opportunities for learning. The analysis of the photographs corroborated findings published by the Association American Association for the Advancement of Science that indicated "While most of the books are lavishly illustrated, these representations are rarely helpful, because they are too abstract, needlessly complicated, or inadequately explained" (Roseman, 2000, p. 2). The findings also indicate that applying the 20-Q

  9. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System: Annual Report, 1985-1986.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Park, D.L.; Flagg, T.A.; McCutcheon, S.

    1986-12-01

    An ongoing cooperative project between the Bonneville Power Administration and the National Marine Fisheries Service was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the technical and biological feasibility of adapting a new identification system to salmonids. The system is based upon the passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag. This report discusses the work completed in 1985 and is divided into laboratory and field studies. All studies were conducted with the tag implanted into the body cavity of the test fish via a 12-gauge hypodermic needle.

  10. Biological dosimetry study in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients treated with 131Iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological Dosimetry allows individual dose assessments based on the effect produced by ionizing radiation on a given biological parameter. The current biological endpoint being scored is chromosomal aberrations, relying on a lymphocytes culture from the patient's blood. The measured yield of chromosome aberrations is referred to a calibration curve obtaining the whole body dose. Different scenarios of overexposure can be taken into account by modifying the calculations leading to the dose estimate. Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma patients undergo thyroidectomy followed by internal radiotherapy with 131I. The treatment's success entails the delivery of a lethal dose to the tumour within the maximum tolerable dose to a critical organ (blood doses over 2 Gy could lead to bone marrow depression). Currently, there is no established agreement for the selection of radioiodine dosage. Historically, the empiric approach, based on clinical and biochemical data, has been recommended. Nevertheless, this method may not be associated with optimal outcomes. On the other hand, the dosimetric approach attempts to determine the maximum allowable activity to be administered, establishing its biokinetics by a diagnostic 131I study. The methodology may be modified to further individualized treatment, however it requires validation. Biological dosimetry provides an independent measure of radiotherapy effect, as such it might aid in the validation process. Nonetheless, biological dosimetry has traditionally been applied in cases of external and accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation. Accordingly, it is mandatory to assess its value in medical internal incorporations (main objective of the present study). The applied treatment strategy comprises whole body dose assessment by biological and internal dosimetry in order to administer a personalized therapeutic activity. Overall, 20 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were included in the study. For biological dosimetry

  11. A DO- and pH-based early warning system of nitrification inhibition for biological nitrogen removal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seil; Choi, Il; Lim, Byung Jin; Kim, Hyunook

    2012-01-01

    In Korea, more than 80% of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with capacities of 500 m3·d-1 or more are capable of removing nitrogen from wastewater through biological nitrification and denitrification processes. Normally, these biological processes show excellent performance, but if a toxic chemical is present in the influent to a WWTP, the biological processes (especially, the nitrification process) may be affected and fail to function normally; nitrifying bacteria are known very vulnerable to toxic substances. Then, the toxic compound as well as the nitrogen in wastewater may be discharged into a receiving water body without any proper treatment. Moreover, it may take significant time for the process to return back its normal state. In this study, a DO- and pH-based strategy to identify potential nitrification inhibition was developed to detect early the inflow of toxic compounds to a biological nitrogen removal process. This strategy utilizes significant changes observed in the oxygen uptake rate and the pH profiles of the mixed liquor when the activity of nitrifying bacteria is inhibited. Using the strategy, the toxicity from test wastewater with 2.5 mg·L-1 Hg2+, 0.5 mg·L-1 allythiourea, or 0.25 mg·L-1 chloroform could be successfully detected. PMID:23443381

  12. RegenBase: a knowledge base of spinal cord injury biology for translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Alison; Abeyruwan, Saminda W.; Al-Ali, Hassan; Sakurai, Kunie; Ferguson, Adam R.; Popovich, Phillip G.; Shah, Nigam H.; Visser, Ubbo; John L Bixby; Lemmon, Vance P.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) research is a data-rich field that aims to identify the biological mechanisms resulting in loss of function and mobility after SCI, as well as develop therapies that promote recovery after injury. SCI experimental methods, data and domain knowledge are locked in the largely unstructured text of scientific publications, making large scale integration with existing bioinformatics resources and subsequent analysis infeasible. The lack of standard reporting for experiment...

  13. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring in Selected Wetlands of Wyoming: Biologically Active Elements Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, water and biota were collected from selected wetlands in Wyoming for the Biologically Active Elements (BAE) Study in 1988, 1989 and 1990 to identify...

  14. STUDIES OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY BY PATTERN RECOGNITION METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attempt to rationalize the connections between the molecular structures of organic compounds and their biological activities comprises the field of structure-activity relations (SAR) studies. Correlations between structure and activity are important for the understanding and ...

  15. Neutron scattering and diffraction instrument for structural study on biology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering and diffraction instruments in Japan which can be used for structural studies in biology are briefly introduced. Main specifications and general layouts of the instruments are shown.

  16. Aber-OWL: a framework for ontology-based data access in biology

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-01-28

    Background: Many ontologies have been developed in biology and these ontologies increasingly contain large volumes of formalized knowledge commonly expressed in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Computational access to the knowledge contained within these ontologies relies on the use of automated reasoning. Results: We have developed the Aber-OWL infrastructure that provides reasoning services for bio-ontologies. Aber-OWL consists of an ontology repository, a set of web services and web interfaces that enable ontology-based semantic access to biological data and literature. Aber-OWL is freely available at http://aber-owl.net. Conclusions: Aber-OWL provides a framework for automatically accessing information that is annotated with ontologies or contains terms used to label classes in ontologies. When using Aber-OWL, access to ontologies and data annotated with them is not merely based on class names or identifiers but rather on the knowledge the ontologies contain and the inferences that can be drawn from it.

  17. A microfluidic chemical/biological sensing system based on membrane dissolution and optical absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharamurthy, Sudheer S.; Dong, Liang; Jiang, Hongrui

    2007-01-01

    A microfluidic system to sense chemical and biological analytes using membranes dissolvable by the analyte is demonstrated. The scheme to detect the dissolution of the membrane is based on the difference in optical absorption of the membrane and the fluidic sample being assayed. The presence of the analyte in the sample chemically cleaves the membrane and causes the sample to flow into the membrane area. This causes a change in the optical absorption of the path between the light source and detector. A device comprising the microfluidic channels and the membrane is microfabricated using liquid-phase photopolymerization. A light emitting diode (LED) and a detector with an integrated amplifier are positioned and aligned on either side of the device. The state of the membrane is continuously monitored after introducing the sample. The temporal dissolution characteristics of the membrane are extracted in terms of the output voltage of the detector as a function of time. This is used to determine the concentration of the analyte. The absorption spectra of the membrane and fluidic sample are studied to determine the optimal wavelength that provides the maximum difference in absorbance between the membrane and the sample. In this work, the dissolution of a poly(acrylamide) hydrogel membrane in the presence of a reducing agent (dithiothreitol—DTT) is used as a model system. For this system, with 1 M DTT, complete membrane dissolution occurred after 65 min.

  18. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence, imaging and elemental mapping from biological samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D V Rao; M Swapna; R Cesareo; A Brunetti; T Akatsuka; T Yuasa; T Takeda; G E Gigante

    2011-02-01

    The present study utilized the new hard X-ray microspectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at NSLS, BNL, USA, for elemental mapping. This facility provided the primary beam in a small spot of the order of ∼ 10 m, for focussing. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, the synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescent intensities for Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ti and Cu were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The sample is scanned in a `step-and-repeat’ mode for fast elemental mapping measurements and generated elemental maps at 8, 10 and 12 keV, from a small animal shell (snail). The accumulated trace elements, from these biological samples, in small areas have been identified. Analysis of the small areas will be better suited to establish the physiology of metals in specific structures like small animal shell and the distribution of other elements.

  19. Study Reveals Brain Biology behind Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    A new neuroscience twist on a classic psychology study offers some clues to what makes one student able to buckle down for hours of homework before a test while his classmates party. The study published in the September 2011 edition of "Proceedings of the National Academy of Science," suggests environmental cues may "hijack" the brain's mechanisms…

  20. Applications of continuum mechanics : computational studies in biological and discrete systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yik-sau; 鄧亦修

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts: part A and part B. Part A mainly focused on the biological systems while part B emphasized on discrete systems. Both studies can be applied readily in the scientific world. Part A: Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Biological Systems Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases are life threatening diseases, and are leading causes of death and disability in the civilized world. Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD), a form of cardiovascular disease...

  1. Physicochemical and biological study of a renal scintigraphy agent: the DMSA - 99mTc complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis deals with the study of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) marked with 99mTc, a recently developed scintigraphy agent used for the kidney isotopic exploration. The author notably studied the relationships between the physicochemical properties of solutions of dimercaptosuccinic acid marked with 99mTc and the biological distribution of 99mTc in order to reach a better understanding of the biological mechanism which results in technetium fixation to the kidney

  2. Affective variables as predictors of biology achievement: A study on 11th grade students

    OpenAIRE

    Alpmen Ayten

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of the gender, self-efficacy beliefs, task value, and learning strategies to the 11th grade students’ biology achievement. A total of 1035 students from different high schools in Yenimahalle and Çankaya districts of Ankara participated in the study. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire [21], (MSLQ) and Biology Achievement Test (BAT) were used to collect data. Results of the the simultaneous multiple regression analysis i...

  3. A systems biology approach for the study of smoking and myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics has been proven to be a powerful tool to study complex phenotypes. It can present a snapshot of the current status of metabolism and provide a functional readout of the gene products. Complementing with other ‘omics’ techniques in systems biology studies, the integration of metabolomics with other ‘omics’, e.g. trancriptomics and epigenomics, will help to illustrate complex biological processes which are related to disease and environmental exposure. This thesis presents three...

  4. 07131 Abstracts Collection -- Similarity-based Clustering and its Application to Medicine and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara; Verleysen, Michel; Villmann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    From 25.03. to 30.03.2007, the Dagstuhl Seminar 07131 ``Similarity-based Clustering and its Application to Medicine and Biology'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. T...

  5. Biological Significance of Gene Expression Data using Similarity based Biclustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Bagyamani J; Thangavel; Rathipriya R

    2011-01-01

    Unlocking the complexity of a living organism’s biological processes, functionsand genetic network is vital in learning how to improve the health of humankind.Genetic analysis, especially biclustering, is a significant step in this process.Though many biclustering methods exist, only few provide a query basedapproach for biologists to search the biclusters which contain a certain gene ofinterest. This proposed query based biclustering algorithm SIMBIC+ firstidentifies a functionally rich quer...

  6. An ontology-based approach to systems biology literature retrieval and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Anália; Simões, Alberto; Almeida, J. J.; Rocha, Miguel; Rocha, I; Ferreira, E. C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details the SysBio Explorer, a Systems Biology Literature Retrieval and Processing Framework, whose aim relies on the automatic inference of regulatory and metabolic networks based on biomedical literature. The SysBio Explorer does not focus on any organism or problem in particular and encompasses a number of processing and analysis techniques. It works over full-text documents, applying Natural Language Processing techniques and using biomedical dictionaries and ontologies togethe...

  7. Peptide-Based, Two-Fluorophore, Ratiometric Probe for Quantifying Mobile Zinc in Biological Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Daniel Y.; Azrad, Maria; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Frederickson, Christopher J.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Radford, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Small-molecule fluorescent sensors are versatile agents for detecting mobile zinc in biology. Capitalizing on the abundance of validated mobile zinc probes, we devised a strategy for repurposing existing intensity-based sensors for quantitative applications. Using solid-phase peptide synthesis, we conjugated a zinc-sensitive Zinpyr-1 derivative and a zinc-insensitive 7-hydroxycoumarin derivative onto opposite ends of a rigid P9K peptide scaffold to create HcZ9, a ratiometric fluorescent probe...

  8. COMPARISON OF TWO BIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF RIVER WATER QUALITY BASED ON MACROZOOBENTHOS

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Kerovec; Zlatko Mihaljević

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the results of two macrozoobenthos analysis based indices (Saprobic Index and Extended Biotic Index) are used as biological indicators in the assessment of river water quality. The objective of the paper is to establish the extent to which the results of these methods are comparable. The results indicate that both indices are suitable for assessing the quality of river water in the Croatian hydrographic network. Major deviations were only detected in xenosaprobic waters,...

  9. Human Cancer Classification: A Systems Biology- Based Model Integrating Morphology, Cancer Stem Cells, Proteomics, and Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday A Idikio

    2011-01-01

    Human cancer classification is currently based on the idea of cell of origin, light and electron microscopic attributes of the cancer. What is not yet integrated into cancer classification are the functional attributes of these cancer cells. Recent innovative techniques in biology have provided a wealth of information on the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes in cancer cells. The emergence of the concept of cancer stem cells needs to be included in a classification model to capture...

  10. Study on the uptake and distribution of gadolinium based contrast agents in biological samples using laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme und Verteilung von gadoliniumbasierten Kontrastmitteln in biologischen Proben mittels Laserablation mit induktiv gekoppelter Plasma-Massenspektrometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingott, Jana

    2016-01-05

    Gadolinium based contrast agents are used for magnetic resonance imaging. After their excretion by medicated patients they reach surface water passing waste water treatment plants where they are not removed sufficiently. The behavior of the contrast agents in the environment and the interaction with organisms was investigated in this work due to the toxicity of the free Gd{sup 3+} ion and the associated risks, such as accumulation in the human food chain. In this work, the two elemental analytical imaging methods laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) have been used to investigate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of Gd-based contrast agents by various biological systems. Both methods were analytically characterized and compared for this application. The detection limits of gadolinium were determined under optimized conditions by LA-ICP-MS and SRXRF. With calibration by remains of dried elemental standard droplets detection limits of 0.78 pg absolute amount of gadolinium (LA-ICP-MS), respectively 89 pg (SRXRF) were reached. Based on filamentous algae as water plants the uptake and the excretion of Gd-based contrast agents were revealed. The dependence on concentration of the contrast agent in the exposition solution and the independence of temporal uptake within one to seven days were studied for duckweed. By LA-ICP-MS gadolinium was quantified in a leaf of cress plant. The verification of the results was performed by SRXRF and ICP-MS after digestion. Furthermore, the uptake and distribution of Gd-based contrast agents in higher organisms (water flea) were observed. The exact location of gadolinium was resolved by three-dimensional μ-computed tomography by the comparison of an exposed with a Gd-free water flea. In all studies, gadolinium was detected in the investigated exposed model organisms. It can be concluded that the contrast agents were taken from the

  11. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  12. Studying chemical reactions in biological systems with MBN Explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sushko, Gennady B.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Verkhovtsev, Alexey V.;

    2016-01-01

    The concept of molecular mechanics force field has been widely accepted nowadays for studying various processes in biomolecular systems. In this paper, we suggest a modification for the standard CHARMM force field that permits simulations of systems with dynamically changing molecular topologies....... applied for studying processes where rupture of chemical bonds plays an essential role, e.g., in irradiation- or collision-induced damage, and also in transformation and fragmentation processes involving biomolecular systems....

  13. Logarithmic rate based elasto-viscoplastic cyclic constitutive model for soft biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yilin; Kang, Guozheng; Yu, Chao; Poh, Leong Hien

    2016-08-01

    Based on the logarithmic rate and piecewise linearization theory, a thermodynamically consistent elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is developed in the framework of finite deformations to describe the nonlinear time-dependent biomechanical performances of soft biological tissues, such as nonlinear anisotropic monotonic stress-strain responses, stress relaxation, creep and ratchetting. In the proposed model, the soft biological tissue is assumed as a typical composites consisting of an isotropic matrix and anisotropic fiber aggregation. Accordingly, the free energy function and stress tensor are divided into two parts related to the matrix and fiber aggregation, respectively. The nonlinear biomechanical responses of the tissues are described by the piecewise linearization theory with hypo-elastic relations of fiber aggregation. The evolution equations of viscoplasticity are formulated from the dissipation inequalities by the co-directionality hypotheses. The anisotropy is considered in the hypo-elastic relations and viscoplastic flow rules by introducing some material parameters dependent on the loading direction. Then the capability of the proposed model to describe the nonlinear time-dependent deformation of soft biological tissues is verified by comparing the predictions with the corresponding experimental results of three tissues. It is seen that the predicted monotonic stress-strain responses, stress relaxation, creep and ratchetting of soft biological tissues are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones. PMID:27108349

  14. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Nyamukondiwa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  15. Investigative strategy for research on biological basis of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome: feature selection-based data mining methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-xin Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to discussing two research patterns of biological basis of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome and presenting a research strategy for data mining methods. It points out that data mining methods which are based on feature selection are better fit for investigating biological basis of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome. Based on such a discussion, the concept of “characteristic pattern” is proposed to bridge the gap between “golden index” and biological basis of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome. This paper presents a novel research avenue for investigating biological basis of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome.

  16. NEW BIOLOGICAL DIETARY FEED SUPPLEMENT FOR LAYING HENS WITH MICROELEMENTS BASED ON DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Witkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the applicability of enriched duckweed (Lemna minor as a dietary supplement witch microelements is reported. In our previous studies, the technology of new feed additives with microelements based on duckweed biomass was elaborated. Here, we report the evaluation of the properties of a new product. The effect of duckweed enriched with microelements on the productivity parameters of laying hens was studied in zootechnical research. Birds feed was supplemented with duckweed enriched by biosorption process with microelements (Cu(II, Zn(II, Co(II, Cr(III. In the feeding experiment, laying hens were divided into four experimental groups and one control group. The feeding experiment was conducted for 41 days. Samples of egg yolk, albumen, eggshells, blood, feathers and droppings were collected and the content of metal ions was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulizer. The amount of a given microelement transferred into the egg yolk and egg white was calculated. The eggshells thicknesses were measured with micrometer screw. The research showed that enriched Lemna minor improved the egg quality parameters. In all experimental groups, the increase of eggshell thickness was observed. In three of four experimental groups of hens, fed with diet containing biological form of microelements (Co(II, Zn(II, Cr(III, the quantity of given microelement in the egg content increased. Therefore, the biosorption process can be applied not only for the supplementation of microelements in hens feed, but also to produce eggs biofortified with microelements-new functional food for human.

  17. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Fakhari; Amir Jalilian; Fariba Johari-daha; Mehdi Shafiee-Ardestani; Ali Khalaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga).Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies,...

  18. The chemical fate of the Cd/Se/Te-based quantum dot 705 in the biological system: toxicity implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C-H; Chang, Louis W; Lai, W-H; Chang, W-H; Lin Pinpin [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan (China); Chang Han [Department of Pathology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yang, M-H [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Yang, C-S [Center for Nanomedicine Research, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: pplin@nhri.org.tw

    2009-05-27

    QD705 is a cadmium/selenium/tellurium (Cd/Se/Te)-based quantum dot with good potential for biomedical applications. Although the biological fate of QD705 is established, its chemical fate in the biological system is still unknown. Since the chemical nature of Cd in QD705 (either stays as bounded Cd or becomes free Cd) is closely related to the toxicity of this nanocrystal, information on its chemical fate is critically needed. In this study we investigated the chemical fate of QD705 in the kidneys of mice. We used the molar ratio of Cd and Te (increased Cd/Te ratio signifies increased Cd release from QD705) and the induction of tissue metallothionein (MT) as markers for elevated free Cd in tissues. Our study indicated that 100% of QD705 (measured as Cd) was still retained in the body 16 weeks after exposure, with significant time redistribution to the kidneys. Furthermore, there were an elevation in both the molar Cd/Te ratio and MT-1 expression in the kidneys, suggesting that free Cd was released from QD705. Thus QD705 is not as stable or biologically inert as many may have once believed. Our study demonstrated that free Cd indeed can be released from QD705 in the kidneys and increases the risk of renal toxicity.

  19. The chemical fate of the Cd/Se/Te-based quantum dot 705 in the biological system: toxicity implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QD705 is a cadmium/selenium/tellurium (Cd/Se/Te)-based quantum dot with good potential for biomedical applications. Although the biological fate of QD705 is established, its chemical fate in the biological system is still unknown. Since the chemical nature of Cd in QD705 (either stays as bounded Cd or becomes free Cd) is closely related to the toxicity of this nanocrystal, information on its chemical fate is critically needed. In this study we investigated the chemical fate of QD705 in the kidneys of mice. We used the molar ratio of Cd and Te (increased Cd/Te ratio signifies increased Cd release from QD705) and the induction of tissue metallothionein (MT) as markers for elevated free Cd in tissues. Our study indicated that 100% of QD705 (measured as Cd) was still retained in the body 16 weeks after exposure, with significant time redistribution to the kidneys. Furthermore, there were an elevation in both the molar Cd/Te ratio and MT-1 expression in the kidneys, suggesting that free Cd was released from QD705. Thus QD705 is not as stable or biologically inert as many may have once believed. Our study demonstrated that free Cd indeed can be released from QD705 in the kidneys and increases the risk of renal toxicity.

  20. Nitric Oxide Diffusion Attributes in Biological And Artificial Environments: A Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio García Báez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computational study on the dynamic of nitric oxide (NO in both the biological and artificial environments, by means the analysis of important nitric oxide diffusion attributes, which are defined in this work. We apply the compartmental model of NO diffusion as a formal tool, using a computational neuroscience point of view. The main objective is the analyses of the emergence and dynamic of complex structures, essentially diffusion neighbourhood (DNB, in environments with volume transmission (VT. The study is performed by the observation of the NO diffusion attributes, the NO directionality (NOD, the average influence (AI and the center of DNB (CDNB. We present a study of the influences and dependences with respect to associated features to the NO synthesis-diffusion process, and to the different environments where it spreads (non-isotropy and non-homogeneity. The paper is structured into three sets of experiences which cover the aforementioned aspects: influence of the NO synthesis process, isolated and multiple processes, influence of distance to the element where NO is synthesized, and influence of features of the diffusion environment. The developments have been performed in mono bi-and three-dimensional environments, with endothelial cell features. The study contributes the needed formalism to management the dynamic of NO in artificial an biological environments also to quantify the information representation capacity that a type of NO diffusion-based signaling presents and their implications in many other underlying neural mechanisms, such as neural recruitment, synchronization of computations between neurons and in the brain activity in general.

  1. Comparative systems biology between human and animal models based on next-generation sequencing methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qi ZHAO; Gong-Hua LI; Jing-Fei HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Animal models provide myriad benefits to both experimental and clinical research.Unfortunately,in many situations,they fall short of expected results or provide contradictory results.In part,this can be the result of traditional molecular biological approaches that are relatively inefficient in elucidating underlying molecular mechanism.To improve the efficacy of animal models,a technological breakthrough is required.The growing availability and application of the high-throughput methods make systematic comparisons between human and animal models easier to perform.In the present study,we introduce the concept of the comparative systems biology,which we define as "comparisons of biological systems in different states or species used to achieve an integrated understanding of life forms with all their characteristic complexity of interactions at multiple levels".Furthermore,we discuss the applications of RNA-seq and ChIP-seq technologies to comparative systems biology between human and animal models and assess the potential applications for this approach in the future studies.

  2. Aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiology of bulimia nervosa: biological bases and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, F

    2001-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by recurrent episodes of binge eating and associated efforts to purge the ingested calories through self-induced vomiting, laxative or diuretic abuse, fasting or intensive exercise. The aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiology of the disorder are currently unclear. Biological bases have been proposed repeatedly, based on several lines of evidence: hunger, satiety and food choice are regulated by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, and impairment of eating habits may be related to alterations in the secretion of these chemicals; genetic studies suggest that these neurotransmitter systems are dysfunctional in individuals with bulimia nervosa; and the frequent comorbidity of bulimia nervosa with major depressive and obsessive-compulsive disorders, conditions in which multiple alterations of brain biochemical functions have been demonstrated. Data in the literature suggest that levels of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) are lower in individuals with bulimia nervosa than in healthy controls. Levels of dopamine are similar to, or lower than, those in controls. After remission of the disorder, noradrenergic function returns to that seen in controls, whereas dopaminergic and serotonergic function rebound to levels higher than in controls. Among the neuropeptides, alterations in the levels of neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, beta-endorphin, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, somatostatin, cholecystokinin and vasopressin have been found in the symptomatic phase of bulimia nervosa, with a return to levels seen in controls after remission. Pharmacological treatment of bulimia nervosa that is directed at correction of the neurochemical alterations observed is difficult because of the complexity of the impairments. However, such treatment is necessary and should be continued long after symptomatic remission to ensure reinstitution of cerebral biochemical homeostasis. PMID:11460890

  3. Trait-based representation of biological nitrification: Model development, testing, and predicted community composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NickBouskill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Trait-based microbial models show clear promise as tools to represent the diversity and activity of microorganisms across ecosystem gradients. These models parameterize specific traits that determine the relative fitness of an ‘organism’ in a given environment, and represent the complexity of biological systems across temporal and spatial scales. In this study we introduce a microbial community trait-based modeling framework (MicroTrait focused on nitrification (MicroTrait-N that represents the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB using traits related to enzyme kinetics and physiological properties. We used this model to predict nitrifier diversity, ammonia (NH3 oxidation rates and nitrous oxide (N2O production across pH, temperature and substrate gradients. Predicted nitrifier diversity was predominantly determined by temperature and substrate availability, the latter was strongly influenced by pH. The model predicted that transient N2O production rates are maximized by a decoupling of the AOB and NOB communities, resulting in an accumulation and detoxification of nitrite to N2O by AOB. However, cumulative N2O production (over six month simulations is maximized in a system where the relationship between AOB and NOB is maintained. When the reactions uncouple, the AOB become unstable and biomass declines rapidly, resulting in decreased NH3 oxidation and N2O production. We evaluated this model against site level chemical datasets from the interior of Alaska and accurately simulated NH3 oxidation rates and the relative ratio of AOA:AOB biomass. The predicted community structure and activity indicate (a parameterization of a small number of traits may be sufficient to broadly characterize nitrifying community structure and (b changing decadal trends in climate and edaphic conditions could impact nitrification rates in ways that are not captured by extant biogeochemical models.

  4. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Heum; Kim, Jin Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground.

  5. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground

  6. Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation of Schiff Bases of 5-Acyl-1,2,4-Triazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and general method has been developed for the synthesis of various Schiff bases (oximes, hydrazones, semicarbazones and thiosemicarbazones) derived from 5-acyl-1,2,4-triazines. Some of the new synthesized Schiff bases were tested for biological activity but only oximes 2a-c shown poor antiviral activity. The oxime derivatives of 5-acyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1,2,4-triazine were tested with pea-seedling diamine oxidase as the enzyme is known to be inhibited by oxime compounds. However, only weak non-competitive inhibitory effects were observed (Ki of 10 /sup -2/ M). (author)

  7. Biological Technologies for Life Beyond Low Earth Orbit (BT4LBLEO): Study Introductions and Synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The study will address the following mission concerns: -Extended human presence in the environments of deep space as well as the Moon and Mars will require a solid biological understanding of the integrated effects of diminished gravity, enhanced radiation, and transit- and destination-specific variables from the sub-cellular to the whole organism level. -Biological and associated technologies for biological and robotic precursor missions to realize future objectives for space colonization. -Surfaces, gravity levels, radiation environments, and atmospheres of these nearest neighbors are radically different in chemical and geological make-up from those on our home planet, and all of these contributory effects must be considered.

  8. Biological studies of radiolabeled glucose analogues iodinated in positions 3, 4 or 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, Pascale; Ghezzi, Catherine; Ogier, Lionel; Abbadi, Medhi; Morin, Christophe; Mathieu, Jean-Paul; Fagret, Daniel E-mail: DFagret@chu-grenoble.fr

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the biological behavior of new radiolabeled glucose analogues proposed as tracers of glucose uptake in vivo and iodinated in position 3, 4, or 6. Biological results obtained in vitro on adipocytes and erythrocytes and in vivo in mice were compared to those obtained with the gold-standard tracer of glucose uptake, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. None of these molecules had the same biological behavior than 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Therefore, these compounds cannot be considered as tracers of glucose uptake.

  9. Studies on the biological effects of deuteriated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antifungal activity of some perdeuterated fatty acids with a normal chain of 11 to 18 carbon atoms was investigated on common dermatophytes Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum under in vitro conditions. A perdeuterated compound is one in which most of the hydrogen atoms in the molecule are replaced by deuterium. These studies were performed by the dilution technique with respiratory measurements. Perdeuteration of of some fatty acids increases their inhibitory effect on the dermatophyte growth. Perdeuterated n-hendecanoic acid proved to be the most active of the substances tested. Possible mechanisms behind the enhanced antifungal activity due to the perdeuteration of fatty acids are discussed. The present study investigates the antifungal properties of some perdeuterated fatty acids on dermatophytes in vitro

  10. Synthesis labeling and biological studies of 16-131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing interest in obtaining radiopharmaceuticals for metabolic imaging of heart muscle led us to prepare 16-IODINE HEXADECANOIC ACID by tosilation of the corresponding hydroxy acid, following iodination with NaI and finally, introducing radioiodine (Na131I) by isotopic exchange reaction. The reaction products were identified by determination of melting point, elementary and spectroscopic analysis such as infra-red absortion and magnetic nuclear resonance. The radiopharmaceutical after radiochemical and other specific control procedures for injetable such as sterility and apyrogenicity, was firstly utilized in dogs: preferencial uptake by the heart, as well as by the liver was confirmed. Then, studies in patients with or without heart diseases were performed. The biodistribution of 16-131I-HEXADECANOIC ACID was carried out in Wistar rats. The scintigraphic images in animals and in humans demonstrated that 16-131-HEXADECANOIC ACID is suitable for studying viable areas as well as energetic exchange of heart muscle. (author)

  11. Biological studies with continuous-wave radiofrequency (28 MHz) radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of high-frequency (28 MHz) continous-wave radiation have been studied in the rat and monkey. No histopathological or hematological changes could be attributed to the radiation. In the monkey there was an increase in urinary calcium concentration which was most likely due to restricted movement. In the rat there was reduced uptake of iodine by the thyroid, lower levels of plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone, and reduced ratio of protein bound to nonprotein bound iodine. Food consumption was also decreased. The changes are likely to have arisen as a compensatory response to an induced heat load. A nonthermal effect of continuous-wave high-frequency radiation has not been shown in this study. The effects were likely to be associated with either physiological compensation for induced heating or restriction of movement

  12. Study on biologically active substances in irradiated apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiochemical changes proceeding by irradiation of foodstuffs rich in carbohydrates are studied. For the purpose pure solutions of D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose and fresh apple juice, irradiated with 0,5 and 1,0 Mrad are investigated. Changes set in UV-spectra of the irradiated foodstuffs, the specific reaction of malonic dialdehyde formation with 2-thiobarbituric acid and the formation of carbonyl compounds reacting with 2,4-dinitro phenylhydrazine are studied. Results show that in the irradiated sample solutions of sugars and apple juice two peaks are formed. The malonic dialdehyde formation depends on the dose of irradiation applied. The newly formed carbonyl compounds both in the sample solutions and in the juice are 8 to 9 in number. (author)

  13. A Zebrafish Model for Studies on Esophageal Epithelial Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hao; Beasley, Andrea; Hu, Yuhui; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian esophagus exhibits a remarkable change in epithelial structure during the transition from embryo to adult. However, the molecular mechanisms of esophageal epithelial development are not well understood. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a common model organism for vertebrate development and gene function, has not previously been characterized as a model system for esophageal epithelial development. In this study, we characterized a piece of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium simi...

  14. Biological Studies on groundwater Crustaceans in Southwest Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Könemann, Stefan

    1997-01-01

    In 1987 a major biospeleogical expedition, ‘Speleo Nederland’, was carried out along the coastal Taurus mountains in southwest Anatolia (Turkey). ‘Speleo Nederland’ was focused on collecting the fauna of caves, wells, subterranean waterflows, and the interstices of marine gravel beaches. The special yield of stygobiont crustaceans, predominantly amphipods of the genus Bogidiella, promised to serve as an interesting case study to the colonization of inland groundwater by marine organisms. Now,...

  15. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and QSAR Studies of Newer Isoxazole Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asirvatham, Sahaya; Mahajan, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    A series of newer 3-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-5-substituted phenylisoxazoles derivatives have been synthesized by reacting hydroxylamine hydrochloride with chalcones. The chalcones were formed by reacting different aromatic aldehydes with 4-methoxyacetophenone in presence of aqueos potassium hydroxide (KOH). The purity of all the synthesized compounds was checked by recording their melting points and the retention Factors (Rf) values from thin layer chromatography. The structures of the compounds were characterized by recording their infrared (IR) spectra and confirmed by recording their nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra. The acute toxicity study was carried out on all the synthesized compounds and they were screened for their antiinflammatory activity by carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. Anti-inflammatory studies showed statistically significant activity when compared to the control, indomethacin. The two most potent compounds giving good anti-inflammatory activity were further evaluated for their antiulcer activity. The compounds were subjected to quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) studies. A close correlation between the observed and the predicted anti-inflammatory activity (Log % inhibition) for the compounds indicated the development of the best QSAR model. The synthesized compounds were found to be non-ulcerogenic as compared to the standard, aspirin. PMID:26265199

  16. The effects of problem-based learning on the self-efficacy and attitudes of beginning biology majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Adel Mohammad

    The problem of low persistence of science majors has resulted in calls for changes in undergraduate instruction toward environments that foster positive self-efficacy among beginning science majors. Low science self-efficacy and poor attitudes toward science may contribute to high attrition rates of science majors. Classroom environments that foster positive self-efficacy development include pedagogies that promote authentic learning contexts and involve collaborative learning teams. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional model that attempts to create both conditions and may provide every source of information needed for the development of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological states) as postulated by Albert Bandura. The degree to which these sources of self-efficacy are delivered to individuals within a PBL group may depend on how the group members interact and how students perceive the PBL process itself. This study examined the development of biology self-efficacy and attitudes among biology majors in a PBL setting and in a traditional lecture-based setting. Specifically, this project investigated changes in students' biology self-efficacy beliefs, mediating aspects of PBL in self-efficacy development, the relationship between PBL processes and group collective efficacy, the predictive nature of entering self-efficacy levels on attitudes toward PBL and mid-term grades, and changes in student attitudes toward biology. The study design was quasi-experimental and included quantitative pre- and post-surveys, qualitative interviews, and classroom observations. Findings revealed that students enrolled in a PBL class exhibited greater gains in biology self-efficacy and were likely to report more favorable attitudes toward biology compared to students enrolled in a traditional class. The aspects of PBL that most accounted for these findings were students' ownership of the learning process, their

  17. Development and testing of new biologically-based polymers as advanced biocompatible contact lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2000-06-01

    Nature has evolved complex and elegant materials well suited to fulfill a myriad of functions. Lubricants, structural scaffolds and protective sheaths can all be found in nature, and these provide a rich source of inspiration for the rational design of materials for biomedical applications. Many biological materials are based in some fashion on hydrogels, the crosslinked polymers that absorb and hold water. Biological hydrogels contribute to processes as diverse as mineral nucleation during bone growth and protection and hydration of the cell surface. The carbohydrate layer that coats all living cells, often referred to as the glycocalyx, has hydrogel-like properties that keep cell surfaces well hydrated, segregated from neighboring cells, and resistant to non-specific protein deposition. With the molecular details of cell surface carbohydrates now in hand, adaptation of these structural motifs to synthetic materials is an appealing strategy for improving biocompatibility. The goal of this collaborative project between Prof. Bertozzi's research group, the Center for Advanced Materials at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sunsoft Corporation was the design, synthesis and characterization of novel hydrogel polymers for improved soft contact lens materials. Our efforts were motivated by the urgent need for improved materials that allow extended wear, and essential feature for those whose occupation requires the use of contact lenses rather than traditional spectacles. Our strategy was to transplant the chemical features of cell surface molecules into contact lens materials so that they more closely resemble the tissue in which they reside. Specifically, we integrated carbohydrate molecules similar to those found on cell surfaces, and sulfoxide materials inspired by the properties of the carbohydrates, into hydrogels composed of biocompatible and manufacturable substrates. The new materials were characterized with respect to surface and bulk hydrophilicity

  18. Bottom-up engineering of biological systems through standard bricks: a modularity study on basic parts and devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pasotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modularity is a crucial issue in the engineering world, as it enables engineers to achieve predictable outcomes when different components are interconnected. Synthetic Biology aims to apply key concepts of engineering to design and construct new biological systems that exhibit a predictable behaviour. Even if physical and measurement standards have been recently proposed to facilitate the assembly and characterization of biological components, real modularity is still a major research issue. The success of the bottom-up approach strictly depends on the clear definition of the limits in which biological functions can be predictable. RESULTS: The modularity of transcription-based biological components has been investigated in several conditions. First, the activity of a set of promoters was quantified in Escherichia coli via different measurement systems (i.e., different plasmids, reporter genes, ribosome binding sites relative to an in vivo reference promoter. Second, promoter activity variation was measured when two independent gene expression cassettes were assembled in the same system. Third, the interchangeability of input modules (a set of constitutive promoters and two regulated promoters connected to a fixed output device (a logic inverter expressing GFP was evaluated. The three input modules provide tunable transcriptional signals that drive the output device. If modularity persists, identical transcriptional signals trigger identical GFP outputs. To verify this, all the input devices were individually characterized and then the input-output characteristic of the logic inverter was derived in the different configurations. CONCLUSIONS: Promoters activities (referred to a standard promoter can vary when they are measured via different reporter devices (up to 22%, when they are used within a two-expression-cassette system (up to 35% and when they drive another device in a functionally interconnected circuit (up to 44%. This paper

  19. Machine perception and intelligent control architecture for multirobot coordination based on biological principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Braught, Grant

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent control, inspired by biological and AI (artificial intelligence) principles, has increased the understanding of controlling complex processes without precise mathematical model of the controlled process. Through customized applications, intelligent control has demonstrated that it is a step in the right direction. However, intelligent control has yet to provide a complete solution to the problem of integrated manufacturing systems via intelligent reconfiguration of the robotics systems. The aim of this paper is to present an intelligent control architecture and design methodology based on biological principles that govern self-organization of autonomous agents. Two key structural elements of the proposed control architecture have been tested individually on key pilot applications and shown promising results. The proposed intelligent control design is inspired by observed individual and collective biological behavior in colonies of living organisms that are capable of self-organization into groups of specialized individuals capable of collectively achieving a set of prescribed or emerging objectives. The nervous and brain system in the proposed control architecture is based on reinforcement learning principles and conditioning and modeled using adaptive neurocontrollers. Mathematical control theory (e.g. optimal control, adaptive control, and neurocontrol) is used to coordinate the interactions of multiple robotics agents.

  20. Biological study of some labeled C16 fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Busquet, G.; Vidal, M.; Comet, M.; Pernin, C. (C.H.R.U. de Grenoble, 38 - La Tronche (France)); Godart, J.; Benabed, A. (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Bardy, A. (C.E.A.-ORIS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of myocardial, blood, liver and kidney activity is studied in mice after I.V. injection of some labelled C16 fatty acids. With ..omega.. iodo fatty acids, the presence or absence of a double bond and the character Z or E have no influence on the tissue activity. The presence of a triple bond decreases the fixation, modifies the intramyocardial metabolism of the fatty acid and accelerates the rate of decrease of myocardial activity. ..omega.. bromo fatty acid have the same maximal fixation as ..omega.. iodo fatty acid but a more rapid decrease of myocardial activity. ..cap alpha.. iodo fatty acid has a very low myocardial fixation.

  1. Biological study of some labeled C16 fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of myocardial, blood, liver and kidney activity is studied in mice after I.V. injection of some labelled C16 fatty acids. With ω iodo fatty acids, the presence or absence of a double bond and the character Z or E have no influence on the tissue activity. The presence of a triple bond decreases the fixation, modifies the intramyocardial metabolism of the fatty acid and accelerates the rate of decrease of myocardial activity. ω bromo fatty acid have the same maximal fixation as ω iodo fatty acid but a more rapid decrease of myocardial activity. α iodo fatty acid has a very low myocardial fixation

  2. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fakhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga.Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5 at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats.Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320GBq/mmol after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a logP value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65% was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (

  3. Preparation and Biological Study of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Ashraf; Jalilian, Amir R.; Johari-Daha, Fariba; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Khalaj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA-conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga). Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95° C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation, biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats. Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320 GBq/mmol) after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a log P value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65%) was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (<1%) at 30 min after the injection. The data were also confirmed by sequential imaging at 30-90 min following the intravenous injection. Conclusion: The high solubility and anionic properties of the complex led to major renal excretion and low hydroxyapatite uptake; therefore, the complex failed to demonstrate bone imaging behaviors. PMID:27408898

  4. Study of structural model of biological membranes by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, L P

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to study, from the structural point of view, the process of incorporation of various types of hydrophobic compounds into the lamellar phase of liposomes and multilayers of the zwitterionic phospholipid DPPC. X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation, have been used to monitor changes of several bilayer systems. Thermotropic phase transitions as well as the order of the lamellar packing were studied in situ experiments. The behavior of the L beta' and L alpha phases was followed as a function of the water content in dispersions of DPPC multi lamellar vesicles with the addition of the alkaloid Ellipticine in several concentrations. The results showed a decrease in the temperature of the pre-transition as well as that of the main transition (P beta' ->L alpha). The decrease of the lamellar spacing as a function of temperature in the liquid crystalline phase leads to the description of the thermal compression coefficient in the L alpha phase. It wa...

  5. Monovalent monatomic ions in biological environments : insights from computational biophysics studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chao

    2012-01-01

    Monovalent monoatomic ions (Na+, K+, Cl-, H+) are ubiquitously present in biological systems. They are indispensable for various life functions, such as keeping the heart beating and converting the energy from food. Complementary to experiments, molecular simulations indeed provide a computational microscope to probe the structure, dynamics and energetics of these ions in biological environments. One big challenge of computational studies is to accurately model the potential energy surface of...

  6. Gene Ontology Analysis of GWA Study Data Sets Provides Insights into the Biology of Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Holmans, Peter; Green, Elaine K; Pahwa, Jaspreet Singh; Ferreira, Manuel A.R.; Purcell, Shaun M; Sklar, Pamela; Owen, Michael J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for testing overrepresentation of biological pathways, indexed by gene-ontology terms, in lists of significant SNPs from genome-wide association studies. This method corrects for linkage disequilibrium between SNPs, variable gene size, and multiple testing of nonindependent pathways. The method was applied to the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium Crohn disease (CD) data set. At a general level, the biological basis of CD is relatively well known for a complex genetic ...

  7. Social inclusion enhances biological motion processing: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Bolling, Danielle Z.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Kaiser, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    Humans are especially tuned to the movements of other people. Neural correlates of this social attunement have been proposed to lie in and around the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) region, which robustly responds to biological motion in contrast to a variety of non-biological motions. This response persists even when no form information is provided, as in point-light displays (PLDs). The aim of the current study was to assess the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscop...

  8. Preparation of ferric-activated sludge-based adsorbent from biological sludge for tetracycline removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Xu, Guoren; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Ferric activation was novelly used to produce sludge-based adsorbent (SBA) from biological sludge through pyrolysis, and the adsorbents were applied to remove tetracycline from aqueous solution. The pyrolysis temperature and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) greatly influenced the surface area and pore characteristics of SBA. Ferric activation could promote the porous structure development of adsorbents, and the optimum preparation conditions were pyrolysis temperature 750°C and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) 0.5. In batch experiments, ferric-activated SBA showed a higher adsorption capacity for tetracycline than non-activated SBA, because the enhanced mesoporous structure favored the diffusion of tetracycline into the pores, the iron oxides and oxygen-containing functional groups in the adsorbents captured tetracycline by surface complexation. The results indicate that ferric activation is an effective approach for preparing adsorbents from biological sludge to remove tetracycline, providing a potential option for waste resource recovery. PMID:27038265

  9. Biological dosimeter for UV-radiation and alpha particles, based on DNA damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bioluminescence method for determination of biologically relevant (DNA damaging) doses of UV-radiation and alpha particles is developed. The method is based on bacterial luminescence as a bio-marker regulated by the SOS system. Cultures of E. coli cells transformed with the plasmid pPSL1 which carries the lux gene under control of the col promotor, an SOS-controlling gene, is used. The lux gene encode the enzyme luciferase which takes part in the reaction, resulting in the emission of a visible light at 490 nm. The light output is measured by photomultiplier and one channel analyzer. SOS-response kinetic curves of bacteria, UV-irradiated and treated with alpha particles, are obtained. An assessment of the risk from solar UV-radiation is made. The method has the sensitivity required to be used as biological UV-dosimeter (author)

  10. Biological Actions of Artemisinin: Insights from Medicinal Chemistry Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinins have become essential antimalarial drugs for increasingly widespread drug-resistant malaria strains. Although tremendous efforts have been devoted to decipher how this class of molecules works, their exact antimalarial mechanism is still an enigma. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their actions, including alkylation of heme by carbon-centered free radicals, interference with proteins such as the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic calcium ATPase (SERCA, as well as damaging of normal mitochondrial functions. Besides artemisinins, other endoperoxides with various backbones have also been synthesized, some of which showed comparable or even higher antimalarial effects. It is noteworthy that among these artemisinin derivatives, some enantiomers displayed similar in vitro malaria killing efficacy. In this article, the proposed mechanisms of action of artemisinins are reviewed in light of medicinal chemistry findings characterized by efficacy-structure studies, with the hope of gaining more insight into how these potent drugs work.

  11. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Light scattering study of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthan, J.; Netz, U.; Minet, O.; Klose, Annerose D.; Hielscher, A. H.; Scheel, A.; Henniger, J.; Müller, G.

    2002-11-01

    The distribution of light scattered by finger joints is studied in the near-IR region. It is shown that variations in the optical parameters of the tissue (scattering coefficient μs, absorption coefficient μa, and anisotropy factor g) depend on the presence of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At the first stage, the distribution of scattered light was measured in diaphanoscopic experiments. The convolution of a Gaussian error function with the scattering phase function proved to be a good approximation of the data obtained. Then, a new method was developed for the reconstruction of distribution of optical parameters in the finger cross section. Model tests of the quality of this reconstruction method show good results.

  12. Biological studies of Oligonychus punicae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on grapevine cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; Aponte, Orlando; Morales, José; Sanabria, María E; García, Grisaly

    2008-06-01

    Life cycle, fecundity and longevity of the avocado brown mite, Oligonychus punicae (Hirst), were studied on six grapevine cultivars (Tucupita, Villanueva, Red Globe, Sirah, Sauvignon and Chenin Blanc), under laboratory conditions at 27 +/- 2 degrees C, 80 +/- 10% RH, and L12:D12 photoperiod. Mite-infested leaves were collected from vineyards, placed in paper bags and taken to the laboratory. A laboratory mite culture was established using the grape cultivar Criolla Negra as host plant. To elucidate potential effects on avocado brown mite parameters, we assessed levels of secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and polyphenols, of leaves of the six grape cultivars, as well as the thickness of the adaxial cuticle-epidermis. The life cycle of O. punicae differed among cultivars with average values ranging between 8.2 days on Tucupita leaves and 9.1 days on Sirah. Relatively high fecundity was found on Tucupita leaves (2.8 eggs/female/day) during 11.4 oviposition days, while low fecundity values occurred on Sirah and Villanueva leaves, with 0.9 and 1.8 eggs/female/day during 7.9 and 6.7 days, respectively. Average longevity of O. punicae females ranged from 8.1 to 17.5 days on Sirah and Sauvignon leaves, respectively. Intrinsic rate of increase (r (m)) was highest on Sauvignon (0.292) and Tucupita (0.261), and lowest on Sirah (0.146) and Villanueva (0.135). Although significant differences in cuticle-epidermis thickness were detected among the six cultivars, it seemed not to affect mite parameters. Secondary metabolite content also varied between the cultivars. Generally, increasing flavonoid content coincided with decreasing reproductive parameters. The natural plant resistance observed in this study could be useful in the development of an integrated pest management program for mite pests in grape production. PMID:18483791

  13. Molecular biological study on genetic stability of the genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population cytogenetic study has been performed in 1022 healthy subjects and 547 cancer patients to determine baseline frequencies of autosomal rate fragile sites. Out of 17 rare autosomal fragile sites defined in HBM9 (1985), the following six were detected: fra(2)(q11), fra(10)(q25), fra(11)(q13), fra(11)(q23), fra(16)(q22) and fra(17)(q12). Other three new fragile sites were also detected: fra(8)(q24.1), fra(11)(q15.1) and fra(16)(p12.1). They were all distamycin A-inducible and located at the junctions of G/R-bands. The incidence of these autosomal fragile sites was 5% in both healthy subjects and cancer patients. Distamycin A-induced fragile sites may play a role in the etiology of leukemia, myeloproliferative disorders, and gynecological tumors. The present study also examined the mechanism of fragile X expression associated with fragile X syndrome in thymidine-prototrophic and auxotrophic human-mouse somatic cell hybrids. In these hybrid cells, both low and high thymidylate stresses were found to be effective in inducing fragile X expression, even in a hybrid clone that retained a fragile X chromosome as the only human chromosome. An addition of deoxycytidine completely abolished the effect of high thymidylate stress achieved by excess amounts of thymidine. It is concluded that the expression is an intrinsic property of the fragile X mutation resulting from chromosomal change in a special class of replicons with polypurine/polypyrimidine DNA sequence. (Namekawa, K)

  14. Case studies of community college non-science majors: Effects of self-regulatory interventions on biology self-efficacy and biological literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Matthew J.

    Science literacy has been at the heart of current reform efforts in science education. The focus on developing essential skills needed for individual ability to be literate in science has been at the forefront of most K--12 science curricula. Reform efforts have begun to stretch into the postsecondary arena as well, with an ever increasing dialogue regarding the need for attention to science literacy by college students, especially non-science majors. This study set out to investigate how the use of self-regulatory interventions (specifically, goal setting, concept mapping, and reflective writing) affected student biology self-efficacy and biological literacy. This study employed a qualitative research design, analyzing three case studies. Participants in the study received ten self-regulatory interventions as a set of portfolio assignments. Portfolio work was qualitatively analyzed and coded for self-efficacy, as well as evidence of biological literacy. A biology self-efficacy survey was administered pre- and post- to provide a means of self-efficacy data triangulation. Literacy data was supported via a biological literacy rubric, constructed specifically for this study. Results indicated that mastery experiences were the source of biology self-efficacy. Self-efficacy for specific tasks increased over time, and changes in self-efficacy were corroborated by the self-efficacy survey. Students were found to express biological literacy at nominal, functional, or conceptual levels depending on the specific task. This was supported by data from the biological literacy rubric scores. Final conclusions and implications for the study indicated the need for further research with more samples of students in similar and different contexts. Given the fact that the literature in this area is sparse, the results obtained here have only begun to delve into this area of research. Generalization to other biology courses or contexts outside of the one presented in this study was

  15. A Biologically-Based Alternative Water Processor for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Meyer, Caitlin; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, Andrew; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    A wastewater recovery system has been developed that combines novel biological and physicochemical components for recycling wastewater on long duration space missions. Functionally, this Alternative Water Processor (AWP) would replace the Urine Processing Assembly on the International Space Station and reduce or eliminate the need for the multifiltration beds of the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). At its center are two unique game changing technologies: 1) a biological water processor (BWP) to mineralize organic forms of carbon and nitrogen and 2) an advanced membrane processor (Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment) for removal of solids and inorganic ions. The AWP is designed for recycling larger quantities of wastewater from multiple sources expected during future exploration missions, including urine, hygiene (hand wash, shower, oral and shave) and laundry. The BWP utilizes a single-stage membrane-aerated biological reactor for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment (FOST) system uses a combination of forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO), is resistant to biofouling and can easily tolerate wastewaters high in non-volatile organics and solids associated with shower and/or hand washing. The BWP was operated continuously for over 300 days. After startup, the mature biological system averaged 85% organic carbon removal and 44% nitrogen removal, close to maximum based on available carbon. The FOST has averaged 93% water recovery, with a maximum of 98%. If the wastewater is slighty acidified, ammonia rejection is optimal. This paper will provide a description of the technology and summarize results from ground-based testing using real wastewater.

  16. Biological and biochemical studies on irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation aimed to study and overcome two important diseases which attacks potato plant, using some chemical and physical treatments. The first disease was pre harvest brown rot caused by ralstonia solanacearum and the second was post harvest dry rot caused by fusarium oxysporum. The results are summarized as follows: firstly brown rot : 1- Foliar treatment of salicylic acid or calcium chloride on potato plants leads to increasing in plant height and number of potato tubers, since salicylic acid give the highest value of plant height and also calcium chloride give the highest number of potato tubers. Also, this treatment leads to insignificant decreasing in number of potato tubers infected by brown rot. 2- The bacteria ralstonia solanacearum isolated from infected tubers obtained from the project of brown rot, Ministry of agriculture, Egypt, added with irrigate water to the pots this bacteria could infect healthy potato plant and the symptoms of brown rot observed on tubers also pathogenicity test was carried out using seedling of tomato cultivar Gs plants and wilting of tomato plant observed after 10-15 days from injection with R.solanacearum. 3- Concerning D10-value determined from the relation between dose rate of gamma ray (k-rad) and log count of bacterial number it was found that the D10-value for R.solanacearum was 0.25 kGy

  17. Toxin studies using an integrated biophysical and structural biology approach.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, Julie A.; Schroeder, Anne E.; Slade, Andrea Lynn; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Yip, Christopher M. (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-03-01

    Clostridial neurotoxins, such as botulinum and tetanus, are generally thought to invade neural cells through a process of high affinity binding mediated by gangliosides, internalization via endosome formation, and subsequent membrane penetration of the catalytic domain activated by a pH drop in the endosome. This surface recognition and internalization process is still not well understood with regard to what specific membrane features the toxins target, the intermolecular interactions between bound toxins, and the molecular conformational changes that occur as a result of pH lowering. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism of tetanus toxin binding and permeation through the membrane a simple yet representative model was developed that consisted of the ganglioside G{sub tlb} incorporated in a bilayer of cholesterol and DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline). The bilayers were stable over time yet sensitive towards the binding and activity of whole toxin. A liposome leakage study at constant pH as well as with a pH gradient, to mimic the processes of the endosome, was used to elucidate the effect of pH on the toxin's membrane binding and permeation capability. Topographic imaging of the membrane surface, via in situ tapping mode AFM, provided nanoscale characterization of the toxin's binding location and pore formation activity.

  18. Temperature Dependent Studies of Conformational Vibrational Modes of Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelz, A. G.; Pawar, A.

    2001-03-01

    Low frequency vibrational modes of proteins are correlated to conformation and conformational change critical to biochemical activity, however direct measurements of these modes has been impeded by limitations in spectroscopic techniques. We are presently exploring the use of the high sensitivity FIR spectroscopic technique of pulsed terahertz spectroscopy to measure these modes as a function of conformational state. Initial measurements have been preformed using bovine heart cytochrome c and the chromophore of photoactive yellow protein, p-coumaric acid (PCA). We have measured the temperature dependence (77 K - 300 K) of the far infrared absorption (2-100 cm-1) using both solid state and solution samples. Sample preparation techniques to eliminate etalon in the spectra will be discussed. For cytochrome c, a distinct absorption at 10 cm-1 is seen at room temperature that narrows and slightly red shifts as the temperature decreases. For PCA, the FIR absorption remains broad at lower temperatures, with an overall increase in FIR absorption at lower temperatures. We will discuss the implications of these measurements for future studies of conformational dynamics in these proteins.

  19. Cell biological study in multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to determine differences in the expression of cell surface antigens in normal plasma cells and mature myeloma cells. The subjects were 20 patients with multiple myeloma, including 5 A-bomb survivors. Seven normal persons, four with chronic tonsillitis, one with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and two with chronic lymphadenitis served as controls. In the group of myeloma cells, 12 showed mature myeloma cells of VLA-4+/VLA-5+/MPC-1+, and the other 8 showed precursor myeloma cells of VLA-4+/VLA-5-/MPC-1-. In terms of CD56 and CD19, CD56+/CD19- were seen in 13 patients, CD56-/CD19- in 5, and CD56+/CD19+ in 2; none of the patients showed phenotype of CD56-/CD19+. In the control group, all showed VLA-4+/VLA-5+/MPC-1+/CD44+/CD56-/CD19+; phenotype of normal plasma cells was CD38++/CD56-/CD19+ alone, which was not seen in the group of mature myeloma cells. Thus, this type is considered characteristic to normal plasma cells. These findings revealed that the difference in the expression of CD56 and CD19 aids in the identification of myeloma cells from normal plasma cells. (N.K.)

  20. Biological and psychosocial effects of space travel: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Robert Edward Tien Ming

    This dissertation interviewed a single astronaut to explore psychosocial issues relevant to long-duration space travel and how these issues relate to the astronaut's training. It examined the psychological impact of isolation, crew interaction, and the experience of microgravity with the goal of increasing understanding of how to foster crew survivability and positive small group interactions in space (Santy, 1994). It also focused on how to develop possible treatments for crews when they transition back to Earth from the extreme environment of space missions. The astronaut's responses agreed with the literature and the predictions for long-duration space missions except the participant reported no temporary or permanent cognitive or memory deficits due to microgravity exposure. The dissertation identified five frequently endorsed themes including communication, environmental stressors, personal strengths, un-researched problems, and other. The agreement found between the literature and astronaut's responses offer a strong foundation of questions and data that needs to be further studied before conducting research in space or long-duration space missions.

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF STUDENTS’ SCIENTIFIC WRITING OF BIOLOGY EDUCATION OF SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY THROUGH READING PROJECT BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Probosari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how students’ scientific writing skills changed over as they participated in the Reading Project Based Learning (RPjBL model. This action research was conducted by Biology Teacher of Education Program Faculty of Teacher Training and Education in SebelasMaret University. The results show that the scientificwriting level increased on the last writing activities. It was suggested that RPjBL could have a positive impact on students’ scientific writing. Students who experienced the RPjBL emphasized the sentences reflecting the application and used high cognitive level sentences.   

  2. Using Genomics to Study Human Biology and Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Ricard M. (Stanford University School of Medicine)

    2005-04-06

    The Human Genome Project culminated in April 2003 with the finished DNA sequence of all of the human chromosomes. This book of information, particularly in conjunction with the genome sequences of many other organisms, has already begun to revolutionize the way that biomedical scientists study our species. The identification of essentially all of our genes has provided a template upon which researchers can discover basic processes that govern cells, organs, and the whole organism, and to understand the fundamental causes of the diseases that occur when something goes wrong with a gene or a set of genes. The Genome Project has already made it possible to identify the genes that are defective in more than 1,000 rare inherited diseases, and these discoveries have helped to understand the mechanisms of the more common forms of these disorders. This understanding of primary defects in diseases - which is translated as mutations in genes that encode proteins that serve specific functions - is transforming the way that biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies identify drug targets, and a few notable cases have already had a striking impact on specific diseases. In addition, it has become clear that the differential response to drugs in human populations is heavily influenced by genes, and a whole field called pharmacogenetics has begun to identify these genetic factors. Such knowledge will allow physicians to prescribe drugs targeted to each individual, with the potential to increase efficacy and decrease side-effects. Determining the DNA sequence of the human genome and identifying the genes has been an exciting endeavor, but we are only just beginning to understand the treasures present in all of our DNA. My presentation will briefly describe the road we took to get the sequence, as well as the tools that we are developing to unlock its secrets.

  3. Studies on the biological behaviors of taxol derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awh, Ok Doo; Yoo, Dae Wung [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Im, Sang Moo [College of Medicine, Korea Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    This study was designed to prospect the {sup 111}In-labelled paclitaxel as tumor imaging agent. In order to provide a taxol molecule with a functional -group which is able to chelate In-111, taxol-DTPA conjugate and 2'-hemisuccinyltaxol were synthesized by esterification of taxol at C-2' on C-13 carbon with DTPA anhydride and succinic anhydride, respectively. Synthesis yield of the taxol derivatives was 34% for taxol-DTPA and 80% for 2'-hemisuccinyltaxol. Cytotoxicity of the taxol derivatives were measured by MTT method toward cell lines HT29, B16, P388, and CT26. The cytotoxic activities of the taxol derivatives were maintained, although less active than taxol. Radiolabelling of the taxol derivatives were proceeded directly with {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} or indirectly with {sup 111}In-citrate(ligand-exchange method). The ligand-exchange method was not suitable because some precipitates appeared during the reaction. On the contrary, by direct radiolabelling method, we were able to obtain taxol-DTPA-{sup 111}In in 100% radiochemical yield. However, 2'-hemisuccinyltaxol was not labelled by both methods. Yield and radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled compound were determined by HPLC, paper chromatography and instant thin layer chromatography. Taxol-DTPA -{sup 111}In was characterized to be hydrophilic by lipophilicity test, and nearly non-adhesive to HT29, B16, P388, and CT26 by cell binding affinity test. Binding affinity of the taxol-DTPA-{sup 111}In complex to serum proteins was also examined by protein precipitation with 30% trichloroacetic acid. The results showed that 30% of the taxol-DTPA-{sup 111}In complex binds with serum proteins.

  4. Biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation, Part B; Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation, Algarve, Portugal, Oct. 13-23, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenberg, Charles E. (Editor); Horneck, Gerda (Editor); Stassinopoulos, E. G. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Since there is an increasing interest in establishing lunar bases and exploring Mars by manned missions, it is important to develop appropriate risk estimates and radiation protection guidelines. The biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation are examined with respect to the following: the radiation environment of interplanetary space, the biological responses to radiation in space, and the risk estimates for deep space missions. There is a need for a long-term program where ground-based studies can be augmented by flight experiments and an international standardization with respect to data collection, protocol comparison, and formulation of guidelines for future missions.

  5. Performance Analysis of Science Education Undergraduates: A Case Study of Biology Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochonogor, Chukunoye Enunuwe

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the study was to analyze the results of university biology education students as a case study against gender and performance and empirically determine the implications of the findings to countries, such as Nigeria, South Africa and the rest of the world. The study made use of all the 344 students in the levels from 100 to 400 of…

  6. The study of trace element distribution in biological samples with NAA for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one day representative mixed diet of an adult Korean was collected from the data based on the food intake of 108 healthy subjects between the ages 20 and 50. Sampling for the Korean total diet was carried out by the way of using a market basket study based on the Korean standard food consumption scheme reported by the Korean Nutrition Society. Average consumption frequency of different food items for a one day representative mixed diet of an adult Korean and the amount of each item to prepare a one day Korean representative total diet are surveyed. The analytical methods involve both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation techniques developed for the determination of the elements Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in various kinds of food samples. Concentrations of trace elements including 5 important elements for radiological protection, U, Th, Cs, Sr and I in the Korean total diet and the 4 most frequently consumed Korean foodstuffs have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Detection limits for U, Th, Sr and I were improved to ppb levels by radiochemical separation after neutron irradiation. Five biological NIST reference materials were also analyzed for quality control of the analysis. Seventeen trace elements in the Korean total diet and four Korean representative foodstuffs were also analyzed quantitatively by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental distributions in supplemental healthy food and Korean and Chinese origin oriental medicine were also identified. The amount of trace elements ingested with the hair analysis of oriental medicine takers were estimated. The amounts of trace elements inhaled with the analysis of foundry air, blood and hair of foundry workers were also estimated. The basic estimation method in view of health and environment with the neutron activation analysis of biological samples such as foods and hair was established with the result. Nationwide usage system of the NAA facility in Hanaro in many different and

  7. Biological Significance of Gene Expression Data using Similarity based Biclustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagyamani J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking the complexity of a living organism’s biological processes, functionsand genetic network is vital in learning how to improve the health of humankind.Genetic analysis, especially biclustering, is a significant step in this process.Though many biclustering methods exist, only few provide a query basedapproach for biologists to search the biclusters which contain a certain gene ofinterest. This proposed query based biclustering algorithm SIMBIC+ firstidentifies a functionally rich query gene. After identifying the query gene, sets ofgenes including query gene that show coherent expression patterns acrosssubsets of experimental conditions is identified. It performs simultaneousclustering on both row and column dimension to extract biclusters using Topdown approach. Since it uses novel ‘ratio’ based similarity measure, biclusterswith more coherence and with more biological meaning are identified. SIMBIC+uses score based approach with an aim of maximizing the similarity of thebicluster. Contribution entropy based condition selection and multiple row /column deletion methods are used to reduce the complexity of the algorithm toidentify biclusters with maximum similarity value. Experiments are conducted onYeast Saccharomyces dataset and the biclusters obtained are compared withbiclusters of popular MSB (Maximum Similarity Bicluster algorithm. Thebiological significance of the biclusters obtained by the proposed algorithm andMSB are compared and the comparison proves that SIMBIC+ identifies biclusterswith more significant GO (Gene Ontology.

  8. Novel fluorescence-based integrated sensor for chemical and biological agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.; Fagan, Steve; Krouse, Justin; Hutchinson, Kira D.

    2004-12-01

    There is a renewed interest in the development of chemical and biological agent sensors due to the increased threat of weapons deployment by terrorist organizations and rogue states. Optically based sensors address the needs of military and homeland security forces in that they are reliable, rapidly deployed, and can provide continuous monitoring with little to no operator involvement. Nomadics has developed optically based chemical weapons sensors that utilize reactive fluorescent chromophores initially developed by Professor Tim Swager at MIT. The chromophores provide unprecedented sensitivity and selectivity toward toxic industrial chemicals and certain chemical weapon agents. The selectivity is based upon the reactivity of the G-class nerve agents (phosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme) that makes them toxic. Because the sensor recognizes the reactivity of strong electrophiles and not molecular weight, chemical affinity or ionizability, our system detects a specific class of reactive agents and will be able to detect newly developed or modified agents that are not currently known. We have recently extended this work to pursue a combined chemical/biological agent sensor system incorporating technologies based upon novel deep ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) developed out of the DARPA Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) program.

  9. A Test of Biological and Behavioral Explanations for Gender Differences in Telomere Length: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Needham, Belinda L.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Bird, Chloe E.; Bradley, Ryan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Jacobs, David R.; Ouyang, Pamela; Seeman, Teresa E.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; WANG, STEVEN

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine biological and behavioral explanations for gender differences in leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a biomarker of cell aging that has been hypothesized to contribute to women’s greater longevity. Data are from a subsample (n = 851) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based study of women and men aged 45 to 84. Mediation models were used to examine study hypotheses. We found that women had longer LTL than men, but the gender differ...

  10. In Vitro Biologic Activities of the Antimicrobials Triclocarban, Its Analogs, and Triclosan in Bioassay Screens: Receptor-Based Bioassay Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Jiangang; Cherednichenko, Gennady; Sanmarti, Enio; Denison, Michael S.; Lasley, Bill; Pessah, Isaac N; Kültz, Dietmar; Chang, Daniel P.Y.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the biological and toxicologic effects of the antimicrobials triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) in personal care products. Few studies have evaluated their biological activities in mammalian cells to assess their potential for adverse effects. Objectives In this study, we assessed the activity of TCC, its analogs, and TCS in in vitro nuclear-receptor–responsive and calcium signaling bioassays. Materials and methods We determined the biological ac...

  11. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 2: Prototype utilization in the development of space biology hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Wood, H. J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to define the factors which space flight hardware developers and planners should consider when determining: (1) the number of hardware units required to support program; (2) design level of the units; and (3) most efficient means of utilization of the units. The analysis considered technology risk, maintainability, reliability, and safety design requirements for achieving the delivery of highest quality flight hardware. Relative cost impacts of the utilization of prototyping were identified. The development of Space Biology Initiative research hardware will involve intertwined hardware/software activities. Experience has shown that software development can be an expensive portion of a system design program. While software prototyping could imply the development of a significantly different end item, an operational system prototype must be considered to be a combination of software and hardware. Hundreds of factors were identified that could be considered in determining the quantity and types of prototypes that should be constructed. In developing the decision models, these factors were combined and reduced by approximately ten-to-one in order to develop a manageable structure based on the major determining factors. The Baseline SBI hardware list of Appendix D was examined and reviewed in detail; however, from the facts available it was impossible to identify the exact types and quantities of prototypes required for each of these items. Although the factors that must be considered could be enumerated for each of these pieces of equipment, the exact status and state of development of the equipment is variable and uncertain at this time.

  12. Feasibility Studies on Si-Based Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Renis; Fulvia Sinatra; Antonino Scandurra; Venera Aiello; Sebania Libertino; Salvatore Lombardo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paperis to summarize the efforts carried out so far in the fabrication of Si-based biosensors by a team of researchers in Catania, Italy. This work was born as a collaboration between the Catania section of the Microelectronic and Microsystem Institute (IMM) of the CNR, the Surfaces and Interfaces laboratory (SUPERLAB) of the Consorzio Catania Ricerche and two departments at the University of Catania: the Biomedical Science and the Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology De...

  13. Punctuated equilibria and 1/f noise in a biological coevolution model with individual-based dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rikvold, Per Arne; Zia, R. K. P.

    2003-01-01

    We present a study by linear stability analysis and large-scale Monte Carlo simulations of a simple model of biological coevolution. Selection is provided through a reproduction probability that contains quenched, random interspecies interactions, while genetic variation is provided through a low mutation rate. Both selection and mutation act on individual organisms. Consistent with some current theories of macroevolutionary dynamics, the model displays intermittent, statistically self-simila...

  14. Biological Template Based on ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid Glycosides for the Synthesis of Inorganic Porous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela B. Sifontes; Mirla Rodriguez; David Freire; Wendy Rondón; Ligia Llovera; Edgar Cañizales; Méndez, Franklin J.; Andrea Monaco; Yraida Díaz

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on the preparation of porous nano-materials revealed that the use of kaurane diterpenoids molecules from steviol as biological template favors the obtaining of metallic oxides with tubular morphology as nanorods or nanofibers. In this sense, the present contribution shows an analysis in order to understand how these glycosides of kaurane diterpenoids control the nucleation and growth of inorganic materials favoring the obtaining of these morphologies. For this purpose, it was n...

  15. Biologically based pesticide dose estimates for children in an agricultural community.

    OpenAIRE

    Fenske, R A; Kissel, J C; Lu, C.; Kalman, D A; Simcox, N J; Allen, E. H.; Keifer, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Current pesticide health risk assessments in the United States require the characterization of aggregate exposure and cumulative risk in the setting of food tolerances. Biologic monitoring can aggregate exposures from all sources and routes, and can integrate exposures for chemicals with a common mechanism of action. Its value was demonstrated in a recent study of organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure among 109 children in an agricultural community in Washington State; 91 of the children h...

  16. Comparison Between Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) for Water Quality Assessment: Case Study of Melana River, Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of water quality in Melana River, Johor was carried out in three consecutive months (March - May 2012). This study aims to determine the comparative results through biological monitoring as well as conventional method (physical and chemical analysis). Assessment is carried out through collection and identification of the biological indicator which comprises of macro benthos based on Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI). Comparison was done based on two methods namely invertebrate analysis and also laboratory analysis. For invertebrate analysis, Melana River consist of three types of Family groups namely Nymphs, Larvae and Molluscs. The result for Water Quality Index (WQI) and also Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) analysis showed that the level of Melana River is polluted and classified in Class III. This study shows that even though different methods were used, the similar results were obtained for both rivers and can be applied to any river to identify their level of cleanliness. (author)

  17. Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System : Annual Report 1983.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Park, D.L.

    1984-05-01

    Pacific salmon are tagged or marked as a critical part of numerous research and management studies. A new tag called the PIT (passive integrated transponder) tag measuring 7.5 mm long by 1.5 mm in diameter has a great potential for marking fish if it proves to be biologically compatible. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of the PIT tag for marking salmonids. The objectives of the first year's research were to determine: (1) the anatomical areas in which the tag could be placed; (2) tissue response to the tag; and (3) tag retention. Juvenile coho, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and chinook O. tshawytscha, salmon and adult chinook salmon held at Manchester or Big Beef Creek, Washington, were used as test animals. Juvenile salmon were injected with sham PIT tags in the body cavity and opercular, dorsal, and caudal masculature. The fish ranged in length from 126 to 212 mm. Observations based on three tests, from 44 to 102 days long, indicated that the dorsal musculature and body cavity were the best locations to inject the tag from biological and social standpoints. Sham PIT tags were injected into the nose; body cavity; and opercular, dorsal, and caudal musculature of jack chinook salmon. The test was conducted for 23 days. Although all five anatomical areas were acceptable from a technical standpoint, the body cavity appeared to be the best area for tag placement. Initial test results with the Sham PIT tag were very encouraging. Apparently the PIT tag can be successfully injected into and carried by salmon, making it a potentially useful tool for fisheries biologists. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Studying Biology to Understand Risk: Dosimetry Models and Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confidence in the quantitative prediction of risk is increased when the prediction is based to as great an extent as possible on the relevant biological factors that constitute the pathway from exposure to adverse outcome. With the first examples now over 40 years old, physiologi...

  19. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  20. Three-Dimensional Printing of Human Skeletal Muscle Cells: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Studying Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, James R.; Galpin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary exploration is vital to education in the 21st century. This manuscript outlines an innovative laboratory-based teaching method that combines elements of biochemistry/molecular biology, kinesiology/health science, computer science, and manufacturing engineering to give students the ability to better conceptualize complex…

  1. Chemical and biological sensors based on optically confined birefringent chalcopyrite heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces and discusses the design and application(s) of a new and unique integrated solid-state molecular sensor (SSMS) system. The SSMS is based on optically confined birefringent heterostructure technology, which has the capability of recognizing target chemicals and biological molecules in an ambient environment. The SSMS technology is applicable for miniaturized sensor devices that can be used for quick, remote screening and recognition of chemical hazards in the environment. For example, trace impurities related to air/water pollution can be continuously monitored. Just as important, however, the SSMS technology will have a worldwide impact--economically as well as technologically--when used in the detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as for a variety of medical sensing applications, such as to identify and monitor complex biological structures, test for allergic reactions and screen for common diseases. Moreover, it could hasten the time of development and introduction into the marketplace of critically needed new drugs by the monitoring of biochemical and molecular cellular responses to the candidate drugs. Materials selection criteria, growth parameters and device architecture requirements are given and discussed. In addition, the results of a recent phase matching calculation, substantiating the feasibility of the SSMS, are given and discussed

  2. Organizing Community-Based Data Standards: Lessons from Developing a Successful Open Standard in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, M.

    2015-09-01

    In common with many fields, including astronomy, a vast number of software tools for computational modeling and simulation are available today in systems biology. This wealth of resources is a boon to researchers, but it also presents interoperability problems. Despite working with different software tools, researchers want to disseminate their work widely as well as reuse and extend the models of other researchers. This situation led in the year 2000 to an effort to create a tool-independent, machine-readable file format for representing models: SBML, the Systems Biology Markup Language. SBML has since become the de facto standard for its purpose. Its success and general approach has inspired and influenced other community-oriented standardization efforts in systems biology. Open standards are essential for the progress of science in all fields, but it is often difficult for academic researchers to organize successful community-based standards. I draw on personal experiences from the development of SBML and summarize some of the lessons learned, in the hope that this may be useful to other groups seeking to develop open standards in a community-oriented fashion.

  3. Establishment of a semi-biological phantom model for the study of the effect of dose reducing measures on radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in CT using the example of risk organ based tube current modulation; Etablierung eines semibiologischen Phantommodells zur Untersuchung des Effekts dosisreduzierender Massnahmen auf strahleninduzierte DNA-Doppelstrangbrueche in der CT am Beispiel der risikoorganbasierten Roehrenstrommodulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Matthias

    2013-12-12

    The number of computed tomography (CT) examinations has been rising during the last decades. Therefore techniques for dose reduction receive increasing attention. Risk organ-based tube current modulation (RCM) in CT is a new approach and works by lowering the tube current, while the tube is in front of the patient's body. Therefore it should lead to a dose reduction for radiosensitive organs like the female breast, the eye lenses and the thyroid gland. Biological radiation effects cannot be estimated by physical-based dose measurements. γ-H2AX is a sensitive marker for the determination of x-ray induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Hence the aim of this study was to establish a biological phantom model based on the γ-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy method and to investigate the effect of RCM on radiation induced DNA damages. The γ-H2AX method is based on the phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX. The phosphorylated histone γ-H2AX can be visualised using antibodies and is specific for radiation induced DSB. Blood lymphocytes from healthy volunteers, skin fibroblasts (LN) and mammary epithelial cells (HMEpC-p) were placed in different positions of an Alderson-phantom and exposed to x-rays using a 128-slice dual-source CT scanner. Standard head, neck and chest-CT scan protocols either with or without risk-organ based tube current modulation were used. RCM reduces the tube current to 20 percent at an angle of 130 degree anterior to the body, whereas tube current is increased at an angle of 230 degree posterior to the body. Afterwards cells were isolated, fixed on slides und stained with specific primary γ-H2AX antibodies and fluorescent secondary antibodies. Tiny green dots (named foci) can be detected and quantified with a fluorescence microscope and represent distinct DSB. Non-irradiated samples served as controls and CT-induced DSB were calculated by subtraction of pre- from post-exposure values. In this study a semibiological phantom model

  4. A biologically based neural system coordinates the joints and legs of a tetrapod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Alexander; Schmidt, Manuela; Fischer, Martin; Quinn, Roger

    2015-10-01

    A biologically inspired neural control system has been developed that coordinates a tetrapod trotting gait in the sagittal plane. The developed neuromechanical system is used to explore properties of connections in inter-leg and intra-leg coordination. The neural controller is built with biologically based neurons and synapses, and connections are based on data from literature where available. It is applied to a planar biomechanical model of a rat with 14 joints, each actuated by a pair of antagonistic Hill muscle models. The controller generates tension in the muscles through activation of simulated motoneurons. The hind leg and inter-leg control networks are based on pathways discovered in cat research tuned to the kinematic motions of a rat. The foreleg network was developed by extrapolating analogous pathways from the hind legs. The formulated intra-leg and inter-leg networks properly coordinate the joints and produce motions similar to those of a walking rat. Changing the strength of a single inter-leg connection is sufficient to account for differences in phase timing in different trotting rats. PMID:26351756

  5. Reclaimation of petroleum-based wastewater by noval ozone immobilized biological activated carbon process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation in the petroleum industries in Northern China is important because of the shortage of water resource. Conventional treatment technology used in treating petroleum-based wastewater,namely the 3-phase biological process, typically removes COD, BOD, grease, volatile hydrobenzenes, cyanides, sulfides and suspended solids. However, the process is often ineffective in ammonia-nitrogen removal,and thus the treated effluent quantity can't meet the required standards for reuse. This paper investigated a novel ozone immobilized biological activated carbon (O3-IBAC) process for ammonia nitrogen removal from petroleum-based wastewater. Operated at a HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time) of 15 minutes in IBAC1 and 27 minutes in IBAC2, the O3-IBAC process achieved ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency of 91%. In addition, the removal efficiencies of COD, volatile hydrobenzenes, suspended solids, turbidity and petroleum-based micropollutants were all above 90%. Competition between the autotrophs and heterotrophs was observed, which was indicated by an increase of ammonia nitrogen removal with a decrease of COD removal, and vise versa. Nitrite accumulation in IBAC1 followed by erobic shortcut denitrification in IBAC2 led to 28% of the Total Nitrogen removal efficiency. Pollutant reduction in the IBAC process was achieved by a rapid physical adsorption and biodegradation on the activated carbon, which effectively retained the pollutants in the system despite the short hydraulic retention time.

  6. The use of computer-based assessments in a field biology module

    OpenAIRE

    Baggott, Glenn K.; Rayne, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    Formative computer-based assessments (CBAs) for self-instruction were introduced into a Year-2 field biology module. These CBAs were provided in ‘tutorial’ mode where each question had context-related diagnostic feedback and tutorial pages, and a self-test mode where the same CBA returned only a score. The summative assessments remained unchanged and consisted of an unseen CBA and written reports of field investigations. When compared with the previous three year-cohorts, the mean score for t...

  7. Assessment of beta-emitter radionuclides in biological samples using liquid scintillation counting. Application to the study of internal doses in molecular and cellular biology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopic techniques used in Molecular and Cellular Biology involve external and internal irradiation risk. It is necessary to control the possible internal contamination associated to the development of these techniques. The internal contamination risk can be due to physical and chemical properties of the labelled compounds, aerosols generated during the performance technique. The aim of this work was to estimate the possible intake of specific beta emitters during the technique development and to propose the required criterions to perform Individual Monitoring. The most representative radioisotopic techniques were selected attending their potential risk of internal contamination. Techniques were analysed applying IAEA methodology according to the used activity in each technique. It was necessary to identify the worker groups that would require individual monitoring on the base of their specific risk. Different measurement procedures were applied to study the possible intake in group risk and more than 160 persons were measured by in vitro bioassay. (Author) 96 refs

  8. Functional proteomic analysis revealed ground-base ion radiations cannot reflect biological effects of space radiations of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Yeqing; Zhao, Qian; Han, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects. Radiobiological studies during space flights are unrepeatable due to the variable space radiation environment, ground-base ion radiations are usually performed to simulate of the space biological effect. Spaceflights present a low-dose rate (0.1˜~0.3mGy/day) radiation environment inside aerocrafts while ground-base ion radiations present a much higher dose rate (100˜~500mGy/min). Whether ground-base ion radiation can reflect effects of space radiation is worth of evaluation. In this research, we compared the functional proteomic profiles of rice plants between on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and spaceflight treatments. Three independent ground-base seed ionizing radiation experiments with different cumulative doses (dose range: 2˜~20000mGy) and different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3˜~500keV/μμm) and two independent seed spaceflight experiments onboard Chinese 20th satellite and SZ-6 spacecraft were carried out. Alterations in the proteome were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry identifications. 45 and 59 proteins showed significant (pquantitative differences in ground-base ion radiation and spaceflight experiments respectively. The functions of ground-base radiation and spaceflight proteins were both involved in a wide range of biological processes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis further revealed that ground-base radiation responsive proteins were mainly involved in removal of superoxide radicals, defense response to stimulus and photosynthesis, while spaceflight responsive proteins mainly participate in nucleoside metabolic process, protein folding and phosphorylation. The results implied that ground-base radiations cannot truly reflect effects of spaceflight radiations, ground-base radiation was a kind of indirect effect to rice causing oxidation and metabolism

  9. Biologically Inspired Electronic, Photovoltaic and Microfluidic Devices Based on Aqueous Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung Jun

    molecules. To reduce the fabrication cost without efficiency loss, we found an inexpensive replacement of the expensive Pt counter-electrode with copper coated with carbon materials. Biologically derived photoactive molecules, such as Chlorophyll and Photosystem II, were successfully operated in the aqueous gel of such HGPVs. As a proof of demonstration of biomimetic structures, a light driven biomimetic reactor was developed by using hydrogel media with embedded photocatalytic TiO2 nanoparticles. Uniform supply of the reactants and extraction of the products was accomplished via a microfluidic channel network, broadly similar to the vein structure of live leaves. The dyes were transported in the gel between the microchannels and degraded by photocatalytic oxidation by the illuminated TiO2 particles. Quantitative analysis of the photocatalytic degradation rate of the injected dyes revealed that the microvascular reactor has high quantum efficiency per catalyst mass. Numerical modeling was performed to explore how a soluble reagent could be supplied rapidly and efficiently through microfluidic channel networks embedded in hydrogels. The computational model takes into account the fluid transport in porous media and the solute convection and diffusion, to simulate the solute distribution and outflux with time in microfluidic hydrogel media. The effect of the channel dimensions and shapes on mass transport rapidity and efficiency was quantitatively evaluated. Experimental data proved the validity of the time dependent concentration profile calculated by the simulation. Lastly, a microfluidic hydrogel solar cell with biomimetic regeneration functionality was demonstrated as a result of the above experimental and modeling studies. A new concept of open and replenishable photovoltaics was constructed on the basis of dye-sensitized solar cells. Photovoltaic reagents, dyes and redox electrolytes, were uniformly delivered via microfluidic networks embedded in a hydrogel, resulting in

  10. Biological Ammonia Removal: From Theory to Case Studies in 20 Minutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation documents the results of two pilot-scale treatment studies, in Ohio and Iowa, that investigated the biological removal of ammonia from ground water. Influent ammonia concentrations in the Ohio and Iowa studies averaged 1.3 and 3.3 mg/L - N, respectively. Both ...

  11. Study Under AC Stimulation on Excitement Properties of Weighted Small-World Biological Neural Networks with Side-Restrain Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Wu-Jie; LUO Xiao-Shu; JIANG Pin-Qun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new model of weighted small-world biological neural networks based on biophysical Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with side-restrain mechanism.Then we study excitement properties of the model under alternating current (AC) stimulation.The study shows that the excitement properties in the networks are preferably consistent with the behavior properties of a brain nervous system under different AC stimuli,such as refractory period and the brain neural excitement response induced by different intensities of nolse and coupling.The results of the study have reference worthiness for the brain nerve electrophysiology and epistemological science.

  12. Study Under AC Stimulation on Excitement Properties of Weighted Small-World Biological Neural Networks with Side-Restrain Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new model of weighted small-world biological neural networks based on biophysical Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with side-restrain mechanism. Then we study excitement properties of the model under alternating current (AC) stimulation. The study shows that the excitement properties in the networks are preferably consistent with the behavior properties of a brain nervous system under different AC stimuli, such as refractory period and the brain neural excitement response induced by different intensities of noise and coupling. The results of the study have reference worthiness for the brain nerve electrophysiology and epistemological science.

  13. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and related techniques in studies of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Sebesta, Aleksandar; Stadler, Johannes; Opilik, Lothar; Balabin, Roman M.; Zenobi, Renato

    2010-02-01

    Biological materials can be highly heterogeneous at the nanometer scale. The investigation of nanostructures is often hampered by the low spatial resolution (e.g. spectroscopic techniques) or very little chemical information (e.g. atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)) provided by analytical techniques. Our research focuses on combined instruments, which allow the analysis of the exactly same area of a sample by complementary techniques, such as AFM and Raman spectroscopy. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) combines the high spatial resolution of AFM or STM with the chemical information provided by Raman spectroscopy. The technique is based on enhancement effects known from surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In TERS the enhancing metallic nanostructure is brought to the sample by an AFM or STM tip. With a TERS-active tip, enhanced Raman signals can be generated from a sample area as small as 10-50 nm in diameter. AFM analysis of bacterial biofilms has demonstrated their heterogeneity at the nanometer scale, revealing a variety of nanostructures such as pili, flagella, and extracelullar polymers. TERS measurements of the biopolymers alginate and cytochrome c have yielded spectroscopic fingerprints even of such weak Raman scatterers, which in future can allow their localization in complex matrices. Furthermore, biofilms of the bacterium Halomonas meridiana were studied, which was found to be involved in the generation of the mineral dolomite. Only combined AFM-Raman analysis was able to identify the nanoglobules found in laboratory cultures of H. meridiana as dolomite nanoparticles. Our combined setups are and will be applied to the investigation of biofilms, fish spermatozoa as well as biological membranes.

  14. Molecular modeling studies, synthesis and biological evaluation of dabigatran analogues as thrombin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming-Hui; Chen, Hai-Feng; Ren, Yu-Jie; Shao, Fang-Ming

    2016-01-15

    In this work, 48 thrombin inhibitors based on the structural scaffold of dabigatran were analyzed using a combination of molecular modeling techniques. We generated three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models based on three alignments for both comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) to highlight the structural requirements for thrombin protein inhibition. In addition to the 3D-QSAR study, Topomer CoMFA model also was established with a higher leave-one-out cross-validation q(2) and a non-cross-validation r(2), which suggest that the three models have good predictive ability. The results indicated that the steric, hydrophobic and electrostatic fields play key roles in QSAR model. Furthermore, we employed molecular docking and re-docking simulation explored the binding relationship of the ligand and the receptor protein in detail. Molecular docking simulations identified several key interactions that were also indicated through 3D-QSAR analysis. On the basis of the obtained results, two compounds were designed and predicted by three models, the biological evaluation in vitro (IC50) demonstrated that these molecular models were effective for the development of novel potent thrombin inhibitors. PMID:26690913

  15. A Systems Biology Approach for Identifying Hepatotoxicant Groups Based on Similarity in Mechanisms of Action and Chemical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebels, Dennie G A J; Rasche, Axel; Herwig, Ralf; van Westen, Gerard J P; Jennen, Danyel G J; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2016-01-01

    When evaluating compound similarity, addressing multiple sources of information to reach conclusions about common pharmaceutical and/or toxicological mechanisms of action is a crucial strategy. In this chapter, we describe a systems biology approach that incorporates analyses of hepatotoxicant data for 33 compounds from three different sources: a chemical structure similarity analysis based on the 3D Tanimoto coefficient, a chemical structure-based protein target prediction analysis, and a cross-study/cross-platform meta-analysis of in vitro and in vivo human and rat transcriptomics data derived from public resources (i.e., the diXa data warehouse). Hierarchical clustering of the outcome scores of the separate analyses did not result in a satisfactory grouping of compounds considering their known toxic mechanism as described in literature. However, a combined analysis of multiple data types may hypothetically compensate for missing or unreliable information in any of the single data types. We therefore performed an integrated clustering analysis of all three data sets using the R-based tool iClusterPlus. This indeed improved the grouping results. The compound clusters that were formed by means of iClusterPlus represent groups that show similar gene expression while simultaneously integrating a similarity in structure and protein targets, which corresponds much better with the known mechanism of action of these toxicants. Using an integrative systems biology approach may thus overcome the limitations of the separate analyses when grouping liver toxicants sharing a similar mechanism of toxicity. PMID:27311473

  16. Fluctuations and correlations in an individual-based model of biological coevolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend our study of a simple model of biological coevolution to its statistical properties. Starting with a complete description in terms of a master equation, we provide its relation to the deterministic evolution equations used in previous investigations. The stationary states of the mutationless model are generally well approximated by Gaussian distributions, so that the fluctuations and correlations of the populations can be computed analytically. Several specific cases are studied by Monte Carlo simulations, and there is an excellent agreement between the data and the theoretical predictions

  17. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1–3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. - Highlights: • The data on biological half-lives from Russian language literature were reviewed. • Radionuclides with the shortest half-lives in animals are those which accumulate in soft tissues. • Short term behaviour is affected by the form in which radionuclides are administered. • There is a tendency for more rapid radionuclide turnover in younger animals

  18. High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples

    OpenAIRE

    Heske, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a variable line-space grating spectrometer for soft s-rays that coverst the photon energy range between 130 and 650 eV. The optical design is based on the Hettrick-Underwood principle and tailored to synchrotron-based studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples. The spectrometer is able to record the entire spectral range in one shot, i.e., without any mechanical motion, at a resolving power of 1200 or better. Despite is slitless design, such a resolving power can be achieved...

  19. High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    We present a variable line-space grating spectrometer for soft x-rays that covers the photon energy range between 130 and 650 eV. The optical design is based on the Hettrick-Underwood principle and tailored to synchrotron-based studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples. The spectrometer is able to record the entire spectral range in one shot, i.e., without any mechanical motion, at a resolving power of 1200 or better. Despite its slitless design, such a resolving power can be achieved...

  20. The Danish National Prescription Registry in studies of a biological pharmaceutical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Henriksen, Lonny; Way, Susanne; Malham, Mikkel; Hallas, Jesper; Pedersen, Lars; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National prescription databases are important tools in pharmacoepidemiological studies investigating potential long-term adverse events after drug use. Palivizumab is a biological pharmaceutical used as passive prophylaxis against severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus in h...... supplement, which only slightly increased the sensitivity of palivizumab registration in the DNPR. Our findings underline the need to improve DNPR information concerning drugs administered in hospitals.......BACKGROUND: National prescription databases are important tools in pharmacoepidemiological studies investigating potential long-term adverse events after drug use. Palivizumab is a biological pharmaceutical used as passive prophylaxis against severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus in...