WorldWideScience

Sample records for biologics innovative methods

  1. Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established.

  2. INNOVATION IN ACCOUNTING BIOLOGIC ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolуarova M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the innovations in the classification and measurement of biological assets according to IFRS (IAS 41 "Agriculture". The difficulties faced by agricultural producers using standard, set out in article. The classification based on the adopted amendments, according to which the fruit-bearing plants, previously accounted for as biological assets are measured at fair value are included in the category of fixed assets. The structure of biological assets and main means has been studied in trials. Changes made to the IFRS (IAS 41 "Agriculture", make similar national and international accounting rules. In this way, the fruit-bearing plants are carried at cost, taking into account accumulated depreciation. This approach is similar in both accounting systems. The method of accounting of fruit-bearing assets, which after maturation are not significant biotransformation in the value, has been simplifying accounting. According to the fruit-bearing assets, active market was absent; therefore, the estimation of fair value for them is not correct. The model of using fruit-bearing assets is similar to the use of industrial equipment. Historical cost is more appropriate and meets economic substance of the objects. Assessment of performance of fruit-bearing assets and indicators of their use is represented on an example of perennial crops

  3. Evaluating Biological Robustness of Innovative Management Alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastardie, F.; Baudron, A.; Bilocca, R.; Boje, J.; Bult, T.P.; Garcia, D.; Hintzen, N.T.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of innovative management alternatives (participatory governance, effort management, decision rules) on biological robustness (BR) in various fisheries relevant to the EU (Baltic, Western Shelf, Faroe Islands, North Sea), was investigated with a numerical simulation model developed in t

  4. The Delft innovation method: A design thinker's guide to innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper will introduce a new book on innovating, the process that leads to innovation(s). It is based on the experiences in the innovation and creativity field from the Delft University of Technology as well as from independent consultancy. These experiences are condensed in an overall method for

  5. INNOVATIVE SALES METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana L. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies operating in a global economy that is constantly changing and developming, especially during the financial crisis and political instability. It is necessary to adapt and develop sales methods in such environment. For large companies who base their activity on sales it has become a necessity to learn different types of sales approaches because their knowledge enables them to grow the number of customers and therefore the sales and the turnover. This paper aims to exame the most effective sales methods used on the highly sensitive economic and social environment – the insurance market. In the field of insurances, the sales process is even more important because sellers need to sell an intangible product that may materialize in the future, but there is no certainty.

  6. Teaching methods: Tradition and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikandrov, Nikolai D.

    1990-06-01

    It has always been difficult to distinguish between tradition and innovation in teaching methods, not least because of the absence of clear-cut criteria. Definitions of teaching methods are also loose rather than binding. Nevertheless a trend towards active participation by studients is noticeable and very often taken as marking `progressive' teaching. Starting from the basic relationship of method and objective, an attempt is made to further relate cognitive activity of students to specific levels of achievement which are considered as teaching objectives. It is suggested, too, that a loose notion of method can for practical purposes be replaced by a more reliable notion of teaching text whether presented orally or given in written form. Then the problem of innovation in teaching methods can be stated a bit more precisely as that of creating a good teaching text. Some suggestions of how this can be achieved are discussed.

  7. Technological Innovation and Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboli, Maria Cristina

    The wide diffusion of information technology brins generally changes in any field of society. In universities, the teaching approach must conform itself to these new needs adding the information technology tools into the learning process. A multi-disciplinary technical team of Florence University was set up a project involving technical staff developer, educational technologist and web developer and has pointed out issues concerning hardware, software, technical methods and knowledge required by these innovations.

  8. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  9. Innovative methods for knowledge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    At this time, learning takes place, either with classic books on paper support or using books scanned or drawn and further converted into PDF or PPT files that are printed on type support CD / DVD. The latter modern means of learning, the study adds live on the Internet using search engines and not least e-learning method, which allows the study of bibliographic related materials in PDF or PPT, stacked and grouped on the basis of a curriculum imposed which can be accessed on a website via a user name and password. Innovative methods come to successfully use other file types than those mentioned above. The graphics in teaching technical subjects such as descriptive geometry can be achieved using animated PowerPoint files, allowing for visualization of steps to be taken, in the case of solving by drawing a descriptive geometry. Another innovative method relies on the use of HTML files, inspired by related sites help design software packages that can be used when teaching descriptive geometry that the technical design. Through this work, the author has proposed to present a new innovative method, which is inspired by the methods listed above, but involves using AVI files to teaching of computer-assisted type graphics or info graphics. In general this new author's method lends itself particularly well to the teaching of the use of software packages because the student actually see the place from where the delivered command is accessed and contextual options of right button of the mouse. These laboratory courses or mentoring can be freestanding cards support CD / DVD or can be posted on websites with restricted access based on user name and password. Practically paper presents the methodology of creating courses and tutorials in AVI format, and how to monitor the degree of accessing the website, on which there were posted mentioned teaching materials, using the tools offered by Google Analytics. The results consist of graphical work, about the degree of access to

  10. Football refereeing: Identifying innovative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MohammadKazemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.

  11. Patented Biologically-inspired Technological Innovations: A Twenty Year View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard H. C. Bonser

    2006-01-01

    Publication rate of patents can be a useful measure of innovation and productivity in fields of science and technology. To assess the growth in industrially-important research, I conducted an appraisal of patents published between 1985 and 2005 on online databases using keywords chosen to select technologies arising as a result of biological inspiration. Whilst the total number of patents increased over the period examined, those with biomimetic content had increased faster as a proportion of total patent publications. Logistic regression analysis reveals that we may be a little over half way through an initial innovation cycle inspired by biological systems.

  12. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2015-11-24

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  13. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  14. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  15. Standardization, IPRs and open innovation in synthetic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Wested, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    (ICT) to biological standards? These and further legal issues related to IP, regulation, standardization, competition law & open innovation require a careful consideration of new user-generated models and solutions. Before this background this paper seeks to describe IP and standardization aspects...

  16. Biomimetic design method for innovation and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Helfman Cohen, Yael

    2017-01-01

    Presenting a novel biomimetic design method for transferring design solutions from nature to technology, this book focuses on structure-function patterns in nature and advanced modeling tools derived from TRIZ, the theory of inventive problem-solving. The book includes an extensive literature review on biomimicry as an engine of both innovation and sustainability, and discusses in detail the biomimetic design process, current biomimetic design methods and tools. The structural biomimetic design method for innovation and sustainability put forward in this text encompasses (1) the research method and rationale used to develop and validate this new design method; (2) the suggested design algorithm and tools including the Findstructure database, structure-function patterns and ideality patterns; and (3) analyses of four case studies describing how to use the proposed method. This book offers an essential resource for designers who wish to use nature as a source of inspiration and knowledge, innovators and sustain...

  17. Protecting innovation in bioinformatics and in-silico biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Commercial success or failure of innovation in bioinformatics and in-silico biology requires the appropriate use of legal tools for protecting and exploiting intellectual property. These tools include patents, copyrights, trademarks, design rights, and limiting information in the form of 'trade secrets'. Potentially patentable components of bioinformatics programmes include lines of code, algorithms, data content, data structure and user interfaces. In both the US and the European Union, copyright protection is granted for software as a literary work, and most other major industrial countries have adopted similar rules. Nonetheless, the grant of software patents remains controversial and is being challenged in some countries. Current debate extends to aspects such as whether patents can claim not only the apparatus and methods but also the data signals and/or products, such as a CD-ROM, on which the programme is stored. The patentability of substances discovered using in-silico methods is a separate debate that is unlikely to be resolved in the near future.

  18. Innovative Methods for Serving Rural Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Glenn; Burnham, Julia

    1985-01-01

    Some innovative methods of serving the rural handicapped population are described: volunteers; telecommunications for home instruction; SPECIALNET electronic mail; and resources for parents. Three cases involving Utah's Cooperative Extension Project for the Handicapped summarize services for handicapped and Indian students. (GDC)

  19. Biologic rationale of esthetic crown lengthening using innovative proportion gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that practitioners tend to underestimate the amount of tooth structure that must be exposed during a crown lengthening procedure. In the anterior portion of the mouth, this can lead to biologic width problems and subsequent cosmetic issues. This paper presents a biologically based, step-by-step approach to periodontal esthetic crown lengthening. Using a series of innovative measuring gauges, the ideal clinical crown length of a tooth as well as the proper occlusogingival placement of the interproximal papilla will be determined based on established, documented tooth proportion relationships. The biologic crown length of the tooth, defined as the distance from the incisal edge to the bone crest, will subsequently be determined as a function of the clinical crown length, with the ultimate goals being adequate tooth structure for the placement of a restorative margin, establishment of a healthy dentogingival complex, and the placement of an esthetically pleasing definitive restoration.

  20. Jet propulsion in animals: theoretical innovation and biological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Jet propulsion is arguably the oldest and simplest form of animal locomotion, and simple hydrodynamic theory highlights the many possible ways in which animals might maximize speed and minimize metabolic cost while using jet propulsion to travel from one point to another. However, environmental and physiological reality constrains the potential for hydrodynamic innovation. We explore two heuristic examples: Antarctic scallops, in which ecological release from predation apparently constrains the evolution of improved locomotory capacity, and squids, in which the fundamental limitations of muscular contraction constrain the hydrodynamic efficiency of locomotion for all but a small range of sizes. Even simple forms of locomotion can be complex in a biological context.

  1. The virtue of innovation: innovation through the lenses of biological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Douglas B; Lurie-Luke, Elena

    2015-02-06

    We rehearse the processes of innovation and discovery in general terms, using as our main metaphor the biological concept of an evolutionary fitness landscape. Incremental and disruptive innovations are seen, respectively, as successful searches carried out locally or more widely. They may also be understood as reflecting evolution by mutation (incremental) versus recombination (disruptive). We also bring a platonic view, focusing on virtue and memory. We use 'virtue' as a measure of efforts, including the knowledge required to come up with disruptive and incremental innovations, and 'memory' as a measure of their lifespan, i.e. how long they are remembered. Fostering innovation, in the evolutionary metaphor, means providing the wherewithal to promote novelty, good objective functions that one is trying to optimize, and means to improve one's knowledge of, and ability to navigate, the landscape one is searching. Recombination necessarily implies multi- or inter-disciplinarity. These principles are generic to all kinds of creativity, novel ideas formation and the development of new products and technologies.

  2. Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni; Yaganeh, Suzanne; Bloch Rasmussen, Leif

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to a theoretical discussion of creation of innovation with participants in, or outside, organisations. We address the creation of innovation with a complex theoretical understanding drawing on the Scandinavian and the Participatory Design tradition introducing two approaches...... to the processes of innovation. We ask if innovation can be initiated and enhanced looking at two collaborative approaches; participatory innovation (PIN) and cooperative innovation (COIN). We invite to dialogue and reflections on PIN’s conflict and creative frictions on one side and COIN’s complexity......, complementarity in diversity and the didactic scaffolding of the innovation process on the other side. Our contribution focuses on the methods and practices for facilitation of co-creating activities between different groups leading to cooperation, and innovation in thinking....

  3. Biology, Philosophy, and Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L.

    1985-01-01

    The limits of falsification are discussed and the historically based models of science described by Lakatos and Kuhn are shown to offer greater insights into the practice of science. The theory of natural selection is used to relate biology to philosophy and scientific method. (Author/JN)

  4. Diffusion of innovations dynamics, biological growth and catenary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseo, Renato

    2016-12-01

    The catenary function has a well-known role in determining the shape of chains and cables supported at their ends under the force of gravity. This enables design using a specific static equilibrium over space. Its reflected version, the catenary arch, allows the construction of bridges and arches exploiting the dual equilibrium property under uniform compression. In this paper, we emphasize a further connection with well-known aggregate biological growth models over time and the related diffusion of innovation key paradigms (e.g., logistic and Bass distributions over time) that determine self-sustaining evolutionary growth dynamics in naturalistic and socio-economic contexts. Moreover, we prove that the 'local entropy function', related to a logistic distribution, is a catenary and vice versa. This special invariance may be explained, at a deeper level, through the Verlinde's conjecture on the origin of gravity as an effect of the entropic force.

  5. Mark Making: Methodologies and methods (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilig, Hannah

    2016-09-01

    Mark Making is a recently completed AHRC-funded review exploring the role of the participative arts for people with dementia in the UK. Key concerns underlying Mark Making were both how to privilege the views and feelings of people with a dementia and also how best to understand the value of the arts for people with a dementia. These issues were tackled using a variety of qualitative methods. Methods included a rigorous literature review, the development of a unique web-based map locating many participative arts projects and above all working with people with a dementia to ascertain their views. This brief article will concentrate on some of the innovative methods that the Mark Making team used, with particular reference to comics as a mode of engagement as used in the Descartes project. The article will provide an insight into some of the methodological challenges confronted by Mark Making as well as the inspirations and successes that were enjoyed.

  6. The methodical statutes monitoring of activity by innovative structures

    OpenAIRE

    Stoianovskii, Andrii; Baranovska, Sofia; Stoianovska, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    In the article it is suggested to perfect methodical recommendations in relation to monitoring of activity of innovative structures, which, among other, allow to mark off the results of activity of leading organ of management and contractors of innovative projects, registered in her limits an innovative structure.

  7. Method for detecting biological toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligler, F.S.; Campbell, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Biological toxins are indirectly detected by using polymerase chain reaction to amplify unique nucleic acid sequences coding for the toxins or enzymes unique to toxin synthesis. Buffer, primers coding for the unique nucleic acid sequences and an amplifying enzyme are added to a sample suspected of containing the toxin. The mixture is then cycled thermally to exponentially amplify any of these unique nucleic acid sequences present in the sample. The amplified sequences can be detected by various means, including fluorescence. Detection of the amplified sequences is indicative of the presence of toxin in the original sample. By using more than one set of labeled primers, the method can be used to simultaneously detect several toxins in a sample.

  8. Spaces of the possible: universal Darwinism and the wall between technological and biological innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas; Rosen, William

    2014-08-01

    Innovations in biological evolution and in technology have many common features. Some of them involve similar processes, such as trial and error and horizontal information transfer. Others describe analogous outcomes such as multiple independent origins of similar innovations. Yet others display similar temporal patterns such as episodic bursts of change separated by periods of stasis. We review nine such commonalities, and propose that the mathematical concept of a space of innovations, discoveries or designs can help explain them. This concept can also help demolish a persistent conceptual wall between technological and biological innovation.

  9. INNOVATIVE METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT OF ENDURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Cherkesov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently taking place in the countries sociopolitical and socio-economic changes require corresponding changes in the part of departmental vocational training. Physical preparation of employees of law enforcement bodies of the Russian Federation of affairs is one of the areas in need of a thorough modification. With the growing volume and complexity of problems solved by the system of internal affairs bodies, including the configuration of highquality modern crime make it necessary to increase the physical training officer. To maintain law and order and successfully confront crime, the police officer should equally have both legal skills and a decent physical training. This principle of operation is to become a professional duty of a police officer. The article tells about the basic methods of general and special endurance, as well as on innovative developments in this field. Use of physical force has become commonplace in the everyday life of law enforcement officers. This entails the risk of serious consequences, in some cases; threaten the health and life of humans. Therefore, of particular importance are the problem of ensuring the rights of citizens, the rule of law in the activities of departments of internal affairs bodies.

  10. Messy biology and the origins of evolutionary innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Dan S

    2010-10-01

    Biological messiness relates to infidelity, heterogeneity, stochastic noise and variation--both genetic and phenotypic--at all levels, from single proteins to organisms. Messiness comes from the complexity and evolutionary history of biological systems and from the high cost of accuracy. For better or for worse, messiness is inherent to biology. It also provides the raw material for physiological and evolutionary adaptations to new challenges.

  11. INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

    LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

  12. Mathematical methods in biology and neurobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to meet many of the challenges and opportunities offered by modern biology. The description of biological phenomena requires a range of mathematical theories. This is the case particularly for the emerging field of systems biology. Mathematical Methods in Biology and Neurobiology introduces and develops these mathematical structures and methods in a systematic manner. It studies:   • discrete structures and graph theory • stochastic processes • dynamical systems and partial differential equations • optimization and the calculus of variations.   The biological applications range from molecular to evolutionary and ecological levels, for example:   • cellular reaction kinetics and gene regulation • biological pattern formation and chemotaxis • the biophysics and dynamics of neurons • the coding of information in neuronal systems • phylogenetic tree reconstruction • branching processes and population genetics • optimal resource allocation • sexual recombi...

  13. Innovative biological approaches for monitoring and improving water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja eAracic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is largely influenced by the abundance and diversity of indigenous microbes present within an aquatic environment. Physical, chemical and biological contaminants from anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic systems causing detrimental ecological consequences. Approaches exploiting microbial processes are now being utilized for the detection, and removal or reduction of contaminants. Contaminants can be identified and quantified in situ using microbial whole-cell biosensors, negating the need for water samples to be tested off-site. Similarly, the innate biodegradative processes can be enhanced through manipulation of the composition and/or function of the indigenous microbial communities present within the contaminated environments. Biological contaminants, such as detrimental/pathogenic bacteria, can be specifically targeted and reduced in number using bacteriophages. This mini-review discusses the potential application of whole-cell microbial biosensors for the detection of contaminants, the exploitation of microbial biodegradative processes for environmental restoration and the manipulation of microbial communities using phages.

  14. Network news: innovations in 21st century systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, Adam P; Schaffer, David V

    2011-03-18

    A decade ago, seminal perspectives and papers set a strong vision for the field of systems biology, and a number of these themes have flourished. Here, we describe key technologies and insights that have elucidated the evolution, architecture, and function of cellular networks, ultimately leading to the first predictive genome-scale regulatory and metabolic models of organisms. Can systems approaches bridge the gap between correlative analysis and mechanistic insights?

  15. Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA frames innovation as critical to the protection of human health and the environment through initiatives such as sustainable practices, innovative research, prize competitions, innovation awards, partnerships, and community activities.

  16. Innovative culture as a basis of the favorable environment for organisation innovative development: methodical bases of estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.S. Shypulina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to study the role of society and organization innovative culture in the formation of a favorable environment for active transition to an innovative way of development; development of methodological principles of multifactor analysis of societys innovative culture and organization in their logical interrelation.The results of the analysis. The author has defined an extended set of factors that influence on realization of the main functions of society innovative culture (innovation, selection, translation, which the author considers as one of macroenvironment factors that creates favorable conditions for innovative development.Methodical principles of society innovative culture quantitative evaluation, including evaluation of its individual functions are developed. On this basis, the current state of innovative culture in Ukraine is estimated, and indicates its low level.Proved that innovative culture of the organization (company or institution is part of innovative development potential and part of intellectual capital. It confirms a major role of innovative culture in forming the innovative and favorable environment of management. The relationship between innovative culture structural elements, intellectual capital and potential innovation are defined.Criteria base and methodical approach to the quantitative multifactor assessment of organization innovative culture are formed. It includes assessment of its individual components.Methodical approach to assessment of the innovativen culture of Sumy region innovative SMEs is approbated.Conclusions and directions of further researches. The results, conclusions and recommendations of the article allow concluding that the author developed a theoretical, methodological and methodical basis of societys innovative culture analysis. The author sees it as part of macroenvironment and internal innovative culture of the organization, and also as part of its

  17. Innovative Methods for Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-30

    C. Amzallag, J.P. Gerey, J.L. Robert and J. Bahuaudt, "Standardization of the rainflow counting method for fatigue analysis", Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 16...Millwater, R.C. McClung, M.P. Enright , "A new tool for design and certification of aircraft turbine rotors," Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines...Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 3443-3455. [4] J. Dundurs: J. Appl. Mech., 1969, Vol. 36, pp. 650-652. [5] K.S. Chan and M. P. Enright : Metall. Mater. Transactions

  18. Structured methods for customer-oriented innovation research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    customers might have told them if they had only properly been asked beforehand. In the following, a short introduction will be given to structured research methods that are relatively easy to use and can help product developers prioritise their efforts and assess the market potential of innovative concepts....

  19. Reality Research Methods: An Innovative Teaching Strategy for Generation Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Walsh, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Those who teach research methods courses may struggle to engage students who are anxious or apprehensive about taking the course. Thus, it becomes the obligation of the instructor to develop innovative approaches so that students overcome their apprehension, learn the material, and, it is hoped, develop a passion for research. The authors present…

  20. The Bonny Method: Training Innovations at Anna Maria College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Anne Abbott

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Helen Bonny developed the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music for use as a primary process of receptive music psychotherapy in long-term therapy. Training programs in the method traditionally taught it for use in this manner. Over the last two decades, however, modifications of the Bonny Method for use in short term therapy have inspired innovations in training. As a part of this movement, the Anna Maria College training program is innovative in three main areas: a the music and imagery methods used to train students, b the processes of personal development in which students are engaged, and c the processes used for distance supervision and peer interaction.

  1. Using Data Exclusivity Grants to Incentivize Cumulative Innovation of Biologics' Manufacturing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Eric Lawrence

    The pharmaceutical market is divided into two types of compounds: small-molecule chemical compounds and large-molecule biologics. Due to biologics’ molecular sizes and the current scientific state of biologics manufacturing, manufacturing facilities and processes require frequent reassessment to ensure production of safe, pure, and potent therapeutics. Manufacturers utilize patent and drug regulatory law to protect their investments and simultaneously signal where innovation and investment are lacking. The current four- and twelve-year regimented structures of the Biologics Price, Competition, and Innovation Act do not keep pace with scientific development; biologics manufacturing processes drift with time, and if a manufacturer can obtain a higher degree of process control, then it should not feel restricted to wait until their exclusivity period lapses. Currently, the FDA rarely grants market exclusivity privileges for manufacturing process improvements alone; hence, manufacturing processes--or at least large portions thereof--are typically withheld as trade secrets or strategically claimed within companion composition claims. As a result, significant opportunity exists in regulatory framework to incentivize the research and development of biologics manufacturing processes. By creating a one- to four-year data exclusivity extension opportunity, manufacturers will feel more comfortable reinvesting their returns on investment towards manufacturing efficiency, and manufacturers can capitalize on the complex-molecule nature of their biologic.

  2. Use of innovative training methods in teaching management subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Chernomorchenko Svetlana Ivanovna; Chernyshev Aleksandr Anatolyevich

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the impact of innovative teaching methods on the improvement of future specialistsэ training in the field of management. The metaphoric business games and case study were considered to be the most productive according to the results of testing. They help trainees in forming new approaches to managerial problem solving. The research can be the basis for further research on improving the education of students and future managers, and identifying methods and t...

  3. Methods and tools for innovation management procuring enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogomolov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods of quality control of grain, dock-led feasibility, proposed and tested in practice near-mill elevator innovative methods of management organization, introduction of resource-saving technologies, different allow using «piezo electronic sensor» more quickly and accurately detect early damage of grain of wheat and ensure its further storage without loss of quality are described.

  4. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEMEŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  5. Graphics Innovation Design Based on Cell Intuition Simulation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhi-qiu; REN Na; ZHAO Ting-ting; CUI Lun-feng

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new cell intuition simulation method which is a combination of intuitive simulation calculation method and the operation of binary image, and applied it in the innovation of the graphic design process. First of all, we study how to express a variety of graphics, and establish the definition of cell intuitive model, work out the cell intuitive operation process and many new cellular operators such as a variety of matrix blocks crossover operator, a variety of matrix blocks mutation operator, matrix blocks replace operator, matrix blocks compression operator, matrix blocks extension operator. By choosing two or more cells and selecting the artificial selection or fitness selection, we can set up and visualize the design and pick the best design results .Finally, validation is made on this algorithm by an example, and a innovation graphic is also represented.

  6. Innovative Research Methods for Rethinking Gender in CSPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Gender and women’s empowerment has become a big issue within CSPs in recent years. (See pages 58-61). Yet designing research projects that have proven impact on improving the lives of women in supply chains can be challenging, especially in CSPs where under - standings of ‘gender’ and ‘equality......’ can differ culturally. This article therefore explores innovative research methods suitable to get a clearer view on gender issues....

  7. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Allen [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Darlow, Rick [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sanchez, Angel [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Pierce, Michael [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sellers, Blake [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  8. Plant Methods: putting the spotlight on technological innovation in the plant sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Michael R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plant Methods is a new journal for plant biologists, specialising in the rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles with a focus on technological innovation in the plant sciences. The aim of Plant Methods is to stimulate the development and adoption of new and improved techniques and research tools in plant biology. We hope to promote more consistent standards in the plant sciences, and make readily accessible laboratory and computer-based research tools available to the whole community. This will be achieved by publishing Research articles, Methodology papers and Reviews using the BioMed Central Open Access publishing model. The journal is supported by a prestigious editorial board, whose members all recognise the importance of technological innovation as a driver for basic science.

  9. Shoreline clean-up methods : biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T. [Oil Spill Response Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The cleanup of oil spills in shoreline environments is a challenging issue worldwide. Oil spills receive public and media attention, particularly in the event of a coastal impact. It is important to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of cleanup methods when defining the level of effort and consequences that are appropriate to remove or treat different types of oil on different shoreline substrates. Of the many studies that have compared different mechanical, chemical and biological treatments for their effectiveness on various types of oil, biological techniques have received the most attention. For that reason, this paper evaluated the effectiveness and effects of shoreline cleanup methods using biological techniques. It summarized data from field experiments and oil spill incidents, including the Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress, Prestige, Grand Eagle, Nakhodka, Guanabara Bay and various Gulf war oil spills. Five major shoreline types were examined, notably rocky intertidal, cobble/pebble/gravel, sand/mud, saltmarsh, and mangrove/sea-grass. The biological techniques that were addressed were nutrient enrichment, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, vegetable oil biosolvents, plants, surf washing, oil-particle interactions and natural attenuation. The study considered the oil type, volume and fate of stranded oil, location of coastal materials, extent of pollution and the impact of biological techniques. The main factors that affect biodegradation of hydrocarbons are the volume, chemical composition and weathering state of the petroleum product as well as the temperature, oxygen availability of nutrients, water salinity, pH level, water content, and microorganisms in the shoreline environment. The interaction of these factors also affect the biodegradation of oil. It was concluded that understanding the fate of stranded oil can help in the development of techniques that improve the weathering and degradation of oil on complex shoreline substrates. 39 refs.

  10. Algorithmic and analytical methods in network biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyutürk, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    During the genomic revolution, algorithmic and analytical methods for organizing, integrating, analyzing, and querying biological sequence data proved invaluable. Today, increasing availability of high-throughput data pertaining to functional states of biomolecules, as well as their interactions, enables genome-scale studies of the cell from a systems perspective. The past decade witnessed significant efforts on the development of computational infrastructure for large-scale modeling and analysis of biological systems, commonly using network models. Such efforts lead to novel insights into the complexity of living systems, through development of sophisticated abstractions, algorithms, and analytical techniques that address a broad range of problems, including the following: (1) inference and reconstruction of complex cellular networks; (2) identification of common and coherent patterns in cellular networks, with a view to understanding the organizing principles and building blocks of cellular signaling, regulation, and metabolism; and (3) characterization of cellular mechanisms that underlie the differences between living systems, in terms of evolutionary diversity, development and differentiation, and complex phenotypes, including human disease. These problems pose significant algorithmic and analytical challenges because of the inherent complexity of the systems being studied; limitations of data in terms of availability, scope, and scale; intractability of resulting computational problems; and limitations of reference models for reliable statistical inference. This article provides a broad overview of existing algorithmic and analytical approaches to these problems, highlights key biological insights provided by these approaches, and outlines emerging opportunities and challenges in computational systems biology.

  11. Exclusivity strategies and opportunities in view of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Kate S

    2011-01-01

    Government-provided exclusivity periods provide pharmaceutical companies with incentives to invest in new drugs. Meanwhile, encouraging competition serves another worthy goal of improving the affordability of medications. Decades ago, the Hatch-Waxman Act set forth provisions attempting to balance these objectives in the context of small-molecule drugs. Recently, the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act was enacted to meet similar aims in the context of biologic drugs. This article presents a detailed comparison of these two Acts. While the Acts share many global similarities (e.g., providing exclusivity terms and abbreviated approval processes), many differences are also apparent when analyzing details of the provisions. One area of great departure between the Acts is the requirements of how a generic or follow-on applicant must address patents covering a reference product. After describing these differences, the article presents predictions of how reference product sponsors will adapt their patent-prosecution strategies in view of the new Biologics Act.

  12. Participatory methods for initiating manufacturing employees' involvement in product innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Jensen, Christian Schou; Broberg, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Employee-driven innovation has the potential to improve product innovation by involving employees as innovative resources. However, it can be a challenge to turn the potential into a reality of collaboration practices across organizational structures and culture. Through an interactive research......-driven innovation practices....

  13. On managing innovation by design: Towards SMART methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaas, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper innovation by design is characterised schematically and methodological with the aim of analysing how projects of innovation by design can be managed. First, I approach innovation by design from an engineering perspective, and show that the incorporation of innovation into design projec

  14. Computational methods for the innovative design of electrical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiak, Slawomir [Technical Univ. Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Mechatronics and Information; Napieralska-Juszczak, Ewa (eds.) [Univ. d' Artois, Bethune (FR). Lab. Systemes Electrotechniques et Environnement (LSEE)

    2010-07-01

    Computational Methods for the Innovative Design of Electrical Devices is entirely focused on the optimal design of various classes of electrical devices. Emerging new methods, like e.g. those based on genetic algorithms, are presented and applied in the design optimization of different devices and systems. Accordingly, the solution to field analysis problems is based on the use of finite element method, and analytical methods as well. An original aspect of the book is the broad spectrum of applications in the area of electrical engineering, especially electrical machines. This way, traditional design criteria of conventional devices are revisited in a critical way, and some innovative solutions are suggested. In particular, the optimization procedures developed are oriented to three main aspects: shape design, material properties identification, machine optimal behaviour. Topics covered include: - New parallel finite-element solvers - Response surface method - Evolutionary computing - Multiobjective optimization - Swarm intelligence - MEMS applications - Identification of magnetic properties of anisotropic laminations - Neural networks for non-destructive testing - Brushless DC motors, transformers - Permanent magnet disc motors, magnetic separators - Magnetic levitation systems (orig.)

  15. Molecular Biological Methods in Environmental Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guocai; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria, acting as catalysts, perform the function of degrading pollutants. Molecular biological techniques play an important role in research on the community analysis, the composition and the functions of complex microbial communities. The development of secondary high-throughput pyrosequencing techiniques enhances the understanding of the composition of the microbial community. The literatures of 2015 indicated that 16S rDNA gene as genetic tag is still the important method for bacteria identification and classification. 454 high throughput sequencing and Illumina MiSeq sequencing have been the primary and widely recognized methods to analyze the microbial. This review will provide environmental engineers and microbiologists an overview of important advancements in molecular techniques and highlight the application of these methods in diverse environments.

  16. 2010 Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ana Gonzalez

    2011-03-10

    Advances in basic methodologies have played a major role in the dramatic progress in macromolecular crystallography over the past decade, both in terms of overall productivity and in the increasing complexity of the systems being successfully tackled. The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology will, as in the past, focus on the most recent developments in methodology, covering all aspects of the process from crystallization to model building and refinement, complemented by examples of structural highlights and complementary methods. Extensive discussion will be encouraged and it is hoped that all attendees will participate by giving oral or poster presentations, the latter using the excellent poster display area available at Bates College. The relatively small size and informal atmosphere of the meeting provides an excellent opportunity for all participants, especially younger scientists, to meet and exchange ideas with leading methods developers.

  17. Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Kravet om innovation og kreativitet er på flere måder en stor og en ny udfordring for voksenuddannelserne. Det udfordrer det didaktiske dilemma, det at vi skal gøres til kompetente og frie mennesker gennem pædagogiske handlinger, som netop pålægger os en ufrihed. – Men hvor denne ufrihed...... innovative, netop er det, vi endnu ikke kender...

  18. Coarse-graining methods for computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Marissa G; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Connecting the molecular world to biology requires understanding how molecular-scale dynamics propagate upward in scale to define the function of biological structures. To address this challenge, multiscale approaches, including coarse-graining methods, become necessary. We discuss here the theoretical underpinnings and history of coarse-graining and summarize the state of the field, organizing key methodologies based on an emerging paradigm for multiscale theory and modeling of biomolecular systems. This framework involves an integrated, iterative approach to couple information from different scales. The primary steps, which coincide with key areas of method development, include developing first-pass coarse-grained models guided by experimental results, performing numerous large-scale coarse-grained simulations, identifying important interactions that drive emergent behaviors, and finally reconnecting to the molecular scale by performing all-atom molecular dynamics simulations guided by the coarse-grained results. The coarse-grained modeling can then be extended and refined, with the entire loop repeated iteratively if necessary.

  19. Innovative teaching methods for capacity building in knowledge translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In some current healthcare settings, there is a noticeable absence of national institutions committed to the synthesis and use of evidence in healthcare decision- and policy-making. This absence creates a need to broaden the responsibilities of healthcare providers to include knowledge brokering and advocacy in order to optimize knowledge translation to other stakeholders, especially policy-makers. However, this process requires practitioners and researchers to acquire certain types of knowledge and skills. This article introduces two innovative methods for capacity building in knowledge translation (KT). Methods During a workshop aimed at preparing 21 trainers in evidence-based medicine, two innovative methods were used: (1) debate and (2) a knowledge translation project (KTP). The main objective of the debates approach was to strengthen participants' critical thinking abilities by requiring them to search for and appraise evidence and defend their arguments. The KTP was used to introduce participants to the essential steps of knowledge translation and to suggest an extended role for healthcare practitioners, i.e., using evidence to manage not only individual patients but also to a community of patients. Participants' performances were assessed according to a pre-designed scheme. At the end of the workshop, participants' opinions and experiences with the innovative teaching methods were evaluated based on their answers to a questionnaire and the results of small-group discussions. Results The participants performed well in both the debate and KTP methods. During post-workshop group discussions, they indicated that the debate approach had added a new dimension to their evidence-based medicine skills by adding purpose and motivation. However, they felt that their performances would have been better if they had been offered practical demonstrations of how to conduct the debate. The participants indicated that the KTP enhanced their understanding of the

  20. Innovative teaching methods for capacity building in knowledge translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ansary Lubna A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some current healthcare settings, there is a noticeable absence of national institutions committed to the synthesis and use of evidence in healthcare decision- and policy-making. This absence creates a need to broaden the responsibilities of healthcare providers to include knowledge brokering and advocacy in order to optimize knowledge translation to other stakeholders, especially policy-makers. However, this process requires practitioners and researchers to acquire certain types of knowledge and skills. This article introduces two innovative methods for capacity building in knowledge translation (KT. Methods During a workshop aimed at preparing 21 trainers in evidence-based medicine, two innovative methods were used: (1 debate and (2 a knowledge translation project (KTP. The main objective of the debates approach was to strengthen participants' critical thinking abilities by requiring them to search for and appraise evidence and defend their arguments. The KTP was used to introduce participants to the essential steps of knowledge translation and to suggest an extended role for healthcare practitioners, i.e., using evidence to manage not only individual patients but also to a community of patients. Participants' performances were assessed according to a pre-designed scheme. At the end of the workshop, participants' opinions and experiences with the innovative teaching methods were evaluated based on their answers to a questionnaire and the results of small-group discussions. Results The participants performed well in both the debate and KTP methods. During post-workshop group discussions, they indicated that the debate approach had added a new dimension to their evidence-based medicine skills by adding purpose and motivation. However, they felt that their performances would have been better if they had been offered practical demonstrations of how to conduct the debate. The participants indicated that the KTP enhanced their

  1. Performance Evaluation Method and Algorithm of Knowledge Management for Product Innovation Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongdang Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion of knowledge management performance evaluation index and evaluation methods for product innovation. The content of knowledge management and the flow of knowledge in product innovation process are analyzed. According to the purpose of performance evaluation and combined with the characteristics of product innovation, the knowledge management performance index for product innovation is established, and the specific evaluation method and algorithm are described. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation process is discussed.

  2. An Action Learning Method for Increased Innovation Capability in Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Annika; Wadell, Carl; Odenrick, Per; Norell Bergendahl, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation in highly complex and technological areas, such as medical technology, puts high requirements on the innovation capability of an organisation. Previous research and publications have highlighted organisational issues and learning matters as important and necessary for the development of innovation capability. Action learning…

  3. Innovative Principle and Method for Digital Jacquard Fabric Designing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jiu; NG Fran-kie; SZETO Y C; HUI C L

    2007-01-01

    Digital jacquard fabric has its design concept and method directly borrowed from computer images and color modes, which enabled creation of jacquard fabric design that is far beyond what freehand patterns can express. In this paper, the principles of digital jacquard fabric design were classified into two parts: colorless mode and colorful mode, and an innovative layered combination design method has been suggested contenting with this new design concept, by which digital jacquard fabric can be designed from colorless single-layer structure to colorful compound structure. As a result, designed colorless and colorful jacquard fabrics are capable of expressing picturesque and photo-realistic effects with a mega level color number on face of fabric. It is envisaged that the results of the study are of tremendous benefit to the creation of new jacquard fabric ith an inimitable digital effect and this creation pose no problem in mass production.

  4. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  5. Network biology methods integrating biological data for translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebek, Gurkan; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Price, Nathan D; Chance, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    The explosion of biomedical data, both on the genomic and proteomic side as well as clinical data, will require complex integration and analysis to provide new molecular variables to better understand the molecular basis of phenotype. Currently, much data exist in silos and is not analyzed in frameworks where all data are brought to bear in the development of biomarkers and novel functional targets. This is beginning to change. Network biology approaches, which emphasize the interactions between genes, proteins and metabolites provide a framework for data integration such that genome, proteome, metabolome and other -omics data can be jointly analyzed to understand and predict disease phenotypes. In this review, recent advances in network biology approaches and results are identified. A common theme is the potential for network analysis to provide multiplexed and functionally connected biomarkers for analyzing the molecular basis of disease, thus changing our approaches to analyzing and modeling genome- and proteome-wide data.

  6. Scientific-methodical bases of management of the ecologically innovative development on different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kasyanenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article investigation and improved essence of concept of the ecologically innovative development, aims, basic functions, principles and methods of management the ecologization of innovative development of the state, region and enterprise are certain. Intercommunication and interconsistency of management levels is formed ecologically innovative development.

  7. Governing Methods: Policy Innovation Labs, Design and Data Science in the Digital Governance of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Policy innovation labs are emerging knowledge actors and technical experts in the governing of education. The article offers a historical and conceptual account of the organisational form of the policy innovation lab. Policy innovation labs are characterised by specific methods and techniques of design, data science, and digitisation in public…

  8. HOW DO FIRMS SOURCE EXTERNAL KNOWLEDGE FOR INNOVATION? ANALYSING EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT KNOWLEDGE SOURCING METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    KI H. KANG; JINA KANG

    2009-01-01

    In the era of "open innovation", external knowledge is a very important source for technology innovation. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between external knowledge and performance of technology innovation. The effect of external knowledge on the performance of technology innovation can vary with different external knowledge sourcing methods. We identify three ways of external knowledge sourcing: information transfer from informal network, R&D collaboration and technology acqui...

  9. Stimulating Creativity Methods And Innovative Performance In European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şipoş Gabriela Lucia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A widely debated topic during the last decades focuses on the companies’ opportunities to acquire corporate competitiveness due to research, innovation and development. Thus, in the context of increased competition and current global challenges, fostering creativity and innovation is a way to boost economic growth and welfare of European countries. New and original ideas, skills, competencies and innovations they all could enable to achieve competitive advantages. Creative ideas and innovative solutions are crucial for the European countries in order to overcome the current economic crisis.

  10. INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Kravet om innovation og kreativitet er på flere måder en stor og en ny udfordring for voksenuddannelserne. Det udfordrer det didaktiske dilemma, det at vi skal gøres til kompetente og frie mennesker gennem pædagogiske handlinger, som netop pålægger os en ufrihed. – Men hvor denne ufrihed tidligere...... kunne begrundes med, at skolen eller uddannelsen vidste bedre, så er det ikke længere tilfældet. Skolen skal sørge for, at vi lærer noget – og ikke noget andet. Men det kan ikke længere med bestemthed afgøres, hvad det er vi skal lære i skolen, fordi det nye, det kreative og ikke mindst innovative...

  11. Method and apparatus for biological sequence comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, T.G.; Chang, W.I.

    1997-12-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for comparing biological sequences from a known source of sequences, with a subject (query) sequence. The apparatus takes as input a set of target similarity levels (such as evolutionary distances in units of PAM), and finds all fragments of known sequences that are similar to the subject sequence at each target similarity level, and are long enough to be statistically significant. The invention device filters out fragments from the known sequences that are too short, or have a lower average similarity to the subject sequence than is required by each target similarity level. The subject sequence is then compared only to the remaining known sequences to find the best matches. The filtering member divides the subject sequence into overlapping blocks, each block being sufficiently large to contain a minimum-length alignment from a known sequence. For each block, the filter member compares the block with every possible short fragment in the known sequences and determines a best match for each comparison. The determined set of short fragment best matches for the block provide an upper threshold on alignment values. Regions of a certain length from the known sequences that have a mean alignment value upper threshold greater than a target unit score are concatenated to form a union. The current block is compared to the union and provides an indication of best local alignment with the subject sequence. 5 figs.

  12. Function combined method for design innovation of children's bike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Qiu, Tingting; Chen, Huijuan

    2013-03-01

    As children mature, bike products for children in the market develop at the same time, and the conditions are frequently updated. Certain problems occur when using a bike, such as cycle overlapping, repeating function, and short life cycle, which go against the principles of energy conservation and the environmental protection intensive design concept. In this paper, a rational multi-function method of design through functional superposition, transformation, and technical implementation is proposed. An organic combination of frog-style scooter and children's tricycle is developed using the multi-function method. From the ergonomic perspective, the paper elaborates on the body size of children aged 5 to 12 and effectively extracts data for a multi-function children's bike, which can be used for gliding and riding. By inverting the body, parts can be interchanged between the handles and the pedals of the bike. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis of the components and structural design, body material, and processing technology of the bike. The study of Industrial Product Innovation Design provides an effective design method to solve the bicycle problems, extends the function problems, improves the product market situation, and enhances the energy saving feature while implementing intensive product development effectively at the same time.

  13. Methods of regional innovative clusters forming and development programs elaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Marchuk, Olha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article is to select programmes for the formation and development of innovative cluster structures. The analysis of the backgrounds of formation of innovative clusters was made in the regions of Ukraine. Two types of programmes were suggested for the implamentation of cluster policy at the regional level.

  14. Methods to Implement Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arion, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    The physics community is beginning to become aware of the benefits of entrepreneurship and innovation education: greater enrollments, improved students satisfaction, a wider range of interesting research problems, and the potential for greater return from more successful alumni. This talk will suggest a variety of mechanisms by which physics departments can include entrepreneurship and innovation content within their programs - without necessarily requiring earth-shattering changes to the curriculum. These approaches will thus make it possible for departments to get involved with entrepreneurship and innovation, and grow those components into vibrant activities for students and faculty.

  15. Architecture and Methods for Innovative Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays wireless sensor netwoks (WSN technology, wireless communications and digital electronics have made it realistic to produce a large scale miniaturized devices integrating sensing, processing and communication capabilities. The focus of this paper is to present an innovative mobile platform for heterogeneous sensor networks, combined with adaptive methods to optimize the communication architecture for novel potential applications in multimedia and entertainment. In fact, in the near future, some of the applications foreseen for WSNs will employ multi-platform systems with a high number of different devices, which may be completely different in nature, size, computational and energy capabilities, etc. Nowadays, in addition, data collection could be performed by UAV platforms which can be a sink for ground sensors layer, acting essentially as a mobile gateway. In order to maximize the system performances and the network lifespan, the authors propose a recently developed hybrid technique based on evolutionary algorithms. The goal of this procedure is to optimize the communication energy consumption in WSN by selecting the optimal multi-hop routing schemes, with a suitable hybridization of different routing criteria. The proposed approach can be potentially extended and applied to ongoing research projects focused on UAV-based sensing with WSN augmentation and real-time processing for immersive media experiences.

  16. INNOVATIVE USE OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT METHODS FOR PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna MIDOR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organisations constantly look for new, innovative solutions and methods which could be used to improve their efficiency and increase the quality of their products. Identifying the causes for returns is an important issue for modern compa-nies, as returns are the cause for the increase in production costs and, most importantly, the loss of credibility in the eyes of the client. Therefore, for the company to be able to sustain or strengthen its position on the market, it has to follow the rules of quality management. Especially important is the rule of constant improvement. This rule is primarily connected with preventing errors and defects from occurring at all the stages of the production process. To achieve that, one must, among other things, use quality management tools. The article presents an analysis of causes for returns of a vibrating screen produced by a company which manufactures machinery and equipment for the extractive industry, using quality management tools such as the Ishikawa diagram and Pareto analysis. The analysis allowed for the identifi-cation of the causes of client returns which could not be previously identified, and proposing solutions for them.

  17. Methodical basis of innovative tourism products markets options determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju.S. Miliutuna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is investigated the applicability of the Frank M. Bass mathematical model to assess extent and timing of innovative tourism product consumers' perception. An author's classification of innovative tourism products target consumers is done. The necessity of Frank M. Bass model adaption to the needs of the tourism market by introducing a factor that would reflect the personal selling specifics is proved.

  18. An innovative method for exosome quantification and size measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdiani, Arash; Maier, Anatol; Pinto, Antonio; Barth, Mareike; Akhyari, Payam; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2015-01-17

    Although the biological importance of exosomes has recently gained an increasing amount of scientific and clinical attention, much is still unknown about their complex pathways, their bioavailability and their diverse functions in health and disease. Current work focuses on the presence and the behavior of exosomes (in vitro as well as in vivo) in the context of different human disorders, especially in the fields of oncology, gynecology and cardiology. Unfortunately, neither a consensus regarding a gold standard for exosome isolation exists, nor is there an agreement on such a method for their quantitative analysis. As there are many methods for the purification of exosomes and also many possibilities for their quantitative and qualitative analysis, it is difficult to determine a combination of methods for the ideal approach. Here, we demonstrate nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), a semi-automated method for the characterization of exosomes after isolation from human plasma by ultracentrifugation. The presented results show that this approach for isolation, as well as the determination of the average number and size of exosomes, delivers reproducible and valid data, as confirmed by other methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  19. Methods for analysis of fluoroquinolones in biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods for analysis of 10 selected fluoroquinolone antibiotics in biological fluids are reviewed. Approaches for sample preparation, detection methods, limits of detection and quantitation and recovery information are provided for both single analyte and multi-analyte fluoroquinolone methods....

  20. Methods in molecular biology: plant cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytogenetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of genetics, biology, reproduction, and evolution. From early studies in basic chromosome behavior the field has expanded enabling whole genome analysis to the manipulation of chromosomes and their organization. This book covers a ran...

  1. Bioelectrochemical removal of carbon dioxide (CO2): an innovative method for biogas upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Kaijun; Holmes, Dawn E

    2014-12-01

    Innovative methods for biogas upgrading based on biological/in-situ concepts have started to arouse considerable interest. Bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 for biogas upgrading was proposed here and demonstrated in both batch and continuous experiments. The in-situ biogas upgrading system seemed to perform better than the ex-situ one, but CO2 content was kept below 10% in both systems. The in-situ system's performance was further enhanced under continuous operation. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and alkali production with CO2 absorption could be major contributors to biogas upgrading. Molecular studies showed that all the biocathodes associated with biogas upgrading were dominated by sequences most similar to the same hydrogenotrophic methanogen species, Methanobacterium petrolearium (97-99% sequence identity). Conclusively, bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 showed great potential for biogas upgrading.

  2. Application of Innovative Methods to Optimize the Learning Process in Physics for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlateva, Genoveva; Tsankova, Emilya

    2010-01-01

    Unlike chemistry and biology courses in the high schools which occupy the attention and interest of students as they need to achieve maximum results of examinations for admission in higher medical schools, physics remains away from their interest. Striving for awakening the interest of medical students to classes in physics and diversification of the learning process requires the continuous search of new forms of organization of this process in order to fulfill the main task of education: optimal development of each student, creating conditions for creative work with the highest possible productivity. Using innovations in teaching physics, aimed at the purpose of training in non-traditional way, transforms the passive learning in an active creative process. This allows rapid identification and compensation of gaps in the knowledge, which in turn leads to a rationalization and a more complete and lasting control of educational content. The aim of the study is analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation of innovative educational methods to increase motivation and the quality of teaching physics to students of medicine. The discussion is based on the opinions expressed in surveys of students and results of various forms of feedback.

  3. [Students of today, physicians of tomorrow. Educational priorities for innovative teaching methods in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicciardi, Stefano; Riforgiato, Chiara; Leopardi, Eleonora

    2015-02-01

    In the past three years there has been increasing debate regarding the educational system of physicians in Italy, mainly due to the implementation of radical changes in the selection and admission criteria to medical courses. From the students' point of view, it is possible to identify different educational challenges to be faced in order to develop a more adequate learning system.First of all, it is necessary to elaborate an accurate planning of the physicians based on the needs of the Italian Healthcare System with a proportionate regulation of access to medical and specialty courses. Secondly, there is the strong need to update the traditional curricula based on a biological reductionist perspective with innovative and integrated courses that could teach new essential topics in a radically changed and globalized world, such as global health or medical ethics. Thirdly, it is crucial to introduce innovative teaching methods that could help students improve and evaluate their practical skills and participate actively in their own education, developing the attitudes and competences needed in their future profession.

  4. METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF POTENTIAL AREAS OF FORMING SOCIO-ECONOMIC INNOVATIVE CLUSTERS IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Donichev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main problems of formation of innovation clusters in the regions, the role and the importance of government in these issues. The characteristics of the main socio-economic and innovative performances of the region are analyzed to determine its potential for creating innovative economic cluster. The methods for detecting possible potential areas of formation of such cluster are developed.

  5. ANALYSIS OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF METALLURGICAL COMPANIES USING MONTE-CARLO MATHEMATICAL MODEL-ING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekoturova S. D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of an innovative activity of four Russian metallurgical enterprises: "Ruspolimet", JSC "Ural Smithy", JSC "Stupino Metallurgical Company", JSC "VSMPO" via mathematical modeling using Monte Carlo method. The results of the assessment of innovative activity of Russian metallurgical companies were identified in five years dynamics. An assessment of the current innovative activity was made by the calculation of an integral index of the innovative activity. The calculation was based on such six indicators as the proportion of staff employed in R & D; the level of development of new technology; the degree of development of new products; share of material resources for R & D; degree of security of enterprise intellectual property; the share of investment in innovative projects and it was analyzed from 2007 to 2011. On the basis of this data the integral indicator of the innovative activity of metallurgical companies was calculated by well-known method of weighting coefficients. The comparative analysis of integral indicators of the innovative activity of considered companies made it possible to range their level of the innovative activity and to characterize the current state of their business. Based on Monte Carlo method a variation interval of the integral indicator was obtained and detailed instructions to choose the strategy of the innovative development of metallurgical enterprises were given as well

  6. Science Café Course: An Innovative Means of Improving Communication Skills of Undergraduate Biology Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Goldina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To help bridge the increasing gap between scientists and the public, we developed an innovative two-semester course, called Science Café. In this course undergraduate biology majors learn to develop communication skills to be better able to explain science concepts and current developments in science to non-scientists. Students develop and host outreach events on various topics relevant to the community, thereby increasing interactions between budding scientists and the public. Such a Science Cafe course emphasizes development of science communication skills early, at the undergraduate level and empowers students to use their science knowledge in every day interactions with the public to increase science literacy, get involved in the local community and engage the public in a dialogue on various pressing science issues. We believe that undergraduate science majors can be great ambassadors for science and are often overlooked since many aspire to go on to medical/veterinary/pharmacy schools. However, science communication skills are especially important for these types of students because when they become healthcare professionals, they will interact with the public as part of their everyday jobs and can thus be great representatives for the field.

  7. Changing Methods and Mindsets: Lessons from Innovate NYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2016-01-01

    As schools and classrooms explore technology-based, student-centered, personalized approaches to teaching and learning, their efforts to innovate can be hamstrung by archaic district operating systems that do not allow them to take advantage of new technologies, to work with smaller startup companies, or to quickly make and implement decisions.…

  8. Determination of Innovation Capability of Organizations: Qualitative Meta Synthesis and Delphi Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, Mostafa; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Kafash, Mahdi Haghighi

    2015-01-01

    in this rapidly changing world. This research focuses on recognition of the aspects of innovation capability and proposes a conceptual model based on a qualitative Meta-Analysis of academic literature on organisations innovation capability. This is proposed for the development of the concept of innovation...... capability in the organizations and this paper includes an expert based validation in three rounds of the Delphi method. This research proposed a direct relationship between Innovation Capability and three main capabilities that is called Structural Capability, Personnel Capability and Operational Capability...

  9. Quantum integrable systems. Quantitative methods in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Feverati, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Quantum integrable systems have very strong mathematical properties that allow an exact description of their energetic spectrum. From the Bethe equations, I formulate the Baxter "T-Q" relation, that is the starting point of two complementary approaches based on nonlinear integral equations. The first one is known as thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, the second one as Kl\\"umper-Batchelor-Pearce-Destri- de Vega. I show the steps toward the derivation of the equations for some of the models concerned. I study the infrared and ultraviolet limits and discuss the numerical approach. Higher rank integrals of motion can be obtained, so gaining some control on the eigenvectors. After, I discuss the Hubbard model in relation to the N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory. The Hubbard model describes hopping electrons on a lattice. In the second part, I present an evolutionary model based on Turing machines. The goal is to describe aspects of the real biological evolution, or Darwinism, by letting evolve populations of algorithms. ...

  10. The methodical approach to the rational organization of innovative process at the enterprise development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Karpishchenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodical approach to the rational organization of innovative process at the enterprise by the coordination constituting market, production and innovative activity is developed. The versatile estimation of strategics type behavior of the enterprise is put in its basis.

  11. Methodical approach to the assessment of professional competence for the innovation economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Podmolodina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern economic conditions effectively carry out innovative activity could only highly professional personnel. For an assessment of competences of the enterprise employees we offer the methodical approach, allowing defining readiness of the enterprise employee for innovative activity from the point of view of its competences and personal qualities.

  12. Application of Innovative Models in Teaching Methods for Introduction to Nature and Society and Students’ Success

    OpenAIRE

    Snezana Stavreva Veselinovska; Snezana Kirova

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of shaping and applying innovative models in the teaching of Teaching methods for introduction to nature and society in the conditions existing in our schools. Most teachers need a modern methodical transformation of program contents for teaching nature and society. Therefore the theoretical part of the work is directed towards the consideration of innovative approaches in Teaching methods for introduction to nature and society, which asked for an indication of...

  13. Materials and methods for delivery of biological drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikin, Alexander N.; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie

    2016-11-01

    Biological drugs generated via recombinant techniques are uniquely positioned due to their high potency and high selectivity of action. The major drawback of this class of therapeutics, however, is their poor stability upon oral administration and during subsequent circulation. As a result, biological drugs have very low bioavailability and short therapeutic half-lives. Fortunately, tools of chemistry and biotechnology have been developed into an elaborate arsenal, which can be applied to improve the pharmacokinetics of biological drugs. Depot-type release systems are available to achieve sustained release of drugs over time. Conjugation to synthetic or biological polymers affords long circulating formulations. Administration of biological drugs through non-parenteral routes shows excellent performance and the first products have reached the market. This Review presents the main accomplishments in this field and illustrates the materials and methods behind existing and upcoming successful formulations and delivery strategies for biological drugs.

  14. Interdisciplinary Approaches and Methods for Sustainable Transformation and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkyun Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To increase the likelihood of success and sustainability, organizations must fundamentally reposition themselves and try to change current processes or create new products and services. One of the most effective approaches to find a solution for transformation and innovation is to learn from other domains where a solution for similar problems is already available. This paper briefly introduces the definition of and approaches to convergence of academic disciplines and industries, and overviews several representative convergence cases focusing on gamification for sustainable education, environments, and business managements.

  15. Application of Innovative Models in Teaching Methods For Nature and Society Studies and Students' Success

    OpenAIRE

    Stavreva Veselinovska, Snezana; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of shaping and applying innovative models in the teaching subject Teaching methods for nature and society studies in the conditions existing in our schools. Most teachers show the need for a modern methodical transformation of program contents for teaching nature and society studies and the display of models of educational organization of classes. Therefore the theoretical part of the work is directed toward consideration of innovative approaches in Teaching me...

  16. Impacts of an Innovative Residential Construction Method on Internal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Birchmore

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand houses are known for producing sub-optimal internal thermal conditions and unacceptably high internal moisture levels. These contribute to poor levels of health, mould and can coincide with the decay of structural timber frames. A proposed solution is to provide an alternative structure utilising plywood, a vapour check on the internal face of the timber frame and an additional air gap, followed by the internal lining. The internal vapour check is designed to prevent moisture vapour diffusion from inside into the frame and to permit moisture diffusion from outside through the structure to the internal environment. Two full scale houses had temperatures, dew points and humidity levels monitored in passive, unoccupied conditions. The test case house incorporated the innovative construction solution. The control house was of identical design and location, using standard construction practice. The calculated internal moisture content profile appeared to be unrelated to the external moisture content as expected, instead following the profile of the changing internal temperature. Whilst the innovative construction appeared to prevent moisture diffusion into the structure in winter and permit it inside in summer, this resulted in a generally higher internal relative humidity than the control house.

  17. Methods for Management of Innovation Activity Risks in the Current Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysmak Viktoriia O.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical foundations of management of innovation activity risks. Relevance of the selected topic of research in connection with both volatile external environment and crisis developments in the country's economy has been substantiated. A semantic analysis of the concept of «risk» has been done, showing the presence of both positive and negative sides of risk situations. A scheme for enterprise management in the light of implementing innovation activity has been elaborated. An improved classification of innovation activity has been provided, creating the opportunity to focus on identifying risks in the process of allocating a specific direction of innovation activity. The main stages of identification and analysis of risks of innovation activity has been allocated. Methods for management of innovation activity risks in the current conditions have been developed. A concept of «system for management of innovation activity risks» has been formulated, its major features for enterprise has been outlined. The main requirements for a system for management of innovation activity risks have been allocated.

  18. INNOVATIVE METHODS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avram Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovations are considered the engine of economic growth, because they serve a s basis for obtaining the competitive advantage. Tourism is one of the most profitable and dynamic sectors of economy, occupying the second position in the international trade after oil. Rural tourism also has major implications in the economic, social and cultural development of villages. This study presents an analysis of the fluctuation of the number of employees and of the number of accommodation units specific to rural tourism in Romania, between 2007-2014. To this end statistical data from the National Statistics Institute has been used. Volunteer tourism, the development of national portals for presentation of vacant jobs in the tourism sector and the development of human resources by absorption of European funds, are the three suggestions presented in this study, which have the purpose ofreinvigorating rural tourism in Romania.

  19. METHODS FOR PROMOTING INNOVATION IN THE UNIVERSITY INDUSTRIAL DESIGN STUDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CIOFU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Flexible and original thinking is the key to outstanding design. In order to teach design effectively we must therefore offer students a framework that isn’t restrictive and allows them room to develop their own individual design process. This doesn’t mean that we can’t offer our students technicaladvice or suggestions that might influence their process. Creativity blossoms and a student’s creative process is discovered when the individual is immersed in an environment conducive to innovative thinking. Promoting mentally active drawing, encouraging students to identify user problems, perform in-depth research, and make discoveries through hands-on model-making are some of the areas elaborated upon in this paper.

  20. Method for innovative synthesis-design of chemical process flowsheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    of chemical processes, where, chemical process flowsheets could be synthesized in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms are synthesized to form molecules in computer aided molecular design (CAMD) techniques [4]. That, from a library of building blocks (functional process-groups) and a set of rules to join......, the implementation of the computer-aided process-group based flowsheet synthesis-design framework is presented together with an extended library of flowsheet property models to predict the environmental impact, safety factors, product recovery and purity, which are employed to screen the generated alternatives. Also...... flowsheet (the well-known Hydrodealkylation of toluene process) and another for a biochemical process flowsheet (production of ethanol from lignocellulose). In both cases, not only the reported designs are found and matched, but also new innovative designs are found, which is possible because...

  1. Facilitating User Driven Innovation – A Study of Methods and Tools at Herlev Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To present the preliminary research results of user driven innovation methods at healthcare facilities and their relevance to research and practice. Background/Approach: The paper is based on a case study conducted at the Gynaecologic Department at Herlev Hospital as part of Healthcare...... methods used in planning of new hospital facilities and the experiences with using them in practice to improve usability of the built environment. The study focuses on the initial stages of the design processes, specially ‘user driven innovation’ – the participatory design process in which users...... Innovation Lab, which is a public-private collaboration project testing the simulation and user-driven innovation between users and companies at Hospitals in the Danish Capital Region. The theories presented are user driven innovation, usability and boundary objects. Results: This article presents different...

  2. Facilitating User Driven Innovation – A Study of Methods and Tools at Herlev Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present the preliminary research results of user driven innovation methods at healthcare facilities and their relevance to research and practice. Background/Approach: The paper is based on a case study conducted at the Gynaecologic Department at Herlev Hospital as part of Healthcare...... methods used in planning of new hospital facilities and the experiences with using them in practice to improve usability of the built environment. The study focuses on the initial stages of the design processes, specially ‘user driven innovation’ – the participatory design process in which users...... Innovation Lab, which is a public-private collaboration project testing the simulation and user-driven innovation between users and companies at Hospitals in the Danish Capital Region. The theories presented are user driven innovation, usability and boundary objects. Results: This article presents different...

  3. Innovation Design Method for Electronic Consuming Products Figures Based on TRIZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This Paper presents a valid innovation design method for electronic consuming products figures. Using the technology evaluation principle in TRIZ (theory of inventive problem solving) theory as a powerful tool, combined with consumer psychology and relevant knowledge on products modeling methodology, evolution patterns and evolution paths of electronic consuming products figures have been explored. Moreover a set of regulations working for figures innovation design is established.

  4. Green genes: bioinformatics and systems-biology innovations drive algal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, Maarten J M F; van Heck, Ruben G A; Lam, Carolyn M C; Scaife, Mark A; dos Santos, Vitor A P Martins; Smith, Alison G; Schaap, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Many species of microalgae produce hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other valuable products in significant amounts. However, large-scale production of algal products is not yet competitive against non-renewable alternatives from fossil fuel. Metabolic engineering approaches will help to improve productivity, but the exact metabolic pathways and the identities of the majority of the genes involved remain unknown. Recent advances in bioinformatics and systems-biology modeling coupled with increasing numbers of algal genome-sequencing projects are providing the means to address this. A multidisciplinary integration of methods will provide synergy for a systems-level understanding of microalgae, and thereby accelerate the improvement of industrially valuable strains. In this review we highlight recent advances and challenges to microalgal research and discuss future potential.

  5. An assessment of user-driven innovation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Alexia; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine

    This publication serves to test a number of methods that have been presented in the ‘method-graph’, which was created in connection with Project InnoDoors. The primary function of the test will be to further improve the ‘method-graph’ by refining and advancing some of the user-driven methods...

  6. Taming a wild beast: Developing molecular tools and new methods to understand the biology of Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Nicholas J

    2015-06-01

    Septoria blotch of wheat is one of the world's most serious plant diseases, which is difficult to control due to the absence of durable host resistance and the increasing frequency of fungicide-resistance. The ascomycete fungus that causes the disease, Zymoseptoria tritici, has been very challenging to study. This special issue of Fungal Genetics and Biology showcases an integrated approach to method development and the innovation of new molecular tools to study the biology of Z. tritici. When considered together, these new methods will have a rapid and dramatic effect on our ability to combat this significant disease.

  7. Apparatus and methods for manipulation and optimization of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chih-Ming (Inventor); Wong, Pak Kin (Inventor); Sun, Ren (Inventor); Yu, Fuqu (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The invention provides systems and methods for manipulating, e.g., optimizing and controlling, biological systems, e.g., for eliciting a more desired biological response of biological sample, such as a tissue, organ, and/or a cell. In one aspect, systems and methods of the invention operate by efficiently searching through a large parametric space of stimuli and system parameters to manipulate, control, and optimize the response of biological samples sustained in the system, e.g., a bioreactor. In alternative aspects, systems include a device for sustaining cells or tissue samples, one or more actuators for stimulating the samples via biochemical, electromagnetic, thermal, mechanical, and/or optical stimulation, one or more sensors for measuring a biological response signal of the samples resulting from the stimulation of the sample. In one aspect, the systems and methods of the invention use at least one optimization algorithm to modify the actuator's control inputs for stimulation, responsive to the sensor's output of response signals. The compositions and methods of the invention can be used, e.g., to for systems optimization of any biological manufacturing or experimental system, e.g., bioreactors for proteins, e.g., therapeutic proteins, polypeptides or peptides for vaccines, and the like, small molecules (e.g., antibiotics), polysaccharides, lipids, and the like. Another use of the apparatus and methods includes combination drug therapy, e.g. optimal drug cocktail, directed cell proliferations and differentiations, e.g. in tissue engineering, e.g. neural progenitor cells differentiation, and discovery of key parameters in complex biological systems.

  8. Alternative statistical methods for cytogenetic radiation biological dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents alternative statistical methods for biological dosimetry, such as the Bayesian and Monte Carlo method. The classical Gaussian and robust Bayesian fit algorithms for the linear, linear-quadratic as well as saturated and critical calibration curves are described. The Bayesian model selection algorithm for those curves is also presented. In addition, five methods of dose estimation for a mixed neutron and gamma irradiation field were described: two classical methods, two Bayesian methods and one Monte Carlo method. Bayesian methods were also enhanced and generalized for situations with many types of mixed radiation. All algorithms were presented in easy-to-use form, which can be applied to any computational programming language. The presented algorithm is universal, although it was originally dedicated to cytogenetic biological dosimetry of victims of a nuclear reactor accident.

  9. Monte Carlo methods for light propagation in biological tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Vinckenbosch, Laura; Lacaux, Céline; Tindel, Samy; Thomassin, Magalie; Obara, Tiphaine

    2016-01-01

    Light propagation in turbid media is driven by the equation of radiative transfer. We give a formal probabilistic representation of its solution in the framework of biological tissues and we implement algorithms based on Monte Carlo methods in order to estimate the quantity of light that is received by a homogeneous tissue when emitted by an optic fiber. A variance reduction method is studied and implemented, as well as a Markov chain Monte Carlo method based on the Metropolis–Hastings algori...

  10. Learning Biology through Innovative Curricula: A Comparison of Game- and Nongame-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Menon, Deepika; Ferdig, Richard E.; Annetta, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    This study explored student learning in the context of innovative biotechnology curricula and the effects of gaming as a central element of the learning experience. The quasi-experimentally designed study compared learning outcomes between two curricular approaches: One built around a computer-based game, and the other built around a narrative…

  11. Work system innovation: Designing improvement methods for generative capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David; Møller, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how a work system’s capability for improvement is influenced by its improvement methods. Based on explorative case study at a Lean manufacturing facility, the methods problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry were compared through in-depth qualitative studies over a 12-month...... period. The findings show how problem solving leads to solutions inside the existing improvement trajectory, whereas Appreciative Inquiry due to increased generative capability enables solutions outside the existing trajectory. The paper suggests how improvement methods can be designed for appropriate...

  12. Methodical Aspects of Creativity Stimulation for the Purposes of Innovation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Strazdas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses a pressing problem of creativity stimulation for the purposes of innovation development. Creativity stimulation is analyzed as an element of an organic system and can be accepted as recourse development having a big influence on all elements of organic systems for creativity development that covers recourses, processing, results and consumption. The article analyzes relation between the level of employee’s creativity and an environment provided for creativity development in an enterprise. The classification of the methods stimulating creativity is present based on the analysis of 12 wildly used methods and is oriented toward innovation development. Proposals for how to use the methods of creativity stimulation for the purposes of innovation developments are presented.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Recent innovations in protein separation on microchips by electrophoretic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Youyuan; Pallandre, Antoine; Tran, N Thuy; Taverna, Myriam

    2008-01-01

    Microchips for analytical purposes have attracted great attention over the last 20 years. In the present review, we focus on the most recent development of microchips for electrophoretic separation of proteins. This review starts with a short recalling about the microchips covering the basic microchip layout for CE and the commercial chips and microchip platforms. A short paragraph is dedicated to the surface treatment of microchips, which is of paramount importance in protein analysis. One section is dedicated to on-line sample pretreatment in microchips and summarizes different strategies to pre-concentrate or to purify proteins from complex matrixes. Most of the common modes used for CE of proteins have already been adapted to the chip format, while multidimensional approaches are still in progress. The different routes to achieve detection in microchip are also presented with a special attention to derivatization or labeling of proteins. Finally, several recent applications are mentioned. They highlight the great potential of electrophoretic separations of proteins in numerous fields such as biological, pharmaceutical or agricultural and food analysis. A bibliography with 151 references is provided covering papers published from 2000 to the early 2007.

  14. AN INNOVATIVE METHOD FOR FORMING BALLS FROM SCRAP RAIL HEADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pater

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new method for forming grinding media balls from scrap rail heads. This forming method involves the following operations: cutting the rail head to the desired length combined with lateral pressing of the produced workpiece; flashless die forging and sizing of balls in a helical impression. The proposed method was verified by numerical simulation which involved the modeling of a forming process for producing 80 mm diameter balls. As a result of the modeling, it was possible to examine the changes in the workpiece shape during each forming operation, the variations in loads and torques, as well as the distribution of temperatures enabling performing another forming operation, i.e. quenching. The results confirm that the designed method can be used to produce balls.

  15. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable.

  16. Innovative Teaching Practice: Traditional and Alternative Methods (Challenges and Implications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurutdinova, Aida R.; Perchatkina, Veronika G.; Zinatullina, Liliya M.; Zubkova, Guzel I.; Galeeva, Farida T.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the present issue is caused be the strong need in alternative methods of learning foreign language and the need in language training and retraining for the modern professionals. The aim of the article is to identify the basic techniques and skills in using various modern techniques in the context of modern educational tasks. The…

  17. Educational research methods for researching innovations in teaching, learning and assessment: The nursing lecturer as researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Maran, Diane

    2015-11-01

    The author, who has had previous experience as a nurse researcher, has been engaged in helping nurse lecturers to undertake evaluation research studies into innovations in their teaching, learning and assessment methods. In order to undertake this work successfully, it was important to move from thinking like a nurse researcher to thinking like an educational researcher and developing the role of the nursing lecturer as researcher of their teaching. This article explores the difference between evaluation and evaluation research and argues for the need to use educational research methods when undertaking evaluation research into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment. A new model for educational evaluation research is presented together with two case examples of the model in use. The model has been tested on over 30 research studies into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment over the past 8 years.

  18. 'Follow-on biologics': ensuring continued innovation in the biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Bruce S; Granahan, Patricia; Dow, Kenneth J

    2006-01-01

    Congress adopted legislation in 1984 to encourage pharmaceutical companies to develop new drugs, while simultaneously allowing competitors to bring cheaper generic versions to market. More than twenty years later, Congress may be faced with a similar balancing act for biologics. When Congress takes up this issue, it must focus on the substantial differences that exist between biologics and drugs. It should also evaluate the patent law, which is yielding increasingly narrow patents. If additional measures are not adopted in light of the intersection of these factors, then any legislation allowing for "follow-on" biologics could stifle development of new medicines from biotechnology.

  19. Interdisciplinary dialogue for education, collaboration, and innovation: intelligent Biology and Medicine in and beyond 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Huang, Yufei; McDermott, Jason E; Posey, Rebecca H; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2013) was held on August 11-13, 2013 in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. The conference included six scientific sessions, two tutorial sessions, one workshop, two poster sessions, and four keynote presentations that covered cutting-edge research topics in bioinformatics, systems biology, computational medicine, and intelligent computing. Here, we present a summary of the conference and an editorial report of the supplements to BMC Genomics and BMC Systems Biology that include 19 research papers selected from ICIBM 2013.

  20. [Innovations in cardiology. We are too fast with new methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegeler, A

    2016-03-01

    Cardiology is rapidly developing on many levels. New treatment methods are introduced at ever decreasing intervals. Against the background of economization of other areas in medicine, dangers are lurking here for patients if safety, usefulness and sustainability of the treatment methods cannot be sufficiently proven. The German Federal Ministry of Health (Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, BMG) aims to adjust the regulatory framework for the approval of new medical products to the legal requirements of the European Union. With the establishment of the Institute for Quality Assessment and Transparency in Health Care (Institut für Qualitätssicherung und Transparenz im Gesundheitswesen, IQTIG) more precise quality controls should be carried out. Implantation registers will be soon implemented and the routinely performed quality control of different interventions will be coordinated across different healthcare sectors in order to achieve a better understanding of long-term results. Medicine in general and the safety of patients in particular, ultimately benefit from more stringent controls, neutrality and transparency in the assessment of new methods.

  1. Biological methods used to assess surface water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbiñska Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the guidelines of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD, both ecological and chemical statuses determine the assessment of surface waters. The profile of ecological status is based on the analysis of various biological components, and physicochemical and hydromorphological indicators complement this assessment. The aim of this article is to present the biological methods used in the assessment of water status with a special focus on bioassay, as well as to provide a review of methods of monitoring water status. Biological test methods include both biomonitoring and bioanalytics. Water biomonitoring is used to assess and forecast the status of water. These studies aim to collect data on water pollution and forecast its impact. Biomonitoring uses organisms which are characterized by particular vulnerability to contaminants. Bioindicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval invertebrates, cyanobacteria, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Bioanalytics is based on the receptors of contaminants that can be biologically active substances. In bioanalytics, biosensors such as viruses, bacteria, antibodies, enzymes, and biotests are used to assess degrees of pollution.

  2. Descriptive Analysis of the Regional Innovation System - Novel Method for Public Administration Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina MATATKOVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Making innovation is currently one of the key factors of economic development, both for the private sector and the public sector. The public sector can help to support the effective form of knowledge creation and development that will lead to real innovations in the administrated region. Innovations can help meet the objectives of public policies (such as the creation of new jobs and support small and medium-sized enterprises, etc.. This paper tries to summarize the findings regarding knowledge and the innovation environment that public authorities can support in the form of regional innovation systems (RIS. Authors suggest a novel method for increasing efficiency of public financial support. This method was proven in RIS research in the Czech Republic, where the strategic documents initiating support RIS were created. The authors discuss the characters which adequately describe RIS. The added value of this paper is represented by the methodology of RIS describing and listing the public authorities’ roles in establishing a knowledge environment.

  3. Biologic Discontinuations Studies: A Systematic Review of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Kishimoto, Mitsumasa; Matsui, Kazuo; Tohma, Shigeto; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a systematic review to assess the design and “failure definition” in studies of biologic discontinuation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We found 403 studies on PubMed, and included 9 published papers and 5 abstracts from scientific meetings. We used a structured extraction form to collect information regarding study design and outcome (failure) definition. Results Three types of studies were found: randomized controlled trials, long-term extension studies of clinical trials, and prospective discontinuation studies. The largest study had 196 subjects in the discontinuation arm. Most studies allowed concomitant use of non-biologic drugs at biologic discontinuation. Heterogeneity was also found in the failure definition. Although all studies used measures of disease activity, the threshold for failure and the time point of assessment differed among studies. Few studies incorporated changing use of non-biologic drugs or glucocorticoids into the failure definition. Conclusions Although many studies have examined the outcome of biologic discontinuation, they have all been relatively small. Typical practice studies from registries may add important information, but will likely need to rely on a broader failure definition. PMID:23723316

  4. Slurm: An innovative Particle-in-Cell Method for Magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Fabio; Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    We present a new Particle-in-Cell method for plasma simulations. This is based on the original algorithm of FLIP-MHD, which uses a Lagrangian formulation of the macroscopic equations. A finite-difference approximation of the equations of motion is solved on a fixed (non-moving) grid, while convection of the quantities is modelled with the support of Lagrangian particles. Interpolation with first-order b-splines is used to project the conserved quantities from particles to the grid and back. In this work, we introduce two modifications of the original scheme. A particle volume evolution procedure is adopted to reduce the computational error, based on the Material Point Method for solid mechanics. The additional step introduces little to none computational diffusion and efficiently suppresses the so-called ringing instability, allowing the use of explicit time differencing. Furthermore, we eliminate the need for a Poisson solver in the magnetic field computation with the use of a vector potential. The vector potential evolution is modelled with a moving grid and interpolated to the fixed grid points to obtain a solenoidal magnetic field. The results of a number of HD and MHD tests show good agreement with the reference solutions and rather fast time and space convergence. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Air Force Materiel Command, USAF under Award No. FA9550-14-1-0375. European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) via the DEEP-ER project under Grant Agreement No. 610476.

  5. Modeling technology innovation: How science, engineering, and industry methods can combine to generate beneficial socioeconomic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Vathsala I

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Government-sponsored science, technology, and innovation (STI programs support the socioeconomic aspects of public policies, in addition to expanding the knowledge base. For example, beneficial healthcare services and devices are expected to result from investments in research and development (R&D programs, which assume a causal link to commercial innovation. Such programs are increasingly held accountable for evidence of impact—that is, innovative goods and services resulting from R&D activity. However, the absence of comprehensive models and metrics skews evidence gathering toward bibliometrics about research outputs (published discoveries, with less focus on transfer metrics about development outputs (patented prototypes and almost none on econometrics related to production outputs (commercial innovations. This disparity is particularly problematic for the expressed intent of such programs, as most measurable socioeconomic benefits result from the last category of outputs. Methods This paper proposes a conceptual framework integrating all three knowledge-generating methods into a logic model, useful for planning, obtaining, and measuring the intended beneficial impacts through the implementation of knowledge in practice. Additionally, the integration of the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP model of evaluation proactively builds relevance into STI policies and programs while sustaining rigor. Results The resulting logic model framework explicitly traces the progress of knowledge from inputs, following it through the three knowledge-generating processes and their respective knowledge outputs (discovery, invention, innovation, as it generates the intended socio-beneficial impacts. It is a hybrid model for generating technology-based innovations, where best practices in new product development merge with a widely accepted knowledge-translation approach. Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice in the medical and

  6. Innovative methods of knowledge transfer by multimedia library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    The present situation of teaching and learning new knowledge taught in the classroom is highly variable depending on the specific topics concerned. If we analyze the manifold ways of teaching / learning at university level, we can notice a very good combination between classical and modern methods. The first category includes the classic chalk blackboard teaching, followed by the also classical learning based on paper reference material. The second category includes books published in PDF or PPT [1], which are printed on the type backing CD / DVD. Since 2006 the author was concerned about the transfer of information and knowledge through video files like AVI, FLV or MPEG using various means of transfer, from the free ones (via Internet) and continuing with those involving minimal costs, i.e. on CD / DVD support. Encouraged by the students’ interest in this kind of teaching material as proved by monitoring [2] the site http://www.cursuriuniversitarebraila.ugal.ro, the author has managed to publish with ISBN the first video book in Romania, which has a non conformist content in that the chapters are located not by paging but by the hour or minutes of shooting when they were made.

  7. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America-funded research by teams and national laboratories that resulted in the development of an ASHRAE standard and a standardized testing method for testing the air leakage of HVAC air handlers and furnace cabinets and has spurred equipment manufacturers to tighten the cabinets they use for residential HVAC systems.

  8. Co-Designing and Co-Teaching Graduate Qualitative Methods: An Innovative Ethnographic Workshop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordner, Alissa; Klein, Peter T.; Baiocchi, Gianpaolo

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative collaboration between graduate students and a faculty member to co-design and co-teach a graduate-level workshop-style qualitative methods course. The goal of co-designing and co-teaching the course was to involve advanced graduate students in all aspects of designing a syllabus and leading class discussions in…

  9. Key Competencies and Characteristics for Innovative Teaching among Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Wang, Di

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to understand the key competencies and characteristics for innovative teaching as perceived by Chinese secondary teachers. A mixed-methods research was used to investigate secondary teachers' views. First, a qualitative study was conducted with interviews of teachers to understand the perceived key competencies and…

  10. [Innovation in adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer: new biologic parameters, a perspective for treatment tailoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacémi, Y

    2009-01-01

    In the adjuvant setting, whole breast radiation therapy (RT) delivering 50 Gy in 5 weeks with or without a boost to the tumor bed remains the standard of care. RT indications and volume definition are generally dependant on existing prognostic factors. Except in particular cases, RT technique does not vary according to the patient or tumor biology profiles in terms of total dose, dose per fraction, fractionation, and RT duration. The challenge is to define new parameters or tumor biology profiles that will allow patient selection for more tailored RT than the 5 to 7 week standard schedules. The future issue is to define biological markers able to screen patients and tumors according to their high metastatic potential (in which the primary therapeutic challenge may not be locoregional control) and those patients that have a particular radiosensitivity to ionizing radiation for higher benefit/risk ratio. Thus, it is probable that patient profiles, tumor biology markers and gene expression profiling could provide in future an added value to conventional markers to predict patients at high-risk of local and distant recurrences who need tailored treatment or a particular sequence of adjuvant therapy.

  11. Double-Edged Innovations: Preventing the Misuse of Emerging Biological/Chemical Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    WHO/CDS/EPR/2006.6, 2006, <www.who.int/ csr /resources/publications/biosafety/WHO_CDS_EPR_2006_6.pdf>. 33 European Committee for Standardization (CEN... Brand ...measles immunization: a review,” Biologicals, vol. 25 (1997), pp. 323-338. 26 G. Scheuch, Martin J. Kohlhaeufl, Peter Brand , et al., “Clinical

  12. The Innovative Bike Conceptual Design by Using Modified Functional Element Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nien-Te Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to propose a new design process by modifying functional element design approach which can commence a large amount of innovative concepts within a short period of time. Firstly, the original creative functional elements design method is analyzed and the drawbacks are discussed. Then, the modified is proposed and is divided into 6 steps. The creative functional element representations, generalization, specialization, and particularization are used in this method. Every step is described clearly, and users could design by following the process easily. In this paper, a clear and accurate design process is proposed based on the creative functional element design method. By following this method, a lot of innovative bicycles will be created quickly.

  13. Monte Carlo methods for light propagation in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinckenbosch, Laura; Lacaux, Céline; Tindel, Samy; Thomassin, Magalie; Obara, Tiphaine

    2015-11-01

    Light propagation in turbid media is driven by the equation of radiative transfer. We give a formal probabilistic representation of its solution in the framework of biological tissues and we implement algorithms based on Monte Carlo methods in order to estimate the quantity of light that is received by a homogeneous tissue when emitted by an optic fiber. A variance reduction method is studied and implemented, as well as a Markov chain Monte Carlo method based on the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. The resulting estimating methods are then compared to the so-called Wang-Prahl (or Wang) method. Finally, the formal representation allows to derive a non-linear optimization algorithm close to Levenberg-Marquardt that is used for the estimation of the scattering and absorption coefficients of the tissue from measurements.

  14. Method and apparatus to image biological interactions in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberger, Andrew; Bonito, Gregory M.; Reid, Chantal D.; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2015-12-22

    A method to dynamically image the actual translocation of molecular compounds of interest in a plant root, root system, and rhizosphere without disturbing the root or the soil. The technique makes use of radioactive isotopes as tracers to label molecules of interest and to image their distribution in the plant and/or soil. The method allows for the study and imaging of various biological and biochemical interactions in the rhizosphere of a plant, including, but not limited to, mycorrhizal associations in such regions.

  15. Current status and trends, organizational methods accounting and analysis of innovative enterprises’ venture financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Rudeychuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the specific features and tendencies of development of venture financing in Ukraine. It shows the role of venture capital in the further development of Ukraine economy, this role is in financing and development of innovation, distribution of new technologies and increase of employment of highly professional staff in the territory of Ukraine. The authors determine the influence of characteristics of such financing on the formation of organization and methods of accounting and economic analysis of operations with venture capital investments. The paper grounds the necessity of accounting development and analytical support of innovative enterprises’ venture financing management; the state is caused by the need to attract additional funding from venture investors to finance the production and release of innovative products and businesses. The authors determine the directions of solving problems in accounting organization and methods and economic analysis of innovative enterprises’ venture financing, respectively, for the needs of all entities doing business venture and taking into account the peculiarities of this type of investment capital.

  16. Discourse about Synthetic Biology and Responsible Innovation: Notes from a Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Coenen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominated as it is by visionary images of the future and influenced by the ‘Responsible Research and Innovation’ (RRI approach, the discourse about synthetic biology (SynBio and the prospects for its application may be interpreted as an arena for argument about the future of our societies generally. At a time when the widespread end of the systemic conflict between capitalism and socialism has made it rare for the whole of society to engage in debates on fundamental political and socioeconomic issues, discourses on science and technology can apparently be used to address questions of this kind indirectly. It is possible to clarify this function of SynBio discourse by setting it in its historical context, in which respect the focus is placed on older discourses about the societal significance of biology and its technological applications.

  17. Biclustering methods: biological relevance and application in gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Oghabian

    Full Text Available DNA microarray technologies are used extensively to profile the expression levels of thousands of genes under various conditions, yielding extremely large data-matrices. Thus, analyzing this information and extracting biologically relevant knowledge becomes a considerable challenge. A classical approach for tackling this challenge is to use clustering (also known as one-way clustering methods where genes (or respectively samples are grouped together based on the similarity of their expression profiles across the set of all samples (or respectively genes. An alternative approach is to develop biclustering methods to identify local patterns in the data. These methods extract subgroups of genes that are co-expressed across only a subset of samples and may feature important biological or medical implications. In this study we evaluate 13 biclustering and 2 clustering (k-means and hierarchical methods. We use several approaches to compare their performance on two real gene expression data sets. For this purpose we apply four evaluation measures in our analysis: (1 we examine how well the considered (biclustering methods differentiate various sample types; (2 we evaluate how well the groups of genes discovered by the (biclustering methods are annotated with similar Gene Ontology categories; (3 we evaluate the capability of the methods to differentiate genes that are known to be specific to the particular sample types we study and (4 we compare the running time of the algorithms. In the end, we conclude that as long as the samples are well defined and annotated, the contamination of the samples is limited, and the samples are well replicated, biclustering methods such as Plaid and SAMBA are useful for discovering relevant subsets of genes and samples.

  18. Biological methods of dye removal from textile effluents - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna *

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile dyes are molecules designed to impart permanent colours to textile fabrics. They pose an environmental problem due to their toxicity and decrease the aesthetic value of water bodies into which they are discharged. Current physico-chemical technologies for dye removal cannot remove all classes of dyes, and two or more technologies are usually combined to achieve satisfactory decolourisation efficiencies. Direct biological treatment using fungi or bacteria can also be employed, but nutritional and physiological requirements of microorganisms put constraints on the applicability of such bioremediation processes. The search for efficient and green oxidation technologies has increased the interest in the use of enzymes to replace the conventional non-biological methods. Among the different existing oxidant enzymes, laccase (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductases; EC 1.10.3.2 has been the subject of intensive research in the past few decades due to its low substrate specificity. Enzymatic treatment using laccase can be simpler and much more efficient than the traditional physical or chemical treatments. This paper reviews conventional biological processes as well as  laccase-based processes might replace the traditionally energy intensive and water-consuming chemical treatment operations in the textile industry. Keywords: Dyes, Decolourisation, Green Oxidation, Laccase, Textile industry  

  19. Comparing results of cultured and uncultured biological methods used in biological phosphorus removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) for their important role in biological phosphorus removal. In this study, microbial communities of PAOs cultivated under different carbon sources (sewage, glucose, and sodium acetate) were investigated and compared through culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, respectively. The results obtained using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA fragments revealed that the diversity of bacteria in a sewage-fed reactor (1#) was much higher than in a glucose-fed one (2#) and a sodium acetate-fed one (3#); there were common PAOs in three reactors fed by different carbon sources. Five strains were separated from three systems by using a phosphate-rich medium; they were from common bacteria isolated and three isolates could not be found in DGGE profile at all. Two isolates had good phosphorus removal ability. When the microbial diversity was studied, the molecular biological method was better than the culture-dependent one. When phosphorus removal characteristics were investigated, culture-dependent approach was more effective. Thus a combination of two methods is necessary to have a comprehensive view of PAOs.

  20. Systems biology and longevity: an emerging approach to identify innovative anti-aging targets and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, E; Bellavista, E; Tieri, P; Castellani, G; Lescai, F; Francesconi, M; Mishto, M; Santoro, A; Valensin, S; Salvioli, S; Capri, M; Zaikin, A; Monti, D; de Magalhães, J P; Franceschi, C

    2010-01-01

    Human aging and longevity are complex and multi-factorial traits that result from a combination of environmental, genetic, epigenetic and stochastic factors, each contributing to the overall phenotype. The multi-factorial process of aging acts at different levels of complexity, from molecule to cell, from organ to organ systems and finally to organism, giving rise to the dynamic "aging mosaic". At present, an increasing amount of experimental data on genetics, genomics, proteomics and other -omics are available thanks to new high-throughput technologies but a comprehensive model for the study of human aging and longevity is still lacking. Systems biology represents a strategy to integrate and quantify the existing knowledge from different sources into predictive models, to be later tested and then implemented with new experimental data for validation and refinement in a recursive process. The ultimate goal is to compact the new acquired knowledge into a single picture, ideally able to characterize the phenotype at systemic/organism level. In this review we will briefly discuss the aging phenotype in a systems biology perspective, showing four specific examples at different levels of complexity, from a systemic process (inflammation) to a cascade-process pathways (coagulation) and from cellular organelle (proteasome) to single gene-network (PON-1), which could also represent targets for anti-aging strategies.

  1. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.

    2016-02-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  2. Biological stability of drinking water: controlling factors, methods and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle ePrest

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g. development of opportunistic pathogens, aesthetic (e.g. deterioration of taste, odour, colour or operational (e.g. fouling or biocorrosion of pipes problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors such as (i type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii presence of predators such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv environmental conditions such as water temperature, and (v spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment or biofilm. Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discuss how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to

  3. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  4. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  5. Methods and models in mathematical biology deterministic and stochastic approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This book developed from classes in mathematical biology taught by the authors over several years at the Technische Universität München. The main themes are modeling principles, mathematical principles for the analysis of these models, and model-based analysis of data. The key topics of modern biomathematics are covered: ecology, epidemiology, biochemistry, regulatory networks, neuronal networks, and population genetics. A variety of mathematical methods are introduced, ranging from ordinary and partial differential equations to stochastic graph theory and  branching processes. A special emphasis is placed on the interplay between stochastic and deterministic models.

  6. Studies on the Properties of ZnO Crystal Plane Grown by the Innovated Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-Hao; CHEN Da-Gui; LI Wei; HUANG Jia-Kui; WANG Guo-Hong; LIN Zhang; HUANG Feng

    2008-01-01

    ZnO single crystals were grown by the innovated hydrothermal method. The crystal surfaces were polished, and then studied by atom force microscope (AFM) and wet-chemical etching (WCE). It was found that the Zn polar plane was smoother than O polar plane under the same polishing conditions. The etch pit density of Zn polar plane is 4.3×103 cm-2,which is consistent with the previous report, while the density of etch pit of O polar plane is more than 103 cm-2. After annealing treatment, the density of etch pit of Zn plane reduces to 5.8×102 cm-2 and is superior to the current report. This investigation reveals that the high quality ZnO single crystals with fine Zn polar plane can be obtained by the innovated hydrothermal method.

  7. Effectiveness of various innovative learning methods in health science classrooms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A; Kasim, Rafa M

    2017-01-13

    This study reports the results of a meta-analysis of the available literature on the effectiveness of various forms of innovative small-group learning methods on student achievement in undergraduate college health science classrooms. The results of the analysis revealed that most of the primary studies supported the effectiveness of the small-group learning methods in improving students' academic achievement with an overall weighted average effect-size of 0.59 in standard deviation units favoring small-group learning methods. The subgroup analysis showed that the various forms of innovative and reform-based small-group learning interventions appeared to be significantly more effective for students in higher levels of college classes (sophomore, junior, and senior levels), students in other countries (non-U.S.) worldwide, students in groups of four or less, and students who choose their own group. The random-effects meta-regression results revealed that the effect sizes were influenced significantly by the instructional duration of the primary studies. This means that studies with longer hours of instruction yielded higher effect sizes and on average every 1 h increase in instruction, the predicted increase in effect size was 0.009 standard deviation units, which is considered as a small effect. These results may help health science and nursing educators by providing guidance in identifying the conditions under which various forms of innovative small-group learning pedagogies are collectively more effective than the traditional lecture-based teaching instruction.

  8. Statistical Inference Methods for Sparse Biological Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voit Eberhard O

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparing metabolic profiles under different biological perturbations has become a powerful approach to investigating the functioning of cells. The profiles can be taken as single snapshots of a system, but more information is gained if they are measured longitudinally over time. The results are short time series consisting of relatively sparse data that cannot be analyzed effectively with standard time series techniques, such as autocorrelation and frequency domain methods. In this work, we study longitudinal time series profiles of glucose consumption in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under different temperatures and preconditioning regimens, which we obtained with methods of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. For the statistical analysis we first fit several nonlinear mixed effect regression models to the longitudinal profiles and then used an ANOVA likelihood ratio method in order to test for significant differences between the profiles. Results The proposed methods are capable of distinguishing metabolic time trends resulting from different treatments and associate significance levels to these differences. Among several nonlinear mixed-effects regression models tested, a three-parameter logistic function represents the data with highest accuracy. ANOVA and likelihood ratio tests suggest that there are significant differences between the glucose consumption rate profiles for cells that had been--or had not been--preconditioned by heat during growth. Furthermore, pair-wise t-tests reveal significant differences in the longitudinal profiles for glucose consumption rates between optimal conditions and heat stress, optimal and recovery conditions, and heat stress and recovery conditions (p-values Conclusion We have developed a nonlinear mixed effects model that is appropriate for the analysis of sparse metabolic and physiological time profiles. The model permits sound statistical inference procedures

  9. Integration of an innovative biological treatment with physical or chemical disinfection for wastewater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sanctis, Marco, E-mail: marco.desanctis@ba.irsa.cnr.it [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via F. De Blasio 5, 70123 Bari (Italy); Del Moro, Guido [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via F. De Blasio 5, 70123 Bari (Italy); Levantesi, Caterina; Luprano, Maria Laura [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via Salaria Km 29.600, 00015 Monterotondo, RM (Italy); Di Iaconi, Claudio [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via F. De Blasio 5, 70123 Bari (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    In the present paper, the effectiveness of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) and its integration with different disinfection strategies (UV irradiation, peracetic acid) for producing an effluent suitable for agricultural use was evaluated. The plant treated raw domestic sewage, and its performances were evaluated in terms of the removal efficiency of a wide group of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The SBBGR resulted really efficient in removing suspended solids, COD and nitrogen with an average effluent concentration of 5, 32 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Lower removal efficiency was observed for phosphorus with an average concentration in the effluent of 3 mg/L. Plant effluent was also characterized by an average electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio of 680 μS/cm and 2.9, respectively. Therefore, according to these gross parameters, the SBBGR effluent was conformed to the national standards required in Italy for agricultural reuse. Moreover, disinfection performances of the SBBGR was higher than that of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants and met the quality criteria suggested by WHO (Escherichia coli < 1000 CFU/100 mL) for agricultural reuse. In particular, the biological treatment by SBBGR removed 3.8 ± 0.4 log units of Giardia lamblia, 2.8 ± 0.8 log units of E. coli, 2.5 ± 0.7 log units of total coliforms, 2.0 ± 0.3 log units of Clostridium perfringens, 2.0 ± 0.4 log units of Cryptosporidium parvum and 1.7 ± 0.7 log units of Somatic coliphages. The investigated disinfection processes (UV and peracetic acid) resulted very effective for total coliforms, E. coli and somatic coliphages. In particular, a UV radiation and peracetic acid doses of 40 mJ/cm{sup 2} and 1 mg/L respectively reduced E. coli content in the effluent below the limit for agricultural reuse in Italy (10 CFU/100 mL). Conversely, they were both ineffective on C.perfringens spores. - Highlights: • SBBGR system showed high

  10. METHODICS, SOFTWARE AND LABORATORY EQUIPMENT FOR AN INNOVATIVE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of innovative electrical engineering discipline «Electric Machines in Mechatronic Systems» in order to improve the training of specialists of electrical engineering specialty. Methodology. The proposed project concerns the educational reforms that promote the intensification of the educational process. Results. The structure of interactive educational and training complex, which is a computer learning tool in the form of software and methodical support, as well as data and knowledge bases and consists of functionally related multimedia learning systems, interactive learning, automated control of the learning process. Originality. To offer online training and research facilities, guidelines for laboratory and computational and graphic works. Practical value. Increase the knowledge of students of educational material related to the discipline of innovation «Electric Machines in Mechatronic Systems».

  11. Method for photo-altering a biological system to improve biological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard A.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Crean, David H.

    2000-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a new adjunctive therapy for filtration surgery that does not use chemotherapy agents or radiation, but uses pharmacologically-active sensitizing compounds to produce a titratable, localized, transient, post operative avascular conjunctiva. A photosensitizing agent in a biological system is selectively activated by delivering the photosensitive agent to the biological system and laser activating only a spatially selected portion of the delivered photosensitive agent. The activated portion of the photosensitive agent reacts with the biological system to obtain a predetermined biological effect. As a result, an improved spatial disposition and effectuation of the biological effect by the photosensitive agent in the biological system is achieved.

  12. Dielectric relaxation in biological systems physical principles, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This title covers the theoretical basis and practical aspects of the study of dielectric properties of biological systems, such as water, electrolyte and polyelectrolytes, solutions of biological macromolecules, cells suspensions and cellular systems.

  13. Innovative Methods of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention-Getting the Right Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Julia; Hargreave, Timothy; Ridzon, Renee; Farley, Tim

    2016-06-01

    World Health Organization recommends that countries with hyperendemic and generalized HIV epidemics implement voluntary medical male circumcision programs for HIV prevention. Innovative methods of male circumcision including devices have the potential to simplify the procedure, reduce time and cost, increase client acceptability, enhance safety, and expand the numbers of providers who may perform circumcision. We describe work led by World Health Organization and supported by global partners to define a pathway for the evaluation of efficacy and safety of male circumcision devices, to set priority criteria, and to establish a process to guide the use of devices in publicly funded voluntary medical male circumcision programs for HIV prevention. A device classification scheme, an expert Technical Advisory Group on Innovations in Male Circumcision, and a formal prequalification program have also guided considerations on safe use of devices. A rigorous approach was deemed appropriate given the intervention is for use among healthy men for public health purposes. The pathway and processes led to coordinated research, better standardization in research outcomes, and guidance that informed the research, introduction and implementation phases. The lessons learnt from this case study can inform evaluation and use of future public health innovations.

  14. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, LDB, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was

  15. Innovation aspects of rehabilitation methods of treatment of acetabulum dam-age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shorustamov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to solving improvement of rehabilitation treatment methods in acetabular injuries. Offered algorithm enables to improve rehabilitation treatment methods of acetabular injuries. Algorithm of rehabilitation includes blocks of conservative (including blocks ambulatory, treatment at a health resort, medicamentous and other methods of treatment of acetabulum damage as well as control block. Block of endoprosthetics of coxofemoral joint is also provided for in case of detection of signs of coxarthrosis. Innovation algorithm of perfecting rehabilitation methods of treatment of acetabulum damage (AD contributes to expansion of an implementation sphere in traumatic surgery and orthopedics practice. It allows practical physicians to build a clear algorithm of postoperative rehabilitation for this complicated cohort of patients with AD.

  16. Design science research methods and patterns innovating information and communication technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vaishnavi, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Presenting innovative research methods, this second edition of a bestseller describes a simple and practical methodology for conducting cutting-edge design science research (DSR). It provides comprehensive guidance on how to conduct such research and supplies in-depth treatment of design science theory and the different types of theory that can be generated in design science research.Making novel use of the concept of patterns, it presents 84 research patterns for conducting effective DSR. It emphasizes design science theory throughout and is filled with practical examples of using patterns to

  17. Synthetic cannabinoids pharmacokinetics and detection methods in biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Hartman, Rebecca L; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SC), originally developed as research tools, are now highly abused novel psychoactive substances. We present a comprehensive systematic review covering in vivo and in vitro animal and human pharmacokinetics and analytical methods for identifying SC and their metabolites in biological matrices. Of two main phases of SC research, the first investigated therapeutic applications, and the second abuse-related issues. Administration studies showed high lipophilicity and distribution into brain and fat tissue. Metabolite profiling studies, mostly with human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes, structurally elucidated metabolites and identified suitable SC markers. In general, SC underwent hydroxylation at various molecular sites, defluorination of fluorinated analogs and phase II metabolites were almost exclusively glucuronides. Analytical methods are critical for documenting intake, with different strategies applied to adequately address the continuous emergence of new compounds. Immunoassays have different cross-reactivities for different SC classes, but cannot keep pace with changing analyte targets. Gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry assays - first for a few, then numerous analytes - are available but constrained by reference standard availability, and must be continuously updated and revalidated. In blood and oral fluid, parent compounds are frequently present, albeit in low concentrations; for urinary detection, metabolites must be identified and interpretation is complex due to shared metabolic pathways. A new approach is non-targeted HRMS screening that is more flexible and permits retrospective data analysis. We suggest that streamlined assessment of new SC's pharmacokinetics and advanced HRMS screening provide a promising strategy to maintain relevant assays.

  18. Biologic data, models, and dosimetric methods for internal emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The absorbed radiation dose from internal emitters has been and will remain a pivotal factor in assessing risk and therapeutic utility in selecting radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment. Although direct measurements of absorbed dose and dose distributions in vivo have been and will continue to be made in limited situations, the measurement of the biodistribution and clearance of radiopharmaceuticals in human subjects and the use of this data is likely to remain the primary means to approach the calculation and estimation of absorbed dose from internal emitters over the next decade. Since several approximations are used in these schema to calculate dose, attention must be given to inspecting and improving the application of this dosimetric method as better techniques are developed to assay body activity and as more experience is gained in applying these schema to calculating absorbed dose. Discussion of the need for considering small scale dosimetry to calculate absorbed dose at the cellular level will be presented in this paper. Other topics include dose estimates for internal emitters, biologic data mathematical models and dosimetric methods employed. 44 refs.

  19. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  20. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmes, Marc; Neumann, Ulrike; Lühmann, Dagmar; Schönermark, Matthias P; Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-05

    Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA) which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare) are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a technology and

  1. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a

  2. Research with School Students: Four Innovative Methods Used to Explore Effective Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Faye Heal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines four research methods we’ve employed to enhance how students from low-income backgrounds engage in research exploring effective teaching. It firstly outlines the need to be innovative, drawing Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and then moves on to explain two methods that scaffold a semi-structured interview, one child-led classroom tour and finally a creative ‘draw and tell’ approach. It argues that these methods are successful because they disrupt the researcher-participant power imbalance using the following techniques: Familiarity to the student, empowering the student to be an expert, and giving the student choice.

  3. Innovation in teaching and learning methods: Integrating sustainability subjects in the architectural design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sepúlveda M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Architectural training has always been linked to two opposed and complementary processes: creative thinking and linear/technical thinking. Nowadays, the training process of an architect is usually based on an experimental design studio, which is complemented by the formal teaching of theoretical and technical subjects. This system is based on the idea that it will produce a comprehensive professional who is capable of achieving creative, appropriate and viable solutions. However, this teaching method can carry hidden difficulties that may hinder the development of architecture students to their full potential. This article will inform on the methodology and results of applying an innovative method of teaching and learning architecture. This method aims at maximising the capacity of students to integrate their creative and technical competencies in order to increase the quality of work of future architects.

  4. An Innovative Method for Dynamic Characterization of Fan FilterUnit Operation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2006-12-21

    Fan filter units (FFU) are widely used to deliver re-circulated air while providing filtration control of particle concentration in controlled environments such as cleanrooms, minienvironments, and operating rooms in hospitals. The objective of this paper is to document an innovative method for characterizing operation and control of an individual fan filter unit within its operable conditions. Built upon the draft laboratory method previously published [1] , this paper presents an updated method including a testing procedure to characterize dynamic operation of fan filter units, i.e., steady-state operation conditions determined by varied control schemes, airflow rates, and pressure differential across the units. The parameters for dynamic characterization include total electric power demand, total pressure efficiency, airflow rate, pressure differential across fan filter units, and airflow uniformity.

  5. Handbook of design research methods in education innovations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics learning and teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Lesh, Richard A; Baek, John Y

    2008-01-01

    This Handbook presents the latest thinking and current examples of design research in education. Design-based research involves introducing innovations into real-world practices (as opposed to constrained laboratory contexts) and examining the impact of those designs on the learning process. Designed prototype applications (e.g., instructional methods, software or materials) and the research findings are then cycled back into the next iteration of the design innovation in order to build evidence of the particular theories being researched, and to positively impact practice and the diffusion of the innovation. The Handbook of Design Research Methods in Education-- the defining book for the field -- fills a need in how to conduct design research by those doing so right now. The chapters represent a broad array of interpretations and examples of how today's design researchers conceptualize this emergent methodology across areas as diverse as educational leadership, diffusion of innovations, complexity theory, an...

  6. User Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude.......User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude....

  7. An innovative method to calibrate a spinner anemometer without the use of yaw position sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demurtas, Giorgio; Janssen, Nick Gerardus Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    A spinner anemometer can be used to measure the yaw misalignment and flow inclination experienced by a wind turbine. Previous calibration methods used to calibrate a spinner anemometer for flow angle measurements were based on measurements of a spinner anemometer with default settings (arbitrary...... values, generally k1,d  =  1 and k2,d  =  1) and a reference yaw misalignment signal measured with a yaw position sensor. The yaw position sensor is normally present in wind turbines for control purposes; however, such a signal is not always available for a spinner anemometer calibration. Therefore......, an additional yaw position sensor was installed prior to the spinner anemometer calibration. An innovative method to calibrate the spinner anemometer without a yaw positions sensor was then developed. It was noted that a non-calibrated spinner anemometer that overestimates (underestimates) the inflow angle...

  8. An innovative method to calibrate a spinner anemometer without use of yaw position sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demurtas, Giorgio; Cornelis Janssen, Nick Gerardus

    2016-01-01

    A spinner anemometer can be used to measure the yaw misalignment and flow inclination experienced by a wind turbine. Previous calibration methods used to calibrate a spinner anemometer for flow angle measurements were based on measurements of a spinner anemometer with default settings...... and a reference yaw misalignment signal measured measured with a yaw position sensor. The yaw position sensor is normally present in wind turbines for control purposes, however, such a signal is not always available for a spinner anemometer calibration. Therefore, an additional yaw position sensor has been...... installed prior to the spinner anemometer calibration. An innovative method to calibrate the spinner anemometer without a yaw positions sensor was then developed. It was noted that a non calibrated spinner anemometer that overestimate (underestimate) the inflow angle will also overestimate (underestimate...

  9. Children and youth with disabilities: innovative methods for single qualitative interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Gail; Gibson, Barbara E

    2013-02-01

    There is a paucity of explicit literature outlining methods for single-interview studies with children, and almost none have focused on engaging children with disabilities. Drawing from a pilot study, we address these gaps by describing innovative techniques, strategies, and methods for engaging children and youth with disabilities in a single qualitative interview. In the study, we explored the beliefs, assumptions, and experiences of children and youth with cerebral palsy and their parents regarding the importance of walking. We describe three key aspects of our child-interview methodological approach: collaboration with parents, a toolkit of customizable interview techniques, and strategies to consider the power differential inherent in child-researcher interactions. Examples from our research illustrate what worked well and what was less successful. Researchers can optimize single interviews with children with disabilities by collaborating with family members and by preparing a toolkit of customizable interview techniques.

  10. Innovative potential, innovative strategy, environment factors, estimation of innovative potential, innovative development

    OpenAIRE

    Chernoivanova, G.

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes the elements of the innovation potential and the criteria for its evaluation. It is proposed methodical approach to the formation of innovation strategies with innovative potential.

  11. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  12. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin O Sills

    Full Text Available Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012. This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and

  13. Methods of information geometry in computational system biology (consistency between chemical and biological evolution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhov, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Interest in simulation of large-scale metabolic networks, species development, and genesis of various diseases requires new simulation techniques to accommodate the high complexity of realistic biological networks. Information geometry and topological formalisms are proposed to analyze information processes. We analyze the complexity of large-scale biological networks as well as transition of the system functionality due to modification in the system architecture, system environment, and system components. The dynamic core model is developed. The term dynamic core is used to define a set of causally related network functions. Delocalization of dynamic core model provides a mathematical formalism to analyze migration of specific functions in biosystems which undergo structure transition induced by the environment. The term delocalization is used to describe these processes of migration. We constructed a holographic model with self-poetic dynamic cores which preserves functional properties under those transitions. Topological constraints such as Ricci flow and Pfaff dimension were found for statistical manifolds which represent biological networks. These constraints can provide insight on processes of degeneration and recovery which take place in large-scale networks. We would like to suggest that therapies which are able to effectively implement estimated constraints, will successfully adjust biological systems and recover altered functionality. Also, we mathematically formulate the hypothesis that there is a direct consistency between biological and chemical evolution. Any set of causal relations within a biological network has its dual reimplementation in the chemistry of the system environment.

  14. Single-molecule experiments in biological physics: methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritort, F

    2006-08-16

    I review single-molecule experiments (SMEs) in biological physics. Recent technological developments have provided the tools to design and build scientific instruments of high enough sensitivity and precision to manipulate and visualize individual molecules and measure microscopic forces. Using SMEs it is possible to manipulate molecules one at a time and measure distributions describing molecular properties, characterize the kinetics of biomolecular reactions and detect molecular intermediates. SMEs provide additional information about thermodynamics and kinetics of biomolecular processes. This complements information obtained in traditional bulk assays. In SMEs it is also possible to measure small energies and detect large Brownian deviations in biomolecular reactions, thereby offering new methods and systems to scrutinize the basic foundations of statistical mechanics. This review is written at a very introductory level, emphasizing the importance of SMEs to scientists interested in knowing the common playground of ideas and the interdisciplinary topics accessible by these techniques. The review discusses SMEs from an experimental perspective, first exposing the most common experimental methodologies and later presenting various molecular systems where such techniques have been applied. I briefly discuss experimental techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM), laser optical tweezers (LOTs), magnetic tweezers (MTs), biomembrane force probes (BFPs) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). I then present several applications of SME to the study of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and DNA condensation) and proteins (protein-protein interactions, protein folding and molecular motors). Finally, I discuss applications of SMEs to the study of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems and the experimental verification of fluctuation theorems. I conclude with a discussion of open questions and future perspectives.

  15. Innovative methods of teaching computer science on the basis of "dynamic method" communicative dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Ivanova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The questions about the mechanism of improving the efficiency of knowledge transfer in the traditional form of learning using an interactive method of communication in the form of discussions, with a view to a better mastery of the material in conducting classes in computer science.

  16. Characterization of an innovative method for RuO2 deposition using Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo

    Many photocatalysts work better or exclusively when a suitable cocatalyst, such as RuO2, is deposited on their surface. An innovative method of RuO2 deposition has been found to improve the performance of photocatalysts such as (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx), WO3, SrTiO3 and TiO2. Here we use high angle...... annular dark field (HAADF) imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to study the deposition of RuO2 on TiO2. The deposition process occurs in two steps, for each of which we are able...

  17. Using the Scientific Method to Motivate Biology Students to Study Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, James P.; Sabatino, Linda

    2008-01-01

    During the last two years we have developed a precalculus course customized around biology by using the scientific method as a framework to engage and motivate biology students. Historically, the precalculus and calculus courses required for the Suffolk County Community College biology curriculum were designed using examples from the physical…

  18. Detection of biological thiols based on a colorimetric method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-yuan XU; Yang-yang SUN; Yu-juan ZHANG; Chen-he LU; Jin-feng MIAO‡

    2016-01-01

    Biological thiols (biothiols), an important kind of functional biomolecules, such as cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH), play vital roles in maintaining the stability of the intracellular environment. In past decades, studies have demonstrated that metabolic disorder of biothiols is related to many serious disease processes and wil lead to extreme damage in human and numerous animals. We carried out a series of experiments to detect biothiols in bi-osamples, including bovine plasma and cel lysates of seven different cel lines based on a simple colorimetric method. In a typical test, the color of the test solution could gradualy change from blue to colorless after the addition of biothiols. Based on the color change displayed, experimental results reveal that the percentage of biothiols in the embryonic fibroblast cell line is significantly higher than those in the other six cell lines, which provides the basis for the following biothiols-related study.%中文概要题目:生物巯化物的可视化检测目的:通过简单可靠的可视化检测方法评估牛血清及各细胞系中生物巯化物的含量。创新点:基于银纳米颗粒形成的比色变化过程对牛血清及细胞中生物巯化物进行了检测。方法:将6组不同的细胞系培养后进行裂解,其裂解产物分别与3,3',5,5'-四甲基联苯胺(TMB)和硝酸银(AgNO3)的混合液室温孵育后,用紫外可见分光光度计测量细胞中生物巯化物的含量。结论:通过不同细胞系中生物巯化物含量的比对,证实胚胎成纤维细胞中生物巯化物的含量明显高于其他细胞。

  19. An Innovative Mixed Methods Approach to Studying the Online Health Information Seeking Experiences of Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, Joanne; Bond, Carol S.; Todres, Les

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative sequential mixed methods approach to researching the experiences of U.K. adults with chronic health conditions seeking health information online. The use of multiple methods integrated within a single study ensured that the focus of the research was emergent and relevant and ultimately provided a more complete…

  20. Verification test on an innovated method for the studies on inheritance of resistance to rice sheath blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@We have recently developed a systematic method for the study on the inheritance of resistance to sheath blight. The key of the system is an innovated method of inoculation and investigation along with the employment of the permanent population. This paper reported the procedure of the system and the result of its verification.

  1. Chemical Pretreatment Methods for the Production of Cellulosic Ethanol: Technologies and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edem Cudjoe Bensah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of lignocellulose has received considerable research globally due to its influence on the technical, economic and environmental sustainability of cellulosic ethanol production. Some of the most promising pretreatment methods require the application of chemicals such as acids, alkali, salts, oxidants, and solvents. Thus, advances in research have enabled the development and integration of chemical-based pretreatment into proprietary ethanol production technologies in several pilot and demonstration plants globally, with potential to scale-up to commercial levels. This paper reviews known and emerging chemical pretreatment methods, highlighting recent findings and process innovations developed to offset inherent challenges via a range of interventions, notably, the combination of chemical pretreatment with other methods to improve carbohydrate preservation, reduce formation of degradation products, achieve high sugar yields at mild reaction conditions, reduce solvent loads and enzyme dose, reduce waste generation, and improve recovery of biomass components in pure forms. The use of chemicals such as ionic liquids, NMMO, and sulphite are promising once challenges in solvent recovery are overcome. For developing countries, alkali-based methods are relatively easy to deploy in decentralized, low-tech systems owing to advantages such as the requirement of simple reactors and the ease of operation.

  2. Evaluation of an Innovative Method for Calculating Energy Intake of Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox Sullivan, Sheila; Bopp, Melinda M; Roberson, Paula K; Lensing, Shelly; Sullivan, Dennis H

    2016-09-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-component method for capturing nutrient intake, which used observation, photography, and an innovative computer program. To assess reliability and accuracy, multiple responsible employees (REs) independently conducted nutrient intake assessments on simulated meals; each RE's results relating to energy intake were compared to those from the other REs and to those obtained by pre- and post-meal weighing of the food items. System efficiency was assessed by having REs perform independent assessments on the same set of simulated meals using either the new or traditional hospital method for which the REs had to document each food item served and then find the items in a computer database-steps that were automated in the new method. Interrater reliability for energy intake estimated on clinic wards was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.975, 95% CI 0.958 to 0.992) and there was a high level of agreement between the REs' estimates and the true values determined by food weighing; per the method of Bland and Altman the mean difference between the two types of estimates was 0.3 kcal (95% CI, -8.1 to 8.7 kcal) with limits of agreement of -79.5 kcal to 80.1 kcal. Compared to the traditional method, energy intake assessments could be completed using the multi-component method in less than a third of the time. These results indicate the multi-component method is an accurate, reliable, and efficient method of obtaining energy intake assessments for hospitalized patients.

  3. Biological stability of drinking water: Controlling factors, methods, and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.; Hammes, F.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and ca

  4. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.A.; Song, L.

    1999-09-28

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphous structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphous structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobial, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflammatory, steroid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor consisting of the compositions listed above.

  5. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Allison A. (Kennewick, WA); Song, Lin (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphus structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphus structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobal, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflamatory, steriod, nonsteriod anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor the compositions listed above.

  6. Assessment method of leasing economic efficiency in innovative development of a construction complex in comparison with crediting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva Tat'yana Romanovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction complex as one of the most important sectors of Russian economy needs innovative and technological rearmament. For its accelerated transfer to an innovative way of development technological, material, financial, labor and other resources are necessary. Also there is a need of search of new administrative tools providing accelerated distribution of the sixth technological way in a construction complex. In our opinion, leasing is one of the factors of innovative development of a construction complex and one of effective administrative tools stimulating this development. In leasing transaction the owner of an asset temporarily transfers the right to use an asset to other party. The owner of an asset is a lessor. The other party is a lessee. The lessor makes the lease for a specified time in return for periodic rental payments from the lessee. One of the advantages of leasing is that it provides alternative to ownership. Also lessees benefit from a number of tax advantages. Leasing has many other advantages. The results of scientific research of leasing features are presented in the article in comparison with the credit in innovative development of a construction complex. Efficiency assessment criteria of leasing for innovations in construction are offered. The assessment method of economic efficiency of leasing in comparison with the credit as administrative tools in innovative development of a construction complex is developed and presented.

  7. Methodical frameworks for evaluation of financial and investment component of functionality of innovation-oriented enterprise belonged to machinery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.О. Boiarynova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to develop the methodical frameworks for evaluation of financial and investment component of functionality of innovation-oriented enterprise belonged to machinery industry. The results of the analysis. The author has analyzed approaches to evaluation of financial and investment component of the innovation-oriented enterprise activity. The article detects the sense of financial and investment environmental system of the enterprise and its constituent environments. The author has proposed a system of indices for evaluation of financial and investment environmental system of the innovation-oriented enterprise belonged to machinery industry, showing enterprise functioning phases (functional maintenance, functional reproduction, functional expanded reproduction, functional innovative reproduction and economic return and environments’ components (internal financial and investment support environment, business environment of financial relationships; investment and partnership environment, environment of financial and economic security. The article substantiates application of ratios of liquidity, solvency, financial stability, financial security, asset turnover, profitability and payback, which are distributed and adapted for evaluation of phases of functioning of machinery industry enterprises and evaluation of phases of functioning of machinery industry enterprises. The author has suggested to do the coefficient analysis of the innovative reproduction phase with the use of the following figures: a ratio of research engineering working capital financed by equity to total assets, an innovation-oriented assets ratio (the environment of internal financial support, a quick liquidity ratio of intangible assets (the business environment of financial relationships, a ratio of capital involved for innovations (the investment and partnership environment, ratio of financial independency of innovations

  8. 76 FR 76424 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Proposed Recommendations for a User Fee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...; Proposed Recommendations for a User Fee Program for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Product... recommendations for a user fee program for biosimilar biological products for fiscal years (FYs) 2013 through 2017... biosimilar biological products (biosimilars user fee program) for FYs 2013 through 2017. On March 23,...

  9. Recent advances in bio-logging science: Technologies and methods for understanding animal behaviour and physiology and their environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K.; Lea, M.-A.; Patterson, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    The deployment of an ever-evolving array of animal-borne telemetry and data logging devices is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movement, behaviour and physiology of a variety species and the complex, and often highly dynamic, environments they use and respond to. The rapid rate at which new technologies, improvements to current technologies and new analytical techniques are being developed has meant that movements, behaviour and physiological processes are being quantified at finer spatial and temporal scales than ever before. The Fourth International Symposium on Bio-logging Science, held on 14-18 March in Hobart, Australia, brought together scientists across multiple disciplines to discuss the latest innovations in technology, applications and analytical techniques in bio-logging science, building on research presented at three previous conferences. Here we present an update on the state of bio-logging research and provide some views on the future of this field of research. Papers were grouped into five theme areas: (i) Southern Ocean ecosystems; (ii) fishery and biodiversity management applications; (iii) from individuals to populations—inferences of population dynamics from individuals; (iv) conservation biology and (v) habitat modelling. Papers reflected wider uptake of newer technologies, with a greater proportion of studies utilising accelerometry and incorporating advances in statistical modelling of behaviour and habitats, especially via state space modelling methods. Environmental data collected by tags at increasing accuracies are now having wider application beyond the bio-logging community, providing important oceanographic data from regions difficult to sample using traditional methodologies. Partnerships between multiple organisations are also now enabling regional assessments of species movements, behaviour and physiology at population scales and will continue to be important for applying bio-logging technologies to species

  10. Methods of information theory and algorithmic complexity for network biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenil, Hector; Kiani, Narsis A; Tegnér, Jesper

    2016-03-01

    We survey and introduce concepts and tools located at the intersection of information theory and network biology. We show that Shannon's information entropy, compressibility and algorithmic complexity quantify different local and global aspects of synthetic and biological data. We show examples such as the emergence of giant components in Erdös-Rényi random graphs, and the recovery of topological properties from numerical kinetic properties simulating gene expression data. We provide exact theoretical calculations, numerical approximations and error estimations of entropy, algorithmic probability and Kolmogorov complexity for different types of graphs, characterizing their variant and invariant properties. We introduce formal definitions of complexity for both labeled and unlabeled graphs and prove that the Kolmogorov complexity of a labeled graph is a good approximation of its unlabeled Kolmogorov complexity and thus a robust definition of graph complexity.

  11. The model and the planning method of volume and variety assessment of innovative products in an industrial enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V. G.; Anisimov, E. G.; Saurenko, T. N.; Sonkin, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the long term, the innovative development strategy efficiency is considered as the most crucial condition for assurance of economic system competitiveness in market conditions. It determines the problem relevance of such justification strategies with regard to specific systems features and conditions of their operation. The problem solution for industrial enterprises can be based on mathematical models of supporting the decision-making on the elements of the innovative manufacturing program. An optimization model and the planning method of innovative products volume and variety are suggested. The feature of the suggested model lies in the nonlinear nature of the objective function. It allows taking into consideration the law of diminishing marginal utility. The suggested method of optimization takes into account the system features and enables the effective implementation of manufacturing capabilities in modern conditions of production organization and sales in terms of market saturation.

  12. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant...... approaches, compares them in terms of goals, methods and basic philosophy, and shows how they may beneficially enrich one another. We will present an industrial innovation case that has been instrumental to the development of what we have termed ‘Participatory Innovation’. Based on this we will list...... the challenges such an approach sets to innovation management, and discuss research directions we see as fundamental to the development of the field of user-driven innovation. Udgivelsesdato: September...

  13. Responsible innovation

    CERN Document Server

    De Woot, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Economic development is rooted in disruption, not in equilibrium. And a powerful engine of economic development is innovation; but is this innovation always for the common good? The dark side of the extraordinary dynamism of innovation lies precisely in its destructive power. If simply left to market forces, it could lead to social chaos and great human suffering. To face the challenges of our time, we must create the proper climate and culture to develop strong entrepreneurial drive. But, more than ever, we must give this entrepreneurial drive its ethical and societal dimensions. Responsible innovation means a more voluntary orientation towards the great problems of the 21st century, e.g. depletion of the planet's resources, rising inequality, and new scientific developments potentially threatening freedom, democracy and human integrity. We need to transform our ceaseless creativity into real progress for humankind. In this respect, the rapid development of social innovation opens the door for new methods an...

  14. Innovative analytical methods for Central Nervous System Drug analysis in biological fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Musenga, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    During recent years a consistent number of central nervous system (CNS) drugs have been approved and introduced on the market for the treatment of many psychiatric and neurological disorders, including psychosis, depression, Parkinson disease and epilepsy. Despite the great advancements obtained in the treatment of CNS diseases/disorders, partial response to therapy or treatment failure are frequent, at least in part due to poor compliance, but also genetic variability in the metabolism of ps...

  15. Discovery of Innovative Therapies for Rare Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases via Off-Label Prescription of Biologics: The Case of IL-6 Receptor Blockade in Castleman's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musters, Anne; Assaf, Amira; Gerlag, Danielle M; Tak, Paul P; Tas, Sander W

    2015-01-01

    Biologics have revolutionized the field of clinical immunology and proven to be both effective and safe in common immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and various hematological disorders. However, in patients with rare, severe IMIDs failing on standard therapies, it is virtually impossible to conduct randomized controlled trials. Therefore, biologics are usually prescribed off-label in these often severely ill patients. Unfortunately, off-label prescription is sometimes hampered in these diseases due to a lack of reimbursement that is often based on a presumed lack of evidence for effectiveness. In the present article, we will discuss that off-label prescription of biologics can be a good way to discover new treatments for rare diseases. This will be illustrated using a case of multicentric Castleman's disease, an immune-mediated lymphoproliferative disorder, in which off-label tocilizumab (humanized anti-IL-6 receptor blocking antibody) treatment resulted in remarkable clinical improvement. Furthermore, we will give recommendations for monitoring efficacy and safety of biologic treatment in rare IMIDs, including the use of registries. In conclusion, we put forward that innovative treatments for rare IMIDs can be discovered via off-label prescription of biologicals, provided that this is based on rational arguments including knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disease.

  16. Informal Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Mia Rosa Koss; Hartmann, Rasmus Koss

    Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R&D is not......Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R......&D is not the only plausible source of innovation inside organizations, informal innovation has yet to be systematically explored or theorized. We propose a theory of informal innovation based on analyses of prior literature and mixed-method, multi-site studies of innovation at the working level of two extreme......-case organizations. We propose that informal innovation occurs as 1) employees personally experience problems that they believe are not recognized or prioritized by superiors; 2) some employees are able to develop solutions, essentially at no cost; 3) innovators face no benefits from revealing to superiors, but can...

  17. The development of an innovative music therapy treatment method: trial competency through music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Competence to stand trial is necessary for a defendant in criminal adjudication. Recent estimates indicate that between 50,000 and 60,000 defendants in the United States raise the question of competence each year, with approximately 20 percent found incompetent to stand trial (IST). Most of these defendants are committed to an inpatient facility for competence restoration. Although psychopharmacological intervention is a critical component of restoration, as most defendants are found incompetent because of a psychotic disorder, many other modalities of treatment are used. Traditional treatment methods include the use of standardized testing and psychoeducational group sessions. This article discusses the development of an innovative intervention using music therapy. Music as the catalyst provides a forum in which psychiatric patients are engaged and observed within a structured environment designed to address both their factual and rational knowledge and abilities to assist their attorneys in their defense. Trial competency training through a specific music therapy method called Competency Through Music (CTM) is presented, including examples of how music can be used to educate patients and assess trial competence.

  18. Vertical weight-bearing MRI provides an innovative method for standardizing Spurling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xiaofeng; Li, Jian; Jin, Zhigao; Zheng, Zugen

    2010-12-01

    Although Spurling test, a foraminal compression test, is commonly used in clinical practice in patients with a suspected cervical radiculopathy, its protocol is still obscure. In undergoing this test, patients extend, laterally flex and slightly rotate neck to the symptomatic side, and then a pressure is applied on the top of patient's head by examiner. The test is scored as positive if it causes pain or tingling that starts in the shoulder and radiates distally to the elbow. But the range of neck motion and level of load are not clearly defined. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be an excellent method of assessing the situation of cervical intervertebral foramen. Unfortunately the conventional MRI system is not able to fully achieve this goal because it can only examine patient in supine position while Spurling test needs to be performed in a sitting position. Here we hypothesize that vertical weight-bearing MRI provides an innovative method for researching and standardizing the protocols of Spurling test. The result will provide better knowledge of the mechanism of Spurling test. Standardization of the test will improve its sensitivity and rate of reproducibility.

  19. A simple method of determination of partition coefficient for biologically active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sersen, F

    1995-02-01

    A simple method is presented for the determination of partition coefficient of an effector between water environment and biological material, based on concentration-dependent effects. The method allows the determination of partition coefficients for biological objects such as algae, bacteria and other microorganisms.

  20. Determining biomass in biological processes. Methods for wastewater biological treatment; Determinacion de la biomasa en procesos biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isaac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Biomass concentration and activity are two important parameters for the successful design and control of biological processes in wastewater treatment. Widely used parameter for biomass characterization is dry weight concentration. This parameter is, however, not sufficient to describe biomass activity. Improved analytical methods are needed in order to understand the physiological behaviour of the biomass. In this work, conventional and advanced analytical methods for biomass determination in wastewater treatment are reviewed. (Author) 27 refs.

  1. Innovative teaching methods in the professional training of nurses – simulation education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Miertová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article is aimed to highlight usage of innovative teaching methods within simulation education in the professional training of nurses abroad and to present our experience based on passing intensive study programme at School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, University of Salford (United Kingdom, UK within Intensive EU Lifelong Learning Programme (LPP Erasmus EU RADAR 2013. Methods: Implementation of simulation methods such as role-play, case studies, simulation scenarios, practical workshops and clinical skills workstation within structured ABCDE approach (AIM© Assessment and Management Tool was aimed to promote the development of theoretical knowledge and skills to recognize and manage acutely deteriorated patients. Structured SBAR approach (Acute SBAR Communication Tool was used for the training of communication and information sharing among the members of multidisciplinary health care team. OSCE approach (Objective Structured Clinical Examination was used for student’s individual formative assessment. Results: Simulation education is proved to have lots of benefits in the professional training of nurses. It is held in safe, controlled and realistic conditions (in simulation laboratories reflecting real hospital and community care environment with no risk of harming real patients accompanied by debriefing, discussion and analysis of all activities students have performed within simulated scenario. Such learning environment is supportive, challenging, constructive, motivated, engaging, skilled, flexible, inspiring and respectful. Thus the simulation education is effective, interactive, interesting, efficient and modern way of nursing education. Conclusion: Critical thinking and clinical competences of nurses are crucial for early recognition and appropriate response to acute deterioration of patient’s condition. These competences are important to ensure the provision of high quality nursing care. Methods of

  2. DEVELOPING RADICAL SERVICE INNOVATIONS IN HEALTHCARE — THE ROLE OF DESIGN METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the management of service innovation. In particular, it explores the challenge of public services and argues that there is a need for new approaches to the ways which engage users as more active co-creators within the innovation process. It draws on wider research on radical innovation being carried out as part of a long-term international programme and reports on a series of case studies of experiments in the health sector in the UK using tools like ethnography and protot...

  3. 76 FR 27062 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Options for a User Fee Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...; Options for a User Fee Program for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Product Applications for... this document to request comments relating to the development of a user fee program for biosimilar and... similar (biosimilar) to, or interchangeable with, an FDA-licensed reference biological product....

  4. 75 FR 76472 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Meetings on User Fee Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ...; Meetings on User Fee Program for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Product Applications; Request... participate in consultation meetings relating to the development of a user fee program for biosimilar and... review of biosimilar and interchangeable biological product applications for fiscal years (FYs)...

  5. Control Structure Design of an Innovative Enhanced Biological Nutrient Recovery Activated Sludge System Coupled with a Photobioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Fuentes-Martínez, José Manuel; Flores Alsina, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The TRENS system is a train of biological units designed for resource recovery from wastewater. It is a sequence of a modified enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (EBP2R) coupled with a photobioreactor (PBR). The bacteria-based system constructs an optimal culture media for...

  6. Immune-neuroendocrine biology of invertebrates: a collection of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ballarin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade there has been a considerable increase of interest towards the elucidation of several aspects of invertebrate biology, including immunity and neuroendocrinology. However, due to the difficulties connected to the great variety of morphology and adaptations displayed by invertebrates, and also in consideration of the number of techniques that are applied in the various laboratories, research on invertebrates still suffers from hampering that have been substantially overcome in vertebrate models, especially in mammals. The aim of this Technical Report is to provide the reader a useful list of well-established morphological and morpho-functional protocols in order to facilitate the design and make more homogeneous the realization of experiments in the field of invertebrate immune-neuroendocrinology.

  7. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®, an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Aparecida Berretta, Andresa Piacezzi Nascimento, Paula Carolina Pires Bueno, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Juliana Maldonado Marchetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®, which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition.

  8. INNOVATIVE METHODS OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT OF LUXURY BRANDS FOR EXAMPLE GUCCI'S COLLABORATION WITH THE FIAT COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastazja Magdalena Kasztalska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Branding is a basic and necessary tool in marketing. Recognizable brands develop international trade, cooperation, and exchange of goods. Of late, luxury brands have entered a new level of marketing and customer interaction, whereas, previously, brands specializing in one sector of the economy, generally ignored others. Gucci is a luxury brand that has recently teamed up with FIAT, a company with a completely different profile to that of manufacturing in the apparel industry. The aim of this study was to establish whether customers buying products from Gucci were interested in its collaboration with the automotive industry and whether the Gucci brand had become more recognizable because of this cooperation. The conclusions were somewhat remarkable, with the Fiat 500, a product combining reliability and beautiful design, continuing to be immensely popular. In addition, the cooperation of both brands has brought large profits and a significant increase in awareness of both companies. Undoubtedly, the innovative marketing method of designing a new car model, in collaboration with a luxury brand, brings awareness to both brands. Further studies are likely regarding this unprecedented case of cooperation between a brand of luxury clothing and one of an automotive company.

  9. Design Intend Solving: Dynamic Composition Method for Innovative Design Based on Virtual Cloud Manufacturing Resource Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been growing interest in composition of cloud manufacturing resources (CMRs. Composition of CMRs is a feasible innovation to fulfill the user request while single cloud manufacturing resource cannot satisfy the functionality required by the user. In this paper, we propose a new case-based approach for the composition of CMRs. The basic idea of the present approach is to provide a computational framework for the composition of CMRs by imitating the common design method of reviewing past designs to obtain solution concepts for a new composite cloud manufacturing resource (CCMR. A notion of virtual cloud manufacturing resource generators (VCMRGs is introduced to conceptualize and represent underlying CCMRs contained in existing CCMRs. VCMRGs are derived from previous CCMRs and serve as new conceptual building blocks for the composition of CMRs. Feasible composite CMRs are generated by combining VCMRGs using some adaptation rules. The reuse of prior CCMRs is accomplished via VCMRGs within the framework of case-based reasoning. We demonstrate that the proposed approach yields lower execution time for fulfilling user request and shows good scalability.

  10. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  11. Managing ground and surface water resources using innovative methods in rural and urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Magole, Lapologang; Makurira, Hodson; Mazvimavi, Dominic; Meck, Maideyi; Mul, Maloes

    2016-06-01

    Management of water resources across the world is becoming more challenging as a result of population increase and the changes in climatic patterns that are now evident across the globe, especially so in Southern Africa. It is therefore imperative that water researchers begin to apply innovative methods that are accurate and reliable. In this editorial we highlight some of the methods that have been applied in this changing environment.

  12. Computational Biology Methods for Characterization of Pluripotent Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent cells are a powerful tool for regenerative medicine and drug discovery. Several techniques have been developed to induce pluripotency, or to extract pluripotent cells from different tissues and biological fluids. However, the characterization of pluripotency requires tedious, expensive, time-consuming, and not always reliable wet-lab experiments; thus, an easy, standard quality-control protocol of pluripotency assessment remains to be established. Here to help comes the use of high-throughput techniques, and in particular, the employment of gene expression microarrays, which has become a complementary technique for cellular characterization. Research has shown that the transcriptomics comparison with an Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) of reference is a good approach to assess the pluripotency. Under the premise that the best protocol is a computer software source code, here I propose and explain line by line a software protocol coded in R-Bioconductor for pluripotency assessment based on the comparison of transcriptomics data of pluripotent cells with an ESC of reference. I provide advice for experimental design, warning about possible pitfalls, and guides for results interpretation.

  13. A magnetic method to concentrate and trap biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-11-01

    Magnetoresistive sensors in combination with magnetic particles have been used in biological applications due to, e.g., their small size and high sensitivity. A growing interest is to integrate magnetoresistive sensors with microchannels and electronics to fabricate devices that can perform complex analyses. A major task in such systems is to immobilize magnetic particles on top of the sensor surface, which is required to detect the particles\\' stray field. In the presented work, a bead concentrator, consisting of gold microstructures, at the bottom of a microchannel, is used to attract and move magnetic particles into a trap. The trap is made of a chamber with a gold microstructure underneath and is used to attract and immobilize a defined number of magnetic beads. In order to detect targets, two kinds of solutions were prepared; one containing only superparamagnetic particles, the other one containing beads with the protein Bovine serum albumin as the target and fluorescent markers. Due to the size difference between bare beads and beads with target, less magnetic beads were immobilized inside the volume chamber in case of magnetic beads with target as compared to bare magnetic beads. © 1965-2012 IEEE.

  14. RT-PCR Protocols - Methods in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Monti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available “The first record I have of it, is when I made a computer file which I usually did whenever I had an idea, that would have been on the Monday when I got back, and I called it Chain Reaction.POL, meaning polymerase. That was the identifier for it and later I called the thing the Polymerase Chain Reaction, which a lot of people thought was a dumb name for it, but it stuck, and it became PCR”. With these words the Nobel prize winner, Kary Mullis, explains how he named the PCR: one of the most important techniques ever invented and currently used in molecular biology. This book “RT-PCR Protocols” covers a wide range of aspects important for the setting of a PCR experiment for both beginners and advanced users. In my opinion the book is very well structured in three different sections. The first one describes the different technologies now available, like competitive RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR or RT-PCR for cloning. An important part regards the usage of PCR in single cell mouse embryos, stressing how important...........

  15. Optoelectronic method for determining platinum in biological products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Simona; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Macovei, Radu Alexandru; Caragea, Genica; Forje, Mǎrgǎrita; Grecu, Iulia; Vlǎdescu, Marian; Viscol, Oana

    2016-12-01

    Of all platinum metals, platinum has the most uses and it's the most abundant and most easily to be processed. Its use in auto catalysts results in environmental contamination of crowded cities and high-traffic roads. In medicine, Pt is used as a cytostatic drug. In order to study the degree of contamination of the population with Pt or the correctness of treatment with Pt, it has been developed a method for its determination from urine or blood samples with a system Graphite Furnance - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, (GF-AAS) Varian. There are presented the methods of sampling processing for blood or urine that followed the digest of the organic matrix. In the determination of the operating parameters for the system GF-AAS, was aimed the reducing of the nonanatomic absorbance by optimizing the drying temperatures, the calcination and atomization temperatures and the removal of the nonanatomic absorbance with D2 lamp. As a result of the use of the method are presented the concentrations of Pt in the blood or urine of a group of patients in Bucharest, a city with heavy traffic of vehicles. GF-AAS method presented is sensitive, reproducible, and relatively easy to apply with an acceptable cost. With this method, the concentration of Pt can be determined from blood and urine, both in order to establish the degree of contamination with Pt and for monitoring cancer therapy with platinum compounds.

  16. Methods of Genome Engineering: a New Era of Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugunova, A A; Dontsova, O A; Sergiev, P V

    2016-07-01

    Genome sequencing now progressing much faster than our understanding of the majority of gene functions. Studies of physiological functions of various genes would not be possible without the ability to manipulate the genome. Methods of genome engineering can now be used to inactivate a gene to study consequences, introduce heterologous genes into the genome for scientific and biotechnology applications, create genes coding for fusion proteins to study gene expression, protein localization, and molecular interactions, and to develop animal models of human diseases to find appropriate treatment. Finally, genome engineering might present the possibility to cure hereditary diseases. In this review, we discuss and compare the most important methods for gene inactivation and editing, as well as methods for incorporation of heterologous genes into the genome.

  17. Novel Method of Estimating Metabolic Rates of Soldiers Engaged in Chemical Biological Defense Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    SOLDIERS ENGAGED IN CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE TRAINING DISCLAIMER The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the...USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT TR17-02 NOVEL METHOD OF ESTIMATING METABOLIC RATES OF SOLDIERS ENGAGED IN CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE TRAINING ...Volunteers ............................................................................................................ 2 Training Activities

  18. Steel Casing Resistivity Technology (SCRT): Innovative Applications of Electrical Methods for Buried Tank Leak Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J. B.; Levitt, M. T.; Gee, G. W.

    2002-12-01

    The need for non-invasive leak detection methods is extremely important for monitoring cleanup efforts of nuclear waste contained in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Facility in Washington. Drilling is both very expensive and undesirable in the tank farms. Various geophysical imaging methods were evaluated over the past two years at two "cold" sites but within geologic conditions similar to the tank farms. The "cold" sites consisted of 1. a dense array of 32 steel casings, and 2. a "mock tank" in which various controlled leaks (injections) of a saturated aqueous solution of Na2S2O35H20 were metered. Nearly all methods required invasive drilling for subsurface placement of sensors. An innovative direct-current electrical method using existing infrastructure as grounding electrodes, such as steel casings and steel tanks, has shown very promising results and is undergoing further testing. The most useful results have been obtained by using multiple grounding points for spatial determinations and continuous time-series monitoring for temporal variations. Although the large size of tanks and lengths of casings make discrete volume estimations difficult, data acquired for test leaks to date have shown a surprising correlation between leak rates and the rate-of-change of specific electrical measurements. First order volume approximations can be made based on existing knowledge of the geologic environment and hydraulic parameters. Spatial data provide general leak location and gross flow characteristics, whereas temporal data indicate test leak commencement, cessation, and approximate leak rates. On-going testing is providing quantitative calibration information that is expected to transfer to the tank farm environments. Procedures are being developed that will simplify the installation and operation of the system in the tank-farm environments. Implementation of the technology necessitated remote operation and monitoring of the electrical system

  19. An Innovative Sequential Focus Group Method for Investigating Diabetes Care Experiences With Indigenous Peoples in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Jacklin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the innovative use of sequential focus groups (SFGs with Indigenous adults living with type 2 diabetes. This use of SFGs has not been previously described in the literature. In our project, SFGs were used to explore Indigenous people’s experiences in managing their diabetes. Our research objective has been to elucidate deep understandings of these experiences in order to inform the development of continuing medical education curriculum with the aim of improving approaches to diabetes care for Indigenous people. Working in partnerships with Indigenous health organizations, we recruited four groups comprising participants from diverse Indigenous communities (two urban, two rural in three provinces of Canada. We conducted a series of five focus groups (SFGs with the same participants (6–8 participants at each site for a total of 20 focus groups and 29 participants. Indigenous people living with type 2 diabetes were asked open-ended questions concerning their experiences with diabetes and diabetes care in primary health-care settings. Our findings concerning the use of SFGs for Indigenous health research draw on team member and participants’ reflections captured in facilitator field notes, memos from debriefing sessions, and focus group transcripts. The SFG approach enabled in-depth exploration of the complex, and at times sensitive, issues related to Indigenous people’s views on diabetes and their experiences of diabetes care. The repeated sessions facilitated comfort and camaraderie among participants, which led to insightful sessions filled with personal and emotional stories of living with diabetes, the impacts of colonization, and health-care experiences. Overall, the method fostered a deeper level of engagement, exploration, and reflection than a single-session focus group typically would. We suggest this adaptation of the traditional single-session focus groups would be applicable to a wide variety of research

  20. Making the cut: Innovative methods for optimizing perfusion-based migration assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Andrew W; Howard, William E; Ables, Elizabeth T; George, Stephanie M; Kukoly, Cindy A; Rabidou, Jake E; Francisco, Jake T; Chukwu, Angel N; Tulis, David A

    2017-03-01

    Application of fluid shear stress to adherent cells dramatically influences their cytoskeletal makeup and differentially regulates their migratory phenotype. Because cytoskeletal rearrangements are necessary for cell motility and migration, preserving these adaptations under in vitro conditions and in the presence of fluid flow are physiologically essential. With this in mind, parallel plate flow chambers and microchannels are often used to conduct in vitro perfusion experiments. However, both of these systems currently lack capacity to accurately study cell migration in the same location where cells were perfused. The most common perfusion/migration assays involve cell perfusion followed by trypsinization which can compromise adaptive cytoskeletal geometry and lead to misleading phenotypic conclusions. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively highlight some limitations commonly found with currently used cell migration approaches and to introduce two new advances which use additive manufacturing (3D printing) or laser capture microdissection (LCM) technology. The residue-free 3D printed insert allows accurate cell seeding within defined areas, increases cell yield for downstream analyses, and more closely resembles the reported levels of fluid shear stress calculated with computational fluid dynamics as compared to other residue-free cell seeding techniques. The LCM approach uses an ultraviolet laser for "touchless technology" to rapidly and accurately introduce a custom-sized wound area in otherwise inaccessible perfusion microchannels. The wound area introduced by LCM elicits comparable migration characteristics compared to traditional pipette tip-induced injuries. When used in perfusion experiments, both of these newly characterized tools were effective in yielding similar results yet without the limitations of the traditional modalities. These innovative methods provide valuable tools for exploring mechanisms of clinically important aspects of cell

  1. Innovative method and apparatus for the deep cleaning of soluble salts from mortars and lithic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Laura; Ferretti, Maurizio; Torrielli, Giulia; Caratto, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    demonstrated by conducibility tests on the juxtaposed Japanese paper. In addition, after the conventional treatment, a considerable amount of soluble salts was further extracted demonstrating that traditional wraps operate just a shallow cleaning, and soluble salts are liable to emerge later as efflorescence affecting the conservation after restoration. The optimum cleaning was obtained by finishing the innovative extraction with sepiolite/cellulose wraps. As a whole, the novel method and apparatus enhance the time for restoration and the final quality before consolidation and protection. [1] "Apparatus and method for treating porous materials" - M. Ferretti, L. Gaggero, G. Torrielli, PCT/IB2015/055129 (2015)

  2. High throughput instruments, methods, and informatics for systems biology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Cowie, Jim R. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Wylie, Brian Neil; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Aragon, Anthony D. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Keenan, Michael Robert; Boyack, Kevin W.; Thomas, Edward Victor; Werner-Washburne, Margaret C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Mosquera-Caro, Monica P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, M. Juanita (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Shawn Bryan; Willman, Cheryl L. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-12-01

    High throughput instruments and analysis techniques are required in order to make good use of the genomic sequences that have recently become available for many species, including humans. These instruments and methods must work with tens of thousands of genes simultaneously, and must be able to identify the small subsets of those genes that are implicated in the observed phenotypes, or, for instance, in responses to therapies. Microarrays represent one such high throughput method, which continue to find increasingly broad application. This project has improved microarray technology in several important areas. First, we developed the hyperspectral scanner, which has discovered and diagnosed numerous flaws in techniques broadly employed by microarray researchers. Second, we used a series of statistically designed experiments to identify and correct errors in our microarray data to dramatically improve the accuracy, precision, and repeatability of the microarray gene expression data. Third, our research developed new informatics techniques to identify genes with significantly different expression levels. Finally, natural language processing techniques were applied to improve our ability to make use of online literature annotating the important genes. In combination, this research has improved the reliability and precision of laboratory methods and instruments, while also enabling substantially faster analysis and discovery.

  3. a Simplified Parameter Design Method for Transformation Optics-Based Metamaterial Innovative Cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Hua; Huang, Ming; Yang, Jing-Jing; Lu, Jin; Cao, Hui-Lu

    2013-10-01

    Transformation optics-based innovative cloak which combines the virtues of both internal and external cloaks to enable arbitrary multi-objects hidden with visions and movements was first proposed by Huang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151901 (2012)]. But it is rather difficult to implement in practice, for the required material parameters vary with radius and even have singular values. To accelerate its practical realization but still keep good performance of invisibility, a simplified innovative cloak with only spatially varying axial parameter is developed via choosing appropriate transformation function. The advantage of such a cloak is that both radial and azimuthal parameters are constants, and all three components are nonsingular and finite. Full-wave simulation confirms the perfect cloaking effect of the cloak. Besides, the influences of metamaterials loss and parameter deviation on the performance of cloak are also investigated. This work provides a simple and feasible solution to push metamaterial-assisted innovative cloak more closely to the practice.

  4. Marketing Innovations in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Božić

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the introduction of marketing innovations by companies in Croatia. This study provides an insight into the innovativeness with regard to the introduction of marketing innovations. It explores the presence of marketing innovations in general and the introduction of four types of marketing innovation (significant changes to the aesthetic design or packaging, new media or techniques for product promotion, new methods for product placement or sales channels...

  5. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  6. Electrochemical methods for generation of a biological proton motive force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeikus, Joseph Gregory; Shin, Hyoun S.; Jain, Mahendra K.

    2008-12-02

    Disclosed are methods using neutral red to mediate the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Electrically reduced neutral red has been found to promote cell growth and formation of reduced products by reversibly increasing the ratio of the reduced:oxidized forms of NAD(H) or NADP(H). Electrically reduced neutral red is able to serve as the sole source of reducing power for microbial cell growth. Neutral red is also able to promote conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by facilitating the transfer of electrons from microbial reducing power to a fuel cell cathode.

  7. Comparison of molecular fingerprint methods on the basis of biological profile data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Andreas; Kogej, Thierry; Tyrchan, Christian; Engkvist, Ola

    2009-02-01

    In this study we evaluated a set of molecular fingerprint methods with respect to their capability to reproduce similarities in the biological activity space. The evaluation presented in this paper is therefore different from many other fingerprint studies, in which the enrichment of active compounds binding to the same target as selected query structures was studied. Conversely, our data set was extracted from the BioPrint database, which contains uniformly derived biological activity profiles of mainly marketed drugs for a range of biological assays relevant for the pharmaceutical industry. We compared calculated molecular fingerprint similarity values between all compound pairs of the data set with the corresponding similarities in the biological activity space and additionally analyzed agreements of generated clusterings. A closer analysis of the compound pairs with a high biological activity similarity revealed that fingerprint methods such as CHEMGPS or TRUST4, which describe global features of a molecule such as physicochemical properties and pharmacophore patterns, might be better suited to describe similarity of biological activity profiles than purely structural fingerprint methods. It is therefore suggested that the usage of these fingerprint methods could increase the probability of finding molecules with a similar biological activity profile but yet a different chemical structure.

  8. Longwall mining “cutting cantilever beam theory” and 110 mining method in China—The third mining science innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Manchao He; Guolong Zhu; Zhibiao Guo

    2015-01-01

    With the third innovation in science and technology worldwide, China has also experienced this marvelous progress. Concerning the longwall mining in China, the “masonry beam theory” (MBT) was first proposed in the 1960s, illustrating that the transmission and equilibrium method of overburden pressure using reserved coal pillar in mined-out areas can be realized. This forms the so-called “121 mining method”, which lays a solid foundation for development of mining science and technology in Chin...

  9. Integrating Teacher- and Peer-Assessments of Group Coursework Assignments in Business Education: Some Innovative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyia, Okey Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a sequel to an earlier one that examines "the efficacy of two innovative peer-assessment templates ("PET" and "PACT") introduced to enable students provide evidence of their fairness in evaluating peer contributions to group project work" (Onyia, O. P. and Allen, S., 2012). In the present paper, three…

  10. Innovative methods to stabilize liquid membranes for removal of radionuclides from groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhandwala, K. [Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Membrane Technology Research, Inc., is developing a stable liquid membrane for extracting uranium and other radionuclides from groundwater. The improved membrane can also be applied to separation of other metal ions from aqueous streams in industrial operations.

  11. Team learning for innovation in higher education: a mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, R.; Endedijk, M.D.; Sleegers, P.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    In Higher Education, many changes towards more student-centred and interdisciplinary education are designed and implemented. In order to design such educational innovations, teachers in higher education have to work together in teams. In this research we study these teacher collaboration processes f

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored BEopt software, which ensures a consistent analysis platform and accurate simulations. Many BEopt algorithms have been adopted by private-sector HERS software tools that have helped improve the energy efficiency of tens-of-thousands of ENERGY STAR-certified homes.

  13. Innovation and a Return to the Status: A Mixed-Methods Study of School Reconstitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Katharine O.; Marsh, Julie A.; Hashim, Ayesha K.; Bush-Mecenas, Susan

    2016-01-01

    School reconstitution, a turnaround strategy that prescribes massive staffing turnover, is expected to result in more committed and capable school staff and innovative practices. However, little evidence supports this assumption. We use quasi-experimental designs to assess the impact of reconstitution on student achievement and teacher mobility,…

  14. Parameter estimation method for improper fractional models and its application to molecular biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-Ping; Liu, Lizhi; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Derived from biochemical principles, molecular biological systems can be described by a group of differential equations. Generally these differential equations contain fractional functions plus polynomials (which we call improper fractional model) as reaction rates. As a result, molecular biological systems are nonlinear in both parameters and states. It is well known that it is challenging to estimate parameters nonlinear in a model. However, in fractional functions both the denominator and numerator are linear in the parameters while polynomials are also linear in parameters. Based on this observation, we develop an iterative linear least squares method for estimating parameters in biological systems modeled by improper fractional functions. The basic idea is to transfer optimizing a nonlinear least squares objective function into iteratively solving a sequence of linear least squares problems. The developed method is applied to the estimation of parameters in a metabolism system. The simulation results show the superior performance of the proposed method for estimating parameters in such molecular biological systems.

  15. Priorities and developments of sensors, samplers and methods for key marine biological observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Samantha; Chavez, Francisco; Pearlman, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Over the last two decades or more, physical oceanography has seen a significant growth in in-situ sensors and platforms including fixed point and cable observatories, Argo floats, gliders and AUVs to supplement satellites for creating a 3-D view of the time-varying global ocean temperature and salinity structures. There are important developments recently for biogeochemists for monitoring nitrate, chemical contaminants, oxygen and pH that can now be added to these autonomous systems. Biologists are still lagging. Given the importance of biology to ocean health and the future earth, and the present reliance on humans and ships for observing species and abundance, it is paramount that new biological sensor systems be developed. Some promising sensor systems based on, but not limited to acoustic, chemical, genomic or imaging techniques, can sense from microbes to whales, are on the horizon. These techniques can be applied in situ with either real time or recorded data and can be captured and returned to the laboratory using the autonomous systems. The number of samples is limiting, requiring adaptive and smart systems. Two steps are envisioned to meeting the challenges. The first is to identify the priority biological variables to focus observation requirements and planning. The second is to address new sensors that can fill the gaps in current capabilities for biological observations. This abstract will review recent efforts to identify core biological variables for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System and address new sensors and innovations for observing these variables, particularly focused on availability and maturity of sensors.

  16. Chiral analysis of amphetamines, methadone and metabolites in biological samples by electrodriven methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrioli, Roberto; Mercolini, Laura; Raggi, Maria A

    2011-10-01

    Amphetamines and methadone are synthetic chiral drugs with a high potential for abuse. As such, several analytical methods have been developed for their enantioseparation and analysis in biological tissues, and some of these are based on electrodriven techniques. In this review, the most important and recent of these latter methods are reviewed and their main advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the suitability of each method for the application to the biological matrix of interest: while all methods have been successfully applied for one or more biological tissues, to reach this goal they must overcome the sensitivity problem that is common to almost all capillary electrophoretic techniques. Most methods use one or more cyclodextrin derivatives as the chiral selector, thus the separation mechanism is not particularly complicated or unusual.

  17. Synergetic Basis of Innovation Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Melnyk, L.; Dehtyarova, I

    2012-01-01

    Issues of synergetic effects of innovation marketing are considered in the article. It shows sources of synergetic effects of innovation marketing, types of synergism, synergetic effects of marketing innovations, as well as evaluation methods.

  18. Applying systems biology methods to the study of human physiology in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsay M; Thiele, Ines

    2013-03-22

    Systems biology is defined in this review as 'an iterative process of computational model building and experimental model revision with the aim of understanding or simulating complex biological systems'. We propose that, in practice, systems biology rests on three pillars: computation, the omics disciplines and repeated experimental perturbation of the system of interest. The number of ethical and physiologically relevant perturbations that can be used in experiments on healthy humans is extremely limited and principally comprises exercise, nutrition, infusions (e.g. Intralipid), some drugs and altered environment. Thus, we argue that systems biology and environmental physiology are natural symbionts for those interested in a system-level understanding of human biology. However, despite excellent progress in high-altitude genetics and several proteomics studies, systems biology research into human adaptation to extreme environments is in its infancy. A brief description and overview of systems biology in its current guise is given, followed by a mini review of computational methods used for modelling biological systems. Special attention is given to high-altitude research, metabolic network reconstruction and constraint-based modelling.

  19. Systems biology and systems genetics - novel innovative approaches to study host-pathogen interactions during influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmus, Heike; Wilk, Esther; Schughart, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    Influenza represents a serious threat to public health with thousands of deaths each year. A deeper understanding of the host-pathogen interactions is urgently needed to evaluate individual and population risks for severe influenza disease and to identify new therapeutic targets. Here, we review recent progress in large scale omics technologies, systems genetics as well as new mathematical and computational developments that are now in place to apply a systems biology approach for a comprehensive description of the multidimensional host response to influenza infection. In addition, we describe how results from experimental animal models can be translated to humans, and we discuss some of the future challenges ahead.

  20. Chromatography methods in investigation of lipophilicity of the biological active substances

    OpenAIRE

    Odović Jadranka V.; Trbojević-Stanković Jasna B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the review of the methods used in research of the biological active substances hydrophobicity, a very important property. The biological activity of some substances depends on their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These processes depend on the molecule's capability to interact with two different media: aqueous (cells interior) and non-aqueous (cells membrane), or on the molecule lipophilicity. Today, great attention is given to investigation and systematic determina...

  1. Preparation of Biological Samples Containing Metoprolol and Bisoprolol for Applying Methods for Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Mahu Ştefania

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a complex disease with many serious complications, representing a leading cause of mortality. Selective beta-blockers such as metoprolol and bisoprolol are frequently used in the management of hypertension. Numerous analytical methods have been developed for the determination of these substances in biological fluids, such as liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography. Due to the complex composition of biological fluids a biological sample pre-treatment before the use of the method for quantitative determination is required in order to remove proteins and potential interferences. The most commonly used methods for processing biological samples containing metoprolol and bisoprolol were identified through a thorough literature search using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Willey Journals databases. Articles published between years 2005-2015 were reviewed. Protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction are the main techniques for the extraction of these drugs from plasma, serum, whole blood and urine samples. In addition, numerous other techniques have been developed for the preparation of biological samples, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, carrier-mediated liquid phase microextraction, hollow fiber-protected liquid phase microextraction, on-line molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The analysis of metoprolol and bisoprolol in human plasma, urine and other biological fluids provides important information in clinical and toxicological trials, thus requiring the application of appropriate extraction techniques for the detection of these antihypertensive substances at nanogram and picogram levels.

  2. Group Innovation Ability of Agricultural Technological Innovation Strategic Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chishun; MA; Jintian; YU

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance, as an important form of strategic alliance, has steadily strengthened the collaborative management among organizations and raised competitive power with the backing of improved group innovation ability. This article studies innovation ability from individual innovation ability to the group innovation ability. Firstly, basic connotation of group innovation ability is to be concluded through the comparison of individual and group innovation ability. Secondly, evaluation index system is to be established based on the influencing factors of the group innovation ability of agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance and evaluation is based on three dimensions, namely organization technological innovation ability, alliance collaborative innovation ability as well as innovation environment. Furthermore, basic methods for promoting the group innovation ability of alliance are to be proposed.

  3. Evaluation of gene association methods for coexpression network construction and biological knowledge discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Kumari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Constructing coexpression networks and performing network analysis using large-scale gene expression data sets is an effective way to uncover new biological knowledge; however, the methods used for gene association in constructing these coexpression networks have not been thoroughly evaluated. Since different methods lead to structurally different coexpression networks and provide different information, selecting the optimal gene association method is critical. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we compared eight gene association methods - Spearman rank correlation, Weighted Rank Correlation, Kendall, Hoeffding's D measure, Theil-Sen, Rank Theil-Sen, Distance Covariance, and Pearson - and focused on their true knowledge discovery rates in associating pathway genes and construction coordination networks of regulatory genes. We also examined the behaviors of different methods to microarray data with different properties, and whether the biological processes affect the efficiency of different methods. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the Spearman, Hoeffding and Kendall methods are effective in identifying coexpressed pathway genes, whereas the Theil-sen, Rank Theil-Sen, Spearman, and Weighted Rank methods perform well in identifying coordinated transcription factors that control the same biological processes and traits. Surprisingly, the widely used Pearson method is generally less efficient, and so is the Distance Covariance method that can find gene pairs of multiple relationships. Some analyses we did clearly show Pearson and Distance Covariance methods have distinct behaviors as compared to all other six methods. The efficiencies of different methods vary with the data properties to some degree and are largely contingent upon the biological processes, which necessitates the pre-analysis to identify the best performing method for gene association and coexpression network construction.

  4. Linking experimental results, biological networks and sequence analysis methods using Ontologies and Generalised Data Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Jacob; Rawlings, Chris; Verrier, Paul; Mitchell, Rowan; Skusa, Andre; Ruegg, Alexander; Philippi, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The structure of a closely integrated data warehouse is described that is designed to link different types and varying numbers of biological networks, sequence analysis methods and experimental results such as those coming from microarrays. The data schema is inspired by a combination of graph based methods and generalised data structures and makes use of ontologies and meta-data. The core idea is to consider and store biological networks as graphs, and to use generalised data structures (GDS) for the storage of further relevant information. This is possible because many biological networks can be stored as graphs: protein interactions, signal transduction networks, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory networks etc. Nodes in biological graphs represent entities such as promoters, proteins, genes and transcripts whereas the edges of such graphs specify how the nodes are related. The semantics of the nodes and edges are defined using ontologies of node and relation types. Besides generic attributes that most biological entities possess (name, attribute description), further information is stored using generalised data structures. By directly linking to underlying sequences (exons, introns, promoters, amino acid sequences) in a systematic way, close interoperability to sequence analysis methods can be achieved. This approach allows us to store, query and update a wide variety of biological information in a way that is semantically compact without requiring changes at the database schema level when new kinds of biological information is added. We describe how this datawarehouse is being implemented by extending the text-mining framework ONDEX to link, support and complement different bioinformatics applications and research activities such as microarray analysis, sequence analysis and modelling/simulation of biological systems. The system is developed under the GPL license and can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/ondex/

  5. Chitin Extraction from Crustacean Shells Using Biological Methods – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassila Arbia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After cellulose, chitin is the most widespread biopolymer in nature. Chitin and its derivatives have great economic value because of their biological activities and their industrial and biomedical applications. It can be extracted from three sources, namely crustaceans, insects and microorganisms. However, the main commercial sources of chitin are shells of crustaceans such as shrimps, crabs, lobsters and krill that are supplied in large quantities by the shellfish processing industries. Extraction of chitin involves two steps, demineralisation and deproteinisation, which can be conducted by two methods, chemical or biological. The chemical method requires the use of acids and bases, while the biological method involves microorganisms. Although lactic acid bacteria are mainly applied, other microbial species including proteolytic bacteria have also been successfully implemented, as well as mixed cultures involving lactic acid-producing bacteria and proteolytic microorganisms. The produced lactic acid allows shell demineralisation, since lactic acid reacts with calcium carbonate, the main mineral component, to form calcium lactate.

  6. Comparative systems biology between human and animal models based on next-generation sequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Qi; Li, Gong-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2013-04-01

    Animal models provide myriad benefits to both experimental and clinical research. Unfortunately, in many situations, they fall short of expected results or provide contradictory results. In part, this can be the result of traditional molecular biological approaches that are relatively inefficient in elucidating underlying molecular mechanism. To improve the efficacy of animal models, a technological breakthrough is required. The growing availability and application of the high-throughput methods make systematic comparisons between human and animal models easier to perform. In the present study, we introduce the concept of the comparative systems biology, which we define as "comparisons of biological systems in different states or species used to achieve an integrated understanding of life forms with all their characteristic complexity of interactions at multiple levels". Furthermore, we discuss the applications of RNA-seq and ChIP-seq technologies to comparative systems biology between human and animal models and assess the potential applications for this approach in the future studies.

  7. Parallel optical sorting of biological cells using the generalized phase contrast method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars; Bu, Minqiang; Glückstad, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    of biological cells in microfluidic systems exclusively using light. We demonstrate an optical cell sorter that uses simultaneous manipulation by multiple laser beams using the Generalized Phase Contrast method (GPC). The basic principle in an optical sorter is that the radiation force of the optical beam can...... push the biological cell from one microfluidic sheath flow to another. By incorporating a spatial light modulator the manipulation can be made parallel with multiple laser beams. We claim advantages over the serial optical sorters with only a single laser beam that has been demonstrated by others.......Optical forces are used to fixate biological cells with optical tweezers where numerous biological parameters and phenomena can be studied. Optical beams carry a small momentum which generates a weak optical force, but on a cellular level this force is strong enough to allow for manipulation...

  8. The effect of teaching methods on cognitive achievement, retention, and attitude among in biology studying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Stavrova Veselinovskaa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of usage of sequential teaching method on the academic achievement and retention level of students. Three student groups of biology students in University “Goce Delcev”, Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Institute of Biology, - Stip, R. Macedonia were offered a topic on general characteristics of Proteins: Their Biological Functions and Primary Structure with different sequences of 3 teaching methods. The teaching methods were Laboratory method (student experiment, slide demonstration and lecture method. The first group started to course with experiments in the laboratory, then the relevant theory of proteins was given lecture method, and then the slides was shown (Group I. The sequence of these three teaching methods used in the first group was changed in both second and third group as follow: The lecture methods, slide show and experiment in Group II, and slide show, experiment and lecture method in Group III, respectively. Laboratory method used in the study was focused on the topic of this diversity and abundance reflect the central role of proteins in virtually all aspects of cell structure and function. Achievement test contained 20 questions, testing the knowledge of facts as well as the ability to transfer the knowledge and problem solving ability. This test was used as pre-test before methods’ application, post-test after the methods’ application and retention test after 30 days from methods’ applied.

  9. Numerical study of water diffusion in biological tissues using an improved finite difference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junzhong; Does, Mark D; Gore, John C

    2007-04-07

    An improved finite difference (FD) method has been developed in order to calculate the behaviour of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal variations caused by water diffusion in biological tissues more accurately and efficiently. The algorithm converts the conventional image-based finite difference method into a convenient matrix-based approach and includes a revised periodic boundary condition which eliminates the edge effects caused by artificial boundaries in conventional FD methods. Simulated results for some modelled tissues are consistent with analytical solutions for commonly used diffusion-weighted pulse sequences, whereas the improved FD method shows improved efficiency and accuracy. A tightly coupled parallel computing approach was also developed to implement the FD methods to enable large-scale simulations of realistic biological tissues. The potential applications of the improved FD method for understanding diffusion in tissues are also discussed.

  10. Method and apparatus for sustaining viability of biological cells on a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2011-12-13

    A method for the transient transformation of a living biological cell having an intact cell membrane defining an intracellular domain, and an apparatus for the transient transformation of biological cells. The method and apparatus include introducing a compartmentalized extracellular component fixedly attached to a cellular penetrant structure to the intracellular domain of the cell, wherein the cell is fixed in a predetermined location and wherein the component is expressed within in the cell while being retained within the compartment and wherein the compartment restricts the mobility and interactions of the component within the cell and prevents transference of the component to the cell.

  11. Chromatography methods in investigation of lipophilicity of the biological active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odović Jadranka V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the review of the methods used in research of the biological active substances hydrophobicity, a very important property. The biological activity of some substances depends on their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These processes depend on the molecule's capability to interact with two different media: aqueous (cells interior and non-aqueous (cells membrane, or on the molecule lipophilicity. Today, great attention is given to investigation and systematic determination of drugs lipophilicity. In these researches chromatography methods have an important role.

  12. New improved method for evaluation of growth by food related fungi on biologically derived materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2002-01-01

    as a new method where 10 mul of a spore suspension is placed in a spot on the test sample. The new method gave additional information about fungal growth on biologically derived materials, revealing a clear difference between survival and growth. PHB and PIA turned out to be most suitable for food......Biologically derived materials, obtained as commercial and raw materials (Polylactate (PLA), Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), potato, wheat and corn starch) were tested for their ability to support fungal growth using a modified ASTM G21-96 (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard as well...

  13. Texture analysis methods for the characterisation of biological and medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Ţălu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptations can be extreme in many cases and they help organisms survive in their habitat or ecological niche. These adaptations can affect their anatomy, ethology or physiology. Anatomical adaptations are physical features such as animal's shape, particularities at the skeleton level, texture of exoskeleton, surface of the skin in animals or cuticula in plants etc. The purpose of this paper is to present a synthesis concerning the texture analysis methods used for the characterisation of biological and medical images. Texture analysis methods of biological and medical images provide noninvasive tools that allow biologists, physicians and researchers the early detection and diagnosis of diseases.

  14. 16 tales of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    16 Tales of Innovation are told by 16 leaders, who have completed the LAICS executive master program, a collaboration between Aarhus University and Copenhagen Business School. The book is based on their Master theses and illustrates how they have experimented with different innovation tools, mode...... and innovation theories within their own organization. Here they share their unique insights into the processes, methods and the impact of their academic work with innovation in practice....

  15. The Role of R&D and Innovation in Regional Development: An Interregional Analysis with DEMATEL-Based Analytic Network Process (DANP and TOPSIS Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Çakın

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available R&D, innovation and information-based activities has become more important in recent years for regional development and elimination of regional development differences. Countries have also recognized that innovation is the most important factor of economic growth and begun to allocate more resource to R&D investments. In this study, for years of 2010, 2011 and 2012 the innovation performance of 12 regions sited at first level of Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS in Turkey, have been evaluated by taking basic R&D and innovation indicators into consideration. In this context regression analysis, DEMATEL-Based Analytic Network Process (DANP and TOPSIS methods have been applied. The criteria have been weighted by using the regression coefficients obtained through regression analysis in DEMATEL method and subsequently performance ranking of regions has been performed by TOPSIS method.

  16. Modern methods for vancomycin determination in biological fluids by methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorska, Lenka; Krcmova, Lenka Kujovska; Solichova, Dagmar; Solich, Petr; Kaska, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the therapy of severe bacterial infection. The monitoring of vancomycin levels is recommended because of its narrow therapeutic index and toxicity. This measurement is especially appropriate in patients with unstable renal functions, who receive high doses of vancomycin or present serious bacterial infections accompanied by important sequestration of liquids when it could be difficult to achieve the optimal therapeutic dose. Most of the methods for vancomycin determination in routine practice are immunoassays. However, chromatography-based techniques in combination with UV or mass spectrometry detection provide results with greater accuracy and precision also in complicated biological matrices. This review provides a detailed overview of modern approaches for the chromatographic separation of vancomycin in various biological samples and useful sample preparation procedures for vancomycin determination in various biological fluids.

  17. Piglets born from handmade cloning, an innovative cloning method without micromanipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Y.; Kragh, P.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Porcine handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified alternative of micromanipulation based traditional cloning (TC) has been developed in multiple phases during the past years, but the final evidence of its biological value, births of piglets was missing. Here we report the first births of healthy piglets...

  18. Determination of Strong Acidic Drugs in Biological Matrices: A Review of Separation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Mu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong acidic drugs are a class of chemical compounds that normally have high hydrophilicity and large negative charges, such as organophosphatic compounds and organosulphonic compounds. This review focuses on sample preparation and separation methods for this group of compounds in biological matrices in recent years. A wide range of separation techniques, especially chromatographic method, are presented and critically discussed, which include liquid chromatography (e.g., ion-pair and ion-exchange chromatography, capillary electrophoresis (CE, and other types. Due to the extremely low concentration level of target analytes as well as the complexity of biological matrices, sample pretreatment methods, such as dilute and shoot methods, protein precipitation (PP, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE, solid-phase extraction (SPE, degradation, and derivatization strategy, also play important roles for the development of successful analytical methods and thus are also discussed.

  19. A robust GC-MS method for the quantitation of fatty acids in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Nirupama Samanmalie; Dias, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are involved in a wide range of functions in biological systems. It is important to measure the exact amount of fatty acids in biological matrices in order to determine the level of fatty acids and understand the role they play. The ability to quantify fatty acids in various systems, especially plant species and microbes has recently paved the way to the mass production of pharmaceuticals and energy substitutes including biodiesel. This chapter describes an efficient method to quantify the total fatty acids (TFAs) in biological systems using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a commercially available standard mix of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using a step-by-step methodology to setup a quantitation method using the Agilent Chemstation software.

  20. 可拓创新方法及其应用研究进展%Research Progress in Extension Innovation Method and its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春燕; 李兴森

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, by compared with the TRIZ, it shows that the extension innovation method has advantage in both universality and operability. After the systematic methodology and basic characteristics of extension innovation methods are introduced, the progress made in both research and applications is reviewed. Then, it is pointed out that, with further improvement, the extension innovation methods can provide operable methods for innovative activities of all fields. Thus, the extension innovation methods have its practical value for the formal and quantitative research in technical innovation and invention.%通过对可拓创新方法与TRIZ的比较分析,说明可拓创新方法既具有普适性又具有可操作性,然后介绍可拓创新方法的方法体系及其基本特征,并综述其应用研究进展.可拓创新方法的进一步完善,将为各领域的创新活动提供可操作的方法,对技术创新、发明创造的形式化定量化研究有非常重要的应用价值.

  1. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Lucie; Eismann, Frank; Wißmann, Daniel; Nägele, Hans-Joachim; Zielonka, Simon; Müller, Roland A; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes.

  2. EFFECT OF CORPORATE INNOVATION ABILITY ON THE CHOICE BETWEEN PRODUCT INNOVATION AND PROCESS INNOVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Wu; Tian Zhilong

    2010-01-01

    With the method of duopoly game theory, the effect of firms’ innovation ability on the choice between product and process innovation is studied. The concept of cost coefficient of product innovation is introduced, and the criterion equation for the innovation type is derived. The following conclusions are made: the more the product innovation ability, the more the possibility for the firms to carry out the product innovation in both the Bertrand and the Cournot competitions. Wi...

  3. Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next Generation Bioinformatics Solution to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre G. de Brevern

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe solutions from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries.

  4. Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next Generation Bioinformatics Solution to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brevern, Alexandre G; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Fairhead, Cécile; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Malpertuy, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe solutions from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries.

  5. MODEL OF METHODS OF FORMING BIOLOGICAL PICTURE OF THE WORLD OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Yakunchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the problem of development of a model of methods of forming the biological picture of the world of pupils as a multicomponent and integrative expression of the complete educational process is considered in the article. It is stated that the results of the study have theoretical and practical importance for effective subject preparation of senior pupils based on acquiring of systematic and generalized knowledge about wildlife. The correspondence of the main idea of the article to the scientific profile of the journal “Integration of Education” determines the choice of the periodical for publication. Materials and Methods: the results of the analysis of materials on modeling of the educational process, on specific models of the formation of a complete comprehension of the scientific picture of the world and its biological component make it possible to suggest a lack of elaboration of the aspect of pedagogical research under study. Therefore, the search for methods to overcome these gaps and to substantiate a particular model, relevant for its practical application by a teacher, is important. The study was based on the use of methods of theoretical level, including the analysis of pedagogical and methodological literature, modeling and generalized expression of the model of forming the biological picture of the world of secondary school senior pupils, which were of higher priority. Results: the use of models of organization of subject preparation of secondary school pupils takes a priority position, as they help to achieve the desired results of training, education and development. The model of methods of forming a biological picture of the world is represented as a theoretical construct in the unity of objective, substantive, procedural, diagnostic and effective blocks. Discussion and Conclusions: in a generalized form the article expresses the model of methods of forming the biological picture of the world of secondary school

  6. Teaching innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Vicki D; Glasgow, Mary Ellen Smith; Donnelly, Gloria F

    2009-01-01

    Innovation in healthcare is essential to solve the "wicked problems" currently facing healthcare. This article focuses on nature of innovation and how it operates, how innovators think and view problems, how the theory and practice of innovation can be taught in novel ways, and how organizational cultures foster or suppress innovation. Examples of teaching strategies and nurse-driven innovation illustrate the theory and practice of innovation.

  7. Aspects of Theme in the Method and Discussion Sections of Biology Journal Articles in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Iliana A.

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the thematic structure of the method and Discussion section of biology research articles. A corpus of 30 journal articles was analyzed using the categories of systematic functional linguistics and a semantic categorization for unmarked themes realized by subject. Revealed differences in the semantic construction of the sections. (VWL)

  8. A direct method for computing extreme value (Gumbel) parameters for gapped biological sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terrance; Sinkala, Zachariah

    2014-01-01

    We develop a general method for computing extreme value distribution (Gumbel, 1958) parameters for gapped alignments. Our approach uses mixture distribution theory to obtain associated BLOSUM matrices for gapped alignments, which in turn are used for determining significance of gapped alignment scores for pairs of biological sequences. We compare our results with parameters already obtained in the literature.

  9. Methods and means of Stokes-polarimetry microscopy of optically anisotropic biological layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Ushenko, V. A.; Ushenko, Yu. A.; Sakhnovskiy, M. Yu.; Sidor, M.; Prydiy, O. G.; Olar, O. I.; Lakusta, I. I.

    2016-12-01

    The results of optical modeling of biological tissues polycrystalline multilayer networks have been presented. Algorithms of reconstruction of parameter distributions were determined that describe the linear and circular birefringence. For the separation of the manifestations of these mechanisms we propose a method of space-frequency filtering. Criteria for differentiation of benign and malignant tissues of the women reproductive sphere were found.

  10. ESF-EMBO Symposium Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and AdolescenceSept 29 – Oct 4, Polonia Castle Pultusk, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat W Schäfer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS and Ewing sarcoma (ES are among the most common pediatric sarcomas (Arndt et al., 2012. Despite sarcomas representing a highly heterogeneous group of tumors, ES and alveolar RMS (ARMS typically share one common genetic characteristic, namely a specific chromosomal translocation (Helman and Meltzer, 2003; Lessnick and Ladanyi, 2012. These translocations generate fusion proteins, which are composed of two transcription factors (TF. Typically, one TF is a developmentally regulated factor that is essential for proper specification of a given lineage and provides the DNA-binding domain, while the partner TF contributes a transactivation domain that drives aberrant expression of target genes. Based on these common genetic characteristics, the first ESF-EMBO research conference entitled "Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence" with special focus on RMS and ES was held at the Polonia Castle in Pultusk, Poland. The conference gathered 70 participants from more than 15 countries and several continents representing most research groups that are active in this field.

  11. ESF-EMBO Symposium “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” Sept 29–Oct 4, Polonia Castle Pultusk, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Beat W.; Koscielniak, Ewa; Kovar, Heinrich; Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and Ewing sarcoma (ES) are among the most common pediatric sarcomas (Arndt et al., 2012). Despite sarcomas representing a highly heterogeneous group of tumors, ES and alveolar RMS (ARMS) typically share one common genetic characteristic, namely a specific chromosomal translocation (Helman and Meltzer, 2003; Lessnick and Ladanyi, 2012). These translocations generate fusion proteins, which are composed of two transcription factors (TF). Typically, one TF is a developmentally regulated factor that is essential for proper specification of a given lineage and provides the DNA-binding domain, while the partner TF contributes a transactivation domain that drives aberrant expression of target genes. Based on these common genetic characteristics, the first ESF-EMBO research conference entitled “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” with special focus on RMS and ES was held at the Polonia Castle in Pultusk, Poland. The conference gathered 70 participants from more than 15 countries and several continents representing most research groups that are active in this field. PMID:23761860

  12. ESF-EMBO Symposium "Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence" Sept 29-Oct 4, Polonia Castle Pultusk, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Beat W; Koscielniak, Ewa; Kovar, Heinrich; Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and Ewing sarcoma (ES) are among the most common pediatric sarcomas (Arndt et al., 2012). Despite sarcomas representing a highly heterogeneous group of tumors, ES and alveolar RMS (ARMS) typically share one common genetic characteristic, namely a specific chromosomal translocation (Helman and Meltzer, 2003; Lessnick and Ladanyi, 2012). These translocations generate fusion proteins, which are composed of two transcription factors (TF). Typically, one TF is a developmentally regulated factor that is essential for proper specification of a given lineage and provides the DNA-binding domain, while the partner TF contributes a transactivation domain that drives aberrant expression of target genes. Based on these common genetic characteristics, the first ESF-EMBO research conference entitled "Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence" with special focus on RMS and ES was held at the Polonia Castle in Pultusk, Poland. The conference gathered 70 participants from more than 15 countries and several continents representing most research groups that are active in this field.

  13. [Microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia. Relevant for each medicinal product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwig, J

    2014-10-01

    According to the EU Directive 2001/83 the European Pharmacopoeia is the official Pharmacopoeia of the European Union. Therefore the European Pharmacopoeia is one of the legal pharmacopoeial compendia in Germany. Any licensed medicinal product on the German market complies with the requirements of the compendial monographs, if applicable. Because the general monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia on Dosage Forms, Substances for Pharmaceutical Use and Pharmaceutical Preparations refer to the microbiological and biological methods of the Pharmacopoeia, the methods are relevant for medicinal products, too. This article presents a rough summary of the microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia and is intended to be a stimulus for the reader to better understand the original compendia. The short description of the methods mentioned, here, is a summary from the Pharmacopoeia and the non-official collection of comments on the texts of the European Pharmacopoeia.

  14. Logistic innovations in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Antonowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article discusses the issue of logistic innovations in transport. The essentials of logistic innovations in transport together with some examples of specific innovations are presented. The role of the client's needs in transport innovations is indicated. The most vital postulates affecting the innovativeness of shipping companies and derived from the author's experience as well as scholarly publications, are time, safety, reliability as well as comprehensiveness of service offer. Following the analysis of the issue, and on the grounds of Kaizen's and Lean's method, the concept of continuous innovations is suggested as very useful for the development of transport. The potential of clusters as the source of logistic innovations in transport is emphasised. Methods: The discussion of the issue was preceded by the author's analysis of written sources on innovativeness, the evaluation of ratings of innovativeness as well as the analysis of rewarded innovative solutions in transport subsequent to the businesses participation in the programme of innovative solutions in transport. The role of innovation practical business operations is argued following the analysis of some strategic documents such as: 2011 White Paper and the Strategy for the Development of Transport by 2020 adopted by the Polish government in 2013. Aim: The aim of the article is to present the role and significance of the issue of logistic innovations in transport and to cite instances of practical solutions implemented by shipping companies, the solutions which resulted in measurable effects. Following the author's observation of the instances of innovative solutions as well as his analysis of the ratings of innovativeness, the article aims to present the conclusions as for the specific kinds of activities which are indispensable to foster innovativeness in transport. Conclusions: The conclusions derived from the author's analyses and observations show that logistic

  15. Gas chromatography of volatile fatty acids. Method involving separation from biological material by vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, J E; Dibdin, G H

    1975-02-19

    A method is described for the quantitation of C2-C5 volatile fatty acids present in biological tissues. It involved recovery of the acids from their biological matrix by vacuum micro-distillation at room temperature, followed by gas phase separation of aqueous solutions on orthophosphoric acid-modified Phasepak Q columns. The subsequent gas chromatographic procedure resolved iso from normal isomers and showed a linear response for each volatile acid over the range 10-400 ng. There was no evidence of ghosting, isomer peak broadening, or peak tailing. Relative molar response values were shown to be linear with carbon number for all the volatile fatty acids studied.

  16. Computational systems biology in drug discovery and development: methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materi, Wayne; Wishart, David S

    2007-04-01

    Computational systems biology is an emerging field in biological simulation that attempts to model or simulate intra- and intercellular events using data gathered from genomic, proteomic or metabolomic experiments. The need to model complex temporal and spatiotemporal processes at many different scales has led to the emergence of numerous techniques, including systems of differential equations, Petri nets, cellular automata simulators, agent-based models and pi calculus. This review provides a brief summary and an assessment of most of these approaches. It also provides examples of how these methods are being used to facilitate drug discovery and development.

  17. IMF-Therapy (Intention controlled Myo-Feedback)--an innovative method in the treatment of peripheral nerve lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, K; Schmidt, U; Schmidhammer, R

    2007-01-01

    Physiotherapy is a well established part of the rehabilitation of peripheral nerve paralysis. The aim of this type of treatment is to re-establish arbitrary functions by improving the patients' active and passive mobility as well as their strength and stamina. IMF-Therapy (Intention controlled Myo-Feedback) is an innovative method in the treatment of peripheral nerve lesions that goes beyond the purely neuro-scientific framework and also takes into account methods and concepts of the psychology of learning. The essential assumption is that things learnt in the past are firmly established in the long term motor memory and can be reactivated by the patient. From results achieved in 32 patients treated with this therapy it can be concluded that IMF-Therapy may be a promising additional rehabilitation tool in peripheral nerve lesion.

  18. The Trial of Drug Discovery using the In-Silico Screening Methods Developed by Pharmaceutical Innovation Value Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Mori, Yusuke; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Haruki; Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Nakanishi, Isao; Okuno, Yasushi; Minakata, Satoshi; Mikami, Yoshiaki; Sakuma, Toshihiro; Kitajima, Masato; Fukuoka, Yoshitada; Takada, Toshikazu; Sakata, Tsuneaki

    We have recently established Pharmaceutical Innovation Value Chain collaborated by The SOSHO project (http://www.so-sho.jp) and The BioGrid Project (http://www.biogrid.jp/) to accelerate new drug development. The in-silico group calculated the matrices on the interaction between the proteins and chemical compounds, and developed the novel in-silico screening methods, Multiple Target Screening (MTS) and Docking score index (DSI), improving the hit rate of screening a lead compound. We have applied these methods for the two target enzymes; human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) and orotidine 5’-monophosphate decarboxylase from human malaria parasite plasmodium falciparum (PfOMPDC). The optimizing of HQL-79, one of the known inhibitors for human H-PGDS and the screening of lead compounds for both enzymes are in study.

  19. An innovative method to anchor mandibular overdenture by OT Cap semiprecision attachment: A clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of implant in dentistry, the use of removable prostheses in replacing missing teeth apparently becomes less popular, still the preventive prosthodontics emphasizes the importance of any procedure that can delay or eliminate future prosthodontic problems. Most patients with removable partial or complete denture are dissatisfied with their retention and stability. Semiprecision attachments offer considerable advantages such as increased retention of a denture, preservation of teeth which are otherwise indicated for extraction, as a viable alternative to implant retained overdenture and the ability to obtain parallelism in divergent abutments. A prosthodontist who familiarizes himself with semiprecision attachments will be in a position to suggest a better treatment options in retaining teeth which might otherwise be considered for extraction or immediate implant placement. However, lack of proper knowledge, overwhelming number of attachments available in the market, multiple adjustments and repairs are making dentist reluctant to offer and provide attachment-retained prostheses to their patients. This case report describes an innovative technique for improving overall prognosis of mandibular overdenture using advanced and prefabricated housing attachment system.

  20. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.moeller@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Eismann, Frank, E-mail: info@antoc.de [Eismann & Stöbe GbR, GeoPark, Geb. A12, Bautzner Strasse 67, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Wißmann, Daniel, E-mail: d.s.wissmann@gmx.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Nägele, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: hajo.naegele@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Zielonka, Simon, E-mail: simon.zielonka@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Müller, Roland A., E-mail: roland.mueller@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Zehnsdorf, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.zehnsdorf@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Foaming in biogas plants depends on the interactions between substrate and digestate. • Foaming tests enable the evaluation of substrate foaming tendency in biogas plants. • Leipzig foam tester enables foaming tests of substrates prior to use. - Abstract: Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes.

  1. Teaching methods for increasing the participations of students: Innovative dynamics games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Oliveras

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyses new dynamics as teaching methodologies in the context of   the degrees adapted to the EHEA. The aim of this study is double: to assess whether there is greater involvement in seminars with these new dynamics and to test if learning also experienced changes.Design/methodology/approach: To experiment with the introduction of innovative dynamic games in an introductory course in accounting.  These new dynamics are applied during the academic year 2010-11 in the UPF. The design, implementation and evaluation of the methodology devised have followed three stages: 1 Game Design and adequate dynamic; 2 To test the games; 2 Implementation during the course.Findings: The results show that students value positively those dynamics improving their learning and creating greater involvement.Research limitations/implications: There are some contradictory results regarding the knowledge gained by the students. Another area to be explored relates to the skills that the teacher must have in order to manage this type of dynamics.Originality/value: In an introductory level of the Financial Accounting course the most common dynamics is solving exercises. Due to the nature of matter, these are closed so they not provoke discussion among students. However, you can use activities that allow greater participation, especially through dynamics or games. This paper shows that.

  2. Methods to examine reproductive biology in free-ranging, fully-marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Janet M; Burgess, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals.

  3. Marketing Innovations in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Božić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the introduction of marketing innovations by companies in Croatia. This study provides an insight into the innovativeness with regard to the introduction of marketing innovations. It explores the presence of marketing innovations in general and the introduction of four types of marketing innovation (significant changes to the aesthetic design or packaging, new media or techniques for product promotion, new methods for product placement or sales channels and new methods of pricing goods or services. The changes in all four elements of the marketing mix are described. The paper also explores the extent to which the introduction of marketing innovation is related to the companies that introduce other types of innovations.

  4. Orchestrating innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkers, F.T.H.M.; Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.; Boer, J. de

    2015-01-01

    Orchestrating Innovation increases the probability of success, minimizing the probability of failure of technological innovations by creating sustained societal and economic value. Orchestrating innovation propagates to take into account and actively involve all relevant stakeholders of the (future)

  5. Concept design and hydrodynamic optimization of an innovative SWATH USV by CFD methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzolara, Stefano; Curtin, Tom; Bovio, Marco; Vernengo, Giuliano

    2012-02-01

    The paper presents the main characteristics of an innovative platform which has been conceived and designed to extend the operational capabilities of current unmanned surface vehicles in terms of platform stability in waves and of powering requirement at a relatively high speed. The main idea which rules the project is the realization of a small autonomous surface unit (about 6 m in length) capable of undertaking several tasks in the marine environment even with moderate rough sea conditions. The designed vessel has the ability to locate, recover, and launch other members of the autonomous fleet (like AUVs or other underwater devices) and at the same time could carry out a surveillance service of the surrounding areas. To manage these tasks, the vehicle is designed to provide a fairly good autonomy which is needed to face intermediate-range missions (100 nautical miles). The choice of a small waterplane area twin hull (SWATH) form has been motivated by its excellent properties of seakeeping qualities, combined with a non-conventional low resistance underwater hull shape, currently under patenting process, which is able to reduce to a minimum the resistance of the vessel especially at higher speeds. To obtain the most efficient profile of the underwater bodies, a systematic optimization with an automatic procedure based on a parametric definition of the geometry, a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver, and a differential evolution global minimization algorithm have been created and used. As expected, all the final CFD computations on the best design have demonstrated the superior efficiency of the developed unconventional SWATH technology with respect to different alternatives of current hull typologies.

  6. Innovation af innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    , at innovation af innovationen forsøges gennemført på en måde, hvor tiden kræves at forholde sig til sin egen tidslighed i form af fremtid, nutid, fortid og ikke mindst i form af samtidighed. I tiden skal vi iagttage, hvordan vi iagttager tiden. Vi dobbelt-koder tiden på samme måde, som forskning forsker i...... organisationssystemerne. De to typer systemer kan noget helt bestemt med fænomenet tid. De kan synkronisere. Analyseres organisationssystemer ser vi, imidlertid at innovation kræver ro. Stærkt innovative systemer er militærsystemet og kunstsystemet, der også inddrages, og hvor vi ser paradokset mellem innovation og...... involution. Tid er med et medium og ikke et lufttomt rum. Tid er end ikke en gasart, men udgør et solidt fluidum, som samfundet bader i og flyder i, konstant i bevægelse. Reformer forudsætter former, og innovation forudsætter involution. Kun sådan muliggøres evolution....

  7. A Fast Radiochemical Method for the Determination of Some Essential Trace Elements in Biology and Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K.

    1966-02-15

    An anion-exchange method based on fast selective sorption steps from mixtures of sulfuric, hydrobromic, and hydrochloric acid solutions has been developed for the separation of five different groups of radioactive trace elements in neutron-irradiated biological material. The separations are performed automatically with a simple proportioning pump apparatus. The apparatus allows the exact adjustment of influent solutions to the series of ion-exchange columns. The practical application of the method is described in detail. The successful use of the method is practically independent on the level of Na activity present in the sample.

  8. Analytical methods for determination of terbinafine hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals and biological materials$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basavaiah Kanakapura n; Vamsi Krishna Penmatsa

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a new powerful antifungal agent indicated for both oral and topical treatment of myco-sessince. It is highly effective in the treatment of determatomycoses. The chemical and pharmaceutical analysis of the drug requires effective analytical methods for quality control and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. Ever since it was introduced as an effective antifungal agent, many methods have been developed and validated for its assay in pharmaceuticals and biological materials. This article reviews the various methods reported during the last 25 years.

  9. An innovative method for water resources carrying capacity research--Metabolic theory of regional water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chongfeng; Guo, Ping; Li, Mo; Li, Ruihuan

    2016-02-01

    The shortage and uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has seriously restricted the sustainable development of regional society and economy. In this study, a metabolic theory for regional water resources was proposed by introducing the biological metabolism concept into the carrying capacity of regional water resources. In the organic metabolic process of water resources, the socio-economic system consumes water resources, while products, services and pollutants, etc. are output. Furthermore, an evaluation index system which takes into the characteristics of the regional water resources, the socio-economic system and the sustainable development principle was established based on the proposed theory. The theory was then applied to a case study to prove its availability. Further, suggestions aiming at improving the regional water carrying capacity were given on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the current water resources situation.

  10. Q-Sort Technique and Q-Methodology—Innovative Methods for Examining Attitudes and Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian H. Müller

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In the German tradition of social sciences Q-method is not well known. Q-method combines both qualitative and quantitative research and is used to examine complex subjective structures like opinions, attitudes and values. This paper presents an introduction to Q-technique and its underlying methodology. The various applications of the method for a qualitative orientated research in the fields of market, opinion and media are also listed. The significance of the method for single case studies, for exploratory cluster analysis and for a combined application of qualitative and quantitative research strategies is emphasized. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402347

  11. Experimental innovations in surface science a guide to practical laboratory methods and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John T

    2015-01-01

    This book is a new edition of a classic text on experimental methods and instruments in surface science. It offers practical insight useful to chemists, physicists, and materials scientists working in experimental surface science. This enlarged second edition contains almost 300 descriptions of experimental methods. The more than 50 active areas with individual scientific and measurement concepts and activities relevant to each area are presented in this book. The key areas covered are: Vacuum System Technology, Mechanical Fabrication Techniques, Measurement Methods, Thermal Control, Delivery of Adsorbates to Surfaces, UHV Windows, Surface Preparation Methods, High Area Solids, Safety. The book is written for researchers and graduate students.

  12. A Method for Determining the Content of Glycoproteins in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein purified from the mycelium extract of Tremella fuciformis was marked with iodine through the iodine substitution reaction. The content of iodine, which is indicative of the amount of the marked tremella glycoprotein (ITG, was detected with Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The method was found to be stable, sensitive, and accurate at detecting the content of iodine-substituted glycoprotein, and was used in the quantitative analysis of biological samples, including blood and organs. Different biological samples were collected from rats after oral administration of ITG, and were tested for iodine content by ICP-MS to calculate the amount of ITG in the samples. The results suggested that ICP-MS is a sensitive, stable, and accurate method for detection of iodinated glycoproteins in blood and organs.

  13. Fluconazol method validation by RP-HPLC for determination in biological skin matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Alessandra C; Vianna-Soares, Cristina D; Ferreira, Lucas A M

    2007-01-01

    The bis-triazole antifungal fluconazole (FCZ) is used in the systemic treatment of superficial mycoses. The inconvenience of drug interactions and incidence of adverse reactions occurs in approximately 16% of patients, despite several advantages against systemic fungal infections. Because its pharmacokinetics profile is favorable to cutaneous accumulation, it presents a prominent importance in the treatment of superficial mycoses. This study shows FCZ method validation by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in the linear range of 2 to 32 microg/mL, which suitable for application in biological matrices after topical permeation studies. The method is tested in simulated FCZ alcoholic solution applied to skin extracts after in vitro permeation studies using Franz cells. Recovery shows good results (in the range 75.0% +/- 4.1% to 82.0% +/- 6.6%) regarding the biological matrices.

  14. 云南生物资源开发创新问题研究%Exploitation and Innovation of Biological Resources in Yunan Province.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李业荣; 孙海清

    2001-01-01

    Once China accedes to WTO, the existing traditio nal advantageindustri es of Yunnan Province will be affected severely. However, the natural bio-produc ts and green products are becoming the main trend of consumption demand in the 2 1-century, which have great potent market demand. In this new situation, it is v ery important for Yunnan that how to follow market demand, how to depend on reso urces, how to gain economic benefits and seize the chance of exploiting the western area of China. So that it will be to speed up the industrialization on exploiting and innovating biological resources, seek another new economy growth point after “tobacco and cigarettes” to form a new key industry for Yunnan.%中国一旦加入WTO后,云南现有的传统优势产业将受到严重冲击,然而天然生物产品、绿色产品正成为21世纪消费需求的主流,具有巨大的市场前景。在新的形势下,云南要以市场为导向,以资源为依托,以经济效益为中心,以西部大开发为契机,加快生物资源开发创新的产业化步伐,继“两烟”之后寻找又一个新的经济增长点,尽快形成新的支柱产业。

  15. Medical innovation laws: an unnecessary innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    Objective This paper aims to demonstrate that any suggestion that there is a need for specific innovation laws is flawed. Innovation is central to good medical practice and is adequately supported by current law. Methods The paper reviews the nature of medical innovation and outlines recent attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws aimed at 'encouraging' and 'supporting' innovation. The current legal framework is outlined and the role of the law in relation to medical innovation explored. Results The analysis demonstrates the cyclic relationship between medical advancement and the law and concludes that there is no requirement for specific innovation laws. Conclusions The law not only supports innovation and development in medical treatment but encourages it as central to a functioning medical system. There is no need to introduce specific laws aimed at medical innovation; to do so represents an unnecessary legal innovation and serves to complicate matters. What is known about the topic? Over recent months, there has been a great deal of discussion surrounding the law in the context of medical innovation. This was driven by the attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws in the Medical Innovation Bill. The general subject matter - negligence and the expected standard of care in the provision of treatment - is very well understood, but not in cases where the treatment can be described as innovative. The general rhetoric in both the UK and Australia around the Medical Innovation Bill demonstrates a lack of understanding of the position of the law with regards to innovative treatment. What does this paper add? This paper adds clarity to the debate. It presents the law and explains the manner in which the law can operate around innovative treatment. The paper asserts that medical innovation is both supported and encouraged by existing legal principles. What are the implications for practitioners? The paper presents an argument that can guide the policy position

  16. Photothermal method using a pyroelectric sensor for thermophysical characterization of agricultural and biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandas, A.; Dadarlat, Dorin; Chirtoc, Mihai; Jalink, Henk; Bicanic, Dane D.; Paris, D.; Antoniow, Jean S.; Egee, Michel; Ungureanu, Costica

    1998-07-01

    The photopyroelectric method in different experimental configurations was used for thermophysical characterization of agricultural and biological samples. The study appears important due to the relation of thermal parameters to the quality of foodstuffs (connected to their preservation, storage and adulteration), migration profiles in biodegradable packages, and the mechanism of desiccation tolerance of seeds. Results are presented on the thermal parameters measurement and their dependence on temperature and water content for samples such as: honey, starch, seeds.

  17. New method for investigation of cells and other biological objects in analytical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyi, Olexander I.; Getman, Vasyl B.; Kostyukevych, Sergey A.

    2001-05-01

    New method and instrument intended for checking the content of biology particles in dimension band 0.1-10.0 mkm in water flow is described in this report. The instrument measures the intensity of light scattered by the particles suspended in liquid flow when they are crossing the laser beam. The results of studying light scattered by platelet and bacterium's such a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus lutteus in such a liquid mediums as physiological solution and glucose solution are described.

  18. The World Café: An Innovative Method to Facilitate Reflections on Internationalisation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacio, Emee Vida; Karic, Toni

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an example of how the World Café method can be used as a platform to encourage reflection on internationalisation in higher education. The World Café is a community engagement method that encourages participants to engage in reflection and dialogue in a relaxed and comfortable atmosphere. It promotes the use of multiple…

  19. Development of an Innovative Algorithm for Aerodynamics-Structure Interaction Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ren-Wei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Da-Zhi; Luo, Li-Shi; Rudy, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is a kinetic formulation which offers an alternative computational method capable of solving fluid dynamics for various systems. Major advantages of the method are owing to the fact that the solution for the particle distribution functions is explicit, easy to implement, and the algorithm is natural to parallelize. In this final report, we summarize the works accomplished in the past three years. Since most works have been published, the technical details can be found in the literature. Brief summary will be provided in this report. In this project, a second-order accurate treatment of boundary condition in the LBE method is developed for a curved boundary and tested successfully in various 2-D and 3-D configurations. To evaluate the aerodynamic force on a body in the context of LBE method, several force evaluation schemes have been investigated. A simple momentum exchange method is shown to give reliable and accurate values for the force on a body in both 2-D and 3-D cases. Various 3-D LBE models have been assessed in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. In general, accurate 3-D results can be obtained using LBE methods. The 3-D 19-bit model is found to be the best one among the 15-bit, 19-bit, and 27-bit LBE models. To achieve desired grid resolution and to accommodate the far field boundary conditions in aerodynamics computations, a multi-block LBE method is developed by dividing the flow field into various blocks each having constant lattice spacing. Substantial contribution to the LBE method is also made through the development of a new, generalized lattice Boltzmann equation constructed in the moment space in order to improve the computational stability, detailed theoretical analysis on the stability, dispersion, and dissipation characteristics of the LBE method, and computational studies of high Reynolds number flows with singular gradients. Finally, a finite difference-based lattice Boltzmann method is

  20. REVIEW OF SELECTED BIOLOGICAL METHODS OF ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Beata Jakubus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The xenobiotics introduced into the environment are the effect of human activities. It is especially soil contamination that leads to degradation of soils, which may finally be referred to the biological imbalance of the ecosystem. Normally chemical methods are used for the assessment of soil’s quality. Unfortunately, they are not always quick and inexpensive. Therefore, the practice and the science at environmental monitoring more frequently employ biological methods. Most of them meet the above mentioned conditions and become a supplement of routine laboratory practices. This publication shows an overview of selected common biological methods used to estimate the quality of the environment. The first part of the paper presents biomonitoring as a first step of environmental control which relies on the observation of indicator organisms. The next section was dedicated to the bioassays, indicating the greater or lesser practical applications confirmed by literature on the subject. Particular attention has been focused on phytotests and the tests based on the invertebrates.

  1. Supervised learning with decision tree-based methods in computational and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Pierre; Irrthum, Alexandre; Wehenkel, Louis

    2009-12-01

    At the intersection between artificial intelligence and statistics, supervised learning allows algorithms to automatically build predictive models from just observations of a system. During the last twenty years, supervised learning has been a tool of choice to analyze the always increasing and complexifying data generated in the context of molecular biology, with successful applications in genome annotation, function prediction, or biomarker discovery. Among supervised learning methods, decision tree-based methods stand out as non parametric methods that have the unique feature of combining interpretability, efficiency, and, when used in ensembles of trees, excellent accuracy. The goal of this paper is to provide an accessible and comprehensive introduction to this class of methods. The first part of the review is devoted to an intuitive but complete description of decision tree-based methods and a discussion of their strengths and limitations with respect to other supervised learning methods. The second part of the review provides a survey of their applications in the context of computational and systems biology.

  2. Innovative Columnar Type of Grid Array SJ BIST HALT Method Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop will develop a superior method for testing and qualifying columnar type of grid arrays such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) packaged in column...

  3. Using of innovative methods in physical training of students of higher educational institutions of Ukraine Ministry of Internal Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kompaniets Yu.A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed the innovations in organization of special physical training of future law enforcement officers. It is shown those interactive methods of teaching which can be reasonably used in the process of physical training of students of higher educational institutions of Ukraine’s Ministry of Internal Affairs. It is proved that their usage is possible only after study of basic technology – the whole set of methods and actions which are defined by the normative documents of Ministry of Internal Affairs. It is shown the significance of material and technical provision and also the stages of preparation to carrying out the work in small groups, role plays, trainings. It is shown the peculiarities of usage of different interactive methods in educational process of students. It is given the scheme of conducting of role play and it is shown the main moments which should be taken into account. The usage of interactive methods in teaching assists the future law enforcement officers not only to imagine themselves in definite situation but also to receive the real psychophysiological feelings and understand the consequences from making different decisions, to get definite practical experience without real threat to their lives.

  4. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development.

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Anja; Schönermark, Matthias P.; Lühmann, Dagmar; Neumann, Ulrike; Bartelmes, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA) which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-acc...

  5. Study on the Method of the Innovation of Architectural Design%建筑设计创新方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文勇

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous progress of China’s economy and the development of society, the innovation of China’s con- struction field has made great achievements, but there are also some shortcomings. The innovation of architectural design in our country has formed a comparatively perfect theoretical sy- stem, but there are stil some shortcomings in the architectural design innovation. We should continue to accelerate the com- bination of theory and practice of construction innovation, to improve the architectural design of the overall level of innov- ation, in order to survive in the fierce competition in society. The author made a detailed analysis and systematic exposition, in this paper, the key points of innovation in architectural de- sign, basic method of architectural design innovation and app- reciation of Chinese and foreign outstanding architectural des- ign innovation works.%随着我国经济的不断发展和社会的不断进步,我国的建筑创新领域取得了很大成就,但也存在某些不足。我国的建筑设计创新已经形成了较为完善的理论体系,但在建筑设计创新上还存在一定的不足。我们只有不断地加快建筑创新理论与实践的结合,提高建筑设计的整体创新水平,才能在激烈的社会竞争中生存下来。本文对新时代建筑设计创新的关键点基本方法以及中外优秀建筑设计创新作品鉴析等作了详细的分析和系统的阐述。

  6. Traveling wave solutions of a biological reaction-convection-diffusion equation model by using $(G'/G$ expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnam Javadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the $(G'/G$-expansion method is applied to solve a biological reaction-convection-diffusion model arising in mathematical biology. Exact traveling wave solutions are obtained by this method. This scheme can be applied to a wide class of nonlinear partial differential equations.

  7. Transform method for laser speckle strain-rate measurements in biological tissues and biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Sean J.

    1999-03-01

    Laser speckle strain measurements in biological tissues and some synthetic biomaterials, such as translucent dental composites and ceramics, are often complicated by the physical properties of the materials. For example, speckles generated by illuminating soft biological tissue with laser light are subject to rapid decorrelation due to the Brownian movement of water and scattering particles in the tissues and to cellular motions. In addition, the penetration of the laser beam into the tissue or translucent biomaterial results in multiple scattering and a complete depolarization of the speckle field. This may complicate the evaluation of the strain field when a force is applied to the material because the speckle pattern shift is providing information from the surface of the material as well as from the bulk sample, where the strains may or may not be the same as on the surface. This paper presents a variation of a speckle processing scheme originally called the `Transform Method' for evaluating both surface and bulk strain rates and total strains in biological tissues and translucent biomaterials. The method is not a correlation-based technique, but instead relies upon 2D frequency transforms of time series of 1D speckle pattern records stacked into 2D arrays. The method is insensitive to speckle field depolarization and, compared to correlation-based techniques, is relatively insensitive to speckle decorrelation. Strain rates and total in-plane strains were measured in both hard (cortical bone) and soft (artery segments) biological tissues and in translucent biomaterials (dental ceramics). Potential applications to medical diagnostics and biomaterials science are also discussed.

  8. Electrical impedance tomography method for reconstruction of biological tissues with continuous plane-stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, M; Einziger, P D

    2006-01-01

    A novel electrical impedance tomography method is introduced for reconstruction of layered biological tissues with continuous plane-stratification. The algorithm implements the recently proposed reconstruction scheme for piecewise constant conductivity profiles, based on an improved Prony method in conjunction with Legendre polynomial expansion (LPE). It is shown that the proposed algorithm is capable of successfully reconstructing continuous conductivity profiles with moderate (WKB) slop. Features of the presented reconstruction scheme include, an inherent linearity, achieved by the linear LPE transform, a locality feature, assigning analytically to each spectral component a local electrical impedance associated with a unique location, and effective performance even in the presence of noisy measurements.

  9. Promoting innovation in pediatric nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Dennis M

    2010-01-01

    Truly impactful innovation can only be recognized in retrospect. Moreover, almost by definition, developing algorithmic paths on roadmaps for innovation are likely to be unsuccessful because innovators do not generally follow established routes. Nonetheless, environments can be established within Departments of Pediatrics that promote innovating thinking. The environmental factors necessary to do so include: (1) demand that academic Pediatrics Departments function in an aggressively scholarly mode; (2) capture the most fundamental science in postnatal developmental biology; (3) focus education and training on the boundaries of our knowledge, rather than the almost exclusive attention to what we think we already know; (4) devote mentoring, time and resources to only the most compelling unanswered questions in the pediatric sciences, including nutrition; (5) accept only systematic, evidence-based answers to clinical questions; (6) if systematic, evidence-based data are not available, design the proper studies to get them; (7) prize questioning the answers to further move beyond the knowledge limit; (8) support the principle that experiments in children will be required to convincingly answer clinical questions important to children, and (9) establish the multicenter resources in pediatric scientist training, clinical study design and implementation, and laboratory and instrument technologies required to answer today's questions with tomorrow's methods.

  10. Innovative didaktik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birthe

    Innovative didaktik. This deals with innovative didaktik from at methodological point of view in three ways - how to define the concept, how to develop it and how analyse it. Issues analysed: How to create innovative students? How to create innovative learning envoriments? These are core questions...

  11. Mindful innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role.......Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role....

  12. Orchestrating innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Berkers, F.T.H.M.; Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.; J. de Boer

    2015-01-01

    Orchestrating Innovation increases the probability of success, minimizing the probability of failure of technological innovations by creating sustained societal and economic value. Orchestrating innovation propagates to take into account and actively involve all relevant stakeholders of the (future) ecosystem in which the innovation will, can or has to be adopted.

  13. Piglets born from handmade cloning, an innovative cloning method without micromanipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y; Kragh, P M; Zhang, Y; Li, J; Schmidt, M; Bøgh, I B; Zhang, X; Purup, S; Jørgensen, A L; Pedersen, A M; Villemoes, K; Yang, H; Bolund, L; Vajta, G

    2007-11-01

    Porcine handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified alternative of micromanipulation based traditional cloning (TC) has been developed in multiple phases during the past years, but the final evidence of its biological value, births of piglets was missing. Here we report the first births of healthy piglets after transfer of blastocysts produced by HMC. As a cumulative effect of technical optimization, 64.3+/-2.3 (mean+/-S.E.M.) reconstructed embryos from 151.3+/-4.8 oocytes could be obtained after 3-4h manual work, including 1h pause between fusion and activation. About half (50.1+/-2.8%, n=16) of HMC reconstructed embryos developed to blastocysts with an average cell number of 77+/-3 (n=26) after 7 days in vitro culture (IVC). According to our knowledge, this is the highest in vitro developmental rate after porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). A total of 416 blastocysts from HMC, mixed with 150 blastocysts from TC using a cell line from a different breed were transferred surgically to nine synchronized recipients. Out of the four pregnancies (44.4%) two were lost, while two pregnancies went to term and litters of 3 and 10 piglets were delivered by Caesarean section, with live birth/transferred embryo efficiency of 17.2% (10/58) for HMC. Although more in vivo experiments are still needed to further stabilize the system, our data proves that porcine HMC may result in birth of healthy offspring. Future comparative examinations are required to prove the value of the new technique for large-scale application.

  14. Applications of a DAD-HPLC method for determination of loratadine on biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavalache Georgeta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to assess the active substance by a HPLC method for the separation and quantitative determination of loratadine. The method has been developed and validated on the standard solutions, in previous research. The current study was undertaken to present the results obtained from loratadine determination in biological samples (human serum, urine and breast milk. These results may be applicable on patients with different physiological conditions (aging, pregnancy or recently giving birth, etc. and pathological conditions which may interfere with the metabolism of loratadine. The used HPLC method detected loratadine concentrations in human serum samples, respectively urine samples, at 2 hours after drug administration. The method detected traces of loratadine which passed into breast milk, as well. Data were statistically interpreted using MED CALC 10.2 software. These results show that the applied method can be used for quantitative analysis of loratadine in biological fluids (all permissible limits of quality specifications being in the range 95- 105%.

  15. Pedagogical effectiveness of innovative teaching methods initiated at the Department of Physiology, Government Medical College, Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswari, K Sri; Malhotra, Anita S; Kapoor, Nandini; Kaur, Gurjit

    2004-12-01

    Modern teaching trends in medical education exhibit a paradigm shift from the conventional classroom teaching methods adopted in the past to nonconventional teaching aids so as to encourage interactive forms of learning in medical students through active participation and integrative reasoning where the relationship of the teacher and the taught has undergone tremendous transformation. Some of the nonconventional teaching methods adopted at our department are learning through active participation by the students through computer-assisted learning (CD-ROMs), Web-based learning (undergraduate projects), virtual laboratories, seminars, audiovisual aids (video-based demonstrations), and "physioquiz."

  16. An innovative exercise method to simulate orbital EVA work - Applications to PLSS automatic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Renee; Vykukal, H.; Webbon, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    An exercise method has been proposed which may satisfy the current need for a laboratory simulation representative of muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses to work during orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The simulation incorporates arm crank ergometry with a unique body support mechanism that allows all body position stabilization forces to be reacted at the feet. By instituting this exercise method in laboratory experimentation, an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) thermoregulatory control system can be designed to more accurately reflect the specific work requirements of orbital EVA.

  17. Innovative confocal laser method for exact dioptric power measurement of intraocular lens implants Invited Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilko K. Ilev; Robert W. Faaland; Do-Hyun Kim; Robert H. James; Don Calogero

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel confocal laser method (CLM) for precise testing of the dioptric power of both positive and negative intraocular lens (IOL) implants. The CLM principle is based on a simple fiber-optic confocal laser design including a single-mode fiber coupler that serves simultaneously as a point light source used for formation of a collimated Gaussian laser beam, and as a highly sensitive confocal point receiver. The CLM approach provides an accurate, repeatable, objective, and fast method for IOL dioptric power measurement over the range from 0 D to greater than =t=30 D under both dry and in-situ simulated conditions.

  18. Improved FIA-ABTS method for antioxidant capacity determination in different biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompadre, Stefano; Leone, Luciana; Politi, Alessia; Battino, Maurizio

    2004-08-01

    In order to evaluate the actual antioxidant features of foods, beverages and also plasma from patients, a number of assays have been developed in the last few years to determine the so called total antioxidant activity (TAA), intended as the cumulative capacity of a biological sample to scavenge free radicals. Most of the assays partially failed in obtaining a good reproducibility when using plasma because it is composed of a large number of substances, some of which are present at very high concentrations and possess masking features. For these reasons we have improved the widely known ABTS method by means of a FIA system where both temperature and dispersion of sample and reagent were strictly controlled. We found that temperature may be a critical aspect in the measurement of plasma TAA whilst its influence may be less important in the assay of non-complex biological samples. We demonstrated that also the reaction time may be critical, depending on the nature of the substance employed. Data confirmed the high TAA of a methylsalicylate-containing mouthrinse as well as the negligible TAA offered by the chlorhexidine containing one. White wines (Verdicchio) also displayed interesting TAA values. The improved method was useful to screen rapidly, without dilution, with very limited handling of the sample and with high repeatability the TAA of plasma in addition to chemical products, beverages and non-complex biological mixtures.

  19. Green Jobs: Definition and Method of Appraisal of Chemical and Biological Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheneval, Erwan; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Ostiguy, Claude; Lavoie, Jacques; Bourbonnais, Robert; Labrèche, France; Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Zayed, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    In the wake of sustainable development, green jobs are developing rapidly, changing the work environment. However a green job is not automatically a safe job. The aim of the study was to define green jobs, and to establish a preliminary risk assessment of chemical substances and biological agents for workers in Quebec. An operational definition was developed, along with criteria and sustainable development principles to discriminate green jobs from regular jobs. The potential toxicity or hazard associated with their chemical and biological exposures was assessed, and the workers' exposure appraised using an expert assessment method. A control banding approach was then used to assess risks for workers in selected green jobs. A double entry model allowed us to set priorities in terms of chemical or biological risk. Among jobs that present the highest risk potential, several are related to waste management. The developed method is flexible and could be adapted to better appraise the risks that workers are facing or to propose control measures.

  20. Inference of biological S-system using the separable estimation method and the genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Zhi; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Zhang, W J

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of a biological system from its experimental time series data is a challenging task in systems biology. The S-system which consists of a group of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is an effective model to characterize molecular biological systems and analyze the system dynamics. However, inference of S-systems without the knowledge of system structure is not a trivial task due to its nonlinearity and complexity. In this paper, a pruning separable parameter estimation algorithm (PSPEA) is proposed for inferring S-systems. This novel algorithm combines the separable parameter estimation method (SPEM) and a pruning strategy, which includes adding an l₁ regularization term to the objective function and pruning the solution with a threshold value. Then, this algorithm is combined with the continuous genetic algorithm (CGA) to form a hybrid algorithm that owns the properties of these two combined algorithms. The performance of the pruning strategy in the proposed algorithm is evaluated from two aspects: the parameter estimation error and structure identification accuracy. The results show that the proposed algorithm with the pruning strategy has much lower estimation error and much higher identification accuracy than the existing method.

  1. Extended morphological processing: a practical method for automatic spot detection of biological markers from microscopic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimori Yoshitaka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reliable extraction technique for resolving multiple spots in light or electron microscopic images is essential in investigations of the spatial distribution and dynamics of specific proteins inside cells and tissues. Currently, automatic spot extraction and characterization in complex microscopic images poses many challenges to conventional image processing methods. Results A new method to extract closely located, small target spots from biological images is proposed. This method starts with a simple but practical operation based on the extended morphological top-hat transformation to subtract an uneven background. The core of our novel approach is the following: first, the original image is rotated in an arbitrary direction and each rotated image is opened with a single straight line-segment structuring element. Second, the opened images are unified and then subtracted from the original image. To evaluate these procedures, model images of simulated spots with closely located targets were created and the efficacy of our method was compared to that of conventional morphological filtering methods. The results showed the better performance of our method. The spots of real microscope images can be quantified to confirm that the method is applicable in a given practice. Conclusions Our method achieved effective spot extraction under various image conditions, including aggregated target spots, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and large variations in the background intensity. Furthermore, it has no restrictions with respect to the shape of the extracted spots. The features of our method allow its broad application in biological and biomedical image information analysis.

  2. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  3. DriftLess™, an innovative method to estimate and compensate for the biases of inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruizenaar, M.G.H.; Kemp, R.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented that allows for bias compensation of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors. It is based on the use of two sets of inertial sensors and a rotation mechanism that physically rotates the sensors in an alternating fashion. After signal processing, the biases of both sets of

  4. Academic pa education and professional practice: Innovative methods for linking theory and praxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.B.L. van der Meer (Frans-Bauke); P.K. Marks (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose – One ambition of most mid-career MPA programmes is to combine the attainment of an academic master degree with a qualitative leap in professional skills and functioning. This ambition requires that academic insights and methods be sensibly linked to real-life professional contex

  5. Pedagogical Innovation and Music Education in Spain: Introducing the Dalcroze Method in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas Rubí, Francesca; Motilla-Salas, Xavier; Sureda-Garcia, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse how the Dalcroze method was introduced to Spain and became known there, more specifically in the Catalonia of the "Noucentisme" movement, and why it made the greatest impact and was more widely disseminated in this particular region of Spain. Following a summary of Dalcroze's contributions to music…

  6. Analysis of Teaching Methods Innovation of Legal Professions of Higher Vocational Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hui

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the needs of economic and social development, the legal system of China has been constantly improved. As a result, our country is in increasingly urgent demand for legal professionals. Legal professions of higher vocational colleges are responsible for the training of a variety of application-oriented legal talents for our country, which plays a very important role for the construction of the legal system. However, at present, there are some disadvantages in teaching methods of higher vocational legal professions, such as the imitation of general education while lack of vocational characteristics, the rigid and single teaching methods, and theory divorced from reality. The paper will start from these drawbacks, and will propose such appropriate solutions as the introduction of teaching method of case study, the implementation of "Clinic-style" practical teaching, and the conduction of "Law-article" teaching method, in the hope of offering some help to the development of higher vocational legal professions and cultivating truly practical legal talents with professional capacity, able to take up the mission of the law, and able to make a significant contribution to the legal system construction of the country, in cooperation with this wide range of vocational legal education models.

  7. Efficient computational methods to study new and innovative signal detection techniques in SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Stanley R.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the research reported here is to provide a rapid computational method for computing various statistical parameters associated with overlapped Hann spectra. These results are important for the Targeted Search part of the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Microwave Observing Project.

  8. Innovative Solutions for Words with Emphasis: Alternative Methods of Braille Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The author of this study proposed two alternative methods for transcribing words with emphasis into braille and compared the use of the symbols for emphasis with the current braille code. The results showed that students were faster at locating words presented in one of the alternate formats, but that there was no difference in students' accuracy…

  9. An innovative method for rapid identification and detection of Vibrio alginolyticus in different infection models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaifei eFu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio alginolyticus is one of the most common pathogenic marine Vibrio species, and has been found to cause serious seafood-poisoning or fatal extra-intestinal infections in humans, such as necrotizing soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, septic shock and multiple organ failures. Delayed accurate diagnosis and treatment of most Vibrio infections usually result to high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid diagnostic method to detect and identify the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples, so as to facilitate timely treatment. The widely employed conventional methods for detection of V. alginolyticus include biochemical identification and a variety of PCR methods. The former is of low specificity and time-consuming (2-3 days, while the latter has improved accuracy and processing time. Despite such advancements, these methods are still complicated, time-consuming, expensive, require expertise and advanced laboratory systems, and are not optimal for field use. With the goal of providing a simple and efficient way to detect V. alginolyticus, we established a rapid diagnostic method based on Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP technology that is feasible to use in both experimental and field environments. Three primer pairs targeting the toxR gene of V. alginolyticus were designed, and amplification was carried out in an ESE tube scanner and Real-Time PCR device. We successfully identified 93 V. alginolyticus strains from a total of 105 different bacterial isolates and confirmed their identity by 16s rDNA sequencing. We also applied this method on infected mouse blood and contaminated scallop samples, and accurate results were both easily and rapidly (20-60min obtained. Therefore, the RT-LAMP assay we developed can be conveniently used to detect the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples. Furthermore, this method will also fulfill the gap for real-time screening of V. alginolyticus

  10. A simple method of fabricating mask-free microfluidic devices for biological analysis.

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Xin

    2010-09-07

    We report a simple, low-cost, rapid, and mask-free method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip for biological analysis researches. In this fabrication process, a laser system is used to cut through paper to form intricate patterns and differently configured channels for specific purposes. Bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin, the prepared paper sheet is sandwiched between glass slides (hydrophilic) or polymer-based plates (hydrophobic) to obtain a multilayer structure. In order to examine the chip\\'s biocompatibility and applicability, protein concentration was measured while DNA capillary electrophoresis was carried out, and both of them show positive results. With the utilization of direct laser cutting and one-step gas-sacrificing techniques, the whole fabrication processes for complicated 2D and 3D microfluidic devices are shorten into several minutes which make it a good alternative of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic chips used in biological analysis researches.

  11. How physiological methods and concepts can be useful in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    The single and synergistic effects of man-made changes to the environment, such as habitat destruction, climate change, introduction of novel, long-lived chemicals into the environment, transport of exotic species and pathogens into new geographical areas, and other factors are predicted to cause widespread population declines and species extinctions of plants and animals in this century. From its inception, physiology has dealt with organismal capacities to deal with environmental change. This essay argues that physiologists, their methods and concepts can make more substantial contributions to Conservation Biology than they have to date. A few of the many ways in which physiologists can participate in Conservation Biology include formulating standards for proof of cause-and-effect relations and providing information about how environmental change could affect organismal energetics, host-pathogen relations, immune defenses, and others.

  12. [The history of development of evolutionary methods in St. Petersburg school of computer simulation in biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshutkin, V V; Kazanskiĭ, A B; Levchenko, V F

    2010-01-01

    The history of rise and development of evolutionary methods in Saint Petersburg school of biological modelling is traced and analyzed. Some pioneering works in simulation of ecological and evolutionary processes, performed in St.-Petersburg school became an exemplary ones for many followers in Russia and abroad. The individual-based approach became the crucial point in the history of the school as an adequate instrument for construction of models of biological evolution. This approach is natural for simulation of the evolution of life-history parameters and adaptive processes in populations and communities. In some cases simulated evolutionary process was used for solving a reverse problem, i. e., for estimation of uncertain life-history parameters of population. Evolutionary computations is one more aspect of this approach application in great many fields. The problems and vistas of ecological and evolutionary modelling in general are discussed.

  13. Innovative method for the enrichment of high-polarity bioactive molecules present at low concentrations in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Shan; He, Jie; Zhou, Wen-Bin; Gu, Yu-Long; Huang, Huoqiang; Li, Ke-Qin; Yin, Xiao-Ying

    2017-02-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is a valuable bioactive molecule but its high polarity and low concentration in complex mixtures makes it a challenge to separate Ginsenoside Rg1 from other saponins with similar structures, resulting in low extraction efficiency. The successful development of effective Rg1 molecularly imprinted polymers that exhibit high selectivity and adsorption may offer an improved method for the enrichment of active compounds. In this work, molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared with two different methods, precipitation polymerization or surface imprinted polymerization. Comparison of the adsorption abilities showed higher adsorption of the surface molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by surface imprinted polymerization, 46.80 mg/g, compared to the 27.74 mg/g observed for the molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by precipitation polymerization. Therefore, for higher adsorption of the highly polar Rg1, surface imprinted polymerization is a superior technique to make Rg1 molecularly imprinted polymers. The prepared surface molecularly imprinted polymers were tested as a solid-phase extraction column to directionally enrich Rg1 and its analogues from ginseng tea and total ginseng extracts. The column with surface molecularly imprinted polymers showed higher enrichment efficiency and better selectivity than a C18 solid-phase extraction column. Overall, a new, innovative method was developed to efficiently enrich high-polarity bioactive molecules present at low concentrations in complex matrices.

  14. Investigation of innovative radiation imaging method and system for radiological environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; Joung, J.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a novel imaging method that can be applied to most applications in the field of radiological environment imaging. It resolves either two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) distributions of radioactive sources in applications for homeland security, environmental monitoring, radiation contamination monitoring, baggage inspection, nuclear power plant monitoring, and more. The proposed imaging method uses a simple detector configured as a radiation-counting detector with spectroscopic capabilities. The detector module consists of two components: a flat field-of-view (FOV) collimator with a 30° FOV opening and a typical single-channel radiation detector made of a 2 in.×2 in. NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to a 2 in photomultiplier tube (PMT). This simple detector module makes it possible to develop a cost-effective imaging system and provide design freedom in extending the system configuration to include one-dimensional (1D) or 2D detector-array shapes to meet the needs of various applications. One of most distinctive features of the new imaging method is that it uses only a pair of 2D projections to obtain a 3D reconstruction. The projections are measured by the proposed detector module at two positions orthogonal to one another; the measured projections are manipulated to enhance the resolution of the reconstructed 3D image. The imaging method comprises several steps performed consecutively: projection measurement, energy re-binning, projection separation, resolution and attenuation recovery, image reconstruction, and image consolidation and quantitative analysis. The resolution and attenuation recovery step provides the most distinctive and important processing by which the poor quality of projection data is enhanced. Such poor quality is mainly due to the use of a simple detector with a wide-opening flat FOV collimator. Simulation and experimental studies have been conducted to validate the proposed method. In this investigation, we

  15. Different extraction methods of biologically active components from propolis: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankova Vassya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propolis is widely used in apitherapy, preparations, and food and beverage additives. Various extraction techniques were applied in the extraction of the biologically active constituents of poplar type propolis in order to compare their efficiency. The methods employed were: traditional maceration extraction, ultrasound extraction (UE, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE. Results The total amounts of extracted phenolics and flavonoids were determined, and the effectiveness of the methods compared. MAE was very rapid but led to the extraction of a large amount of non-phenolic and non-flavonoid material. UE gave the highest percentage of extracted phenolics. Conclusion Compared to the maceration extraction, MAE and UE methods provided high extraction yield, requiring short timeframes and less labour. UE was shown to be the most efficient method based on yield, extraction time and selectivity.

  16. Radiofrequency Kyphoplasty - An Innovative Method of Treating Osteoporotic Vertebral Body Compression Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drees P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic vertebral body fractures are encountered increasingly often. Cement augmentation using vertebroplasty or balloon kyphoplasty are standardised and established procedures. However, the optimal cement viscosity at the time of cement augmentation has not yet been satisfactory resolved for either method. In other words, the time point of cement application is left to the surgeon’s subjective estimation. Early application of cement may cause cement leakage whereas late application may cause incomplete filling of the vertebral body. Radiofrequency kyphoplasty is a recently developed augmentation system that enables the surgeon to exert control when creating the cavity, as well as aids him in the placement and application of cement. Cement is applied by remote control and thus uniformly retains its properties. The method is presented in the following.

  17. Diffusion of innovation: enhancing the dissemination of the Ponseti method in Latin America through virtual forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Asitha; Boardman, Allison; Cook, Thomas; Oprescu, Florin; Morcuende, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study evaluated the use of low-bandwidth web-conferencing to enhance diffusion of a specific best practice, the Ponseti method to treat clubfoot, in three economically diverse countries in Latin America. A "Ponseti Virtual Forum" (PVF) was organized in Guatemala, Peru and Chile to examine the influences of economic level and telecommunication infrastructure on the effectiveness of tins approach. Across the three countries, a total of 14 different sites participated in the PVFs. Thirty-three Ponseti-trained practitioners were interviewed before and after each PVF, which included interactions with a Spanish-speaking Ponseti method expert. Semi-structured interviews, observations, and IP address data were triangulated and analyzed. The results demonstrated that 100% of the practitioners rated the sessions as very useful and that they would use this approach again. The largest obstacles to using PVFs were financial (7 out of 9 practitioners) in Guatemala; a lack of equipment and network access (6 out of 11) in Peru; and the organization and implementation of the conferences themselves (7 out of 9) in Chile. This study illustrates the usefulness of Ponseti Virtual Forums in Latin America. Health officials in Peru are currently developing a large-scale information session for traumatologists about the Ponseti method, while practitioners in Guatemala and Chile are organizing monthly scholarly meetings for physicians in remote areas. This initial feedback suggests that low-bandwidth web-conferencing can be an important vehicle for the dissemination of best practices, such as the Ponseti method, in developing countries.

  18. Applying innovation method to assess english speaking performance on communication apprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li-Jyu; Chang, Hung-Fan

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of research studies are now available to shed some light on ELT methods. Currently, educational portfolios are implemented in Science, Mathematics and Geography and also have become widely used in ELT. When the students prepared their own portfolios, they self-monitored their performances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-monitoring and portfolios on college students’ English speaking performance. The participants involved in this study were 60...

  19. John Locke's "new method of making common-place-books": tradition, innovation and epistemic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In 1676, the English physician and philosopher John Locke published a new method of commonplacing. He had developed this method and, in particular, a new approach to organizing and indexing the entries, in the course of 25 years of personal note-taking and it proved quite influential. This paper presents the three major approaches to commonplacing as practiced by physicians and other scholars before Locke--the systematic or textbook approach, the alphabetical approach and the sequential or index-based approach--and it analyzes the ways in which Locke himself applied them in his own commonplace books. In comparison with established approaches, his new method offered a maximum degree of flexibilitywhile facilitating the later retrieval of notes and minimising waste of space and paper. Thanks to these features, it was particularly well suited for physicians and natural philosophers who were interested in the infinite variety of natural particulars rather than in elegant quotes on a very limited set of classical topics. In conclusion, the potential epistemic impact of commonplacing on early modern medicine and natural philosophy is discussed, in particular its importance for contemporary debates about species and disease entities and for the emergence of the notion of "facts"!

  20. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2010-10-01

    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve

  1. [Effects of tillage methods on soil physicochemical properties and biological characteristics in farmland: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-jie; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Jian-ning; Huangfu, Chao-he; Yang, Dian-lin

    2015-03-01

    Tillage methods affect soil heat, water, nutrients and soil biology in different ways. Reasonable soil management system can not only improve physical and chemical properties of the soil, but also change the ecological process of farmland soil. Conservation tillage can improve the quality of the soil to different degrees. For example, no-tillage system can effectively improve soil enzyme activity. No tillage and subsoiling tillage can provide abundant resources for soil microbe' s growth and reproduction. No tillage, minimum tillage and other conservation tillage methods exert little disturbance to soil animals, and in turn affect the quantity and diversity of the soil animals as well as their population structure. Effects of different tillage methods on soil physical and chemical properties as well as biological characteristics were reviewed in this article, with the soil physical and chemical indices, enzyme activities, soil microbe diversity and soil animals under different tillage patterns analyzed. The possibility of soil quality restoration with appropriate tillage methods and the future research direction were pointed out.

  2. Implementation of Physical Education and Innovation Research Methods%体育教学方法实施及创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学萍

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of sports research and innovation is to improve the physical education teaching methods to promote the theory teaching, for rich and innovative modern sports teaching reserves references. The innovation of the physical education teaching research mainly uses the method of questionnaire survey, expert interviews and teaching experiments, the teaching theory knowledge, the new curriculum idea and action rules as the research basis, such as a study on the theory and practice of innovation concept. This article explains the meaning of sports innovative education, composition and management requirements for Physical Education.%体育教学创新研究的主要目的是改进体育教学方法、推动体育教学理论研究,为丰富和创新现代体育教学储备参考资料。体育教学的创新研究主要采用问卷调查、专家访谈和教学实验等方法,以教学理论知识、新课程理念和动作技能规律等为研究基础,对创新理念进行理论和实践研究。阐述了体育创新教育的内涵、构成和对体育教学的管理要求。

  3. Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Bertke, Erin E.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Likirdopulos, Christina A.; Mailot, Brian E.; Schaefer, Frank W.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio to assess the performance of a molecular method in comparison to traditional analytical methods that take longer to perform. Two 100-liter samples were collected at each site during each sampling event; one was seeded in the laboratory with six biological agents - Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), Burkholderia cepacia (as a surrogate for Bu. pseudomallei), Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis), Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae), and Cryptospordium parvum (C. parvum). The seeded and unseeded samples were processed by ultrafiltration and analyzed by use of quantiative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a molecular method, and culture methods for bacterial agents or the immunomagnetic separation/fluorescent antibody (IMS/FA) method for C. parvum as traditional methods. Six replicate seeded samples were also processed and analyzed. For traditional methods, recoveries were highly variable between samples and even between some replicate samples, ranging from below detection to greater than 100 percent. Recoveries were significantly related to water pH, specific conductance, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for all bacteria combined by culture methods, but none of the water-quality characteristics tested were related to recoveries of C. parvum by IMS/FA. Recoveries were not determined by qPCR because of problems in quantifying organisms by qPCR in the composite seed. Instead, qPCR results were reported as detected, not detected (no qPCR signal), or +/- detected (Cycle Threshold or 'Ct' values were greater than 40). Several sample results by qPCR were omitted from the dataset because of possible problems with qPCR reagents, primers, and probes. For the remaining 14 qPCR results

  4. Graphical methods and Cold War scientific practice: the Stommel Diagram's intriguing journey from the physical to the biological environmental sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Tiffany C; Doel, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, an innovative three-dimensional graphical technique was introduced into biological oceanography and ecology, where it spread rapidly. Used to improve scientists' understanding of the importance of scale within oceanic ecosystems, this influential diagram addressed biological scales from phytoplankton to fish, physical scales from diurnal tides to ocean currents, and temporal scales from hours to ice ages. Yet the Stommel Diagram (named for physical oceanographer Henry Stommel, who created it in 1963) had not been devised to aid ecological investigations. Rather, Stommel intended it to help plan large-scale research programs in physical oceanography, particularly as Cold War research funding enabled a dramatic expansion of physical oceanography in the 1960s. Marine ecologists utilized the Stommel Diagram to enhance research on biological production in ocean environments, a key concern by the 1970s amid growing alarm about overfishing and ocean pollution. Before the end of the twentieth century, the diagram had become a significant tool within the discipline of ecology. Tracing the path that Stommel's graphical techniques traveled from the physical to the biological environmental sciences reveals a great deal about practices in these distinct research communities and their relative professional and institutional standings in the Cold War era. Crucial to appreciating the course of that path is an understanding of the divergent intellectual and social contexts of the physical versus the biological environmental sciences.

  5. Innovative application of mathematical methods in evaluation of ore raw materials for production of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current principles of evaluation of ore raw materials are usually based on a comparison of selected isolated criteria. Today‘s sophisticated technological level of blast furnace process requires the introduction of raw material indicators that provide global characteristics of their quality. This can´t be realized with isolated parameters only. The evaluation should incorporate the key characteristics of iron ore and convert them into a uniform evaluation parameter. This article analyzes the use of mathematical methods in the evaluation of the quality of ore raw materials.

  6. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Johanna F; van Zyl, Willem H; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  7. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-producing Fusarium species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Francina Alberts

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof or clay minerals pre- and postharvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Postharvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, postharvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP production and storage management

  8. Longwall mining“cutting cantilever beam theory”and 110 mining method in ChinadThe third mining science innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manchao He; Guolong Zhu; Zhibiao Guo

    2015-01-01

    abstract With the third innovation in science and technology worldwide, China has also experienced this marvelous progress. Concerning the longwall mining in China, the “masonry beam theory” (MBT) was first proposed in the 1960s, illustrating that the transmission and equilibrium method of overburden pressure using reserved coal pillar in mined-out areas can be realized. This forms the so-called “121 mining method”, which lays a solid foundation for development of mining science and technology in China. The“transfer rock beam theory”(TRBT) proposed in the 1980s gives a further understanding for the transmission path of stope overburden pressure and pressure distribution in high-stress areas. In this regard, the advanced 121 mining method was proposed with smaller coal pillar for excavation design, making significant contributions to improvement of the coal recovery rate in that era. In the 21st century, the traditional mining technologies faced great challenges and, under the theoretical developments pioneered by Profs. Minggao Qian and Zhenqi Song, the “cutting cantilever beam theory” (CCBT) was proposed in 2008. After that the 110 mining method is formulated subsequently, namely one stope face, after the first mining cycle, needs one advanced gateway excavation, while the other one is automatically formed during the last mining cycle without coal pillars left in the mining area. This method can be implemented using the CCBT by incorporating the key technologies, including the directional pre-splitting roof cutting, constant resistance and large deformation (CRLD) bolt/anchor supporting system with negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) effect material, and remote real-time monitoring technology. The CCBT and 110 mining method will provide the theoretical and technical basis for the development of mining industry in China.

  9. Longwall mining “cutting cantilever beam theory” and 110 mining method in China—The third mining science innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchao He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the third innovation in science and technology worldwide, China has also experienced this marvelous progress. Concerning the longwall mining in China, the “masonry beam theory” (MBT was first proposed in the 1960s, illustrating that the transmission and equilibrium method of overburden pressure using reserved coal pillar in mined-out areas can be realized. This forms the so-called “121 mining method”, which lays a solid foundation for development of mining science and technology in China. The “transfer rock beam theory” (TRBT proposed in the 1980s gives a further understanding for the transmission path of stope overburden pressure and pressure distribution in high-stress areas. In this regard, the advanced 121 mining method was proposed with smaller coal pillar for excavation design, making significant contributions to improvement of the coal recovery rate in that era. In the 21st century, the traditional mining technologies faced great challenges and, under the theoretical developments pioneered by Profs. Minggao Qian and Zhenqi Song, the “cutting cantilever beam theory” (CCBT was proposed in 2008. After that the 110 mining method is formulated subsequently, namely one stope face, after the first mining cycle, needs one advanced gateway excavation, while the other one is automatically formed during the last mining cycle without coal pillars left in the mining area. This method can be implemented using the CCBT by incorporating the key technologies, including the directional pre-splitting roof cutting, constant resistance and large deformation (CRLD bolt/anchor supporting system with negative Poisson's ratio (NPR effect material, and remote real-time monitoring technology. The CCBT and 110 mining method will provide the theoretical and technical basis for the development of mining industry in China.

  10. Methods of technical and tactical training basketball players with hearing impairments using innovative technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop information technology for technical and tactical training of skilled basketball players with hearing impairments. Material : the study involved 24 women's national team athletes Ukrainian Basketball hearing impaired (age - 25-30 years. Technical protocols were processed 12 games from the World Cup and Europe, XXII Summer Deaflympics. Fixed number of shots and hit free throws, steals, rebounds and on its offensive rebounds, fouls and errors. Results : the developed system of tactical training basketball players with hearing impairments. Accentuation was made of the prevalence of method visibility while developing tactical interactions. The main result was the development of the author's method of video tutorials with animated illustrations. Also, use the lamp LS Line-3-65-12-C to control the training process athletes. Conclusions : there was a significant improvement in competitive activity athletes. Athletes performed significantly more hits from the foul line and successful shots from long range compared to main rivals. Also increased the number of interceptions in games. Application of information technology had an impact on the competitive result: basketball team of Ukraine took the second place in the Deaflympics in Sofia in 2013.

  11. An Innovative Passive Tip-Leakage Control Method for Axial Turbines: Basic Concept and Performance Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markus Hamik; Reinhard Willinger

    2007-01-01

    The present paper introduces a new concept for passive turbine tip-leakage control. The basic idea of the method is the connection of the blade leading edge and the blade tip by an internal channel. Due to the difference between the stagnation pressure at the leading edge and the low pressure at the blade tip, a small amount of the working fluid is extracted from the blade passage. At the blade tip, a jet is injected roughly perpendicular to the tip gap flow driven by the blade pressure difference. It is proposed that the jet blocks at least a part of the tip gap flow.Since the tip-leakage losses are proportional to the tip gap mass flow rate, the tip injection results in a reduction of the associated losses. After the introduction of the concept, an analytical model is presented which describes the reduction of the tip gap discharge coefficient due to the tip injection. Furthermore, the analytical model is supported by the results of a preliminary CFD analysis. Finally, the potential of the efficiency improvement by the passive blade tip injection method is reported.

  12. Service Innovation Consulting:Evaluation of Methods Employed%服务创新顾问案中所采用的顾问方法整理与评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊毅; 曹承礎

    2009-01-01

    Many consulting firms and research institutions have started providing consultancy services for service innovations.However,academic research has not kept pace with rapidly changing developments in consulting businesses.This study evaluated all known methods currently used in service innovation consulting,and analyzed the actual practices of service innovation consulting to clarify trends in service innovation.Methods are evaluated by their strategy orientation and divergence orientation,and then classified according to a proposed general service innovation consulting framework.The findings of this study indicate that the current focus of service innovation consulting is:customer needs discovery.However.an integrated service innovation methodology covering customer needs discovery,market discovery,idea generation,strategy formulation,service engineering,and simulation/pilot is urgently needed.

  13. Estimation of the Biological Methods of Assessing Soil N-Supplying Capacity in Calcareous Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Fa-hui; LI Shi-qing; LU Hong-ling; LI Sheng-xiu

    2007-01-01

    Although many biological methods are used to determine soil nitrogen supplying capacity, there are certain differences in the results for different types of soils and various ways of measurement due to the complexity of soil N conformation, the high variance of soil and microorganism, and the difference of environment. Therefore, it is not clear about which biologic incubation method is better for calcareous soil. In this study, pot experiments were performed by using 25 different calcareous surface soil samples on the Loess Plateau and taking the N uptake of wheat and corn with leaching soil initial nitrate and without leaching in pot experiments as the control to investigate the difference of eight biological incubation methods for reflecting soil nitrogen supply capacity. The eight biological methods are waterlogged incubation, aerobic incubation for 2 weeks and for 4 weeks, dry-wet alternation aerobic incubation for 2 weeks, long-term alternate leaching aerobic incubation (and N mineralization potential, N0), short-term leaching aerobic incubation, microbial biomass carbon (BC), and microbial biomass nitrogen (BN) method, respectively. Among these methods, the dry-wet alternation aerobic incubation and aerobic incubation for 4 weeks were the modification of the method of aerobic incubation for 2 weeks according to the actual farmland moisture. The results showed that the correlation coefficients between these methods and crop uptake N with leaching soil initial nitrate were 0.530, 0.700, 0.777, 0.768, 0.764 (and 0.790, N0), 0.650, 0.555, and 0.465, respectively (r0.05 = 0.369, r0.01 = 0.505). While without leaching soil initial nitrate, their coefficients were 0.351, 0.963, 0.962, 0.959, 0.825 (and 0.812, N0), 0.963, 0.289, and 0.095, respectively (r0.05=0.369, r0.01 =0.505). In conclusion,excluding the soil initial nitrate, the correlation coefficients between the eight methods and crop uptake N were, from high to low, N0, aerobic incubation for 4 weeks, dry

  14. Automated methods of predicting the function of biological sequences using GO and BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Ute

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exponential increase in genomic sequence data there is a need to develop automated approaches to deducing the biological functions of novel sequences with high accuracy. Our aim is to demonstrate how accuracy benchmarking can be used in a decision-making process evaluating competing designs of biological function predictors. We utilise the Gene Ontology, GO, a directed acyclic graph of functional terms, to annotate sequences with functional information describing their biological context. Initially we examine the effect on accuracy scores of increasing the allowed distance between predicted and a test set of curator assigned terms. Next we evaluate several annotator methods using accuracy benchmarking. Given an unannotated sequence we use the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, BLAST, to find similar sequences that have already been assigned GO terms by curators. A number of methods were developed that utilise terms associated with the best five matching sequences. These methods were compared against a benchmark method of simply using terms associated with the best BLAST-matched sequence (best BLAST approach. Results The precision and recall of estimates increases rapidly as the amount of distance permitted between a predicted term and a correct term assignment increases. Accuracy benchmarking allows a comparison of annotation methods. A covering graph approach performs poorly, except where the term assignment rate is high. A term distance concordance approach has a similar accuracy to the best BLAST approach, demonstrating lower precision but higher recall. However, a discriminant function method has higher precision and recall than the best BLAST approach and other methods shown here. Conclusion Allowing term predictions to be counted correct if closely related to a correct term decreases the reliability of the accuracy score. As such we recommend using accuracy measures that require exact matching of predicted

  15. All biology is computational biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  16. On protocols and measures for the validation of supervised methods for the inference of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eSchrynemackers

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Networks provide a natural representation of molecular biology knowledge, in particular to model relationships between biological entities such as genes, proteins, drugs, or diseases. Because of the effort, the cost, or the lack of the experiments necessary for the elucidation of these networks, computational approaches for network inference have been frequently investigated in the literature.In this paper, we examine the assessment of supervised network inference. Supervised inference is based on machine learning techniques that infer the network from a training sample of known interacting and possibly non-interacting entities and additional measurement data. While these methods are very effective, their reliable validation in silico poses a challenge, since both prediction and validation need to be performed on the basis of the same partially known network. Cross-validation techniques need to be specifically adapted to classification problems on pairs of objects. We perform a critical review and assessment of protocols and measures proposed in the literature and derive specific guidelines how to best exploit and evaluate machine learning techniques for network inference. Through theoretical considerations and in silico experiments, we analyze in depth how important factors influence the outcome of performance estimation. These factors include the amount of information available for the interacting entities, the sparsity and topology of biological networks, and the lack of experimentally verified non-interacting pairs.

  17. Data Mining – Innovative Method for Obtaining Information in Marketingand Business Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela-Cristina Voicu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The existence of massive amounts of data raised the question of using their reorientation to a retrospective to a prospective operation. Data mining offers the promise of an important aid for discovering hidden patterns in data that can be used to predict the behavior of customers, products and processes. Data mining tools must be guided by users who understand the business, the general nature of the data and analytical methods involved. It discovers information within the data that queries and reports can’t effectively reveal. It is vital to collect data and prepare properly, to face reality models. Choosing the most appropriate product data mining is to find a tool with the capabilities required, an interface that matches the skills of users and can be applied in a specific business problem. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the problems of company activity problems which can be solved by using data mining techniques.

  18. Innovative Methods of Anthropogenic Landscape Reconstruction in the Urbanized Oil and Gas Region Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabatura, L. N.; Bauer, N. V.; Speranskaya, N. I.; Iatsevich, O. E.

    2016-10-01

    The article deals with the problems of the urbanized environment appearing as a result of intensive region developing. The state neglect towards people affects the population life quality of the of oil and gas extraction areas as well as problems resolving, and it provokes enormous losses for manufacturing and the whole region. The environment influences the person behaviour, one's perception and space understanding. The city environment is considered as the human existence space influencing on it directly, so it is necessary to renovate it. The authentic region developing cannot be reduced to "pure" economics (for not to be deserted), but needs to be fully mastered. To renovate the destroyed landscapes, it is necessary to use the landscape design methods making a cultural landscape. They help to increase the natural components of the city environment and to make it more harmonious, more harmless, more comfortable for residents.

  19. Drying of water based foundry coatings: Innovative test, process design and optimization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca; Johansen, Bjørn Budolph

    This work has been carried out in in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) at the Technical University of Denmark. Associate Professor Niels Skat Tiedje has been the university supervisor from March 2012 to February 2015. Casting Technology...... of Denmark with the overall aim to optimize the drying process of water based foundry coatings. Drying of foundry coatings is a relatively new process in the foundry industry that followed the introduction of water as a solvent. In order to avoid moisture related quality problems and reach production...... or adapted to better control drying processes of water based foundry coatings. Critical drying process related properties were obtained in the several laboratory tests performed and calculation and simulation methods were developed. Additionally, examples of improvement on full scale industrial production...

  20. Innovative Method for Developing a Helium Pressurant Tank Suitable for the Upper Stage Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom K.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The AFRL USFE project is an experimental test bed for new propulsion technologies. It will utilize ambient temperature fuel and oxidizers (Kerosene and Hydrogen peroxide). The system is pressure fed, not pump fed, and will utilize a helium pressurant tank to drive the system. Mr. DeLay has developed a method for cost effectively producing a unique, large pressurant tank that is not commercially available. The pressure vessel is a layered composite structure with an electroformed metallic permeation barrier. The design/process is scalable and easily adaptable to different configurations with minimal cost in tooling development 1/3 scale tanks have already been fabricated and are scheduled for testing. The full-scale pressure vessel (50" diameter) design will be refined based on the performance of the sub-scale tank. The pressure vessels have been designed to operate at 6,000 psi. a PV/W of 1.92 million is anticipated.

  1. Applying innovation method to assess english speaking performance on communication apprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, Li-Jyu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of research studies are now available to shed some light on ELT methods. Currently, educational portfolios are implemented in Science, Mathematics and Geography and also have become widely used in ELT. When the students prepared their own portfolios, they self-monitored their performances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-monitoring and portfolios on college students’ English speaking performance. The participants involved in this study were 60 college students majoring in the Department of Applied Foreign Languages at one university of technology in Taiwan. In the study, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to test the effects of using communication apprehension. In the portfolio group, the students’ communication apprehension was lowered. In conducting this study, the researcher hoped that this research could provide valuable perspective on the use of portfolios and self-monitoring

  2. Determination of Sodium Cromoglycate by a New Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Keyvanfard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kinetic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of ultratrace amounts of sodium cromoglycate (SCG. The method based on catalytic action of SCG on the oxidation of amaranth with periodate in acidic and micellar medium. The reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of the amaranth at 518 nm, for the first 4 min from initiation of the reaction. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 4.0−36.0 ng mL−1 SCG. The limit of detection is 2.7 ng mL−1 SCG. The relative standard deviation (RSD for ten replicate analyses of 12, 20, and 28 ng mL−1 SCG was 0.40%, 0.32%, and 0.53%, respectively. The proposed method was used for the determination of SCG in biological samples.

  3. A numerical method for imaging of biological microstructures by VHF waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ala, Guido; Francomano, Elisa; Ganci, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Imaging techniques give a fundamental support to medical diagnostics during the pathology discovery as well as for the characterization of biological structures. The imaging methods involve electromagnetic waves in a frequency range that spans from some Hz to GHz and over. Most of these methods involve scanning of wide human body areas even if only small areas need to be analyzed. In this paper, a numerical method to evaluate the shape of micro-structures for application in the medical ?field, with a very low invasiveness for the human body, is proposed. A flexible thin-wire antenna radiates the VHF waves and then, by measuring the spatial magnetic ?field distribution it is possible to reconstruct the micro-structures image by estimating the location of the antenna against a sensors panel. The typical inverse problem described above is solved numerically, and ?first simulation results are presented in order to show the validity and the robustness of the proposed approach.

  4. A simulation method for the study of laser transillumination of biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarek, J M; Jarry, G; de Cosnac, B; Lansiart, A; Bui-Mong-Hung

    1984-01-01

    The Monte-Carlo method is employed to simulate the illumination of a blood slab by a continuous laser. It is assumed that the geometry of the medium is bidimensional and that scattering or absorption takes place only when a photon strikes a red blood cell. The parameters involved in the calculations concern the photons free path lengths between two collisions, the scattering angles and the absorption probability at collision. These parameters are assessed according to experimental or literature data. Fortran programs allow the computation of diffuse and collimated transmittances (Td and Tc, respectively), of transmittance measured with an optic fiber Tf and of reflectance R. The variations of Tc and Tf with blood thickness are in accordance with established laws. Moreover, measured and computed reflectances change with hematocrit ratio in a similar way. This work demonstrates that the Monte-Carlo method is a simple reliable tool which can be used to provide a realistic model of laser penetration in complex biological structures. Moreover, this method will permit investigations in laser tomo-spectrometry by providing a useful simulation of the interaction of ultrashort light pulses with biological media.

  5. Multiplexed genome engineering and genotyping methods applications for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Harris H; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    Engineering at the scale of whole genomes requires fundamentally new molecular biology tools. Recent advances in recombineering using synthetic oligonucleotides enable the rapid generation of mutants at high efficiency and specificity and can be implemented at the genome scale. With these techniques, libraries of mutants can be generated, from which individuals with functionally useful phenotypes can be isolated. Furthermore, populations of cells can be evolved in situ by directed evolution using complex pools of oligonucleotides. Here, we discuss ways to utilize these multiplexed genome engineering methods, with special emphasis on experimental design and implementation.

  6. Integrated AHP-TRIZ Innovation Method for Automotive Door Panel Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U.Rosli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to improve the ‘Theory of Inventive Problem Solving’ TRIZ methodology by integrating with the Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM tool; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. This integration works as a support tool to assist the TRIZ practitioners or design engineers. AHP is employed to rank ideas generated by TRIZ in order to select the most ideal idea further to next stages. This integration was analyzed and validated by a study case of door panel of a sedan car. Both front and rear door panels are covered in this study. A survey of interior’s problems and customer’s preferences had been conducted in order to identify the criteria and weights for AHPevaluation processes. Basically, there were 10 ideas triggered by TRIZ contradiction and principle approach. The ideas were refined and ranked through AHP’s Expert Choice software. Several ideas hadbeen combined and finalized as one ideal improved design. Applying AHP into problem solving method of TRIZ results in avoiding cost waste and increasing the design efficiency during the product design and development processes.

  7. Collaborative innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Sørensen, Eva; Hartley, Jean

    2013-01-01

    There are growing pressures for the public sector to be more innovative but considerable disagreement about how to achieve it. This article uses institutional and organizational analysis to compare three major public innovation strategies. The article confronts the myth that the market......-driven private sector is more innovative than the public sector by showing that both sectors have a number of drivers of as well as barriers to innovation, some of which are similar, while others are sector specific. The article then systematically analyzes three strategies for innovation: New Public Management...... for enhancing public innovation is contingent rather than absolute. Some contingencies for each strategy are outlined....

  8. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  9. Efficiency assessment method of financial leasing as a factor of innovative development of a construction complex for a lessee in comparison with a credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva Tat’yana Romanovna

    Full Text Available Modernization and innovative and technological rearmament of a construction complex is one of the priority problems of national economy development. Development and implementation of innovative technologies in the process of creating construction production will allow improving its quality, consumer characteristics, ensuring energy efficiency and ecological safety of buildings and constructions. One of problems of innovative development of a construction complex is the problem of financing of innovative activity. In our opinion leasing is one of effective ways of its solving. In the leasing transaction the owner of an asset temporarily transfers a right to use an asset to other party. The owner of an asset is a lessor. Other party is a lessee. The lessor makes a lease for a specified time in return for a periodic rental payments from the lessee. One of the advantages of leasing is that it provides alternative to ownership. Also lessees benefit from a number of tax advantages. Leasing has many other advantages. The assessment method of the efficiency of financial leasing as a factor of innovative development of a construction complex for a lessee enterprise in comparison with the credit is shown in article. As a result of scientific research we specified the criteria of this assessment.

  10. 基于知识的数字化产品创新设计方法%Innovative Design Method for Digital Products Based on Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴俊霞; 刘道华

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing innovative designs for digital products , proposes the basic principle and the implementing process of designing digital products based on knowledge including the implementing of key technologies. Proves to support the innovative design system for digital products based on knowledge and puts forward two implementing plans as well as fuzzy integrated evaluation for innovative design system. This innovative design system based on knowledge provides a wonderful specific method for designing more innovative products.%在分析数字化产品创新设计的基础上,给出基于知识的数字化产品创新设计的基本原理及创新设计实施的过程。以知识为中心,提出支持数字化产品创新设计体系,并给出创新设计体系的两种实施方案及创新设计方案的模糊综合评价。这种基于知识的创新体系为设计出更多的创新产品提供很好的具体设计方法。

  11. An innovative method to evaluate the suture compliance in sealing the surgical wound lips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saleh, Beniamino Palmieri, Danielle Lodi, Khalid Al-Sebeih

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The increasing number of surgical procedures performed with local anesthesia, followed by immediate patient discharge from the hospital, emphasizes the need for a tight waterproof suture that is capable of maintaining its tensile strength in the postoperative phase when the wound tumescence, edema due to the anesthetic drug, and surgical trauma disappear. Moreover, the issue of having an accurate surgical wound closure is very relevant in vivo in order to prevent hemorrhage and exogenous microbial infections. This study aimed at designing a new a lab technique that could be used for evaluating the best surgical material. Using such a technique, we compared the wound-lip-sealing properties of three commonly-used suture threads, namely polyurethane, polypropylene, and polyamide. Materials and methods: The mechanical properties of same-size suture threads made from polyurethane, polypropylene, and polyamide, were compared in order to define the one that possess the best elastic properties by being able to counteract the tension-relaxation process in the first 12 hours following surgery. The tension holding capacity of the suture materials was measured in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. The surface area of the scar associated with the three different suture threads was measured and compared, and the permeability of the three different suture threads was assessed at 0 minute, 2 minute, 4 minute, 6 minute, and 8 minute- interval. Results: Results showed that polyurethane suture threads had significantly (P < 0.05 better tensile strength, elongation endurance before breakage, and better elasticity coefficient as compared to polypropylene and polyamide suture threads. Moreover, polyurethane suture threads were significantly (P < 0.05 more impermeable as compared to the other two suture thread types (polypropylene and polyamide. This impermeability was also associated with a tighter wound-lip-sealing ability, and with

  12. An innovative method to produce green table olives based on "pied de cuve" technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, Alessandra; Alfonzo, Antonio; Settanni, Luca; Corona, Onofrio; La Croce, Francesco; Caruso, Tiziano; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Francesca, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    The technology of "pied de cuve" (PdC) is applied in food process only to produce wines with an enriched community of pro-technological yeasts. PdC promotes the growth of the desirable microbial strains in a small volume of grape must acting as a starter inoculums for higher volumes. The aim of the present work was to investigate the use of partially fermented brines, a technology known as PdC, developed with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of green fermented table olives during two consecutive campaigns. The experimental plan included two trials based on different PdCs: trial A, PdC obtained with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13; trial B, PdC obtained through a spontaneous fermentation. Two control additional trials without PdC were included for comparison: trial C, spontaneous fermentation; trial D, direct inoculation of L. pentosus OM13. The use of PdCs favoured the rapid increase of LAB concentrations in both trials A and B. These trials showed levels of LAB higher than trial C and almost superimposable to that of trial D. Trial B was characterized by a certain diversity of L. pentosus strains and some of them dominated the manufacturing process. These results indicated PdC as a valuable method to favour the growth of autochthonous L. pentosus strains. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) visibly discriminated olive processes fermented with the two experimental PdCs. Interestingly, on the basis of microbial and pH variables, both approaches showed that the olives produced with PdC technology are closely related to those of trial D, with the advantages of reducing the amount of starter to inoculate (trial A) and a higher LAB biodiversity (trial B). Volatile organic compound (VOC) composition and sensory analysis showed trials A and B different from the trials with no PdC added, in both years. Furthermore, the trial B showed the highest scores of green olive aroma and

  13. 浅谈案例教学法与培养创新人才%On the Case Method and Cultivating Innovative Talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金友; 吴时国

    2012-01-01

    培养创新人才是素质教育和创新教育的要求.文章简要介绍了案例教学具有培养创新人才的特征,通过比较传统教学法与案例教学法,彰显了案例教学法对培养创新人才的优势,进一步论证了案例教学对培养学生创新能力的价值,即案例教学有利于培养学生创新思维能力,有利于刺激学生求知创新的欲望,有利于激活学生创新天性.有利于培养学生创新意识.并提出案例教学重在精选案例:案例要有针对性、现实性、典型性、基本性和有多样性.%The cultivation of innovative talents is the requirement of the quality education and innovation education. The article briefly describes that the case teaching has the characteristics of nurturing creative talents. Through comparing the traditional leaching methods and case teaching, the advantages of the case teaching method to cultivate innovative talents are highlighted, and its value is further demonstrated, that is, cases teaching can cultivate students' creative thinking ability, stimulate the students' desire of innovation, activate students' innovative nature and develop students' awareness of innovation. The paper proposes that the case teaching focuses on the selection of cases and cases should be targeted, realistic and typical, basic and diversity.

  14. Comparison of growth methods and biological activities of brazilian marine Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Granato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the study of the growth and the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of the extracts of the marine microorganisms Streptomyces acrymicini and Streptomyces cebimarensis, the latter a new strain. Both microorganisms were collected from coastal marine sediments of the north coast of São Paulo state. Growth was performed in a shaker and in a bioreactor using Gym medium and the broths of both microorganisms were extracted with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Three extracts, two organic and one aqueous, from each microorganism were obtained and tested for cytotoxic and antitumor activity using the SF-295 (Central Nervous System, HCT-8 (Colon cell lines, and the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The growth methods were compared and show that, although the shaker presented reasonable results, the bioreactor represents the best choice for growth of these microorganisms. The biological activity of the different extracts was evaluated and it was demonstrated that the growth methodology may influence the secondary metabolite production and the biological activity.

  15. Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter, J.; Thrush, E.; Santarpia, J.; Chaudhry, Z.; Gilberry, J.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.; Carter, C. C.

    2011-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open air is forbidden, methods must be developed to predict candidate system performance against real agents. In support of such efforts, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) has developed a modeling approach to predict the optical properties of agent materials from relatively simple, Biosafety Level 3-compatible bench top measurements. JHU/APL has fielded new ground truth instruments (in addition to standard particle sizers, such as the Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or GRIMM aerosol monitor (GRIMM)) to more thoroughly characterize the simulant aerosols released in recent field tests at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). These instruments include the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), the Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS), and the Aspect Aerosol Size and Shape Analyser (Aspect). The SMPS was employed as a means of measuring smallparticle concentrations for more accurate Mie scattering simulations; the UVAPS, which measures size-resolved fluorescence intensity, was employed as a path toward fluorescence cross section modeling; and the Aspect, which measures particle shape, was employed as a path towards depolarization modeling.

  16. Research Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA provides innovative research activities that help transform the protection of human health and the environment with high-risk, high-reward Pathfinder Innovation Projects, the P3 student competition, and low-cost air monitoring.

  17. Technology Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA produces innovative technologies and facilitates their creation in line with the Agency mission to create products such as the stormwater calculator, remote sensing, innovation clusters, and low-cost air sensors.

  18. Crystallo-optic diagnostics method of the soft laser-induced effects in biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopinov, S. A.; Yakovleva, S. V.

    1991-05-01

    Presently, it is well known that individual cells"2 and higher organisms3'4 exhibit a marked response to soft laser irradiation in certain parts of the visible and near infrared spectral ranges. Broad clinical applications of laser therapy and slow progress in understanding of the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms of this phenomenon make the task to search new methods of objectivisation of laser-induces bioeffects very insistent. In this paper we give a short review of the methods of structural-optical diagnostics of the soft laser-induced effects in biofluids (blood and its fractions, saliva, juices, mucuses, exudations, etc.) and suggest their applications in experimental and clinical studies of the soft laser bioeffects.

  19. A rapid screening method for heavy metals in biological materials by emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklock, E C; Sadler, P A

    1981-06-02

    A semi-quantitative screening method for heavy metals in biological material is described. The metals are complexed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate and potassium sodium tartrate. The solutions are adjusted to pH 4 and then extracted into chloroform. The chloroform phase is evaporated onto a matrix mixture of lithium fluoride and graphite. The sample is analysed by direct current arc emission spectroscopy using a 3 metre grating spectrograph. The spectra are recorded on a photographic plate. The method is developed on aqueous and spiked samples and then applied to in vivo samples containing toxic levels of heavy metals. Atomic absorption spectroscopy is used to check standard concentrations and to monitor the efficiency of the extraction procedure.

  20. Responsive Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten

    Although the importance of stakeholder networks has been recognized in recent years, a non-teleological model that incorporates their collective sensing into innovation processes has so far not been developed. Hence, this paper argues that traditional linear and sequential innovation models...... are insufficient in hypercompetitive environments. Instead, it is proposed that companies should ground their innovation processes in the collective sensing of frontline-employees and customers that operate around the organizational periphery. This frames the concept of responsive innovation, where key...

  1. Method for the determination of cobalt from biological products with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, Oana-Liliana; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Caragea, Genica; Radu, Simona; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27 and atomic weight 58.93. 59 Co is the only stable cobalt isotope and the only isotope to exist naturally on Earth. Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes called cobalamin or cyanocobalamin the most common example of which is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system in the form of fatigue, depression and poor memory or even mania and psychosis. In order to study the degree of deficiency of the population with Co or the correctness of treatment with vitamin B12, a modern optoelectronic method for the determination of metals and metalloids from biological samples has been developed, Graphite Furnace - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GF- AAS) method is recommended. The technique is based on the fact that free atoms will absorb light at wavelengths characteristic of the element of interest. Free atoms of the chemical element can be produced from samples by the application of high temperatures. The system GF-AAS Varian used as biological samples, blood or urine that followed the digest of the organic matrix. For the investigations was used a high - performance GF-AAS with D2 - background correction system and a transversely heated graphite atomizer. As result of the use of the method are presented the concentration of Co in the blood or urine of a group of patient in Bucharest. The method is sensitive, reproducible relatively easy to apply, with a moderately costs.

  2. Innovative Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  3. Two Stepped Innovation Design Method of Products Based on the QFD%基于QFD的产品两次创新设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小军; 杨勤

    2016-01-01

    The article presented two stepped innovative design method of products based on quality function deployment (QFD), through the analysis of user needs and the main factors affecting two innovative, in status of products should meeting the needs of users and having the application of innovation in the fierce market competition. The design method establish the model of product innovation design based on QFD and implement steps through exploring clients’ demand for target product, using QFD to analyzing customer’s needs and combining two innovative customer factors, and get obtain the appropriate technology and solutions. on this method the article verify practicability and Scientificity of the design methods by electric scooter design example.%面对激烈的市场行业竞争,产品应当满足用户需求且具有应用创新性的状况,基于对用户需求和影响两次创新的主要因素的分析,提出了基于质量功能展开理论(QFD)的产品两级创新设计方法。该设计方法通发掘用户对目标产品的需求,运用QFD分析顾客需求并结合两创新级用户因素,建立基于QFD的产品创新设计模型和实现步骤,从而准确地得到相应的技术解决途径和方案。并在此方法上通过电动滑板车的设计实例,验证该设计方法和流程的实用性和科学性。

  4. Stochastic response surface methods (SRSMs) for uncertainty propagation: Application to environmental and biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isukapalli, S.S.; Roy, A.; Georgopoulos, P.G. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst.]|[Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Comprehensive uncertainty analyses of complex models of environmental and biological systems are essential but often not feasible due to the computational resources they require. Traditional methods, such as standard Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube Sampling, for propagating uncertainty and developing probability densities of model outputs, may in fact require performing a prohibitive number of model simulations. An alternative is offered, for a wide range of problems, by the computationally efficient Stochastic Response Surface Methods (SRSMs) for uncertainty propagation. These methods extend the classical response surface methodology to systems with stochastic inputs and outputs. This is accomplished by approximating both inputs and outputs of the uncertain system through stochastic series of well behaved standard random variables; the series expansions of the outputs contain unknown coefficients which are calculated by a method that uses the results of a limited number of model simulations. Two case studies are presented here involving (a) a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for perchloroethylene (PERC) for humans, and (b) an atmospheric photochemical model, the Reactive Plume Model (RPM-IV). The results obtained agree closely with those of traditional Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube Sampling methods, while significantly reducing the required number of model simulations.

  5. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qili; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Cui, Maosheng; Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin

    2015-07-01

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10-15 kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections.

  6. A comparative analysis on computational methods for fitting an ERGM to biological network data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Saha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exponential random graph models (ERGM based on graph theory are useful in studying global biological network structure using its local properties. However, computational methods for fitting such models are sensitive to the type, structure and the number of the local features of a network under study. In this paper, we compared computational methods for fitting an ERGM with local features of different types and structures. Two commonly used methods, such as the Markov Chain Monte Carlo Maximum Likelihood Estimation and the Maximum Pseudo Likelihood Estimation are considered for estimating the coefficients of network attributes. We compared the estimates of observed network to our random simulated network using both methods under ERGM. The motivation was to ascertain the extent to which an observed network would deviate from a randomly simulated network if the physical numbers of attributes were approximately same. Cut-off points of some common attributes of interest for different order of nodes were determined through simulations. We implemented our method to a known regulatory network database of Escherichia coli (E. coli.

  7. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qili [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Shirinzadeh, Bijan [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Cui, Maosheng [Biotechnology Lab of Animal Reproduction, Tianjin Animal Sciences, Tianjin 300112 (China); Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin, E-mail: zhaoxin@nankai.edu.cn [Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-07-28

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10{sup −15 }kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections.

  8. Discovery of innovative therapies for rare immune-mediated inflammatory diseases via off-label prescription of biologics: the case of IL-6 receptor blockade in Castleman’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMusters

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biologics have revolutionized the field of clinical immunology and proven to be both effective and safe in common immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and various haematological disorders. However, in patients with rare, severe IMIDs failing on standard therapies it is virtually impossible to conduct randomized controlled trials. Therefore, biologics are usually prescribed off-label in these often severely ill patients. Unfortunately, off-label prescription is sometimes hampered in these diseases due to a lack of reimbursement that is often based on a presumed lack of evidence for effectiveness. In the present article will discuss that off-label prescription of biologics can be a good way to discover new treatments for rare diseases. This will be ilustrated using a case of multicentric Castleman’s disease, an immune-mediated lymphoproliferative disorder, in which off-label tocilizumab (humanized anti-IL-6 receptor blocking antibody treatment resulted in remarkable clinical improvement. Furthermore, we will give recommendations for monitoring efficacy and safety of biologic treatment in rare IMIDs, including the use of registries. In conclusion, we put forward that innovative treatments for rare IMIDs can be discovered via off-label prescription of biologicals, provided that this is based on rational arguments including knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disease.

  9. Antiviral cationic peptides as a strategy for innovation in global health therapeutics for dengue virus: high yield production of the biologically active recombinant plectasin peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Hussin A; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Suhaeb, Abdulrazzaq M; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

    2013-11-01

    Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide, and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to possess effective antiviral activity against various viruses. One of the main limitations of developing these peptides as potent antiviral drugs is the high cost of production. In this study, high yield production of biologically active plectasin peptide was inexpensively achieved by producing tandem plectasin peptides as inclusion bodies in E. coli. Antiviral activity of the recombinant peptide towards dengue serotype-2 NS2B-NS3 protease (DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro) was assessed as a target to inhibit dengue virus replication in Vero cells. Single units of recombinant plectasin were collected after applying consecutive steps of refolding, cleaving by Factor Xa, and nickel column purification to obtain recombinant proteins of high purity. The maximal nontoxic dose (MNTD) of the recombinant peptide against Vero cells was 20 μM (100 μg/mL). The reaction velocity of DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro decreased significantly after increasing concentrations of recombinant plectasin were applied to the reaction mixture. Plectasin peptide noncompetitively inhibited DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro at Ki value of 5.03 ± 0.98 μM. The percentage of viral inhibition was more than 80% at the MNTD value of plectasin. In this study, biologically active recombinant plectasin which was able to inhibit dengue protease and viral replication in Vero cells was successfully produced in E. coli in a time- and cost- effective method. These findings are potentially important in the development of potent therapeutics against dengue infection.

  10. Absorption into fluorescence. A method to sense biologically relevant gas molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strianese, Maria; Varriale, Antonio; Staiano, Maria; Pellecchia, Claudio; D'Auria, Sabato

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present an innovative optical sensing methodology based on the use of biomolecules as molecular gating nano-systems. Here, as an example, we report on the detection of analytes related to climate change. In particular, we focused our attention on the detection of nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2). Our methodology builds on the possibility of modulating the excitation intensity of a fluorescent probe used as a transducer and a sensor molecule whose absorption is strongly affected by the binding of an analyte of interest used as a filter. The two simple conditions that have to be fulfilled for the method to work are: (a) the absorption spectrum of the sensor placed inside the cuvette, and acting as the recognition element for the analyte of interest, should strongly change upon the binding of the analyte and (b) the fluorescence dye transducer should exhibit an excitation band which overlaps with one or more absorption bands of the sensor. The absorption band of the sensor affected by the binding of the specific analyte should overlap with the excitation band of the transducer. The high sensitivity of fluorescence detection combined with the use of proteins as highly selective sensors makes this method a powerful basis for the development of a new generation of analytical assays. Proof-of-principle results showing that cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) for NO detection and myoglobin (Mb) for O2 detection can be successfully used by exploiting our new methodology are reported. The proposed technology can be easily expanded to the determination of different target analytes.

  11. Developing Communities of Innovation by Identifying Innovation Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakes, Elayne; Smith, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that a form of communities of practice (CoP), a community of innovation (CoInv), is the best support for sustainable innovation. It aims to outline a method for identifying champions of innovation in organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on extant research to argue that…

  12. Innovation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Kerr, William R

    2016-10-11

    Technological progress builds upon itself, with the expansion of invention in one domain propelling future work in linked fields. Our analysis uses 1.8 million US patents and their citation properties to map the innovation network and its strength. Past innovation network structures are calculated using citation patterns across technology classes during 1975-1994. The interaction of this preexisting network structure with patent growth in upstream technology fields has strong predictive power on future innovation after 1995. This pattern is consistent with the idea that when there is more past upstream innovation for a particular technology class to build on, then that technology class innovates more.

  13. A few nascent methods for measuring mechanical properties of the biological cell.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, Gayle Echo; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corvalan, Carlos (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Corwin, Alex David; Campanella, Osvaldo H. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Nivens, David (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Werely, Steven (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Koch, Steven John

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes a survey of several new methods for obtaining mechanical and rheological properties of single biological cells, in particular: (1) The use of laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) to measure the natural vibrations of certain cells. (2) The development of a novel micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for obtaining high-resolution force-displacement curves. (3) The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for cell imaging. (4) The adaptation of a novel squeezing-flow technique to micro-scale measurement. The LDV technique was used to investigate the recent finding reported by others that the membranes of certain biological cells vibrate naturally, and that the vibration can be detected clearly with recent instrumentation. The LDV has been reported to detect motions of certain biological cells indirectly through the motion of a probe. In this project, trials on Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested and rejected the hypothesis that the LDV could measure vibrations of the cell membranes directly. The MEMS investigated in the second technique is a polysilicon surface-micromachined force sensor that is able to measure forces to a few pN in both air and water. The simple device consists of compliant springs with force constants as low as 0.3 milliN/m and Moire patterns for nanometer-scale optical displacement measurement. Fields from an electromagnet created forces on magnetic micro beads glued to the force sensors. These forces were measured and agreed well with finite element prediction. It was demonstrated that the force sensor was fully functional when immersed in aqueous buffer. These results show the force sensors can be useful for calibrating magnetic forces on magnetic beads and also for direct measurement of biophysical forces on-chip. The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for profiling the geometry of red blood cells was the third technique investigated here. An important finding was that the method commonly used for attaching the cells to a

  14. Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Qiao, Xiangli; Chi, Lina; Niu, Xiangjun; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water.

  15. Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yejian; YAN Li; QIAO Xiangli; CHI Lina; NIU Xiangjun; MEI Zhijian; ZHANG Zhenjia

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water.

  16. Literature Lab: a method of automated literature interrogation to infer biology from microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegmaier Kimberly

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biomedical literature is a rich source of associative information but too vast for complete manual review. We have developed an automated method of literature interrogation called "Literature Lab" that identifies and ranks associations existing in the literature between gene sets, such as those derived from microarray experiments, and curated sets of key terms (i.e. pathway names, medical subject heading (MeSH terms, etc. Results Literature Lab was developed using differentially expressed gene sets from three previously published cancer experiments and tested on a fourth, novel gene set. When applied to the genesets from the published data including an in vitro experiment, an in vivo mouse experiment, and an experiment with human tumor samples, Literature Lab correctly identified known biological processes occurring within each experiment. When applied to a novel set of genes differentially expressed between locally invasive and metastatic prostate cancer, Literature Lab identified a strong association between the pathway term "FOSB" and genes with increased expression in metastatic prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry subsequently confirmed increased nuclear FOSB staining in metastatic compared to locally invasive prostate cancers. Conclusion This work demonstrates that Literature Lab can discover key biological processes by identifying meritorious associations between experimentally derived gene sets and key terms within the biomedical literature.

  17. Computational biology in the cloud: methods and new insights from computing at scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasson, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    The past few years have seen both explosions in the size of biological data sets and the proliferation of new, highly flexible on-demand computing capabilities. The sheer amount of information available from genomic and metagenomic sequencing, high-throughput proteomics, experimental and simulation datasets on molecular structure and dynamics affords an opportunity for greatly expanded insight, but it creates new challenges of scale for computation, storage, and interpretation of petascale data. Cloud computing resources have the potential to help solve these problems by offering a utility model of computing and storage: near-unlimited capacity, the ability to burst usage, and cheap and flexible payment models. Effective use of cloud computing on large biological datasets requires dealing with non-trivial problems of scale and robustness, since performance-limiting factors can change substantially when a dataset grows by a factor of 10,000 or more. New computing paradigms are thus often needed. The use of cloud platforms also creates new opportunities to share data, reduce duplication, and to provide easy reproducibility by making the datasets and computational methods easily available.

  18. Structural identifiability of systems biology models: a critical comparison of methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Teodora Chis

    Full Text Available Analysing the properties of a biological system through in silico experimentation requires a satisfactory mathematical representation of the system including accurate values of the model parameters. Fortunately, modern experimental techniques allow obtaining time-series data of appropriate quality which may then be used to estimate unknown parameters. However, in many cases, a subset of those parameters may not be uniquely estimated, independently of the experimental data available or the numerical techniques used for estimation. This lack of identifiability is related to the structure of the model, i.e. the system dynamics plus the observation function. Despite the interest in knowing a priori whether there is any chance of uniquely estimating all model unknown parameters, the structural identifiability analysis for general non-linear dynamic models is still an open question. There is no method amenable to every model, thus at some point we have to face the selection of one of the possibilities. This work presents a critical comparison of the currently available techniques. To this end, we perform the structural identifiability analysis of a collection of biological models. The results reveal that the generating series approach, in combination with identifiability tableaus, offers the most advantageous compromise among range of applicability, computational complexity and information provided.

  19. EFFECT OF CORPORATE INNOVATION ABILITY ON THE CHOICE BETWEEN PRODUCT INNOVATION AND PROCESS INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Wu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With the method of duopoly game theory, the effect of firms’ innovation ability on the choice between product and process innovation is studied. The concept of cost coefficient of product innovation is introduced, and the criterion equation for the innovation type is derived. The following conclusions are made: the more the product innovation ability, the more the possibility for the firms to carry out the product innovation in both the Bertrand and the Cournot competitions. With the decrease of the product innovation ability, for the high-quality firms, Cournot competitor turns to select the process innovation earlier than the Bertrand competitor. But for the low-quality firms, the Bertrand competitor would select the process innovation firstly.

  20. Innovation hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Hara, J.; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Turner, N.

    2008-01-01

    "Whilst ‘incremental innovation' is an imperative for the short-to-medium term success of a company, there is also a need for companies to engage in innovation activity that goes beyond the incremental in order to guarantee long-term success. However, such ‘radical innovation' (RI) poses new...... challenges and requires new competencies, some of which may conflict with existing best-practices for incremental innovations. ‘Innovation hubs' are a type of organisational structure dedicated to RI projects that have been used by companies to manage these conflicts by maintaining a certain degree...... of separation from the culture and routines of the mainstream organisation. Unfortunately, it would appear that many attempts to set-up innovation hubs have ended in failure within a few years; not before considerable time, effort and resource has been expended. This paper reports on a study of six innovation...

  1. Innovative methods to use silicon sheets for high efficiency solar cells. Final report; Innovative Verfahren zum Einsatz von Siliciumfolien fuer hocheffiziente Solarzellen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, W.

    2001-01-01

    This project was organised into three main activity units. The design and test of continuous process equipment and related handling and control systems for multicrystalline and EFG (edge-defined film-fed growth) silicon wafers lead to an important knowledge base for the design of a fully automated (pilot) production line for high efficiency solar cells, specially suited for the application of silicon sheets with their different surface morphology in comparison to conventional sliced silicon wafers. The development of new continuous processing equipment closed the gaps in the design concept of an automated production line to realise a simple process sequence and related innovative continuous processing schemes for the production of high efficiency solar cells from silicon sheets. Based on the results achieved so far, a fully automated pilot production line with continuous processing equipment for all process steps for the production of high efficiency solar cells was set up. The test results demonstrated the suitability of the selected concept for a future mass production in the 50 to 100 MW range: Mean cell efficiencies of 14% for EFG sheets and 14.5-15% for cast multicrystalline silicon wafers were achieved. A thorough cell production cost analysis based on all collected data revealed a 20% reduction in comparison to the former state-of-the-art. (orig.) [German] In diesem Vorhaben wurden drei Arbeitsschwerpunkte bearbeitet. Die Konzeption und Erprobung von Durchlaufanlagen und zugehoerigen Handhabungs- und Steuerungssystemen fuer mc(multikristalline)- und EFG(edge-defined film-fed growth)-Siliciumscheiben lieferte wesentliche Erkenntnisse fuer die Gestaltung einer vollautomatischen Pilotfertigung fuer hocheffiziente Solarzellen, speziell geeignet fuer den Einsatz von Siliciumfolien mit ihrer gegenueber konventionellen gesaegten Siliciumscheiben andersartigen Oberflaechenstruktur. Die Entwicklung neuartiger Durchlaufanlagen schloss die bestehenden Luecken im

  2. Study on the Method of the Innovation of Architectural Design%建筑设计创新方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文勇

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous progress of China’s economy and the development of society, the innovation of China’s co-nstruction field has made great achievements, but there are al-so some shortcomings. The innovation of architectural design in our country has formed a comparatively perfect theoretical system, but there are stil some shortcomings in the archit-ectural design innovation. We should continue to accelerate the combination of theory and practice of construction innovation, to improve the architectural design of the overal level of inn-ovation, in order to survive in the fierce competition in society. The author made a detailed analysis and systematic exposition, in this paper, the key points of innovation in architectural des-ign, basic method of architectural design innovation and appr-eciation of Chinese and foreign outstanding architectural desi-gn innovation works.%随着我国经济的不断发展和社会的不断进步,我国的建筑创新领域取得了很大成就,但也存在某些不足。我国的建筑设计创新在理论上已经形成了较为完善的理论体系,但在建筑设计创新上还存在一定的不足。我们只有不断地加快建筑创新理论与实践的结合,提高建筑设计的整体创新水平,才能在激烈的社会竞争中生存下来。本文对新时代建筑设计创新的关键点、建筑设计创新的基本方法以及中外优秀建筑设计创新作品鉴析等做了详细分析和系统阐述。

  3. Biological Matrix Effects in Quantitative Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Analytical Methods: Advancing Biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E.; D’Souza, Priya E.; Chen, Xianyu; Radford, Samantha A.; Cohen, Jordan R.; Marder, M. Elizabeth; Kartavenka, Kostya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    The ability to quantify levels of target analytes in biological samples accurately and precisely, in biomonitoring, involves the use of highly sensitive and selective instrumentation such as tandem mass spectrometers and a thorough understanding of highly variable matrix effects. Typically, matrix effects are caused by co-eluting matrix components that alter the ionization of target analytes as well as the chromatographic response of target analytes, leading to reduced or increased sensitivity of the analysis. Thus, before the desired accuracy and precision standards of laboratory data are achieved, these effects must be characterized and controlled. Here we present our review and observations of matrix effects encountered during the validation and implementation of tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also provide systematic, comprehensive laboratory strategies needed to control challenges posed by matrix effects in order to ensure delivery of the most accurate data for biomonitoring studies assessing exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:25562585

  4. Study of Relaxation by Traditional Medicinal Methods on Biological Indexes of the Elderly (Abstract)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to prove the relaxation effect of traditional medicine by objective biological indexes by modern scientific methods.  Fifty healthy elderly people, aged from 60 to 75, were selected to have traditional medicinal relaxing practice, that is, to relax their body in 3 directions: two sides, in front and backward, and breath naturally, 30 minutes a day, 8 weeks as a cycle. (1) The changes of electroencephalogram (EEG), rheoencephalogram (REG) were measured before and after the treatment cycle. Breath frequency and SaO2 contents were measured before and after the treatment cycle by Pulse oxymeter. (2) As for the circulatory system, pulse frequency, blood pressure, blood influx of limbs were measured before and after the treatment cycle. (3) Biochemical indexes (including index of cholesterol, triglyceride, blood sugar, cortisone, catecholamine) were measured before and after the treatment cycle.……

  5. Study of Relaxation by Traditional Medicinal Methods on Biological Indexes of the Elderly (Abstract)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The objective of the study was to prove the relaxation effect of traditional medicine by objective biological indexes by modern scientific methods. Fifty healthy elderly people, aged from 60 to 75, were selected to have traditional medicinal relaxing practice, that is, to relax their body in 3 directions: two sides, in front and backward, and breath naturally, 30 minutes a day, 8 weeks as a cycle. (1) The changes of electroencephalogram (EEG), rheoencephalogram (REG) were measured before and after the treatment cycle. Breath frequency and SaO2 contents were measured before and after the treatment cycle by Pulse oxymeter. (2) As for the circulatory system, pulse frequency, blood pressure, blood influx of limbs were measured before and after the treatment cycle. (3) Biochemical indexes (including index of cholesterol, triglyceride, blood sugar, cortisone, catecholamine) were measured before and after the treatment cycle.

  6. Teaching Biology through Statistics: Application of Statistical Methods in Genetics and Zoology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel; Burrowes, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of mathematics into biology curricula is critical to underscore for undergraduate students the relevance of mathematics to most fields of biology and the usefulness of developing quantitative process skills demanded in modern biology. At our institution, we have made significant changes to better integrate mathematics into the…

  7. Data Mining Methods for Omics and Knowledge of Crude Medicinal Plants toward Big Data Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farit M. Afendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biological data has rapidly increased with the recent progress of the Omics fields, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics that necessitates the development of databases and methods for efficient storage, retrieval, integration and analysis of massive data. The present study reviews the usage of KNApSAcK Family DB in metabolomics and related area, discusses several statistical methods for handling multivariate data and shows their application on Indonesian blended herbal medicines (Jamu as a case study. Exploration using Biplot reveals many plants are rarely utilized while some plants are highly utilized toward specific efficacy. Furthermore, the ingredients of Jamu formulas are modeled using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA in order to predict their efficacy. The plants used in each Jamu medicine served as the predictors, whereas the efficacy of each Jamu provided the responses. This model produces 71.6% correct classification in predicting efficacy. Permutation test then is used to determine plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu formula by evaluating the significance of the PLS-DA coefficients. Next, in order to explain the role of plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu medicines, information of pharmacological activity of the plants is added to the predictor block. Then N-PLS-DA model, multiway version of PLS-DA, is utilized to handle the three-dimensional array of the predictor block. The resulting N-PLS-DA model reveals that the effects of some pharmacological activities are specific for certain efficacy and the other activities are diverse toward many efficacies. Mathematical modeling introduced in the present study can be utilized in global analysis of big data targeting to reveal the underlying biology.

  8. DATA MINING METHODS FOR OMICS AND KNOWLEDGE OF CRUDE MEDICINAL PLANTS TOWARD BIG DATA BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farit M. Afendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biological data has rapidly increased with the recent progress of the Omics fields, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics that necessitates the development of databases and methods for efficient storage, retrieval, integration and analysis of massive data. The present study reviews the usage of KNApSAcK Family DB in metabolomics and related area, discusses several statistical methods for handling multivariate data and shows their application on Indonesian blended herbal medicines (Jamu as a case study. Exploration using Biplot reveals many plants are rarely utilized while some plants are highly utilized toward specific efficacy. Furthermore, the ingredients of Jamu formulas are modeled using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA in order to predict their efficacy. The plants used in each Jamu medicine served as the predictors, whereas the efficacy of each Jamu provided the responses. This model produces 71.6% correct classification in predicting efficacy. Permutation test then is used to determine plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu formula by evaluating the significance of the PLS-DA coefficients. Next, in order to explain the role of plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu medicines, information of pharmacological activity of the plants is added to the predictor block. Then N-PLS-DA model, multiway version of PLS-DA, is utilized to handle the three-dimensional array of the predictor block. The resulting N-PLS-DA model reveals that the effects of some pharmacological activities are specific for certain efficacy and the other activities are diverse toward many efficacies. Mathematical modeling introduced in the present study can be utilized in global analysis of big data targeting to reveal the underlying biology.

  9. An enzyme-based DNA preparation method for application to forensic biological samples and degraded stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, Jenny A; Coult, Natalie; Miranian, Daniel C; Cronk, Stephen M; Haverstick, Doris M; Kinnon, Paul; Saul, David J; Landers, James P

    2012-09-01

    Extraction of DNA from forensic samples typically uses either an organic extraction protocol or solid phase extraction (SPE) and these methods generally involve numerous sample transfer, wash and centrifugation steps. Although SPE has been successfully adapted to the microdevice, it can be problematic because of lengthy load times and uneven packing of the solid phase. A closed-tube enzyme-based DNA preparation method has recently been developed which uses a neutral proteinase to lyse cells and degrade proteins and nucleases [14]. Following a 20 min incubation of the buccal or whole blood sample with this proteinase, DNA is polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ready. This paper describes the optimization and quantitation of DNA yield using this method, and application to forensic biological samples, including UV- and heat-degraded whole blood samples on cotton or blue denim substrates. Results demonstrate that DNA yield can be increased from 1.42 (±0.21)ng/μL to 7.78 (±1.40)ng/μL by increasing the quantity of enzyme per reaction by 3-fold. Additionally, there is a linear relationship between the amount of starting cellular material added and the concentration of DNA in the solution, thereby allowing DNA yield estimations to be made. In addition, short tandem repeat (STR) profile results obtained using DNA prepared with the enzyme method were comparable to those obtained with a conventional SPE method, resulting in full STR profiles (16 of 16 loci) from liquid samples (buccal swab eluate and whole blood), dried buccal swabs and bloodstains and partial profiles from UV or heat-degraded bloodstains on cotton or blue denim substrates. Finally, the DNA preparation method is shown to be adaptable to glass or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevices with little impact on STR peak height but providing a 20-fold reduction in incubation time (as little as 60 s), leading to a ≥1 h reduction in DNA preparation time.

  10. Generating quantitative models describing the sequence specificity of biological processes with the stabilized matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Alessandro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many processes in molecular biology involve the recognition of short sequences of nucleic-or amino acids, such as the binding of immunogenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. From experimental data, a model of the sequence specificity of these processes can be constructed, such as a sequence motif, a scoring matrix or an artificial neural network. The purpose of these models is two-fold. First, they can provide a summary of experimental results, allowing for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in sequence recognition. Second, such models can be used to predict the experimental outcome for yet untested sequences. In the past we reported the development of a method to generate such models called the Stabilized Matrix Method (SMM. This method has been successfully applied to predicting peptide binding to MHC molecules, peptide transport by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP and proteasomal cleavage of protein sequences. Results Herein we report the implementation of the SMM algorithm as a publicly available software package. Specific features determining the type of problems the method is most appropriate for are discussed. Advantageous features of the package are: (1 the output generated is easy to interpret, (2 input and output are both quantitative, (3 specific computational strategies to handle experimental noise are built in, (4 the algorithm is designed to effectively handle bounded experimental data, (5 experimental data from randomized peptide libraries and conventional peptides can easily be combined, and (6 it is possible to incorporate pair interactions between positions of a sequence. Conclusion Making the SMM method publicly available enables bioinformaticians and experimental biologists to easily access it, to compare its performance to other prediction methods, and to extend it to other applications.

  11. Investigation of the physiological conditions in the biological body in a biologically active zones by feedback method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Александрович Бабенко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of the medical science development is characterized by the appearance of a number of new medical methods based on intelligent technologies. The experimental part is dedicated to the feedback method with the view of total bioenergy potentials collection. We used the "Biocorrector" to detect pathological changes in the human body, to conduct bioresonance therapy and to establish the bioenergetic balance

  12. Industrial Design Method Innovation Research Based on Extenics%基于可拓学的工业设计方法创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金广; 许可

    2014-01-01

    为了解决国内工业设计方法缺乏原创性的问题,通过将可拓学创新方式与工业设计方法相结合,建立了用工业设计语言表述的可拓产品分析法与基于可拓产品分析法的可拓方案优选法模型,用于指导工业设计本土化创新。通过用本土化的设计方法指导国内工业设计创新,让国内生产与设计企业由关注产品自身的设计创新拓展到关注产品价值链的设计创新,增强工业设计在国内发展的适应性,以达到提高国内设计创新效率与增加设计创新产值的目的。%The main purpose is to solve the problem of domestic industrial design lacks original methods. It combines Extenics innovative theory and industrial design methods. This paper puts forward a products design analysis method with Extenics based on industrial design language,based on it,has established a projects evaluation and selection method model with Extenics and uses it to guide the indigenous innovation of industrial design. By using the indigenous industrial design methods to guide domestic design innovation activities,it allows domestic production and design companies focus more on product value chain design innovation, not only in the design of the product itself. It will enhance the ability of industrial design to adapt the development of this country, and to improve the efficiency of domestic design innovation and increase the revenue from design innovation.

  13. New ways of organizing innovation work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grex, Sara; Møller, Niels

    2006-01-01

    of organizing innovative activities in project-based settings. We propose the Contextual Design method as a way of both studying innovation work processes and an approach to redesign the innovation work organization. We find that the method can contribute to a better understanding of the innovation work...

  14. Evaluation of hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis methods for discrimination of primary biological aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present improved methods for discriminating and quantifying Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAP by applying hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to multi-parameter ultra violet-light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF spectrometer data. The methods employed in this study can be applied to data sets in excess of 1×106 points on a desktop computer, allowing for each fluorescent particle in a dataset to be explicitly clustered. This reduces the potential for misattribution found in subsampling and comparative attribution methods used in previous approaches, improving our capacity to discriminate and quantify PBAP meta-classes. We evaluate the performance of several hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis linkages and data normalisation methods using laboratory samples of known particle types and an ambient dataset. Fluorescent and non-fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres were sampled with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS-4 where the optical size, asymmetry factor and fluorescent measurements were used as inputs to the analysis package. It was found that the Ward linkage with z-score or range normalisation performed best, correctly attributing 98 and 98.1 % of the data points respectively. The best performing methods were applied to the BEACHON-RoMBAS ambient dataset where it was found that the z-score and range normalisation methods yield similar results with each method producing clusters representative of fungal spores and bacterial aerosol, consistent with previous results. The z-score result was compared to clusters generated with previous approaches (WIBS AnalysiS Program, WASP where we observe that the subsampling and comparative attribution method employed by WASP results in the overestimation of the fungal spore concentration by a factor of 1.5 and the underestimation of bacterial aerosol concentration by a factor of 5. We suggest that this likely due to errors arising from misatrribution

  15. Evaluation of hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis methods for discrimination of primary biological aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present improved methods for discriminating and quantifying primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs by applying hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to multi-parameter ultraviolet-light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF spectrometer data. The methods employed in this study can be applied to data sets in excess of 1 × 106 points on a desktop computer, allowing for each fluorescent particle in a data set to be explicitly clustered. This reduces the potential for misattribution found in subsampling and comparative attribution methods used in previous approaches, improving our capacity to discriminate and quantify PBAP meta-classes. We evaluate the performance of several hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis linkages and data normalisation methods using laboratory samples of known particle types and an ambient data set. Fluorescent and non-fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres were sampled with a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS-4 where the optical size, asymmetry factor and fluorescent measurements were used as inputs to the analysis package. It was found that the Ward linkage with z-score or range normalisation performed best, correctly attributing 98 and 98.1 % of the data points respectively. The best-performing methods were applied to the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio–hydro–atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study ambient data set, where it was found that the z-score and range normalisation methods yield similar results, with each method producing clusters representative of fungal spores and bacterial aerosol, consistent with previous results. The z-score result was compared to clusters generated with previous approaches (WIBS AnalysiS Program, WASP where we observe that the subsampling and comparative attribution method employed by WASP results in the overestimation of the fungal spore concentration by a factor of 1.5 and the

  16. Substrate-zymography: a still worthwhile method for gelatinases analysis in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Serena; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Oriente, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Di Carlo, Angelina

    2016-08-01

    Matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, capable of degrading all the molecular components of extracellular matrix. A class of MMPs is gelatinases which includes gelatinase A or MMP-2 (72 kDa) and gelatinase B or MMP-9 (92 kDa), which have been shown to play critical roles in pathophysiology of many human disease and, in particular, cancer progression. For these reasons they obtained a great interest as potential non-invasive biomarker in providing useful clinical information in cancer diagnosis and therapy. A sensitive and unexpensive method for analysis of gelatinases is the gelatine zymography, which allows to measure the relative amounts of active and inactive enzymes in body fluids and tissue extracts. The procedure involves the electrophoretic separation of proteins under denaturing but non reducing conditions through a polyacrylamide gel containing a synthetic substrate (gelatin). The aim of this mini-review has been to describe the general principles of gelatine zymography technique, underling the main advantages and disadvantages. Even though an improvement of this method is necessary for a better applicability in laboratory medicine, gelatine zymography represents the most convenient method to detect the activity of the different gelatinases from a wide range of biological samples.

  17. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  18. Team based learning: An innovative teaching method in preclinic course of restorative dentistry and its impact on the students’ clinical skills, Mashhad dental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Akbary

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Implementation of innovative methods for promoting learning persistence is of high importance. The aim of this study was to introduce an innovative teaching method in preclinical course of restorative dentistry and to investigate its impact on the students’ clinical skills. Materials and Methods: In our study, which was done at the dental School of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, the Team Based Learning (TBL technique was applied. 48 fourth-year students took part in the course optionally. They were divided into four groups and the stages of TBL were performed. At the end of the course, a questionnaire was administered to the students. After passing the clinical course of restorative dentistry, the mean scores of students who had passed the voluntary preclinical course were compared with those of who did not pass this course. Data was analyzed using T-test. Results: The results of this study revealed that the mean scores of students who had passed the voluntary preclinical course was higher than that of the students who did not pass the voluntary preclinical course (P=0.02. Moreover, the questionnaire showed that 97% of students were satisfied with this course and believed that it was useful for them. Conclusion: This study showed that the innovative method of Team Based Learning (TBL could promoted learning along with students’ satisfaction of dental preclinical courses.

  19. 现代企业管理战略管理的创新方法研究%Innovation Methods of Strategic Management of Modern Enterprise Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇东

    2011-01-01

    本文首先分析了传统管理的弊病,认为,我国企业管理创新需要从理念和方法上作出调整,并提出了管理创新的一些对策方法.这些对策方法包括企业丈化整合,组织结构扁平化,绩效管理,累进式管理决策等.%This paper firstly analyzes the shortcomings of traditional management, thinks that the innovation of business management needs to be adjusted from concepts and methods, and puts forward some measures of management innovation methods, including the integration of corporate culture,flat organizational structure, performance management, progressive management decision-making etc..

  20. Sensitive innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    Present paper discusses sources of innovation as heterogenic and at times intangible processes. Arguing for heterogeneity and intangibility as sources of innovation originates from a theoretical reading in STS and ANT studies (e.g. Callon 1986, Latour 1996, Mol 2002, Pols 2005) and from field work...... in the area of mental health (Dupret Søndergaard 2009, 2010). The concept of sensitive innovation is developed to capture and conceptualise exactly those heterogenic and intangible processes. Sensitive innovation is therefore primarily a way to understand innovative sources that can be......, but are not necessarily, recognized and acknowledged as such in the outer organisational culture or by management. The added value that qualifies these processes to be defined as “innovative” are thus argued for along different lines than in more traditional innovation studies (e.g. studies that build on the classic...

  1. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H{sub p}(10) and H{sub p}(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10{sup -3}, 5.06x10{sup -2}], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10{sup -2}, 3.36x10{sup -1}], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10{sup -1}, 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an

  2. Organizational output innovativeness: A theoretical exploration, illustrated by a case of a popular music festival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosa Paleo, I.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Different interpretations of innovation and innovativeness lead to different approaches and different methods to measure organizational output innovativeness. Two indicators of innovativeness are derived from two divergent approaches: the Referent Innovativeness Index and the Classification Innovati

  3. Advancing Clouds Lifecycle Representation in Numerical Models Using Innovative Analysis Methods that Bridge ARM Observations and Models Over a Breadth of Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada

    2016-09-06

    This the final report for the DE-SC0007096 - Advancing Clouds Lifecycle Representation in Numerical Models Using Innovative Analysis Methods that Bridge ARM Observations and Models Over a Breadth of Scales - PI: Pavlos Kollias. The final report outline the main findings of the research conducted using the aforementioned award in the area of cloud research from the cloud scale (10-100 m) to the mesoscale (20-50 km).

  4. EPR Methods for Biological Cu(II): L-Band CW and NARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brian; Kowalski, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Copper has many roles in biology that involve the change of coordination sphere and/or oxidation state of the copper ion. Consequently, the study of copper in heterogeneous environments is an important area in biophysics. EPR is a primary technique for the investigation of paramagnetic copper, which is usually the isolated Cu(II) ion, but sometimes as Cu(II) in different oxidation states of multi-transition ion clusters. The gross geometry of the coordination environment of Cu(II) can often be determined from a simple inspection of the EPR spectrum, recorded in the traditional X-band frequency range (9 – 10 GHz). Identification and quantitation of the coordinating ligand atoms, however, is not so straightforward. In particular, analysis of the superhyperfine structure on the EPR spectrum, to determine the number of coordinated nitrogen atoms, is fraught with difficulty at X-band, despite the observation that the overwhelming number of EPR studies of Cu(II) in the literature have been carried out at X-band. Greater reliability has been demonstrated at S-band (3 – 4 GHz), using the low-field parallel (gz) features. However, analysis relies on clear identification of the outermost superhyperfine line, which has the lowest intensity of all the spectral features. Computer simulations have subsequently indicated that the much more intense perpendicular region of the spectrum can be reliably interpreted at L-band (2 GHz). The present work describes the development of L-band EPR of Cu(II) into a routine method, that is applicable to biological samples. PMID:26478491

  5. Teaching biology through statistics: application of statistical methods in genetics and zoology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of mathematics into biology curricula is critical to underscore for undergraduate students the relevance of mathematics to most fields of biology and the usefulness of developing quantitative process skills demanded in modern biology. At our institution, we have made significant changes to better integrate mathematics into the undergraduate biology curriculum. The curricular revision included changes in the suggested course sequence, addition of statistics and precalculus as prerequisites to core science courses, and incorporating interdisciplinary (math-biology) learning activities in genetics and zoology courses. In this article, we describe the activities developed for these two courses and the assessment tools used to measure the learning that took place with respect to biology and statistics. We distinguished the effectiveness of these learning opportunities in helping students improve their understanding of the math and statistical concepts addressed and, more importantly, their ability to apply them to solve a biological problem. We also identified areas that need emphasis in both biology and mathematics courses. In light of our observations, we recommend best practices that biology and mathematics academic departments can implement to train undergraduates for the demands of modern biology.

  6. Organizational Agility and Complex Enterprise System Innovations: A Mixed Methods Study of the Effects of Enterprise Systems on Organizational Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharabe, Amol T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, firms have operated in "increasingly" accelerated "high-velocity" dynamic markets, which require them to become "agile." During the same time frame, firms have increasingly deployed complex enterprise systems--large-scale packaged software "innovations" that integrate and automate…

  7. Determination of sulpiride in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids using a Cr (III) enhanced chemiluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Shah, Jasmin; Lee, Sang Hak; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method for identifying sulpiride in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids is presented. The method is based on increased chemiluminescence (CL) intensity of a luminol-H2O2 system in response to the addition of Cr (III) under alkaline conditions. The CL intensity of the luminol-H2O2-Cr (III) system was greatly enhanced by the addition of sulpiride and the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in a sample solution. Various parameters affecting the CL intensity were systematically investigated and optimized for determination of the sulpiride in a sample. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in the range of 0.068-4.0 µg/mL, with a good correlation coefficient of 0.997. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 8.50 × 10(-6) µg/mL and 2.83 × 10(-5) µg/mL, respectively. The method presented here produced good reproducibility with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.70% (n = 7). The effects of common excipients and metal ions were studied for their interference effect. The method was validated statistically through recovery studies and successfully applied for the determination of sulpiride in pure form, pharmaceutical preparations and spiked human plasma samples. The percentage recoveries were found to range from 99.10 to 100.05% for pure form, 98.12 to 100.18% for pharmaceutical preparations and 97.9 to 101.4% for spiked human plasma.

  8. Nonlinear optical methods for the analysis of protein nanocrystals and biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ximeng You

    Structural biology underpins rational drug design and fundamental understanding of protein function. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been the golden standard for solving for high-resolution protein structure. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has been developed by the Simpson lab as a sensitive, crystal-specific detection method for the identification of protein crystal and help optimize the crystallization condition. Protein nanocrystals has been widely used for structure determination of membrane proteins in serial femtosecond nanocrystallography. In this thesis work, novel nonlinear optical methods were developed to address the challenges associated with the detection and characterization of protein nanocrystals. SHG-correlation spectroscopy (SHG-CS) was developed to take advantage of the diffusing motion and retrieve the size distribution and crystal quality of the nanocrystals. Polarization-dependent SHG imaging technique was developed to measure the relative orientation as well as the internal structure of the sample. Two photon- excited fluorescence has been used in the Simpson lab as a complementary measurement besides the inherent SHG signal from the crystals. A novel instrumentation development was also introduced in this thesis work to greatly improve the speed of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM).

  9. A Method for Decomposition of the Basic Reaction of Biological Macromolecules into Exponential Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, Yu. M.; Lyamets, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The structural and dynamical properties of biological macromolecules under non-equilibrium conditions determine the kinetics of their basic reaction to external stimuli. This kinetics is multiexponential in nature. This is due to the operation of various subsystems in the structure of macromolecules, as well as the effect of the basic reaction on the structure of macromolecules. The situation can be interpreted as a manifestation of the stationary states of macromolecules, which are represented by monoexponential components of the basic reaction (Monod-Wyman-Changeux model) Monod et al. (J Mol Cell Biol 12:88-118, 1965). The representation of multiexponential kinetics of the basic reaction in the form of a sum of exponential functions (A(t)={sum}_{i=1}^n{a}_i{e}^{-{k}_it}) is a multidimensional optimization problem. To solve this problem, a gradient method of optimization with software determination of the amount of exponents and reasonable calculation time is developed. This method is used to analyze the kinetics of photoinduced electron transport in the reaction centers (RC) of purple bacteria and the fluorescence induction in the granum thylakoid membranes which share a common function of converting light energy.

  10. Measuring information flow in cellular networks by the systems biology method through microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Li, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    In general, it is very difficult to measure the information flow in a cellular network directly. In this study, based on an information flow model and microarray data, we measured the information flow in cellular networks indirectly by using a systems biology method. First, we used a recursive least square parameter estimation algorithm to identify the system parameters of coupling signal transduction pathways and the cellular gene regulatory network (GRN). Then, based on the identified parameters and systems theory, we estimated the signal transductivities of the coupling signal transduction pathways from the extracellular signals to each downstream protein and the information transductivities of the GRN between transcription factors in response to environmental events. According to the proposed method, the information flow, which is characterized by signal transductivity in coupling signaling pathways and information transductivity in the GRN, can be estimated by microarray temporal data or microarray sample data. It can also be estimated by other high-throughput data such as next-generation sequencing or proteomic data. Finally, the information flows of the signal transduction pathways and the GRN in leukemia cancer cells and non-leukemia normal cells were also measured to analyze the systematic dysfunction in this cancer from microarray sample data. The results show that the signal transductivities of signal transduction pathways change substantially from normal cells to leukemia cancer cells.

  11. A new HPLC method for the direct analysis of triglycerides of dicarboxylic acids in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capristo, E; Mingrone, G; De Gaetano, A; Addolorato, G; Greco, A V; Gasbarrini, G

    1999-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acids (DA) are alternate lipid substrates recently proposed in parenteral nutrition. Two new derivatives of DA, a triglyceride of sebacic (TGC10) and one of dodecanedioic (TGC12) acid have been synthesised in order to reduce the amount of sodium given with the unesterified forms. The present paper describes a rapid and direct high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) for the analysis of these substances in both plasma and urine. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were rapidly injected with 64 mg of TGC10 or 53 mg of TGC12. The triglycerides and their products of hydrolysis were measured in plasma samples taken at different times. For the dose of 500 ng the intra-assay variations ranged from 6. 80+/-0.35% for TGC10 to 18.6+/-3.20% for TGC12 and the inter-assay variations were from 4.44+/-2.21% for TGC10 to 15.0+/-6.72% for TGC12. The detection limit for both triglycerides was 5 ng. This rapid and direct HPLC method could have practical implications in monitoring the concentration of both triglycerides and free forms of DA in biological samples of patients who might benefit from the administration of these substances during parenteral nutrition regimens.

  12. [Development of new method for molecular biology using the photophore, diazirine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakane, Yutaka; Hatanaka, Yasumaru

    2008-11-01

    Formation of a covalent bond using photoreactive groups allows one to maintain the complex between the ligand and its binding protein even under denaturing conditions. Thus, the photoreactive groups functioned as the powerful hook in the fishing of specific binding proteins. This is a very useful feature for developing the efficient and sensitive methods in molecular biology. Among the photoreactive groups, carbene-generating phenyldiazirine is a first choice for the application to the methods because the use of phenyldiazirine seems to be promising for achieving efficient crosslinking. This review describes improvements of phenyldiazirine usability and an application of phenyldiazirine to displayed phage screening. We synthesized the photoreactive diazirine units for a solution to preparing photoreactive ligands. Since the photoreactive units can be easily integrated into physiological ligands such as peptides, proteins, DNAs, and sugars by chemoselective reaction, the biochemists, who are not familiar with organic synthesis, can prepare the photoaffinity ligands using their interested ligands. We applied the phenyldiazirine to screening of displayed phages, and investigated the screening efficiency. The phages displayed specific-binding protein were extremely concentrated by using photoreactive peptide bearing diazirine. High efficiency in the screening is due to carry out intensive washing which removes almost all the unspecific binding phages. Moreover, such application overcomes the unavoidable drawback of photoreactive groups, the low efficiency of crosslinking because the isolated genes can be amplified.

  13. Innovation @ NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  14. Numerical methods for a Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Fermi model of biological ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob

    2015-07-01

    Numerical methods are proposed for an advanced Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Fermi (PNPF) model for studying ion transport through biological ion channels. PNPF contains many more correlations than most models and simulations of channels, because it includes water and calculates dielectric properties consistently as outputs. This model accounts for the steric effect of ions and water molecules with different sizes and interstitial voids, the correlation effect of crowded ions with different valences, and the screening effect of polarized water molecules in an inhomogeneous aqueous electrolyte. The steric energy is shown to be comparable to the electrical energy under physiological conditions, demonstrating the crucial role of the excluded volume of particles and the voids in the natural function of channel proteins. Water is shown to play a critical role in both correlation and steric effects in the model. We extend the classical Scharfetter-Gummel (SG) method for semiconductor devices to include the steric potential for ion channels, which is a fundamental physical property not present in semiconductors. Together with a simplified matched interface and boundary (SMIB) method for treating molecular surfaces and singular charges of channel proteins, the extended SG method is shown to exhibit important features in flow simulations such as optimal convergence, efficient nonlinear iterations, and physical conservation. The generalized SG stability condition shows why the standard discretization (without SG exponential fitting) of NP equations may fail and that divalent Ca(2+) may cause more unstable discrete Ca(2+) fluxes than that of monovalent Na(+). Two different methods-called the SMIB and multiscale methods-are proposed for two different types of channels, namely, the gramicidin A channel and an L-type calcium channel, depending on whether water is allowed to pass through the channel. Numerical methods are first validated with constructed models whose exact solutions are

  15. Fundamentals of bioinformatics and computational biology methods and exercises in matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gautam B

    2015-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage of all the core topics of bioinformatics, and includes practical examples completed using the MATLAB bioinformatics toolbox™. It is primarily intended as a textbook for engineering and computer science students attending advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in bioinformatics and computational biology. The book develops bioinformatics concepts from the ground up, starting with an introductory chapter on molecular biology and genetics. This chapter will enable physical science students to fully understand and appreciate the ultimate goals of applying the principles of information technology to challenges in biological data management, sequence analysis, and systems biology. The first part of the book also includes a survey of existing biological databases, tools that have become essential in today’s biotechnology research. The second part of the book covers methodologies for retrieving biological information, including fundamental algorithms for sequence compar...

  16. SLEPR: a sample-level enrichment-based pathway ranking method -- seeking biological themes through pathway-level consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ming; Stephens, Robert M

    2008-09-26

    Analysis of microarray and other high throughput data often involves identification of genes consistently up or down-regulated across samples as the first step in extraction of biological meaning. This gene-level paradigm can be limited as a result of valid sample fluctuations and biological complexities. In this report, we describe a novel method, SLEPR, which eliminates this limitation by relying on pathway-level consistencies. Our method first selects the sample-level differentiated genes from each individual sample, capturing genes missed by other analysis methods, ascertains the enrichment levels of associated pathways from each of those lists, and then ranks annotated pathways based on the consistency of enrichment levels of individual samples from both sample classes. As a proof of concept, we have used this method to analyze three public microarray datasets with a direct comparison with the GSEA method, one of the most popular pathway-level analysis methods in the field. We found that our method was able to reproduce the earlier observations with significant improvements in depth of coverage for validated or expected biological themes, but also produced additional insights that make biological sense. This new method extends existing analyses approaches and facilitates integration of different types of HTP data.

  17. The Influence of Alternative Pedagogical Methods in Postsecondary Biology Education: How Do Students Experience a Multimedia Case-Study Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Bjorn Hugo Karl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how an online, multimedia case study method influenced students' motivation, performance, and perceptions of science in collegiate level biology classes. It utilized a mix-methods design including data from pre- and post-test, student surveys, and focus group interviews to answer one primary…

  18. Directional thinking method for innovative design of textile%纺织品创新设计的方向思维法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    眭建华

    2013-01-01

    New methods for innovative textile design and their applied effect were discussed. Based on the viewpoint that an inspiration of innovative design comes from one's experience and talent and starts out with forming a conception in one's mind, a directional thinking method was put forward and induced into five different thinking directions as backward, forward, outward, inward, and lateral. Combined with the analysis of practical examples of the directional thinking method in innovative design based on the woven fabric's visual effect, this article summarized its effect and application points. The directional thinking method, taking normal thinking method as reference, is effective for innovative design of textile and is easy to effect. It has universal significance in the innovative textile design. And combining two or more kinds of directional thinking methods is possible.%为探讨纺织品创新设计的新方法及其应用效果,针对创新设计灵感来自于经验与天分而起步于构思的特点,提出方向思维创新设计方法,并将其归纳为向后、向前、向外、向内、侧向5种方向.结合机织物视觉效应创新设计中不同方向思维法的实例应用分析,总结了方向思维法的效果与应用要点.经论证认为,方向思维法以常规设计思路的应用为参照,对纺织品创新设计效果明显且易于实施,在创新设计上具有广泛性,并且可以是将2种及以上不同方向思维法的结合应用.

  19. An Innovative Collagen-Based Cell-Printing Method for Obtaining Human Adipose Stem Cell-Laden Structures Consisting of Core-Sheath Structures for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, MyungGu; Lee, Ji-Seon; Chun, Wook; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-04-11

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing processes have been used widely in various tissue engineering applications due to the efficient embedding of living cells in appropriately designed micro- or macro-structures. However, there are several issues to overcome, such as the limited choice of bioinks and tailor-made fabricating strategies. Here, we suggest a new, innovative cell-printing process, supplemented with a core-sheath nozzle and an aerosol cross-linking method, to obtain multilayered cell-laden mesh structure and a newly considered collagen-based cell-laden bioink. To obtain a mechanically and biologically enhanced cell-laden structure, we used collagen-bioink in the core region, and also used pure alginate in the sheath region to protect the cells in the collagen during the printing and cross-linking process and support the 3D cell-laden mesh structure. To achieve the most appropriate conditions for fabricating cell-embedded cylindrical core-sheath struts, various processing conditions, including weight fractions of the cross-linking agent and pneumatic pressure in the core region, were tested. The fabricated 3D MG63-laden mesh structure showed significantly higher cell viability (92 ± 3%) compared with that (83 ± 4%) of the control, obtained using a general alginate-based cell-printing process. To expand the feasibility to stem cell-embedded structures, we fabricated a cell-laden mesh structure consisting of core (cell-laden collagen)/sheath (pure alginate) using human adipose stem cells (hASCs). Using the selected processing conditions, we could achieve a stable 3D hASC-laden mesh structure. The fabricated cell-laden 3D core-sheath structure exhibited outstanding cell viability (91%) compared to that (83%) of an alginate-based hASC-laden mesh structure (control), and more efficient hepatogenic differentiations (albumin: ∼ 1.7-fold, TDO-2: ∼ 7.6-fold) were observed versus the control. The selection of collagen-bioink and the new printing strategy

  20. A new method for radiolabeling of human immunoglobulin-G and its biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakuri Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiolabeled human Immunoglobulin-G (hIgG has demonstrated its utility in inflammation and infection imaging. However, the present method of radiolabeling hIgG is time-consuming and complex. Objective: To develop a simplified method of radiolabeling hIgG with technetium-99m (99mTc via a nicotinyl hydrazine derivative (99mTc-HYNIC-hIgG and its biological evaluation. Results: In vitro and in vivo studies showed that 99mTc-hIgG prepared by this method was fairly stable in physiological saline and human serum till 24 h. Only 4.3% degradation of the radiolabeled drug was seen till 24 h. Blood clearance pattern of the radiopharmaceutical exhibited biphasic exponential pattern. Biodistribution of 99mTc-HYNIC-hIgG in mice was observed up to 24 h. Significant accumulation of the radiotracer was found in liver (4.93 %, kidney (3.67% and intestine (2.12 % at 4 h interval by 24 h interval, it was reduced to 1.99%, 2.18% and 1.93 % respectively. Significant amount of radioactivity in liver, kidney and intestine suggest hepatobilliary as well as renal route of clearance for 99mTc-HYNIC-hIgG. The anterior whole body and spot scintigraphy images showed increased uptake of 99mTc-HYNIC-hIgG, with the area seen as a focal hot spot, indicating good localization of the radiolabeled hIgG at the site of infection. Conclusion: The present findings indicate that 99mTc-HYNIC-hIgG holds great potential for the scintigraphy localization of inflammation. The shelf life of the developed kit, when stored at (- 20°C was found to be at least 3 months.

  1. Cooperative strategies in innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratner Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy one of the conventional ways to obtain economic agents access to new knowledge and technology is the creation and implementation of specific cooperative strategies, such as the formation of alliances with other economic agents. Combining competencies partners in joint research and development has a positive impact on innovation, but it is a partial convergence of competences partners that in the long term can lead to the unification of competences agents economic system and reduce their innovative activity. In this paper, we propose an effective method of information management in the implementation of a cooperative strategy of innovation.

  2. Managing Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1991-01-01

    Describes one library's use of technological innovation to provide Associated Press updates over the library's 24-hour dial-up service during the Persian Gulf War. Suggests five rules for innovation: (1) develop a shared vision; (2) foster frequent, formal, and informal communication; (3) empower employees; (4) take limited risks; and (5) use, but…

  3. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, economic...

  4. 基于细胞生物学教学的科研创新人才培养模式探索%Cultivating Mode Exploration of Scientific Research Talent Based on Innovative Education of Cell Biology Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余光辉; 程旺元; 龚汉雨; 覃永华; 徐鑫

    2012-01-01

    The level of the talents is the core index of the teaching quality evaluation in tertiary education. Cell biology is one of the basic courses in the characteristic biotechnology specialty construction approved by the Ministry of Education of China. During the teaching practice, we focused on the construction of theoretical class teaching, basic experimental skills and innovative research projects participated by students, aiming to cultivate and improve the students' scientific research innovative ability. In the theory teaching, we concentrated on innovative teaching mode, mainly using the rich experiments materials in textbook, to trigger the students to conduct innovative thinking and training through the re-designing of the experiments; In the basic experimental teaching, we focused on the exploration of "Small Class" experimental teaching model, paying attention to monitor quality control of every aspect of the students" experiment manipulation, so as to effectively provide the experimental technology platform for the improvement of students' hands-on ability. Based on theses practice, we relied on multiple scientific projects to conduct the systematic drilling for students in the scientific research and innovation practice.%人才培养水平是评价高等教育质量的核心标准.细胞生物学作为教育部生物技术特色专业建设基础课程之一,在教学中我们从理论课程、基础实验课程和大学生创新课题研究等方面进行探索,旨在培养和训练大学生的创新能力.在理论课程教学中,作者尝试教学方法的创新,将教材中丰富的实验案例进行改编,注重对学生进行创新思维的培养和训练;在实验教学中,作者进行“小班化”实验教学模式的探索,注重实验过程每一个环节的质量监控,切实提高学生的实践动手能力;在此基础上,作者依靠多渠道的创新课题,对学生进行较为系统的科研训练.

  5. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms.

  6. Estimation of temperature elevation generated by ultrasonic irradiation in biological tissues using the thermal wave method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-Zhou; Zhu Yi; Zhang Fei; Gong Xiu-Fen

    2013-01-01

    In most previous models,simulation of the temperature generation in tissue is based on the Pennes bio-heat transfer equation,which implies an instantaneous thermal energy deposition in the medium.Due to the long thermal relaxation time τ (20 s-30 s) in biological tissues,the actual temperature elevation during clinical treatments could be different from the value predicted by the Pennes bioheat equation.The thermal wave model of bio-heat transfer (TWMBT) defines a thermal relaxation time to describe the tissue heating from ultrasound exposure.In this paper,COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a,a finite element method software package,is used to simulate the temperature response in tissues based on Pennes and TWMBT equations.We further discuss different factors in the bio-heat transfer model on the influence of the temperature rising and it is found that the temperature response in tissue under ultrasound exposure is a rising process with a declining rate.The thermal relaxation time inhibits the temperature elevation at the beginning of ultrasonic heating.Besides,thermal relaxation in TWMBT leads to lower temperature estimation than that based on Pennes equation during the same period of time.The blood flow carrying heat dominates most to the decline of temperature rising rate and the influence increases with temperature rising.On the contrary,heat diffusion,which can be described by thermal conductivity,has little effect on the temperature rising.

  7. Biological Rhythms Modelisation of Vigilance and Sleep in Microgravity State with COSINOR and Volterra's Kernels Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudeua de Gerlicz, C.; Golding, J. G.; Bobola, Ph.; Moutarde, C.; Naji, S.

    2008-06-01

    The spaceflight under microgravity cause basically biological and physiological imbalance in human being. Lot of study has been yet release on this topic especially about sleep disturbances and on the circadian rhythms (alternation vigilance-sleep, body, temperature...). Factors like space motion sickness, noise, or excitement can cause severe sleep disturbances. For a stay of longer than four months in space, gradual increases in the planned duration of sleep were reported. [1] The average sleep in orbit was more than 1.5 hours shorter than the during control periods on earth, where sleep averaged 7.9 hours. [2] Alertness and calmness were unregistered yield clear circadian pattern of 24h but with a phase delay of 4h.The calmness showed a biphasic component (12h) mean sleep duration was 6.4 structured by 3-5 non REM/REM cycles. Modelisations of neurophysiologic mechanisms of stress and interactions between various physiological and psychological variables of rhythms have can be yet release with the COSINOR method. [3

  8. Biochar and hydrochar reactivity assessed by chemical, physical and biological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisse, Christophe; Alexis, Marie; Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; pozzi, Alessandro; Carcaillet, Christopher; Criscuoli, Irene; Miglietta, Franco; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    Field application of biochar is intended to increase soil carbon (C) storage. The assessment of C storage potential of biochars lacks methods and standard materials. In this study, we compared the chemical reactivity of biochars and hydrochars and their potential mineralisation before and after physical weathering as one possibility to evaluate their environmental stability. We used biochars produced by gasification (GSs) and hydrochars produced by hydrothermal carbonisation (HTCs) produced from three different feedstocks as well as Holocene charcoals (150 and 2000 yr old). Their chemical reactivity was analysed after acid dichromate oxidation and their mineralisation potential after laboratory incubations before and after physical weathering. Our results showed that use of acid dichromate oxidation may allow for differentiation of the reactivity of modern biochars but that chemical reactivity of biochars is poorly suited to assess their environmental residence time because it may change with exposure time in soil. Physical weathering induced a carbon loss and increased biological stability of biochar, while reducing its positive priming effect on native soil organic matter. Model extrapolations based on our data showed that decadal C sequestration potential of GS and HTC is globally equivalent when all losses including those due to priming and physical weathering were taken into account. However, at century scale only GS may have the potential to increase soil C storage.

  9. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. Theories within SNM look upon innovation in a sector as a socio-technical phenomenon and identifies three levels of socio......-technical interaction within which sectorial innovation can be explained. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built in the existing ways of working and developing over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the sociotechnical landscape through...... trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being...

  10. Accidental Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Devin, Lee; Sullivan, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Historical accounts of human achievement suggest that accidents can play an important role in innovation. In this paper, we seek to contribute to an understanding of how digital systems might support valuable unpredictability in innovation processes by examining how innovators who obtain value from...... they incorporate accidents into their deliberate processes and arranged surroundings. By comparing makers working in varied conditions, we identify specific factors (e.g., technologies, characteristics of technologies) that appear to support accidental innovation. We show that makers in certain specified...... conditions not only remain open to accident but also intentionally design their processes and surroundings to invite and exploit valuable accidents. Based on these findings, we offer advice for the design of digital systems to support innovation processes that can access valuable unpredictability....

  11. Everyday Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Wegener, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational teachers’ everyday practices can constitute innovative learning spaces that help students to experience engagement and commitment towards education and thus increase their possibilities for completing their studies despite notable...... difficulties. Design/methodology/approach – Based on two ethnographic field studies, we analyse vocational teaching situations in which teachers and students engage in daily remaking of the vocational educational training practice. It is argued that these everyday situations can be understood as innovative...... transformation of participation and practice. Findings – The exploration of teachers’ practicing new learning spaces sheds light on innovation potential embedded in everyday educational practices. The paper thus challenges the celebration of radical innovation and argues that innovation emerges from everyday...

  12. Online Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vujovic, Sladjana; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2008-01-01

    ways of communicating, cooperating and coordinating during the innovation and product development process. Moreover, it challenges the traditional business model in that it forces the actors involved to shift the focus from the innovation itself to the identification of new supporting services higher...... implications for existing software manufacturers. The paper therefore includes the case of IBM, a company which has successfully integrated this new and more open way of collaboration into its business model. Findings - The paper concludes that online computer-based innovation fundamentally challenges current......  Purpose - The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of online networking during the innovation process, including its role(s) in communication, cooperation and coordination. The paper neither implicitly assumes that online computer-based networking is a prerequisite for the innovation...

  13. Comparison of traditional and molecular analytical methods for detecting biological agents in raw and drinking water following ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, D.S.; Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.G.; Bertke, E.E.; Kephart, C.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Mailot, B.E.; Schaefer, F. W.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To compare the performance of traditional methods to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for detecting five biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). Methods and Results: Drinking-water samples (100 l) were seeded with Bacillus anthracis, Cryptospordium parvum, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae and concentrated by UF. Recoveries by traditional methods were variable between samples and between some replicates; recoveries were not determined by qPCR. Francisella tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all 14 samples after UF, B. anthracis was detected in 13, and C. parvum was detected in 9 out of 14 samples. Numbers found by qPCR after UF were significantly or nearly related to those found by traditional methods for all organisms except for C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. Conclusions: qPCR can be used to rapidly detect biological agents after UF as well as traditional methods, but additional work is needed to improve qPCR assays for several biological agents, determine recoveries by qPCR, and expand the study to other areas. Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Aging and computational systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kathleen M; Morgan, Amy E; Mc Auley, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is undergoing a paradigm shift, which has led to new and innovative methods of exploring this complex phenomenon. The systems biology approach endeavors to understand biological systems in a holistic manner, by taking account of intrinsic interactions, while also attempting to account for the impact of external inputs, such as diet. A key technique employed in systems biology is computational modeling, which involves mathematically describing and simulating the dynamics of biological systems. Although a large number of computational models have been developed in recent years, these models have focused on various discrete components of the aging process, and to date no model has succeeded in completely representing the full scope of aging. Combining existing models or developing new models may help to address this need and in so doing could help achieve an improved understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms which underpin aging.

  15. A method for the determination of D-kynurenine in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dan; Horning, Kyle J; Notarangelo, Francesca M; Schwarcz, Robert

    2013-12-01

    D-kynurenine (D-KYN), a metabolite of D-tryptophan, can serve as the bioprecursor of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxykynurenine, two neuroactive compounds that are believed to play a role in the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. In order to investigate the possible presence of D-KYN in biological tissues, we developed a novel assay based on the conversion of D-KYN to KYNA by purified D-amino acid oxidase (D-AAO). Samples were incubated with D-AAO under optimal conditions for measuring D-AAO activity (100 mM borate buffer, pH 9.0), and newly produced KYNA was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection. The detection limit for D-KYN was 300 fmol, and linearity of the assay was ascertained up to 300 pmol. No assay interference was noted when other D-amino acids, including D-serine and D-aspartate, were present in the incubation mixture at 50-fold higher concentrations than D-KYN. Using this new method, D-KYN was readily detected in the brain, liver, and plasma of mice treated systemically with D-KYN (300 mg/kg). In these experiments, enantioselectivity was confirmed by determining total kynurenine levels in the same samples using a conventional HPLC assay. Availability of a sensitive, specific, and simple method for D-KYN measurement will be instrumental for evaluating whether D-KYN should be considered for a role in physiology and pathology.

  16. Reply to the comments on "Comparison of Mann-Kendall and innovative trend method for water quality parameters of the Kizilirmak River, Turkey" by Kisi, O. and Ay, M. [J. Hydrol. 513 (2014) 362-375] and "An innovative method for trend analysis of monthly pan evaporations" by Kisi, O. [J. Hydrol. 527 (2015) 1123-1129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Ay, Murat

    2016-07-01

    We thank discusser for his comments on our recent papers about application of innovative trend method (Şen, 2012) for water quality parameters (Kisi and Ay, 2014) and evaporation (Kisi, 2015) and are grateful for having the opportunity to explain and discuss the concerns raised. Illustration of the innovative Şen's trend method with some trend possibilities in the comments by discusser (in Fig. 3 in his discussion) has simple data seem to have normal distribution. However, some data may have highly skewed distribution and indicating trends in these data similar to the Figure 3 as suggested by discusser is impossible. Innovative trend analysis (Şen, 2012) of annual low flows for the duration 14-day (Q14) and 60-day (Q60) in Peterek and Dutdere stations are illustrated in Fig. 1 as an example. In Fig. 1, both half time series are sorted in ascending order. Therefore, Kisi and Ay (2014) provided "a general view" or "imaginative illustration" for the innovative Şen's trend method in Fig. 2 in their study. By this figure, general trend possibilities for any data having different distributions can be shown.

  17. Measuring Consumer Innovativeness: Identifying Innovators among Consumers of Modern Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Filová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods currently used in innovation marketing research are focused on the late phases of the innovation process and are usually methodologically complex. This limits their practical impact. The presented work aims to create a simple self-report scale applicable in the initial and late phases of the innovation process, highly modular and suitable for a wide range of research. The main battery of questions was inspired by the adopter categorization by Rogers. The questions determine both (1 general characteristics of innovation adopters and (2 their relationship to a specific innovation. The scale was tested during robust longitudinal online research, thematically focused on users of modern technologies. A representative sample of 4,000 Internet users in the Czech Republic took part in the survey from 2013 to 2015. The result is a new self-report scale measuring consumer innovativeness applicable for prototyping, strategic decisions and effective communication of innovations to consumers.

  18. BICLUSTERING METHODS FOR RE-ORDERING DATA MATRICES IN SYSTEMS BIOLOGY, DRUG DISCOVERY AND TOXICOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christodoulos A. Floudas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biclustering has emerged as an important problem in the analysis of gene expression data since genes may only jointly respond over a subset of conditions. Many of the methods for biclustering, and clustering algorithms in general, utilize simplified models or heuristic strategies for identifying the ``best'' grouping of elements according to some metric and cluster definition and thus result in suboptimal clusters. In the first part of the presentation, we present a rigorous approach to biclustering, OREO, which is based on the Optimal RE-Ordering of the rows and columns of a data matrix so as to globally minimize the dissimilarity metric [1,2]. The physical permutations of the rows and columns of the data matrix can be modeled as either a network flow problem or a traveling salesman problem. The performance of OREO is tested on several important data matrices arising in systems biology to validate the ability of the proposed method and compare it to existing biclustering and clustering methods. In the second part of the talk, we will focus on novel methods for clustering of data matrices that are very sparse [3]. These types of data matrices arise in drug discovery where the x- and y-axis of a data matrix can correspond to different functional groups for two distinct substituent sites on a molecular scaffold. Each possible x and y pair corresponds to a single molecule which can be synthesized and tested for a certain property, such as percent inhibition of a protein function. For even moderate size matrices, synthesizing and testing a small fraction of the molecules is labor intensive and not economically feasible. Thus, it is of paramount importance to have a reliable method for guiding the synthesis process to select molecules that have a high probability of success. In the second part of the presentation, we introduce a new strategy to enable efficient substituent reordering and descriptor-free property estimation. Our approach casts

  19. Measurement of dinitrogen fixation by Biological soil crust (BSC) from the Sahelian zone: an isotopic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, F.; Alavoine, G.; Bertrand, I.

    2012-04-01

    Amongst the described ecological roles of Biological Soil Crust, N fixation is of importance for soil fertility, especially in arid and semi-arid ecosystems with low inputs. In BSC, the quantification of N fixation fluxes using an indirect method is widespread, usually with the Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) which consists in measuring the nitrogenase activity through the process of acetylene reduction into ethylene. A converting factor, still discussed in the literature and greatly depending of the constitutive organisms of the BSC, is the tool used to convert the amount of reduced ethylene into quantitative fixed Nitrogen. The aim of this poster is to describe an isotopic direct method to quantify the atmospheric dinitrogen fixation fluxes in BSC, while minimizing the variability due to manipulations. Nine different BSC from the Sahelian zone were selected and placed in an incubation room at 28° C in dark and light conditions during three days, while moisture equivalent to pF=2 was regularly adjusted using the gravimetric method with needles and deionized water, in order to activate and reach a dynamic stability of their metabolisms. Subsequently, each crust was placed into a gas-tight glass vial for incubation with a reconstituted 15N2 enriched atmosphere (31.61 % atom 15N, while the proportion of each main gas present in the air was conserved, i.e. 78% N2, 21% O2 and 0.04% CO2). Principal difficulties are to guarantee the airtighness of the system, to avoid crust desiccation and to keep the crust metabolically active under stable conditions for six hours. Several tests were performed to determine the optimum time for 15N2 incubation. Three replicated control samples per crust were also stabilized for three days and then dried at 105° C, without any incubation with 15N2 enriched atmosphere. Total N and 15N were then measured in the grounded (80μm) and dried (105° C) crust, using a Flash EA elemental analyzer (Eurovector, Milan, Italy) coupled to a Delta

  20. A Method to Identify and Analyze Biological Programs through Automated Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Hillel; Smith, Austin; Martello, Graziano; Emmott, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Predictive biology is elusive because rigorous, data-constrained, mechanistic models of complex biological systems are difficult to derive and validate. Current approaches tend to construct and examine static interaction network models, which are descriptively rich but often lack explanatory and predictive power, or dynamic models that can be simulated to reproduce known behavior. However, in such approaches implicit assumptions are introduced as typically only one mechanism is considered, and exhaustively investigating all scenarios is impractical using simulation. To address these limitations, we present a methodology based on automated formal reasoning, which permits the synthesis and analysis of the complete set of logical models consistent with experimental observations. We test hypotheses against all candidate models, and remove the need for simulation by characterizing and simultaneously analyzing all mechanistic explanations of observed behavior. Our methodology transforms knowledge of complex biological processes from sets of possible interactions and experimental observations to precise, predictive biological programs governing cell function. PMID:27668090

  1. A SIMPLE COLORIMETRIC METHOD TO DETECT BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO MICROCYSTINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic cyanobacteria are contaminants of surface waters worldwide. Microcystins are some of the most commonly detected toxins. Biological evidence of human exposure may be difficult to obtain due to limitations associated with cost, laboratory capacity, analytic support, and exp...

  2. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes.

  3. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must...... be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovation....

  4. Responsive Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten

    of the firm’s daily operations. Yet, they are rarely asked to provide updated information about critical issues. The present paper seeks to conceptually develop the notion of responsive innovation, by drawing on literary streams concerning collective sensing, strategic issue diagnosis and integra......-tive strategy within a micro foundations perspective. It is posited that companies should root their innovation processes in the collective sensing of frontline-employees and customers that operate around the organizational periphery. This frames the con-cept of responsive innovation, where individuals engaged...

  5. Design & Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelskifte, Per; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    The new design and innovation programme at DTU is challenging some of the standard concepts dominating most engineering educations. The programme, its background, context and basic educational ideas are presented and discussed in this paper. To build competences that match the need for innovative...... and design oriented engineers in industry and society has turned out to challenge a number of the standard – and often taken for granted – concepts in engineering education still dominated world wide by rather strict norms and concepts of learning that do not challenge the students creativity and innovative...

  6. Colour and organic removal of biologically treated coffee curing wastewater by electrochemical oxidation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of biologically treated wastewater of coffee-curing industry by the electrochemical oxidation using steel anode were investigated. Bench-scale experiments were conducted for activated sludge process on raw wastewater and the treated effluents were further treated by electrochemical oxidation method for its color and organic content removal. The efficiency of the process was determined in terms of removal percentage of COD, BOD and color during the course of reaction. Several operating parameters like time, pH and current density were examined to ascertain their effects on the treatment efficiency. Steel anode was found to be effective for the COD and color removal with anode efficiency of 0.118 kgCOD-1A-1m-2 and energy consumption 20.61 kWh.kg-1 of COD at pH 9. The decrease in pH from 9 to 3 found to increase the anode efficiency from 0.118 kgCOD-1A-1m-2 to 0.144 kWh.kg-1 of COD while decrease the energy consumption from 20.61 kWh.kg-1 of COD to12 .86 kWh.kg-1 of COD. The pH of 5 was considered an ideal from the present treatment process as it avoids the addition of chemicals for neutralization of treated effluents and also economical with respect to energy consumption. An empirical relation developed for relationship between applied current density and COD removal efficiency showed strong predictive capability with coefficient of determination of 96.5%.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Single-molecule experiments in biological physics: methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritort, F.

    2006-08-01

    I review single-molecule experiments (SMEs) in biological physics. Recent technological developments have provided the tools to design and build scientific instruments of high enough sensitivity and precision to manipulate and visualize individual molecules and measure microscopic forces. Using SMEs it is possible to manipulate molecules one at a time and measure distributions describing molecular properties, characterize the kinetics of biomolecular reactions and detect molecular intermediates. SMEs provide additional information about thermodynamics and kinetics of biomolecular processes. This complements information obtained in traditional bulk assays. In SMEs it is also possible to measure small energies and detect large Brownian deviations in biomolecular reactions, thereby offering new methods and systems to scrutinize the basic foundations of statistical mechanics. This review is written at a very introductory level, emphasizing the importance of SMEs to scientists interested in knowing the common playground of ideas and the interdisciplinary topics accessible by these techniques. The review discusses SMEs from an experimental perspective, first exposing the most common experimental methodologies and later presenting various molecular systems where such techniques have been applied. I briefly discuss experimental techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM), laser optical tweezers (LOTs), magnetic tweezers (MTs), biomembrane force probes (BFPs) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). I then present several applications of SME to the study of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and DNA condensation) and proteins (protein-protein interactions, protein folding and molecular motors). Finally, I discuss applications of SMEs to the study of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems and the experimental verification of fluctuation theorems. I conclude with a discussion of open questions and future perspectives.

  8. Direct observation of unstained biological specimens in water by the frequency transmission electric-field method using SEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Ogura

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is a powerful tool for the direct visualization of biological specimens at nanometre-scale resolution. However, images of unstained specimens in water using an atmospheric holder exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Here, we present a new form of microscopy, the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE method using SEM, that offers low radiation damage and high-contrast observation of unstained biological samples in water. The wet biological specimens are enclosed in two silicon nitride (SiN films. The metal-coated SiN film is irradiated using a focused modulation electron beam (EB at a low-accelerating voltage. A measurement terminal under the sample holder detects the electric-field frequency signal, which contains structural information relating to the biological specimens. Our results in very little radiation damage to the sample, and the observation image is similar to the transmission image, depending on the sample volume. Our developed method can easily be utilized for the observation of various biological specimens in water.

  9. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-xun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2-8 weeks, the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  10. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury:regeneration law of nerve ifbers in the conduit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-xun Zhang; Li-ya A; Yu-hui Kou; Xiao-feng Yin; Feng Xue#; Na Han; Tian-bing Wang; Bao-guo Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair periph-eral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good his-tocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve ifbers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2–8 weeks), the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objec-tive and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  11. Methods and systems for carrying out a pH-influenced chemical and/or biological reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael C.; Simeon, Fritz; Hatton, Trevor Alan

    2016-04-05

    The present invention generally relates to methods and systems for carrying out a pH-influenced chemical and/or biological reaction. In some embodiments, the pH-influenced reaction involves the conversion of CO.sub.2 to a dissolved species.

  12. Application of a radiometric method for evaluation of loss of salicylic acid during isolation from biologic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, A

    1983-01-01

    A radiometric method for evaluation of loss of salicylic acid in the process of isolation from biologic material is described. According to this study the mean loss during the total process of isolation amounts to 33.59%, the specific values being 19.47% during protein precipitation, 10.68% during extraction, and 3.44% during evaporation of solvent.

  13. Methods and systems for carrying out a pH-influenced chemical and/or biological reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, Aly Eldeen O.; Stern, Michael C.; Hatton, Trevor Alan

    2017-02-14

    The present invention generally relates to methods and systems for carrying out a pH-influenced chemical and/or biological reaction. In some embodiments, the pH-influenced reaction involves the conversion of CO.sub.2 to a dissolved species.

  14. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  15. Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy

      Innovation is the forgotten key to modern systems development - the element that defines the enterprising engineer, the thriving software firm and the cutting edge software application.  Traditional forms of technical education pay little attention to creativity - often encouraging overly...... rationalistic ways of thinking which stifle the ability to innovate. Professional software developers are often drowned in commercial drudgery and overwhelmed by work pressure and deadlines. The topic that will both ensure success in the market and revitalize their work lives is never addressed. This book sets...... out the new field of software innovation. It organizes the existing scientific research into eight simple heuristics - guiding principles for organizing a system developer's work-life so that it focuses on innovation....

  16. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  17. Innovation Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA promotes environmental stewardship by recognizing innovators in schools, communities and businesses in categories such as environmental education, green chemistry, smart growth, green power, and reducing air pollution and climate change impacts.

  18. Reconsidering Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2014-01-01

    and debates about change, myths, and othering can help us rethink theoretical approaches to innovation in organizational studies, and the concern is especially to consider the implications that our “innovation myths” can have for public employees and the valuation their work. The argument in the paper......, is by taking the reader along on a journey through a fieldwork that changed my own understanding of innovation, made me look for alternative theories to address cultural understandings of change and continuity in organizational settings, and brought me back to myths of creation, Claude Lévi......Innovation and reforms seem to be on the agenda everywhere, not least in political attempts to reorganize the public sector in ways that are supposed to enable our welfare societies to survive economic turmoil and sinister future prognosis. This paper examines how classical anthropological theories...

  19. Near-Real-Time Geophysical and Biological Monitoring of Bioremediation Methods at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrell, A. N.; Haas, A.; Revil, A.; Figueroa, L. A.; Rodriguez, D.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    Bioremediation has been utilized on subsurface uranium contamination at the Rifle IRFC site in Colorado by injecting acetate as an electron donor. However, successfully monitoring the progress of subsurface bioremediation over time is difficult and requires long-term stewardship considerations to ensure cost effective treatment due to biological, chemical, and hydrological heterogeneity. In order to better understand the complex heterogeneities of the subsurface and the resultant effect on microbial activity, innovative subsurface monitoring techniques must be investigated. The key hypothesis of this work is that a combination of data from electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation reduction potential, and water level sensors will provide sufficient information for identifying and localizing bioremediation activity and will provide better predictions of deleterious biogeochemical change. In order to test the proof-of-concept of these sensing techniques and to deconvolve the redox activity from other electric potential changing events involved in bioremediation, a 2D tank (2.4m x 1.2m x 0.6m) experiment has been developed. Field material obtained from the Rifle IRFC site will be packed in the tank and an artificial groundwater will flow across the tank through constant-head boundaries. The experiment will utilize sensors for electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation-reduction potential, and water level monitoring. Electrode-based microbial monitoring will be used to estimate microbial activity by measuring how much electrical current indigenous bacteria are producing. Self potential monitoring will be used to measure the natural electrical voltage potential between sampled points, providing indications of when and where electrical activity is occurring; such as reduction of radionuclides. In addition to the application of sensing technologies, this work will explore the application of a wireless sensor

  20. Establishment of biological reference intervals by indirect method%间接法建立生物参考区间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈隽霏; 宋斌斌(综述); 潘柏申(审校)

    2015-01-01

    It is significant for clinical medical laboratories to provide reliable biological reference intervals , which is aimed at guiding proper clinical treatment process .The establishment of biological reference intervals by indirect method which has been arised in recent years has shown great significance in evaluating biological reference intervals periodically within laboratories and establishing biological reference intervals for those projects which cannot be made through direct methods .It is undoubtedly a simple and inexpensive method .This article reviews the basic methods in the process of establishing biological reference intervals by indirect method according to pertinent literatures , which consists of datum acquistion, datum transformation , outlier excluding and reference interval gaining .%医学实验室为临床提供可靠的生物参考区间对正确指导临床诊疗过程有着重要的意义。近年来提出的间接法建立生物参考区间是一种简便、成本低廉的方法,适用于一些无法使用直接法建立生物参考区间的项目和实验室已有检验项目的定期评审。本文基于文献报道,介绍了间接法建立生物参考区间的基本步骤和方法,包括数据采集、数据变换、离群值的剔除和参考区间的取值。

  1. Preparation methods, reactivity and biological importance of 4-thiazolidinones; Metodos de obtencao, reatividade e importancia biologica de 4-tiazolidinonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liesen, Andre P.; Aquino, Thiago M. de; Goes, Alexandre J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE)e, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos]. E-mail: ajsg@ufpe.br; Lima, Jose G. de; Faria, Antonio R. de; Alves, Antonio J. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE)e, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2008-07-01

    Molecules containing the 4-thiazolidinone ring are known to possess a wide range of biological properties including antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activities among others. These compounds can be synthesized by cyclization reactions involving alpha-haloacetic acid or alpha-mercaptoacetic acid and employed in several chemoselective reactions. Comprehensive reviews have been written on 4-thiazolidinones in 1961 by Brown and in 1980 by Singh et al. In the recent literature, some new synthesis methods for 4-thiazolidinone derivatives and several reactions have been reported. These advances warrant to review the chemical and biological properties of compounds with this important heterocycle employed in synthetic organic chemistry and medicinal chemistry (author)

  2. What is Media Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand and explain current developments in the media landscape, using the lens of innovation and innovation theory adds value to media research. This chapter gives a theoretical introduction to the concept of innovation. It argues that media innovations may be related to product innovation, process innovation, position innovation, paradigmatic innovation and social innovation, and that innovation may involve different degrees of novelty. The chapter also highlights key influen...

  3. College Students' Ideological and Political Education Methods Innovative Research%大学生思想政治教育方法创新性研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文静; 曹均学

    2012-01-01

    Ideological and political education is concerned in the current university students, a new era under the conditions of science using the correct method is essential for ideological and political education, ideological and political education methods, domestic scholars currently exist, the need for innovative andinnovation and development in various aspects, the purpose is innovative research on the methods of ideological and political education.%思想政治教育工作在当前大学生中备受关注,新的时代条件下科学运用正确的思想政治教育方法至关重要,本文对国内学者就大学生思想政治教育方法当前存在的问题,创新的必要性,和创新发展等各个方面进行了总结,目的是对大学生思想政治教育方法进行创新性研究。

  4. An innovative method to reduce count loss from pulse pile-up in a photon-counting pixel for high flux X-ray applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Lim, K.; Park, K.; Lee, C.; Alexander, S.; Cho, G.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an innovative fast X-ray photon-counting pixel for high X-ray flux applications is proposed. A computed tomography system typically uses X-ray fluxes up to 108 photons/mm2/sec at the detector and thus a fast read-out is required in order to process individual X-ray photons. Otherwise, pulse pile-up can occur at the output of the signal processing unit. These superimposed signals can distort the number of incident X-ray photons leading to count loss. To minimize such losses, a cross detection method was implemented in the photon-counting pixel. A maximum count rate under X-ray tube voltage of 90 kV was acquired which reflect electrical test results of the proposed photon counting pixel. A maximum count of 780 kcps was achieved with a conventional photon-counting pixel at the pulse processing time of 500 ns, which is the time for a pulse to return to the baseline from the initial rise. In contrast, the maximum count of about 8.1 Mcps was achieved with the proposed photon-counting pixel. From these results, it was clear that the maximum count rate was increased by approximately a factor 10 times by adopting the cross detection method. Therefore, it is an innovative method to reduce count loss from pulse pile-up in a photon-counting pixel while maintaining the pulse processing time.

  5. Electron spin interactions in chemistry and biology fundamentals, methods, reactions mechanisms, magnetic phenomena, structure investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the versatile and pivotal role of electron spin interactions in nature. It provides the background, methodologies and tools for basic areas related to spin interactions, such as spin chemistry and biology, electron transfer, light energy conversion, photochemistry, radical reactions, magneto-chemistry and magneto-biology. The book also includes an overview of designing advanced magnetic materials, optical and spintronic devices and photo catalysts. This monograph appeals to scientists and graduate students working in the areas related to spin interactions physics, biophysics, chemistry and chemical engineering.

  6. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  7. Social innovation as institutional innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards Schachter, Mónica E.; Benneworth, Paul; Amanatidou, Effie; Gulbrandsen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Trabajo presentado a la Annual Conference of the EU-SPRI Forum: "Innovation policies for economic and social transitions: Developing strategies for knowledge, practices and organizations" celebrada en Helsinki (Finlandia) del 9 al 12 de junio de 2015.

  8. A Critical Review of Properties and Analytical Methods for the Determination of Oxytetracyline in Biological and Pharmaceutical Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sversut, Rúbia Adrieli; da Silva, Adriane Andrade; Cardoso, Teófilo Fernando Mazon; Kassab, Nájla Mohamad; do Amaral, Marcos Serrou; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2017-03-04

    Antibiotics have an unquestionable importance in the treatment of many infections. Oxytetracycline is an antibiotic belonging to the class of tetracyclines, available for use in human and veterinary medicine. Development of analytical methods that prove the quality and efficacy of these drugs is fundamentally important to the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, the research presents an overview of the analytical profile of oxytetracycline, describing its chemical and pharmacological properties, and analytical methods for quantification of this drug in biological samples and pharmaceutical products. Oxytetracycline can be analyzed in these matrices by many types of methodologies. However, high-performance liquid chromatography is the most widely used, being recommended by official compendia. This kind of study can be useful to support the development of new efficient and sustainable analytical methods that may be utilized in the quality control routine of oxytetracycline in pharmaceutical products and pharmacokinetic monitoring in biological samples.

  9. Boundary Element Method for Reconstructing Absorption and Diffusion Coefficients of Biological Tissues in DOT/MicroCT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenhao; Deng, Yong; Lian, Lichao; Yan, Dongmei; Yang, Xiaoquan; Luo, Qingming

    2016-01-01

    The functional information, the absorption and diffusion coefficients, as well as the structural information of biological tissues can be provided by the DOT(Diffuse Optical Tomograph)/MicroCT. In this paper, we use boundary element method to calculate the forward problem of DOT based on the structure prior given by the MicroCT, and then we reconstruct the absorption and diffusion coefficients of different biological tissues by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The method only needs surface meshing, reducing the complexity of calculation; in addition, it reconstructs a single value within an organ, which reduces the ill-posedness of the inverse problem to make reconstruction results have good noise stability. This indicates that the boundary element method-based reconstruction can serve as an new scheme for getting absorption and diffusion coefficients in DOT/MicroCT multimodality imaging.

  10. Challenges in biomimetic design and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Barfoed, Michael; Shu, Li

    challenge is illustrated by the beetle project which analyse photonic nanostructures in beetle shells in order to synthesise surface coatings. It shows that understanding the complexity in nature is far from being a trivial task. It involves the understanding of knowledge from different scientific domains...... including the terminology and knowledge organisation. It is often easy to recognise the splendour of a biological solution, but it can be much more difficult to understand the underlying mechanisms. Another challenge in biomimetic design is the search and identification of relevant solutions in nature....... This is a key issue in design and innovation work where problem identification and systematic search for suitable solution principle are major activities. One way to deal with this challenge is to use a biology search method. The use of such a method is illustrated with a case story describing the design...

  11. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint…

  12. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Nyamukondiwa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  13. Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1--Background principles and methods of molecular biology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this first chapter of the series "Teaching molecular genetics," an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide (pr

  14. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-11-09

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  15. Characterization of chlorinated solvent contamination in limestone using innovative FLUTe® technologies in combination with other methods in a line of evidence approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Janniche, Gry Sander; Mosthaf, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    , hydrogeology and contaminant distribution. The FACT™ is a new technology and it was applied and tested at a contaminated site with a limestone aquifer, together with a number of existing methods including wire-line coring with core subsampling, FLUTe® transmissivity profiling and multilevel water sampling......Characterization of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones in limestone aquifers/bedrock is essential to develop accurate site-specific conceptual models and perform risk assessment. Here innovative field methods were combined to improve determination of source zone architecture....... Laboratory sorption studies were combined with a model of contaminant uptake on the FACT™ for data interpretation. Limestone aquifers were found particularly difficult to sample with existing methods because of core loss, particularly from soft zones in contact with chert beds. Water FLUTe™ multilevel...

  16. Comparison of irradiated 15Kh2MFA material mechanical properties using conventional testing methods and innovative approach of small punch testing (SPT) and automated ball indentation (ABIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopriva, R.; Petelova, P.; Eliasova, I.; Kytka, M.; Culek, M.

    2017-02-01

    Article describes two innovative testing methods – Small Punch Testing (SPT) and Automated Ball Indentation Test (ABIT) – which are based on the determination and evaluation of material properties from miniaturized testing specimens. These methods are very promising due to minimum material needed for testing and also in case of testing highly irradiated materials of components that are not included in standard surveillance programs. The test results were obtained for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) base material 15Ch2MFA in both states - initial unirradiated and irradiated. Subsequently results were compared with standard tensile tests to prove applicability of these testing methods for the evaluation of degradation of irradiated structural materials of nuclear power plants.

  17. A Comparative Study of Compression Methods and the Development of CODEC Program of Biological Signal for Emergency Telemedicine Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, T.S.; Kim, J.S. [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea); Lim, Y.H. [Visionite Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea); Yoo, S.K. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-05-01

    In an emergency telemedicine system such as the High-quality Multimedia based Real-time Emergency Telemedicine(HMRET) service, it is very important to examine the status of the patient continuously using the multimedia data including the biological signals(ECG, BP, Respiration, S{sub p}O{sub 2}) of the patient. In order to transmit these data real time through the communication means which have the limited transmission capacity, it is also necessary to compress the biological data besides other multimedia data. For this purpose, we investigate and compare the ECG compression techniques in the time domain and in the wavelet transform domain, and present an effective lossless compression method of the biological signals using JPEG Huffman table for an emergency telemedicine system. And, for the HMRET service, we developed the lossless compression and reconstruction program of the biological signals in MSVC++ 6.0 using DPCM method and JPEG Huffman table, and tested in an internet environment. (author). 15 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. AUTOTRANSPLANTATION OF MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS FROM ADIPOSE TISSUE – INNOVATIVE PATHOGENETIC METHOD OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH INCISIONAL HERNIAS (FIRST CASES REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article a complex technology of receiving a biological transplant with autologous mesenchymal stem cells from the adipose tissue is presented. Possibility of successful clinical performance of reconstruction of extensive defects of anterior belly wall with the use of a multicomponent biological transplant with autologous mesenchy- mal stem cells from the adipose tissue, differentiated in the fibroblast direction is shown. The use of the proposed method of plasticity promotes the improvement of quality of surgical treatment, expansies the scope of cellular technologies in practical health care, improves the patients quality of life in the postoperative period. 

  19. Innovative studerende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Lilian; Boelsmand, Jens

    Innovative studerende præsenterer en metode til at designe projekter, som gør en forskel i velfærdssamfundet, det vil sige skaber merværdi i virkelighedens verden. Undervejs trænes studerendes innovative kompetencer til at nytænke ydelser, produkter og processer, som skaber værdi for borgerne i...... samfundet.Metoden er bygget op om modellen FIRE-Designs fire faser: Forstå, Ideudvikle, Realisere og Evaluere. Første del af bogen beskriver modellens faser og forklarer begreber som kreativitet, innovation, entreprenørskab, intraprenørskab og iværksætteri. Anden del giver undervisere og studerende en række...

  20. Reconsidering Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Innovation og reformer er på dagsordenen allevegne, ikke mindst i politiske forsøg på at reorganisere den offentlige sektor for at få velfærdssamfundet til at kunne overleve økonomisk tumult og dystre fremtidsprognoser. Dette papir undersøger, hvordan klassiske antropologiske teorier og debatter om...... forandring og myter kan hjælpe os med at genoverveje teoretiske forståelser af innovation i organisatoriske studier. I særlig grad sættes der fokus på de implikationer som vores "innovationsmyte" kan have for offentligt ansatte og værdsættelsen af deres arbejde. Analysens argument er, at innovation ikke skal...