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Sample records for biologists materials scientists

  1. Quantum Physics for Scientists and Technologists Fundamental Principles and Applications for Biologists, Chemists, Computer Scientists, and Nanotechnologists

    CERN Document Server

    Sanghera, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Presenting quantum physics for the non-physicists, Quantum Physics for Scientists and Technologists is a self-contained, cohesive, concise, yet comprehensive, story of quantum physics from the fields of science and technology, including computer science, biology, chemistry, and nanotechnology. The authors explain the concepts and phenomena in a practical fashion with only a minimum amount of math. Examples from, and references to, computer science, biology, chemistry, and nanotechnology throughout the book make the material accessible to biologists, chemists, computer scientists, and non-techn

  2. Thermodynamics for physicists, chemists and materials scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is the foundation of many-body physics and thus of physical chemistry and material science as well. Today new sources of useful energy, energy storage, transport and conversion, requiring development of novel technology, are of rapidly increasing importance. This development strongly affects modern industry. Thus thermodynamics will have to be given more prominence in the science curriculum in colleges and universities - something that is attempted in this book. The structure of this text is simple and transparent, enabling the easy mapping of the text onto a one-semester course syllabus and the attendant study. There are 8 chapters total and one three-part appendix. Throughout the text the student finds numerous examples (solved problems) reaching from cosmic to molecular evolution or from cloud formation to Bose condensation.

  3. PREFACE: International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Natalia O.

    2015-01-01

    In October 15-17, 2014 International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014) took place at Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (Tomsk, Russia). The Conference became a discussion platform for researchers in the fields of studying structure and properties of advanced building materials and included open lectures of leading scientists and oral presentations of master, postgraduate and doctoral students. A special session was devoted to reports of school children who further plan on starting a research career. The Conference included an industrial exhibition where companies displayed the products and services they supply. The companies also gave presentations of their products within the Conference sessions.

  4. Forging the Solution to the Energy Challenge: The Role of Materials Science and Materials Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    through postgraduate. Materials sciences can be a significant magnet in attracting students to STEM areas, and a focused effort is needed to ensure that it is included in STEM programs. From this effort will come the next generation of materials scientists and the innovations that will enable us to overcome the energy challenge.

  5. Materials for advanced reactor facilities: development and application. Materials of School-Conference for young scientists and specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In the collection of works there are the texts, summaries and presentations of lectures delivered by the leading specialists of the branch as well as the abstracts of the students of school-conference for young scientists and specialists Materials for advanced reactor facilities: development and application, which took place on October, 29 - November, 2, 2012 in Zvenigorod. In the materials presented different aspects of development and application of materials of reactor cores and vessels of advanced reactors, computerized simulation of properties of radiation-resistant materials and simulation investigations of material radiation hardness are considered [ru

  6. VII Russian annual conference of young scientists and postgraduate students Physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials. Collection of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Yu.V.

    2010-01-01

    The materials of the VII Russian annual conference of young scientists and postgraduate students Physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials, held 8-11 November 2010 in Moscow, are presented. Structure and properties of high-strength nanostructured metal and composite materials, development of research methods and simulation of the structure and properties of materials and nanomaterials, functional ceramic and composite nanomaterials - in sight of the participants. The problems of physicochemical principles and processes for new technologies and forming powder materials and nanomaterials, physicochemical bases of production and processing of advanced inorganic materials, physical chemistry and technology of energy-, resource-saving and environmentally friendly processes for ferrous, non-ferrous and rare metals are under consideration. Promising composite coatings and nanostructured films of functional purposes, physicochemical bases of new processes of shaping and forming of materials and nanomaterials are discussed [ru

  7. Journey of a molecular biologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Masayasu

    2011-01-01

    My journey into a research career began in fermentation biochemistry in an applied science department during the difficult post-World War II time in Japan. Subsequently, my desire to do research in basic science developed. I was fortunate to be a postdoctoral fellow in the United States during the early days of molecular biology. From 1957 to 1960, I worked with three pioneers of molecular biology, Sol Spiegelman, James Watson, and Seymour Benzer. These experiences helped me develop into a basic research scientist. My initial research projects at Osaka University, and subsequently at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, were on the mode of action of colicins as well as on mRNA and ribosomes. Following success in the reconstitution of ribosomal subunits, my efforts focused more on ribosomes, initially on the aspects of structure, function, and in vitro assembly, such as the construction of the 30S subunit assembly map. After this, my laboratory studied the regulation of the synthesis of ribosomes and ribosomal components in Escherichia coli. Our achievements included the discovery of translational feedback regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis and the identification of several repressor ribosomal proteins used in this regulation. In 1984, I moved to the University of California, Irvine, and initiated research on rRNA transcription by RNA polymerase I in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The use of yeast genetics combined with biochemistry allowed us to identify genes uniquely involved in rRNA synthesis and to elucidate the mechanism of initiation of transcription. This essay is a reflection on my life as a research scientist.

  8. A Biologist Looks at Cognitive Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Purves, William K.

    1985-01-01

    Although cognitive AI is not generally viewed as being "scientific" in the same, strong sense as is physics, it shares a number of the properties of the natural sciences, especially biology. Certain of special themes of biology, notably the principles of historicity and of structure-function relations, are applicable in AI research. From a biologist's viewpoint, certain principles of cognitive AI research emerge.

  9. PURSUING AN EXCITING CAREER AS A WILDLIFE BIOLOGIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people associate a career as a biologist to be similar to TV stars such as Jeff Corwin. Although biologists get to do exciting things like what viewers see on TV, being a biologist involves much more. I will talk about my career as a biologist, discuss experiences that you...

  10. Improving interactions between animal rights groups and conservation biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dan; Perry, Gad

    2008-02-01

    Invasive species are often considered to be a major threat to biodiversity, leading conservation biologists to often recommend their complete eradication. Animal rights groups typically categorically oppose killing animals, and their opposition has brought eradication attempts of gray squirrels in northern Italy (Europe) and mute swans in Vermont to a halt. As a result native red squirrels may disappear from Europe and ecosystem-wide impacts are expected to be caused by the swan. In contrast, cooperation between managers and animal rights groups has resulted in a successful control program for feral pigs in Fort Worth, Texas (U.S.A.). The philosophical differences between animal rights and conservation biologists' views make cooperation seem unlikely, yet documented cases of cooperation have been beneficial for both groups. We recommend that managers dealing with invasive species should consult with social scientists and ethicists to gain a better understanding of the implications of some of their policy decisions. In addition, we recommend that animal rights groups do more to support alternatives to lethal control, which are often excluded by economic limitations. Prevention of arrival of invasive species via application of the precautionary principle may be an especially productive avenue for such collaboration because it fits the goals and values of both groups.

  11. Earth system science K-12 scientist-student partnerships using paleontological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnik, P. G.; Ross, R. M.; Chiment, J. J.; Sherpa, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    Reducing the discrepancy between the dynamic science that researchers experience and the static fact-driven science education in which k-12 students participate at school is an important component to national science education reform. Scientist-student partnerships (SSPs) involving whole classes in Earth systems research provide a solution to this problem, but existing models have often lacked rigorous scientific data quality control and/or evaluation of pedagogical effectiveness. The Paleontological Research Institution has been prototyping two SSPs with an eye toward establishing protocols to insure both scientific and educational quality of the partnership. Data quality analysis involves making statistical estimates of data accuracy and employing robust statistical techniques for answering essential questions with noisy data. Educational evaluation takes into account affective variables, such as student motivation and interest, and compares the relative pedagogical effectiveness of SSPs with more traditional hands-on activities. Paleontology is a natural subject for scientist-student partnerships because of its intrinsic appeal to the general public, and because its interdisciplinary content serves as a springboard for meeting science education standards across the physical and life sciences. The "Devonian Seas" SSP involves classes in identifying fossil taxa and assessing taphonomic characteristics from Devonian-aged Hamilton Group shales in Central New York. The scientific purpose of the project is to establish at high stratigraphic resolution the sequence of dysoxic biofacies composition, which will shed light on the sensitivity of epeiric sea communities to environmental (e.g., sea level) changes. The project is undertaken in upper elementary school and secondary school Earth science classes, and in some cases has involved field-based teacher training and collection of samples. Students in small teams collaborate to identify taxa within the samples, then

  12. Translating Current Science into Materials for High School via a Scientist-Teacher Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C.; Bokor, Julie R.; Crippen, Kent J.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique form of professional development that can assist teachers in translating current science into classroom instruction by involving them in meaningful collaborations with university researchers. However, few reported models aim to directly alter science teachers' practices by supporting them in the…

  13. Which statistics should tropical biologists learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza Velásquez, Natalia; González Lutz, María Isabel; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2011-09-01

    Tropical biologists study the richest and most endangered biodiversity in the planet, and in these times of climate change and mega-extinctions, the need for efficient, good quality research is more pressing than in the past. However, the statistical component in research published by tropical authors sometimes suffers from poor quality in data collection; mediocre or bad experimental design and a rigid and outdated view of data analysis. To suggest improvements in their statistical education, we listed all the statistical tests and other quantitative analyses used in two leading tropical journals, the Revista de Biología Tropical and Biotropica, during a year. The 12 most frequent tests in the articles were: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Chi-Square Test, Student's T Test, Linear Regression, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, Shannon's Diversity Index, Tukey's Test, Cluster Analysis, Spearman's Rank Correlation Test and Principal Component Analysis. We conclude that statistical education for tropical biologists must abandon the old syllabus based on the mathematical side of statistics and concentrate on the correct selection of these and other procedures and tests, on their biological interpretation and on the use of reliable and friendly freeware. We think that their time will be better spent understanding and protecting tropical ecosystems than trying to learn the mathematical foundations of statistics: in most cases, a well designed one-semester course should be enough for their basic requirements.

  14. Engineers are from PDMS-land, Biologists are from Polystyrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Erwin; Young, Edmond W K; Beebe, David

    2012-04-07

    As the integration of microfluidics into cell biology research proceeds at an ever-increasing pace, a critical question for those working at the interface of both disciplines is which device material to use for a given application. While PDMS and soft lithography methods offer the engineer rapid prototyping capabilities, PDMS as a material has characteristics that have known adverse effects on cell-based experiments. In contrast, while polystyrene (PS), the most commonly used thermoplastic for laboratory cultureware, has provided decades of grounded and validated research conclusions in cell behavior and function, PS as a material has posed significant challenges in microfabrication. These competing issues have forced microfluidics engineers and biologists to make compromises in how they approach specific research questions, and furthermore, have attenuated the impact of microfluidics on biological research. In this review, we provide a comparison of the attributes of PDMS and PS, and discuss reasons for their popularity in their respective fields. We provide a critical evaluation of the strengths and limitations of PDMS and PS in relation to the advancement and future impact on microfluidic cell-based studies and applications. We believe that engineers have a responsibility to overcome any challenges associated with microfabrication, whether with PS or other materials, and that engineers should provide options and solutions that assist biologists in their experimental design. Our goal is not to advocate for any specific material, but provide guidelines for researchers who desire to choose the most suitable material for their application, and suggest important research directions for engineers working at the interface between microfabrication technology and biological application. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  15. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Luftchemie und Luftreinhaltung

    2015-07-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  16. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  17. Charles William Lacaillade. Biologist, Parasitologist, Educator, and Mentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2017-02-01

    Charles William Lacaillade (1904-1978) was an eminent biologist in the middle decades of the twentieth century. He was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts of parents whose ancestors were French Canadians. His father, also named Charles William Lacaillade, was a dentist who graduated from Tufts University School of Dentistry in 1898. His mother, Elodia Eno, came from a family of very successful businessmen. Lacaillade was the third of six children. His two older brothers, Harold Carleton and Hector Eno, both graduated from the University of Louisville, School of Dentistry, while his younger brother, Lawrence, became a businessman. His sister, Luemma, married Dr. Henry Steadman, a veterinarian, while his youngest sister, Gloria, married a U.S. Army officer, Lieutenant Colonel Victor Anido. Lacaillade received his MS and PhD degrees in biology and zoology from Harvard University. He then became a fellow at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. At both institutions, he studied under some of the most eminent biological scientists of the time. These included Rudolf W. Glaser, George Howard Parker, Theobald Smith, Carl TenBroeck, and William Morton Wheeler. At the Rockefeller Institute, he co-discovered the vector and mode of transmission of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis. This discovery, and the research he conducted with Rudolf W. Glaser, quickly established him as an outstanding biological researcher. However, a change in leadership at the Rockefeller Institute resulted in research priorities being given to the disciplines of general physiology, physical chemistry, and nutrition. This shift in the research agenda away from the biological sciences precluded career advancement at the Rockefeller Institute for post-doctoral fellows like Lacaillade. It was the height of the Great Depression, and even biologists with terminal doctoral degrees found it difficult to find positions. In 1935, Lacaillade accepted a position as an assistant in biology at St. John

  18. Which statistics should tropical biologists learn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Loaiza Velásquez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tropical biologists study the richest and most endangered biodiversity in the planet, and in these times of climate change and mega-extinctions, the need for efficient, good quality research is more pressing than in the past. However, the statistical component in research published by tropical authors sometimes suffers from poor quality in data collection; mediocre or bad experimental design and a rigid and outdated view of data analysis. To suggest improvements in their statistical education, we listed all the statistical tests and other quantitative analyses used in two leading tropical journals, the Revista de Biología Tropical and Biotropica, during a year. The 12 most frequent tests in the articles were: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Chi-Square Test, Student’s T Test, Linear Regression, Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, Shannon’s Diversity Index, Tukey’s Test, Cluster Analysis, Spearman’s Rank Correlation Test and Principal Component Analysis. We conclude that statistical education for tropical biologists must abandon the old syllabus based on the mathematical side of statistics and concentrate on the correct selection of these and other procedures and tests, on their biological interpretation and on the use of reliable and friendly freeware. We think that their time will be better spent understanding and protecting tropical ecosystems than trying to learn the mathematical foundations of statistics: in most cases, a well designed one-semester course should be enough for their basic requirements. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 983-992. Epub 2011 September 01.Los biólogos tropicales estudian la biodiversidad más rica y amenazada del planeta, y en estos tiempos de cambio climático y mega-extinción, la necesidad de investigación de buena calidad es más acuciante que en el pasado. Sin embargo, el componente estadístico en la investigación publicada por los autores tropicales adolece a veces

  19. An introduction to quantum physics a first course for physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Trachanas, Stefanos

    2018-01-01

    This modern textbook offers an introduction to Quantum Mechanics as a theory that underlies the world around us, from atoms and molecules to materials, lasers, and other applications. The main features of the book are: * Emphasis on the key principles with minimal mathematical formalism * Demystifying discussions of the basic features of quantum systems, using dimensional analysis and order-of-magnitude estimates to develop intuition * Comprehensive overview of the key concepts of quantum chemistry and the electronic structure of solids * Extensive discussion of the basic processes and applications of light-matter interactions * Online supplement with advanced theory, multiple-choice quizzes, etc.

  20. Modern X-ray difraction. X-ray diffractometry for material scientists, physicists, and chemicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiess, L.; Schwarzer, R.; Behnken, H.; Teichert, G.

    2005-01-01

    The book yields a comprehensive survey over the applications of X-ray diffraction in fields like material techniques, metallurgy, electrotechniques, machine engineering, as well as micro- and nanotechniques. The necessary fundamental knowledge on X-ray diffraction are mediated foundedly and illustratively. Thereby new techniques and evaluation procedures are presented as well as well known methods. The content: Production and properties of X radiation, diffraction of X radiation, hardware for X-ray diffraction, methods of X-ray diffraction, lattice-constant determination, phase analysis, X-ray profile analysis, crystal structure analysis, X-ray radiographic stress analysis, X-ray radiographic texture analysis, crystal orientation determination, pecularities at thin films, small angle scattering

  1. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutov, Valentin P; Schechter, A N

    2010-01-01

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  2. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutov, Valentin P [Institute for Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schechter, A N [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2010-07-08

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  3. Meet EPA Biologist Thomas Knudsen, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Tom Knudsen is a developmental systems biologist at EPA's Center for Computational Toxicology. His research focuses on the potential for chemicals to disrupt prenatal development—one of the most important life stages.

  4. Eukaryotic systematics: a user's guide for cell biologists and parasitologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Giselle; Dorrell, Richard G; Schlacht, Alexander; Dacks, Joel B

    2011-11-01

    Single-celled parasites like Entamoeba, Trypanosoma, Phytophthora and Plasmodium wreak untold havoc on human habitat and health. Understanding the position of the various protistan pathogens in the larger context of eukaryotic diversity informs our study of how these parasites operate on a cellular level, as well as how they have evolved. Here, we review the literature that has brought our understanding of eukaryotic relationships from an idea of parasites as primitive cells to a crystallized view of diversity that encompasses 6 major divisions, or supergroups, of eukaryotes. We provide an updated taxonomic scheme (for 2011), based on extensive genomic, ultrastructural and phylogenetic evidence, with three differing levels of taxonomic detail for ease of referencing and accessibility (see supplementary material at Cambridge Journals On-line). Two of the most pressing issues in cellular evolution, the root of the eukaryotic tree and the evolution of photosynthesis in complex algae, are also discussed along with ideas about what the new generation of genome sequencing technologies may contribute to the field of eukaryotic systematics. We hope that, armed with this user's guide, cell biologists and parasitologists will be encouraged about taking an increasingly evolutionary point of view in the battle against parasites representing real dangers to our livelihoods and lives.

  5. Book of abstracts of the Fifth International School for young scientists and specialists Interaction of hydrogen isotopes with structural materials. IHISM-09 JUNIOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The book includes abstracts of presentations at the Fifth International School for young scientists and specialists Interaction of hydrogen isotopes with structural materials (IHISM-09 JUNIOR). Abstracts of lecture faculty and reports of young scientists and specialists covering the use of hydrogen isotopes in energetics, national economy and fundamental researches are given. Papers presented on the following topics: mechanical properties and structural transformations; kinetics and thermodynamics of interaction between hydrogen isotopes and solids including effects of radiogenic helium accumulation, hydrides and hydride transformations; equipment and research techniques

  6. Book of abstracts of the fourth international school for young scientists and specialists Interaction of hydrogen isotopes with structural materials (IHISM-08)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The book includes abstracts of presentations at the 4th International School for young scientists and specialists Interaction of hydrogen isotopes with structural materials (IHISM-08). The lectures of lecturer and presentations of young scientists associated with the use of hydrogen isotopes in power engineering, national economy and basic research are considered. The presentations cover the following areas: kinetics and thermodynamics of interaction between hydrogen isotopes and solids including effects of radiogenic helium accumulation; hydrides and hydride transformations; structural transformations and mechanical properties; equipment and research techniques [ru

  7. U.S. Directory of Marine Scientists 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Processes & Engineering. MACLEAN, SHARON A, Fishery Biologist. FINKELSTEIN, KENNETH, Coastal Geologist. Zooplankton; Crustacea. Sedimentology; Stratigraphy... SHARON T, Aszt Scientist. Pasadena, CA 91109 Taxonomy and Systematics; Zooplankton. HOWEY, TERRY W, Scientist. CHELTON, DUDLEY BOYD, JR, Senior...Oceanography. Monterey, CA 93940 Optics; Descriptive Physical Oceanography, Instrumentation Engineering. BOURKE , ROBERT H, Assoc Professor of VON SCHWIND

  8. Robust Scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    their core i nterests, 2) developing a selfsupply of industry interests by becoming entrepreneurs and thus creating their own compliant industry partner and 3) balancing resources within a larger collective of researchers, thus countering changes in the influx of funding caused by shifts in political...... knowledge", Danish research policy seems to have helped develop politically and economically "robust scientists". Scientific robustness is acquired by way of three strategies: 1) tasting and discriminating between resources so as to avoid funding that erodes academic profiles and push scientists away from...

  9. Isotopes: technologies, materials and application. II International scientific conference of young scientists, post-graduate students and students. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The collection contains materials of abstracts of the conference participants to sum up the experience of research and development in the field of isotope production technologies, the use of compounds specified isotopic composition in different sectors of the economy, as well as the disposal and storage technology of the isotope production wastes. Advanced ideas produce isotopes of rare elements for medicine, microelectronics and nuclear industries are presented. Prospectively projects of scientists of Tomsk Polytechnic University in isotope modifying substances are discussed [ru

  10. the contrasting attitudes of plant breeders and molecular biologists ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Socialization into disciplinary cultures, organizational factors and individual anxieties seem to inhibit inter-disciplinary collaboration. The majority of rice breeders and a small group of molecular biologists emphasize the relative merits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in the near term vis-à-vis the currently controversial ...

  11. Dr Jacob van der Land, marine biologist extraordinary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution is an attempt to sketch the life and works of Dr Jacob van der Land, curator of worms and chief marine biologist of the National Museum of Natural History, on the occasion of his official retirement. Born in 1935, Jacob van der Land read biology at Leiden University (1958-1964),

  12. Model scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, Mark

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing trend for the focus of biology to be determined more by administrators who have short-term pecuniary interests in science rather than by individuals who are “doing science” to further the fundamental human desire to understand ourselves, the natural environment, and our place in the world, though questioning. We feel that this ceding of the scope of science from the questioners to the administrators is at variance with the traditions of science, which heretofore have resulted in the remarkable advancements made in the field of biology. In contrast to the plethora of day-to-day conversations on how to fit into the administrators' directives, this essay provides a historical context, particularly though its extensive bibliography, to encourage today's biologists to question authority and question nature. “If it be of importance and of use to us to know the principles of the element we breathe, surely it is not of much less importance nor of much less use to comprehend the principles, and endeavour at the improvement of those laws, by which alone we breathe it in security.”—Jeremy Bentham1 PMID:19513206

  13. Fighting for life: Religion and science in the work of fish and wildlife biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Joel Phillip

    Philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science have argued that it is impossible to separate fact from value. Even so, Americans generally demand that scientists be "objective." No bias is permitted in their work. Religious motivations in particular are widely considered anathema within the halls of science. My dissertation addresses both theoretical and practical aspects concerning objectivity in science through an examination of fish and wildlife biologists. I hypothesized that they use the language of objective science as a tool to convince others to protect habitats and species. Further, I claimed that this "rhetoric of science" is employed either consciously or unconsciously on behalf of personal values, and that religious and/or spiritual values figure significantly among these. Regarding the issue's practical applications, I argued in support of Susan Longino's assertion that while subjective influences exist in science, they do not necessarily indicate that objectivity has been sacrificed. My primary methodology is ethnographic. Thirty-five biologists working in the Pacific Northwest were interviewed during the course of summer 2001. Participant ages ranged from 23 to 78. Both genders were represented, as were various ethnic and cultural backgrounds, including Native American. I used a questionnaire to guide respondents through a consistent set of open-ended queries. I organized their answers under four categories: the true, the good, the beautiful, and the holy. The first three were borrowed from the theoretical writings of philosopher Immanuel Kant. The last came from Rudolf Otto's theological work. These categories provided an excellent analytical framework. I found that the great majority of fish and wildlife biologists strive for objectivity. However, they are also informed by powerful contextual values. These are derived from environmental ethics, aesthetic preferences pertaining to ecosystem appearance and function, and visceral experiences of

  14. THE DESCENT OF LANGUAGE. A CONVERSATION BETWEEN TWO JOBLESS BIOLOGISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Angelo Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seen from the perspective of a biologist, the issue of the origin of language contains an inherent ambiguity. On the one hand, one might think to explore the cognitive features or even the anatomical structures related to communication through the peculiar medium called verbal language, a characteristic property emergent among the Homo sapiens. On the other hand, if one decides to restrict oneself to the formal definition of language as a system of signs for encoding information, then, the human-specific nature of language becomes less convincing and the temptation to look into non-human languages allows a provocative question. Was human verbal language an invention or a discovery? In the following two biologists informally discuss about the concept of non-verbal biological languages.

  15. Cognitive styles of Forest Service scientists and managers in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    1997-01-01

    Preferences of executives, foresters, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Research Station and executives, District Rangers, foresters, engineers, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Region, National Forest System (USDA Forest Service), were compared for various thinking styles. Herrmann brain dominance profiles from 230 scientists and managers were drawn from...

  16. Conservation beyond science: scientists as storytellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Veríssimo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As scientists we are often unprepared and unwilling to communicate our passion for what we do to those outside our professional circles. Scientific literature can also be difficult or unattractive to those without a professional interest in research. Storytelling can be a successful approach to enable readers to engage with the challenges faced by scientists. In an effort to convey to the public what it means to be a field biologist, 18 Portuguese biologists came together to write a book titled “BIOgraphies: The lives of those who study life”, in the original Portuguese “BIOgrafias: Vidas de quem estuda a vida”. This book is a collection of 35 field stories that became career landmarks for those who lived them. We discuss the obstacles and opportunities of the publishing process and reflect on the lessons learned for future outreach efforts.

  17. Book of abstracts of the 3rd International conference and the 3rd International School for young scientists Interaction of hydrogen isotopes with structural materials. IHISM-07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The book involves abstracts of presentations at the 3rd International Conference and the 3rd International School for Young Scientists Interaction of Hydrogen Isotopes with Structural Materials (IHISM-07). The activities of Russian and foreign scientific centers associated with the use of hydrogen isotopes in power engineering, national economy and basic research are considered. The presentations cover the following areas: kinetics and interaction between hydrogen isotopes and solids including effects of radiogenic helium accumulation, hydrides and hydride transformations; structural transformations and mechanical properties; equipment and research techniques [ru

  18. Dr Jacob van der Land, marine biologist extraordinary

    OpenAIRE

    Bruggen, van, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution is an attempt to sketch the life and works of Dr Jacob van der Land, curator of worms and chief marine biologist of the National Museum of Natural History, on the occasion of his official retirement. Born in 1935, Jacob van der Land read biology at Leiden University (1958-1964), where he obtained his Ph.D. in 1970 on a treatise on the Priapulida under the supervision of Prof. Dr L.D. Brongersma. In 1964 he was appointed curator of worms in the museum. Later on he took over l...

  19. Modern X-ray diffraction. X-ray diffractometry for materials scientists, physicists, and chemicists. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiess, Lothar; Teichert, Gerd; Schwarzer, Robert; Behnken, Herfried; Genzel, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive survey over the applications of X-ray diffractions in fields like materials technique, metallurgy, electrotechniques, mechanical engineering, as well as micro- and nanotechniques. The necessary baic knowledges of X-ray diffraction are mediated foundedly and illustratively. Thereby new techniques and evaluation procedures are presented as well as well known methods

  20. ICTR-PHE: scientists engage with multidisciplinary research

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In 2016, the next edition of the unique conference that gathers scientists from a variety of fields will focus on many topics particularly dear to the heart of physicists, clinicians, biologists, and computer specialists. The call for abstracts is open until 16 October.   When detector physicists, radiochemists, nuclear-medicine physicians and other physicists, biologists, software developers, accelerator experts and oncologists think outside the box and get involved in multidisciplinary research, they create innovative healthcare. ICTR-PHE is a biennial event, co-organised by CERN, whose main aim is to foster multidisciplinary research by positioning itself at the crossing of physics, medicine and biology. At the ICTR-PHE conference, physicists, engineers, and computer scientists share their knowledge and technologies while doctors and biologists present their needs and vision for the medical tools of the future, thus triggering breakthrough ideas and technological developments in speci...

  1. Biological and communication skills needed for introduced fish biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    What skills and knowledge will a new graduate seeking employment need to work with introduced fishes? Clearly, success in introduced species management—similar to other disciplines in fisheries—requires a mixture of scientific and communication skills. However, specific abilities especially important to a biologist who manages introduced fishes should be highlighted. Unlike most other management strategies, stocking an introduced species can result in unintended and irreversible impacts, so particular care must be employed when stocking is considered. Furthermore, fish populations in areas outside of the introduced species management area might also be affected, usually negatively, if the introduced fish escapes. Therefore, rock-solid knowledge of basic aquatic ecology, including risk management; fish taxonomy (so the wrong fish species is not mistakenly stocked!); familiarity with human values of both the time and the place (which requires communication skills); and a strong understanding of human history are all important.

  2. Engaging Scientists in Meaningful E/PO: How the NASA SMD E/PO Community Addresses Informal Educators' Preferences for PD and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolone, Lindsay; Nelson, Andi; Smith, Denise A.; NASA SMD Astrophysics E/PO Community

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) coordinates the work of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO projects. These teams work together to capitalize on the cutting-edge discoveries of NASA Astrophysics missions to support educators in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and to enable youth to engage in doing STEM inside and outside of school. The Astrophysics Forum assists scientists and educators with becoming involved in SMD E/PO, which is uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise, and makes SMD E/PO resources and expertise accessible to the science and education communities. Informal educators participated in a recent nationally-distributed survey from the NASA SMD SEPOF Informal Education Working Group. The results show the preferences of staff from museums, parks, public libraries, community/afterschool centers, and others with regard to professional development and material resources. The results of the survey will be presented during this session.In addition, we present opportunities for the astronomy community to participate in collaborations supporting the NASA SMD efforts in K-12 Formal Education, Informal Science Education, and Outreach. These efforts focus on enhancing instruction, as well as youth and public engagement, in STEM via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences. The Forums' efforts for the Formal, Informal Science Education and Outreach communities include a literature review, appraisal of informal educators' needs, coordination of audience-based NASA resources and opportunities, professional development, plus support with the Next Generation Science Standards. Learn how to join in our collaborative efforts to support the K-12 Formal Education community and to reach the informal

  3. Putting computational modeling at the fingertips of bench biologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgard, Markus

    Communication is key in successful collaborations between theoretical and experimental life scientists. In our line of work we integrate physiological and systems-level data of cell factories with constraint-based Modeling approaches to predict suitable targets for metabolic engineering. The most......-level programming environment Mathematica and an open source metabolic modeling package (MASS Toolbox) to quickly prototype maps and other interactive widgets. In the long term, we would like to make those publicly accessible using open web technologies....

  4. Developing Marine Science Instructional Materials Using Integrated Scientist-Educator Collaborative Design Teams: A Discussion of Challenges and Success Developing Real Time Data Projects for the COOL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J.; Duncan, R. G.; Glenn, S.

    2007-12-01

    Current reforms in science education place increasing demands on teachers and students to engage not only with scientific content but also to develop an understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry (AAAS, 1993; NRC, 1996). Teachers are expected to engage students with authentic scientific practices including posing questions, conducting observations, analyzing data, developing explanations and arguing about them using evidence. This charge is challenging for many reasons most notably the difficulty in obtaining meaningful data about complex scientific phenomena that can be used to address relevant scientific questions that are interesting and understandable to K-12 students. We believe that ocean sciences provide an excellent context for fostering scientific inquiry in the classroom. Of particular interest are the technological and scientific advances of Ocean Observing Systems, which allow scientists to continuously interact with instruments, facilities, and other scientists to explore the earth-ocean- atmosphere system remotely. Oceanographers are making long-term measurements that can also resolve episodic oceanic processes on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales crucial to resolving scientific questions related to Earth's climate, geodynamics, and marine ecosystems. The availability of a diverse array of large data sets that are easily accessible provides a unique opportunity to develop inquiry-based learning environments in which students can explore many important questions that reflect current research trends in ocean sciences. In addition, due to the interdisciplinary nature of the ocean sciences these data sets can be used to examine ocean phenomena from a chemical, physical, or biological perspective; making them particularly useful for science teaching across the disciplines. In this session we will describe some of the efforts of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence- Mid Atlantic (COSEE MA) to develop instructional materials

  5. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    OpenAIRE

    Shugart, Erika C.; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or ?Sagan effect? associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist?s career. There are a varie...

  6. Drawings of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    experiment can be reduplicated. He/she must check and double-check all of his/her work. A scientist is very , environment, nutrition, and other aspects of our daily and future life." . . . Marisa The scientists

  7. Scientists must speak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, D. Eric; Walters, Gale Climenson

    2011-01-01

    .... Scientists Must Speak: Bringing Presentations to Life helps readers do just that. At some point in their careers, the majority of scientists have to stand up in front of an inquisitive audience or board and present information...

  8. Thermodynamics for scientists and engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Gyeong Hui

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with thermodynamics for scientists and engineers. It consists of 11 chapters, which are concept and background of thermodynamics, the first law of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics and entropy, mathematics related thermodynamics, properties of thermodynamics on pure material, equilibrium, stability of thermodynamics, the basic of compound, phase equilibrium of compound, excess gibbs energy model of compound and activity coefficient model and chemical equilibrium. It has four appendixes on properties of pure materials and thermal mass.

  9. Entrepreneurship for Creative Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dawood; Raghu, Surya; Brooks, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Through patenting and commercialization, scientists today can develop their work beyond a publication in a learned journal. Indeed, universities and governments are encouraging today's scientists and engineers to break their research out of the laboratory and into the commercial world. However, doing so is complicated and can be daunting for those more used to a research seminar than a board room. This book, written by experienced scientists and entrepreneurs, deals with businesses started by scientists based on innovation and sets out to clarify for scientists and engineers the steps necessary to take an idea along the path to commercialization and maximise the potential for success, regardless of the path taken.

  10. An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.

    2001-05-01

    Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative

  11. Scientists Shaping the Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

  12. What Neural Substrates Trigger the Adept Scientific Pattern Discovery by Biologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yong-Ju

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the neural correlates of experts and novices during biological object pattern detection using an fMRI approach in order to reveal the neural correlates of a biologist's superior pattern discovery ability. Sixteen healthy male participants (8 biologists and 8 non-biologists) volunteered for the study. Participants were shown fifteen series of organism pictures and asked to detect patterns amid stimulus pictures. Primary findings showed significant activations in the right middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule amongst participants in the biologist (expert) group. Interestingly, the left superior temporal gyrus was activated in participants from the non-biologist (novice) group. These results suggested that superior pattern discovery ability could be related to a functional facilitation of the parieto-temporal network, which is particularly driven by the right middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule in addition to the recruitment of additional brain regions. Furthermore, the functional facilitation of the network might actually pertain to high coherent processing skills and visual working memory capacity. Hence, study results suggested that adept scientific thinking ability can be detected by neuronal substrates, which may be used as criteria for developing and evaluating a brain-based science curriculum and test instrument.

  13. Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen-Oskam, K.H.; van Zundert, Joris J.; Koolen, Corina

    2017-01-01

    Bijdragen scheurkalender Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018. Karina van Dalen-Oskam, Belangrijk woord: Wat is het belangrijkste woord in de Nederlandse taal? In: Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018, 1 september Corina Koolen, Op naar het boekenbal: Hoe wordt je beroemd als schrijver? In:

  14. Making Lists, Enlisting Scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2011-01-01

    was the indicator conceptualised? How were notions of scientific knowledge and collaboration inscribed and challenged in the process? The analysis shows a two-sided process in which scientists become engaged in making lists but which is simultaneously a way for research policy to enlist scientists. In conclusion...

  15. LAB building a home for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Fishman, Mark C

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are both monasteries and space stations, redolent of the great ideas of generations past and of technologies to propel the future. Yet standard lab design has changed only little over recent years. Here Mark Fishman describes how to build labs as homes for scientists, to accommodate not just their fancy tools, but also their personalities. This richly illustrated book explores the roles of labs through history, from the alchemists of the Middle Ages to the chemists of the 19th and 20th centuries, and to the geneticists and structural biologists of today, and then turns to the special features of the laboratories Fishman helped to design in Cambridge, Shanghai, and Basel. Anyone who works in, or plans to build a lab, will enjoy this book, which will encourage them to think about how this special environment drives or impedes their important work.

  16. Birth of prominent scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence key scientists have in the development of a science and technology system. In particular, this work appraises the influence that star scientists have on the productivity and impact of young faculty, as well as on the likelihood that these young researchers become a leading personality in science. Our analysis confirms previous results that eminent scientist have a prime role in the development of a scientific system, especially within the context of an emerging economy like Mexico. In particular, in terms of productivity and visibility, this work shows that between 1984 and 2001 the elite group of physicists in Mexico (approximate 10% of all scientists working in physics and its related fields) published 42% of all publications, received 50% of all citations and bred 18% to 26% of new entrants. In addition our work shows that scientists that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher increased their productivity on average by 28% and the ones that did it by the hand of a highly visible scientist received on average 141% more citations, vis-à-vis scholars that did not published their first manuscripts with an eminent scientist. Furthermore, scholars that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher were on average 2.5 more likely to also become a star. PMID:29543855

  17. Birth of prominent scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Gonzalez, Leonardo; González Brambila, Claudia N; Veloso, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence key scientists have in the development of a science and technology system. In particular, this work appraises the influence that star scientists have on the productivity and impact of young faculty, as well as on the likelihood that these young researchers become a leading personality in science. Our analysis confirms previous results that eminent scientist have a prime role in the development of a scientific system, especially within the context of an emerging economy like Mexico. In particular, in terms of productivity and visibility, this work shows that between 1984 and 2001 the elite group of physicists in Mexico (approximate 10% of all scientists working in physics and its related fields) published 42% of all publications, received 50% of all citations and bred 18% to 26% of new entrants. In addition our work shows that scientists that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher increased their productivity on average by 28% and the ones that did it by the hand of a highly visible scientist received on average 141% more citations, vis-à-vis scholars that did not published their first manuscripts with an eminent scientist. Furthermore, scholars that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher were on average 2.5 more likely to also become a star.

  18. Scientists planning new internet

    CERN Multimedia

    Cookson, C

    2000-01-01

    British scientists are preparing to build the next generation internet - 'The Grid'. The government is expected to announce about 100 million pounds of funding for the project, to be done in collaboration with CERN (1/2 p).

  19. Scientists must speak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, D. Eric; Walters, Gale Climenson

    2011-01-01

    .... This can be a stressful experience for many. For scientists, the experience may be further complicated by the specialist nature of the data and the fact that most self-help books are aimed at business or social situations...

  20. Scientists vs. the administration

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).

  1. Scientists as writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    2002-09-01

    This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre

  2. The Celebrity Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, Declan

    2010-01-01

    This collective case study examines how four contemporary British scientists and popular science writers, Stephen Hawking, Richard Dawkins, Susan Greenfield and James Lovelock, are portrayed in mass media as celebrities. It finds that the scientists’ private and public lives merge in their representations, their images commodified and marketed by the cultural industries, their mediated personae embodying abstract ideas of truth and reason. The celebrity scientists base their authority on thei...

  3. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Scientist as Illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Janet H

    2016-04-01

    Proficiency in art and illustration was once considered an essential skill for biologists, because text alone often could not suffice to describe observations of biological systems. With modern imaging technology, it is no longer necessary to illustrate what we can see by eye. However, in molecular and cellular biology, our understanding of biological processes is dependent on our ability to synthesize diverse data to generate a hypothesis. Creating visual models of these hypotheses is important for generating new ideas and for communicating to our peers and to the public. Here, I discuss the benefits of creating visual models in molecular and cellular biology and consider steps to enable researchers to become more effective visual communicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparing Planetary Scientists to Engage Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; Hackler, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    While some planetary scientists have extensive experience sharing their science with audiences, many can benefit from guidance on giving presentations or conducting activities for students. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) provides resources and trainings to support planetary scientists in their communication efforts. Trainings have included sessions for students and early career scientists at conferences (providing opportunities for them to practice their delivery and receive feedback for their poster and oral presentations), as well as separate communication workshops on how to engage various audiences. LPI has similarly begun coaching planetary scientists to help them prepare their public presentations. LPI is also helping to connect different audiences and their requests for speakers to planetary scientists. Scientists have been key contributors in developing and conducting activities in LPI education and public events. LPI is currently working with scientists to identify and redesign short planetary science activities for scientists to use with different audiences. The activities will be tied to fundamental planetary science concepts, with basic materials and simple modifications to engage different ages and audience size and background. Input from the planetary science community on these efforts is welcome. Current results and resources, as well as future opportunities will be shared.

  6. Marketing for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J

    2012-01-01

    It's a tough time to be a scientist: universities are shutting science departments, funding organisations are facing flat budgets, and many newspapers have dropped their science sections altogether. But according to Marc Kuchner, this anti-science climate doesn't have to equal a career death knell - it just means scientists have to be savvier about promoting their work and themselves. In "Marketing for Scientists", he provides clear, detailed advice about how to land a good job, win funding, and shape the public debate. As an astrophysicist at NASA, Kuchner knows that "marketing" can seem like a superficial distraction, whether your daily work is searching for new planets or seeking a cure for cancer. In fact, he argues, it's a critical component of the modern scientific endeavour, not only advancing personal careers but also society's knowledge. Kuchner approaches marketing as a science in itself. He translates theories about human interaction and sense of self into methods for building relationships - one o...

  7. Responsability of scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Harigel, G G

    1997-01-01

    This seminar is intended to give some practical help for CERN guides,who are confronted with questions from visitors concerning the purpose of research in general and - in paticular - of the work in our laboratory, its possible application and benefits.The dual use of scientific results will be emphasised by examples across natural sciences. Many investigations were neutral,others aimed at peaceful and beneficial use for humanity, a few were made for destructive purposes. Researchers have no or very little influence on the application of their results. The interplay between natural scientists ,social scientists,politicians,and their dependence on economic factors will be discussed.

  8. Talk Like a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette

    2010-01-01

    In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in which students conduct their own science symposiums. This article presents the science symposium…

  9. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  10. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

  11. What cell biologists should know about the National Institutes of Health BRAIN Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Insel, Thomas R.; Koroshetz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies) Initiative is an ambitious project to develop innovative tools for a deeper understanding of how the brain functions in health and disease. Early programs in the National Institutes of Health BRAIN Initiative focus on tools for next-generation imaging and recording, studies of cell diversity and cell census, and integrative approaches to circuit function. In all of these efforts, cell biologists can play a leading role.

  12. Scientists want more children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Howard Ecklund

    Full Text Available Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.

  13. Scientists want more children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows) who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.

  14. On Responsibility of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdyuzha, Vladimir

    The situation of modern world is analised. It is impossible for our Civilization when at least half of the World Scientists are engaged in research intended to solve military problems. Civilization cannot be called reasonable so long as it spends a huge portion of national incomes on armaments. For resolution of our global problems International Scientific Center - Brain Trust of planet must be created, the status of which should be defined and sealed by the UN organization.

  15. T198. A SCHIZOPHRENIA-LIKE BIRTH SEASONALITY AMONG MATHEMATICIANS AND AN OPPOSITE SEASONALITY AMONG BIOLOGISTS: MORE EVIDENCE IMPLICATING BIMODAL RHYTHMS OF GENERAL BIRTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    -20th century born American scientists and among yet earlier European biologists and mathematicians. Results A group representing 1,925 American scientists showed the SCZ-resistance, GP2-coincident seasonality. However, this effect proved to be mostly due to biologists because biochemists, chemists, and physicists showed gradually less seasonality while mathematicians suggested an altogether artist-like, GP1-coincident seasonality. This intimation of a biologist-mathematician antithesis was pursued with an investigation of most major figures in the history of the two sciences from the 15th to the early-20th century. The two groups, numbering 576 mathematicians and 787 biologists, shared the same mean decade of birth, the 1780s, and essentially the same geographic origin in Western Europe. The mathematicians showed a very significant SCZ liability-like, GP1-coincident seasonality while the biologists showed an even more significant SCZ resistance-like, GP2-coincident seasonality. The latter effect was particularly strong among naturalists, anatomists and other groups representing biological “observationalism” as opposed to “experimentalism.” Discussion The findings are discussed in light of a) new evidence that the annual photoperiod is indeed alone responsible for both peaks of general births, with the GP1 and the GP2 being caused by maternal periconceptional exposure to, respectively, the summer-solstice sunlight maximum and the winter-solstice minimum, and b) an approach/withdrawal theory of lateralization of basic emotions where the left cerebral cortex would handle external stimuli eliciting complacent emotions towards external realities while the right cortex would handle internal stimuli eliciting disdain for those realities.

  16. ECNS '99 - Young scientists forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceretti, M.; Janssen, S.; McMorrow, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Young Scientists Forum is a new venture for ECNS and follows the established tradition of an active participation by young scientists in these conferences. At ECNS '99 the Young Scientists Forum brought together 30 young scientists from 13 European countries. In four working groups, they disc......The Young Scientists Forum is a new venture for ECNS and follows the established tradition of an active participation by young scientists in these conferences. At ECNS '99 the Young Scientists Forum brought together 30 young scientists from 13 European countries. In four working groups......, they discussed emerging scientific trends in their areas of expertise and the instrumentation required to meet the scientific challenges. The outcome was presented in the Young Scientists Panel on the final day of ECNS '99. This paper is a summary of the four working group reports prepared by the Group Conveners...

  17. Educational background and professional participation by federal wildlife biologists: Implications for science, management, and The Wildlife Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    Over 2,000 people are employed in wildlife biology in the United States federal government. The size of this constituency motivated me to examine the amount of formal education federal biologists have received and the extent of continuing education they undertake by reading journals or attending scientific meetings. Most federal biologists who are members of The Wildlife Society (TWS) have a graduate degree. However, one-third have only a Bachelor of Science degree, despite the current trend toward hiring people with graduate degrees. Most federal biologists are not research biologists. Numbers of journals subscribed to was positively related to educational level. Less than one-third of all wildlife biologists employed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service are members of TWS or subscribe to any of its journals. In contrast, the majority of presenters at the TWS 2000 Annual Conference were research biologists and members of TWS. The failure of many federal wildlife biologists to read scientific literature or attend professional meetings indicates a failure to promote the importance of continuing education in the federal workplace. I identify 2 potential adverse impacts of this failing: an inability to recognize important and relevant scientific contributions and an ineffectiveness in carrying out adaptive management.

  18. Ernest Rutherford: scientist supreme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.

    1998-01-01

    One hundred years ago this month, Ernest Rutherford a talented young New Zealander who had just spent three years as a postgraduate student in Britain left for Canada, where he was to do the work that won him a Nobel prize. All three countries can justifiably claim this great scientist as their own. Ernest Rutherford is one of the most illustrious scientists that the world has ever seen. He achieved enduring international fame because of an incredibly productive life, during which he altered our view of nature on three separate occasions. Combining brilliantly conceived experiments with much hard work and special insight, he explained the perplexing problem of naturally occurring radioactivity, determined the structure of the atom, and was the world's first successful alchemist, changing nitrogen into oxygen. Rutherford received a Nobel prize for the first discovery, but the other two would have been equally worthy candidates, had they been discovered by someone else. Indeed, any one of his other secondary achievements many of which are now almost forgotten would have been enough to bring fame to a lesser scientist. For example, he invented an electrical method for detecting individual ionizing radiations, he dated the age of the Earth, and briefly held the world record for the distance over which wireless waves could be detected. He predicted the existence of neutrons, he oversaw the development of large-scale particle accelerators, and, during the First World War, he led the allied research into the detection of submarines. In this article the author describes the life and times of Ernest Rutherford. (UK)

  19. Soviet scientists speak out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb

  20. Medical laboratory scientist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Qvist, Camilla Christine; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp

    2017-01-01

    Previously, biomarker research and development was performed by laboratory technicians working as craftsmen in laboratories under the guidance of medical doctors. This hierarchical structure based on professional boundaries appears to be outdated if we want to keep up with the high performance...... of our healthcare system, and take advantage of the vast potential of future biomarkers and personalized medicine. We ask the question; does our healthcare system benefit from giving the modern medical laboratory scientist (MLS) a stronger academic training in biomarker research, development...

  1. WFIRST CGI Adjutant Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N.

    One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with

  2. Building a local community of practice in scientific programming for Life Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Sarah; Kuzak, Mateusz; Martinez, Carlos; Moser, Aurelia; Bleeker, Petra; Galland, Marc

    2018-01-01

    For most experimental biologists, handling the avalanche of data generated is similar to self-learn how to drive. Although that might be doable, it is preferable and safer to learn good practices. One way to achieve this is to build local communities of practice by bringing together scientists that perform code-intensive research to spread know-how and good practices. Here, we indicate important challenges and issues that stand in the way of establishing these local communities of practice. F...

  3. Demystifying animal 'personality' (or not): why individual variation matters to experimental biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Dominique G; Careau, Vincent; Binning, Sandra A

    2016-12-15

    Animal 'personality', defined as repeatable inter-individual differences in behaviour, is a concept in biology that faces intense controversy. Critics argue that the field is riddled with terminological and methodological inconsistencies and lacks a sound theoretical framework. Nevertheless, experimental biologists are increasingly studying individual differences in physiology and relating these to differences in behaviour, which can lead to fascinating insights. We encourage this trend, and in this Commentary we highlight some of the benefits of estimating variation in (and covariation among) phenotypic traits at the inter- and intra-individual levels. We focus on behaviour while drawing parallels with physiological and performance-related traits. First, we outline some of the confusion surrounding the terminology used to describe repeatable inter-individual differences in behaviour. Second, we argue that acknowledging individual behavioural differences can help researchers avoid sampling and experimental bias, increase explanatory power and, ultimately, understand how selection acts on physiological traits. Third, we summarize the latest methods to collect, analyse and present data on individual trait variation. We note that, while measuring the repeatability of phenotypic traits is informative in its own right, it is only the first step towards understanding how natural selection and genetic architecture shape intra-specific variation in complex, labile traits. Thus, understanding how and why behavioural traits evolve requires linking repeatable inter-individual behavioural differences with core aspects of physiology (e.g. neurophysiology, endocrinology, energy metabolism) and evolutionary biology (e.g. selection gradients, heritability). © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. BioSPICE: access to the most current computational tools for biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Thomas D; Lincoln, Patrick; Pedersen, Charles John; Martin, David; Johnson, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the BioSPICE program is to create a framework that provides biologists access to the most current computational tools. At the program midpoint, the BioSPICE member community has produced a software system that comprises contributions from approximately 20 participating laboratories integrated under the BioSPICE Dashboard and a methodology for continued software integration. These contributed software modules are the BioSPICE Dashboard, a graphical environment that combines Open Agent Architecture and NetBeans software technologies in a coherent, biologist-friendly user interface. The current Dashboard permits data sources, models, simulation engines, and output displays provided by different investigators and running on different machines to work together across a distributed, heterogeneous network. Among several other features, the Dashboard enables users to create graphical workflows by configuring and connecting available BioSPICE components. Anticipated future enhancements to BioSPICE include a notebook capability that will permit researchers to browse and compile data to support model building, a biological model repository, and tools to support the development, control, and data reduction of wet-lab experiments. In addition to the BioSPICE software products, a project website supports information exchange and community building.

  5. How Scientists Can Become Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Jonathan N; Karlsson, Sven

    2017-05-01

    Translating basic research discoveries through entrepreneurship must be scientist driven and institutionally supported to be successful (not the other way around). Here, we describe why scientists should engage in entrepreneurship, where institutional support for scientist-founders falls short, and how these challenges can be overcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  7. Python for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, John M

    2017-01-01

    Scientific Python is a significant public domain alternative to expensive proprietary software packages. This book teaches from scratch everything the working scientist needs to know using copious, downloadable, useful and adaptable code snippets. Readers will discover how easy it is to implement and test non-trivial mathematical algorithms and will be guided through the many freely available add-on modules. A range of examples, relevant to many different fields, illustrate the language's capabilities. The author also shows how to use pre-existing legacy code (usually in Fortran77) within the Python environment, thus avoiding the need to master the original code. In this new edition, several chapters have been re-written to reflect the IPython notebook style. With an extended index, an entirely new chapter discussing SymPy and a substantial increase in the number of code snippets, researchers and research students will be able to quickly acquire all the skills needed for using Python effectively.

  8. Voices of Romanian scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    As Romania has now become a Member State of CERN, Romanian scientists share their thoughts about this new era of partnership for their community.   Members of ATLAS from Romanian institutes at CERN (from left to right): Dan Ciubotaru, Michele Renda, Bogdan Blidaru, Alexandra Tudorache, Marina Rotaru, Ana Dumitriu, Valentina Tudorache, Adam Jinaru, Calin Alexa. On 17 July 2016, Romania became the twenty-second Member State of CERN, 25 years after the first cooperation agreement with the country was signed. “CERN and Romania already have a long history of strong collaboration”, says Emmanuel Tsesmelis, head of Relations with Associate Members and Non-Member States. “We very much look forward to strengthening this collaboration as Romania becomes CERN’s twenty-second Member State, which promises the development of mutual interests in scientific research, related technologies and education,” he affirms. Romania&...

  9. Forgotten women the scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Tsjeng, Zing

    2018-01-01

    The women who shaped and were erased from our history. The Forgotten Women series will uncover the lost histories of the influential women who have refused over hundreds of years to accept the hand they've been dealt and, as a result, have formed, shaped and changed the course of our futures. The Scientists celebrates 48* unsung scientific heroines whose hugely important, yet broadly unacknowledged or incorrectly attributed, discoveries have transformed our understanding of the scientific world. Mary Anning, the amateur paleontologist whose fossil findings changed scientific thinking about prehistoric life Emmy Noether, dubbed "The Mighty Mathematician You've Never Heard Of" Ynés Mexía, the Mexican-American botanist who discovered over 500 new plant species Wangari Maathai, who started an environmental and ecological revolution in Kenya Margaret Sanger, the maverick nurse who paved the way for the legalization of contraception Chapters including Earth & Universe; Biology & N...

  10. A Serendipitous Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2018-01-06

    Growing up in a middle-class Jewish home in the Bronx, I had only one professional goal: to become a physician. However, as with most of my Vietnam-era MD colleagues, I found my residency training interrupted by the Doctor Draft in 1968. Some of us who were academically inclined fulfilled this obligation by serving in the US Public Health Service as commissioned officers stationed at the National Institutes of Health. This experience would eventually change the entire trajectory of my career. Here I describe how, over a period of years, I transitioned from the life of a physician to that of a physician-scientist; my 50 years of work on cellular receptors; and some miscellaneous thoughts on subjects as varied as Nobel prizes, scientific lineages, mentoring, publishing, and funding.

  11. Radiation Technician Scientist service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, Enrique; Barrera Gonzalez, Gisela; Guerra Torres, Mercedes; Mora Lopez, Leonor; Altanes Valentin, Sonia; Rapado Paneque, Manuel; Plasencia Gutierrez, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation service is part of the specialized technician scientist services of the Center of Technological Applications and Nuclear Development it belonging to the Radiobiological Department it provides a self shielded laboratory irradiator, PX y 30 type with Cobalt 60 sources, it destined for searches studies, so much basic as applying, in several branches of the science, like the radiobiology, the radiation chemistry, the solid state physics, the medicine, the agriculture and the Pharmaceutical- Medical Industry and besides offering the irradiation service properly with the which have been gotten significant economical outputs. The radiation processing is controlled by means of the dosimetric systems of Freckle, ceric cerous sulfate, Perspex (red, clear and Amber) and dose indicators

  12. Values and attitudes of National Wildlife Refuge managers and biologists; Report to respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Ayeisha A.; Benson, Delwin E.

    2002-01-01

    The issues affecting natural resource management, the society in which natural resource management occurs, natural resource agency personnel, and the publics they serve have changed in recent decades. Previous studies of Refuge professionals in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) have revealed that employees lack strong commitment to the current organizational structure, were frustrated with the lack of communication within the agency and felt there was a need for strong leadership (PEER 1998, 1999). These results prompted the authors to have further questions about refuge management in the Fish and Wildlife Service. What do employees value about their agency? Is there a difference in values between refuge managers and biologists and if so, what are those differences and what influences those differences?

  13. GeneNotes – A novel information management software for biologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Wing H

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting and managing information is a challenging task in a genome-wide profiling research project. Most databases and online computational tools require a direct human involvement. Information and computational results are presented in various multimedia formats (e.g., text, image, PDF, word files, etc., many of which cannot be automatically processed by computers in biologically meaningful ways. In addition, the quality of computational results is far from perfect and requires nontrivial manual examination. The timely selection, integration and interpretation of heterogeneous biological information still heavily rely on the sensibility of biologists. Biologists often feel overwhelmed by the huge amount of and the great diversity of distributed heterogeneous biological information. Description We developed an information management application called GeneNotes. GeneNotes is the first application that allows users to collect and manage multimedia biological information about genes/ESTs. GeneNotes provides an integrated environment for users to surf the Internet, collect notes for genes/ESTs, and retrieve notes. GeneNotes is supported by a server that integrates gene annotations from many major databases (e.g., HGNC, MGI, etc.. GeneNotes uses the integrated gene annotations to (a identify genes given various types of gene IDs (e.g., RefSeq ID, GenBank ID, etc., and (b provide quick views of genes. GeneNotes is free for academic usage. The program and the tutorials are available at: http://bayes.fas.harvard.edu/genenotes/. Conclusions GeneNotes provides a novel human-computer interface to assist researchers to collect and manage biological information. It also provides a platform for studying how users behave when they manipulate biological information. The results of such study can lead to innovation of more intelligent human-computer interfaces that greatly shorten the cycle of biology research.

  14. The mentoring of male and female scientists during their doctoral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, Laura Ann

    The mentoring relationships of male and female scientists during their doctoral studies were examined. Male and female biologists, chemists, engineers and physicists were compared regarding the importance of doctoral students receiving career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring from their doctoral chairperson and student colleagues. Scientists' satisfaction with their chairperson and colleagues as providers of these mentoring functions was also investigated. In addition, scientists identified individuals other than their chairperson and colleagues who were positive influencers on their professional development as scientists and those who hindered their development. A reliable instrument, "The Survey of Accomplished Scientists' Doctoral Experiences," was developed to assess career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring of doctoral chairpersons and student colleagues based on the review of literature, interviews with scientists and two pilot studies. Surveys were mailed to a total of 400 men and women scientists with earned doctorates, of which 209 were completed and returned. The findings reveal that female scientists considered the doctoral chairperson furnishing career enhancing mentoring more important than did the men, while both were in accordance with the importance of them providing psychosocial mentoring. In addition, female scientists were not as satisfied as men with their chairperson providing most of the career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring functions. For doctoral student colleagues, female scientists, when compared to men, indicated that they considered student colleagues more important in providing career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring. However, male and female scientists were equally satisfied with their colleagues as providers of these mentoring functions. Lastly, the majority of male scientists indicated that professors served as a positive influencer, while women revealed that spouses and friends positively influenced their professional

  15. Not going it alone: scientists and their work featured online at FrontierScientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, E. A.; Nielsen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Science outreach demystifies science, and outreach media gives scientists a voice to engage the public. Today scientists are expected to communicate effectively not only with peers but also with a braod public audience, yet training incentiives are sometimes scarce. Media creation training is even less emphasized. Editing video to modern standards takes practice; arrangling light and framing shots isn't intuitive. While great tutorials exist, learning videography, story boarding, editing and sharing techniques will always require a commitment of time and effort. Yet ideally sharing science should be low-hanging fruit. FrontierScientists, a science-sharing website funded by the NSF, seeks to let scientists display their breakthroughs and share their excitement for their work with the public by working closely yet non-exhaustively with a professional media team. A director and videographer join scientists to film first-person accounts in the field or lab. Pictures and footage with field site explanations give media creators raw material. Scientists communicate efficiently and retain editorial control over the project, but a small team of media creators craft the public aimed content. A series of engaging short videos with narrow focuses illuminate the science. Written articles support with explanations. Social media campaigns spread the word, link content, welcome comments and keep abreast of changing web requirements. All FrontierScientists featured projects are aggregated to one mobile-friendly site available online or via an App. There groupings of Arctic-focused science provide a wealth of topics and content to explore. Scientists describe why their science is important, what drew them to it, and why the average American should care. When scientists share their work it's wonderful; a team approach is a schedule-friendly way that lets them serve as science communicators without taking up a handful of extra careers.

  16. Seven scientists advise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Atomic Energy Agency held its second series of meetings in Vienna on 4-5 June 1959. The members of the Committee are seven distinguished scientists from different countries: Dr. H.J. Bhabha (India), Sir John Cockcroft (UK), Professor V.S. Emelyanov (USSR), Dr. B. Goldschmidt (France), Dr. B. Gross (Brazil), Dr. W.B. Lewis (Canada) and Professor I.I. Rabi (USA). The function of the Committee is to provide the Director General and through him the Board of Governors with scientific and technical advice on questions relating to the Agency's activities. Subjects for consideration by the Committee can be submitted by the Director General either on his own behalf or on behalf of the Board. At its recent session, the Committee considered several aspects of the Agency's scientific programme, including the proposed conferences, symposia and seminars for 1960, scientific and technical publications, and the research contracts which had been or were to be awarded by the Agency. The programme of conferences for the current year had been approved earlier by the Board of Governors on the recommendation of the Committee. A provisional list of 17 conferences, symposia and seminars for 1960 was examined by the Committee and recommendations were made to the Director General. The Committee also examined the Agency's policy on the award of contracts for research work and studies. An important subject before the Committee was the principles and regulations for the application of Agency safeguards. Another subject considered by the Committee was the possibility of a project for an exchange of knowledge on controlled thermonuclear fusion. The Committee also examined a proposal for the determination of the world-wide distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in water. Exact information on the distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in rain, in rivers, in ground water and in oceans would be important for areas with limited water

  17. Seven scientists advise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    The Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Atomic Energy Agency held its second series of meetings in Vienna on 4-5 June 1959. The members of the Committee are seven distinguished scientists from different countries: Dr. H.J. Bhabha (India), Sir John Cockcroft (UK), Professor V.S. Emelyanov (USSR), Dr. B. Goldschmidt (France), Dr. B. Gross (Brazil), Dr. W.B. Lewis (Canada) and Professor I.I. Rabi (USA). The function of the Committee is to provide the Director General and through him the Board of Governors with scientific and technical advice on questions relating to the Agency's activities. Subjects for consideration by the Committee can be submitted by the Director General either on his own behalf or on behalf of the Board. At its recent session, the Committee considered several aspects of the Agency's scientific programme, including the proposed conferences, symposia and seminars for 1960, scientific and technical publications, and the research contracts which had been or were to be awarded by the Agency. The programme of conferences for the current year had been approved earlier by the Board of Governors on the recommendation of the Committee. A provisional list of 17 conferences, symposia and seminars for 1960 was examined by the Committee and recommendations were made to the Director General. The Committee also examined the Agency's policy on the award of contracts for research work and studies. An important subject before the Committee was the principles and regulations for the application of Agency safeguards. Another subject considered by the Committee was the possibility of a project for an exchange of knowledge on controlled thermonuclear fusion. The Committee also examined a proposal for the determination of the world-wide distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in water. Exact information on the distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in rain, in rivers, in ground water and in oceans would be important for areas with limited water

  18. Frontier Scientists use Modern Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connell, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

  19. Modern physics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, John C

    2010-01-01

    Intended for a first course in modern physics, following an introductory course in physics with calculus, Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers begins with a brief and focused account of the historical events leading to the formulation of modern quantum theory, while later chapters delve into the underlying physics. Streamlined content, chapters on semiconductors, Dirac Equation and Quantum Field Theory, and a robust pedagogy and ancillary package including an accompanying website with computer applets assists students in learning the essential material.

  20. Structural biologists capture detailed image of gene regulator’s fleeting form | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using an ultrafast, high-intensity radiation source called an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), scientists have captured an atomic-level picture of an RNA structure called a riboswitch as it reorganizes itself to regulate protein production. The structure they visualized has never before been seen, and likely exists for only milliseconds after the riboswitch first encounters its activating molecule.  Read more...  

  1. Reviews CD-ROM: Scientific American—The Amateur Scientist 3.0 Book: The New Resourceful Physics Teacher Equipment: DynaKar Book: The Fundamentals of Imaging Book: Teaching Secondary Physics Book: Novel Materials and Smart Applications Equipment: Cryptic disk Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND Scientific American—The Amateur Scientist 3.0 Article collection spans the decades DynaKar DynaKar drives dynamics experiments The Fundamentals of Imaging Author covers whole imaging spectrum Teaching Secondary Physics Effective teaching is all in the approach Novel Materials and Smart Applications/Novel materials sample pack Resources kit samples smart materials WORTH A LOOK Cryptic disk Metal disk spins life into discussions about energy, surfaces and kinetics HANDLE WITH CARE The New Resourceful Physics Teacher Book brings creativity to physics WEB WATCH Apps for tablets and smartphones can aid physics teaching

  2. Refugee scientists under the spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extance, Andy

    2017-07-01

    Thousands of people are forced to flee war-torn regions every year, but the struggles of scientists who have to leave their homeland often goes under the radar. Andy Extance reports on initiatives to help

  3. Expediency of Study of the Scientists' Biographies in Physics Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Korsun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a justification of the expediency of study of the scientists' biographies in physics course. Study of the biographic materials is one of the ways of motivation of learning and development of morality, humanity, internationalism. The selection criteria of biographic material have been allocated and method of study of the scientists' biographies has been described. Biographical data, scientific achievements and character traits are the components of “scientist's image”. Results proved that the use of the biographic materials raises the level of emotional component of learners' cognitive activity in physics teaching. Method of study of the scientists' biographies can be used in teaching of other school subjects.

  4. Simple heuristics and rules of thumb: where psychologists and behavioural biologists might meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John M C; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2005-05-31

    The Centre for Adaptive Behaviour and Cognition (ABC) has hypothesised that much human decision-making can be described by simple algorithmic process models (heuristics). This paper explains this approach and relates it to research in biology on rules of thumb, which we also review. As an example of a simple heuristic, consider the lexicographic strategy of Take The Best for choosing between two alternatives: cues are searched in turn until one discriminates, then search stops and all other cues are ignored. Heuristics consist of building blocks, and building blocks exploit evolved or learned abilities such as recognition memory; it is the complexity of these abilities that allows the heuristics to be simple. Simple heuristics have an advantage in making decisions fast and with little information, and in avoiding overfitting. Furthermore, humans are observed to use simple heuristics. Simulations show that the statistical structures of different environments affect which heuristics perform better, a relationship referred to as ecological rationality. We contrast ecological rationality with the stronger claim of adaptation. Rules of thumb from biology provide clearer examples of adaptation because animals can be studied in the environments in which they evolved. The range of examples is also much more diverse. To investigate them, biologists have sometimes used similar simulation techniques to ABC, but many examples depend on empirically driven approaches. ABC's theoretical framework can be useful in connecting some of these examples, particularly the scattered literature on how information from different cues is integrated. Optimality modelling is usually used to explain less detailed aspects of behaviour but might more often be redirected to investigate rules of thumb.

  5. Ballooning for Biologists: Mission Essentials for Flying Experiments on Large NASA Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J.; Sowa, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Despite centuries of scientific balloon flights, only a handful of experiments have produced biologically-relevant results. Yet unlike orbital spaceflight, it is much faster and cheaper to conduct biology research with balloons, sending specimens to the near space environment of Earths stratosphere. Samples can be loaded the morning of a launch and sometimes returned to the laboratory within one day after flying. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) flies large, unmanned scientific balloons from all over the globe, with missions ranging from hours to weeks in duration. A payload in the middle portion of the stratosphere (approx. 35 km above sea level) will be exposed to an environment similar to the surface of Mars: temperatures generally around -36 C, atmospheric pressure at a thin 1 kPa, relative humidity levels <1%, and a harsh illumination of ultraviolet (UV) and cosmic radiation levels (about 100 W/sq m and 0.1 mGy/d, respectively) that can be obtained nowhere else on the surface of the Earth, including environmental chambers and particle accelerator facilities attempting to simulate space radiation effects. Considering the operational advantages of ballooning and the fidelity of space-like stressors in the stratosphere, researchers in aerobiology, astrobiology, and space biology can benefit from balloon flight experiments as an intermediary step on the extraterrestrial continuum (ground, low Earth orbit, and deep space studies). Our presentation targets biologists with no background or experience in scientific ballooning. We will provide an overview of large balloon operations, biology topics that can be uniquely addressed in the stratosphere, and a roadmap for developing payloads to fly with NASA.

  6. Scientists Involved in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.

    2004-12-01

    The publication of countless reports documenting the dismal state of science education in the 1980s, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) report (1996) called for a wider involvement of the scientific community in K-12 education and outreach. Improving science education will not happen without the collaboration of educators and scientists working in a coordinated manner and it requires a long-term, continuous effort. To contribute effectively to K-12 education all scientists should refer to the National Science Education Standards, a set of policies that guide the development of curriculum and assessment. Ocean scientists can also specifically refer to the COSEE recommendations (www.cosee.org) that led to the creation of seven regional Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence. Scientists can get involved in K-12 education in a multitude of ways. They should select projects that will accommodate time away from their research and teaching obligations, their talent, and their interest but also contribute to the education reform. A few examples of effective involvement are: 1) collaborating with colleagues in a school of education that can lead to better education of all students and future teachers, 2) acting as a resource for a national program or a local science fair, 3) serving on the advisory board of a program that develops educational material, 4) speaking out at professional meetings about the value of scientists' involvement in education, 5) speaking enthusiastically about the teaching profession. Improving science education in addition to research can seem a large, overwhelming task for scientists. As a result, focusing on projects that will fit the scientist's needs as well as benefit the science reform is of prime importance. It takes an enormous amount of work and financial and personnel resources to start a new program with measurable impact on students. So, finding the right opportunity is a priority, and stepping

  7. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  8. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  9. The Local-Cosmopolitan Scientist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to previous discussions in the literature treating cosmopolitan and local as two distinct groups of scientists, this paperi demonstrates the notion of cosmopolitan and local as a dual orientation of highly motivated scientists. This dual orientation is derived from institutional motivation, which is a determinant of both high quality basic research and accomplishment of non-research organizational activities. The dual orientation arises in a context of similarity of the institutional goal of science with the goal of the organization; the distinction between groups of locals and cosmopolitans derives from a conflict between two goals.

  10. Scientists, government, and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Scientists in less-developed countries (LDCs) that undertake nuclear programs become involved in political decisions on manpower and resource allocations that will preclude other options. Controversy over the adoption of sophisticated technology has put those who see science as the servant of society in conflict with those who see the pursuit of science as a social service. The role model which LDC scientists present in this issue has given them increasing power, which can be either in accord with or in conflict with the perceived national interest. 29 references

  11. Evaluating sources of job satisfaction: A survey of U.S. Fish and Wildlife refuge managers and biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Phadrea D.; Brinson, Ayeisha A.; Benson, Delwin

    2003-01-01

    The following summary consists of revised excerpts from the thesis study that was conducted in 2000-2002 by Ayeisha Brinson, Colorado State University (Brinson, 2002). The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) with additional finding related to sources of job satisfaction. Because this is a report of additional findings from a length study, the information in this report is condensed and represented without references from the original research. The literature review, methodology, and discussion from the original thesis are not presented in this report. Any questions concerning the thesis should be directed to Ayeisha Brinson, who may be reached by e-mail. The purpose of the report is to examine differences and similarities between National Wildlife Refuge managers and biologists on a selection of independent variable related to job satisfaction occupation status (being either a manager or a biologist): are managers more satisfied with their jobs than biologist? If so, what are the components of that satisfaction? What are the sources of dissatisfaction? a?|

  12. Declan FAHY (2015), The New Celebrity Scientists. Out of the Lab and into the Limelight

    OpenAIRE

    Fines-Neuschild, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    The New Celebrity Scientists est le premier ouvrage de Declan Fahy. Il y fait le portrait de huit scientifiques en suivant leur parcours jusqu’à la célébrité et présente l’influence de leurs propos sur les politiques publiques. De ces huit scientifiques, trois sont physiciens : Stephen Hawking, Brian Greene et Neil de Grasse Tyson. Sont aussi présentés Richard Dawkins, biologiste, Steven Pinker, psychologue cognitiviste, Stephen Jay Gould, paléontologue, Susan Greenfield, pharmacologue, et Ja...

  13. Expediency of Study of the Scientists' Biographies in Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsun, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is a justification of the expediency of study of the scientists' biographies in physics course. Study of the biographic materials is one of the ways of motivation of learning and development of morality, humanity, internationalism. The selection criteria of biographic material have been allocated and method of study of the…

  14. Introductory mathematics for earth scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2009-01-01

    Any quantitative work in earth sciences requires mathematical analysis and mathematical methods are essential to the modelling and analysis of the geological, geophysical and environmental processes involved. This book provides an introduction to the fundamental mathematics that all earth scientists need.

  15. Automating the application of smart materials for protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, Sahir; Govada, Lata; EL-Sharif, Hazim F.; Reddy, Subrayal M.; Chayen, Naomi E.

    2015-01-01

    The first semi-liquid, non-protein nucleating agent for automated protein crystallization trials is described. This ‘smart material’ is demonstrated to induce crystal growth and will provide a simple, cost-effective tool for scientists in academia and industry. The fabrication and validation of the first semi-liquid nonprotein nucleating agent to be administered automatically to crystallization trials is reported. This research builds upon prior demonstration of the suitability of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs; known as ‘smart materials’) for inducing protein crystal growth. Modified MIPs of altered texture suitable for high-throughput trials are demonstrated to improve crystal quality and to increase the probability of success when screening for suitable crystallization conditions. The application of these materials is simple, time-efficient and will provide a potent tool for structural biologists embarking on crystallization trials

  16. An introduction to optical super-resolution microscopy for the adventurous biologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangindertael, J.; Camacho, R.; Sempels, W.; Mizuno, H.; Dedecker, P.; Janssen, K. P. F.

    2018-04-01

    Ever since the inception of light microscopy, the laws of physics have seemingly thwarted every attempt to visualize the processes of life at its most fundamental, sub-cellular, level. The diffraction limit has restricted our view to length scales well above 250 nm and in doing so, severely compromised our ability to gain true insights into many biological systems. Fortunately, continuous advancements in optics, electronics and mathematics have since provided the means to once again make physics work to our advantage. Even though some of the fundamental concepts enabling super-resolution light microscopy have been known for quite some time, practically feasible implementations have long remained elusive. It should therefore not come as a surprise that the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to the scientists who, each in their own way, contributed to transforming super-resolution microscopy from a technological tour de force to a staple of the biologist’s toolkit. By overcoming the diffraction barrier, light microscopy could once again be established as an indispensable tool in an age where the importance of understanding life at the molecular level cannot be overstated. This review strives to provide the aspiring life science researcher with an introduction to optical microscopy, starting from the fundamental concepts governing compound and fluorescent confocal microscopy to the current state-of-the-art of super-resolution microscopy techniques and their applications.

  17. Bridging the gap between clinicians and systems biologists: from network biology to translational biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinawath, Natini; Bunbanjerdsuk, Sacarin; Chayanupatkul, Maneerat; Ngamphaiboon, Nuttapong; Asavapanumas, Nithi; Svasti, Jisnuson; Charoensawan, Varodom

    2016-11-22

    With the wealth of data accumulated from completely sequenced genomes and other high-throughput experiments, global studies of biological systems, by simultaneously investigating multiple biological entities (e.g. genes, transcripts, proteins), has become a routine. Network representation is frequently used to capture the presence of these molecules as well as their relationship. Network biology has been widely used in molecular biology and genetics, where several network properties have been shown to be functionally important. Here, we discuss how such methodology can be useful to translational biomedical research, where scientists traditionally focus on one or a small set of genes, diseases, and drug candidates at any one time. We first give an overview of network representation frequently used in biology: what nodes and edges represent, and review its application in preclinical research to date. Using cancer as an example, we review how network biology can facilitate system-wide approaches to identify targeted small molecule inhibitors. These types of inhibitors have the potential to be more specific, resulting in high efficacy treatments with less side effects, compared to the conventional treatments such as chemotherapy. Global analysis may provide better insight into the overall picture of human diseases, as well as identify previously overlooked problems, leading to rapid advances in medicine. From the clinicians' point of view, it is necessary to bridge the gap between theoretical network biology and practical biomedical research, in order to improve the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the world's major diseases.

  18. Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    activities. The program provides teachers with a one-week summer professional development workshop, long-term teacher support through classroom visits, teacher access to GLOBE instrumentation, and research opportunities for students. Professional development is centered on student engagement through inquiry, opportunities for collaborative student research, and the GLOBE Program's atmosphere protocols and learning activities. Beyond the training week, teachers receive follow-up specifically addressing current opportunities for student engagement in current research and opportunities for students to present research findings. The first cohort of teachers completed the professional development workshop in July 2012. This session will summarize the planning and implementation details of the summer workshop, including schedule and materials. In addition to these details, we will share our evaluation of follow-up activities and survey results highlighting teachers' perceived barriers to implementing atmosphere investigations. These results will add to the discussion on effective programs aimed at inspiring young scientists.

  19. Poll of radiation health scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A sampling of 210 university-employed radiation health scientists randomly selected from the membership lists of the Health Physics Society and the Radiation Research Society was polled in a secret ballot. The results support the positions that the public's fear of radiation is substantially greater than realistic, that TV, newspapers and magazines substantially exaggerate the dangers of radiation, that the amount of money now being spent on radiation protection is sufficient, and that the openness and honesty of U.S. government agencies about dangers of radiation were below average before 1972 but have been above average since then. Respondents give very high credibility ratings to BEIR, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and NCRP and to the individual scientists associated with their reports, and very low credibility ratings to those who have disputed them

  20. Mathematics for the Student Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauten, A. Darien; Lauten, Gary N.

    1998-03-01

    The Earth Day:Forest Watch Program, introduces elementary, middle, and secondary students to field laboratory, and satellite-data analysis methods for assessing the health of Eastern White Pine ( Pinus strobus). In this Student-Scientist Partnership program, mathematics, as envisioned in the NCTM Standards, arises naturally and provides opportunities for science-mathematics interdisciplinary student learning. School mathematics becomes the vehicle for students to quantify, represent, analyze, and interpret meaningful, real data.

  1. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  2. Making sense of biologists' teaching: Two case studies of beliefs and discourse practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifield, Steven James

    1999-09-01

    practices suggest that what scientists' believe and do as teachers should be understood as dimensions of the nature of science. From this perspective, for some science professors, science education reform may entail not simply using different instructional strategies, but doing and thinking about science in radically new ways. The implications of this perspective for educational reform are discussed.

  3. "Early Psychosis" as a mirror of biologist controversies in post-war German, Anglo-Saxon, and Soviet Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The English term "early psychosis" was coined in the 1930s to refer to feelings of irritability, loss of concentration, hypochondriac ideas, moodiness, and lassitude that were seen to precede the onset of clear-cut hallucinations and delusions. The history of thinking about "early psychosis" under names such as "latent," "masked," "mild," "simple" or "sluggish" schizophrenia before World War II and afterwards on the different sides of the Wall and the Iron Curtain reveals "early psychosis" as a mirror of quite aged international biologist controversies that are still alive today and to the same extent as they are misunderstood, are influential in their implications in today's psychiatry.

  4. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Engineering of polymers and composite materials. Catalysis in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning polymer and composite materials technology as well as catalysis in chemical engineering. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  5. Book of abstracts of the 3rd International conference and the 3rd International School for young scientists Interaction of hydrogen isotopes with structural materials. IHISM-07; Tezisy dokladov Tret'ej mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii i Tret'ej mezhdunarodnoj Shkoly molodykh uchenykh i spetsialistov Vzaimodejstvie izotopov vodoroda s konstruktsionnymi materialami. IHISM-07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The book involves abstracts of presentations at the 3rd International Conference and the 3rd International School for Young Scientists Interaction of Hydrogen Isotopes with Structural Materials (IHISM-07). The activities of Russian and foreign scientific centers associated with the use of hydrogen isotopes in power engineering, national economy and basic research are considered. The presentations cover the following areas: kinetics and interaction between hydrogen isotopes and solids including effects of radiogenic helium accumulation, hydrides and hydride transformations; structural transformations and mechanical properties; equipment and research techniques.

  6. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Plenary reports. Engineering of inorganic substances and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of inorganic substances and materials. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  7. Medical biochemistry in Macedonia: a profession for physicians and natural scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traikovska, S; Dzhekova-Stojkova, S

    2001-06-01

    Medical biochemistry or clinical chemistry in its roots is an interdisciplinary science between natural sciences and medicine. The largest part of medical biochemistry is natural science (chemistry, biochemistry, biology, physics, mathematics), which is very well integrated in deduction of medical problems. Medical biochemistry throughout the world, including Macedonia, should be a professional field open to both physicians and natural scientists, according to its historical development, theoretical characteristics and applied practice. Physicians and natural scientists follow the same route in clinical chemistry during the postgraduate training of specialization in medical biochemistry/clinical chemistry. However, in Macedonia the specialization in medical biochemistry/clinical chemistry is today regulated by law only for physicians and pharmacists. The study of clinical chemistry in Europe has shown its interdisciplinary character. In most European countries different professions, such as physicians, chemists/biochemists, pharmacists, biologists and others could specialize in clinical chemistry. The question for the next generation of specialists in Macedonia is whether to accept the present conditions or to attempt to change the law to include chemists/biochemists and biologists as well. The latter used to be a practice in Macedonia 20 years ago, and still is in many European countries. Such change in law would also result in changes in the postgraduate educational program in medical biochemistry in Macedonia. The new postgraduate program has to follow the European Syllabus, recommended by EC4. To obtain sufficient knowledge in clinical chemistry, the duration of vocational training (undergraduate and postgraduate) for all trainees (physicians, pharmaceutics, chemists/biochemists and biologists) should be 8 years.

  8. Goober: A fully integrated and user-friendly microarray data management and analysis solution for core labs and bench biologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Wen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of software tools developed to address different areas of microarray data analysis, very few offer an all-in-one solution with little learning curve. For microarray core labs, there are even fewer software packages available to help with their routine but critical tasks, such as data quality control (QC and inventory management. We have developed a simple-to-use web portal to allow bench biologists to analyze and query complicated microarray data and related biological pathways without prior training. Both experiment-based and gene-based analysis can be easily performed, even for the first-time user, through the intuitive multi-layer design and interactive graphic links. While being friendly to inexperienced users, most parameters in Goober can be easily adjusted via drop-down menus to allow advanced users to tailor their needs and perform more complicated analysis. Moreover, we have integrated graphic pathway analysis into the website to help users examine microarray data within the relevant biological content. Goober also contains features that cover most of the common tasks in microarray core labs, such as real time array QC, data loading, array usage and inventory tracking. Overall, Goober is a complete microarray solution to help biologists instantly discover valuable information from a microarray experiment and enhance the quality and productivity of microarray core labs. The whole package is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/goober. A demo web server is available at http://www.goober-array.org.

  9. A scientist at the seashore

    CERN Document Server

    Trefil, James S

    2005-01-01

    ""A marvelous excursion from the beach to the ends of the solar system . . . captivating.""-The New York Times""So easy to understand yet so dense with knowledge that you'll never look at waves on a beach the same way again.""-San Francisco Chronicle""One of the best popular science books.""-The Kansas City Star""Perfect for the weekend scientist.""-The Richmond News-LeaderA noted physicist and popular science writer heads for the beach to answer common and uncommon questions about the ocean. James S. Trefil, author of Dover Publications' The Moment of Creation: Big Bang Physics from Before th

  10. Give Young Scientists a Break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

  11. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Materials of All-Russian Symposium on chemistry and extraction engineering. Chemical-metallurgical processes of ore and secondary raw material processing. Analytical control of chemical industries, man-made and natural objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning polymer and composite materials technology as well as catalysis in chemical engineering. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  12. Biotechnology awareness study, Part 1: Where scientists get their information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefsheim, S; Franklin, J; Cunningham, D

    1991-01-01

    A model study, funded by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and conducted by the Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library (RML) and the University of Maryland Health Sciences Library, attempted to assess the information needs of researchers in the developing field of biotechnology and to determine the resources available to meet those needs in major academic health sciences centers. Nine medical schools in RML Region 2 were selected to participate in a biotechnology awareness study. A survey was conducted of the nine medical school libraries to assess their support of biotechnology research. To identify the information needs of scientists engaged in biotechnology-related research at the schools, a written survey was sent to the deans of the nine institutions and selected scientists they had identified. This was followed by individual, in-depth interviews with both the deans and scientists surveyed. In general, scientists obtained information from three major sources: their own experiments, personal communication with other scientists, and textual material (print or electronic). For textual information, most study participants relied on personal journal subscriptions. Tangential journals were scanned in the department's library. Only a few of these scientists came to the health sciences library on a regular basis. Further, the study found that personal computers have had a major impact on how biotechnologists get and use information. Implications of these findings for libraries and librarians are discussed. PMID:1998818

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in ... and more with our Ask a Scientist video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, ...

  14. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  15. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’ ... a scientist? Click to Watch What is an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click ...

  16. Young scientists in the making

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2011-01-01

    Some 700 local primary-school children will be trying out the scientific method for themselves from February to June. After "Draw me a physicist", the latest project "Dans la peau d’un chercheur" ("Be a scientist for a day") is designed to give children a taste of what it's like to be a scientist. Both schemes are the fruit of a partnership between CERN, "PhysiScope" (University of Geneva) and the local education authorities in the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva.   Juliette Davenne (left) and Marie Bugnon (centre) from CERN's Communication Group prepare the mystery boxes for primary schools with Olivier Gaumer (right) of PhysiScope. Imagine a white box that rattles and gives off a strange smell when you shake it… How would you go about finding out what's inside it without opening it? Thirty primary-school teachers from the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva tried out this exercise on Wednesday 26 ...

  17. Microgravity sciences application visiting scientist program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Martin; Vanalstine, James

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center pursues scientific research in the area of low-gravity effects on materials and processes. To facilitate these Government performed research responsibilities, a number of supplementary research tasks were accomplished by a group of specialized visiting scientists. They participated in work on contemporary research problems with specific objectives related to current or future space flight experiments and defined and established independent programs of research which were based on scientific peer review and the relevance of the defined research to NASA microgravity for implementing a portion of the national program. The programs included research in the following areas: protein crystal growth, X-ray crystallography and computer analysis of protein crystal structure, optimization and analysis of protein crystal growth techniques, and design and testing of flight hardware.

  18. Modern physics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, John C

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers is intended for a first course in modern physics. Beginning with a brief and focused account of the historical events leading to the formulation of modern quantum theory, later chapters delve into the underlying physics. Streamlined content, chapters on semiconductors, Dirac equation and quantum field theory, as well as a robust pedagogy and ancillary package, including an accompanying website with computer applets, assist students in learning the essential material. The applets provide a realistic description of the energy levels and wave functions of electrons in atoms and crystals. The Hartree-Fock and ABINIT applets are valuable tools for studying the properties of atoms and semiconductors.

  19. The Scientist and the Educational Development Team: An Impedance Mismatch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, S. M.

    2001-05-01

    This talk describes my experiences and those of several other scientists who have worked on teams to develop new instructional materials and programs. At each stage of the development process we try to communicate our skills and experiences to the rest of the development team. In turn, the experiences of non-scientist educators on the team must be communicated to us. However, in many cases there is an "impedance mismatch" which makes communication difficult. One primary source of this mismatch is the scientist's lack of experience with schools, students, teachers, school administrators, museums, and the public. The result of this mismatch can leave the scientist in one limited, but useful role: proofreader and critic. Unfortunately, this can hardly be described as a partnership. This talk gives some advice, based on 25 years of educational materials and program development work, on how to avoid such a limited role. The talk would be appropriate for those scientists who want to lead, inspire, or significantly contribute to educational initiatives and to share in the frustration and the rewards enjoyed by professional educators and professional educational developers. S. Pompea is an adjunct faculty member of Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona.

  20. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  1. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Materials Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials characterization of sample by incoming beam and measuring outgoing particles, with data being stored and analyzed Staff Scientist Dr. Zakutayev specializes in design of novel semiconductor materials for energy

  2. Empirical investigation of the ethical reasoning of physicians and molecular biologists – the importance of the four principles of biomedical ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Mette; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-01-01

    Background This study presents an empirical investigation of the ethical reasoning and ethical issues at stake in the daily work of physicians and molecular biologists in Denmark. The aim of this study was to test empirically whether there is a difference in ethical considerations and principles between Danish physicians and Danish molecular biologists, and whether the bioethical principles of the American bioethicists Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress are applicable to these groups. Method This study is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with three groups of respondents: a group of oncology physicians working in a clinic at a public hospital and two groups of molecular biologists conducting basic research, one group employed at a public university and the other in a private biopharmaceutical company. Results In this sample, the authors found that oncology physicians and molecular biologists employed in a private biopharmaceutical company have the specific principle of beneficence in mind in their daily work. Both groups are motivated to help sick patients. According to the study, molecular biologists explicitly consider nonmaleficence in relation to the environment, the researchers' own health, and animal models; and only implicitly in relation to patients or human subjects. In contrast, considerations of nonmaleficence by oncology physicians relate to patients or human subjects. Physicians and molecular biologists both consider the principle of respect for autonomy as a negative obligation in the sense that informed consent of patients should be respected. However, in contrast to molecular biologists, physicians experience the principle of respect for autonomy as a positive obligation as the physician, in dialogue with the patient, offers a medical prognosis based upon the patients wishes and ideas, mutual understanding, and respect. Finally, this study discloses utilitarian characteristics in the overall conception of justice as conceived by oncology

  3. Empirical investigation of the ethical reasoning of physicians and molecular biologists – the importance of the four principles of biomedical ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbesen Mette

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study presents an empirical investigation of the ethical reasoning and ethical issues at stake in the daily work of physicians and molecular biologists in Denmark. The aim of this study was to test empirically whether there is a difference in ethical considerations and principles between Danish physicians and Danish molecular biologists, and whether the bioethical principles of the American bioethicists Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress are applicable to these groups. Method This study is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with three groups of respondents: a group of oncology physicians working in a clinic at a public hospital and two groups of molecular biologists conducting basic research, one group employed at a public university and the other in a private biopharmaceutical company. Results In this sample, the authors found that oncology physicians and molecular biologists employed in a private biopharmaceutical company have the specific principle of beneficence in mind in their daily work. Both groups are motivated to help sick patients. According to the study, molecular biologists explicitly consider nonmaleficence in relation to the environment, the researchers' own health, and animal models; and only implicitly in relation to patients or human subjects. In contrast, considerations of nonmaleficence by oncology physicians relate to patients or human subjects. Physicians and molecular biologists both consider the principle of respect for autonomy as a negative obligation in the sense that informed consent of patients should be respected. However, in contrast to molecular biologists, physicians experience the principle of respect for autonomy as a positive obligation as the physician, in dialogue with the patient, offers a medical prognosis based upon the patients wishes and ideas, mutual understanding, and respect. Finally, this study discloses utilitarian characteristics in the overall conception of

  4. Is evaluation of scientist's objective

    CERN Document Server

    Wold, A

    2000-01-01

    There is ample data demonstrating that female scientists advance at a far slower rate than their male colleagues. The low numbers of female professors in European and North American universities is, thus, not solely an effect of few women in the recruitment pool but also to obstacles specific to the female gender. Together with her colleague Christine Wennerås, Agnes Wold conducted a study of the evaluation process at the Swedish Medical Research Council. Evaluators judged the "scientific competence", "research proposal" and "methodology" of applicants for post-doctoral positions in 1995. By relating the scores for "scientific competence" to the applicants' scientific productivity and other factors using multiple regression, Wennerås and Wold demonstrated that the applicant's sex exerted a strong influence on the "competence" score so that male applicants were perceived as being more competent than female applicants of equal productivity. The study was published in Nature (vol 387, p 341-3, 1997) and inspir...

  5. Refugee scientists and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, E.

    1985-01-01

    The coming together of many of the world's experts in nuclear physics in the 1930's was largely the result of the persecution of Jews in Germany and later in Italy. Initially this meant there were no jobs for young physicists to go into as the senior scientists had been sacked. Later, it resulted in the assembly of many of the world's foremost physicists in the United States, specifically at the Los Alamos Laboratory to work on the Manhattan Project. The rise of antisemitism in Italy (to where many physicists had fled at first) provoked the emigration of Fermi, the leading expert on neutrons at that time. The politics, physics and personalities in the 1930's, relevant to the development of nuclear energy, are discussed. (UK)

  6. LHCb Early Career Scientist Awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrick Koppenburg for the LHCb Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    On 15 September 2016, the LHCb collaboration awarded the first set of prizes for outstanding contributions of early career scientists.   From left to right: Guy Wilkinson (LHCb spokesperson), Sascha Stahl, Kevin Dungs, Tim Head, Roel Aaij, Conor Fitzpatrick, Claire Prouvé, Patrick Koppenburg (chair of committee) and Sean Benson. Twenty-five nominations were submitted and considered by the committee, and 5 prizes were awarded to teams or individuals for works that had a significant impact within the last year. The awardees are: Roel Aaij, Sean Benson, Conor Fitzpatrick, Rosen Matev and Sascha Stahl for having implemented and commissioned the revolutionary changes to the LHC Run-2 high-level-trigger, including the first widespread deployment of real-time analysis techniques in High Energy Physics;   Kevin Dungs and Tim Head for having launched the Starterkit initiative, a new style of software tutorials based on modern programming methods. “Starterkit is a group of ph...

  7. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  8. A scientific approach to writing for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This book is a guide to technical writing, presented in a systematic framework that mirrors the logic associated with the scientific process itself. Other English books merely define concepts and provide rules; this one explains the reasoning behind the rules. Other writing books for scientists and engineers focus primarily on how to gather and organize materials; this one focuses primarily on how to compose a readable sentence. The approach should be satisfying not only to scientists and engineers, but also to anyone that once took a grammar course but can't remember the rules - because there was no exposure to underlying principles.

  9. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  10. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  11. Scientists and Science Education: Working at the Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, E. K.

    2004-05-01

    "Are we alone?" "Where did we come from?" "What is our future?" These questions lie at the juncture of astronomy and biology: astrobiology. It is intrinsically interdisciplinary in its study of the origin, evolution and future of life on Earth and beyond. The fundamental concepts of origin and evolution--of both living and non-living systems--are central to astrobiology, and provide powerful themes for unifying science teaching, learning, and appreciation in classrooms and laboratories, museums and science centers, and homes. Research scientists play a key role in communicating the nature of science and joy of scientific discovery with the public. Communicating the scientific discoveries with the public brings together diverse professionals: research scientists, graduate and undergraduate faculty, educators, journalists, media producers, web designers, publishers and others. Working with these science communicators, research scientists share their discoveries through teaching, popular articles, lectures, broadcast and print media, electronic publication, and developing materials for formal and informal education such as textbooks, museum exhibits and documentary television. There's lots of activity in science communication. Yet, the NSF and NASA have both identified science education as needing improvement. The quality of schools and the preparation of teachers receive national attention via "No Child Left Behind" requirements. The number of students headed toward careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is not sufficient to meet national needs. How can the research community make a difference? What role can research scientists fulfill in improving STEM education? This talk will discuss the interface between research scientists and science educators to explore effective roles for scientists in science education partnerships. Astronomy and astrobiology education and outreach projects, materials, and programs will provide the context for

  12. EGU's Early Career Scientists Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts Artal, L.; Rietbroek, R.

    2017-12-01

    The EGU encourages early career scientists (ECS) to become involved in interdisciplinary research in the Earth, planetary and space sciences, through sessions, social events and short courses at the annual General Assembly in April and throughout the year. Through division-level representatives, all ECS members can have direct input into matters of the division. A Union-wide representative, who sits on the EGU Council, ensures that ECS are heard at a higher level in the Union too. After a brief introduction as to how the network is organised and structured, this presentation will discuss how EGU ECS activities have been tailored to the needs of ECS members and how those needs have been identified. Reaching and communicating opportunities to ECS remains an ongoing challenge; they will be discussed in this presentation too, as well as some thoughts on how to make them more effective. Finally, the service offered to EGU ECS members would certainly benefit from building links and collaboration with other early career networks in the geosciences. This presentation will outline some of our efforts in that direction and the challenges that remain.

  13. Using Physical and Computer Simulations of Collective Behaviour as an Introduction to Modelling Concepts for Applied Biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    Models are an important tool in science: not only do they act as a convenient device for describing a system or problem, but they also act as a conceptual tool for framing and exploring hypotheses. Models, and in particular computer simulations, are also an important education tool for training scientists, but it is difficult to teach students the…

  14. Gifted and Talented Students’ Images of Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Camcı-Erdoğan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate gifted students’ images of scientists. The study involved 25 students in grades 7 and 8. The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST (Chamber, 183 was used to collect data. Drawings were eval-uated using certain criterion such as a scien-tist’s appearance and investigation, knowledge and technology symbols and gender and working style, place work, expressions, titles-captions-symbols and alternative images and age. The results showed that gifted students’ perceptions about scientists were stereotypical, generally with glasses and laboratory coats and working with experiment tubes, beakers indoors and using books, technological tools and dominantly lonely males. Most gifted stu-dents drew male scientists. Although females drew male scientists, none of the boys drew female scientist.

  15. Frederic Joliot-Curie, a tormented scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinault, M.

    2000-01-01

    This article is a short biography of the French scientist Frederic Joliot-Curie. His fight for a peaceful use of atomic energy, his responsibilities as nuclear physicist and as the first director of the French atomic commission (CEA) have led him to face contradictions very difficult to manage. All along his career as a scientist and as a high ranked civil servant, F.Joliot-Curie tried to find an ethical way for scientists in modern societies. (A.C.)

  16. Exploring Scientists' Working Timetable: A Global Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xianwen; Peng, Lian; Zhang, Chunbo; Xu, Shenmeng; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Chuanli; Wang, Xianbing

    2013-01-01

    In our previous study (Wang et al., 2012), we analyzed scientists' working timetable of 3 countries, using realtime downloading data of scientific literatures. In this paper, we make a through analysis about global scientists' working habits. Top 30 countries/territories from Europe, Asia, Australia, North America, Latin America and Africa are selected as representatives and analyzed in detail. Regional differences for scientists' working habits exists in different countries. Besides differen...

  17. Motivating Tomorrow's Biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The story of biology is far more complex and fascinating than straightforward facts or neatly labeled diagrams of structures and systems. Although exams can motivate students, the key to using these extrinsic motivators to increase student understanding lies in the way the assessments are designed and what they measure. Those involved in…

  18. New materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.K.; Rao, C.N.R.; Tsuruta, T.

    1992-01-01

    The book contains the state-of-the art lectures delivered at the discussion meeting on new materials, a field in which rapid advances are taking place. The main objective of the meeting was to bring active scientists in this area from Japan and India together. The topics covered diverse aspects of modern materials including high temperature superconducting compounds. (M.G.B.)

  19. Chinese Scientists | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian Academy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Chinese Scientists. Chinese Scientists. One third Chinese scientists are women [What about India?] ... scientists, at a young age of 52, after a valiant battle with cancer, today on 29th March 2016 in Delhi.

  20. The Scientist in the Casa: The Child as Scientist in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Ginni

    2016-01-01

    If a parent were to ask what science and technology are offered in a Montessori preschool, Ginni Sackett provides a comprehensive reply. By precisely defining the words science and technology with an expansion of those definitions from renowned biologist E. O. Wilson, alongside the "experiences we offer every day to the children in our…

  1. From Laboratories to Classrooms: Involving Scientists in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, E. K.

    2001-12-01

    Scientists play a key role in science education: the adventure of making new discoveries excites and motivates students. Yet, American science education test scores lag behind those of other industrial countries, and the call for better science, math and technology education is widespread. Thus, improving American science, math and technological literacy is a major educational goal for the NSF and NASA. Today, funding for research often carries a requirement that the scientist be actively involved in education and public outreach (E/PO) to enhance the science literacy of students, teachers and citizens. How can scientists contribute effectively to E/PO? What roles can scientists take in E/PO? And, how can this be balanced with research requirements and timelines? This talk will focus on these questions, with examples drawn from the author's projects that involve scientists in working with K-12 teacher professional development and with K-12 curriculum development and implementation. Experiences and strategies for teacher professional development in the research environment will be discussed in the context of NASA's airborne astronomy education and outreach projects: the Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment project and the future Airborne Ambassadors Program for NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Effective partnerships with scientists as content experts in the development of new classroom materials will be described with examples from the SETI Institute's Life in the Universe curriculum series for grades 3-9, and Voyages Through Time, an integrated high school science course. The author and the SETI Institute wish to acknowledge funding as well as scientific and technical support from the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Hewlett Packard Company, the Foundation for Microbiology, and the Combined Federated Charities.

  2. Chinese, US scientists find new particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Chinese and US scientists have discovered a new particle at the Beijing Electron Position Collider, which is hard to be explained with any known particles, according to scientists from the Institute of High Energy Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences Wednesday" (1/2 page).

  3. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  4. Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

    2010-08-01

    During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

  5. Tens of Romanian scientists work at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Silian, Sidonia

    2007-01-01

    "The figures regarding the actual number of Romanian scientists working at the European Center for Nuclear Research, or CERN, differ. The CERN data base lists some 30 Romanians on its payroll, while the scientists with the Nuclear Center at Magurele, Romania, say they should be around 50." (1 page)

  6. How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

    2009-01-01

    The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are…

  7. Communicating Like a Scientist with Multimodal Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mark; Kuhn, Mason

    2012-01-01

    If students are to accurately model how scientists use written communication, they must be given opportunities to use creative means to describe science in the classroom. Scientists often integrate pictures, diagrams, charts, and other modes within text and students should also be encouraged to use multiple modes of communication. This article…

  8. Code of conduct for scientists (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of advanced technologies in the last three decades and extraordinary progress in our knowledge on the basic Physical, Chemical and Biological properties of living matter has offered tremendous benefits to human beings but simultaneously highlighted the need of higher awareness and responsibility by the scientists of 21 century. Scientist is not born with ethics, nor science is ethically neutral, but there are ethical dimensions to scientific work. There is need to evolve an appropriate Code of Conduct for scientist particularly working in every field of Science. However, while considering the contents, promulgation and adaptation of Codes of Conduct for Scientists, a balance is needed to be maintained between freedom of scientists and at the same time some binding on them in the form of Code of Conducts. The use of good and safe laboratory procedures, whether, codified by law or by common practice must also be considered as part of the moral duties of scientists. It is internationally agreed that a general Code of Conduct can't be formulated for all the scientists universally, but there should be a set of 'building blocks' aimed at establishing the Code of Conduct for Scientists either as individual researcher or responsible for direction, evaluation, monitoring of scientific activities at the institutional or organizational level. (author)

  9. How Scientists Develop Competence in Visual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This…

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series ...

  11. Verification of otolith identity used by fisheries scientists for aging channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Previously published studies of the age estimation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus based on otoliths have reported using the sagittae, whereas it is likely they were actually using the lapilli. This confusion may have resulted because in catfishes (ostariophyseans) the lapilli are the largest of the three otoliths, whereas in nonostariophysean fish the sagittae are the largest. Based on (1) scanning electron microscope microphotographs of channel catfish otoliths, (2) X-ray computed tomography scans of a channel catfish head, (3) descriptions of techniques used to removed otoliths from channel catfish reported in the literature, and (4) a sample of channel catfish otoliths received from fisheries biologists from around the country, it is clear that lapilli are most often used for channel catfish aging studies, not sagittae, as has been previously reported. Fisheries scientists who obtain otoliths from channel catfish can use the information in this paper to correctly identify otolith age.

  12. A woman like you: Women scientists and engineers at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Careers in action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This publication by the women in Science and Engineering introduces career possibilities in science and engineering. It introduces what work and home life are like for women who have already entered these fields. Women at Brookhaven National Laboratory work in a variety of challenging research roles -- from biologist and environmental scientist to safety engineer, from patent lawyer to technician. Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program laboratory which carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated University, Inc., under contract with the US Department of Energy. Brookhaven and the other national laboratories, because of their enormous research resources, can play a critical role in a education and training of the workforce.

  13. A woman like you: Women scientists and engineers at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, Carmen; Bernholc, Nicole; Cohen, Anita; Eng, Susan; Enriquez-Leder, Rosario; Franz, Barbara; Gorden, Patricia; Hanson, Louise; Lamble, Geraldine; Martin, Harriet; Mastrangelo, Iris; McLane, Victoria; Villela, Maria-Alicia; Vivirito, Katherine; Woodhead, Avril

    1991-01-01

    This publication by the women in Science and Engineering introduces career possibilities in science and engineering. It introduces what work and home life are like for women who have already entered these fields. Women at Brookhaven National Laboratory work in a variety of challenging research roles -- from biologist and environmental scientist to safety engineer, from patent lawyer to technician. Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program laboratory which carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated University, Inc., under contract with the US Department of Energy. Brookhaven and the other national laboratories, because of their enormous research resources, can play a critical role in a education and training of the workforce.

  14. [Which are the most influential journals, books and scientists in Latin American biology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Benavides-Varela, Catalina; Morera, Bernal

    2004-03-01

    A survey was distributed by e-mail to 553 biologists who study the Neotropics, in order to identify the journals, books and researchers with the greatest influence over Latin American biology. The biologists' database of the Revista de Biología Tropical was used to obtain their addresses. One third of them answered. The Revista de Biología Tropical is considered the most influential journal in the region. The majority of other influential journals are published in developed countries. The thematic distribution of answers, as well as independent assessments found in the literature, indicate that these and other survey results are not biased by the use of the journal's database. By subject, marine and ecological journals are the most influential. In contrast with American science, there are no researchers or books that clearly dominate the field. These results hint to the subjectivity of many awards and qualifications and possibly reflect a lack of tradition regarding appearance of local scientists in the mass media, the small capacity of world wide diffusion for local research and the low priority of science in the Iberoamerican culture. Latin American journals should improve, specially through efficient communication with authors, stringent rejection of inferior manuscripts and through widespread and timely distribution. The marked dominance by male researchers may reflect the lower number of women in the field, and social inequality. Despite the absence of "superstars", there was a correlation: most scientists in the "list of outstanding researchers" were from large countries. The publication of the most influential journal in one of the smallest countries of the region might reflect the relatively long period of existence of the Revista (half a century), the lack of other alternatives in the region and the journal's inclusion in international indices. Recommendations for Latin American science include a selection of the best journals to receive financial

  15. Biologists Bridging Science and the Conservation Movement : The Rise of Nature Conservation and Nature Management in the Netherlands, 1850-1950

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, Henny J.

    This paper investigates the importance and various roles of amateur naturalists and biologists in the conservation movement between 1850 and 1950, in particular in the Netherlands. It is concluded that biological sciences were important resources for Dutch nature conservation, although the extent of

  16. A Tale of Two scientists and their Involvement in Education & Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J.

    2004-12-01

    Many scientists, when faced with developing an education and outreach plan for their research proposals, are unclear on what kinds of impacts they can have on broader non scientist audiences. Many scientists feel their only options are to develop a website or invite a teacher to get involved in their sampling or research cruises. Scientists, who are constrained by time and resources, are not aware of the range of education and outreach options available to them and of the great value their involvement can bring to the public. In an recent survey at the National Science Foundation sponsored ORION conference (January 2004), respondents stated that the greatest public benefits to having scientists involved in public education are (1) that they can present the benefits and relevance of research (26%), (2) focus awareness on environmental issues (26%), (3) serve as models for teachers and motivators for children (25%) and (4) increase public understanding, awareness and appreciation of science (about 22%). As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (MACOSEE), the Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences (IMCS) at Rutgers University is dedicated to helping scientists and educators realize the benefits of working together to advance ocean discovery and make known the vital role of the ocean in our lives. A website called "Scientist Connection" (www.macosee.net) was developed to help busy scientists choose a role in education and outreach that will make the most of their talent and time. The goal of the web site is to help scientists produce a worthwhile education project that complements and enriches their research. In this session, the author will present two case studies that demonstrate very different but effective approaches to scientist's involvement in education and outreach projects. In the first case, we will chronicle how a team of biologists and oceanographers in the Rutgers University, Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratory (or

  17. Environmental radiation effects. A need to question old paradigms and to enhance collaboration between radiation biologists and radiation ecologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Whicker, F.W.

    2003-01-01

    The radiological sciences are a real enigma- the maturity and depth of understanding concerning human dosimetry contrasts sharply with our shallow understanding about radiological effects to biota. The richness of the radiological sciences is apparent by looking at the refinements made to the fundamental unit used in human dosimetry. The radiological sciences have developed to where probabilistic risk factors can now be applied that predict specific deleterious effects to humans per unit dose. And yet, these same radiological sciences that have made such advances in human dosimetry, are primitive when effects to biota are concerned. There are no specialized units, no agreed upon weighting factors, no factors that account for distributions within an organism's body, and certainly no risk factors. There are no internationally agreed upon criteria or policies that explicitly address protection of the environment from ionizing radiation. There is not even agreement as to what endpoint should be measured to quantify an environmental effect. The bold aspect of the ICRP framework is the inclusion of sub-lethal effects (reduced reproductive success, scorable DNA damage) as endpoints. A major research consortium funded by the European Union, is also recommending that cytogenetic damage be used as an effect endpoint. The inclusion of sub-lethal endpoints begs for a linkage between molecular effects and those observed in individuals and populations. To do so, will require a strengthening of what has traditionally been separated disciplines of radiation biology and radiation ecology. The impacts of phenomena studied in the petri dishes of radiation biologists (such as genomic instability, adaptive response, and bystander effects) need to be explored and correlated to effects observed in whole organisms and populations, in collaboration with radiation ecologists. (M. Suetake)

  18. On being a (modern) scientist: risks of public engagement in the UK interspecies embryo debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James; Williams, Clare; Wainwright, Steven; Cribb, Alan

    2012-12-01

    In 2006, a small group of UK academic scientists made headlines when they proposed the creation of interspecies embryos - mixing human and animal genetic material. A public campaign was fought to mobilize support for the research. Drawing on interviews with the key scientists involved, this paper argues that engaging the public through communicating their ideas via the media can result in tensions between the necessity of, and inherent dangers in, scientists campaigning on controversial issues. Some scientists believed that communicating science had damaged their professional standing in the eyes of their peers, who, in turn, policed the boundaries around what they believed constituted a "good" scientist. Tensions between promoting "science" versus promotion of the "scientist;" engaging the public versus publishing peer-reviewed articles and winning grants; and building expectations versus overhyping the science reveal the difficult choices scientists in the modern world have to make over the potential gains and risks of communicating science. We conclude that although scientists' participation in public debates is often encouraged, the rewards of such engagement remain. Moreover, this participation can detrimentally affect scientists' careers.

  19. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  20. Meet EPA Physical Scientist Lukas Oudejans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas Oudejans, Ph.D. is a physical scientist working in EPA’s National Homeland Security Research Center. His research focuses on preparing cleanup options for the agency following a disaster incident.

  1. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  2. Education and Outreach: Advice to Young Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R. M. C.

    2005-08-01

    Carl Sagan set an example to all scientists when he encouraged us to reach out to the public and share the excitement of discovery and exploration. The prejudice that ensued did not deter Sagan and, with the passing of years, more and more scientists have followed his example. Although at present scientists at all ranks are encouraged by their institutions to do outreach, the balancing of a successful scientific career with teaching and outreach is often not an easy one. Young scientists, in particular, may worry about how their outreach efforts are viewed in the community and how they will find the time and energy for these efforts. This talk will offer suggestions on how to balance an active science research program with outreach activities, the many different ways to engage in education and public outreach, and how the rewards are truly priceless.

  3. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video below to get answers to questions like these and more with our Ask a Scientist video ... Is perfect vision real? Click to Watch Are these common eye-related myths true or false? Click ...

  4. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> Ask a Scientist Video Series ... can see clearly from 25 feet away. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  5. Elements of ethics for physical scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Greer, Sandra C

    2017-01-01

    This book offers the first comprehensive guide to ethics for physical scientists and engineers who conduct research. Written by a distinguished professor of chemistry and chemical engineering, the book focuses on the everyday decisions about right and wrong faced by scientists as they do research, interact with other people, and work within society. The goal is to nurture readers’ ethical intelligence so that they know an ethical issue when they see one, and to give them a way to think about ethical problems. After introductions to the philosophy of ethics and the philosophy of science, the book discusses research integrity, with a unique emphasis on how scientists make mistakes and how they can avoid them. It goes on to cover personal interactions among scientists, including authorship, collaborators, predecessors, reviewers, grantees, mentors, and whistle-blowers. It considers underrepresented groups in science as an ethical issue that matters not only to those groups but also to the development of scien...

  6. Women scientists reflections, challenges, and breaking boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Magdolna

    2015-01-01

    Magdolna Hargittai uses over fifteen years of in-depth conversation with female physicists, chemists, biomedical researchers, and other scientists to form cohesive ideas on the state of the modern female scientist. The compilation, based on sixty conversations, examines unique challenges that women with serious scientific aspirations face. In addition to addressing challenges and the unjustifiable underrepresentation of women at the higher levels of academia, Hargittai takes a balanced approach by discussing how some of the most successful of these women have managed to obtain professional success and personal happiness. Women Scientists portrays scientists from different backgrounds, different geographical regions-eighteen countries from four continents-and leaders from a variety of professional backgrounds, including eight Nobel laureate women. The book is divided into three sections: "Husband and Wife Teams," "Women at the Top," and "In High Positions." Hargittai uses her own experience to introduce her fi...

  7. The persistent stereotype: children's images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens McAdam, Janice

    1990-03-01

    Through their reading children learn to regard scientists as eccentrics. It is shown that this stereotype has persisted for over thirty years and affects many adult attitudes. Some methods of breaking the author-reader cycle are suggested.

  8. CGH Short Term Scientist Exchange Program (STSEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    STSEP promotes collaborative research between established U.S. and foreign scientists from low, middle, and upper-middle income countries (LMICs) by supporting, in part, exchange visits of cancer researchers between U.S. and foreign laboratories.

  9. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ...

  12. Yelavarthy Nayudamma: Scientist, Leader, and Mentor Extraordinary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Yelavarthy Nayudamma: Scientist, Leader, and Mentor Extraordinary. J Raghava Rao T Ramasami. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 887-899 ...

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » Ask a Scientist Video Series ... can see clearly from 25 feet away. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  14. Challenges before Women Scientists, Technologists & Engineers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. ROURKELA ... oBjectives. To provide a common platform for women scientists, engineers and technologists ... particularly from companies involving women entrepreneurs and managers. expected ...

  15. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  16. Scientists' views of the philosophy of science

    OpenAIRE

    Riesch, H.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies in public understanding of science emphasise that learning how to do science also involves learning about the philosophical issues surrounding the nature of science. This thesis aims to find out how scientists themselves talk and write about these philosophical topics, and how these topics get used in scientific thought. It contrasts scientists' opinions on these issues with how they are portrayed in popular science, and also contrasts them with how philosophers themselves have j...

  17. Photonics4All Crossword: Light Scientist

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Adam, Aurèle

    2015-01-01

    Photonics4All developed the quiz “The Optics Scientist“. It tests our knowledge regarding famous people in optics & photonics. 14 famous scientists you should know, if you consider yourself a photoncis experts, are presented! For instance: Do you know the Dutch scientist who lived in Delft and invented the microscope? …find our more & test yourself, your friends, co-workers, students or family members!

  18. Analyzing prospective teachers' images of scientists using positive, negative and stereotypical images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Esprívalo Harrell, Pamela; Wojnowski, David

    2013-04-01

    Background and purpose : This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the literature on the images, role and work of scientists. Sample, design and method : One hundred and ninety-six drawings of scientists, generated by prospective teachers, were analyzed using the Draw-A-Scientist-Test Checklist (DAST-C), a binary linear regression and the conceptual framework. Results : The results of the binary linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant difference for two DAST-C elements: ethnicity differences with regard to drawing a scientist who was Caucasian and gender differences for indications of danger. Analysis using the conceptual framework helped to categorize the same drawings into positive, stereotypical, negative and composite images of a scientist. Conclusions : The conceptual framework revealed that drawings were focused on the physical appearance of the scientist, and to a lesser extent on the equipment, location and science-related practices that provided the context of a scientist's role and work. Implications for teacher educators include the need to understand that there is a need to provide tools, like the conceptual framework used in this study, to help prospective teachers to confront and engage with their multidimensional perspectives of scientists in light of the current trends on perceiving and valuing scientists. In addition, teacher educators need to use the conceptual framework, which yields qualitative perspectives about drawings, together with the DAST-C, which yields quantitative measure for drawings, to help prospective teachers to gain a holistic outlook on their drawings of scientists.

  19. Biologist Edwin Grant Conklin and the idea of the religious direction of human evolution in the early 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuk, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Edwin Grant Conklin, renowned US embryologist and evolutionary popularizer, publicly advocated a social vision of evolution that intertwined science and modernist Protestant theology in the early 1920s. The moral prestige of professional science in American culture - along with Conklin's own elite scientific status - diverted attention from the frequency with which his work crossed boundaries between natural science, religion and philosophy. Writing for broad audiences, Conklin was one of the most significant of the religious and modernist biological scientists whose rhetoric went well beyond simply claiming that certain kinds of religion were amenable to evolutionary science; he instead incorporated religion itself into evolution's broadest workings. A sampling of Conklin's widely-resonant discourse suggests that there was substantially more to the religion-evolution story in the 1920s US than many creationist-centred narratives of the era imply.

  20. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  1. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jin-Qing; Liu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN) and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scie...

  2. VLBA Scientists Study Birth of Sunlike Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Three teams of scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to learn tantalizing new details about how Sun-like stars are formed. Young stars, still growing by drawing in nearby gas, also spew some of that material back into their surroundings, like impatient infants that eat too quickly. The VLBA observations are giving astronomers new insights on both processes -- the accretion of material by the new stars and the outflows of material from them. "For the first time, we're actually seeing what happens right down next to the star in these young systems," said Mark Claussen, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Claussen and other researchers announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. Material attracted by a young star's gravitational pull forms a flat, orbiting disk, called an accretion disk, in which the material circles closer and closer to the star until finally drawn into it. At the same time, material is ejected in "jets" speeding from the poles of the accretion disk. "The VLBA is showing us the first images of the region close to the star where the material in these jets is accelerated and formed into the `beams' of the jet," Claussen said. "We don't understand the details of these processes well," Claussen said. "These VLBA research projects are beginning to help unravel the mysteries of how stars like the Sun form." The teams are observing clumps of water vapor that naturally amplify radio emissions to see details smaller than the orbit of Mercury in young stellar systems as well as track gas motions. The clumps of gas are called masers, and amplify radio emission in much the same way that a laser amplifies light emission. "These images are just fantastic," said Al Wootten of NRAO in Charlottesville, VA. The maser clumps or "spots," emitting radio waves at a specific wavelength, can be tracked as they move over time. In addition

  3. Cell scientist to watch - Sandra Rieger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-19

    Sandra Rieger studied at the University of Applied Sciences at Fulda, Germany, and wrote her diploma thesis in collaboration with Zyomyx, Inc. (San Francisco, USA). She then joined the laboratory of Reinhard Koester at the Helmholtz Center in Munich to complete her PhD in developmental neurobiology in 2008. For her postdoctoral studies, Sandra moved to the University of California, Los Angeles to work with Alvaro Sagasti on axon regeneration in zebrafish. Since 2011, she has been Assistant Professor for regenerative biology and medicine at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Maine, USA. In the summer of 2018, Sandra will establish a laboratory at the University of Miami, Florida, to become a tenure-track Associate Professor at the Department of Biology. The Rieger laboratory studies cellular communication mechanisms between sensory neurons and injured epidermal cells, leading to wound healing, nerve regeneration and degeneration after injury or exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. The Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, John; Boninger, Michael; Helkowski, Wendy; Braddom-Ritzler, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Physician scientists are seen as important in healthcare research. However, the number of physician scientists and their success in obtaining NIH funding have been declining for many years. The shortage of physician scientists in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is particularly severe, and can be attributed to many of the same factors that affect physician scientists in general, as well as to the lack of well developed models for research training. In 1995, the Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program (RMSTP) was funded by a K12 grant from the National Center of Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR), as one strategy for increasing the number of research-productive physiatrists. The RMSTP's structure was revised in 2001 to improve the level of preparation of incoming trainees, and to provide a stronger central mentorship support network. Here we describe the original and revised structure of the RMSTP and review subjective and objective data on the productivity of the trainees who have completed the program. These data suggest that RMSTP trainees are, in general, successful in obtaining and maintaining academic faculty positions and that the productivity of the cohort trained after the revision, in particular, shows impressive growth after about 3 years of training. PMID:19847126

  5. Assessing scientists for hiring, promotion, and tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moher, David; Naudet, Florian; Cristea, Ioana A; Miedema, Frank; Ioannidis, John P A; Goodman, Steven N

    2018-03-01

    Assessment of researchers is necessary for decisions of hiring, promotion, and tenure. A burgeoning number of scientific leaders believe the current system of faculty incentives and rewards is misaligned with the needs of society and disconnected from the evidence about the causes of the reproducibility crisis and suboptimal quality of the scientific publication record. To address this issue, particularly for the clinical and life sciences, we convened a 22-member expert panel workshop in Washington, DC, in January 2017. Twenty-two academic leaders, funders, and scientists participated in the meeting. As background for the meeting, we completed a selective literature review of 22 key documents critiquing the current incentive system. From each document, we extracted how the authors perceived the problems of assessing science and scientists, the unintended consequences of maintaining the status quo for assessing scientists, and details of their proposed solutions. The resulting table was used as a seed for participant discussion. This resulted in six principles for assessing scientists and associated research and policy implications. We hope the content of this paper will serve as a basis for establishing best practices and redesigning the current approaches to assessing scientists by the many players involved in that process.

  6. Assessing scientists for hiring, promotion, and tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudet, Florian; Cristea, Ioana A.; Miedema, Frank; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Goodman, Steven N.

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of researchers is necessary for decisions of hiring, promotion, and tenure. A burgeoning number of scientific leaders believe the current system of faculty incentives and rewards is misaligned with the needs of society and disconnected from the evidence about the causes of the reproducibility crisis and suboptimal quality of the scientific publication record. To address this issue, particularly for the clinical and life sciences, we convened a 22-member expert panel workshop in Washington, DC, in January 2017. Twenty-two academic leaders, funders, and scientists participated in the meeting. As background for the meeting, we completed a selective literature review of 22 key documents critiquing the current incentive system. From each document, we extracted how the authors perceived the problems of assessing science and scientists, the unintended consequences of maintaining the status quo for assessing scientists, and details of their proposed solutions. The resulting table was used as a seed for participant discussion. This resulted in six principles for assessing scientists and associated research and policy implications. We hope the content of this paper will serve as a basis for establishing best practices and redesigning the current approaches to assessing scientists by the many players involved in that process. PMID:29596415

  7. Opportunities and Resources for Scientist Participation in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Shipp, S.; Hsu, B.

    2012-10-01

    Active engagement of scientists in Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities results in benefits for both the audience and scientists. Most scientists are trained in research but have little formal training in education. The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum helps the Science Mission Directorate support scientists currently involved in E/PO and to help scientists who are interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. We will present current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in education and public outreach. These include upcoming NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities, professional development resources for writing NASA SMD E/PO proposals (webinars and other online tools), toolkits for scientists interested in best practices in E/PO (online guides for K-12 education and public outreach), EarthSpace (a community web space where instructors can find and share about teaching space and earth sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials news and funding opportunities, and the latest education research), thematic resources for teaching about the solar system (archived resources from Year of the Solar System), and an online database of scientists interested in connecting with education programs. Learn more about the Forum and find resources at http://smdepo.org/.

  8. Charged Particles are Prevented from Going Faster than the Speed of Light by Light Itself: A Biophysical Cell Biologist's Contribution to Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayne, R.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of living organisms have led biologists and physicians to introduce fundamental concepts, including Brownian motion, the First Law of Thermodynamics, Poiseuille's Law of fluid flow, and Fick's Law of diffusion into physics. Given the prominence of viscous forces within and around cells and the experience of identifying and quantifying such resistive forces, biophysical cell biologists have an unique perspective in discovering the viscous forces that cause moving particles to respond to an applied force in a nonlinear manner. Using my experience as a biophysical cell biologist, I show that in any space consisting of a photon gas with a temperature above absolute zero, Doppler-shifted photons exert a velocity-dependent viscous force on moving charged particles. This viscous force prevents charged particles from exceeding the speed of light. Consequently, light itself prevents charged particles from moving faster than the speed of light. This interpretation provides a testable alternative to the interpretation provided by the Special Theory of Relativity, which contends that particles are prevented from exceeding the speed of light as a result of the relativity of time. (author)

  9. Women Young Scientists of INSA | Women in Science | Initiatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Women Young Scientists of INSA. Women Young Scientists of INSA. INSA - Indian National Science Academy .... Charusita Chakravarty, one of the stars of our community of women scientists, at a young ...

  10. Science communication a practical guide for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Bowater, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Science communication is a rapidly expanding area and meaningful engagement between scientists and the public requires effective communication. Designed to help the novice scientist get started with science communication, this unique guide begins with a short history of science communication before discussing the design and delivery of an effective engagement event. Along with numerous case studies written by highly regarded international contributors, the book discusses how to approach face-to-face science communication and engagement activities with the public while providing tips to avoid potential pitfalls. This book has been written for scientists at all stages of their career, including undergraduates and postgraduates wishing to engage with effective science communication for the first time, or looking to develop their science communication portfolio.

  11. Phobias and underutilization of university scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandra, Y.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that there is an urgent need for a large scale, nationwide education program designed to correct the almost ubiquitous misconceptions that exist because of the public's misinformation about commercial nuclear power. It is suggested that this program use only university professors and that it have a precisely defined target of community colleges. To do this a Distinguished Visiting Scientist Program needs to be established by the Department of Energy. This would be the means by which these visiting scientists could get invited for 2-day visits at community colleges. When on campus the visiting scientist would give lectures in the morning and it the afternoon to student and professors on just two topics dealing with commercial nuclear power: nuclear plants and disposal of the waste. It is suggested that a pilot program be done in California and selected hub-centers, and that it be evaluated by an independent agency so that it can be improved

  12. Scientists warn DOE of dwindling funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Fusion scientists have raised their voices to let the Department of Energy know that they are concerned about the DOE's commitment to fusion research. In a letter dated February 28, 1994, 37 scientists from 21 institutions noted that open-quotes US funding for fusion has steadily decreased: It is now roughly half its level of 1980. This peculiar and painful circumstance has forced the program to contract drastically, losing skilled technical personnel, even as it faces its most exciting opportunities.close quotes The letter was addressed to Martha Krebs, the DOE's director of the Office of Energy Research, and N. Anne Davies, associated director for fusion energy. The scientists wanted to make two points. The first was that fusion energy research, only midway between concept and commercialization, deserves major reinvestment. The second was that basic scientific knowledge in the area of fusion, not just applied engineering, must remain a priority

  13. The Normative Orientations of Climate Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Dennis; von Storch, Hans

    2017-10-01

    In 1942 Robert K. Merton tried to demonstrate the structure of the normative system of science by specifying the norms that characterized it. The norms were assigned the abbreviation CUDOs: Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized skepticism. Using the results of an on-line survey of climate scientists concerning the norms of science, this paper explores the climate scientists' subscription to these norms. The data suggests that while Merton's CUDOs remain the overall guiding moral principles, they are not fully endorsed or present in the conduct of climate scientists: there is a tendency to withhold results until publication, there is the intention of maintaining property rights, there is external influence defining research and the tendency to assign the significance of authored work according to the status of the author rather than content of the paper. These are contrary to the norms of science as proposed by Robert K. Merton.

  14. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratani, Michi [Office of Regional Collaboration, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-09-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  15. A distant light scientists and public policy

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A collection of essays by a Nobel Prize Laureate on a wide range of critical issues facing the world, and the role of scientists in solving these problems. Kendall has been closely involved with the Union of Concerned Scientists, a group that began as an informal assocation at MIT in 1969 to protest US involvement in Vietnam and is today an organization with an annual budget exceeding $6 million, with 100,000 supporters worldwide. UCD is today a voice of authority in US government science policy, particularly with regard to environment issues, most recently the worldwide initiatives on global warming. Together, these essays represent both the sucessses and failures of science to impact public policy, the challenges facing scientists, and offers practical guidelines for involvement in science policy. The essays are roughly chronological, organized by subject with introductions, beginning with the controversies on nuclear power safety and Three Mile Island,then followed by sections on national security issues, ...

  16. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratani, Michi; Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-01-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  17. Materials characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azali Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Various nuclear techniques have been developed and employed by technologies and scientists worldwide to physically and chemically characterise the material particularly those that have applications in industry. These include small angle neutron scattering (SANS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) for the internal structural study of material, whereas, the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for the chemical analysis, while the Moessbauer spectroscopy for the study on the magnetic properties and structural identity of material. Basic principle and instrumentations of the techniques are discussed in this chapter. Example of their applications in various disciplines particularly in characterisation of industrial materials also described

  18. Media and the making of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Moira

    This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the

  19. Career Management for Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, John K.

    2000-05-01

    This book will be an important resource for both new graduates and mid-career scientists, engineers, and technicians. Through taking stock of existing or desired skills and goals, it provides both general advice and concrete examples to help asses a current job situation or prospect, and to effectively pursue and attain new ones. Many examples of properly adapted resumes and interview techniques, as well as plenty of practical advice about adaptation to new workplace cultural paradigms, such as team-based management, make this book an invaluable reference for the professional scientist in today's volatile job market.

  20. How to Grow Project Scientists: A Systematic Approach to Developing Project Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The Project Manager is one of the key individuals that can determine the success or failure of a project. NASA is fully committed to the training and development of Project Managers across the agency to ensure that highly capable individuals are equipped with the competencies and experience to successfully lead a project. An equally critical position is that of the Project Scientist. The Project Scientist provides the scientific leadership necessary for the scientific success of a project by insuring that the mission meets or exceeds the scientific requirements. Traditionally, NASA Goddard project scientists were appointed and approved by the Center Science Director based on their knowledge, experience, and other qualifications. However the process to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities was not documented or done in a systematic way. NASA Goddard's current Science Director, Nicholas White saw the need to create a pipeline for developing new projects scientists, and appointed a team to develop a process for training potential project scientists. The team members were Dr. Harley Thronson, Chair, Dr. Howard Kea, Mr. Mark Goldman, DACUM facilitator and the late Dr. Michael VanSteenberg. The DACUM process, an occupational analysis and evaluation system, was used to produce a picture of the project scientist's duties, tasks, knowledge, and skills. The output resulted in a 3-Day introductory course detailing all the required knowledge, skills and abilities a scientist must develop over time to be qualified for selections as a Project Scientist.

  1. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scientists' coping strategies in an evolving research system: the case of life scientists in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Norma; Rip, Arie

    2006-01-01

    Scientists in academia have struggled to adjust to a policy climate of uncertain funding and loss of freedom from direction and control. How UK life scientists have negotiated this challenge, and with what consequences for their research and the research system, is the empirical entrance point of

  3. Processos da vida, processos da matéria: os diferentes sentidos de natureza entre biólogos e físicos Life processes, matter processes: the different meanings of nature among biologists and physicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lima Alves Belo

    2012-12-01

    everything that comprises the universe (DSC2. Although having more adherents in both groups, the first discourse had a more significant appeal among physicists; the second discourse, in its turn, was more frequent among biologists. Among the less frequent classes of discourse, one of them was characterized by the doubt of the subjects about the effective meaning of nature. The results were discussed under two approaches: (a from the point of view of the relations between the terms nature and environment within environmental education, considering the social importance of scientists in the creation and transmission of knowledge related to this subject; and (b from the point of view of the differences in philosophical foundations (ontological and epistemological between the two groups of scientists of nature.

  4. Applied data analysis and modeling for energy engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, T Agami

    2011-01-01

    ""Applied Data Analysis and Modeling for Energy Engineers and Scientists"" discusses mathematical models, data analysis, and decision analysis in modeling. The approach taken in this volume focuses on the modeling and analysis of thermal systems in an engineering environment, while also covering a number of other critical areas. Other material covered includes the tools that researchers and engineering professionals will need in order to explore different analysis methods, use critical assessment skills and reach sound engineering conclusions. The book also covers process and system design and

  5. Electrical, electronics, and digital hardware essentials for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Lipiansky, Ed

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide for solving real-world circuit board problems Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers arms engineers with the tools they need to test, evaluate, and solve circuit board problems. It explores a wide range of circuit analysis topics, supplementing the material with detailed circuit examples and extensive illustrations. The pros and cons of various methods of analysis, fundamental applications of electronic hardware, and issues in logic design are also thoroughly examined. The author draws on more than tw

  6. Mathematical physics applied mathematics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kusse, Bruce R

    2006-01-01

    What sets this volume apart from other mathematics texts is its emphasis on mathematical tools commonly used by scientists and engineers to solve real-world problems. Using a unique approach, it covers intermediate and advanced material in a manner appropriate for undergraduate students. Based on author Bruce Kusse's course at the Department of Applied and Engineering Physics at Cornell University, Mathematical Physics begins with essentials such as vector and tensor algebra, curvilinear coordinate systems, complex variables, Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transforms, differential and integral equations, and solutions to Laplace's equations

  7. The Oratorical Scientist: A Guide for Speechcraft and Presentation for Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Public speaking organizations are highly valuable for individuals seeking to improve their skills in speech development and delivery. The methodology of such groups usually focuses on repetitive, guided practice. Toastmasters International, for instance, uses a curriculum based on topical manuals that guide their members through some number of prepared speeches with specific goals for each speech. I have similarly developed a public speaking manual for scientists with the intention of guiding scientists through the development and presentation of speeches that will help them hone their abilities as public speakers. I call this guide The Oratorical Scientist. The Oratorical Scientist will be a free, digital publication that is meant to guide scientists through five specific types of speech that the scientist may be called upon to deliver during their career. These five speeches are: The Coffee Talk, The Educational Talk, Research Talks for General Science Audiences, Research Talks for Specific Subdiscipline Audiences, and Taking the Big Stage (talks for public engagement). Each section of the manual focuses on speech development, rehearsal, and presentation for each of these specific types of speech. The curriculum was developed primarily from my personal experiences in public engagement. Individuals who use the manual may deliver their prepared speeches to groups of their peers (e.g. within their research group) or through video sharing websites like Youtube and Vimeo. Speeches that are broadcast online can then be followed and shared through social media networks (e.g. #OratoricalScientist), allowing a larger audience to evaluate the speech and to provide criticism. I will present The Oratorical Scientist, a guide for scientists to become better public speakers. The process of guided repetitive practice of scientific talks will improve the speaking capabilities of scientists, in turn benefitting science communication and public engagement.

  8. Tools You Can Use! E/PO Resources for Scientists and Faculty to Use and Contribute To: EarthSpace and the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Shupla, C.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.

    2013-10-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum has helped to create two tools that are designed to help scientists and higher-education science faculty make stronger connections with their audiences: EarthSpace, an education clearinghouse for the undergraduate classroom; and NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau, an online portal to help bring science - and scientists - to the public. Are you looking for Earth and space science higher education resources and materials? Come explore EarthSpace, a searchable database of undergraduate classroom materials for faculty teaching Earth and space sciences at both the introductory and upper division levels! In addition to classroom materials, EarthSpace provides news and information about educational research, best practices, and funding opportunities. All materials submitted to EarthSpace are peer reviewed, ensuring that the quality of the EarthSpace materials is high and also providing important feedback to authors. Your submission is a reviewed publication! Learn more, search for resources, join the listserv, sign up to review materials, and submit your own at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace. Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker’s Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. The information input into the database will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All Earth and space scientists funded by NASA - and/or engaged in active research using NASA’s science - are invited to become part of the Scientist Speaker’s Bureau. Submit your information into the short form at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  9. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  10. Scientists riff on fabric of the universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Their music may be the scourge of parents, but the thrashing guitars of heavy metal bands like Metallica and Iron Maiden could help explain the mysteries of the universe. The string vibrations from the frantic strumming of rock guitarists form the basis of String Theory, a mathematic theory that seeks to explain what the world is made of, says scientist Mark Lewney.

  11. Do Doctors differ from Medical Laboratory Scientists?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Doctors and laboratory scientists are at risk of infection from blood borne pathogens during routine clinical duties. After over 20 years of standard precautions, health care workers knowledge and compliance is not adequate. Aim: This study is aimed at comparing adherence and knowledge of standard ...

  12. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  13. Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

  14. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to the NEI Contact Us Visiting the NIH Campus Mission Statement As part ...

  15. Knowledge transfer activities of scientists in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewska-Kurek, Katarzyna; Egedova, Klaudia; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; Roosendaal, Hans E.

    In this paper, we present a theory of strategic positioning that explains scientists’ strategic behavior in knowledge transfer from university to industry. The theory is based on the drivers strategic interdependence and organizational autonomy and entails three modes of behavior of scientists:

  16. A Systematic Identification of Scientists on Twitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Q.; Ahn, Y.Y.; Sugimoto, C.R.

    2016-07-01

    There is an increasing use of Twitter and other social media to estimate the broader social impacts of scholarship. However, without systematic understanding of the entities that participate in conversations about science, efforts to translate altmetrics into impact indicators may produce highly misleading results. Here we present a systematic approach to identifying scientists on Twitter. (Author)

  17. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel: An Engineer Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel: An Engineer Scientist. Ananth Ramaswamy. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September 2009 pp 840-848. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. ...

  19. Scientists hope collider makes a big bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Nickerson, Colin

    2007-01-01

    "In a 17-ile circular tunnel curving beneath the Swiss-French border, scientists are poised to recreate the universe's first trillionth of a second. The aim of the audacious undertaking is to solve one of the most perturbing puzzles of physics: How did matter attain mass and form the cosmos? (2 pages)

  20. The Political Scientist as Local Campaign Consultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Robert E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During my 45 years as an academic, I have followed the admonition sometimes attributed to the legendary Jedi warrior Obi-Wan Kenobe that political scientists should "use [their] power for good and not for evil." In this spirit, I have devoted substantial portions of my career to public service by providing strategic advice and campaign management…

  1. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search the NEI Website search NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L About NEI NEI Research Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ...

  2. Engineers, scientists to benefit from CERN agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi will later this week sign a memorandum of understanding with the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva (CERN), the largest laboratory of its kind in the world, which will create new opportunities for Maltese engineers and scientists.

  3. Careers in Science: Being a Soil Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Being a soil scientist is a fascinating and certainly diverse career, which can indeed involve working in a laboratory or diagnosing sick orange trees. However it often involves much, much more. In 2015, as part of the United Nations' "International Year of Soils," Soil Science Australia's (SSA) "Soils in Schools" program…

  4. New initiative links scientists and entertainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The US National Academy of Sciences has teamed up with Hollywood to improve the quality of science portrayed in films, TV shows and video games. The new Science and Entertainment Exchange (SEE) aims to create better links between entertainment-industry professionals and scientists to improve the credibility of programming related to science.

  5. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation boarding school. A total of 133 NA students were asked to draw a picture of a scientist at work and to provide a written explanation as to what the scientist was doing. A content analysis of the drawings indicated that the level of stereotype differed between all NA subgroups, but analysis of variance revealed that these differences were not significant between groups except for students who practised native cultural tradition at home compared to students who did not practise native cultural tradition at home (p educational and career science, technology, engineering, and mathematics paths in the future. The educational implication is that once initial perceptions are identified, researchers and teachers can provide meaningful experiences to combat the stereotypes.

  6. Educational Mismatch and the Careers of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Keith A.; Heywood, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research confirms that many employees work in jobs not well matched to their skills and education, resulting in lower pay and job satisfaction. While this literature typically uses cross-sectional data, we examine the evolution of mismatch and its consequences over a career, by using a panel data set of scientists in the USA. The results…

  7. Life as a Mother-Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Lucille

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the difficulties she faced as she tried to reach a balance between her career as a scientist and her role as a mother. She speaks of how she often found problems in putting her children into day care centers. She also relates that the confidence mothers have in their academic careers is correlated to the quality…

  8. University scientists test Mars probe equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Scientists at Leicester University have spent four years researching and designing the Flight Model Position Adjustable Workbench (PAW) at the university. It will be attached to the Beagle 2 probe before being sent to the Red Planet in the spring (1/2 page).

  9. First interactive conference of young scientists. Posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This interactive conference of young scientists was realised on the Internet. Conference proceeded in five sections: (1) Cellular metabolism, physiology, molecular biology and genetics; (2) Biotechnology and food technology; (3) The use of instrumental methods in the analysis of biologically important substances; (4) Ecology and environmental science; (5) Open section for students. Relevant posters were included into the database INIS.

  10. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  11. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  12. Scientists' Perceptions of Communicating During Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohaney, J. A.; Hudson-Doyle, E.; Brogt, E.; Wilson, T. M.; Kennedy, B.

    2015-12-01

    To further our understanding of how to enhance student science and risk communication skills in natural hazards and earth science courses, we conducted a pilot study to assess the different perceptions of expert scientists and risk communication practitioners versus the perceptions of students. These differences will be used to identify expert views on best practice, and improve the teaching of communication skills at the University level. In this pilot study, a perceptions questionnaire was developed and validated. Within this, respondents (geoscientists, engineers, and emergency managers; n=44) were asked to determine their agreement with the use and effectiveness of specific communication strategies (within the first 72 hours after a devastating earthquake) when communicating to the public. In terms of strategies and information to the public, the respondents were mostly in agreement, but there were several statements which elicited large differences between expert responses: 1) the role and purpose of the scientific communication during crises (to persuade people to care, to provide advice, to empower people to take action); 2) the scientist's delivery (showing the scientists emotions and enthusiasm for scientific concepts they are discussing); and 3) the amount of data that is discussed (being comprehensive versus 'only the important' data). The most disagreed upon dimension was related to whether to disclose any political influence on the communication. Additionally, scientists identified that being an effective communicator was an important part of their job, and agreed that it is important to practice these skills. Respondents generally indicated that while scientists should be accountable for the science advice provided, they should not be held liable.

  13. Everyone Knows What a Scientist Looks Like: The Image of a Modern Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.

    2008-11-01

    Children are inspired to follow career paths when they can imagine themselves there. Seeing pictures of adult individuals who look like them working in a given career can provide this spark to children's imaginations. Most (though not all) of the current available posters of scientists are of Einstein, and Einstein-like scientists. This is not representative of the current face of science. To change this, Pacific Science Center will host a photography exhibit: photographs of real, current scientists from all races, genders, beliefs, and walks of life. Photos will be taken and short biographies written by Discovery Corps Interns (Pacific Science Center's youth development program) to increase the amount of direct contact between students and scientists, and to give the exhibit an emotional connection for local teachers and families. We plan to make the photographs from this exhibit available to teachers for use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center during the International Year of Astronomy. The objectives of this project are to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community and to meet two of the goals of the International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by under-represented minorities in scientific and engineering careers.

  14. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qing Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scientist cooperation networks before. To demonstrate and explain this new finding, we propose a theoretical model for a nature scientist and his/her team innovation ability. The theoretical results are consistent with the empirical studies very well. This research demonstrates that the model has a certain universality and can be extended to estimate innovation ability for any nature scientist and his/her team. It is a better method for evaluating scientist innovation ability and his/her team for the academic profession and is of application potential.

  15. Neutron reflectometry: A probe for materials surfaces. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Research reactors play an important role in delivering the benefits of nuclear science and technology. The IAEA, through its project on the effective utilization of research reactors, has been providing technical support to Member States and promotes activities related to specific applications. Neutron beam research is one of the main components in materials science studies. Neutron reflectometry is extremely useful for characterizing thin films and layered structures, polymers, oxide coatings on metals and biological membranes. The neutron has been a major probe for investigating magnetic materials. Development of magnetic multilayers is important for diverse applications in sensors, memory devices, etc. The special nature of the interaction of the neutron with matter makes it an important tool to locate low z elements in the presence of high z elements, which is useful in biology and polymer science. The role of neutron reflectometry in research and development in materials science and technology was discussed in a consultants meeting held in 2003. Following this, a technical meeting was organized from 16 to 20 August 2004 in Vienna to discuss the current status of neutron reflectometry, including the instrumentation, data acquisition, data analysis and applications. Experts in the field of neutron reflectometry presented their contributions, after which there was a brainstorming session on various aspects of the technique and its applications. This publication is the outcome of deliberations during the meeting and the presentations by the participants. This publication will be of use to scientists planning to develop a neutron reflectometer at research reactors. It will also help disseminate knowledge and information to material scientists, biologists and chemists working towards characterizing and developing new materials

  16. Materials Sciences Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation and index of the ERDA materials sciences program is presented. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs

  17. Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharlin, H.I.

    1992-09-01

    The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children's natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

  18. Nuclear Targeting Terms for Engineers and Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Ledger, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Defense has a methodology for targeting nuclear weapons, and a jargon that is used to communicate between the analysts, planners, aircrews, and missile crews. The typical engineer or scientist in the Department of Energy may not have been exposed to the nuclear weapons targeting terms and methods. This report provides an introduction to the terms and methodologies used for nuclear targeting. Its purpose is to prepare engineers and scientists to participate in wargames, exercises, and discussions with the Department of Defense. Terms such as Circular Error Probable, probability of hit and damage, damage expectancy, and the physical vulnerability system are discussed. Methods for compounding damage from multiple weapons applied to one target are presented.

  19. Kristian Birkeland the first space scientist

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Alv

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917), a Norwegian scientist of insatiable curiosity, addressed questions that had vexed European scientists for centuries. Why do the northern lights appear overhead when the Earth’s magnetic field is disturbed? How are magnetic storms connected to disturbances on the Sun? To answer these questions Birkeland interpreted his advance laboratory simulations and daring campaigns in the Arctic wilderness in the light of Maxwell’s newly discovered laws of electricity and magnetism. Birkeland’s ideas were dismissed for decades, only to be vindicated when satellites could fly above the Earth’s atmosphere. Faced with the depleting stocks of Chilean saltpeter and the consequent prospect of mass starvation, Birkeland showed his practical side, inventing the first industrial scale method to extract nitrogen-based fertilizers from the air. Norsk Hydro, one of modern Norway’s largest industries, stands as a living tribute to his genius. Hoping to demo...

  20. Differential forms for scientists and engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair Perot, J.; Zusi, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a review of a number of mathematical concepts from differential geometry and exterior calculus that are finding increasing application in the numerical solution of partial differential equations. The objective of the paper is to introduce the scientist/ engineer to some of these ideas via a number of concrete examples in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The goal is not to explain these ideas with mathematical precision but to present concrete examples and enable a physical intuition of these concepts for those who are not mathematicians. The objective of this paper is to provide enough context so that scientist/engineers can interpret, implement, and understand other works which use these elegant mathematical concepts.

  1. Biocompatibility and anti-microbiological activity characterization of novel coatings for dental implants: A primer for non-biologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K Monsees

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With regard to biocompatibility, the cardinal requirement for dental implants and other medical devices that are in long-term contact with tissue is that the material does not cause any adverse effect to the patient. To warrant stability and function of the implant, proper osseointegration is a further prerequisite. Cells interact with the implant surface as the interface between bulk material and biological tissue. Whereas structuring, deposition of a thin film or other modifications of the surface are crucial parameters in determining favorable adhesion of cells, corrosion of metal surfaces and release of ions can affect cell viability. Both parameters are usually tested using in vitro cytotoxicity and adhesion assays with bone or fibroblasts cells. For bioactive surface modifications, further tests should be considered for biocompatibility evaluation. Depending on the type of modification, this may include analysis of specific cell functions or the determination of antimicrobial activities. The latter is of special importance as bacteria and yeast present in the oral cavity can be introduced during the implantation process and this may lead to chronic infections and implant failure. An antimicrobial coating of the implant is a way to avoid that. This review describes the essential biocompatibility assays for evaluation of new implant materials required by ISO 10993 and also gives an overview on recent test methods for specific coatings of dental implants.

  2. Biocompatibility and anti-microbiological activity characterization of novel coatings for dental implants: A primer for non-biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsees, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    With regard to biocompatibility, the cardinal requirement for dental implants and other medical devices that are in long-term contact with tissue is that the material does not cause any adverse effect to the patient. To warrant stability and function of the implant, proper osseointegration is a further prerequisite. Cells interact with the implant surface as the interface between bulk material and biological tissue. Whereas structuring, deposition of a thin film or other modifications of the surface are crucial parameters in determining favorable adhesion of cells, corrosion of metal surfaces and release of ions can affect cell viability. Both parameters are usually tested using in vitro cytotoxicity and adhesion assays with bone or fibroblasts cells. For bioactive surface modifications, further tests should be considered for biocompatibility evaluation. Depending on the type of modification, this may include analysis of specific cell functions or the determination of antimicrobial activities. The latter is of special importance as bacteria and yeast present in the oral cavity can be introduced during the implantation process and this may lead to chronic infections and implant failure. An antimicrobial coating of the implant is a way to avoid that. This review describes the essential biocompatibility assays for evaluation of new implant materials required by ISO 10993 and also gives an overview on recent test methods for specific coatings of dental implants.

  3. REVIEW: EXPLORERS AND SCIENTISTS IN CHINA'S BORDERLANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Rohlf

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Denise M Glover, Stevan Harrel, Charles F McKhann, and Margaret Byrne Swain (eds). 2011. Explorers and Scientists in China's Borderlands, 1880-1950. Seattle: University of Washington Press. This collection of eight biographical essays from a 2007 symposium makes for engaging reading and holds together well as a book. The authors, mainly anthropologists, examine the lives of ten explorers who were active primarily in the first half of the twentieth century. Some worked for d...

  4. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensively revised - essentially rewritten - new edition of the 1990 edition (described as ""extremely useful"" by MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS and as ""understandable and comprehensive"" by Scitech) guides readers through the dense array of mathematical information in the International Tables Volume A. Thus, most scientists seeking to understand a crystal structure publication can do this from this book without necessarily having to consult the International Tables themselves. This remains the only book aimed at non-crystallographers devoted to teaching them about crystallogr

  5. Opinion: the basic scientist in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, A.F.; Taylor, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology has experienced many scientific and technical advances in the past decade. New imaging methods have allowed diagnostic procedures that have in some cases produced marked advances in treatment of disease. The complexity of the science and technology requires increased knowledge of equipment and techniques on the part of users. This, together with the necessity of exploration of other new developments in science and technology, requires a closer relationship between radiologists on the one hand and basic scientists on the other. (author)

  6. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    OpenAIRE

    Simberloff, Daniel; Vilà, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland. Fred Allendorf University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA. James Aronson CEFE/CNRS, Montpellier, France. Pedro M. Antunes Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Onta...

  7. Cultural isolation of third-world scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, A.

    1981-10-01

    The isolation of third world scientists from the modes of production and from the culture of their countries seems to be related to the alienation of the urban culture of these countries from their respective rural backgrounds. It is suggested that this alienation may be overcome by directly interfacing modern science and technology to the corresponding elements in their rural culture through the process of education. (author)

  8. Interactive conference of young scientists 2011. Posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    This interactive conference of young scientists was realised on the Internet. Conference proceeded in seven sections: (1) Cellular metabolism, physiology, molecular biology and genetics; (2) Biotechnology and food technology; (3) The use of instrumental methods in the analysis of biologically important substances; (4) Organic, bio-organic and pharmaceuticals chemistry, pharmacology; (5) Ecology and environmental science; (6) Biophysics, mathematic modelling, biostatistics; (7) Open section for students. Relevant posters were included into the database INIS.

  9. Learning with Teachers; A Scientist's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past six years, as an Assistant Professor and now as an Associate Professor, I have engaged in educational outreach activities with K-12 teachers and their students. In this presentation I will talk about the successes and failures that I have had as a scientist engaged in K-12 educational outreach, including teaching the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) distance learning course, teaching inquiry-based science to pre-service teachers through the NASA Opportunities for Visionary Academics (NOVA) program, GLOBE, school visits, and research projects with teachers and students. I will reflect on the potential impact this has had on my career, negative and positive. I will present ways that I have been able to engage in educational outreach while remaining a productive scientist, publishing research papers, etc. Obtaining grant funding to support a team of educational experts to assist me perform outreach has been critical to my groups success. However, reporting for small educational grants from state agencies can often be overwhelming. The bottom line is that I find working with teachers and students rewarding and believe that it is a critical part of me being a scientist. Through the process of working with teachers I have learned pedagogy that has helped me be a better teacher in the university classroom.

  10. The scientist's role in the nuclear debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstein, F.P.

    1981-01-01

    Until recently the public had little time for, or interest in, studying scientific developments. Details on topics such as medical research, energy developments and communications advances were left to scientific journals and specialist conferences. For the most part the public had faith in science and science was able to maintain that faith through developments which recognizably improved the lot of mankind. But faith is no longer sufficient; scientists must now interact with people if we are to fulfil our obligations in this new theatre of increased public awareness. Scientists and egineers like myself and my colleagues at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. are communicating with the public as one part of a broad programme of public information. This includes: operation of public information centres, visits to our laboratories, interaction with teachers, distribution of reports and hosting exhibits. Technical people have a lot to learn about communicating with the public, the media and the critics. It is an extremely difficult task, but as concerned scientists it is something we should and must do, openly and constructively

  11. Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Partnerships: Reimagining Scientists in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Terwilliger, Michael; InsightSTEM Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Partnerships Team

    2016-01-01

    We present results of our work to reimagine Teacher-Scientist partnerships to improve relationships and outcomes. We describe our work in implementing Teacher-Scientist partnerships that are expanded to include a communicator, and the learners themselves, as genuine members of the partnership. Often times in Teacher-Scientist partnerships, the scientist can often become more easily described as a special guest into the classroom, rather than a genuine partner in the learning experience. We design programs that take the expertise of the teacher and the scientist fully into account to develop practical and meaningful partnerships, that are further enhanced by using an expert in communications to develop rich experiences for and with the learners. The communications expert may be from a broad base of backgrounds depending on the needs and desires of the partners -- the communicators include, for example: public speaking gurus; journalists; web and graphic designers; and American Sign Language interpreters. Our partnership programs provide online support and professional development for all parties. Outcomes of the program are evaluated in terms of not only learning outcomes for the students, but also attitude, behavior, and relationship outcomes for the teachers, scientists, communicators and learners alike.

  12. Scientists in the public sphere: Interactions of scientists and journalists in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Peters, Hans P

    2016-06-07

    In order to map scientists' views on media channels and explore their experiences interacting with journalists, the authors conducted a survey of about 1,000 Brazilian scientists. Results indicate that scientists have clear and high expectations about how journalists should act in reporting scientific information in the media, but such expectations, in their opinion, do not always seem to be met. Nonetheless, the results show that surveyed scientists rate their relation with the media positively: 67% say that having their research covered by media has a positive impact on their colleagues. One quarter of the respondents expressed that talking to the media can facilitate acquisition of more funds for research. Moreover, 38% of the total respondents believe that writing about an interesting topic for release on media channels can also facilitate research publication in a scientific journal. However, 15% of the respondents outright agree that research reported in the media beforehand can threaten acceptance for publication by a scientific journal. We hope that these results can foster some initiatives for improving awareness of the two cultures, scientists and journalists; increasing the access of journalists to Brazilian scientific endeavors; stimulating scientists to communicate with the public via social networks.

  13. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by

  14. Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2015-04-01

    What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This

  15. Educating the next generation of atmospheric scientists within a European Network of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepbach, E.; Uherek, E.; Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A.; Jacob, M. J.

    In order to promote the next generation of atmospheric scientists, the task Training and Education (T&E) in ACCENT, the European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change ( www.accent-network.org) has developed and implemented an Integrated Learning Environment (ILE). For school teachers and their students, the Internet-based "Global Change Magazine" provides up-to-date and freely accessible scientific material in English and five other languages. Additionally, T&E has produced online teaching material for early-career scientists. These e-learning modules are now being used in University Master's courses across Europe. T&E also organised training events for early-career scientists, combining scientific content with development in transferable skills, to focus on interdisciplinary collaboration, interaction with senior scientists, communication with stakeholders, and dissemination to the general public. Evaluation based on participant feedback evidences the effectiveness of these events, e.g., in terms of motivation to remain in the field. Methodologies and materials from T&E are being published in a Handbook on Best Practice, intended for both educators and scientists around the globe who are involved in education in the field of air quality and climate change science.

  16. Scientists feature their work in Arctic-focused short videos by FrontierScientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L.; O'Connell, E.

    2013-12-01

    Whether they're guiding an unmanned aerial vehicle into a volcanic plume to sample aerosols, or documenting core drilling at a frozen lake in Siberia formed 3.6 million years ago by a massive meteorite impact, Arctic scientists are using video to enhance and expand their science and science outreach. FrontierScientists (FS), a forum for showcasing scientific work, produces and promotes radically different video blogs featuring Arctic scientists. Three- to seven- minute multimedia vlogs help deconstruct researcher's efforts and disseminate stories, communicating scientific discoveries to our increasingly connected world. The videos cover a wide range of current field work being performed in the Arctic. All videos are freely available to view or download from the FrontierScientists.com website, accessible via any internet browser or via the FrontierScientists app. FS' filming process fosters a close collaboration between the scientist and the media maker. Film creation helps scientists reach out to the public, communicate the relevance of their scientific findings, and craft a discussion. Videos keep audience tuned in; combining field footage, pictures, audio, and graphics with a verbal explanation helps illustrate ideas, allowing one video to reach people with different learning strategies. The scientists' stories are highlighted through social media platforms online. Vlogs grant scientists a voice, letting them illustrate their own work while ensuring accuracy. Each scientific topic on FS has its own project page where easy-to-navigate videos are featured prominently. Video sets focus on different aspects of a researcher's work or follow one of their projects into the field. We help the scientist slip the answers to their five most-asked questions into the casual script in layman's terms in order to free the viewers' minds to focus on new concepts. Videos are accompanied by written blogs intended to systematically demystify related facts so the scientists can focus

  17. Impact of a Scientist-Teacher Collaborative Model on Students, Teachers, and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, Paichi Pat; Tsai, Chun-Yen

    2015-09-01

    Collaborations between the K-12 teachers and higher education or professional scientists have become a widespread approach to science education reform. Educational funding and efforts have been invested to establish these cross-institutional collaborations in many countries. Since 2006, Taiwan initiated the High Scope Program, a high school science curriculum reform to promote scientific innovation and inquiry through an integration of advanced science and technology in high school science curricula through partnership between high school teachers and higher education scientists and science educators. This study, as part of this governmental effort, a scientist-teacher collaborative model (STCM) was constructed by 8 scientists and 4 teachers to drive an 18-week high school science curriculum reform on environmental education in a public high school. Partnerships between scientists and teachers offer opportunities to strengthen the elements of effective science teaching identified by Shulman and ultimately affect students' learning. Mixed methods research was used for this study. Qualitative methods of interviews were used to understand the impact on the teachers' and scientists' science teaching. A quasi-experimental design was used to understand the impact on students' scientific competency and scientific interest. The findings in this study suggest that the use of the STCM had a medium effect on students' scientific competency and a large effect on students' scientific individual and situational interests. In the interviews, the teachers indicated how the STCM allowed them to improve their content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and the scientists indicated an increased knowledge of learners, knowledge of curriculum, and PCK.

  18. Data sharing by scientists: Practices and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, C.; Allard, S.; Douglass, K.; Aydinoglu, A.U.; Wu, L.; Read, E.; Manoff, M.; Frame, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers - data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance: Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound

  19. How Many Women Scientists Does It Take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikova, T. J.; Ramirez, K. S.; Pendergrass, A. G.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Weintraub, S. R.; Bohon, W.; Bartel, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Science and activism are not mutually exclusive. In today's political and cultural landscape, scientists must become advocates. But we cannot simply support the scientific enterprise while ignoring marginalized groups in science. We must promote diversity and confront the structural inequalities and discrimination that are prevalent in science today. How do we begin to confront this challenge? 500 Women Scientists is a grassroots organization that formed in the wake of the 2016 US election. We quickly grew to more than 20,000 supporters from across the globe and moved towards a broader mission to serve society by making science open, inclusive, and accessible. Ensuring women's inclusion and an explicit consideration of diversity improves science and spurs innovation. A focus on diversity means that the best minds and talent are in the room and that we implement the most effective solutions to solve the complex global challenges we face. We accomplish our mission by bringing together communities to foster real change that comes from small groups, not large crowds. Across the world, groups of 500 Women Scientists - pods - help create deep roots through strong, personal relationships and focus on issues that resonate in their communities. Pod members meet regularly to carry out our mission through 3 types of activities: 1. Empowering women to succeed in science through mentorship, networking, and support; 2. Advocating for science through participation in marches and efforts like the "#ourEPA" and "Summer of Op-Eds" campaigns; and 3. Local outreach at schools, local community events, and more. We are building a powerful voice in conversations at the intersection of science and our most pressing issues: environmental degradation, gender politics, structural inequalities and cultural diversity. We tell our own story so that we do not remain `hidden figures,' and so that future generations can inherit and advance the knowledge that we work so hard to produce.

  20. SunBlock '99: Young Scientists Investigate the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. W.; Pike, C. D.; Mason, H.; Young, P.; Ireland, J.; Galsgaard, K.

    1999-10-01

    SunBlock `99 is a Web-based Public Understanding of Science and educational project which seeks to present the very latest solar research as seen through the eyes of young British scientists. These ``solar guides'' discuss not only their scientific interests, but also their extra-curricular activities and the reasons they chose scientific careers; in other words the human face of scientific research. The SunBlock '99 pages gather a range of solar images and movies from current solar space observatories and discuss the underlying physics and its relationship to the school curriculum. The instructional level is pitched at UK secondary school children (aged 13-16 years). It is intended that the material should not only provide a visually appealing introduction to the study of the Sun, but that it should help bridge the often wide gap between classroom science lessons and the research scientist `out in the field'. SunBlock '99 is managed by a team from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Universities of St Andrews and Cambridge, together with educational consultants. The production has, in part, been sponsored by PPARC and the Millennium Mathematics Project. Web site addresss: http://www.sunblock99.org.uk

  1. International Stability. The Responsibility of the Scientist and Technologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1983-01-01

    Scientists and technologists ('technical experts') bear heavy responsibility for the explosive world situation where the further existence of civilization is threatened. Without their initiatives and their efforts the weapons of mass annihilation would not have been invented and developed. The essential features of nuclear warfare are explained. 25-40% of the world force of technical experts may be on war work now. Whatever justification for their work they see, they are tied to it, as quitting would mean loss of income, possibilities for professional career, status and prestige. On the other hand, many scientists, including Bohr, Joliot, Pauling, Einstein and Russell, have done invaluable work in informing, warning, educating and mobilizing the public against the danger of a nuclear war. In the present desperate situation the support of the largest possible number of technical experts for such activities ought to be enlisted. In this respect engineers and technologists could follow the example of medical doctors. Moreover, owing to their familiarity with criteria for stability in material systems engineers could make constructive proposals for the improvement of stability in international relations. (author)

  2. Scientist impact factor (SIF): a new metric for improving scientists' evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2017-08-01

    The publication of scientific research is the mainstay for knowledge dissemination, but is also an essential criterion of scientists' evaluation for recruiting funds and career progression. Although the most widespread approach for evaluating scientists is currently based on the H-index, the total impact factor (IF) and the overall number of citations, these metrics are plagued by some well-known drawbacks. Therefore, with the aim to improve the process of scientists' evaluation, we developed a new and potentially useful indicator of recent scientific output. The new metric scientist impact factor (SIF) was calculated as all citations of articles published in the two years following the publication year of the articles, divided by the overall number of articles published in that year. The metrics was then tested by analyzing data of the 40 top scientists of the local University. No correlation was found between SIF and H-index (r=0.15; P=0.367) or 2 years H-index (r=-0.01; P=0.933), whereas the H-index and 2 years H-index values were found to be highly correlated (r=0.57; Particles published in one year and the total number of citations to these articles in the two following years (r=0.62; Pscientists, wherein the SIF reflects the scientific output over the past two years thus increasing their chances to apply to and obtain competitive funding.

  3. The Impact of Scientist-Educator Collaborations: an early-career scientist's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roop, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    A decade ago, a forward-thinking faculty member exposed a group of aspiring scientists to the impacts and career benefits of working directly with K-12 students and educators. Ten years later, as one of those young scientists, it is clear that the relationships born out of this early experience can transform a researcher's impact and trajectory in science. Connections with programs like the NSF-funded PolarTREC program, the teacher-led Scientists in the Classroom effort, and through well-coordinated teacher training opportunities there are clear ways in which these partnerships can a) transform student learning; b) serve as a powerful and meaningful way to connect students to authentic research and researchers; and c) help researchers become more effective communicators by expanding their ability to connect their work to society. The distillation of science to K-12 students, with the expert eye of educators, makes scientists better at their work with tangible benefits to skills that matter in academia - securing funding, writing and communicating clearly and having high-value broader impacts. This invited abstract is submitted as part of this session's panel discussion and will explore in detail, with concrete examples, the mutual benefits of educator-scientist partnerships and how sustained engagement can transform the reach, connection and application of research science.

  4. Support for Synchrotron Access by Environmental Scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Michael; Madden, Andrew; Palumbo, Anthony; Qafoku, N.

    2006-01-01

    To support ERSP-funded scientists in all aspects of synchrotron-based research at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This support comes in one or more of the following forms: (1) writing proposals to the APS General User (GU) program, (2) providing time at MRCAT/EnviroCAT beamlines via the membership of the Molecular Environmental Science (MES) Group in MRCAT/EnviroCAT, (3) assistance in experimental design and sample preparation, (4) support at the beamline during the synchrotron experiment, (5) analysis and interpretation of the synchrotron data, and (6) integration of synchrotron experimental results into manuscripts

  5. Vector analysis for mathematicians, scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, S

    1970-01-01

    Vector Analysis for Mathematicians, Scientists and Engineers, Second Edition, provides an understanding of the methods of vector algebra and calculus to the extent that the student will readily follow those works which make use of them, and further, will be able to employ them himself in his own branch of science. New concepts and methods introduced are illustrated by examples drawn from fields with which the student is familiar, and a large number of both worked and unworked exercises are provided. The book begins with an introduction to vectors, covering their representation, addition, geome

  6. Essential Java for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Brian D; Malan, Katherine M

    2003-01-01

    Essential Java serves as an introduction to the programming language, Java, for scientists and engineers, and can also be used by experienced programmers wishing to learn Java as an additional language. The book focuses on how Java, and object-oriented programming, can be used to solve science and engineering problems. Many examples are included from a number of different scientific and engineering areas, as well as from business and everyday life. Pre-written packages of code are provided to help in such areas as input/output, matrix manipulation and scientific graphing. Java source code and

  7. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  8. Web life: The Evil Mad Scientist Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    What is it? Have you ever tried to electrocute a hot dog? Wondered how to make a robot out of a toothbrush, watch battery and phone-pager motor? Seen a cantaloupe melon and thought, "Hmm, I could make this look like the Death Star from the original Star Wars films"? If you have not, but you would like to - preferably as soon as you can find a pager motor - then this is the site for you. The Evil Mad Scientist Project (EMSP) blog is packed full of ideas for unusual, silly and frequently physics-related creations that bring science out of the laboratory and into kitchens, backyards and tool sheds.

  9. Practical Statistics for Environmental and Biological Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Townend, John

    2012-01-01

    All students and researchers in environmental and biological sciences require statistical methods at some stage of their work. Many have a preconception that statistics are difficult and unpleasant and find that the textbooks available are difficult to understand. Practical Statistics for Environmental and Biological Scientists provides a concise, user-friendly, non-technical introduction to statistics. The book covers planning and designing an experiment, how to analyse and present data, and the limitations and assumptions of each statistical method. The text does not refer to a specific comp

  10. Scientists Interacting With University Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, B. S.

    2004-12-01

    Scientists with limited time to devote to educating the public about their work will get the greatest multiplier effect for their investment of time by successfully interacting with university science educators. These university professors are the smallest and least publicized group of professionals in the chain of people working to create science literate citizens. They connect to all aspects of formal and informal education, influencing everything from what and how youngsters and adults learn science to legislative rulings. They commonly teach methods of teaching science to undergraduates aspiring to teach in K-12 settings and experienced teachers. They serve as agents for change to improve science education inside schools and at the state level K-16, including what science content courses are acceptable for teacher licensure. University science educators are most often housed in a College of Education or Department of Education. Significant differences in culture exist in the world in which marine scientists function and that in which university science educators function, even when they are in the same university. Subsequently, communication and building relationships between the groups is often difficult. Barriers stem from not understanding each other's roles and responsibilities; and different reward systems, assumptions about teaching and learning, use of language, approaches to research, etc. This presentation will provide suggestions to mitigate the barriers and enable scientists to leverage the multiplier effect saving much time and energy while ensuring the authenticity of their message is maintained. Likelihood that a scientist's message will retain its authenticity stems from criteria for a university science education position. These professors have undergraduate degrees in a natural science (e.g., biology, chemistry, physics, geology), and usually a master's degree in one of the sciences, a combination of natural sciences, or a master's including

  11. Mathematics for natural scientists II advanced methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovich, Lev

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the advanced mathematical techniques useful for physics and engineering students, presented in a form accessible to physics students, avoiding precise mathematical jargon and laborious proofs. Instead, all proofs are given in a simplified form that is clear and convincing for a physicist. Examples, where appropriate, are given from physics contexts. Both solved and unsolved problems are provided in each chapter. Mathematics for Natural Scientists II: Advanced Methods is the second of two volumes. It follows the first volume on Fundamentals and Basics.

  12. Materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Materials Science Division is engaged in research on physical properties of materials and the effects of radiation upon them. This involves solid state materials undergoing phase transitions, energy storing materials, and biomaterials. The Division also offers research facilities for M.S. and Ph.D. thesis work in the fields of physics, chemistry, materials, and radiation sciences in cooperation with the various colleges and departments of the UPR Mayaguez Campus. It is anticipated that it will serve as a catalyst in starting energy-related research programs in cooperation with UPR faculty, especially programs involving solar energy. To encourage and promote cooperative efforts, contact is maintained with former graduate students and with visiting scientists from Latin American research institutions

  13. Economists, social scientists root for basic income in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-06

    Aug 6, 2017 ... Economists and social scientists made a strong pitch for reducing expenditures on ... Economists, social scientists root for basic income in India ... in terms of competing development priorities and limited availability of funds.

  14. The State of Young Scholars and Scientists in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... career decisions and research performance of young scientists in higher education, ... progression Researchers will examine the supporting and limiting factors. ... They will work with scientists, government agencies, and higher education ...

  15. Tools for Engaging Scientists in Education and Public Outreach: Resources from NASA's Science Mission Directorate Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Meinke, B. K.; Gross, N. A.; Woroner, M.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its E/PO community by enhancing the coherency and efficiency of SMD-funded E/PO programs. The Forums foster collaboration and partnerships between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. We will present tools to engage and resources to support scientists' engagement in E/PO efforts. Scientists can get connected to educators and find support materials and links to resources to support their E/PO work through the online SMD E/PO community workspace (http://smdepo.org) The site includes resources for scientists interested in E/PO including one page guides about "How to Get Involved" and "How to Increase Your Impact," as well as the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau to connect scientists to audiences across the country. Additionally, there is a set of online clearinghouses that provide ready-made lessons and activities for use by scientists and educators: NASA Wavelength (http://nasawavelength.org/) and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/). The NASA Forums create and partner with organizations to provide resources specifically for undergraduate science instructors including slide sets for Earth and Space Science classes on the current topics in astronomy and planetary science. The Forums also provide professional development opportunities at professional science conferences each year including AGU, LPSC, AAS, and DPS to support higher education faculty who are teaching undergraduate courses. These offerings include best practices in instruction, resources for teaching planetary science and astronomy topics, and other special topics such as working with diverse students and the use of social media in the classroom. We are continually soliciting ways that we can better support scientists' efforts in effectively engaging in E/PO. Please contact Sanlyn Buxner (buxner@psi.edu) or Jennifer Grier (jgrier@psi.edu) to

  16. NASA's SMD Cross-Forum Resources for Supporting Scientist Engagement in Education and Public Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Sharma, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Schwerin, T. G.; Shipp, S. S.; Smith, D.

    2012-12-01

    Sharing the excitement of ongoing scientific discoveries is an important aspect of scientific activity for researchers. Directly engaging scientists in education and public outreach (E/PO) activities has the benefit of directly connecting the public to those who engage in scientific activities. A shortage of training in education methods, public speaking, and working with various public audiences increases barriers to engaging scientists in these types in E/PO activities. NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public forums (astrophysics, earth science, heliophysics, and planetary science) support scientists currently involved in E/PO and who are interested in becoming involved in E/PO through a variety of avenues. Over the past three years, the forums have developed a variety of resources to help engage scientists in education and public outreach. We will showcase the following resources developed through the SMD E/PO cross-forum efforts: Professional development resources for writing NASA SMD E/PO proposals (webinars and other online tools), ongoing professional development at scientific conferences to increase scientist engagement in E/PO activities, toolkits for scientists interested in best practices in E/PO (online guides for K-12 education and public outreach), toolkits to inform scientists of science education resources developed within each scientific thematic community, EarthSpace (a community web space where instructors can find and share about teaching space and earth sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials news and funding opportunities, and the latest education research, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/), thematic resources for teaching about SMD science topics, and an online database of scientists interested in connecting with education programs. Learn more about the Forum and find resources at http://smdepo.org/.

  17. Math for scientists refreshing the essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Maurits, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Accessible and comprehensive, this guide is an indispensable tool for anyone in the sciences – new and established researchers, students and scientists – looking either to refresh their math skills or to prepare for the broad range of math, statistical and data-related challenges they are likely to encounter in their work or studies. In addition to helping scientists improve their knowledge of key mathematical concepts, this unique book will help readers: ·                     Read mathematical symbols ·                     Understand formulas, data or statistical information ·                     Determine medication equivalents ·                     Analyze neuroimaging  Mathematical concepts are presented alongside illustrative and useful real-world scien­tific examples and are further clarified through practical pen-and-paper exercises. Whether you are a student encountering high-level mathematics in your research or...

  18. Kristian Birkeland, The First Space Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, A.; Burke, W. J.

    2005-05-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917), a Norwegian scientist of insatiable curiosity, addressed questions that had vexed European scientists for centuries. Why do the northern lights appear overhead when the Earth's magnetic field is disturbed? How are magnetic storms connected to disturbances on the Sun? To answer these questions Birkeland interpreted his advance laboratory simulations and daring campaigns in the Arctic wilderness in the light of Maxwell's newly discovered laws of electricity and magnetism. Birkeland's ideas were dismissed for decades, only to be vindicated when satellites could fly above the Earth's atmosphere. Faced with the depleting stocks of Chilean saltpeter and the consequent prospect of mass starvation, Birkeland showed his practical side, inventing the first industrial scale method to extract nitrogen-based fertilizers from the air. Norsk Hydro, one of modern Norway's largest industries, stands as a living tribute to his genius. Hoping to demonstrate what we now call the solar wind, Birkeland moved to Egypt in 1913. Isolated from his friends by the Great War, Birkeland yearned to celebrate his 50th birthday in Norway. The only safe passage home, via the Far East, brought him to Tokyo where in the late spring of 1917 he passed away. Link: http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,5-10100-22-39144987-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

  19. Attitudes and norms affecting scientists' data reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves Curty

    Full Text Available The value of sharing scientific research data is widely appreciated, but factors that hinder or prompt the reuse of data remain poorly understood. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action, we test the relationship between the beliefs and attitudes of scientists towards data reuse, and their self-reported data reuse behaviour. To do so, we used existing responses to selected questions from a worldwide survey of scientists developed and administered by the DataONE Usability and Assessment Working Group (thus practicing data reuse ourselves. Results show that the perceived efficacy and efficiency of data reuse are strong predictors of reuse behaviour, and that the perceived importance of data reuse corresponds to greater reuse. Expressed lack of trust in existing data and perceived norms against data reuse were not found to be major impediments for reuse contrary to our expectations. We found that reported use of models and remotely-sensed data was associated with greater reuse. The results suggest that data reuse would be encouraged and normalized by demonstration of its value. We offer some theoretical and practical suggestions that could help to legitimize investment and policies in favor of data sharing.

  20. A data model for environmental scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapeljushnik, O.; Beran, B.; Valentine, D.; van Ingen, C.; Zaslavsky, I.; Whitenack, T.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental science encompasses a wide range of disciplines from water chemistry to microbiology, ecology and atmospheric sciences. Studies often require working across disciplines which differ in their ways of describing and storing data such that it is not possible to devise a monolithic one-size-fits-all data solution. Based on our experiences with Consortium of the Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science Inc. (CUAHSI) Observations Data Model, Berkeley Water Center FLUXNET carbon-climate work and by examining standards like EPA's Water Quality Exchange (WQX), we have developed a flexible data model that allows extensions without need to altering the schema such that scientists can define custom metadata elements to describe their data including observations, analysis methods as well as sensors and geographical features. The data model supports various types of observations including fixed point and moving sensors, bottled samples, rasters from remote sensors and models, and categorical descriptions (e.g. taxonomy) by employing user-defined-types when necessary. It leverages ADO .NET Entity Framework to provide the semantic data models for differing disciplines, while maintaining a common schema below the entity layer. This abstraction layer simplifies data retrieval and manipulation by hiding the logic and complexity of the relational schema from users thus allows programmers and scientists to deal directly with objects such as observations, sensors, watersheds, river reaches, channel cross-sections, laboratory analysis methods and samples as opposed to table joins, columns and rows.

  1. Anaxagoras and the Scientist/Laity Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, N. J.

    The phenomenon that caused Anaxagoras to develop his model that explained the phases and eclipses of the Moon was a meteorite fall. The model was a turning point for science in explaining more than one phenomenon with a single model. It precipitated the growth of Greek astronomy and the first heliocentric theory. Anaxagoras was also the first scientist to get into trouble for a conflict between science and religion. Contrary to an impression from the title of this conference, scientific literature paid little attention to the meteorite fall phenomenon. Both scientists and the public mainly pay attention to models, and often to the extraneous irrelevant attachments of models, those by which it is placed in memory. Models are artistic creations that are culture dependent. Phenomena are our only solid link to the world of reality. The main issue of this paper is the problems that the individual has with models. The paper discusses the effect of Anaxagoras on scientific thought. It concludes by exploring three areas where relationship of science to society as Anaxagoras set it up, has left unresolved problems.

  2. Developmental Scientist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    blood diseases and conditions; parasitic infections; rheumatic and inflammatory diseases; and rare and neglected diseases. CMRP’s collaborative approach to clinical research and the expertise and dedication of staff to the continuation and success of the program’s mission has contributed to improving the overall standards of public health on a global scale. The Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides quality assurance and regulatory compliance support to the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), Surgery Branch (SB). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - THIS POSITION IS CONTINGENT UPON FUNDING APPROVAL The Developmental Scientist will: Provide support and advisement to the development of the T Cell receptor gene therapy protocols. Establishes, implements and maintains standardized processes and assesses performance to make recommendations for improvement. Provides support and guidance to the cellular therapy or vector production facilities at the NIH Clinical Center engaged in the manufacture of patient-specific therapies. Manufactures cellular therapy products for human use. Develops and manufactures lentiviral and/or retroviral vectors. Prepares technical reports, abstracts, presentations and program correspondence concerning assigned projects through research and analysis of information relevant to government policy, regulations and other relevant data and monitor all assigned programs for compliance. Provides project management support with planning and development of project schedules and deliverables, tracking project milestones, managing timelines, preparing status reports and monitoring progress ensuring adherence to deadlines. Facilitates communication through all levels of staff by functioning as a liaison between internal departments, senior management, and the customer. Serves as a leader/mentor to administrative staff and prepares employee performance evaluations. Develops and implements procedures/programs to

  3. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA’s and NLSI’s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE’s High School Lunar Research Project is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The High School Lunar Research Project engages teams of high school students in authentic lunar research that envelopes them in the process of science and supports the science goals of the CLSE. Most high school students’ lack of scientific research experience leaves them without an understanding of science as a process. Because of this, each team is paired with a lunar scientist mentor responsible for guiding students through the process of conducting a scientific investigation. Before beginning their research, students undertake “Moon 101,” designed to familiarize them with lunar geology and exploration. Students read articles covering various lunar geology topics and analyze images from past and current lunar missions to become familiar with available lunar data sets. At the end of “Moon 101”, students present a characterization of the geology and chronology of features surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To begin their research, teams choose a research subject from a pool of topics compiled by the CLSE staff. After choosing a topic, student teams ask their own research questions, within the context of the larger question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results and, after receiving feedback, create and present a conference style poster to a panel of

  4. Fundamentals of linear systems for physical scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Puri, N N

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to the advent of inexpensive computing, it is possible to analyze, compute, and develop results that were unthinkable in the '60s. Control systems, telecommunications, robotics, speech, vision, and digital signal processing are but a few examples of computing applications. While there are many excellent resources available that focus on one or two topics, few books cover most of the mathematical techniques required for a broader range of applications. Fundamentals of Linear Systems for Physical Scientists and Engineers is such a resource. The book draws from diverse areas of engineering and the physical sciences to cover the fundamentals of linear systems. Assuming no prior knowledge of complex mathematics on the part of the reader, the author uses his nearly 50 years of teaching experience to address all of the necessary mathematical techniques. Original proofs, hundreds of examples, and proven theorems illustrate and clarify the material. An extensive table provides Lyapunov functions for differentia...

  5. Don't be such a scientist talking substance in an age of style

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Randy

    2009-01-01

    How to relate scientific information in a way that entertains and enlightens? After twenty years as a marine biologist, a Ph.D. from Harvard, a tenured professorship at the University of New Hampshire, and more than twenty published research papers, why is Dr. Randy Olson telling readers, 'Don't Be Such a Scientist'? The hard-earned advice comes from a fifteen-year career transition to filmmaking, culminating in the acclaimed documentaries "Flock of Dodos: The Evolution-Intelligent Design Circus" and "Sizzle: A Global Warming Comedy". In his first book, Olson makes clear what those glued to their microscopes and climate models may not recognize: the general public doesn't speak science. For better or worse, most of us rely not on intellect, but on what Olson terms the organs of mass communication: the heart, the gut, and even 'the lower organs'. Why else do some still question the existence of global warming or evolution when the evidence is irrefutable? Drawing on his own hilarious - and at times humiliating...

  6. ‘Early Psychosis’ as a Mirror of Biologist Controversies in Post-WarGerman, Anglo-Saxon and Soviet Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara eRzesnitzek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The English term ‘early psychosis’ was coined in the 1930s to refer to feelings of irritability, loss of concentration, hypochondriac ideas, moodiness and lassitude that were seen to precede the onset of clear-cut hallucinations and delusions. The history of thinking about ‘early psychosis’ under names such as ‘latent’, ‘masked’, ‘mild’, ‘simple’ or ‘sluggish’ schizophrenia before World War II and afterwards on the different sides of the Wall and the Iron Curtain reveals ‘early psychosis’ as a mirror of quite aged international biologist controversies that are still alive today and to the same extent as they are misunderstood, are influential in their implications in today’s psychiatry.

  7. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No scientist...

  8. Pathways for impact: scientists' different perspectives on agricultural innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röling, N.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes the viewpoint of a social scientist and looks at agricultural scientists' pathways for science impact. Awareness of these pathways is increasingly becoming part and parcel of the professionalism of the agricultural scientist, now that the pressure is on to mobilize smallholders and

  9. Preparing Scientists to be Community Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Many students, especially students from historically under-represented communities, leave science majors or avoid choosing them because scientific careers do not offer enough opportunity to contribute to their communities. Citizen science, or public participation in scientific research, may address these challenges. At its most collaborative, it means inviting communities to partner in every step of the scientific process from defining the research question to applying the results to community priorities. In addition to attracting and retaining students, this level of community engagement will help diversify science, ensure the use and usability of our science, help buttress public support of science, and encourage the application of scientific results to policy. It also offers opportunities to tackle scientific questions that can't be accomplished in other way and it is demonstrably effective at helping people learn scientific concepts and methods. In order to learn how to prepare scientists for this kind of intensive community collaboration, we examined several case studies, including a project on disease and public health in Africa and the professionally evaluated experience of two summer interns in Southern Louisiana. In these and other cases, we learned that scientific expertise in a discipline has to be accompanied by a reservoir of humility and respect for other ways of knowing, the ability to work collaboratively with a broad range of disciplines and people, patience and enough career stability to allow that patience, and a willingness to adapt research to a broader set of scientific and non-scientific priorities. To help students achieve this, we found that direct instruction in participatory methods, mentoring by community members and scientists with participatory experience, in-depth training on scientific ethics and communication, explicit articulation of the goal of working with communities, and ample opportunity for personal reflection were essential

  10. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  11. Using Videoconferencing in a School-Scientist Partnership: Students' Perceptions and Scientists' Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falloon, Garry

    2012-01-01

    This research studied a series of videoconference teaching workshops and virtual labs, which formed a component of a school-scientist partnership involving a New Zealand science research institute and year 13 students at a Wellington high school. It explored students' perceptions of the effectiveness of the videoconferences as an interactive…

  12. Engaging Scientists in NASA Education and Public Outreach: Tools for Scientist Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Meinke, B. K.; Hsu, B.; Shupla, C.; Grier, J. A.; E/PO Community, SMD

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its education and public outreach (E/PO) community through a coordinated effort to enhance the coherence and efficiency of SMD-funded E/PO programs. The Forums foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. We present tools and resources to support astronomers’ engagement in E/PO efforts. Among the tools designed specifically for scientists are a series of one-page E/PO-engagement Tips and Tricks guides, a sampler of electromagnetic-spectrum-related activities, and NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker). Scientists can also locate resources for interacting with diverse audiences through a number of online clearinghouses, including: NASA Wavelength, a digital collection of peer-reviewed Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels (http://nasawavelength.org), and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), a community website where faculty can find and share teaching resources for the undergraduate Earth and space sciences classroom. Learn more about the opportunities to become involved in E/PO and to share your science with students, educators, and the general public at http://smdepo.org.

  13. Mathematics for natural scientists fundamentals and basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovich, Lev

    2016-01-01

    This book, the first in a two part series, covers a course of mathematics tailored specifically for physics, engineering and chemistry students at the undergraduate level. It is unique in that it begins with logical concepts of mathematics first encountered at A-level and covers them in thorough detail, filling in the gaps in students' knowledge and reasoning. Then the book aids the leap between A-level and university-level mathematics, with complete proofs provided throughout and all complex mathematical concepts and techniques presented in a clear and transparent manner. Numerous examples and problems (with answers) are given for each section and, where appropriate, mathematical concepts are illustrated in a physics context. This text gives an invaluable foundation to students and a comprehensive aid to lecturers. Mathematics for Natural Scientists: Fundamentals and Basics is the first of two volumes. Advanced topics and their applications in physics are covered in the second volume.

  14. Moments in the Life of a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Bruno

    1990-08-01

    Bruno Rossi has long been an influential figure in diverse areas of physics and in this volume he presents a fascinating account of his life and work as an experimental physicist. He discusses his scientific contributions, from experiments that played a major role in establishing the nature and properties of cosmic rays to those establishing the existence of a solar wind and others that laid the foundations of X-ray astronomy. Rossi provides close insight into his actual experiences as a scientist and the motivations that gave direction to his research, and he recounts the beginning of very significant stages in high energy physics and space research. He writes evocatively of the many places where he worked--of Florence, Arcetri, Padua, and Venice, of the mountains of Colorado and the deserts of New Mexico. His narrative also provides insight into the life of a Jewish family in fascist Italy. The text is accompanied by photographs taken throughout Rossi's career.

  15. Nicholson Medal Lecture: Scientists and Totalitarian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    1997-04-01

    In order to call for support for his policy in China from the scientific community outside of China, Li Peng, China's premier today and at the time of Tiananmen massacre in 1989, published an editorial of ``Science" magazine (July 5, 1996) titled ``Why China needs science ... and partners." This editorial brought a serious problem, which is originally faced by scientists in a totalitarian society, upon the scientific community in free societies outside. It is well known that the current attitude of the Chinese government toward science is what it was during the years of Mao and the Soviet Union: science is limited to provide instruments useful to the rulers, but any degree of freedom, such as to challenge ideas, required by science to change the totalitarian regime itself, is suppressed. Thus, the problem facing us is: how to help your colleagues and promote science in a totalitarian society, without becoming a partner of the injustices of that regime.

  16. Ozone Gardens for the Citizen Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.

  17. Quark Matter 2017: Young Scientist Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evdokimov, Olga [University of Illinois at Chicago

    2017-07-31

    Quark Matter conference series are amongst the major scientific events for the Relativistic Heavy Ion community. With over 30 year long history, the meetings are held about every 1½ years to showcase the progress made in theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The 26th International Conference on Ultra-relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter 2017) was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in downtown Chicago from Sunday, February 5th through Saturday, February 11th, 2017. The conference featured about 180 plenary and parallel presentations of the most significant recent results in the field, a poster session for additional presentations, and an evening public lecture. Following the tradition of previous Quark Matter meetings, the first day of the conference was dedicated entirely to a special program for young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral researchers). This grant will provided financial support for 235 young physicists facilitating their attendance of the conference.

  18. Strategic career planning for physician-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimaoka, Motomu

    2015-05-01

    Building a successful professional career in the physician-scientist realm is rewarding but challenging, especially in the dynamic and competitive environment of today's modern society. This educational review aims to provide readers with five important career development lessons drawn from the business and social science literatures. Lessons 1-3 describe career strategy, with a focus on promoting one's strengths while minimizing fixing one's weaknesses (Lesson 1); effective time management in the pursuit of long-term goals (Lesson 2); and the intellectual flexibility to abandon/modify previously made decisions while embracing emerging opportunities (Lesson 3). Lesson 4 explains how to maximize the alternative benefits of English-language fluency (i.e., functions such as signaling and cognition-enhancing capabilities). Finally, Lesson 5 discusses how to enjoy happiness and stay motivated in a harsh, zero-sum game society.

  19. Linear functional analysis for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Limaye, Balmohan V

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise and meticulous introduction to functional analysis. Since the topic draws heavily on the interplay between the algebraic structure of a linear space and the distance structure of a metric space, functional analysis is increasingly gaining the attention of not only mathematicians but also scientists and engineers. The purpose of the text is to present the basic aspects of functional analysis to this varied audience, keeping in mind the considerations of applicability. A novelty of this book is the inclusion of a result by Zabreiko, which states that every countably subadditive seminorm on a Banach space is continuous. Several major theorems in functional analysis are easy consequences of this result. The entire book can be used as a textbook for an introductory course in functional analysis without having to make any specific selection from the topics presented here. Basic notions in the setting of a metric space are defined in terms of sequences. These include total boundedness, c...

  20. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  1. Ivan Yakovych Gorbachevsky – Scientist, Patriot, Citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Danilova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the facts about life and research activity of Ivan Ya. Gorbachevsky (1854-1942, the prominent scientist, Ukrainian by origin, doctor of medical sciences, professor, dean of the medical faculty and the rector of Charles University in Prague, member of the health board of the Czech Kingdom, a member of the Supreme Council of Health of Austria-Hungary in Vienna, a lifelong member of the House of Lords of the Austrian Parliament, first health minister of Austria-Hungary, rector of the Ukrainian Free University in Prague, professor of chemistry at the Padebradsk Economic Academy and the Ukrainian Pedagogical Dragomanov University, AUAS member in 1925, member of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. His research works were devoted to digestion of proteins, public and food hygiene. He was the first who synthesized uric acid (1882 and discovered xanthine oxidase (1889.

  2. Climate Change: On Scientists and Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2014-01-01

    Last year, I asked a crowd of a few hundred geoscientists from around the world what positions related to climate science and policy they would be comfortable publicly advocating. I presented a list of recommendations that included increased research funding, greater resources for education, and specific emission reduction technologies. In almost every case, a majority of the audience felt comfortable arguing for them. The only clear exceptions were related to geo-engineering research and nuclear power. I had queried the researchers because the relationship between science and advocacy is marked by many assumptions and little clarity. This despite the fact that the basic question of how scientists can be responsible advocates on issues related to their expertise has been discussed for decades most notably in the case of climate change by the late Stephen Schneider.

  3. Business planning for scientists and engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servo, J.C.; Hauler, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspects of the Commercialization Assistance Project developed by Dawnbreaker for the US Department of Energy. Although there are many books on the market which indicate the desired contents of a business plan, there are none which clearly indicate how to find the needed information. This book focuses on the how of business planning: how to find the needed information; how to keep yourself honest about the market potential; how to develop the plan; how to sell and use the plan.

  4. The Maturation of a Scientist: An Autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizman, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    I was shaped by World War II, years of near starvation as a war refugee, postwar chaos, life in several countries, and relative affluence in later life. The truth is that as I was growing up I wanted to be a writer. My aspirations came to an end when, in order to speed up my graduation from college, I took courses in microbiology. It was my second love at first sight-that of my wife preceded it. I view science as an opportunity to discover the designs in the mosaics of life. What initiates my search of discovery is an observation that makes no sense unless there exists a novel design. Once the design is revealed there is little interest in filling all the gaps. I was fortunate to understand that what lasts are not the scientific reports but rather the generations of scientists whose education I may have influenced.

  5. Quantum Genetic Algorithms for Computer Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lahoz-Beltra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GAs are a class of evolutionary algorithms inspired by Darwinian natural selection. They are popular heuristic optimisation methods based on simulated genetic mechanisms, i.e., mutation, crossover, etc. and population dynamical processes such as reproduction, selection, etc. Over the last decade, the possibility to emulate a quantum computer (a computer using quantum-mechanical phenomena to perform operations on data has led to a new class of GAs known as “Quantum Genetic Algorithms” (QGAs. In this review, we present a discussion, future potential, pros and cons of this new class of GAs. The review will be oriented towards computer scientists interested in QGAs “avoiding” the possible difficulties of quantum-mechanical phenomena.

  6. Scientists for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Transactions of international seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication presents the results of the Second International Seminar 'Scientists for Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons'. The Seminar took place from 11 to 14 October 1994 in Nakhabino Country Club near Moscow. More than 60 specialists from Russia, USA, France, Belgium as well as IAEA and CEU took part in the seminar. Problems of cooperation in the field of nuclear materials accounting, control and safeguards, physical protection of nuclear materials, nuclear export regulations and disarmament control are discussed at the seminar

  7. Communicating Ecology Through Art: What Scientists Think

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Curtis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental issues facing society demand considerable public investment to reverse. However, this investment will only arise if the general community is supportive, and community support is only likely if the issues are widely understood. Scientists often find it difficult to communicate with the general public. The role of the visual and performing arts is often overlooked in this regard, yet the arts have long communicated issues, influenced and educated people, and challenged dominant paradigms. To assess the response of professional ecologists to the role of the arts in communicating science, a series of constructed performances and exhibitions was integrated into the program of a national ecological conference over five days. At the conclusion of the conference, responses were sought from the assembled scientists and research students toward using the arts for expanding audiences to ecological science. Over half the delegates said that elements of the arts program provided a conducive atmosphere for receiving information, encouraged them to reflect on alternative ways to communicate science, and persuaded them that the arts have a role in helping people understand complex scientific concepts. A sizeable minority of delegates (24% said they would consider incorporating the arts in their extension or outreach efforts. Incorporating music, theatre, and dance into a scientific conference can have many effects on participants and audiences. The arts can synthesize and convey complex scientific information, promote new ways of looking at issues, touch people's emotions, and create a celebratory atmosphere, as was evident in this case study. In like manner, the visual and performing arts should be harnessed to help extend the increasingly unpalatable and urgent messages of global climate change science to a lay audience worldwide.

  8. An example of woman scientist in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A.

    2002-12-01

    Although the presence of women in sciences has been increasing in the past few decades in Europe, it remains incredibly low at the top levels. Recent statistics from the European Commission indicate that now women represent 50 per cent of first degree students in many countries. However, the proportion of women at each stage of the scientific career decreases almost linearly, reaching less than 10 per cent at the highest level jobs. From my own experience, I don't think that this results from sexism nor discrimination. Rather, I think that this is a result of complex cultural factors making women subconsciously persuaded that top level jobs are destined to male scientists only. Many women scientists drop the idea of playing a role at high-level research, considering it is a way of exerting power (a matter reserved to men). Others give up the possibility of combining childcare and high level commitments in research. And too many (married women) still find only natural to sacrifice their own scientific ambitions to the benefit of their spouse's career. In this poster, I briefly present my personal experience. I chose to prioritize scientific productivity and expertise versus hierarchical responsibilities. Besides I tried to keep a satisfactory balance between family demand and research involvement. This was indeed facilitated by the French system, which provides substantial support to women's work (nurseries, recreation centers during school holidays, etc.). To my point of view, the most promising way of increasing the number of women at top levels in research is through education and mentality evolution

  9. Building the Next Generation of Earth Scientists: the Deep Carbon Observatory Early Career Scientist Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, K.; Fellowes, J.; Giovannelli, D.; Stagno, V.

    2016-12-01

    Building a network of collaborators and colleagues is a key professional development activity for early career scientists (ECS) dealing with a challenging job market. At large conferences, young scientists often focus on interacting with senior researchers, competing for a small number of positions in leading laboratories. However, building a strong, international network amongst their peers in related disciplines is often as valuable in the long run. The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) began funding a series of workshops in 2014 designed to connect early career researchers within its extensive network of multidisciplinary scientists. The workshops, by design, are by and for early career scientists, thus removing any element of competition and focusing on peer-to-peer networking, collaboration, and creativity. The successful workshops, organized by committees of early career deep carbon scientists, have nucleated a lively community of like-minded individuals from around the world. Indeed, the organizers themselves often benefit greatly from the leadership experience of pulling together an international workshop on budget and on deadline. We have found that a combination of presentations from all participants in classroom sessions, professional development training such as communication and data management, and field-based relationship building and networking is a recipe for success. Small groups within the DCO ECS network have formed; publishing papers together, forging new research directions, and planning novel and ambitious field campaigns. Many DCO ECS also have come together to convene sessions at major international conferences, including the AGU Fall Meeting. Most of all, there is a broad sense of camaraderie and accessibility within the DCO ECS Community, providing the foundation for a career in the new, international, and interdisciplinary field of deep carbon science.

  10. History and Outcomes of 50 Years of Physician-Scientist Training in Medical Scientist Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Clifford V; Akabas, Myles H; Andersen, Olaf S

    2017-10-01

    Physician-scientists are needed to continue the great pace of recent biomedical research and translate scientific findings to clinical applications. MD-PhD programs represent one approach to train physician-scientists. MD-PhD training started in the 1950s and expanded greatly with the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP), launched in 1964 by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the National Institutes of Health. MD-PhD training has been influenced by substantial changes in medical education, science, and clinical fields since its inception. In 2014, NIGMS held a 50th Anniversary MSTP Symposium highlighting the program and assessing its outcomes. In 2016, there were over 90 active MD-PhD programs in the United States, of which 45 were MSTP supported, with a total of 988 trainee slots. Over 10,000 students have received MSTP support since 1964. The authors present data for the demographic characteristics and outcomes for 9,683 MSTP trainees from 1975-2014. The integration of MD and PhD training has allowed trainees to develop a rigorous foundation in research in concert with clinical training. MSTP graduates have had relative success in obtaining research grants and have become prominent leaders in many biomedical research fields. Many challenges remain, however, including the need to maintain rigorous scientific components in evolving medical curricula, to enhance research-oriented residency and fellowship opportunities in a widening scope of fields targeted by MSTP graduates, to achieve greater racial diversity and gender balance in the physician-scientist workforce, and to sustain subsequent research activities of physician-scientists.

  11. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students’ Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments (“Scientist Spotlights”) that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms. PMID:27587856

  12. Supervising Scientist, Annual Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The year under review has seen the resolution of the major issue that has dominated the work of the Supervising Scientist Division over the past three years the review of scientific uncertainties associated with the environmental assessment of the proposal to mine uranium at Jabiluka. The Supervising Scientist prepared a comprehensive report on the risks associated with mining at Jabiluka, which has been under various stages of peer review by an Independent Science Panel (ISP) appointed by the WHC since May 1999. This process culminated in a visit to Australia by the ISP in July 2000 for detailed discussion and assessment and the submission of the final report of the ISP to the World Heritage Committee in September 2000. The report of the ISP was considered at the meeting of the World Heritage Committee in Cairns in December 2000. The Committee reached the conclusion that 'the currently approved proposal for the mine and mill at Jabiluka does not threaten the health of people or the biological and ecological systems of Kakadu National Park that the Mission believed to be at risk'. As a result, the WHC decided not to register Kakadu National Park on the World Heritage List in Danger. But the people of Kakadu themselves remain to be convinced. A major challenge is to gain the confidence of Aboriginal people in the integrity and independence of our scientific assessments and to reduce the concerns that they have for the future of their people and their country. Monitoring of the Jabiluka project was extensive throughout the reporting period. Chemical and biological monitoring programmes of Energy Resources of Australia (ERA) and the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) demonstrated that no adverse impact occurred in downstream aquatic ecosystems. Similarly, radiological measurements close to the nearest population centre demonstrated that radiation exposure of the public due to current operations at Jabiluka is not detectable

  13. Reproducible Bioinformatics Research for Biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the current Big Data problem in Bioinformatics and the resulting issues with performing reproducible computational research. The core of the chapter provides guidelines and summaries of current tools/techniques that a noncomputational researcher would need to learn to pe...

  14. NMR for chemists and biologists

    CERN Document Server

    Carbajo, Rodrigo J

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance or NMR. It presents the basic foundations of NMR in a non-mathematical way and provides an overview of both recent and important biological applications of NMR.

  15. Drought Information Supported by Citizen Scientists (DISCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Maskey, M.; Hain, C.; Meyer, P.; Nair, U. S.; Handyside, C. T.; White, K.; Amin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Each year, drought impacts various regions of the United States on time scales of weeks, months, seasons, or years, which in turn leads to a need to document these impacts and inform key decisions on land management, use of water resources, and disaster response. Mapping impacts allows decision-makers to understand potential damage to agriculture and loss of production, to communicate and document drought impacts on crop yields, and to inform water management decisions. Current efforts to collect this information includes parsing of media reports, collaborations with local extension offices, and partnerships with the National Weather Service cooperative observer network. As part of a NASA Citizen Science for Earth Systems proposal award, a research and applications team from Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and collaborators within the NWS have developed a prototype smartphone application focused on the collection of citizen science observations of crop health and drought impacts, along with development of innovative low-cost soil moisture sensors to supplement subjective assessments of local soil moisture conditions. Observations provided by citizen scientists include crop type and health, phase of growth, soil moisture conditions, irrigation status, along with an optional photo and comment to provide visual confirmation and other details. In exchange for their participation, users of the app also have access to unique land surface modeling data sets produced at MSFC such as the NASA Land Information System soil moisture and climatology/percentile products from the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, assessments of vegetation health and stress from NASA and NOAA remote sensing platforms (e.g. MODIS/VIIRS), outputs from a crop stress model developed at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, recent rainfall estimates from the NOAA/NWS network of ground-based weather radars, and other observations made

  16. Expanding Horizons Teachers and Scientists Collabortaing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teres, A.

    2017-12-01

    As a participant in PolarTrec, I joined the crew of NASA's Operation IceBridge in Greenland for the month of April 2017. As an active member of the team I learned the ins and outs of field research, and I learned about the work done by Operation IceBridge. As a result of participating in this project, I grew as a teacher and a scientist. I took my experiences and shared them with my classroom through stories, pictures, videos, and my lesson plans. By seeing the Artic through my experiences the class became enraptured by the subject matter. I was no longer talking about a distant or abstract place instead I was talking about an experience. This enabled my students to take an active part in the discussion and to feel like the cryosphere was part of their life too. Not only did I learn about the science but I leaned about logistics of field research. I reached out to my community and local communications outlets before and after my trip to Greenland to familiarize whomever I could connect with about my experience. I contacted a local news station and they did an interview with me about my trip. I emailed a local newspaper about my trip and was interviewed before I left and after I returned. Due to the newscast, I was contacted by my college sorority and was interviewed for the sorority's national newsletter which is distributed throughout the United States. Each connection helped to spread the word. I'm continuing to spread the word by volunteering to present my experience to schools throughout Broward County in Florida. I've already connected with teachers and schools to set up my presentation in the calendar. Having these types of experiences is critical for teachers to continue their growth within the scientific field and education. Effective teachers are those not constrained by the walls of their classroom. Having the opportunity to work with scientists and do research in the field has expanded my horizons. The people I met I am still in contact with and I am

  17. [Academician Vladas Lasas -- distinguished Lithuanian scientist, organizer and educator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padegimas, Bernardas; Abraitis, Romualdas

    2002-01-01

    The material of this publication is dedicated to the memory of Professor Vladas Lasas, honored scientist of Lithuania, member of Lithuanian Academy of Sciences and corresponding member of the Academy of Medicine of the USSR. V. Lasas was born on January 13th, 1892, on a farmstead in Rokiskis region, Lithuania. He died on January 2nd, 1966 in Kaunas. V. Lasas studied medicine at the Faculty of Medicine of Tartu (Dorpat) University and graduated from it in 1918. In 1921 he was invited to deliver lectures on physiology at the newly organized Higher Courses in Kaunas. During 1920-1924 he attended higher educational establishments of Prague, Berlin, Lausanne and Paris. In 1924 V. Lasas worked on probation in Lausanne under supervision of famous scientist M. Arthus, the founder of experimental allergy--anaphylaxis, in the field of experimental anaphylaxis, desensibilization, enteral sensibilization and resorption of native albumins, transfer of allergic state from mother to fetus, the role of interoceptors and biologically active substances in the formation and development of anaphylaxis. Over 40 scientific papers were published and 12 doctoral these were maintained, dealing with these problems. From 1924 to 1940 and from 1944 to 1946 V. Lasas acted as dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Kaunas University. During this period he displayed great organizational talent, and on his initiative three basic clinical buildings were built for the Faculty of Medicine. In 1946 V. Lasas was elected as academician and appointed as secretary-in-charge of natural mathematical and applied science of the Academy of Sciences of Lithuania. V. Lasas was the founder and longstanding chairman of the Lithuanian Physiological Society. Alone and with coauthors he has published 16 original textbooks. The list of his bibliography accounts to 229 publications.

  18. ``They probably aren't named Rachel'': Young children's scientist identities as emergent multimodal narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Varelas, Maria; Pappas, Christine C.; Korzh, Alla; Wentland, Ashley

    2007-02-01

    In this research we put forth a theoretical framework that explores the nature and value of multi-modal narratives as a tool for studying young children's conceptions of themselves as scientists as they exist in relation to scientists out in the world. This framework shapes and is shaped by an empirical study that took place within the context of a year-long program that engaged children in integrated science-literacy experiences around two units -- one on matter and one on a forest ecosystem. Thirty-six children were asked twice to draw and discuss two pictures of times they were scientists. We present our findings in two main ways. First, we use case studies of three students (one each in the first, second, and third grade) to show how the various constructs in the theoretical framework come together in the empirical study, and to explore in depth the various ideas that the children revealed. Second, we share a summative descriptive analysis of the differences between the pre and the post interviews. One of the important findings included the increase in the number of pictures from the pre-interview to the post interview in which children represented themselves as scientists (31 to 61). The children also showed themselves and scientists out in the world as engaging in practices with a range of materials, for a variety of purposes, and with particular kinds of epistemological commitments.

  19. Young Earth System Scientists (YESS) Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K. A.; Langendijk, G.; Bahar, F.; Huang-Lachmann, J. T.; Osman, M.; Mirsafa, M.; Sonntag, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Young Earth System Scientists (YESS) community is compiled of early career researchers (including students) coming from a range of scientific backgrounds, spanning both natural and social sciences. YESS unifies young researchers in an influential network to give them a collective voice and leverage within the geosciences community, while supporting career development. The YESS community has used its powerful network to provide a unified perspective on the future of Earth system science (Rauser et al. 2017), to be involved in the organization of international conferences, and to engage with existing international structures that coordinate science. Since its founding in Germany in 2010, the YESS community has grown extensively across the globe, with currently almost 1000 members from over 80 countries, and has become truly interdisciplinary. Recently, the organization has carried elections for Regional Representatives and the Executive Committee as part of its self-sustained governance structure. YESS is ready to continue pioneering crucial areas of research which provide solutions to benefit society for the long-term advancement of Earth system science.

  20. Collaboration and Gender Equity among Academic Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joya Misra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities were established as hierarchical bureaucracies that reward individual attainment in evaluating success. Yet collaboration is crucial both to 21st century science and, we argue, to advancing equity for women academic scientists. We draw from research on gender equity and on collaboration in higher education, and report on data collected on one campus. Sixteen focus group meetings were held with 85 faculty members from STEM departments, separated by faculty rank and gender (i.e., assistant professor men, full professor women. Participants were asked structured questions about the role of collaboration in research, career development, and departmental decision-making. Inductive analyses of focus group data led to the development of a theoretical model in which resources, recognition, and relationships create conditions under which collaboration is likely to produce more gender equitable outcomes for STEM faculty. Ensuring women faculty have equal access to resources is central to safeguarding their success; relationships, including mutual mentoring, inclusion and collegiality, facilitate women’s careers in academia; and recognition of collaborative work bolsters women’s professional advancement. We further propose that gender equity will be stronger in STEM where resources, relationships, and recognition intersect—having multiplicative rather than additive effects.

  1. The first scientist Anaximander and his legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Carlo Rovelli, a leading theoretical physicist, uses the figure of Anaximander as the starting point for an examination of scientific thinking itself: its limits, its strengths, its benefits to humankind, and its controversial relationship with religion. Anaximander, the sixth-century BC Greek philosopher, is often called the first scientist because he was the first to explain that order in the world was due to natural forces, not supernatural ones. He is the first person known to rnunderstand that the Earth floats in space; to believe that the sun, the moon, and the stars rotate around it--seven centuries before Ptolemy; to argue that all animals came from the sea and evolved; and to posit that universal laws rncontrol all change in the world. Anaximander taught Pythagoras, who would build on Anaximander's scientific theories by applying mathematical laws to natural phenomena. rnrnIn the award-winning Anaximander and the Birth of Scientific Thought, Rovelli restores Anaximander to his place in the history of...

  2. Citizen scientist lepidopterists exposed to potential carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Petri J; Vahlberg, Tero; Liesivuori, Jyrki

    2016-05-01

    Lepidopterists use substantial volumes of solvents, such as chloroform, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and xylene, in their traps when collecting faunistic and phenological data. A majority of them are citizen scientists and thus in part not identified by occupational healthcare as being at risk due to solvent handling. We surveyed the extent of solvent use, the frequency and extent of potential exposure and the safety precautions taken in trapping and catch handling by Finnish lepidopterists. Chloroform and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane were the most frequently used anaesthetics. Potential for exposure prevailed during trap maintenance and exploration and catch sorting. Adequate protection against vapours or spills was worn by 17% during trap exploration. Subjects completed a median of 100 trap explorations per season. Dermal or mucosal spills were recorded at a median rate of one spill per ten (chloroform) to 20 (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and xylene) trap explorations. Median annual cumulative durations of 8 and 20 h of exposure to chloroform and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane at levels above odour detection threshold were reported. Subjective adverse findings possibly related solvents had been noticed by 24 (9.8%) lepidopterists. All the events had been mild to moderate. No factor predicting unsafe procedures or adverse reactions was recorded despite thorough statistical testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stephen C. Woods: a precocious scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerard P

    2011-04-18

    To investigate the early scientific development of Steve Woods, I reviewed his research during the first decade after he received his doctoral degree in 1970. The main parts of his research program were conditioned insulin secretion and hypoglycemia, Pavlovian conditioning of insulin secretion before a scheduled access to food, and basal insulin as a negative-feedback signal from fat mass to the brain. These topics were pursued with experimental ingenuity; the resulting publications were interesting, clear, and rhetorically effective. Although the theoretical framework for his experiments with insulin was homeostatic, by the end of the decade he suggested that classic negative-feedback homeostasis needed to be revised to include learning acquired by lifestyle. Thus, Woods functioned as a mature scientist from the beginning of his research-he was very precocious. This precocity also characterized his teaching and mentoring as recalled by two of his students during that time, Joseph Vasselli and Paul Kulkosky. The most unusual and exemplary aspect of his precocity is that the outstanding performance of his first decade was maintained during the subsequent 30years. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  5. Scientists present their design for Einstein Telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    ASPERA Press Release

    2011-01-01

    Plans shape up for a revolutionary new observatory that will explore black holes and the Big Bang. This detector will ‘see’ the Universe in gravitational waves.   A new era in astronomy will come a step closer when scientists from across Europe present their design study today for an advanced observatory capable of making precision measurements of gravitational waves – minute ripples in the fabric of spacetime – predicted to emanate from cosmic catastrophes such as merging black holes and collapsing stars and supernovae. It also offers the potential to probe the earliest moments of the Universe just after the Big Bang, which are currently inaccessible. The Einstein Observatory (ET) is a so-called third-generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector, which will be 100 times more sensitive than current instruments. Like the first two generations of GW detectors, it is based on the measurement of tiny changes (far less than the size of an atomic nucleus) in the le...

  6. Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  7. The physician-scientists: rare species in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefuye, Anthonio Oladele; Adeola, Henry Ademola; Bezuidenhout, Johan

    2018-01-01

    There is paucity of physician-scientists in Africa, resulting in overt dependence of clinical practice on research findings from advanced "first world" countries. Physician-scientists include individuals with a medical degree alone or combined with other advanced degrees (e.g. MD/MBChB and PhD) with a career path in biomedical/ translational and patient-oriented/evaluative science research. The paucity of clinically trained research scientists in Africa could result in dire consequences as exemplified in the recent Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, where shortage of skilled clinical scientists, played a major role in disease progression and mortality. Here we contextualise the role of physician-scientist in health care management, highlight factors limiting the training of physician-scientist in Africa and proffer implementable recommendations to address these factors.

  8. Scientists' Prioritization of Communication Objectives for Public Engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Dudo

    Full Text Available Amid calls from scientific leaders for their colleagues to become more effective public communicators, this study examines the objectives that scientists' report drive their public engagement behaviors. We explore how scientists evaluate five specific communication objectives, which include informing the public about science, exciting the public about science, strengthening the public's trust in science, tailoring messages about science, and defending science from misinformation. We use insights from extant research, the theory of planned behavior, and procedural justice theory to identify likely predictors of scientists' views about these communication objectives. Results show that scientists most prioritize communication designed to defend science from misinformation and educate the public about science, and least prioritize communication that seeks to build trust and establish resonance with the public. Regression analyses reveal factors associated with scientists who prioritize each of the five specific communication objectives. Our findings highlight the need for communication trainers to help scientists select specific communication objectives for particular contexts and audiences.

  9. Familiarity Vs Trust: A Comparative Study of Domain Scientists' Trust in Visual Analytics and Conventional Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aritra; Lee, Joon-Yong; Wilson, Ryan; Lafrance, Robert A; Cramer, Nick; Cook, Kristin; Payne, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Combining interactive visualization with automated analytical methods like statistics and data mining facilitates data-driven discovery. These visual analytic methods are beginning to be instantiated within mixed-initiative systems, where humans and machines collaboratively influence evidence-gathering and decision-making. But an open research question is that, when domain experts analyze their data, can they completely trust the outputs and operations on the machine-side? Visualization potentially leads to a transparent analysis process, but do domain experts always trust what they see? To address these questions, we present results from the design and evaluation of a mixed-initiative, visual analytics system for biologists, focusing on analyzing the relationships between familiarity of an analysis medium and domain experts' trust. We propose a trust-augmented design of the visual analytics system, that explicitly takes into account domain-specific tasks, conventions, and preferences. For evaluating the system, we present the results of a controlled user study with 34 biologists where we compare the variation of the level of trust across conventional and visual analytic mediums and explore the influence of familiarity and task complexity on trust. We find that despite being unfamiliar with a visual analytic medium, scientists seem to have an average level of trust that is comparable with the same in conventional analysis medium. In fact, for complex sense-making tasks, we find that the visual analytic system is able to inspire greater trust than other mediums. We summarize the implications of our findings with directions for future research on trustworthiness of visual analytic systems.

  10. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists Promotes Professional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Allen; Fugmann, Gerlis; Kruse, Frigga

    2014-06-01

    As a partner organization of AGU, the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS; http://www.apecs.is) fully supports the views expressed in Wendy Gordon's Forum article "Developing Scientists' `Soft' Skills" (Eos, 95(6), 55, doi:10.1002/2014EO060003). Her recognition that beyond research skills, people skills and professional training are crucial to the success of any early-career scientist is encouraging.

  11. Advanced energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    An essential resource for scientists designing new energy materials for the vast landscape of solar energy conversion as well as materials processing and characterization Based on the new and fundamental research on novel energy materials with tailor-made photonic properties, the role of materials engineering has been to provide much needed support in the development of photovoltaic devices. Advanced Energy Materials offers a unique, state-of-the-art look at the new world of novel energy materials science, shedding light on the subject's vast multi-disciplinary approach The book focuses p

  12. Young Scientists Discuss Recent Advances, Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a National Academy of Science forum at which a group of outstanding young researchers in astronomy, molecular and developmental biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, atmospheric science, and materials science met for three days of formal presentations and informal conversations. Provides a short synopsis of major speakers. (MVL)

  13. Maximizing the potential of scientists in Japan: promoting equal participation for women scientists through leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Miwako Kato; Motohashi, Reiko; Ohtsubo, Hisako

    2013-07-01

    In order to examine the current status of gender equality in academic societies in Japan, we inquired about the number of women involved in leadership activities at society conferences and annual meetings, as these activities are critical in shaping scientific careers. Our findings show a clear bias against female scientists, and a need to raise consciousness and awareness in order to move closer to equality for future generations. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Scientists vs. Vesuvius: limits of volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato

    2014-05-01

    Recently, Italian newspapers reported the statements of Japanese and American volcanologists which declared the high hazard related to the future occurrence of catastrophic eruption at Vesuvius. Is this a reliable picture from scientific point of view? The evaluation of volcanic hazard is based on a general statistical law for which the chances of an eruptive event increase when energy decreases. This law is constructed on the basis of empirical data. Thus, the possibility that a plinian-like eruption occurs, for each volcano, is rare and further reduced for worst-case scenario. However, empirical data are not supported by a robust scientific theory, experimentally verifiable through an exact forecast of a long-term eruption, both in time limits and in energy. Today, the lack of paradigms able to predict in a deterministic way such a complex phenomena, limit the field of the scientists that cannot go further evaluations of a purely probabilistic nature. From this point of view volcanology cannot be considered an hard quantitative Science. The declaration according to which Vesuvius, sooner or later, will produce a catastrophic eruption, yet apparently obvious if we consider the very high degree of urbanization, is not supported by any experimentally verifiable theory. Therefore, the statement according to which Vesuvius next eruptive event will be catastrophic is false. In probabilistic terms, it is actually the least possible scenario. Recognizing the cognitive limits in this research field means to encourage research itself towards the determination of more solid paradigms, in order to get more exact forecasts about such complex phenomena. The scientific compromise of defining risk scenarios, rather than deterministic evaluations about future eruptive events, precisely reflects the limits of research that have to be contemplated even by Civil Protection. Having considered these limits, every risk scenario, even the most conservative, will be ineffective in

  15. Access to scientific publications: the scientist's perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegor Voronin

    , subscriptions do not provide access to the full range of HIV vaccine research literature. Access to papers through subscriptions is complemented by a variety of other means, including emailing corresponding authors, joint affiliations, use of someone else's login information and posting requests on message boards. This complex picture makes it difficult to assess the real ability of scientists to access literature, but the observed differences in access levels between institutions suggest an unlevel playing field, in which some researchers have to spend more efforts than others to obtain the same information.

  16. Proceedings of international conference of young scientists 'Ecological problems of XXI century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, A.A.; Chudakov, V.A.

    1999-11-01

    Now various ecological problems are rather topical practically for all fields of human activity. The amplification artificial influences on various ecosystems leads to modification and violation of their integrity. Therefore investigations of scientists in different fields are directed to study of both various aspects of ecology and correlation of natural singularities of ecosystems with activity of a man, and also directed to search of paths of environment rehabilitation etc. The present publication represents the collection of materials of a scientific conference of the young scientists, which was organized by Ministry for Education of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of International Sakharov Ecological University (Minsk, Republic of Belarus). The ecological problems were viewed on the following directions: ecology, radioecology, ecological monitoring, ecological information systems, eco priority power engineering, eco biology, medical ecology, molecular medicine, social ecology. The materials of a conference are intended for wide circle of the experts occupied with scientific and practical activity

  17. Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Scientists: Images and Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The masculine image of scientists as elderly men wearing white coats and glasses, working alone in the laboratory has been documented since the 1950s. Because it is important that teacher candidates have a scientifically literate image of scientists due to the impact they have on their future students, this investigation is salient. This study…

  18. Scientist-Image Stereotypes: The Relationships among Their Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçam, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine primary school students' scientist-image stereotypes by considering the relationships among indicators. A total of 877 students attending Grades 6 and 7 in Düzce, Turkey participated in this study. The Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) was implemented during the 2013-2014 academic year to determine students' images…

  19. The Voice of Women Scientists in EU Research Policy (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia

    2009-04-01

    The European Platform of Women Scientists (www.epws.org) is an umbrella organization bringing together networks of women scientists and organisations committed to gender equality in research in all disciplines all over Europe and the countries associated to the European Union's Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development. The goals of EPWS and its activities are presented.

  20. Russian scientists make desperate plea to save nuclear institute

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Scientists from a Russian nuclear research institute recently held a news conference in Moscow to publicize their work on a revolutionary new type of nuclear reactor. However, it transpired that the scientists were worried about their institute being closed down, and saw the news conference as an opportunity to draw attention to their plight (1 page).

  1. Continuous professional training of medical laboratory scientists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Training and re-training of healthcare workers is pivotal to improved service delivery. Objective. To determine the proportion of practising medical laboratory scientists with in-service training in Benin City, Nigeria and areas covered by these programmes. Methods. Medical laboratory scientists from Benin City ...

  2. NREL Scientists Model Methane-Eating Bacteria | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists Model Methane-Eating Bacteria News Release: NREL Scientists Model Methane-Eating Bacteria February 13, 2018 Nature is full of surprises - not to mention solutions. A research team ) recently explored the possibilities provided by the natural world by researching how the bacteria

  3. The Use of Internet by Academic Scientists in Modibbo Adama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The internet is an important tool for communication and retrieval of information. This study examined the use of internet in communication and retrieval of information by scientists in Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola.The survey method was used for the study. A total of 95 scientists in the school of pure and ...

  4. Thinking like a scientist: innateness as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Samuels, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of innateness appears in systematic research within cognitive science, but it also appears in less systematic modes of thought that long predate the scientific study of the mind. The present studies therefore explore the relationship between the properly scientific uses of this concept and its role in ordinary folk understanding. Studies 1-4 examined the judgments of people with no specific training in cognitive science. Results showed (a) that judgments about whether a trait was innate were not affected by whether or not the trait was learned, but (b) such judgments were impacted by moral considerations. Study 5 looked at the judgments of both non-scientists and scientists, in conditions that encouraged either thinking about individual cases or thinking about certain general principles. In the case-based condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of moral considerations but little impact of learning. In the principled condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of learning but little impact of moral considerations. These results suggest that both non-scientists and scientists are drawn to a conception of innateness that differs from the one at work in contemporary scientific research but that they are also both capable of 'filtering out' their initial intuitions and using a more scientific approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Who believes in the storybook image of the scientist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, C.L S; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the 'storybook image of the

  6. "Star Wars" on Campus: Scientists Debate the Wisdom of SDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Jean

    1987-01-01

    President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative is opposed by many university scientists, but government officials have no problem placing research contracts. Specific arrangements and personal opinions are cited, and the text of the Star Wars Petition signed by 6,500 faculty and graduate student scientists is included. (MSE)

  7. Assessing the bibliometric productivity of forest scientists in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giannetti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the Italian Ministry of University and Research issued new evaluation protocols to select candidates for University professorships and assess the bibliometric productivity of Universities and Research Institutes based on bibliometric indicators, i.e. scientific paper and citation numbers and the h-index. Under this framework, the objective of this study was to quantify the bibliometric productivity of the Italian forest research community during the 2002-2012 period. We examined the following productivity parameters: (i the bibliometric productivity under the Forestry subject category at the global level; (ii compared the aggregated bibliometric productivity of Italian forest scientists with scientists from other countries; (iii analyzed publication and citation temporal trends of Italian forest scientists and their international collaborations; and (iv characterized productivity distribution among Italian forest scientists at different career levels. Results indicated the following: (i the UK is the most efficient country based on the ratio between Gross Domestic Spending (GDS on Research and Development (R&D and bibliometric productivity under the Forestry subject category, followed by Italy; (ii Italian forest scientist productivity exhibited a significant positive time trend, but was characterized by high inequality across authors; (iii one-half of the Italian forest scientist publications were written in collaboration with foreign scientists; (iv a strong relationship exists between bibliometric indicators calculated by WOS and SCOPUS, suggesting these two databases have the same potential to evaluate the forestry research community; and (v self-citations did not significantly affect the rank of Italian forest scientists.

  8. The immoral landscape? Scientists are associated with violations of morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjens, B.T.; Heine, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Do people think that scientists are bad people? Although surveys find that science is a highly respected profession, a growing discourse has emerged regarding how science is often judged negatively. We report ten studies (N = 2328) that investigated morality judgments of scientists and compared

  9. Who Believes in the Storybook Image of the Scientist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Hartgerink, Chris H J; van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2017-01-01

    Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the “storybook image of the

  10. Representations of scientists in high school biology textbooks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van M.W.; Roth, W.-M.

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: High school students’ images of scientists are reported as being stereotypic and narrow. We investigated in this study the potential of science textbooks to mediate the emergence of such images. We selected evidence for how ten noted scientists are represented in four widely used high

  11. Attitudes and working conditions of ICES advisory scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

    2009-01-01

    give a fuller picture. One important task is to compare the experience of fisheries scientists who are more involved in the advice generation system with that of their colleagues who are less involved. Most of the tables draw comparisons between scientists who work for different kinds of employers...

  12. Relations between scientists and government: the case of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J E

    1982-05-01

    This article discusses the role and influence of the scientific communities in less-developed countries (LDC) on national high-technology policy by examining the particular case of nuclear energy. This area has been largely overlooked by other literature on LDC's scientific development. Based on an examination of scientific involvement in nuclear energy policy in selected countries, it becomes clear that the influence of scientists can range from making cardinal decisions about programs to simply legitimating or implementing decisions made by political or bureaucratic leaders. Within governmental structures, there are opportunities for scientists to incrementally shape technology policies, despite the fact that the magnitude of this influence is circumscribed by domestic considerations, not only of physical resources, but also intangibles such as national prestige and security. While a scientist can on rare occasion seize opportunities to dramatically restructure a nation's scientific or nuclear program, the overwhelming majority of scientists never exercise any such power. But even in day-to-day operations of government scientists can exert subtle influence, not only on nuclear energy programs, but also in an indirect way on the fabric of a nation's culture. Despite this significant impact, in any direct contest between the scientist and the politician, the scientist inevitably loses. In conclusion, scientists seem much more aware of their limitations rather than their potential to influence national technology policy, and tend to act in accord with priorities and goals as defined by their nation-state. 18 references.

  13. Of Science and Scientists an Anthology of Anecdotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothare, A. N.

    Although a lot is available in the form of biographies and writings of scientists, very little information is found on what made them not only great discoverers but humane too, blessed with humour, humility and humanism. This book helps to convey this very aspect of scientists who while being involved in their unique adventure are like us, the lesser mortals.

  14. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  15. The Media: The Image of the Scientist is Bad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Many individuals are concerned with the erroneous image of science and scientists that is given to the public by the media. To improve the situation, it is suggested that individuals and organizations protest to movie studios and networks when inaccuracies appear and when scientists are portrayed in a denigrating manner. (Author/MA)

  16. Berkeley Lab - Materials Sciences Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    , which aims to showcase some of the latest material science and metallurgy content published in the Synthesis Condensed Matter and Materials Physics Scattering and Instrumentation Science Centers Center for intrinsically consist of atomic rotation Scientists Discover Material Ideal for Smart Photovoltaic Windows A

  17. Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Crista Marie

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed

  18. Search, access and dissemination of scientific information from scientists, social scientists and humanists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Lima Leite

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of study on the characteristics of search activities, access to and use of information, and dissemination habits of researchers from scientific research institutes. From the methodological point of view, it is a mixed methods study which adopted the concurrent triangulation strategy. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and checklist, and then submitted to statistical and text analysis. The research sphere was consisted of researchers linked to the research units of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, and the sample basis were the researchers of the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF and Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences (MAST. Among other aspects, the findings shows that the safeguarded their disciplinary differences, search, access and communication activities, regardless of the knowledge area, occurring mainly in the digital environment; communication habits are stimulated by motives common to scientists and social scientists and humanists, share knowledge and visibility are the main reasons for the dissemination of research results, physicists are naturally within the open access context.

  19. A systems engineering primer for every engineer and scientist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, William R.

    2001-12-10

    The Systems Engineering (SE) staff at LBNL has generated the following artifacts to assist projects with implementing a systems approach: (1) The present document that focuses on the what, why, and when of SE. It also provides a simple case-study to illustrate several SE tasks. (2) A web site with primary emphasis on the project life-cycle and workflow, (http://www-eng.LBNL.gov/Systems/index.html). It includes: SE guidelines and principles; A list of in-house tools; Templates; Case studies with ''how to'' examples; and Links to useful SE material. These sources are living documents to be updated as necessary. The viewpoint adopted in this document is that what LBNL engineers and scientists need is a set of principles and guiding practices for developing R and D systems rather than a ''cookbook''. There are many excellent ''how to'' resources such as the ''INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook'' to guide those in search of more details. The SE staff is another resource available to consult and support projects. This document specifies SE principles and activities that are applicable to all LBNL projects independent of their specific differences. Each project should tailor the SE implementation to meet its individual needs and culture including project-specific resources, procedures, products, and tools.

  20. Semiconductors: Still a Wide Open Frontier for Scientists/Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, David G.

    1997-10-01

    A 1995 Business Week article described several features of the explosive use of semiconductor chips today: ``Booming'' personal computer markets are driving high demand for microprocessors and memory chips; (2) New information superhighway markets will `ignite' sales of multimedia and communication chips; and (3) Demand for digital-signal-processing and data-compression chips, which speed up video and graphics, is `red hot.' A Washington Post article by Stan Hinden said that technology is creating an unstoppable demand for electronic elements. This ``digital pervasiveness'' means that a semiconductor chip is going into almost every high-tech product that people buy - cars, televisions, video recorders, telephones, radios, alarm clocks, coffee pots, etc. ``Semiconductors are everywhere.'' Silicon and compound semiconductors are absolutely essential and are pervasive enablers for DoD operations and systems. DoD's Critical Technologies Plan of 1991 says that ``Semiconductor materials and microelectronics are critically important and appropriately lead the list of critical defense technologies.'' These trends continue unabated. This talk describes some of the frontiers of semiconductors today and shows how scientists and engineers can effectively contribute to its advancement. Cooperative, multidisciplinary efforts are increasing. Specific examples will be given for scanning capacitance microscopy and thin-film metrology.

  1. A systems engineering primer for every engineer and scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, William R.

    2001-01-01

    The Systems Engineering (SE) staff at LBNL has generated the following artifacts to assist projects with implementing a systems approach: (1) The present document that focuses on the what, why, and when of SE. It also provides a simple case-study to illustrate several SE tasks. (2) A web site with primary emphasis on the project life-cycle and workflow, (http://www-eng.LBNL.gov/Systems/index.html). It includes: SE guidelines and principles; A list of in-house tools; Templates; Case studies with ''how to'' examples; and Links to useful SE material. These sources are living documents to be updated as necessary. The viewpoint adopted in this document is that what LBNL engineers and scientists need is a set of principles and guiding practices for developing R and D systems rather than a ''cookbook''. There are many excellent ''how to'' resources such as the ''INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook'' to guide those in search of more details. The SE staff is another resource available to consult and support projects. This document specifies SE principles and activities that are applicable to all LBNL projects independent of their specific differences. Each project should tailor the SE implementation to meet its individual needs and culture including project-specific resources, procedures, products, and tools

  2. Scientists' perspectives on the ethical issues of stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Holly; Schuppli, Catherine A; Preto, Nina; Lafrenière, Darquise; McDonald, Michael

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes findings from an ethics education project funded by the Canadian Stem Cell Network (SCN). The project is part of a larger research initiative entitled "The Stem Cell Research Environment: Drawing the Evidence and Experience Together". The ethics education study began with a series of focus groups with SCN researchers and trainees as part of a "needs assessment" effort. The purpose of these discussions was to identify the main ethical issues associated with stem cell (SC) research from the perspective of the stem cell community. This paper will focus on five prominent themes that emerged from the focus group data including: (1) the source of stem cells; (2) the power of stem cells; (3) working within a charged research environment; (4) the regulatory context; and (5) ethics training for scientists. Additional discussions are planned with others involved in Canadian stem cell research (e.g., research ethics board members, policy makers) to supplement initial findings. These assessment results combined with existing bioethics literature will ultimately inform a web-based ethics education module for the SCN. We believe that our efforts are important for those analyzing the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) in this area because our in depth understanding of stem cell researcher perspectives will enable us to develop more relevant and effective education material, which in turn should help SC researchers address the important ethical challenges in their area.

  3. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students' Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms. © 2016 J. N. Schinske et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Managing scientists leadership strategies in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Sapienza, Alice M

    1995-01-01

    Managing Scientists Leadership Strategies in Research and Development Alice M. Sapienza "I found ...this book to be exciting ...Speaking as someone who has spent 30 years grappling with these issues, I certainly would be a customer." -Robert I. Taber, PhD Senior Vice President of Research & Development Synaptic Pharmaceutical Corporation In today's climate of enormous scientific and technologic competition, it is more crucial than ever that scientists involved in research and development be managed well. Often trained as individual researchers, scientists can find integration into teams difficult. Managers, from both scientific and nonscientific backgrounds, who are responsible for these teams frequently find effective team building a long and challenging process. Managing Scientists offers strategies for fostering communication and collaboration among scientists. It shows how to build cohesive, productive, and focused teams to succeed in the competitive research and development marketplace. This book wil...

  5. British scientists and the Manhattan Project: the Los Alamos years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK)

  6. The Dilemma of Scientists in the Nuclear Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1982-01-01

    Scientists have made possible the nuclear arms race. The cases of some of the individual scientists are discussed. Most scientists on military work were and are not only justifying their work, but they are enjoying their lives. A general strike of the military scientists against the arms race is an illusion. A pragmatic approach to the problem is need. In any case it is imperative that concerned scientists concentrate on the struggle against the threat of nuclear war. They must interact with the people at large, especially the people in the mass organizations, and help them to judge the situation and to evolve suitable countermeasures. A few words are said about the possibility of world government. (author)

  7. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichit Sharma

    Full Text Available The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture

  8. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parichit; Mantri, Shrikant S

    2014-01-01

    The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC) clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture, explain design

  9. An evolutionary cosmology for scientists--and the modern world in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    I believe that people will not feel comfortable and positive about the contemporary world until we can endorse and believe an evolutionary cosmology which is appropriate to modern conditions. A cosmology is a mythical account of the universe as it presents itself to the human mind; it needs to be poetic, symbolic, inspiring of a sense of awe and mystery. Furthermore, a complete cosmology should include the three levels of macro-, meso- and micro-cosm, in order to understand the nature of the universe, human society, and the individual's relation to them. Traditional cosmologies described an eternal underlying structure to ultimate reality--a static ideal state towards which the world ought to gravitate. However, modern life is characterized by rapid growth, novelty, destruction and fluidity of all kinds of structures, a feature which traditional static cosmologies interpret negatively and pessimistically. A modern cosmology therefore needs to be focused on underlying dynamic process instead of structure and stasis. Biologists are better placed than many to appreciate a cosmology based on evolutionary change; because this is the mainstream understanding of adaptation and diversity in the natural world. The same dynamic, neophiliac and open-ended process of 'creative destruction' can be seen at work in science, economics, and modern spirituality. But a modern cosmology will only be experienced as both deep and spontaneous when it takes the form of a mythic account that is first encountered and assimilated during childhood. Since myths arise as a consequence of human creativity; there is a vital future mythogenic role for artists in the realm of ideas, images and stories: people such as mystics, poets and philosophers--including, I hope and expect, creatively inspired scientists.

  10. Proceedings of international conference of leading specialists, young scientists and students 'Ecological problems of XXI century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, A.A.

    2002-05-01

    The present publication represents the collection of materials of a scientific conference of the leading specialists, young scientists and students, which was organized by Ministry for Education of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of International A. Sakharov Environmental University (Minsk, Republic of Belarus). The ecological problems were viewed on the following directions: ecology, radioecology, ecological monitoring, ecological information systems, eco priority power engineering, eco biology, medical ecology, molecular medicine, social ecology

  11. Science and Exploration in the Classroom & Beyond: An Interdisciplinary STEAM Curriculum Developed by SSERVI Educators & Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tracy M.; Runyon, Cassandra; Cynthia, Hall; Britt, Daniel; Tracy Becker

    2017-10-01

    Through NASA’s Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), the Center for Lunar and Asteroid Surface Science (CLASS) and the SSERVI Evolution and Environment of Exploration Destinations (SEEED) nodes have developed an interdisciplinary formal and informal hands-on curriculum to bring the excitement of space exploration directly to the students.With a focus on exploring asteroids, this 5-year effort has infused art with traditional STEM practices (creating STEAM) and provides teachers with learning materials to incorporate art, social studies, English language arts, and other courses into the lesson plans. The formal curricula being developed follows Next Generation Standards and incorporates effective and engaging pedagogical strategies, such as problem-based learning (PBL), design thinking, and document based questions, using authentic data and articles, some of which are produced by the SSERVI scientists. From the materials developed for the formal education component, we have built up a collection of informal activities of varying lengths (minutes to weeks-long programs) to be used by museums, girl and boy scouts, science camps, etc.The curricula are being developed by formal and informal educators, artists, storytellers, and scientists. The continual feedback between the educators, artists, and scientists enables the program to evolve and mature such that the material will be accessible to the students without losing scientific merit. Online components will allow students to interact with SSERVI scientists and will ultimately infuse ongoing, exciting research into the student’s lessons.Our Education & Public Engagement (EPE) program makes a strong effort to make educational material accessible to all learners, including those with visual or hearing impairments. Specific activities have been included or independently developed to give all students an opportunity to experience the excitement of the universe.

  12. Scientist-teacher collaboration: Integration of real data from a coastal wetland into a high school life science ecology-based research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Wendy L.

    Project G.R.O.W. is an ecology-based research project developed for high school biology students. The curriculum was designed based on how students learn and awareness of the nature of science and scientific practices so that students would design and carry out scientific investigations using real data from a local coastal wetland. This was a scientist-teacher collaboration between a CSULB biologist and high school biology teacher. Prior to implementing the three-week research project, students had multiple opportunities to practice building requisite skills via 55 lessons focusing on the nature of science, scientific practices, technology, Common Core State Standards of reading, writing, listening and speaking, and Next Generation Science Standards. Project G.R.O.W. culminated with student generated research papers and oral presentations. Outcomes reveal students struggle with constructing explanations and the use of Excel to create meaningful graphs. They showed gains in data organization, analysis, teamwork and aspects of the nature of science.

  13. Development and Field Test of the Modified Draw-a-Scientist Test and the Draw-a-Scientist Rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farland-Smith, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Even long before children are able to verbalize which careers may be interesting to them, they collect and store ideas about scientists. For these reasons, asking children to draw a scientist has become an accepted method to provide a glimpse into how children represent and identify with those in the science fields. Years later, these…

  14. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students' Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical…

  15. Teaching graduate students The Art of Being a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel

    2011-03-01

    Graduate education in the classroom traditionally focuses on disciplinary topics, with non-disciplinary skills only marginally discussed, if at all, between graduate student and adviser. Given the wide range of advisers with different types and quality of communication skill (or lack thereof), the professional coaching delivered to students often is restricted to just the technical aspects of research. Yet graduate students have a great need to receive professional training aimed at, among other things, helping their graduate career be more efficient, less frustrating and less needlessly time-consuming. We have addressed this gap in graduate education by developing the one-credit course ``The Art of Being a Scientist.'' This course covers a diverse range of topics of importance to being an effective and creative researcher. Topics covered include the following: What is science? Choosing a research topic, department, and adviser. The adviser and thesis committee. Making a work plan. Setting goals. Ethics of research. Using the scientific literature. Perfecting oral and written communication. Publishing papers and writing proposals. Managing time effectively. Planning a scientific career. Applying for jobs in academia or industry. In evaluations of the course, students invariably comment that they could have avoided significant problems in their graduate study and saved valuable time if they would have taken the course earlier on. This is an indication that the course not only useful for students, but also that it is best taken early in a their graduate career. The material covered in the course is captured in the book ``The Art of Being a Scientist: A Guide for Graduate Students and Their Mentors,'' published by Cambridge University Press; more information can be found at: www.mines.edu/~rsnieder/Art_of_Science.html From this website one can download a description of the curriculum used in the class, including homework exercises. Currently we are expanding of

  16. Reciprocal Engagement Between a Scientist and Visual Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Michelle Maria

    In this study the focus of investigation was the reciprocal engagement between a professional scientist and the visual displays with which he interacted. Visual displays are considered inextricable from everyday scientific endeavors and their interpretation requires a "back-and-forthness" between the viewers and the objects being viewed. The query that drove this study was: How does a scientist engage with visual displays during the explanation of his understanding of extremely small biological objects? The conceptual framework was based in embodiment where the scientist's talk, gesture, and body position were observed and microanalyzed. The data consisted of open-ended interviews that positioned the scientist to interact with visual displays when he explained the structure and function of different sub-cellular features. Upon microanalyzing the scientist's talk, gesture, and body position during his interactions with two different visual displays, four themes were uncovered: Naming, Layering, Categorizing, and Scaling . Naming occurred when the scientist added markings to a pre-existing, hand-drawn visual display. The markings had meaning as stand-alone label and iconic symbols. Also, the markings transformed the pre-existing visual display, which resulted in its function as a new visual object. Layering occurred when the scientist gestured over images so that his gestures aligned with one or more of the image's features, but did not touch the actual visual display. Categorizing occurred when the scientist used contrasting categories, e.g. straight vs. not straight, to explain his understanding about different characteristics that the small biological objects held. Scaling occurred when the scientist used gesture to resize an image's features so that they fit his bodily scale. Three main points were drawn from this study. First, the scientist employed a variety of embodied strategies—coordinated talk, gesture, and body position—when he explained the structure

  17. Involving Practicing Scientists in K-12 Science Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Science Teacher Education Program (STEP) offered a unique framework for creating professional development courses focused on Arctic research from 2006-2009. Under the STEP framework, science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training was delivered by teams of practicing Arctic researchers in partnership with master teachers with 20+ years experience teaching STEM content in K-12 classrooms. Courses based on the framework were offered to educators across Alaska. STEP offered in-person summer-intensive institutes and follow-on audio-conferenced field-test courses during the academic year, supplemented by online scientist mentorship for teachers. During STEP courses, teams of scientists offered in-depth STEM content instruction at the graduate level for teachers of all grade levels. STEP graduate-level training culminated in the translation of information and data learned from Arctic scientists into standard-aligned lessons designed for immediate use in K-12 classrooms. This presentation will focus on research that explored the question: To what degree was scientist involvement beneficial to teacher training and to what degree was STEP scientist involvement beneficial to scientist instructors? Data sources reveal consistently high levels of ongoing (4 year) scientist and teacher participation; high STEM content learning outcomes for teachers; high STEM content learning outcomes for students; high ratings of STEP courses by scientists and teachers; and a discussion of the reasons scientists indicate they benefited from STEP involvement. Analyses of open-ended comments by teachers and scientists support and clarify these findings. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze teacher and scientist qualitative feedback. Comments were coded and patterns analyzed in three databases. The vast majority of teacher open-ended comments indicate that STEP involvement improved K-12 STEM classroom instruction, and the vast majority of scientist open-ended comments

  18. Real Science, Real Learning: Bridging the Gap Between Scientists, Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Today as never before, America needs its citizens to be literate in science and technology. Not only must we only inspire a new generation of scientists and engineers and technologists, we must foster a society capable of meeting complex, 21st-century challenges. Unfortunately, the need for creative, flexible thinkers is growing at a time when our young students are lagging in science interest and performance. Over the past 17 years, the JASON Project has worked to link real science and scientists to the classroom. This link provide viable pipeline to creating the next generation scientists and researchers. Ultimately, JASON's mission is to improve the way science is taught by enabling students to learn directly from leading scientists. Through partnerships with agencies such as NOAA and NASA, JASON creates multimedia classroom products based on current scientific research. Broadcasts of science expeditions, hosted by leading researchers, are coupled with classroom materials that include interactive computer-based simulations, video- on-demand, inquiry-based experiments and activities, and print materials for students and teachers. A "gated" Web site hosts online resources and provides a secure platform to network with scientists and other classrooms in a nationwide community of learners. Each curriculum is organized around a specific theme for a comprehensive learning experience. It may be taught as a complete package, or individual components can be selected to teach specific, standards-based concepts. Such thematic units include: Disappearing Wetlands, Mysteries of Earth and Mars, and Monster Storms. All JASON curriculum units are grounded in "inquiry-based learning." The highly interactive curriculum will enable students to access current, real-world scientific research and employ the scientific method through reflection, investigation, identification of problems, sharing of data, and forming and testing hypotheses. JASON specializes in effectively applying

  19. Scientists versus regulators: precaution, novelty & regulatory oversight as predictors of perceived risks of engineered nanomaterials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E H Beaudrie

    Full Text Available Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of 'nano experts' to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404 of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches, and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development.

  20. To Boldly Go: Practical Career Advice for Young Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, P.

    1998-05-01

    Young scientists in nearly every field are finding the job market of the 1990's a confusing and frustrating place. Ph.D. supply is far larger than that needed to fill entry-level positions in "traditional" research careers. More new Ph.D. and Master's degree holders are considering a wider range of careers in and out of science, but feel ill-prepared and uninformed about their options. Some feel their Ph.D. training has led them to a dead-end. I present a thorough and practical overview to the process of career planning and job hunting in the 1990's, from the perspective of a young scientist. I cover specific steps that young scientists can take to broaden their horizons, strengthen their skills, and present their best face to potential employers. An important part of this is the realization that most young scientists possess a range of valuable "transferable skills" that are highly sought after by employers in and out of science. I will summarize the specifics of job hunting in the 90's, including informational interviewing, building your network, developing a compelling CV and resume, cover letters, interviewing, based on my book "To Boldly Go: A Practical Career Guide for Scientists". I will also identify other resources available for young scientists. Finally, I will highlight individual stories of Ph.D.-trained scientists who have found exciting and fulfilling careers outside the "traditional" world of academia.

  1. Scientists as role models in space science outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D.

    The direct participation of scientists significantly enhances the impact of any E/PO effort. This is particularly true when the scientists come from minority or traditionally under-represented groups and, consequently, become role models for a large number of students while presenting positive counter-examples to the usual stereotypes. In this paper I will discuss the impact of scientists as role models through the successful implementation of a set of space physics games and activities, called Solar Week. Targetted at middle-school girls, the key feature of Solar Week is the "Ask a Scientist" section enabling direct interaction between participating students and volunteer scientists. All of the contributing scientists are women, serving as experts in their field and providing role models to whom the students can relate. Solar Week has completed four sessions with a total of some 140 edcuators and 12,000+ students in over 28 states and 9 countries. A major success of the Solar Week program has been the ability of the students to learn more about the scientists as people, through online biographies, and to discuss a variety of topics ranging from science, to careers and common hobbies.

  2. Scientists' perspectives on consent in the context of biobanking research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    Most bioethics studies have focused on capturing the views of patients and the general public on research ethics issues related to informed consent for biobanking and only a handful of studies have examined the perceptions of scientists. Capturing the opinions of scientists is important because they are intimately involved with biobanks as collectors and users of samples and health information. In this study, we performed interviews with scientists followed by qualitative analysis to capture the diversity of perspectives on informed consent. We found that the majority of scientists in our study reported their preference for a general consent approach although they do not believe there to be a consensus on consent type. Despite their overall desire for a general consent model, many reported several concerns including donors needing some form of assurance that nothing unethical will be done with their samples and information. Finally, scientists reported mixed opinions about incorporating exclusion clauses in informed consent as a means of limiting some types of contentious research as a mechanism to assure donors that their samples and information are being handled appropriately. This study is one of the first to capture the views of scientists on informed consent in biobanking. Future studies should attempt to generalize findings on the perspectives of different scientists on informed consent for biobanking.

  3. Mentors, networks, and resources for early career female atmospheric scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.; Edwards, L. M.; Thiry, H.; Ascent

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric Science Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) is a workshop series designed to bring together early career female scientists in the field of atmospheric science and related disciplines. ASCENT is a multi-faceted approach to retaining these junior scientists through the challenges in their research and teaching career paths. During the workshop, senior women scientists discuss their career and life paths. They also lead seminars on tools, resources and methods that can help early career scientists to be successful. Networking is a significant aspect of ASCENT, and many opportunities for both formal and informal interactions among the participants (of both personal and professional nature) are blended in the schedule. The workshops are held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, home of a high-altitude atmospheric science laboratory - Storm Peak Laboratory, which also allows for nearby casual outings and a pleasant environment for participants. Near the conclusion of each workshop, junior and senior scientists are matched in mentee-mentor ratios of two junior scientists per senior scientist. An external evaluation of the three workshop cohorts concludes that the workshops have been successful in establishing and expanding personal and research-related networks, and that seminars have been useful in creating confidence and sharing resources for such things as preparing promotion and tenure packages, interviewing and negotiating job offers, and writing successful grant proposals.

  4. Scientist's Perceptions of Uncertainty During Discussions of Global Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, S.; Fortner, R.; Dervin, B.

    2003-04-01

    This research examines the nature of disagreements between natural and social scientists during discussions of global climate change. In particular, it explores whether the disagreements between natural and social scientists are related to the ontological, epistemological, or methodological nature of the uncertainty of global climate change during these discussions. A purposeful sample of 30 natural and social scientists recognized as experts in global climate change by the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and National Academies Committee on Global Change were interviewed to elicit their perceptions of disagreements during their three most troublesome discussions on global climate change. A mixed-method (qualitative plus quantitative research) approach with three independent variables was used to explore nature of uncertainty as a mediating variable in the relationships between academic training, level of sureness, level of knowledge, and position on global climate change, and the nature of disagreements and bridging strategies of natural and social scientists (Patton, 1997; Frechtling et al., 1997). This dissertation posits that it is the differences in the nature of uncertainty communicated by natural and social scientists and not sureness, knowledge, and position on global climate change that causes disagreements between the groups. By describing the nature of disagreements between natural and social scientists and illuminating bridging techniques scientists use during these disagreements, it is hoped that information collected from this research will create a better dialogue between the scientists studying global climate change by providing communication strategies which will allow those versed in one particular area to speak to non-experts whether they be other scientists, media officials, or the public. These tangible strategies can then be used by government agencies to create better communications and education plans, which can

  5. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-03-01

    On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from socialism as found in the real world (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal.Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality

  6. Applied complex variables for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, Yue Kuen

    2010-01-01

    This introduction to complex variable methods begins by carefully defining complex numbers and analytic functions, and proceeds to give accounts of complex integration, Taylor series, singularities, residues and mappings. Both algebraic and geometric tools are employed to provide the greatest understanding, with many diagrams illustrating the concepts introduced. The emphasis is laid on understanding the use of methods, rather than on rigorous proofs. Throughout the text, many of the important theoretical results in complex function theory are followed by relevant and vivid examples in physical sciences. This second edition now contains 350 stimulating exercises of high quality, with solutions given to many of them. Material has been updated and additional proofs on some of the important theorems in complex function theory are now included, e.g. the Weierstrass–Casorati theorem. The book is highly suitable for students wishing to learn the elements of complex analysis in an applied context.

  7. The Current Situation of Female Scientists in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llois, Ana María; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2009-04-01

    We report the changes that have taken place recently regarding the situation of female scientists in Argentina. We comment on the rules for maternity leave that have been passed recently for research scholars doing their PhDs and on the number of women scientists that occupy decision making-positions in science. We also present some evidence that seems to indicate that, among young scientists, women are more willing to occupy leadership positions and that the Argentinean society is more accepting of this new role.

  8. The subjectivity of scientists and the Bayesian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Press, James S

    2001-01-01

    Comparing and contrasting the reality of subjectivity in the work of history's great scientists and the modern Bayesian approach to statistical analysisScientists and researchers are taught to analyze their data from an objective point of view, allowing the data to speak for themselves rather than assigning them meaning based on expectations or opinions. But scientists have never behaved fully objectively. Throughout history, some of our greatest scientific minds have relied on intuition, hunches, and personal beliefs to make sense of empirical data-and these subjective influences have often a

  9. THE TRAINING OF NEXT GENERATION DATA SCIENTISTS IN BIOMEDICINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Lana X; Gliske, Stephen; Nguyen, Quynh C; Chen, Jonathan H; Nemati, Shamim; VAN Horn, John D; Moore, Jason H; Shreffler, Carol; Dunn, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    With the booming of new technologies, biomedical science has transformed into digitalized, data intensive science. Massive amount of data need to be analyzed and interpreted, demand a complete pipeline to train next generation data scientists. To meet this need, the transinstitutional Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) Initiative has been implemented since 2014, complementing other NIH institutional efforts. In this report, we give an overview the BD2K K01 mentored scientist career awards, which have demonstrated early success. We address the specific trainings needed in representative data science areas, in order to make the next generation of data scientists in biomedicine.

  10. Proceedings of the international conference of young scientists and students 'Ecological problems of XXI century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, A.A.

    2001-05-01

    The present publication represents the collection of materials of a scientific conference of the young scientists and students, which was devoted to 80-year-old anniversary of Andrej Sakharov. The ecological problems were viewed on the following directions: ecology, radioecology, ecological monitoring, ecological information systems, eco priority power engineering, eco biology, medical ecology, molecular medicine. The materials of a conference are intended for wide circle of the experts occupied with scientific and practical activity. Individual papers (37) have been analysed and submitted to the database

  11. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  12. Science fiction by scientists an anthology of short stories

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This anthology contains fourteen intriguing short stories by active research scientists and other writers trained in science. Science is at the heart of real science fiction, which is more than just westerns with ray guns or fantasy with spaceships. The people who do science and love science best are scientists. Scientists like Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke, and Fred Hoyle wrote some of the legendary tales of golden age science fiction. Today there is a new generation of scientists writing science fiction informed with the expertise of their fields, from astrophysics to computer science, biochemistry to rocket science, quantum physics to genetics, speculating about what is possible in our universe. Here lies the sense of wonder only science can deliver. All the stories in this volume are supplemented by afterwords commenting on the science underlying each story.

  13. Professor Atta invited to attend WSIS as `eminent scientist'

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ministry of Science and Technology Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman has been nominated as an "eminent scientist" to attend the roundtables during "World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)" on December 12 (1 paragraph).

  14. Original Research Challenges facing young African scientists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development. Methods ... The research profile of Africans is relatively new, and the .... outside the country because it will support my original ideas.”.

  15. Meet EPA Scientist Marie O'Shea, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Scientist Dr. Marie O'Shea is Region 2's Liaison to the Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD). Marie has a background in research on urban watershed management, focused on characterizing and controlling nutrients in stormwater runoff.

  16. 1HE SCIENTISTS WILL SAVE 1HE WORLD: Environment Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environment Education in An Alienated Society. Jaap Kuiper ... all: is it the input from science and scientists that will deliver the goods .... that the development of school curricula for. Zimbabwe was ..... In the case of informal or adult education,.

  17. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  18. Photo Animation Brings Scientists Back to Life in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara K. Goudsouzian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In biology textbooks and in lecture slides, it is customary to describe the significance of a historical scientific experiment alongside a still photograph of the scientist who performed the work.  This method communicates information about the scientists' works, but can be a dry method to describe an exciting and dynamic historical individual.  I have developed a method to animate still photographs and engravings of historical scientists and narrate them in the first person.  This method is rapid, inexpensive, and does not require more than average technical ability.  The animated historical scientists directly address the students to educate them about their own personal lives, struggles, and achievements.

  19. Facilitating ethical reflection among scientists using the ethical matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Gamborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that scientists are likely to have an outlook on both facts and values that are different to that of lay people in important ways. This is one significant reason it is currently believed that in order for scientists to exercise a reliable ethical reflection about...... their research it is necessary for them to engage in dialogue with other stakeholders. This paper reports on an exercise to encourage a group of scientists to reflect on ethical issues without the presence of external stakeholders. It reports on the use of a reflection process with scientists working in the area...... of animal disease genomics (mainly drawn from the EADGENE EC Network of Excellence). This reflection process was facilitated by using an ethical engagement framework, a modified version of the Ethical Matrix. As judged by two criteria, a qualitative assessment of the outcomes and the participants' own...

  20. Assessing the Job Satisfaction of Research Scientists: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Waneta C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The variables and management strategies influencing the job satisfaction of research scientists are examined. Emphasis is on defining satisfaction within the job context and the implications for managing the context to enhance satisfaction. (MSE)

  1. Science Educational Outreach Programs That Benefit Students and Scientists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Clark

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs--"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist"--that combine training in science communication with outreach to area middle schools. We assessed the outcomes of these programs and found a 2-fold benefit: scientists improve their communication skills by explaining basic science research to a general audience, and students' enthusiasm for science and their scientific knowledge are increased. Here we present details about both programs, along with our assessment of them, and discuss the feasibility of exporting these programs to other universities.

  2. Social responsibility of scientists. Report on working group ten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Three topics were discussed: the impact of Science and technology on the fate of mankind, the role of scientists in a nuclear age, and the establishment of an international Ethics Commission. Conclusions and recommendations are given to the Pugwash Conference

  3. CASE STUDY: China — Bridging the Gap between Scientists and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-05

    Jan 5, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: China — Bridging the Gap between Scientists and ... the right inputs of water, fertilizer, and pesticides to maximize yields. ... Some are rare and unique to the area, such as black wax maize and mountain lily.

  4. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists.

    KAUST Repository

    Via, Allegra; Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrö nen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K

    2013-01-01

    concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource

  5. Scientists discover how deadly fungal microbes enter host cells

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2010-01-01

    A research team led by scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech has discovered a fundamental entry mechanism that allows dangerous fungal microbes to infect plants and cause disease.

  6. Challenges for African sports scientists: Bridging the gap between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for African sports scientists: Bridging the gap between theory and practice. ... physiology, nutrition, psychology and biomechanics to mention just a few. ... These are: (1) The need to develop strategies to study the uniqueness of ...

  7. Meet EPA Scientist Jeff Szabo, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientist Jeff Szabo, Ph.D., has worked for the EPA’s National Homeland Security Research Center since 2005. He conducts and manages water security research projects at EPA’s Test and Evaluation facility.

  8. Can a Diary Encourage Others to be Citizen Scientists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry H. Kavouras

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Diary of a Citizen Scientist Chasing Tiger Beetles and Other New Ways of Engaging the World; Sharman Apt Russell; (2014. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR. 222 pages.

  9. Scientists seek to explain how Big Bang let us live

    CERN Multimedia

    Hawke, N

    2000-01-01

    Scientists at CERN have opened an antimatter factory, the Antiproton Decelerator. They hope to discover why, in the Big Bang, the amount of matter and antimatter produced was not equal, so allowing the universe to exist at all (1 page).

  10. Italian scientists fear impact of cabinet reshuffle on reforms

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    1998-01-01

    Scientists are nervous about the choice of Ortensio Zecchino for minister for research and universities in the new coalition government, mainly because the Italien Space, Energy and Environment agencies and CNR have not yet been formally approved (1 page).

  11. Teaching today's young scientists fuels the science of tomorrow

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Learning should be a voyage of discovery. Teachers at the Xplora Science Teachers conference shared their novel approaches to motivating students to treat science as an exciting exploration - and become the new generation of scientists Europe needs." (1½ page)

  12. Scientists confirm delay in testing new CERN particle accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists seeking to uncover the secrets of the universe will have to wait a little longer after the CERN laboratory inswitzerland on Monday confirmed a delay in tests of a massive new particle accelerator." (1 page)

  13. Concluding remarks: The scientist that lived three times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiani, L.

    2014-01-01

    The highlights of the conference: The Legacy of Bruno Pontecorvo: the Man and the Scientist, held in Roma, Universita' 'La Sapienza', 11-12 September, 2013, are summarized and illustrated.

  14. Fundamentals of patenting and licensing for scientists and engineers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, M. Y. (Matthew Y.)

    2009-01-01

    ... ...28 3.2 Types of Patents...28 3.3 Patent Dates ...29 viiviii Fundamentals of Patenting and Licensing for Scientists and Engineers 3.4 Eligibility of Priority Date ...30 3.5 Patentability ...32...

  15. Scientists adopt new strategy to find Huntington's disease therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links PubMed Stem Cell Information OppNet NIDB NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Institutes at NIH List of ... Release Friday, August 7, 2015 Scientists adopt new strategy to find Huntington’s disease therapies A skyline view ...

  16. Using Long-Distance Scientist Involvement to Enhance NASA Volunteer Network Educational Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since 1999, the NASA/JPL Solar System Ambassadors (SSA) and Solar System Educators (SSEP) programs have used specially-trained volunteers to expand education and public outreach beyond the immediate NASA center regions. Integrating nationwide volunteers in these highly effective programs has helped optimize agency funding set aside for education. Since these volunteers were trained by NASA scientists and engineers, they acted as "stand-ins" for the mission team members in communities across the country. Through the efforts of these enthusiastic volunteers, students gained an increased awareness of NASA's space exploration missions through Solar System Ambassador classroom visits, and teachers across the country became familiarized with NASA's STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) educational materials through Solar System Educator workshops; however the scientist was still distant. In 2003, NASA started the Digital Learning Network (DLN) to bring scientists into the classroom via videoconferencing. The first equipment was expensive and only schools that could afford the expenditure were able to benefit; however, recent advancements in software allow classrooms to connect to the DLN via personal computers and an internet connection. Through collaboration with the DLN at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Goddard Spaceflight Center, Solar System Ambassadors and Solar System Educators in remote parts of the country are able to bring scientists into their classroom visits or workshops as guest speakers. The goals of this collaboration are to provide special elements to the volunteers' event, allow scientists opportunities for education involvement with minimal effort, acquaint teachers with DLN services and enrich student's classroom learning experience.;

  17. Innovation activity of scientists as a factor in the development of academic entrepreneurship in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Babak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of academic entrepreneurship as a way of transfer of innovation is an urgent task. One of the main factors in the development of academic entrepreneurship is innovation-oriented staff of higher education institutions. Insufficient attention of the scientific literature to importance of this factor is thwarting progress of various forms of academic entrepreneurship. In connection with this proposed study is aimed at determining the degree of scientific innovation activity influence on the development of academic entrepreneurship in Russia. Academic entrepreneurship in Russia has been chosen as the object of study. Analysis of the basic research in the field of academic entrepreneurship for the period of 2011-2016 years was used to achieve this goal. Analysis of publications was revealed that the innovative activity of the teaching staff of universities is a critical factor in the development of academic entrepreneurship. However, Russian scientists are characterized by low innovation activity, resulting in academic entrepreneurship in Russia is weak. The researchers suggest the following solutions to eliminate or minimize the effects of this problem: full awareness and moral training of the scientists involved in the innovation process of higher education institutions; profit payment; creating a psychological climate that will affect the scientific process of self-realization; continuous training of employees involved in the innovation process of higher education institutions; the creation of conditions that will contribute to the manifestation of creative activity of scientists; provide greater confidence to young scientists, graduate students and undergraduates; providing moral and material encouragement of initiatives, experimentation and creativity of scientific and pedagogical staff; the allocation of free time for scientists to research and search activities and others. The data obtained can be used by the guidance of

  18. Partnerships and Grassroots Action in the 500 Women Scientists Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, S. R.; Zelikova, T. J.; Pendergrass, A. G.; Bohon, W.; Ramirez, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The past year has presented real challenges for scientists, especially in the US. The political context catalyzed the formation of many new organizations with a range of goals, from increasing the role of science in decision making to improving public trust in science and scientists. The grassroots organization 500 Women Scientists formed in the wake of the 2016 US election as a response to widespread anti-science, intolerant rhetoric and to form a community that could take action together. Within months, the network grew to more than 20,000 women scientists from across the globe. We evolved from our reactionary beginnings towards a broader mission to serve society by making science open, inclusive, and accessible. With the goal of transforming scientific institutions towards a more inclusive and just enterprise, we have been building alliances with diverse groups to provide training and mentorship opportunities to our members. In so doing, we created space for scientists from across disciplines to work together, speak out, and channel their energies toward making a difference. In partnership with the Union of Concerned Scientists and Rise Stronger, we assembled resources to help scientists write op-eds and letters to the editor about the importance of science in their communities. We partnered with researchers in Jordan to explore a new peer-to-peer mentoring model. Along with a healthcare advocacy group, we participated in dialogue to examine the role of science in affordable medicine. Finally, we are working with other groups to expand peer networks and career development resources for international STEM women. Our local chapters often initiate this work, teaming up with diverse organizations to bring science to their communities and, in the process, shift perceptions of what a scientist looks like. While as scientists, we would rather be conducting experiments or running models, what brings us together is an urgent sense that our scientific expertise is needed

  19. Tools for Scientist Engagement in E/PO: NASA SMD Community Workspace and Online Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, H.; Shipp, S. S.; Grier, J.; Gross, N. A.; Buxner, S.; Bartolone, L.; Peticolas, L. M.; Woroner, M.; Schwerin, T. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums are here to help you get involved in E/PO! The Forums have been developing several online resources to support scientists who are - or who are interested in becoming - involved in E/PO. These include NASA Wavelength, EarthSpace, and the SMD E/PO online community workspace. NASA Wavelength is the one-stop shop of all peer-reviewed NASA education resources to find materials you - or your audiences - can use. Browse by audience (pre-K through 12, higher education, and informal education) or topic, or choose to search for something specific by keyword and audience. http://nasawavelength.org. EarthSpace, an online clearinghouse of Earth and space materials for use in the higher education classroom, is driven by a powerful search engine that allows you to browse the collection of resources by science topic, audience, type of material or key terms. All materials are peer-reviewed before posting, and because all submissions receive a digital object identifier (doi), submitted materials can be listed as publications. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace. The SMD E/PO online community workspace contains many resources for scientists. These include one-page guides on how to get involved, tips on how to make the most of your time spent on E/PO, and sample activities, as well as news on funding, policy, and what's happening in the E/PO community. The workspace also provides scientists and the public pathways to find opportunities for participation in E/PO, to learn about SMD E/PO projects and their impacts, to connect with SMD E/PO practitioners, and to explore resources to improve professional E/PO practice, including literature reviews, information about the Next Generation Science Standards, and best practices in evaluation and engaging diverse audiences. http://smdepo.org.

  20. Developing Earth and Space Scientists for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, Cathryn A.; Cifuentes, Inés

    2007-09-01

    As the world's largest organization of Earth and space scientists, AGU safeguards the future of pioneering research by ensuring that ``the number and diversity of Earth and space scientists continue to grow through the flow of young talent into the field'' (AGU Strategic Plan 2008, Goal IV). Achieving this goal is the focus of the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR), one of the Union's three outreach committees.

  1. A systematic identification and analysis of scientists on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.

    2017-01-01

    Metrics derived from Twitter and other social media—often referred to as altmetrics—are increasingly used to estimate the broader social impacts of scholarship. Such efforts, however, may produce highly misleading results, as the entities that participate in conversations about science on these platforms are largely unknown. For instance, if altmetric activities are generated mainly by scientists, does it really capture broader social impacts of science? Here we present a systematic approach to identifying and analyzing scientists on Twitter. Our method can identify scientists across many disciplines, without relying on external bibliographic data, and be easily adapted to identify other stakeholder groups in science. We investigate the demographics, sharing behaviors, and interconnectivity of the identified scientists. We find that Twitter has been employed by scholars across the disciplinary spectrum, with an over-representation of social and computer and information scientists; under-representation of mathematical, physical, and life scientists; and a better representation of women compared to scholarly publishing. Analysis of the sharing of URLs reveals a distinct imprint of scholarly sites, yet only a small fraction of shared URLs are science-related. We find an assortative mixing with respect to disciplines in the networks between scientists, suggesting the maintenance of disciplinary walls in social media. Our work contributes to the literature both methodologically and conceptually—we provide new methods for disambiguating and identifying particular actors on social media and describing the behaviors of scientists, thus providing foundational information for the construction and use of indicators on the basis of social media metrics. PMID:28399145

  2. A systematic identification and analysis of scientists on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ke

    Full Text Available Metrics derived from Twitter and other social media-often referred to as altmetrics-are increasingly used to estimate the broader social impacts of scholarship. Such efforts, however, may produce highly misleading results, as the entities that participate in conversations about science on these platforms are largely unknown. For instance, if altmetric activities are generated mainly by scientists, does it really capture broader social impacts of science? Here we present a systematic approach to identifying and analyzing scientists on Twitter. Our method can identify scientists across many disciplines, without relying on external bibliographic data, and be easily adapted to identify other stakeholder groups in science. We investigate the demographics, sharing behaviors, and interconnectivity of the identified scientists. We find that Twitter has been employed by scholars across the disciplinary spectrum, with an over-representation of social and computer and information scientists; under-representation of mathematical, physical, and life scientists; and a better representation of women compared to scholarly publishing. Analysis of the sharing of URLs reveals a distinct imprint of scholarly sites, yet only a small fraction of shared URLs are science-related. We find an assortative mixing with respect to disciplines in the networks between scientists, suggesting the maintenance of disciplinary walls in social media. Our work contributes to the literature both methodologically and conceptually-we provide new methods for disambiguating and identifying particular actors on social media and describing the behaviors of scientists, thus providing foundational information for the construction and use of indicators on the basis of social media metrics.

  3. Immigration & Ideas: What Did Russian Scientists 'Bring' to the US?

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguli, Ina

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how high-skilled immigrants contribute to knowledge diffusion using a rich dataset of Russian scientists and US citations to Soviet-era publications. Analysis of a panel of US cities and scientific fields shows that citations to Soviet-era work increased significantly with the arrival of immigrants. A difference-in-differences analysis with matched paper-pairs also shows that after Russian scientists moved to the US, citations to their Soviet-era papers increased relative ...

  4. To Be or Not to Be... a Scientist?

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Policy makers generally advocate that to remain competitive countries need to train more scientists. Employers regularly complain of qualified scientist shortages blaming the higher wages in other occupations for luring graduates out of scientific occupations. Using a survey of recent British graduates from Higher Education we report that fewer than 50% of science graduates work in a scientific occupation three years after graduation. The wage premium observed for science graduates stems from...

  5. To be or not to be... a scientist?

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Policy makers generally advocate that to remain competitive countries need to train more scientists. Employers regularly complain of qualified scientist shortages blaming the higher wages in other occupations for luring graduates out of scientific occupations. Using a survey of recent British graduates from Higher Education we report that fewer than 50% of science graduates work in a scientific occupation three years after graduation. The wage premium observed for science graduates stems from...

  6. Science experiences of citizen scientists in entomology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Louise I.

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular collaboration between members of the public and the scientific community to pursue current research questions. In addition to providing researchers with much needed volunteer support, it is a unique and promising form of informal science education that can counter declining public science literacy, including attitudes towards and understanding of science. However, the impacts of citizen science programs on participants' science literacy remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to balance the top-down approach to citizen science research by exploring how adult citizen scientists participate in entomology research based on their perceptions and pioneer mixed methods research to investigate and explain the impacts of citizen science programs. Transference, in which citizen scientists transfer program impacts to people around them, was uncovered in a grounded theory study focused on adults in a collaborative bumble bee research program. Most of the citizen scientists involved in entomology research shared their science experiences and knowledge with people around them. In certain cases, expertise was attributed to the individual by others. Citizen scientists then have the opportunity to acquire the role of expert to those around them and influence knowledge, attitudinal and behavioral changes in others. An intervention explanatory sequential mixed methods design assessed how entomology-based contributory citizen science affects science self-efficacy, self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects in adults. However, no statistically significant impacts were evident. A qualitative follow-up uncovered a discrepancy between statistically measured changes and perceived influences reported by citizen scientists. The results have important implications for understanding how citizen scientists learn, the role of citizen scientists in entomology research, the broader program impacts and

  7. SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES ABOUT SCIENTISTS

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Doğukan Balçın; Ayşegül Ergün

    2018-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine secondary school students’ perceptions and attitudes towards scientists. The study group consists of 53 fifth and sixth grade students receiving education in a state secondary school in Turkey. Convergent parallel design among mixed research methods was used during the research. Research data were collected using “Questionnaire on attitudes towards scientists” and “Draw A Scientist (DAS)” forms. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods and con...

  8. Avenues for Scientist Involvement in Earth and Space Science Education and Public Outreach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Gross, N. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Smith, D.; Meinke, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    used in conjunction with E/PO activities, NASA Wavelength (http://nasawavelength.org). Further supporting higher-education efforts, the Forums coordinate a network of science faculty, bringing them together at science conferences to share resources and experiences and to discuss pertinent education research. An online higher education clearinghouse, EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), has been developed to provide faculty with news and funding information, the latest education research and resources for teaching undergraduates, and undergraduate course materials, including lectures, labs, and homework. This presentation will explore the Science E/PO Forums' pathways and tools available to support scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - E/PO.

  9. Scientists: Get Involved in Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach! Here’s How!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.; Wessen, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is a team of educators, scientists, and outreach professionals funded by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) that supports SMD scientists currently involved in E/PO - or interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts - to find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. There are many current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in E/PO. The Forum provides tools for responding to NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities (webinars and online proposal guides), a one-page Tips and Tricks guide for scientists to engage in education and public outreach, and a sampler of activities organized by thematic topic and NASA’s Big Questions in planetary science. Scientists can also locate resources for interacting with diverse audiences through a number of online clearinghouses, including: NASA Wavelength, a digital collection of peer-reviewed Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels (http://nasawavelength.org); the Year of the Solar System website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), a presentation of thematic resources that includes background information, missions, the latest in planetary science news, and educational products, for use in the classroom and out, for teaching about the solar system organized by topic - volcanism, ice, astrobiology, etc.; and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), a community website where faculty can find and share resources and information about teaching Earth and space sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials, news, funding opportunities, and the latest education research. Also recently developed, the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker) offers an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects - giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections - with audiences. Learn more about the

  10. Gap between science and media revisited: scientists as public communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-08-20

    The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty--an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science-media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists.

  11. Changing the Culture of Science Communication Training for Junior Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Adriana; McDowell, Gary S.

    2018-01-01

    Being successful in an academic environment places many demands on junior scientists. Science communication currently may not be adequately valued and rewarded, and yet communication to multiple audiences is critical for ensuring that it remains a priority in today’s society. Due to the potential for science communication to produce better scientists, facilitate scientific progress, and influence decision-making at multiple levels, training junior scientists in both effective and ethical science communication practices is imperative, and can benefit scientists regardless of their chosen career path. However, many challenges exist in addressing specific aspects of this training. Principally, science communication training and resources should be made readily available to junior scientists at institutions, and there is a need to scale up existing science communication training programs and standardize core aspects of these programs across universities, while also allowing for experimentation with training. We propose a comprehensive core training program be adopted by universities, utilizing a centralized online resource with science communication information from multiple stakeholders. In addition, the culture of science must shift toward greater acceptance of science communication as an essential part of training. For this purpose, the science communication field itself needs to be developed, researched and better understood at multiple levels. Ultimately, this may result in a larger cultural change toward acceptance of professional development activities as valuable for training scientists. PMID:29904538

  12. Challenges in translational research: the views of addiction scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Koenig, Barbara A; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction. Most scientists described a direct translational route for their research, positing that their research will have significant societal benefits, leading to advances in treatment and novel prevention strategies. However, scientists also pointed to the inherent pressures they feel to quickly translate their research findings into actual clinical or public health use. They stressed the importance of allowing the scientific process to play out, voicing ambivalence about the recent push to speed translation. High expectations have been raised that biomedical science will lead to new prevention and treatment modalities, exerting pressure on scientists. Our data suggest that scientists feel caught in the push for immediate applications. This overemphasis on rapid translation can lead to technologies and applications being rushed into use without critical evaluation of ethical, policy, and social implications, and without balancing their value compared to public health policies and interventions currently in place.

  13. Scientists in an alternative vision of a globalized world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzan, Ayse

    2008-03-01

    Why should ``increasing the visibility of scientists in emergent countries'' be of interest? Can increasing the relevance and connectedness of scientific output, both to technological applications at home and cutting edge basic research abroad contribute to the general welfare in such countries? For this to happen, governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations must provide incentives for the local industry to help fund and actively engage in the creation of new technologies, rather than settling for the solution of well understood engineering problems under the rubric of collaboration between scientists and industry. However, the trajectory of the highly industrialized countries cannot be retraced. Globalization facilitates closer interaction and collaboration between scientists but also deepens the contrasts between the center and the periphery, both world wide and within national borders; as it is understood today, it can lead to the redundancy of local technology oriented research, as the idea of a ``local industry'' is rapidly made obsolete. Scientists from all over the world are sucked into the vortex as both the economic and the cultural world increasingly revolve around a single axis. The challenge is to redefine our terms of reference under these rapidly changing boundary conditions and help bring human needs, human security and human happiness to the fore in elaborating and forging alternative visions of a globalized world. Both natural scientists and social scientists will be indispensable in such an endeavor.

  14. Gap between science and media revisited: Scientists as public communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty—an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science–media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists. PMID:23940312

  15. Changing the Culture of Science Communication Training for Junior Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Adriana; McDowell, Gary S

    2018-01-01

    Being successful in an academic environment places many demands on junior scientists. Science communication currently may not be adequately valued and rewarded, and yet communication to multiple audiences is critical for ensuring that it remains a priority in today's society. Due to the potential for science communication to produce better scientists, facilitate scientific progress, and influence decision-making at multiple levels, training junior scientists in both effective and ethical science communication practices is imperative, and can benefit scientists regardless of their chosen career path. However, many challenges exist in addressing specific aspects of this training. Principally, science communication training and resources should be made readily available to junior scientists at institutions, and there is a need to scale up existing science communication training programs and standardize core aspects of these programs across universities, while also allowing for experimentation with training. We propose a comprehensive core training program be adopted by universities, utilizing a centralized online resource with science communication information from multiple stakeholders. In addition, the culture of science must shift toward greater acceptance of science communication as an essential part of training. For this purpose, the science communication field itself needs to be developed, researched and better understood at multiple levels. Ultimately, this may result in a larger cultural change toward acceptance of professional development activities as valuable for training scientists.

  16. The Immoral Landscape? Scientists Are Associated with Violations of Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjens, Bastiaan T; Heine, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Do people think that scientists are bad people? Although surveys find that science is a highly respected profession, a growing discourse has emerged regarding how science is often judged negatively. We report ten studies (N = 2328) that investigated morality judgments of scientists and compared those with judgments of various control groups, including atheists. A persistent intuitive association between scientists and disturbing immoral conduct emerged for violations of the binding moral foundations, particularly when this pertained to violations of purity. However, there was no association in the context of the individualizing moral foundations related to fairness and care. Other evidence found that scientists were perceived as similar to others in their concerns with the individualizing moral foundations of fairness and care, yet as departing for all of the binding foundations of loyalty, authority, and purity. Furthermore, participants stereotyped scientists particularly as robot-like and lacking emotions, as well as valuing knowledge over morality and being potentially dangerous. The observed intuitive immorality associations are partially due to these explicit stereotypes but do not correlate with any perceived atheism. We conclude that scientists are perceived not as inherently immoral, but as capable of immoral conduct.

  17. The Immoral Landscape? Scientists Are Associated with Violations of Morality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan T Rutjens

    Full Text Available Do people think that scientists are bad people? Although surveys find that science is a highly respected profession, a growing discourse has emerged regarding how science is often judged negatively. We report ten studies (N = 2328 that investigated morality judgments of scientists and compared those with judgments of various control groups, including atheists. A persistent intuitive association between scientists and disturbing immoral conduct emerged for violations of the binding moral foundations, particularly when this pertained to violations of purity. However, there was no association in the context of the individualizing moral foundations related to fairness and care. Other evidence found that scientists were perceived as similar to others in their concerns with the individualizing moral foundations of fairness and care, yet as departing for all of the binding foundations of loyalty, authority, and purity. Furthermore, participants stereotyped scientists particularly as robot-like and lacking emotions, as well as valuing knowledge over morality and being potentially dangerous. The observed intuitive immorality associations are partially due to these explicit stereotypes but do not correlate with any perceived atheism. We conclude that scientists are perceived not as inherently immoral, but as capable of immoral conduct.

  18. Finding Meaningful Roles for Scientists in science Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brenda

    Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.

  19. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2013: FAIR NExt generation of ScientistS 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hannah; Destefanis, Marco; Galatyuk, Tetyana; Montes, Fernando; Nicmorus, Diana; Ratti, Claudia; Tolos, Laura; Vogel, Sascha

    2014-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2013 was the second edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on 16-21 September 2013 in Berlin, Germany. The topics of the workshop cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in box to stimulate discussions. Since the physics program of FAIR is very broad, this is reflected in the wide range of topics covered at the Conference: Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions Hadron spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NuSTAR, as well as NICA and the RHIC low beam energy scan New developments in atomic and plasma physics For all of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2013 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of

  20. Scientists Engage South Carolina Community in Earthquake Education and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Beutel, E.; Jaume', S.; Levine, N.; Doyle, B.

    2008-12-01

    Scientists at the College of Charleston are working with the state of South Carolina's Emergency Management Division to increase awareness and understanding of earthquake hazards throughout South Carolina. As part of this mission, the SCEEP (South Carolina Earthquake Education and Preparedness) program was formed at the College of Charleston to promote earthquake research, outreach, and education in the state of South Carolina. Working with local, regional, state and federal offices, SCEEP has developed education programs for everyone from professional hazard management teams to formal and informal educators. SCEEP also works with the media to ensure accurate reporting of earthquake and other hazard information and to increase the public's understanding of earthquake science and earthquake seismology. As part of this program, we have developed a series of activities that can be checked out by educators for use in their classrooms and in informal education venues. These activities are designed to provide educators with the information and tools they lack to adequately, informatively, and enjoyably teach about earthquake and earth science. The toolkits contain seven activities meeting a variety of National Education Standards, not only in Science, but also in Geography, Math, Social Studies, Arts Education, History and Language Arts - providing a truly multidisciplinary toolkit for educators. The activities provide information on earthquake myths, seismic waves, elastic rebound, vectors, liquefaction, location of an epicenter, and then finally South Carolina earthquakes. The activities are engaging and inquiry based, implementing proven effective strategies for peaking learners' interest in scientific phenomena. All materials are provided within the toolkit and so it is truly check and go. While the SCEEP team has provided instructions and grade level suggestions for implementing the activity in an educational setting, the educator has full reign on what to showcase

  1. A New Approach to Studying Biological and Soft Materials Using Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB SEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, D J; Morrissey, F; Lich, B H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade techniques such as confocal light microscopy, in combination with fluorescent labelling, have helped biologists and life scientists to study biological architectures at tissue and cell level in great detail. Meanwhile, obtaining information at very small length scales is possible with the combination of sample preparation techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is well known for the determination of surface characteristics and morphology. However, the desire to understand the three dimensional relationships of meso-scale hierarchies has led to the development of advanced microscopy techniques, to give a further complementary approach. A focused ion beam (FIB) can be used as a nano-scalpel and hence allows us to reveal internal microstructure in a site-specific manner. Whilst FIB instruments have been used to study and verify the three-dimensional architecture of man made materials, SEM and FIB technologies have now been brought together in a single instrument representing a powerful combination for the study of biological specimens and soft materials. We demonstrate the use of FIB SEM to study three-dimensional relationships for a range of length scales and materials, from small-scale cellular structures to the larger scale interactions between biomedical materials and tissues. FIB cutting of heterogeneous mixtures of hard and soft materials, resulting in a uniform cross-section, has proved to be of particular value since classical preparation methods tend to introduce artefacts. Furthermore, by appropriate selection, we can sequentially cross-section to create a series of 'slices' at specific intervals. 3D reconstruction software can then be used to volume-render information from the 2D slices, enabling us to immediately see the spatial relationships between microstructural components

  2. Bridging the Gap Between Scientists and Classrooms: Scientist Engagement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers in today s classrooms need to find creative ways to connect students with science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) experts. These STEM experts can serve as role models and help students think about potential future STEM careers. They can also help reinforce academic knowledge and skills. The cost of transportation restricts teachers ability to take students on field trips exposing them to outside experts and unique learning environments. Additionally, arranging to bring in guest speakers to the classroom seems to happen infrequently, especially in schools in rural areas. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program [1], facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate Education Program at the NASA Johnson Space Center has created a way to enable teachers to connect their students with STEM experts virtually. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. Through EEAB, scientists are able to actively engage with students across the nation in multiple ways. They can work with student teams as mentors, participate in virtual student team science presentations, or connect with students through Classroom Connection Distance Learning (DL) Events.

  3. Taking the Scientist's Perspective. The Nonfiction Narrative Engages Episodic Memory to Enhance Students' Understanding of Scientists and Their Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larison, Karen D.

    2018-03-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013) mandates that schools provide students an understanding of the skills and knowledge that scientists use to engage in scientific practices. In this article, I argue that one of the best ways to accomplish this goal is to have students take the perspective of the scientist by reading nonfiction narratives written by scientists and science writers. I explore the anthropological and neurological evidence that suggests that perspective-taking is an essential component in the learning process. It has been shown that by around age 4, the human child begins to be able to take the perspective of others—a process that neuroscientists have shown engages episodic memory, a memory type that some neurocognitive scientists believe is central in organizing human cognition. Neuroscientists have shown that the brain regions in which episodic memory resides undergo pronounced anatomical changes during adolescence, suggesting that perspective-taking assumes an even greater role in cognition during adolescence and young adulthood. Moreover, I argue that the practice of science itself is narrative in nature. With each new observation and experiment, the scientist is acting to reveal an emerging story. It is the story-like nature of science that motivates the scientist to push onward with new experiments and new observations. It is also the story-like nature of the practice of science that can potentially engage the student. The classroom studies that I review here confirm the power of the narrative in increasing students' understanding of science.

  4. Taking the Scientist's Perspective - The Nonfiction Narrative Engages Episodic Memory to Enhance Students' Understanding of Scientists and Their Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larison, Karen D.

    2018-03-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013) mandates that schools provide students an understanding of the skills and knowledge that scientists use to engage in scientific practices. In this article, I argue that one of the best ways to accomplish this goal is to have students take the perspective of the scientist by reading nonfiction narratives written by scientists and science writers. I explore the anthropological and neurological evidence that suggests that perspective-taking is an essential component in the learning process. It has been shown that by around age 4, the human child begins to be able to take the perspective of others—a process that neuroscientists have shown engages episodic memory, a memory type that some neurocognitive scientists believe is central in organizing human cognition. Neuroscientists have shown that the brain regions in which episodic memory resides undergo pronounced anatomical changes during adolescence, suggesting that perspective-taking assumes an even greater role in cognition during adolescence and young adulthood. Moreover, I argue that the practice of science itself is narrative in nature. With each new observation and experiment, the scientist is acting to reveal an emerging story. It is the story-like nature of science that motivates the scientist to push onward with new experiments and new observations. It is also the story-like nature of the practice of science that can potentially engage the student. The classroom studies that I review here confirm the power of the narrative in increasing students' understanding of science.

  5. Increasing both the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bio-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Confalonieri, Stefano; Hemenway, David; Scita, Giorgio; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method. Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries. The goal of this study was to design policies to enhance both the public health potential and the work satisfaction and test scientists' attitudes towards these factors. The present survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists. In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug.

  6. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  7. Materials Department. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsewell, A.; Hansen, N.

    1991-07-01

    Selected activities of the Materials Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1990 are described. The work is presented in three chapters: Materials Science, Materials Engineering and Materials Technology. A survey is given of the Department's participation in international collaboration and of its activities within education and training. Furthermore, the main figures outlining the funding and expenditure of the Department are given. Lists of staff members, visiting scientists, publications, lectures and poster presentations are included. (author) 91 refs., 46 ills

  8. Materials Department. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsewell, A.; Hansen, N.

    1992-03-01

    Selected activities of the Materials Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1991 are described. The work is presented in three chapters: Materials Science, Materials Engineering and Materials Technology. A survey is given of the Department's participation in international collaboration and of its activities within education and training. Furthermore, the main figures outlining the funding and expenditure of the Department are given. Lists of staff members, visiting scientists, publications, lectures and poster presentations are included. (au)

  9. Scientists and Educators: Joining Forces to Enhance Ocean Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener-Chavis, P.

    2004-12-01

    The need for scientists to work with educators to enhance the general public's understanding of science has been addressed for years in reports like Science for All Americans (1990), NSF in a Changing World (1995), Turning to the Sea: America's Ocean Future (1999), Discovering the Earth's Final Frontier, A U.S. Strategy for Ocean Exploration (2000), and most recently, the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy Report (2004). As reported in The National Science Foundation's Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) Workshop Report (2000), "The Ocean Sciences community did not answer (this) call, even though their discovery that the ocean was a more critical driving force in the natural environment than previously thought possessed great educational significance." It has been further acknowledged that "rapid and extensive improvement of science education is unlikely to occur until it becomes clear to scientists that they have an obligation to become involved in elementary- and secondary-level science (The Role of Scientists in the Professional Development of Science Teachers, National Research Council, 1996.) This presentation will focus on teachers' perceptions of how scientists conduct research, scientists' perceptions of how teachers should teach, and some misconceptions between the two groups. Criteria for high-quality professional development for teachers working with scientists will also be presented, along with a brief overview of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Ocean Exploration program efforts to bring teachers and ocean scientists together to further ocean science literacy at the national level through recommendations put forth in the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy Report (2004).

  10. Increasing retention of early career female atmospheric scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L. M.; Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.; Thiry, H.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Science Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) is a workshop series designed to bring together early career female scientists in the field of atmospheric science and related disciplines. ASCENT uses a multi-faceted approach to provide junior scientists with tools that will help them meet the challenges in their research and teaching career paths and will promote their retention in the field. During the workshop, senior women scientists discuss their career and life paths. They also lead seminars on tools, resources and methods that can help early career scientists to be successful and prepared to fill vacancies created by the “baby boomer” retirees. Networking is a significant aspect of ASCENT, and many opportunities for both formal and informal interactions among the participants (of both personal and professional nature) are blended in the schedule. The workshops are held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, home of a high-altitude atmospheric science laboratory, Storm Peak Laboratory, which also allows for nearby casual outings and a pleasant environment for participants. Near the conclusion of each workshop, junior and senior scientists are matched in mentee-mentor ratios of two junior scientists per senior scientist. Post-workshop reunion events are held at national scientific meetings to maintain connectivity among each year’s participants, and for collaborating among participants of all workshops held to date. Evaluations of the two workshop cohorts thus far conclude that the workshops have been successful in achieving the goals of establishing and expanding personal and research-related networks, and that seminars have been useful in creating confidence and sharing resources for such things as preparing promotion and tenure packages, interviewing and negotiating job offers, and writing successful grant proposals.

  11. One More Legacy of Paul F. Brandwein: Creating Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Deborah C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper studies the influence of Paul F. Brandwein, author, scientist, teacher and mentor, publisher, humanist, and environmentalist, on gifted youngsters who later became scientists, based primarily on information gathered from surveys completed by 25 of his students and one colleague. It also traces his profound interactions with science educators. It illuminates the theories of Brandwein and his protégés and colleagues about the interaction of environment, schooling, and education and Brandwein's belief in having students do original research (that is, research whose results are unknown) on their way to discovering their future scientific paths. It tests Brandwein's 1955 hypothesis on the characteristics typical of the young who eventually become scientists, namely: Three factors are considered as being significant in the development of future scientists: a Genetic Factor with a primary base in heredity (general intelligence, numerical ability, and verbal ability); a Predisposing Factor, with a primary base in functions which are psychological in nature; an Activating Factor, with a primary base in the opportunities offered in school and in the special skills of the teacher. High intelligence alone does not make a youngster a scientist (p xix).

  12. Lessons Learned from L'Aquila Trial for Scientists' Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, K.; Cerase, A.; Amato, A.; Oki, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Appeal and Supreme Courts of Italy concluded that there was no bad communication by defendants except for the "glass of wine interview" which was made by a government official before the scientists' meeting. This meeting was held 6 days before the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake to discuss the outlook for the seismic activity in the L'Aquila area. However, at least two TV stations and a newspaper reported the content of the "glass of wine interview" in the next morning as it was announced by the defendant scientists. The reports triggered a domino effect of misinterpretations, which may be well acknowledged in the light of the social amplification of risk framework. These TV stations and newspaper should be also considered responsible for the bad communication. This point was missing in the sentence documents by the Appeal and Supreme Courts. Therefore, for scientists, a lesson of communication, especially during a seismic hazard crisis, is that they must carefully craft their messages and the way they circulate, both in broadcast and digital media, and follow reports released by the media on their activities. As another lesson, scientists must be aware that key concepts of safety such as "no danger" and "favorable situation", which were used in the "glass of wine interview", and the idea of probability can have different meanings for scientists, media, and citizens.

  13. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  14. Caring for nanotechnology? Being an integrated social scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseu, Ana

    2015-10-01

    One of the most significant shifts in science policy of the past three decades is a concern with extending scientific practice to include a role for 'society'. Recently, this has led to legislative calls for the integration of the social sciences and humanities in publicly funded research and development initiatives. In nanotechnology--integration's primary field site--this policy has institutionalized the practice of hiring social scientists in technical facilities. Increasingly mainstream, the workings and results of this integration mechanism remain understudied. In this article, I build upon my three-year experience as the in-house social scientist at the Cornell NanoScale Facility and the United States' National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network to engage empirically and conceptually with this mode of governance in nanotechnology. From the vantage point of the integrated social scientist, I argue that in its current enactment, integration emerges as a particular kind of care work, with social scientists being fashioned as the main caretakers. Examining integration as a type of care practice and as a 'matter of care' allows me to highlight the often invisible, existential, epistemic, and affective costs of care as governance. Illuminating a framework where social scientists are called upon to observe but not disturb, to reify boundaries rather than blur them, this article serves as a word of caution against integration as a novel mode of governance that seemingly privileges situatedness, care, and entanglement, moving us toward an analytically skeptical (but not dismissive) perspective on integration.

  15. British scientists and the Manhattan Project: the Los Alamos years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szasz, F.M. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK).

  16. Finding Common Ground Between Earth Scientists and Evangelical Christians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Ludwig, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades there has been some tension between earth scientists and evangelical Christians in the U.S., and this tension has spilled over into the political arena and policymaking on important issues such as climate change. From my personal and professional experience engaging with both groups, I find there is much common ground for increasing understanding and communicating the societal relevance of earth science. Fruitful discussions can arise from shared values and principles, and common approaches to understanding the world. For example, scientists and Christians are engaged in the pursuit of truth, and they value moral/ethical decision-making based on established principles. Scientists emphasize the benefits of research "for the common good" while Christians emphasize the value of doing "good works". Both groups maintain a longterm perspective: Christians talk about "the eternal" and geologists discuss "deep time". Both groups understand the importance of placing new observations in context of prior understanding: scientists diligently reference "the literature" while Christians quote "chapter and verse". And members of each group engage with each other in "fellowship" or "meetings" to create a sense of community and reinforce shared values. From my perspective, earth scientists can learn to communicate the importance and relevance of science more effectively by engaging with Christians in areas of common ground, rather than by trying to win arguments or debates.

  17. American and Greek Children's Visual Images of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidou, Vasilia; Bonoti, Fotini; Kontopoulou, Argiro

    2016-08-01

    This study explores American and Greek primary pupils' visual images of scientists by means of two nonverbal data collection tasks to identify possible convergences and divergences. Specifically, it aims to investigate whether their images of scientists vary according to the data collection instrument used and to gender. To this end, 91 third-grade American ( N = 46) and Greek ( N = 45) pupils were examined. Data collection was conducted through a drawing task based on Chambers (1983) `Draw-A-Scientist-Test' (DAST) and a picture selection task during which the children selected between 14 pairs of illustrations those that were most probable to represent scientists. Analysis focused on stereotype indicators related with scientists' appearance and work setting. Results showed that the two groups' performance varied significantly across the tasks used to explore their stereotypic perceptions, although the overall stereotypy was not differentiated according to participants' ethnic group. Moreover, boys were found to use more stereotypic indicators than girls, while the picture selection task elicited more stereotypic responses than the drawing task. In general, data collected by the two instruments revealed convergences and divergences concerning the stereotypic indicators preferred. Similarities and differences between national groups point to the influence of a globalized popular culture on the one hand and of the different sociocultural contexts underlying science curricula and their implementation on the other. Implications for science education are discussed.

  18. Data scientist: the sexiest job of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Patil, D J

    2012-10-01

    Back in the 1990s, computer engineer and Wall Street "quant" were the hot occupations in business. Today data scientists are the hires firms are competing to make. As companies wrestle with unprecedented volumes and types of information, demand for these experts has raced well ahead of supply. Indeed, Greylock Partners, the VC firm that backed Facebook and LinkedIn, is so worried about the shortage of data scientists that it has a recruiting team dedicated to channeling them to the businesses in its portfolio. Data scientists are the key to realizing the opportunities presented by big data. They bring structure to it, find compelling patterns in it, and advise executives on the implications for products, processes, and decisions. They find the story buried in the data and communicate it. And they don't just deliver reports: They get at the questions at the heart of problems and devise creative approaches to them. One data scientist who was studying a fraud problem, for example, realized it was analogous to a type of DNA sequencing problem. Bringing those disparate worlds together, he crafted a solution that dramatically reduced fraud losses. In this article, Harvard Business School's Davenport and Greylock's Patil take a deep dive on what organizations need to know about data scientists: where to look for them, how to attract and develop them, and how to spot a great one.

  19. The seven secrets of how to think like a rocket scientist

    CERN Document Server

    Longuski, James

    2007-01-01

    This book explains the methods that rocket scientists use - expressed in a way that could be applied in everyday life. It's short and snappy and written by a rocket scientist. It is intended for general "armchair" scientists.

  20. Nuclear energy: technology, safety, ecology, economy, management. The I All-Russian scientific-practical conference of young nuclear scientists of Siberia. Collection of scientific papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Collection of research papers I All-Russian scientific-practical conference of young nuclear scientists in Siberia, held 19-25 September 2010 in Tomsk, is presented. The edition contains material on a wide range of research scientists-economists, professors, graduate students and young scientists, and school children of Tomsk, Seversk, and several other Russian cities on the technology, security, ecology, economics, management in the nuclear power industry. Discussion of the presented research was conducted on sections: 1. Technological support for the nuclear fuel cycle, 2. Nuclear non-proliferation and environmental safety of the nuclear fuel cycle, 3. Energy: Present and Future 4. It all starts with an idea [ru

  1. Empirical modeling and data analysis for engineers and applied scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    This textbook teaches advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students in Engineering and Applied Sciences to gather and analyze empirical observations (data) in order to aid in making design decisions. While science is about discovery, the primary paradigm of engineering and "applied science" is design. Scientists are in the discovery business and want, in general, to understand the natural world rather than to alter it. In contrast, engineers and applied scientists design products, processes, and solutions to problems. That said, statistics, as a discipline, is mostly oriented toward the discovery paradigm. Young engineers come out of their degree programs having taken courses such as "Statistics for Engineers and Scientists" without any clear idea as to how they can use statistical methods to help them design products or processes. Many seem to think that statistics is only useful for demonstrating that a device or process actually does what it was designed to do. Statistics courses emphasize creati...

  2. Science Educational Outreach Programs That Benefit Students and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart, Peter; Gracia, Brant; Wessel, Aimee; Jarmoskaite, Inga; Polioudakis, Damon; Stuart, Yoel; Gonzalez, Tony; MacKrell, Al; Rodenbusch, Stacia; Stovall, Gwendolyn M.; Beckham, Josh T.; Montgomery, Michael; Tasneem, Tania; Jones, Jack; Simmons, Sarah; Roux, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs—"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist”—that combine training in science communication with outreach to area middle schools. We assessed the outcomes of these programs and found a 2-fold benefit: scientists improve their communication skills by explaining basic science research to a general audience, and students' enthusiasm for science and their scientific knowledge are increased. Here we present details about both programs, along with our assessment of them, and discuss the feasibility of exporting these programs to other universities. PMID:26844991

  3. Scientists' Ethical Obligations and Social Responsibility for Nanotechnology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2016-02-01

    Scientists' sense of social responsibility is particularly relevant for emerging technologies. Since a regulatory vacuum can sometimes occur in the early stages of these technologies, individual scientists' social responsibility might be one of the most significant checks on the risks and negative consequences of this scientific research. In this article, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading U.S. nanoscientists to explore their perceptions the regarding social and ethical responsibilities for their nanotechnology research. Our analyses show that leading U.S. nanoscientists express a moderate level of social responsibility about their research. Yet, they have a strong sense of ethical obligation to protect laboratory workers (in both universities and industry) from unhealthy exposure to nanomaterials. We also find that there are significant differences in scientists' sense of social and ethical responsibility depending on their demographic characteristics, job affiliation, attention to media content, risk perceptions and benefit perceptions. We conclude with some implications for future research.

  4. Science Based Policies: How Can Scientist Communicate their Points Across?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnakat, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    With the complexity of environmental problems faced today, both scientists and policymakers are striving to combine policy and administration with the physical and natural sciences in order to mitigate and prevent environmental degradation. Nevertheless, communicating science to policymakers has been difficult due to many barriers. Even though scientists and policymakers share the blame in the miscommunication. This paper will provide recommendations targeted to the scientific arena. Establishing guidelines for the cooperation of scientists and policymakers can be an unattainable goal due to the complexity and diversity of political policymaking and environmental issues. However, the recommendations provided in this paper are simple enough to be followed by a wide variety of audiences and institutions in the scientific fields. This will aid when trying to fill the gap that has prevented the enhancement of scientific policymaking strategies, which decide on the critical issue s such as the disposal, transportation and production of hazardous waste

  5. Social scientists in public health: a fuzzy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Luporini do Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe and analyze the presence of social scientists, anthropologists, sociologists and political scientists in the field of public health. A survey by the Lattes Curriculum and sites of Medical Colleges, Institutes of Health Research Collective, seeking professionals who work in healthcare and have done some stage of their training in the areas of social sciences. In confluence with Norbert Elias' concepts of social networks and configuration of interdependence it was used fuzzy logic, and the tool free statistical software R version 2.12.0 which enabled a graphic representation of social scientists interdependence in the field of social sciences-health-social sciences. A total of 238 professionals were ready in 6 distinct clusters according to the distance or closer of each professional in relation to public health and social sciences. The work was shown with great analytical and graphical representation possibilities for social sciences of health, in using this innovative quantitative methodology.

  6. Developing Interactive Exhibits with Scientists: Three Example Collaborations from the Life Sciences Collection at the Exploratorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Denise; Ma, Joyce; Armendariz, Angela; Yu, Kristina

    2018-04-25

    Science museums have made a concerted effort to work with researchers to incorporate current scientific findings and practices into informal learning opportunities for museum visitors. Many of these efforts have focused on creating opportunities and support for researchers to interact face-to-face with the public through, for example, speaker series, community forums, and engineering competitions. However, there are other means by which practicing scientists can find a voice on the museum floor - through the design and development of exhibits. Here we describe how researchers and museum professionals have worked together to create innovative exhibit experiences for an interactive science museum. For each example: scientist as (1) data providers, (2) advisors, and (3) co-developers, we highlight essential components for a successful partnership and pitfalls to avoid when collaborating on museum exhibits. Not many museums prototype and build their own exhibits like the Exploratorium. In those cases, there may be similar opportunities in more mediated offerings such as public demonstrations or lectures or in other formats that allow for direct interactions between scientists and visitors.We believe there are many opportunities for researchers to share natural phenomena, to advise on exhibit development and interpretation, to provide much needed materials, and to otherwise incorporate authentic research into the learning experiences at museums, no matter what the format.

  7. [Almost an autobiography: a study of social scientists in health based on the Lattes Curriculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Juliana Luporini; Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2014-04-01

    Among the various ways of adopting the biographical approach, we used the curriculum vitaes (CVs) of Brazilian researchers who work as social scientists in health as our research material. These CVs are part of the Lattes Platform of CNPq - the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, which includes Research and Institutional Directories. We analyzed 238 CVs for this study. The CVs contain, among other things, the following information: professional qualifications, activities and projects, academic production, participation in panels for the evaluation of theses and dissertations, research centers and laboratories and a summarized autobiography. In this work there is a brief review of the importance of autobiography for the social sciences, emphasizing the CV as a form of "autobiographical practice." We highlight some results, such as it being a group consisting predominantly of women, graduates in social sciences, anthropology, sociology or political science, with postgraduate degrees. The highest concentration of social scientists is located in Brazil's southern and southeastern regions. In some institutions the main activities of social scientists are as teachers and researchers with great thematic diversity in research.

  8. Special role of scientists as citizens in a nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masperi, L.

    1999-01-01

    We are living in an age dominated by science and technology. There are probably at present more scientists alive than all those that passed away through the history of humankind. It is certain that science and technology have the possibility of solving the problems of society. However, these problems have not so far been satisfactorily treated and some scientifically ordered society which might be envisaged should hurt the common humanitarian feeling. These are probably the reasons for which a part of the public opinion has lost its trust in science and many people try to find a relief for their anguish in esoteric religions. It seems therefore necessary for a change of attitude on the part of scientists to restore the positive consideration from the society and to be able to contribute to the future evolution of humankind according to a peaceful and harmonious pattern. This short essay will start describing the historical search for solutions through science, will continue by attempting to define the values which should he added to science in the present time, and will end with possible recommendations for scientists in their connection with society, with particular emphasis on the nuclear issue. All that will be considered here refers mainly to natural sciences. Trying to find which are the attitudes of scientists that could contribute to the benefit of society, one may start with the need of feeling love for the scientific achievements they are able to make. Concerning the specific nuclear issue, both civilian and military applications must be considered. The military applications of nuclear energy should be completely prohibited. Scientists may play a relevant role in the elimination of the nuclear weapon possibility in regions of threshold states or with undeclared arsenals. On the way to nuclear-weapon-free world, it will be crucial to convince all or some of the nuclear powers to dismantle their nuclear arsenals. Scientists may make contribution to the

  9. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  10. Statistics and probability with applications for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Bhisham C

    2013-01-01

    Introducing the tools of statistics and probability from the ground up An understanding of statistical tools is essential for engineers and scientists who often need to deal with data analysis over the course of their work. Statistics and Probability with Applications for Engineers and Scientists walks readers through a wide range of popular statistical techniques, explaining step-by-step how to generate, analyze, and interpret data for diverse applications in engineering and the natural sciences. Unique among books of this kind, Statistics and Prob

  11. Creating scientists teaching and assessing science practice for the NGSS

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Teach students to reason like scientists. This practical new book provides a clear framework for helping students develop scientific thinking so they are not just memorizing content but are becoming engaged in the real work scientists do. You'll learn how to teach students to analyse scientific testing, to understand if something caused something else, and to understand the value of evidence. The book offers ideas for lesson plans and assessments and also features reproducible tools and handouts that you can use in the classroom immediately.

  12. International Symposium of Scientists for Nuclear test Stopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Problems discussed at International Symposium of Scientists for Nuclear Test Stopping in July 1986 in Moscow were considered. Scientists discussed complex of possible measures directed at strengthening of peace supporting mechanism, spoke in support of prohibition of all nuclear weapon tests. Necessity of measures preventing the weapon delivery to space, construction of the regime of using cosmic equipment exclusively for peace was noted. Attention was paid to the problem of control for test stopping (by means of sattelites and seismic methods), cooperation establishment between the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Council for the protection of the USA Natural Resources

  13. Nuclear power debate - scientists, mass media and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.; Lichter, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    A poll among the members of the American Men and Women of Science has shown that the majority of scientists are for nuclear energy. The controversial results of polls in the general public are believed to be due to the distortion effects of the press and media. The biased information role of the communication media might be the result of the prejudiced publicity behavior of antinuclear scientists. A more significant role, however, has been played by the science journalists whose scepticism toward nuclear power is reflected in the public opinion. There seems to be a lack in the communication chain connecting the layman public with the science community. (R.P.)

  14. Media resource service: Getting scientists and the media together

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident in 1979 led to the establishment of the Media Resource Service (MRS), which puts journalists in touch with scientists by telephone to help the press meet the public's need to understand science and technology. The Chernobyl nuclear power accident in 1986 underscored that need. The MRS is run by the Scientists' Institute for Public Information (SIPI), a non-profit group in the USA. Similar services have since been set up in Canada and the United Kingdom, and interest has been shown in many other countries

  15. Perceptions on nuclear energy: scientists, media and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In 1990, when the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held its first Public Information Forum 'Nuclear Power: Communicating for Confidence', in Vienna, it reflected the international recognition that public opinion is one of the factors that influence acceptance of nuclear power in the energy mix of a country. Atomic bomb, nuclear proliferation, nuclear waste, exploding reactor (Chernobyl) and now nuclear terrorism stigmatized nuclear industry. In spite of the notable records, large segments of society are still concerned about this form of energy. 'Lack of understanding and misconceptions contribute to this', the first IAEA Forum conceded. Many felt that nuclear community supported this mystique 'by shrouding its operations in a secrecy that could not be penetrated'. Is DAE secretive in publicizing safety-related information? Right from 1947, Nehru's vision an Bhabha's mission on atomic energy coincided. They set up a sound administrative mechanism to respond swiftly, effectively and decisively to the demands from this nascent field. Scientists could not have asked for more. My generation participated in or was witness to the momentous developments in the field. We had a unique opportunity to examine how various sections of the population perceived nuclear technology. How did scientists take up the challenge? The National Symposium of Atomic Energy (November 26-27, 1954) was the first effort to dispel the mood of discontent. Nuclear scientists in India largely remained out of public gaze for long. They were at a disadvantage. They were not used to disorderly democratic debate, other than attending a few press conferences; media paid no attention to atomic energy. Even mild criticism could upset scientists; they were not used to it. Some scientists portrayed journalists who challenged official views as trouble makers. Mixing with the media was considered a risky occupation. During the first half of the fifty years of atomic energy, the public

  16. Feelings and ethics education: the film dear scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence that not only cognition but also emotions shape moral judgment. The conventional teaching of responsible conduct of research, however, does not target emotions; its emphasis is on rational analysis. Here I present a new approach, 'the feelings method,' for incorporating emotions into science ethics education. This method is embodied in Dear Scientists, an innovative film that combines humanities with arts and works at the subconscious level, delivering an intense mix of music and images, contrasted by calm narration. Dear Scientists has struck a chord across the science, humanities, and arts communities-a promising sign.

  17. Feelings and Ethics Education: The Film 'Dear Scientists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Semendeferi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing body of evidence that not only cognition but also emotions shape moral judgment. The conventional teaching of responsible conduct of research, however, does not target emotions; its emphasis is on rational analysis. Here I present a new approach, ‘the feelings method,’ for incorporating emotions into science ethics education. This method is embodied in Dear Scientists, an innovative film that combines humanities with arts and works at the subconscious level, delivering an intense mix of music and images, contrasted by calm narration. Dear Scientists has struck a chord across the science, humanities, and arts communities—a promising sign.

  18. It's a wonderful life: a career as an academic scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ronald D

    2010-01-01

    Many years of training are required to obtain a job as an academic scientist. Is this investment of time and effort worthwhile? My answer is a resounding "yes." Academic scientists enjoy tremendous freedom in choosing their research and career path, experience unusual camaraderie in their lab, school, and international community, and can contribute to and enjoy being part of this historical era of biological discovery. In this essay, I further elaborate by listing my top ten reasons why an academic job is a desirable career for young people who are interested in the life sciences.

  19. SETI pioneers scientists talk about their search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Swift, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Why did some scientists decide to conduct a search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI)? What factors in their personal development predisposed them to such a quest? What obstacles did they encounter along the way? David Swift interviewed the first scientists involved in the search & offers a fascinating overview of the emergence of this modern scientific endeavor. He allows some of the most imaginative scientific thinkers of our time to hold forth on their views regarding SETI & extraterrestrial life & on how the field has developed. Readers will react with a range of opinions as broad as those concerning the likelihood of success in SETI itself. ''A goldmine of original information.''

  20. Science and scientists in the drawings of European children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The first step of the SEDEC project has been a survey on teachers and pupils perception of science, scientists, and the European dimension of science. Different research actions have been organized for the different targets, and have been held in the six countries involved in the project: Czech Republic, France, Italy, Portugal, Poland and Romania. This article will present the analysis of more then 1000 drawings realized by 9 and 14 years old pupils and representing "a scientist". Form the drawings emerge stereotypes, fears, desires, expectations and more, a whole imaginery that has to be taken in account for an effective educative adn communicative action.