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Sample records for biologically unrealistic sampling

  1. What is unrealistic optimism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anneli; Bortolotti, Lisa; Kuzmanovic, Bojana

    2017-04-01

    Here we consider the nature of unrealistic optimism and other related positive illusions. We are interested in whether cognitive states that are unrealistically optimistic are belief states, whether they are false, and whether they are epistemically irrational. We also ask to what extent unrealistically optimistic cognitive states are fixed. Based on the classic and recent empirical literature on unrealistic optimism, we offer some preliminary answers to these questions, thereby laying the foundations for answering further questions about unrealistic optimism, such as whether it has biological, psychological, or epistemic benefits. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unrealistic optimism and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading descriptive theories of decision-making under risk, Tversky & Kahneman's Prospect theory, reveals that normative explanation of decisionmaking, based only on principle of maximizing outcomes expected utility, is unsustainable. It also underlines the effect of alternative factors on decision-making. Framing effect relates to an influence that verbal formulation of outcomes has on choosing between certain and risky outcomes; in negative frame people tend to be risk seeking, whereas in positive frame people express risk averse tendencies. Individual decisions are not based on objective probabilities of outcomes, but on subjective probabilities that depend on outcome desirability. Unrealistically pessimistic subjects assign lower probabilities (than the group average to the desired outcomes, while unrealistically optimistic subjects assign higher probabilities (than the group average to the desired outcomes. Experiment was conducted in order to test the presumption that there's a relation between unrealistic optimism and decision-making under risk. We expected optimists to be risk seeking, and pessimist to be risk averse. We also expected such cognitive tendencies, if they should become manifest, to be framing effect resistant. Unrealistic optimism scale was applied, followed by the questionnaire composed of tasks of decision-making under risk. Results within the whole sample, and results of afterwards extracted groups of pessimists and optimists both revealed dominant risk seeking tendency that is resistant to the influence of subjective probabilities as well as to the influence of frame in which the outcome is presented.

  3. Taking Stock of Unrealistic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A.; Klein, William M. P.; Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have used terms such as unrealistic optimism and optimistic bias to refer to concepts that are similar but not synonymous. Drawing from three decades of research, we critically discuss how researchers define unrealistic optimism and we identify four types that reflect different measurement approaches: unrealistic absolute optimism at the individual and group level and unrealistic comparative optimism at the individual and group level. In addition, we discuss methodological criticisms leveled against research on unrealistic optimism and note that the criticisms are primarily relevant to only one type—the group form of unrealistic comparative optimism. We further clarify how the criticisms are not nearly as problematic even for unrealistic comparative optimism as they might seem. Finally, we note boundary conditions on the different types of unrealistic optimism and reflect on five broad questions that deserve further attention. PMID:26045714

  4. Taking Stock of Unrealistic Optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A; Klein, William M P; Waters, Erika A; Weinstein, Neil D

    2013-07-01

    Researchers have used terms such as unrealistic optimism and optimistic bias to refer to concepts that are similar but not synonymous. Drawing from three decades of research, we critically discuss how researchers define unrealistic optimism and we identify four types that reflect different measurement approaches: unrealistic absolute optimism at the individual and group level and unrealistic comparative optimism at the individual and group level. In addition, we discuss methodological criticisms leveled against research on unrealistic optimism and note that the criticisms are primarily relevant to only one type-the group form of unrealistic comparative optimism. We further clarify how the criticisms are not nearly as problematic even for unrealistic comparative optimism as they might seem. Finally, we note boundary conditions on the different types of unrealistic optimism and reflect on five broad questions that deserve further attention.

  5. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A [French Camp, CA

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  6. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Species...

  7. Unrealistic Optimism: East and West?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mary Sissons; Carter, Wakefield

    2013-01-01

    Following Weinstein’s (1980) pioneering work many studies established that people have an optimistic bias concerning future life events. At first, the bulk of research was conducted using populations in North America and Northern Europe, the optimistic bias was thought of as universal, and little attention was paid to cultural context. However, construing unrealistic optimism as a form of self-enhancement, some researchers noted that it was far less common in East Asian cultures. The current study extends enquiry to a different non-Western culture. Two hundred and eighty seven middle aged and middle income participants (200 in India, 87 in England) rated 11 positive and 11 negative events in terms of the chances of each event occurring in “their own life,” and the chances of each event occurring in the lives of “people like them.” Comparative optimism was shown for bad events, with Indian participants showing higher levels of optimism than English participants. The position regarding comparative optimism for good events was more complex. In India those of higher socioeconomic status (SES) were optimistic, while those of lower SES were on average pessimistic. Overall, English participants showed neither optimism nor pessimism for good events. The results, whose clinical relevance is discussed, suggest that the expression of unrealistic optimism is shaped by an interplay of culture and socioeconomic circumstance. PMID:23407689

  8. Unrealistic optimism: east and west?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Sissons Joshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following Weinstein’s pioneering work (1980 many studies established that people have an optimistic bias concerning future life events. At first, the bulk of research was conducted using populations in North America and Northern Europe, the optimistic bias was thought of as universal, and little attention was paid to cultural context. However, construing unrealistic optimism as a form of self-enhancement, some researchers noted that it was far less common in East Asian cultures. The current study extends enquiry to a different non-Western culture. Two hundred and eighty seven middle aged and middle-income participants (200 in India, 87 in England rated 11 positive and 11 negative events in terms of the chances of each event occurring in their own life, and the chances of each event occurring in the lives of people like them. Comparative optimism was shown for bad events, with Indian participants showing higher levels of optimism than English participants. The position regarding comparative optimism for good events was more complex. In India those of higher socioeconomic status were optimistic, while those of lower socioeconomic status were on average pessimistic. Overall, English participants showed neither optimism nor pessimism for good events. The results, whose clinical relevance is discussed, suggest that the expression of unrealistic optimism is moulded by an interplay of culture and socioeconomic circumstance.

  9. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  10. Biological Sample Monitoring Database (BSMDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biological Sample Monitoring Database System (BSMDBS) was developed for the Northeast Fisheries Regional Office and Science Center (NER/NEFSC) to record and...

  11. Microholographic imaging of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, W.S.; Cullen, D.; Solem, J.C.; Longworth, J.W.; McPherson, A.; Boyer, K.; Rhodes, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    A camera system suitable for x-ray microholography has been constructed. Visible light Fourier transform microholograms of biological samples and other test targets have been recorded and reconstructed digitally using a glycerol microdrop as a reference wave source. Current results give a resolution of ∼4 - 10 λ with λ = 514.5 nm. 11 refs., 1 fig

  12. Electron holography of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Lichte, H; Formanek, P; Lehmann, M; Huhle, R; Carrillo-Cabrera, W; Harscher, A; Ehrlich, H

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we summarise the development of off-axis electron holography on biological samples starting in 1986 with the first results on ferritin from the group of Tonomura. In the middle of the 1990s strong interest was evoked, but then stagnation took place because the results obtained at that stage did not reach the contrast and the resolution achieved by conventional electron microscopy. To date, there exist only a few ( approximately 12) publications on electron holography of biological objects, thus this topic is quite small and concise. The reason for this could be that holography is mostly established in materials science by physicists. Therefore, applications for off-axis holography were powerfully pushed forward in the area of imaging, e.g. electric or magnetic micro- and nanofields. Unstained biological systems investigated by means of off-axis electron holography up to now are ferritin, tobacco mosaic virus, a bacterial flagellum, T5 bacteriophage virus, hexagonal packed intermediate layer of bacteria and the Semliki Forest virus. New results of the authors on collagen fibres and surface layer of bacteria, the so-called S-layer 2D crystal lattice are presented in this review. For the sake of completeness, we will shortly discuss in-line holography of biological samples and off-axis holography of materials related to biological systems, such as biomaterial composites or magnetotactic bacteria.

  13. Biological Environmental Sampling Technologies Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    modular set of aerosol detector, collector, and identifier components. Before the award, the JBTDS program office engaged its combat developers and...collection and identification processes are not integrated into one unit. Concern was also expressed regarding operation of the smartphone -based Biomeme one3...DESCRIPTION (JBTDS) The Joint Biological Tactical Detection System (JBTDS) will be employed as a modular set of capabilities (detector, collector, and

  14. Gallium determination in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stulzaft, O.; Maziere, B.; Ly, S.

    1980-01-01

    A sensitive, simple and time-saving method has been developed for the neutron activation analysis of gallium at concentrations around 10 -4 ppm in biological tissues. After a 24-hour irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 2.8x10 13 nxcm -2 xs -1 and a purification by ion-exchange chromatography to eliminate troublesome elements such as sodium, iron and copper, the 72 Ga activity is measured with enough accuracy for the method to be applicable in animal physiology and clinical toxicology. (author)

  15. An improved ashing procedure for biologic sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmei, Wu [Zhejiang Province Enviromental Radiation Monitoring Centre (China)

    1992-07-01

    The classical ashing procedure in muffle was modified for biologic samples. In the modified procedure the door of muffle was open in the duration of ashing process, the ashing was accelerated and the ashing product quality was comparable to that the classical procedure. The modified procedure is suitable for ashing biologic samples in large batches.

  16. An improved ashing procedure for biologic sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei

    1992-01-01

    The classical ashing procedure in muffle was modified for biologic samples. In the modified procedure the door of muffle was open in the duration of ashing process, the ashing was accelerated and the ashing product quality was comparable to that the classical procedure. The modified procedure is suitable for ashing biologic samples in large batches

  17. Unrealistic phylogenetic trees may improve phylogenetic footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettling, Martin; Treutler, Hendrik; Cerquides, Jesus; Grosse, Ivo

    2017-06-01

    The computational investigation of DNA binding motifs from binding sites is one of the classic tasks in bioinformatics and a prerequisite for understanding gene regulation as a whole. Due to the development of sequencing technologies and the increasing number of available genomes, approaches based on phylogenetic footprinting become increasingly attractive. Phylogenetic footprinting requires phylogenetic trees with attached substitution probabilities for quantifying the evolution of binding sites, but these trees and substitution probabilities are typically not known and cannot be estimated easily. Here, we investigate the influence of phylogenetic trees with different substitution probabilities on the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting using synthetic and real data. For synthetic data we find that the classification performance is highest when the substitution probability used for phylogenetic footprinting is similar to that used for data generation. For real data, however, we typically find that the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting surprisingly increases with increasing substitution probabilities and is often highest for unrealistically high substitution probabilities close to one. This finding suggests that choosing realistic model assumptions might not always yield optimal predictions in general and that choosing unrealistically high substitution probabilities close to one might actually improve the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting. The proposed PF is implemented in JAVA and can be downloaded from https://github.com/mgledi/PhyFoo. : martin.nettling@informatik.uni-halle.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Assessing the consequences of unrealistic optimism: Challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A; Pogge, Gabrielle; Howell, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    Of the hundreds of studies published on unrealistic optimism (i.e., expecting a better personal future than is reasonably likely), most have focused on demonstrating the phenomenon, examining boundary conditions, or documenting causes. Few studies have examined the consequences of unrealistic optimism. In this article, we provide an overview of the measurement of unrealistic optimism, review possible consequences, and identify numerous challenges confronting investigators attempting to understand the consequences. Assessing the consequences of unrealistic optimism is tricky, and ultimately probably impossible when researchers assess unrealistic optimism at the group level (which reveals if a group of people is displaying unrealistic optimism on average) rather than the individual level (which reveals whether a specific individual displays unrealistic optimism). We offer recommendations to researchers who wish to examine the consequences of unrealistic optimism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unrealistic Optimism: Self-Enhancement or Person Positivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Pamela C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two studies examined whether people are unrealistically optimistic only for their own futures or for the future of any individual. Results suggested that unrealistic optimism is a form of self-enhancement rather than person positivity bias. (JBJ)

  20. 14 CFR 399.81 - Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. 399.81... Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. (a) It is the policy of the Board to consider unrealistic scheduling of... to the advertising of scheduled performance, it is the policy of the Board to regard as an unfair or...

  1. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  2. Mean field strategies induce unrealistic nonlinearities in calcium puffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eSolovey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mean field models are often useful approximations to biological systems, but sometimes, they can yield misleading results. In this work, we compare mean field approaches with stochastic models of intracellular calcium release. In particular, we concentrate on calcium signals generated by the concerted opening of several clustered channels (calcium puffs. To this end we simulate calcium puffs numerically and then try to reproduce features of the resulting calcium distribution using mean field models were all the channels open and close simultaneously. We show that an unrealistic nonlinear relationship between the current and the number of open channels is needed to reproduce the simulated puffs. Furthermore, a single channel current which is five times smaller than the one of the stochastic simulations is also needed. Our study sheds light on the importance of the stochastic kinetics of the calcium release channel activity to estimate the release fluxes.

  3. Discovering biological progression underlying microarray samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qiu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In biological systems that undergo processes such as differentiation, a clear concept of progression exists. We present a novel computational approach, called Sample Progression Discovery (SPD, to discover patterns of biological progression underlying microarray gene expression data. SPD assumes that individual samples of a microarray dataset are related by an unknown biological process (i.e., differentiation, development, cell cycle, disease progression, and that each sample represents one unknown point along the progression of that process. SPD aims to organize the samples in a manner that reveals the underlying progression and to simultaneously identify subsets of genes that are responsible for that progression. We demonstrate the performance of SPD on a variety of microarray datasets that were generated by sampling a biological process at different points along its progression, without providing SPD any information of the underlying process. When applied to a cell cycle time series microarray dataset, SPD was not provided any prior knowledge of samples' time order or of which genes are cell-cycle regulated, yet SPD recovered the correct time order and identified many genes that have been associated with the cell cycle. When applied to B-cell differentiation data, SPD recovered the correct order of stages of normal B-cell differentiation and the linkage between preB-ALL tumor cells with their cell origin preB. When applied to mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation data, SPD uncovered a landscape of ESC differentiation into various lineages and genes that represent both generic and lineage specific processes. When applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset, SPD identified gene modules that reflect a progression consistent with disease stages. SPD may be best viewed as a novel tool for synthesizing biological hypotheses because it provides a likely biological progression underlying a microarray dataset and, perhaps more importantly, the

  4. Analysis of arsenical metabolites in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Zavala, Araceli; Drobna, Zuzana; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J

    2009-11-01

    Quantitation of iAs and its methylated metabolites in biological samples provides dosimetric information needed to understand dose-response relations. Here, methods are described for separation of inorganic and mono-, di-, and trimethylated arsenicals by thin layer chromatography. This method has been extensively used to track the metabolism of the radionuclide [(73)As] in a variety of in vitro assay systems. In addition, a hydride generation-cryotrapping-gas chromatography-atomic absorption spectrometric method is described for the quantitation of arsenicals in biological samples. This method uses pH-selective hydride generation to differentiate among arsenicals containing trivalent or pentavalent arsenic.

  5. Irradiation chamber and sample changer for biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Daues, H.W.; Fischer, B.; Kopf, U.; Liebold, H.P.; Quis, D.; Stelzer, H.; Kiefer, J.; Schoepfer, F.; Schneider, E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an irradiaton system with which living cells of different origin are irradiated with heavy ion beams (18 <- Z <- 92) at energies up to 10 MeV/amu. The system consists of a beam monitor connected to the vacuum system of the accelerator and the irradiation chamber, containing the biological samples under atmospheric pressure. The requirements and aims of the set up are discussed. The first results with saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chinese Hamster tissue cells are presented. (orig.)

  6. PIXE and its applications to biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, F.; Flores, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout this century, industrialized society has seriously affected the ecology by introducing huge amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere as well as marine and soil environments. On the other hand, it is known that these pollutants, in excess of certain levels of concentration, not only put at risk the life of living beings but may also cause the extinction of some species. It is therefore of basic importance to substantially increase quantitative determinations of trace element concentrations in biological specimens in order to assess the effects of pollutants. It is in this field that PIXE plays a key role in these studies, where its unique analytical properties are decisive. Moreover, since the importance of these research has been recognized in many countries, many scientists have been encouraged to continue or initiate new research programmes aimed to solve the worldwide pollution problem. This document presents an overview of those papers reporting the application of PIXE analysis to biological samples during this last decade of the 20th century and recounts the number of PIXE laboratories dedicating their efforts to find the clues of the biological effects of the presence of pollutants introduced in living beings. Sample preparation methods, different kinds of samples under study and the use of complementary analytical techniques are also illustrated. (author). 108 refs

  7. Accelerator mass spectrometry of small biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Göran

    2008-12-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique for isotopic ratio measurements. In the biomedical field, AMS can be used to measure femtomolar concentrations of labeled drugs in body fluids, with direct applications in early drug development such as Microdosing. Likewise, the regenerative properties of cells which are of fundamental significance in stem-cell research can be determined with an accuracy of a few years by AMS analysis of human DNA. However, AMS nominally requires about 1 mg of carbon per sample which is not always available when dealing with specific body substances such as localized, organ-specific DNA samples. Consequently, it is of analytical interest to develop methods for the routine analysis of small samples in the range of a few tens of microg. We have used a 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator to study small biological samples using AMS. Different methods are presented and compared. A (12)C-carrier sample preparation method is described which is potentially more sensitive and less susceptible to contamination than the standard procedures.

  8. Speciation of arsenic in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Anzai, Kazunori; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2004-08-01

    Speciation of arsenicals in biological samples is an essential tool to gain insight into its distribution in tissues and its species-specific toxicity to target organs. Biological samples (urine, hair, fingernail) examined in the present study were collected from 41 people of West Bengal, India, who were drinking arsenic (As)-contaminated water, whereas 25 blood and urine samples were collected from a population who stopped drinking As contaminated water 2 years before the blood collection. Speciation of arsenicals in urine, water-methanol extract of freeze-dried red blood cells (RBCs), trichloroacetic acid treated plasma, and water extract of hair and fingernail was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Urine contained arsenobetaine (AsB, 1.0%), arsenite (iAs(III), 11.3), arsenate (iAs(V), 10.1), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III), 6.6), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V), 10.5), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III), 13.0), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V), 47.5); fingernail contained iAs(III) (62.4%), iAs(V) (20.2), MMA(V) (5.7), DMA(III) (8.9), and DMA(V) (2.8); hair contained iAs(III) (58.9%), iAs(V) (34.8), MMA(V) (2.9), and DMA(V) (3.4); RBCs contained AsB (22.5%) and DMA(V) (77.5); and blood plasma contained AsB (16.7%), iAs(III) (21.1), MMA(V) (27.1), and DMA(V) (35.1). MMA(III), DMA(III), and iAs(V) were not found in any plasma and RBCs samples, but urine contained all of them. Arsenic in urine, fingernails, and hair are positively correlated with water As, suggesting that any of these measurements could be considered as a biomarker to As exposure. Status of urine and exogenous contamination of hair urgently need speciation of As in these samples, but speciation of As in nail is related to its total As (tAs) concentration. Therefore, total As concentrations of nails could be considered as biomarker to As exposure in the endemic areas.

  9. Speciation of arsenic in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Anzai, Kazunori; Suzuki, Kazuo T.

    2004-01-01

    Speciation of arsenicals in biological samples is an essential tool to gain insight into its distribution in tissues and its species-specific toxicity to target organs. Biological samples (urine, hair, fingernail) examined in the present study were collected from 41 people of West Bengal, India, who were drinking arsenic (As)-contaminated water, whereas 25 blood and urine samples were collected from a population who stopped drinking As contaminated water 2 years before the blood collection. Speciation of arsenicals in urine, water-methanol extract of freeze-dried red blood cells (RBCs), trichloroacetic acid treated plasma, and water extract of hair and fingernail was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Urine contained arsenobetaine (AsB, 1.0%), arsenite (iAs III , 11.3), arsenate (iAs V , 10.1), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III , 6.6), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V , 10.5), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA III , 13.0), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V , 47.5); fingernail contained iAs III (62.4%), iAs V (20.2), MMA V (5.7), DMA III (8.9), and DMA V (2.8); hair contained iAs III (58.9%), iAs V (34.8), MMA V (2.9), and DMA V (3.4); RBCs contained AsB (22.5%) and DMA V (77.5); and blood plasma contained AsB (16.7%), iAs III (21.1), MMA V (27.1), and DMA V (35.1). MMA III , DMA III , and iAs V were not found in any plasma and RBCs samples, but urine contained all of them. Arsenic in urine, fingernails, and hair are positively correlated with water As, suggesting that any of these measurements could be considered as a biomarker to As exposure. Status of urine and exogenous contamination of hair urgently need speciation of As in these samples, but speciation of As in nail is related to its total As (tAs) concentration. Therefore, total As concentrations of nails could be considered as biomarker to As exposure in the endemic areas

  10. Unrealistic optimism in advice taking: A computational account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yuan Chang; Zaki, Jamil

    2018-02-01

    Expert advisors often make surprisingly inaccurate predictions about the future, yet people heed their suggestions nonetheless. Here we provide a novel, computational account of this unrealistic optimism in advice taking. Across 3 studies, participants observed as advisors predicted the performance of a stock. Advisors varied in their accuracy, performing reliably above, at, or below chance. Despite repeated feedback, participants exhibited inflated perceptions of advisors' accuracy, and reliably "bet" on advisors' predictions more than their performance warranted. Participants' decisions tightly tracked a computational model that makes 2 assumptions: (a) people hold optimistic initial expectations about advisors, and (b) people preferentially incorporate information that adheres to their expectations when learning about advisors. Consistent with model predictions, explicitly manipulating participants' initial expectations altered their optimism bias and subsequent advice-taking. With well-calibrated initial expectations, participants no longer exhibited an optimism bias. We then explored crowdsourced ratings as a strategy to curb unrealistic optimism in advisors. Star ratings for each advisor were collected from an initial group of participants, which were then shown to a second group of participants. Instead of calibrating expectations, these ratings propagated and exaggerated the unrealistic optimism. Our results provide a computational account of the cognitive processes underlying inflated perceptions of expertise, and explore the boundary conditions under which they occur. We discuss the adaptive value of this optimism bias, and how our account can be extended to explain unrealistic optimism in other domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas, M.

    1990-01-01

    The elemental compositions of 18 biological reference materials have been processed, for 14 stepped combinations of irradiation/decay/counting times, by the INAA Advance Prediction Computer Program. The 18 materials studied include 11 plant materials, 5 animal materials, and 2 other biological materials. Of these 18 materials, 14 are NBS Standard Reference Materials and four are IAEA reference materials. Overall, the results show that a mean of 52% of the input elements can be determined to a relative standard deviation of ±10% or better by reactor flux (thermal plus epithermal) INAA

  12. Study of phosphors determination in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rosangela Magda de.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, phosphors determination by neutron activation analysis in milk and bone samples was studied employing both instrumental and radiochemical separation methods. The analysis with radiochemistry separation consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, dissolution of the samples, hold back carrier, addition precipitation of phosphorus with ammonium phosphomolibdate (A.M.P.) and phosphorus-32 by counting by using Geiger-Mueller detector. The instrumental analysis consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, transfer of the samples into a counting planchet and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus-32, after a suitable decay period. After the phosphorus analysis methods were established they were applied to both commercial milk and animal bone samples, and data obtained in the instrumental and radiochemical separation methods for each sample, were compared between themselves. In this work, it became possible to obtain analysis methods for phosphorus that can be applied independently of the sample quantity available, and the phosphorus content in the samples or interference that can be present in them. (author). 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Uranium-233 analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, R.A.; Ballou, J.E.; Case, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Two liquid scintillation techniques were compared for 233 U analysis: a two-phase extraction system (D2EHPA) developed by Keough and Powers, 1970, for Pu analysis; and a single-phase emulsion system (TT21) that holds the total sample in suspension with the scintillator. The first system (D2EHPA) was superior in reducing background (two- to threefold) and in accommodating a larger sample volume (fivefold). Samples containing > 50 mg/ml of slats were not extracted quantitatively by D2EHPA

  14. Commercial Fisheries Database Biological Sample (CFDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Age and length frequency data for finfish and invertebrate species collected during commercial fishing vessels. Samples are collected by fisheries reporting...

  15. Processing scarce biological samples for light and transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Taupin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Light microscopy (LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM aim at understanding the relationship structure-function. With advances in biology, isolation and purification of scarce populations of cells or subcellular structures may not lead to enough biological material, for processing for LM and TEM. A protocol for preparation of scarce biological samples is presented. It is based on pre-embedding the biological samples, suspensions or pellets, in bovine serum albumin (BSA and bis-acrylamide (BA, cross-linked and polymerized. This preparation provides a simple and reproducible technique to process biological materials, present in limited quantities that can not be amplified, for light and transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Analytical ionic microscopic of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.; Rodrigues, L.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Secondary Ion Microscopy, a microanalytical method proposed in 1960 by Castaing and Slodzian has been applied to the study of biological tissues. The main advantage of secondary ion analysis as compared to other microanalytical methods is its very high sensitivity which make it possible to detect elements even when there are at a very low concentration (0.1 ppm or less) in a microvolume, and to easily obtain images of distribution of these elements. Most stable or radioactive nuclides of every elements may be studied and the spatial resolution is of the order of 0.5μm. The present state of the art of the method and its possibility offered in biomedical research are presented. (author) [pt

  17. Microradiagraphy of biological samples with Timepix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, František; Beneš, J.; Sopko, V.; Jakůbek, J.; Vondráček, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, C11005 (2011), s. 1-6 ISSN 1748-0221. [International workshop on radiation imaging detectors /13./. Zurich, 03.07.2011-07.07.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600550614; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06007; Research Program(CZ) 6840770029; Research Program(CZ) 6840770040; GA MŠk-spolupráce s CERN(CZ) 1P04LA211 Program:LC; IA; 2B; 1P Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : X-ray detectors * X-ray radiography and digital radiography (DR) * pixelated detectors and associated VLSI electronics Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/6/11/C11005/pdf/1748-0221_6_11_C11005.pdf

  18. PIXE - Analysis for environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, G.B.

    1980-04-01

    The usefulness and accuracy of PIXE as an analytical tool in the study of trace elements in environmental samples of the Brazilian Cerrado are discussed. The report lists actual and forthcoming publications resulting from the study. The mechanism of exchange of elements in solution in water to aerosols has been investigated. For details of the procedure the reader is referred to an earlier report

  19. Collection of biological samples in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Carvalho, F; Duarte, J A; Remião, F; Marques, A; Santos, A; Magalhães, T

    2010-09-01

    Forensic toxicology is the study and practice of the application of toxicology to the purposes of the law. The relevance of any finding is determined, in the first instance, by the nature and integrity of the specimen(s) submitted for analysis. This means that there are several specific challenges to select and collect specimens for ante-mortem and post-mortem toxicology investigation. Post-mortem specimens may be numerous and can endow some special difficulties compared to clinical specimens, namely those resulting from autolytic and putrefactive changes. Storage stability is also an important issue to be considered during the pre-analytic phase, since its consideration should facilitate the assessment of sample quality and the analytical result obtained from that sample. The knowledge on degradation mechanisms and methods to increase storage stability may enable the forensic toxicologist to circumvent possible difficulties. Therefore, advantages and limitations of specimen preservation procedures are thoroughfully discussed in this review. Presently, harmonized protocols for sampling in suspected intoxications would have obvious utility. In the present article an overview is given on sampling procedures for routinely collected specimens as well as on alternative specimens that may provide additional information on the route and timing of exposure to a specific xenobiotic. Last, but not least, a discussion on possible bias that can influence the interpretation of toxicological results is provided. This comprehensive review article is intented as a significant help for forensic toxicologists to accomplish their frequently overwhelming mission.

  20. Biological sampling for marine radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Strategies and methodologies for using marine organisms to monitor radioactivity in marine waters are presented. When the criteria for monitoring radioactivity is to determine routes of radionuclide transfer to man, the ''critical pathway'' approach is often applied. Alternatively, where information on ambient radionuclide levels and distributions is sought, the approach of selecting marine organisms as ''bioindicators'' of radioactivity is generally used. Whichever approach is applied, a great deal of knowledge is required about the physiology and ecology of the specific organism chosen. In addition, several criteria for qualifying as a bioindicator species are discussed; e.g., it must be a sedentary species which reflects the ambient radionuclide concentration at a given site, sufficiently long-lived to allow long-term temporal sampling, widely distributed to allow spatial comparisons, able to bioconcentrate the radionuclide to a relatively high degree, while showing a simple correlation between radionuclide content in its tissues with that in the surrounding waters. Useful hints on the appropriate species to use and the best way to collect and prepare organisms for radioanalysis are also given. It is concluded that benthic algae and bivalve molluscs generally offer the greatest potential for use as a ''bioindicator'' species in radionuclide biomonitoring programmes. Where knowledge on contribution to radiological dose is required, specific edible marine species should be the organisms of choice; however, both purposes can be served when the edible species chosen through critical pathway analysis is also an excellent bioaccumulator of the radionuclide of interest. (author)

  1. Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples reviews the different techniques available to manipulate and integrate biological materials in a controlled manner, either by sliding them along a surface (2-D manipulation), or by gripping and moving them to a new position (3-D...

  2. Unrealistic optimism and 'nosognosia': illness recognition in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Buchmann, Andreas; Germann, Nicole; Yu, Shancong; Brugger, Peter

    2014-12-01

    At the centenary of research on anosognosia, the time seems ripe to supplement work in anosognosic patients with empirical studies on nosognosia in healthy participants. To this end, we adopted a signal detection framework to investigate the lateralized recognition of illness words--an operational measure of nosognosia--in healthy participants. As positively biased reports about one's current health status (anosognosia) and future health status (unrealistic optimism) have both been associated with deficient right hemispheric functioning, and conversely with undisturbed left hemispheric functioning, we hypothesised that more optimistic participants would adopt a more conservative response criterion, and/or display less sensitivity, when identifying illnesses in our nosognosia task; especially harmful illnesses presented to the left hemisphere via the right visual field. Thirty-two healthy right-handed men estimated their own relative risk of contracting a series of illnesses in the future, and then completed a novel computer task assessing their recognition of illness names presented to the left or right visual field. To check that effects were specific to the recognition of illness (rather than reflecting recognition of lexical items per se), we also administered a standard lateralized lexical decision task. Highly optimistic participants tended to be more conservative in detecting illnesses, especially harmful illnesses presented to the right visual field. Contrary to expectation, they were also more sensitive to illness names in this half-field. We suggest that, in evolutionary terms, unrealistic optimism may be an adaptive trait that combines a high perceptual sensitivity to threat with a high threshold for acknowledging its presence. The signal detection approach to nosognosia developed here may open up new avenues for the understanding of anosognosia in neurological patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of biological samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theodoridis, G; Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been introduced for the extraction of organic compounds from environmental samples. This relatively new extraction technique has now also gained a lot of interest in a broad field of analysis including food, biological and pharmaceutical samples. SPME has a

  4. Extraction of DNA from Forensic Biological Samples for Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stray, J E; Liu, J Y; Brevnov, M G; Shewale, J G

    2010-07-01

    Biological forensic samples constitute evidence with probative organic matter. Evidence believed to contain DNA is typically processed for extraction and purification of its nucleic acid content. Forensic DNA samples are composed of two things, a tissue and the substrate it resides on. Compositionally, a sample may contain almost anything and for each, the type, integrity, and content of both tissue and substrate will vary, as will the contaminant levels. This fact makes the success of extraction one of the most unpredictable steps in genotypic analysis. The development of robust genotyping systems and analysis platforms for short tandem repeat (STR) and mitochondrial DNA sequencing and the acceptance of results generated by these methods in the court system, resulted in a high demand for DNA testing. The increasing variety of sample submissions created a need to isolate DNA from forensic samples that may be compromised or contain low levels of biological material. In the past decade, several robust chemistries and isolation methods have been developed to safely and reliably recover DNA from a wide array of sample types in high yield and free of PCR inhibitors. In addition, high-throughput automated workflows have been developed to meet the demand for processing increasing numbers of samples. This review summarizes a number of the most widely adopted methods and the best practices for DNA isolation from forensic biological samples, including manual, semiautomated, and fully automated platforms. Copyright © 2010 Central Police University.

  5. Explaining the effect of event valence on unrealistic optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ron S; Brown, Mark G

    2009-05-01

    People typically exhibit 'unrealistic optimism' (UO): they believe they have a lower chance of experiencing negative events and a higher chance of experiencing positive events than does the average person. UO has been found to be greater for negative than positive events. This 'valence effect' has been explained in terms of motivational processes. An alternative explanation is provided by the 'numerosity model', which views the valence effect simply as a by-product of a tendency for likelihood estimates pertaining to the average member of a group to increase with the size of the group. Predictions made by the numerosity model were tested in two studies. In each, UO for a single event was assessed. In Study 1 (n = 115 students), valence was manipulated by framing the event either negatively or positively, and participants estimated their own likelihood and that of the average student at their university. In Study 2 (n = 139 students), valence was again manipulated and participants again estimated their own likelihood; additionally, group size was manipulated by having participants estimate the likelihood of the average student in a small, medium-sized, or large group. In each study, the valence effect was found, but was due to an effect on estimates of own likelihood, not the average person's likelihood. In Study 2, valence did not interact with group size. The findings contradict the numerosity model, but are in accord with the motivational explanation. Implications for health education are discussed.

  6. Accident frequency and unrealistic optimism: Children's assessment of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mary Sissons; Maclean, Morag; Stevens, Claire

    2018-02-01

    Accidental injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children, warranting research on their risk perceptions. Three hundred and seven children aged 10-11 years assessed the frequency, danger and personal risk likelihood of 8 accidents. Two social-cognitive biases were manifested. The frequency of rare accidents (e.g. drowning) was overestimated, and the frequency of common accidents (e.g. bike accidents) underestimated; and the majority of children showed unrealistic optimism tending to see themselves as less likely to suffer these accidents in comparison to their peers, offering superior skills or parental control of the environment as an explanation. In the case of pedestrian accidents, children recognised their seriousness, underestimated the frequency of this risk and regarded their own road crossing skill as protection. These findings highlight the challenging task facing safety educators who, when teaching conventional safety knowledge and routines, also need to alert children to the danger of over-confidence without disabling them though fear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural Correlates of Realistic and Unrealistic Auditory Space Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Callan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Binaural recordings can simulate externalized auditory space perception over headphones. However, if the orientation of the recorder's head and the orientation of the listener's head are incongruent, the simulated auditory space is not realistic. For example, if a person lying flat on a bed listens to an environmental sound that was recorded by microphones inserted in ears of a person who was in an upright position, the sound simulates an auditory space rotated 90 degrees to the real-world horizontal axis. Our question is whether brain activation patterns are different between the unrealistic auditory space (ie, the orientation of the listener's head and the orientation of the recorder's head are incongruent and the realistic auditory space (ie, the orientations are congruent. River sounds that were binaurally recorded either in a supine position or in an upright body position were served as auditory stimuli. During fMRI experiments, participants listen to the stimuli and pressed one of two buttons indicating the direction of the water flow (horizontal/vertical. Behavioral results indicated that participants could not differentiate between the congruent and the incongruent conditions. However, neuroimaging results showed that the congruent condition activated the planum temporale significantly more than the incongruent condition.

  8. Multi-element analysis of small biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokita, E.; Cafmeyer, J.; Maenhaut, W.

    1983-01-01

    A method combining PIXE and INAA was developed to determine the elemental composition of small biological samples. The method needs virtually no sample preparation and less than 1 mg is sufficient for the analysis. The method was used for determining up to 18 elements in leaves taken from Cracow Herbaceous. The factors which influence the elemental composition of leaves and the possible use of leaves as an environmental pollution indicator are discussed

  9. Fast x-ray fluorescence microtomography of hydrated biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Lombi

    Full Text Available Metals and metalloids play a key role in plant and other biological systems as some of them are essential to living organisms and all can be toxic at high concentrations. It is therefore important to understand how they are accumulated, complexed and transported within plants. In situ imaging of metal distribution at physiological relevant concentrations in highly hydrated biological systems is technically challenging. In the case of roots, this is mainly due to the possibility of artifacts arising during sample preparation such as cross sectioning. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microtomography has been used to obtain virtual cross sections of elemental distributions. However, traditionally this technique requires long data acquisition times. This has prohibited its application to highly hydrated biological samples which suffer both radiation damage and dehydration during extended analysis. However, recent advances in fast detectors coupled with powerful data acquisition approaches and suitable sample preparation methods can circumvent this problem. We demonstrate the heightened potential of this technique by imaging the distribution of nickel and zinc in hydrated plant roots. Although 3D tomography was still impeded by radiation damage, we successfully collected 2D tomograms of hydrated plant roots exposed to environmentally relevant metal concentrations for short periods of time. To our knowledge, this is the first published example of the possibilities offered by a new generation of fast fluorescence detectors to investigate metal and metalloid distribution in radiation-sensitive, biological samples.

  10. Manipulation of biological samples using micro and nano techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jaime; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    The constant interest in handling, integrating and understanding biological systems of interest for the biomedical field, the pharmaceutical industry and the biomaterial researchers demand the use of techniques that allow the manipulation of biological samples causing minimal or no damage to their natural structure. Thanks to the advances in micro- and nanofabrication during the last decades several manipulation techniques offer us the possibility to image, characterize and manipulate biological material in a controlled way. Using these techniques the integration of biomaterials with remarkable properties with physical transducers has been possible, giving rise to new and highly sensitive biosensing devices. This article reviews the different techniques available to manipulate and integrate biological materials in a controlled manner either by sliding them along a surface (2-D manipulation), by grapping them and moving them to a new position (3-D manipulation), or by manipulating and relocating them applying external forces. The advantages and drawbacks are mentioned together with examples that reflect the state of the art of manipulation techniques for biological samples (171 references).

  11. Study of β-NMR for Liquid Biological Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Beattie, Caitlin

    2017-01-01

    β-NMR is an exotic form of NMR spectroscopy that allows for the characterization of matter based on the anisotropic β-decay of radioactive probe nuclei. This has been shown to be an effective spectroscopic technique for many different compounds, but its use for liquid biological samples is relatively unexplored. The work at the VITO line of ISOLDE seeks to employ this technique to study such samples. Currently, preparations are being made for an experiment to characterize DNA G-quadruplexes and their interactions with stabilizing cations. More specifically, the work in which I engaged as a summer student focused on the experiment’s liquid handling system and the stability of the relevant biological samples under vacuum.

  12. BSPS Program (ESI-Mass Spectrometry) Biological Sample Data Analysis; Disruption of Bacteria Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lall, Ravi P

    2005-01-01

    The various biological processing technologies and biological identification approaches are essential for support of the mission to develop and demonstrate an advanced Biological Sample Preparation System...

  13. Efficient sample preparation from complex biological samples using a sliding lid for immobilized droplet extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavant, Benjamin P; Guckenberger, David J; Beebe, David J; Berry, Scott M

    2014-07-01

    Sample preparation is a major bottleneck in many biological processes. Paramagnetic particles (PMPs) are a ubiquitous method for isolating analytes of interest from biological samples and are used for their ability to thoroughly sample a solution and be easily collected with a magnet. There are three main methods by which PMPs are used for sample preparation: (1) removal of fluid from the analyte-bound PMPs, (2) removal of analyte-bound PMPs from the solution, and (3) removal of the substrate (with immobilized analyte-bound PMPs). In this paper, we explore the third and least studied method for PMP-based sample preparation using a platform termed Sliding Lid for Immobilized Droplet Extractions (SLIDE). SLIDE leverages principles of surface tension and patterned hydrophobicity to create a simple-to-operate platform for sample isolation (cells, DNA, RNA, protein) and preparation (cell staining) without the need for time-intensive wash steps, use of immiscible fluids, or precise pinning geometries. Compared to other standard isolation protocols using PMPs, SLIDE is able to perform rapid sample preparation with low (0.6%) carryover of contaminants from the original sample. The natural recirculation occurring within the pinned droplets of SLIDE make possible the performance of multistep cell staining protocols within the SLIDE by simply resting the lid over the various sample droplets. SLIDE demonstrates a simple easy to use platform for sample preparation on a range of complex biological samples.

  14. Apparatus for freeze drying of biologic and sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Freeze drying to obtain water from individual samples, though not complicated, usually requires considerable effort to maintain the cold traps on a 24-hr basis. In addition, the transfer of a sample from sample containers to freeze-dry flasks is usually made with some risk of contamination to the sample. If samples are large, 300 g to 600 g, usually several days are required to dry the samples. The use of an unattended system greatly improves personnel and drying efficiency. Commercial freeze dryers are not readily applicable to the problems of collecting water from individual samples, and lab-designed collectors required sample transfer and continual replenishment of the dry ice. A freeze-dry apparatus for collecting water from individual sediment and/or biological samples was constructed to determine the tritium concentrations in fish for dose calcaluations and the tritium distribution in sediment cores for water movement studies. The freeze, dry apparatus, which can handle eight samples simultaneously and conveniently, is set up for unattended 24-hr operation and is designed to avoid sample transfer problems

  15. Sampling and sample preparation methods for the analysis of trace elements in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Iyengar, V.

    1978-05-01

    The authors attempt to give a most systamtic possible treatment of the sample taking and sample preparation of biological material (particularly in human medicine) for trace analysis (e.g. neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry). Contamination and loss problems are discussed as well as the manifold problems of the different consistency of solid and liquid biological materials, as well as the stabilization of the sample material. The process of dry and wet ashing is particularly dealt with, where new methods are also described. (RB) [de

  16. A large-scale cryoelectronic system for biological sample banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Stephen G.; Durst, Christopher H. P.; Fuchs, Christian C.; Zimmermann, Heiko; Ihmig, Frank R.

    2009-11-01

    We describe a polymorphic electronic infrastructure for managing biological samples stored over liquid nitrogen. As part of this system we have developed new cryocontainers and carrier plates attached to Flash memory chips to have a redundant and portable set of data at each sample. Our experimental investigations show that basic Flash operation and endurance is adequate for the application down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. This identification technology can provide the best sample identification, documentation and tracking that brings added value to each sample. The first application of the system is in a worldwide collaborative research towards the production of an AIDS vaccine. The functionality and versatility of the system can lead to an essential optimization of sample and data exchange for global clinical studies.

  17. Toxicological Analysis of Some Drugs of Abuse in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Ciobanu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of drugs of abuse is a scourge of modern world. Abuse, drug addiction and their consequences are one of the major current problems of European society because of the significant repercussions in individual, family, social and economic level. In this context, toxicological analysis of the drugs of abuse in biological samples is a useful tool for: diagnosis of drug addiction, checking an auto-response, mandatory screening in some treatment programs, identification of a substance in the case of an overdose, determining compliance of the treatment. The present paper aims to address the needs of healthcare professionals involved in drugs addiction treatment through systematic presentation of information regarding their toxicological analysis. Basically, it is a tool that help you to select the suitable biological sample and the right collecting time, as well as the proper analysis technique, depending on the purpose of analysis, pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drugs of abuse, available equipment and staff expertise.

  18. [Progress on Determination and Analysis of Zopiclone in Biological Samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, C X; Gong, D; Zhang, L P; Zhao, J X

    2017-12-01

    As a new hypnotic, zopiclone is widely used in clinical treatment. There are many methods for determination of zopiclone, including spectrophotometry, chromatography and chromatography mass spectrum, etc. Present paper reviews different kinds of biological samples associated with zopiclone, extraction and purification methods, and determination and analysis methods, which aims to provide references for the relevant research and practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  19. CeDAMar global database of abyssal biological sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Carol T.; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Smith, Craig R.; Molodtsova, Tina; Brandt, Angelika; Etter, Ron J.; Escobar-briones, Elva; Fabri, Marie-claire; Rex, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The Census of the Diversity of Abyssal Marine Life (CeDAMar), a division of the Census of Marine Life, has compiled the first comprehensive global database of biological samples taken in the abyssal plains of the world ocean. It is an essential resource for planning future exploration of the abyss, for synthesizing patterns of biogeography and biodiversity, and for environmentally safe exploitation of natural resources. The database is described in this article, and made available to investig...

  20. Toxicological Analysis of Some Drugs of Abuse in Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Marie Ciobanu; Daniela Baconi; Cristian Bălălău; Carolina Negrei; Miriana Stan; Maria Bârcă

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of drugs of abuse is a scourge of modern world. Abuse, drug addiction and their consequences are one of the major current problems of European society because of the significant repercussions in individual, family, social and economic level. In this context, toxicological analysis of the drugs of abuse in biological samples is a useful tool for: diagnosis of drug addiction, checking an auto-response, mandatory screening in some treatment programs, identification of a substance ...

  1. Analytical methodologies for the determination of benzodiazepines in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persona, Karolina; Madej, Katarzyna; Knihnicki, Paweł; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2015-09-10

    Benzodiazepine drugs belong to important and most widely used medicaments. They demonstrate such therapeutic properties as anxiolytic, sedative, somnifacient, anticonvulsant, diastolic and muscle relaxant effects. However, despite the fact that benzodiazepines possess high therapeutic index and are considered to be relatively safe, their use can be dangerous when: (1) co-administered with alcohol, (2) co-administered with other medicaments like sedatives, antidepressants, neuroleptics or morphine like substances, (3) driving under their influence, (4) using benzodiazepines non-therapeutically as drugs of abuse or in drug-facilitated crimes. For these reasons benzodiazepines are still studied and determined in a variety of biological materials. In this article, sample preparation techniques which have been applied in analysis of benzodiazepine drugs in biological samples have been reviewed and presented. The next part of the article is focused on a review of analytical methods which have been employed for pharmacological, toxicological or forensic study of this group of drugs in the biological matrices. The review was preceded by a description of the physicochemical properties of the selected benzodiazepines and two, very often coexisting in the same analyzed samples, sedative-hypnotic drugs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Considerations on measurements of radioactivity in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascanzoni, D.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactivity in biological samples and particularly in foodstuffs can be measured with several procedures, depending on the type of sample and radiation. In case of a radioactive fallout like the one from Chernobyl 1986, contamination in biological samples varies with time, being high immediately after the accident and decreasing successively with time. During the first stage, accurate measurements of gamma-emission should be made with high-resolution instruments, like HPGe-detectors coupled to multichannel analyzers in order to be able to assess the fallout's composition and separate the different nuclides. Even portable GM-counters and NaI(Tl)-detectors can be used, but they provide very limited information and the resolution of NaI(Tl) is too poor to make them suitable for other than survey purposes. In this case, they can be used for monitoring the activity in a certain area, or scanning a large amount of samples. After some months, when the activity has decayed and only a few nuclides are still active, the most important parameter is not resolution any longer, but sensitivity, since the content of radionuclides has decreased. At this stage NaI(Tl)-detectors assume greater importance and their sensitivity can permit the detection of low activity levels in relatively short time. The laboratory procedures for sample handling and preparation is also very important: established routines concentrated upon reducing the risk of contamination and minimizing sources of error must be used

  3. Bremsstrahlung background and quantitation of thin biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.M.

    1991-02-01

    An inherent feature of all electron-excited X-ray spectra is the presence of a background upon which the characteristic peaks of interest are superimposed. To extract the x-ray intensity of the characteristics lines of interest, it is necessary to subtract this background, which may be due to both specimen generated Bremsstrahlung and extraneous sources, from a measured x-ray spectrum. Some conventional methods of background subtraction will be briefly reviewed. It has been seen that these conventional methods do not give sufficiently accurate results in biological analysis where the peaks of interest are not well-separated and most of the peaks lie in the region where the background is appreciably curved. An alternative approach of background subtraction for such samples is investigated which involves modelling the background using the currently available knowledge of x-ray physics and energy dispersive detectors. This method is particularly suitable for biological samples as well as other samples having an organic matrix. 6 figs. (author)

  4. Determination of platinum in biological samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji; Sakurai, Hiromu; Haraguchi, Hiroki.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, a Pt compound, Cisplatin (cis-dichlorodiamine platinum) has been used therapeutically as an effective anti-malignant-cancer drug. However, since this drug has a harmful aftereffect on kidney, an urgent study of how to reduce its toxicity without influencing the therapeutic effect is needed. We have to understand the behavior of Pt in biological organs in order to elucidate the mechanism of its toxicity reduction. In this study, the analytical conditions for the determination of Pt in biological samples by neutron activation analysis, such as cooling time, counting time and sample weight, are optimized. Freeze-dried samples of the liver, kidney and whole blood of a rat treated with Cisplatin were prepared to evaluate the precision of the analysis and the lower limit of determination. 199 Au (t 1/2 = 3.15 d) produced from 199 Pt (n, γ, β - ) was selected as the analytical radionuclide. A concentration of ca. 1 ppm Pt was determinable under the optimal conditions: a cooling time of 5 d and a counting time of 1 h. Pt in the respective organs of the control rat was not detected under the same analytical conditions. The concentrations of Pt in the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas and lung of a rat treated with both Cisplatin and sodium selenite were higher than those of a rat treated only with Cisplatin. (author)

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekha, D.; Krishnapriya, B.; Subrahmanyam, P.; Reddyprasad, P.; Dilip Kumar, J.; Chiranjeevi, P.

    2007-01-01

    The method is based on oxidation of p-nitro aniline by vanadium (V) followed by coupling reaction with N-(1-naphthalene-1-y1)ethane-1, 2-diaminedihydrochloride (NEDA) in basic medium of pH 8 to give purple colored derivative. The derivative having an λ max 525nm is stable for 10 days. Beer's law is obeyed for vanadium (V) in the concentration range of 0.03-4.5 μg ml -1 . The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of vanadium in environmental and biological samples. (author)

  6. A low temperature scanning force microscope for biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats Gustaf Lennart [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    An SFM has been constructed capable of operating at 143 K. Two contributions to SFM technology are described: a new method of fabricating tips, and new designs of SFM springs that significantly lower the noise level. The SFM has been used to image several biological samples (including collagen, ferritin, RNA, purple membrane) at 143 K and room temperature. No improvement in resolution resulted from 143 K operation; several possible reasons for this are discussed. Possibly sharper tips may help. The 143 K SFM will allow the study of new categories of samples, such as those prepared by freeze-frame, single molecules (temperature dependence of mechanical properties), etc. The SFM was used to cut single collagen molecules into segments with a precision of {le} 10 nm.

  7. The use of contrast agent for imaging biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, J; Sopko, V; Jakubek, J [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Weyda, F, E-mail: jiri.dammer@utef.cvut.cz [Biological center of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Entomology, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-15

    The technique of X-ray transmission imaging has been available for over a century and is still among the fastest and easiest approaches to the studies of internal structure of biological samples. Recent advances in semiconductor technology have led to the development of new types of X-ray detectors with direct conversion of interacting X-ray photon to an electric signal. Semiconductor pixel detectors seem to be specially promising; compared to the film technique, they provide single-quantum and real-time digital information about the objects being studied. We describe the recently developed radiographic apparatus, equipped with Medipix2 semiconductor pixel detector. The detector is used as an imager that counts individual photons of ionizing radiation, emitted by an X-ray tube (micro- or nano-focus FeinFocus). Thanks to the wide dynamic range of the Medipix2 detector and its high spatial resolution better than 1{mu}m, the setup is particularly suitable for radiographic imaging of small biological samples, including in-vivo observations with contrast agent (Optiray). Along with the description of the apparatus we provide examples of the use iodine contrast agent as a tracer in various insects as model organisms. The motivation of our work is to develop our imaging techniques as non-destructive and non-invasive. Microradiographic imaging helps detect organisms living in a not visible environment, visualize the internal biological processes and also to resolve the details of their body (morphology). Tiny live insects are an ideal object for our studies.

  8. Reconstructing the temporal ordering of biological samples using microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwene, Paul M; Lizardi, Paul; Kim, Junhyong

    2003-05-01

    Accurate time series for biological processes are difficult to estimate due to problems of synchronization, temporal sampling and rate heterogeneity. Methods are needed that can utilize multi-dimensional data, such as those resulting from DNA microarray experiments, in order to reconstruct time series from unordered or poorly ordered sets of observations. We present a set of algorithms for estimating temporal orderings from unordered sets of sample elements. The techniques we describe are based on modifications of a minimum-spanning tree calculated from a weighted, undirected graph. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach by applying these techniques to an artificial data set as well as several gene expression data sets derived from DNA microarray experiments. In addition to estimating orderings, the techniques we describe also provide useful heuristics for assessing relevant properties of sample datasets such as noise and sampling intensity, and we show how a data structure called a PQ-tree can be used to represent uncertainty in a reconstructed ordering. Academic implementations of the ordering algorithms are available as source code (in the programming language Python) on our web site, along with documentation on their use. The artificial 'jelly roll' data set upon which the algorithm was tested is also available from this web site. The publicly available gene expression data may be found at http://genome-www.stanford.edu/cellcycle/ and http://caulobacter.stanford.edu/CellCycle/.

  9. Atypical antipsychotics: trends in analysis and sample preparation of various biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragou, Domniki; Dotsika, Spyridoula; Sarafidou, Parthena; Samanidou, Victoria; Njau, Samuel; Kovatsi, Leda

    2012-05-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are increasingly popular and increasingly prescribed. In some countries, they can even be obtained over-the-counter, without a prescription, making their abuse quite easy. Although atypical antipsychotics are thought to be safer than typical antipsychotics, they still have severe side effects. Intoxications are not rare and some of them have a fatal outcome. Drug interactions involving atypical antipsychotics complicate patient management in clinical settings and the determination of the cause of death in fatalities. In view of the above, analytical strategies that can efficiently isolate atypical antipsychotics from a variety of biological samples and quantify them accurately, sensitively and reliably, are of utmost importance both for the clinical, as well as for the forensic toxicologist. In this review, we will present and discuss novel analytical strategies that have been developed from 2004 to the present day for the determination of atypical antipsychotics in various biological samples.

  10. Proteomic Challenges: Sample Preparation Techniques for Microgram-Quantity Protein Analysis from Biological Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Peter; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins regulate many cellular functions and analyzing the presence and abundance of proteins in biological samples are central focuses in proteomics. The discovery and validation of biomarkers, pathways, and drug targets for various diseases can be accomplished using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, with mass-limited samples like tumor biopsies, it can be challenging to obtain sufficient amounts of proteins to generate high-quality mass spectrometric data. Techniques developed for macroscale quantities recover sufficient amounts of protein from milligram quantities of starting material, but sample losses become crippling with these techniques when only microgram amounts of material are available. To combat this challenge, proteomicists have developed micro-scale techniques that are compatible with decreased sample size (100 μg or lower) and still enable excellent proteome coverage. Extraction, contaminant removal, protein quantitation, and sample handling techniques for the microgram protein range are reviewed here, with an emphasis on liquid chromatography and bottom-up mass spectrometry-compatible techniques. Also, a range of biological specimens, including mammalian tissues and model cell culture systems, are discussed. PMID:25664860

  11. Proteomic challenges: sample preparation techniques for microgram-quantity protein analysis from biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Peter; Hummon, Amanda B

    2015-02-05

    Proteins regulate many cellular functions and analyzing the presence and abundance of proteins in biological samples are central focuses in proteomics. The discovery and validation of biomarkers, pathways, and drug targets for various diseases can be accomplished using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, with mass-limited samples like tumor biopsies, it can be challenging to obtain sufficient amounts of proteins to generate high-quality mass spectrometric data. Techniques developed for macroscale quantities recover sufficient amounts of protein from milligram quantities of starting material, but sample losses become crippling with these techniques when only microgram amounts of material are available. To combat this challenge, proteomicists have developed micro-scale techniques that are compatible with decreased sample size (100 μg or lower) and still enable excellent proteome coverage. Extraction, contaminant removal, protein quantitation, and sample handling techniques for the microgram protein range are reviewed here, with an emphasis on liquid chromatography and bottom-up mass spectrometry-compatible techniques. Also, a range of biological specimens, including mammalian tissues and model cell culture systems, are discussed.

  12. Proteomic Challenges: Sample Preparation Techniques for Microgram-Quantity Protein Analysis from Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Feist

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Proteins regulate many cellular functions and analyzing the presence and abundance of proteins in biological samples are central focuses in proteomics. The discovery and validation of biomarkers, pathways, and drug targets for various diseases can be accomplished using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, with mass-limited samples like tumor biopsies, it can be challenging to obtain sufficient amounts of proteins to generate high-quality mass spectrometric data. Techniques developed for macroscale quantities recover sufficient amounts of protein from milligram quantities of starting material, but sample losses become crippling with these techniques when only microgram amounts of material are available. To combat this challenge, proteomicists have developed micro-scale techniques that are compatible with decreased sample size (100 μg or lower and still enable excellent proteome coverage. Extraction, contaminant removal, protein quantitation, and sample handling techniques for the microgram protein range are reviewed here, with an emphasis on liquid chromatography and bottom-up mass spectrometry-compatible techniques. Also, a range of biological specimens, including mammalian tissues and model cell culture systems, are discussed.

  13. Micro-radiography of biological samples with medical contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, F.; Benes, J.; Sopko, V.; Gelbic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Micro-radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to study the internal structures of objects. This fast and easy imaging tool is based on differential X-ray attenuation by various tissues and structures within biological samples. The experimental setup described is based on the semiconductor pixel X-ray detector Medipix2 and X-ray micro-focus tube. Our micro-radiographic system has been recently used not only for the examination of internal structures of various arthropods and other biological objects but also for tracing some processes in selected model species (we used living larvae of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus). Low concentrations of iodine, lanthanum or gold particles were used as a tracer (contrast agent). Such contrast agents increase the absorption of X-rays and allow a better visibility of internal structures of model organisms (especially the various cavities, pores, etc.). In addition, the movement of tracers in selected timing experiments demonstrates some physiological functions of digestive and excretory system

  14. Micro-radiography of biological samples with medical contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, J., E-mail: jiri.dammer@lf1.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Salmovská 1, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Hospital Na Bulovce, Department of Radiological Physics, Budinova 2, 180 81 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Weyda, F. [Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Benes, J. [Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Salmovská 1, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Sopko, V. [Hospital Na Bulovce, Department of Radiological Physics, Budinova 2, 180 81 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Gelbic, I. [Biology Centre, AS CR, Institute of Entomology, Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-12-01

    Micro-radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to study the internal structures of objects. This fast and easy imaging tool is based on differential X-ray attenuation by various tissues and structures within biological samples. The experimental setup described is based on the semiconductor pixel X-ray detector Medipix2 and X-ray micro-focus tube. Our micro-radiographic system has been recently used not only for the examination of internal structures of various arthropods and other biological objects but also for tracing some processes in selected model species (we used living larvae of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus). Low concentrations of iodine, lanthanum or gold particles were used as a tracer (contrast agent). Such contrast agents increase the absorption of X-rays and allow a better visibility of internal structures of model organisms (especially the various cavities, pores, etc.). In addition, the movement of tracers in selected timing experiments demonstrates some physiological functions of digestive and excretory system.

  15. Negative dielectrophoresis spectroscopy for rare analyte quantification in biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmani, Syed Abdul Mannan; Gudagunti, Fleming Dackson; Velmanickam, Logeeshan; Nawarathna, Dharmakeerthi; Lima, Ivan T., Jr.

    2017-03-01

    We propose the use of negative dielectrophoresis (DEP) spectroscopy as a technique to improve the detection limit of rare analytes in biological samples. We observe a significant dependence of the negative DEP force on functionalized polystyrene beads at the edges of interdigitated electrodes with respect to the frequency of the electric field. We measured this velocity of repulsion for 0% and 0.8% conjugation of avidin with biotin functionalized polystyrene beads with our automated software through real-time image processing that monitors the Rayleigh scattering from the beads. A significant difference in the velocity of the beads was observed in the presence of as little as 80 molecules of avidin per biotin functionalized bead. This technology can be applied in the detection and quantification of rare analytes that can be useful in the diagnosis and the treatment of diseases, such as cancer and myocardial infarction, with the use of polystyrene beads functionalized with antibodies for the target biomarkers.

  16. Digital holography microscopy in 3D biologic samples analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, J O; Palacios, F; Palacios, G F; Sanchez, A [Department of Physics, University of Oriente (Cuba); Muramatsu, M [Department of General Physics, University of Sao Paulo - Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gesualdi, M [Engineering center, Models and Applied Social Science, UFABC - Sao Paulo (Brazil); Font, O [Department of Bio-ingeniering, University of Oriente - Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Valin, J L [Mechanics Department, ISPJAE, Habana (Cuba); Escobedo, M; Herold, S [Department of Computation, University of Oriente (Cuba); Palacios, D F, E-mail: frpalaciosf@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear physics, University of Simon BolIva (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    In this work it is used a setup for Digital Holography Microscopy (MHD) for 3D biologic samples reconstruction. The phase contrast image reconstruction is done by using the Double propagation Method. The system was calibrated and tested by using a micrometric scale and pure phase object respectively. It was simulated the human red blood cell (erythrocyte) and beginning from the simulated hologram the digital 3D phase image for erythrocytes it was calculated. Also there was obtained experimental holograms of human erythrocytes and its corresponding 3D phase images, being evident the correspondence qualitative and quantitative between these characteristics in the simulated erythrocyte and in the experimentally calculated by DHM in both cases.

  17. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. Brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Udo; Biederbick, Walter; Derakshani, Nahid

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense is describing the analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations and includes detail information on the sampling, protocol preparation and documentation procedures. The volume includes a separate brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling.

  18. [Psychoactive substances in biological samples--toxicological laboratory data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka, Ewa; Wilimowska, Jolanta; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Groszek, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The subject of the research was the analysis of frequency and type of psychoactive substances used, basing on the determinations the blood and/or urine samples, performed in the toxicological laboratory of the Department of Clinical and Industrial Toxicology Jagiellonian University in Kraków in the period from December 2001 to November 2003. From 17,649 performed determinations--45.5% were positive. 50% of the positive determinations were psychoactive substances. The most often psychoactive substance determined was ethyl alcohol (52.86%), next benzodiazepines (17.41%), amphetamines (10.54%), opiates (8.05%), THC (6.87%), barbiturates (3.74%), and occasionally atropine and cocaine. There was observed a variety of mixed, simultaneously taking psychoactive substances, especially ethyl alcohol, opiates, amphetamine derivatives and cannabinoids. The analysis of the occurrence of psychoactive substances in biological samples from patients treated in different hospital departments, others hospitals and ordered by private persons also was performed. In the last two years 369 private patients ordered psychoactive substances determinations and 78 of them were positive.

  19. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy for Studying Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard D. Dietzel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM is a scanning probe technique that utilizes the increase in access resistance that occurs if an electrolyte filled glass micro-pipette is approached towards a poorly conducting surface. Since an increase in resistance can be monitored before the physical contact between scanning probe tip and sample, this technique is particularly useful to investigate the topography of delicate samples such as living cells. SICM has shown its potential in various applications such as high resolution and long-time imaging of living cells or the determination of local changes in cellular volume. Furthermore, SICM has been combined with various techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or patch clamping to reveal localized information about proteins or protein functions. This review details the various advantages and pitfalls of SICM and provides an overview of the recent developments and applications of SICM in biological imaging. Furthermore, we show that in principle, a combination of SICM and ion selective micro-electrodes enables one to monitor the local ion activity surrounding a living cell.

  20. Automated force volume image processing for biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Polyakov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has now become a powerful technique for investigating on a molecular level, surface forces, nanomechanical properties of deformable particles, biomolecular interactions, kinetics, and dynamic processes. This paper specifically focuses on the analysis of AFM force curves collected on biological systems, in particular, bacteria. The goal is to provide fully automated tools to achieve theoretical interpretation of force curves on the basis of adequate, available physical models. In this respect, we propose two algorithms, one for the processing of approach force curves and another for the quantitative analysis of retraction force curves. In the former, electrostatic interactions prior to contact between AFM probe and bacterium are accounted for and mechanical interactions operating after contact are described in terms of Hertz-Hooke formalism. Retraction force curves are analyzed on the basis of the Freely Jointed Chain model. For both algorithms, the quantitative reconstruction of force curves is based on the robust detection of critical points (jumps, changes of slope or changes of curvature which mark the transitions between the various relevant interactions taking place between the AFM tip and the studied sample during approach and retraction. Once the key regions of separation distance and indentation are detected, the physical parameters describing the relevant interactions operating in these regions are extracted making use of regression procedure for fitting experiments to theory. The flexibility, accuracy and strength of the algorithms are illustrated with the processing of two force-volume images, which collect a large set of approach and retraction curves measured on a single biological surface. For each force-volume image, several maps are generated, representing the spatial distribution of the searched physical parameters as estimated for each pixel of the force-volume image.

  1. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological

  2. Inter comparison of 90Sr and 137Cs contents in biologic samples and natural U in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfen; Zeng Guangjian; Lu Xuequan

    2001-01-01

    The results of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in biologic samples and the natural U in soil samples obtained in a joint effort by fourteen environmental radiation laboratories in the Chinese environmental protection system were analyzed and compared. Two kinds of biologic samples and one kind of soil samples were used for inter comparison. Of which, one kind of biologic samples (biologic powder samples) and the soil samples came from the IAEA samples were environmental and the reference values were known. The another kind of biologic samples were environmental tea-leaf that were taken from a tea garden near Hangzhou. The mean values obtained by all the joined laboratories was used as the reference. The inter comparison results were expressed in terms of the deviation from the reference value. It was found that the deviation of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents of biologic powder samples ranged from -15.4% to 26.5% and -15.0% to 0.4%, respectively. The deviation of the natural U content ranged from -25.5% to 7.3% for the soil samples. For the tea-leaf, the 90 Sr deviation was -22.7% to 19.1%, and the 137 Cs data had a relative large scatter with a ratio of the maximum and the minimum values being about 7. It was pointed out that the analysis results offered by different laboratories might have involved system errors

  3. "If a Lion Could Speak ...": Online Sensitivity to Propositional Truth-Value of Unrealistic Counterfactual Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S.

    2013-01-01

    People can establish whether a sentence is hypothetically true even if what it describes can never be literally true given the laws of the natural world. Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments examined electrophysiological responses to sentences about unrealistic counterfactual worlds that require people to construct novel conceptual…

  4. Concurrently examining unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism: Temporal shifts, individual-difference and event-specific correlates, and behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthig, Joelle C; Gamblin, Bradlee W; Jones, Kelly; Vanderzanden, Karen; Kehn, Andre

    2017-02-01

    Researchers have spent considerable effort examining unrealistic absolute optimism and unrealistic comparative optimism, yet there is a lack of research exploring them concurrently. This longitudinal study repeatedly assessed unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism within a performance context over several months to identify the degree to which they shift as a function of proximity to performance and performance feedback, their associations with global individual difference and event-specific factors, and their link to subsequent behavioural outcomes. Results showed similar shifts in unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism based on proximity to performance and performance feedback. Moreover, increases in both types of unrealistic optimism were associated with better subsequent performance beyond the effect of prior performance. However, several differences were found between the two forms of unrealistic optimism in their associations with global individual difference factors and event-specific factors, highlighting the distinctiveness of the two constructs. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  5. [Non-conformities management in laboratory of medical biology: application to non-conformities of biological samples during 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaix, Véronique; Rogowski, Julien; Joyau, Mireille; Jaouën, Edtih

    2011-01-01

    The non-conformity management is required for the ISO 15189 standard. The laboratory of medical biology has to carry out suitable acts and procedures to exploit different indicators through the framework of continuous improvement. We particularly study the indicator of biological samples nonconformities and we report 2009 results to the nurses' team managers to find solutions for quality of care to the patient.

  6. Microradiography of biological samples with medici kontrast agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, F.; Beneš, J.; Sopko, V.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 730, DEC 1 (2013), s. 149-151 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : X-ray detectors * X-ray radiography and digital radiography * inspection with X-rays Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013

  7. Manipulation of biological samples using micro and nano techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    to their natural structure. Thanks to the advances in micro- and nanofabrication during the last decades several manipulation techniques offer us the possibility to image, characterize and manipulate biological material in a controlled way. Using these techniques the integration of biomaterials with remarkable...

  8. Molecular Biological Characterization of Air Samples: A Survey of Four Strategically Important Regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesconi, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    .... In support of this requirement, the Joint Program Office for Biological Defense initiated an aggressive program incorporating the development of air-sampling and agent detecting devices, coined...

  9. Amines as extracting agents for the quantitative determinations of actinides in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    The use of amines (primary, secondary and tertiary chains and quaternary ammonium salts) as extracting agents for the quantitative determination of actinides in biological samples is reviewed. Among the primary amines, only Primene JM-T is used to determine Pu in urine and bone. No one has investigated the possibility of using secondary amines to quantitatively extract actinides from biological samples. Among the tertiary amines, tri-n-octylamine, tri-iso-octylamine, tyricaprylamine (Alamine) and trilaurylamine (tridodecylamine) are used extensively to extract and separate the actinides from biological samples. Only one quaternary ammonium salt, methyltricapryl ammonium chloride (Aliquat-336), is used to extract Pu from biological samples. (author) 28 refs

  10. 9 CFR 113.3 - Sampling of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... into the United States as prescribed in this section. Additional samples may be purchased in the open market by a Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service representative. (a) Either an employee of the... operation. Bulk containers of completed product may be sampled when authorized by the Administrator. (iii...

  11. The measurement of radioactive microspheres in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mernagh, J.R.; Spiers, E.W.; Adiseshiah, M.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the distribution of radioactive microspheres are used in investigations of regional coronary blood flow, but the size and shape of the heart varies for different test animals, and the organ is frequently divided into smaller pieces for studies of regional perfusion. Errors are introduced by variations in the distribution of the radioactive source and the amount of Compton scatter in different samples. A technique has therefore been developed to allow the counting of these tissue samples in their original form, and correction factors have been derived to inter-relate the various counting geometries thus encountered. Dogs were injected with microspheres labelled with 141 Ce, 51 Cr or 85 Sr. The tissue samples did not require remodelling to fit a standard container, and allowance was made for the inhomogeneous distribution in the blood samples. The activities in the centrifuged blood samples were correlated with those from the tissue samples by a calibration procedure involving comparisons of the counts from samples of microspheres embedded in sachets of gelatine, and similar samples mixed with blood and then centrifuged. The calibration data have indicated that 51 Cr behaves anomalously, and its use as a label for microspheres may introduce unwarranted errors. A plane cylindrical 10 x 20 cm NaI detector was used, and a 'worst case' correction of 20% was found to be necessary for geometry effects. The accuracy of this method of correlating different geometries was tested by remodelling the same tissue sample into different sizes and comparing the results, and the validity of the technique was supported by agreement of the final results with previously published data. (U.K.)

  12. Sample preparation techniques of biological material for isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axmann, H.; Sebastianelli, A.; Arrillaga, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Sample preparation is an essential step in all isotope-aided experiments but often it is not given enough attention. The methods of sample preparation are very important to obtain reliable and precise analytical data and for further interpretation of results. The size of a sample required for chemical analysis is usually very small (10mg-1500mg). On the other hand the amount of harvested plant material from plots in a field experiment is often bulky (several kilograms) and the entire sample is too large for processing. In addition, while approaching maturity many crops show not only differences in physical consistency but also a non-uniformity in 15 N content among plant parts, requiring a plant fractionation or separation into parts (vegetative and reproductive) e.g. shoots and spikes, in case of small grain cereals, shoots and pods in case of grain legumes and tops and roots or beets (including crown) in case of sugar beet, etc. In any case the ultimate goal of these procedures is to obtain representative subsample harvested from greenhouse or field experiments for chemical analysis. Before harvesting an isotopic-aided experiment the method of sampling has to be selected. It should be based on the type of information required in relation to the objectives of the research and the availability of resources (staff, sample preparation equipment, analytical facilities, chemicals and supplies, etc.). 10 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Unrealistic comparative optimism: An unsuccessful search for evidence of a genuinely motivational bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adam J L; de Molière, Laura; Soh, Melinda; Hahn, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    One of the most accepted findings across psychology is that people are unrealistically optimistic in their judgments of comparative risk concerning future life events-they judge negative events as less likely to happen to themselves than to the average person. Harris and Hahn (2011), however, demonstrated how unbiased (non-optimistic) responses can result in data patterns commonly interpreted as indicative of optimism due to statistical artifacts. In the current paper, we report the results of 5 studies that control for these statistical confounds and observe no evidence for residual unrealistic optimism, even observing a 'severity effect' whereby severe outcomes were overestimated relative to neutral ones (Studies 3 & 4). We conclude that there is no evidence supporting an optimism interpretation of previous results using the prevalent comparison method.

  14. SOCIAL-COMPARISON OF HEALTH RISKS - LOCUS OF CONTROL, THE PERSON-POSITIVITY BIAS, AND UNREALISTIC OPTIMISM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOORENS, [No Value; BUUNK, BP

    1993-01-01

    People typically attribute lower health risks to themselves than to others, a phenomenon referred to as unrealistic optimism. The present study tested the person positivity bias as a previously unexamined explanation of the phenomenon and analyzed the relationship between unrealistic optimism and

  15. The use contrast agent for imaging biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, František; Sopko, V.; Jakůbek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, C01096 (2011), s. 1-7 ISSN 1748-0221. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /12./. Cambridge, 11.07.2010-15.7.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant - others:Research Program(CZ) 6840770029; Research Program(CZ) 6840770040; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600550614; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06007; GA MŠk(CZ) 1PO4LA211; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Program:IA; 2B; LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : x-ray radiography and digital radiography (DR) * x-ray detectors * inspections with x-rays Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  16. Energy loss and straggling of MeV ions through biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lei; Wang Yugang; Xue Jianming; Chen Qizhong; Zhang Weiming; Zhang Yanwen

    2007-01-01

    Energy loss and energy straggling of energetic ions through natural dehydrated biological samples were investigated using transmission technique. Biological samples (onion membrane, egg coat, and tomato coat) with different mass thickness were studied, together with Mylar for comparison. The energy loss and energy straggling of MeV H and He ions after penetrating the biological and Mylar samples were measured. The experimental results show that the average energy losses of MeV ions through the biological samples are consistent with SRIM predictions; however, large deviation in energy straggling is observed between the measured results and the SRIM predictions. Taking into account inhomogeneity in mass density and structure of the biological sample, an energy straggling formula is suggested, and the experimental energy straggling values are well predicted by the proposed formula

  17. Soft Robotic Grippers for Biological Sampling on Deep Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kevin C; Becker, Kaitlyn P; Phillips, Brennan; Kirby, Jordan; Licht, Stephen; Tchernov, Dan; Wood, Robert J; Gruber, David F

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the development of an underwater gripper that utilizes soft robotics technology to delicately manipulate and sample fragile species on the deep reef. Existing solutions for deep sea robotic manipulation have historically been driven by the oil industry, resulting in destructive interactions with undersea life. Soft material robotics relies on compliant materials that are inherently impedance matched to natural environments and to soft or fragile organisms. We demonstrate design principles for soft robot end effectors, bench-top characterization of their grasping performance, and conclude by describing in situ testing at mesophotic depths. The result is the first use of soft robotics in the deep sea for the nondestructive sampling of benthic fauna.

  18. Transuranium analysis methodologies for biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessman, R.A.; Lee, K.D.; Curry, B.; Leventhal, L.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the most abundant transuranium nuclides in the environment (i.e., plutonium and, to a lesser extent, americium) are available. There is a lack of procedures for doing sequential analysis for Np, Pu, Am, and Cm in environmental samples, primarily because of current emphasis on Pu and Am. Reprocessing requirements and waste disposal connected with the fuel cycle indicate that neptunium and curium must be considered in environmental radioactive assessments. Therefore it was necessary to develop procedures that determine all four of these radionuclides in the environment. The state of the art of transuranium analysis methodology as applied to environmental samples is discussed relative to different sample sources, such as soil, vegetation, air, water, and animals. Isotope-dilution analysis with 243 Am ( 239 Np) and 236 Pu or 242 Pu radionuclide tracers is used. Americium and curium are analyzed as a group, with 243 Am as the tracer. Sequential extraction procedures employing bis(2-ethyl-hexyl)orthophosphoric acid (HDEHP) were found to result in lower yields and higher Am--Cm fractionation than ion-exchange methods

  19. Manipulation of nanoparticles and biological samples through enhanced optical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin

    Non-invasive optical manipulation of particles has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool for biological study and nanotechnology. We propose and demonstrate large scale nanoparticle assembly using opto-thermal force produced by conventional optical tweezers. This method is shown to allow precise concentration and assembly of particles including carbon-nanotubes, VO2 nanorods, and CdTe quantum dots. Assembled devices were shown to have good contact with patterned electrodes. In addition, we propose and demonstrate a purely optical approach to rotate and align particles using the interaction of polarized light with photonic crystal nanostructures to generate enhanced trapping force. With a weakly focused laser beam we observed efficient trapping and transportation of polystyrene beads with sizes ranging from 10 microm down to 190 nm as well as cancer cell nuclei. In addition, we demonstrated alignment of non-spherical particles using a 1-D photonic crystal structure. Bacterial cells were trapped, rotated and aligned with optical intensity as low as 17 microW/microm 2. This approach can be extended to using 2-D photonic crystal nanostructures for full rotation control.

  20. Analysis of biological samples by x-ray attenuation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been an increasing interest in X-ray attenuation measurements, mainly due to the enormous development of computer assisted tomography (CAT). With CAT, analytical information concerning the density and the mean atomic number distributions in a sample is deduced from a large number of attenuation measurements. Particular transmission methods developed, based on the differential attenuation method are discussed. The theoretical background for attenuation of radiation and for differential attenuation of radiation is given. Details about the generation of monoenergetic X-rays are discussed. Applications of attenuation measurements in the field of Medicine are presented

  1. Determination of palladium in biological samples applying nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Cassio Q.; Sato, Ivone M.; Salvador, Vera L. R.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2008-01-01

    This study presents Pd determinations in bovine tissue samples containing palladium prepared in the laboratory, and CCQM-P63 automotive catalyst materials of the Proficiency Test, using instrumental thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques. Solvent extraction and solid phase extraction procedures were also applied to separate Pd from interfering elements before the irradiation in the nuclear reactor. The results obtained by different techniques were compared against each other to examine sensitivity, precision and accuracy. (author)

  2. Hexagonal ice in pure water and biological NMR samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas; Gath, Julia; Hunkeler, Andreas; Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [UMR 5086 CNRS, Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    Ice, in addition to “liquid” water and protein, is an important component of protein samples for NMR spectroscopy at subfreezing temperatures but it has rarely been observed spectroscopically in this context. We characterize its spectroscopic behavior in the temperature range from 100 to 273 K, and find that it behaves like pure water ice. The interference of magic-angle spinning (MAS) as well as rf multiple-pulse sequences with Bjerrum-defect motion greatly influences the ice spectra.

  3. Elemental distribution and sample integrity comparison of freeze-dried and frozen-hydrated biological tissue samples with nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavpetič, P., E-mail: primoz.vavpetic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikuš, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeromel, L. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc Potočnik, N. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pongrac, P. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Plant Physiology, University of Bayreuth, Universitätstr. 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Drobne, D.; Pipan Tkalec, Ž.; Novak, S.; Kos, M.; Koren, Š.; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of biological samples in frozen-hydrated state with micro-PIXE technique at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe has matured to a point that enables us to measure and examine frozen tissue samples routinely as a standard research method. Cryotome-cut slice of frozen-hydrated biological sample is mounted between two thin foils and positioned on the sample holder. The temperature of the cold stage in the measuring chamber is kept below 130 K throughout the insertion of the samples and the proton beam exposure. Matrix composition of frozen-hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Sample deterioration during proton beam exposure is monitored during the experiment, as both Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) in on–off axis geometry are recorded together with the events in two PIXE detectors and backscattered ions from the chopper in a single list-mode file. The aim of this experiment was to determine differences and similarities between two kinds of biological sample preparation techniques for micro-PIXE analysis, namely freeze-drying and frozen-hydrated sample preparation in order to evaluate the improvements in the elemental localisation of the latter technique if any. In the presented work, a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping at JSI was used with five detection systems operating in parallel, with proton beam cross section of 1.0 × 1.0 μm{sup 2} and a beam current of 100 pA. The comparison of the resulting elemental distributions measured at the biological tissue prepared in the frozen-hydrated and in the freeze-dried state revealed differences in elemental distribution of particular elements at the cellular level due to the morphology alteration in particular tissue compartments induced either by water removal in the lyophilisation process or by unsatisfactory preparation of samples for cutting and mounting during the shock-freezing phase of sample preparation.

  4. Standard reporting requirements for biological samples in metabolomics experiments: Microbial and in vitro biology experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Takors, R.; Smedsgaard, J.; Nielsen, J.; Ferenci, T.; Portais, J.C.; Wittmann, C.; Hooks, M.; Tomassini, A.; Oldiges, M.; Fostel, J.; Sauer, U.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing use of metabolomics as a means to study a large number of different biological research questions, there is a need for a minimal set of reporting standards that allow the scientific community to evaluate, understand, repeat, compare and re-investigate metabolomics studies. Here

  5. Scanning electron microscope autoradiography of critical point dried biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the localization of isotopes in the scanning electron microscope. Autoradiographic studies have been performed using a model system and a unicellular biflagellate alga. One requirement of this technique is that all manipulations be carried out on samples that are maintained in a liquid state. Observations of a source of radiation ( 125 I-ferritin) show that the nuclear emulsion used to detect radiation is active under these conditions. Efficiency measurement performed using 125 I-ferritin indicate that 125 I-SEM autoradiography is an efficient process that exhibits a 'dose dependent' response. Two types of labeling methods were used with cells, surface labeling with 125 I and internal labeling with 3 H. Silver grains appeared on labeled cells after autoradiography, removal of residual gelatin and critical point drying. The location of grains was examined on a flagellated green alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardi) capable of undergoing cell fusion. Fusion experiments using labeled and unlabeled cells indicate that 1. Labeling is specific for incorporated radioactivity; 2. Cell surface structure is preserved in SEM autoradiographs and 3. The technique appears to produce reliable autoradiographs. Thus scanning electron microscope autoradiography should provide a new and useful experimental approach

  6. Evaluation of lead in biological samples treated with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, O.M.

    1996-01-01

    The active dry yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae was able to remove lead successfully from the media. The yeast cells (5 g/100 ml) tolerated up to 8190 ppm lead. The most appropriate conditions for better uptake was when the yeast cells were incubated for 2 hours with different concentrations of lead. Both live and dead cells showed an uptake that exceeded 80% even when there was only 16% of the cells alive. The X RF technique proved that lead is associated with the cells, little, or no lead is found in the media after incubation. Lead bio sorption was investigated in concentrations ranging from 500 to 8000 ppm, the uptake followed the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models and was found to be 180 mg/g when the incubation was for 2 h rs. Increasing the concentration of peptone from 0 to 1.5% induced a significant increase in metal removal. Incubating the metal with the cells at 45% showed an uptake that reached 97.44%. Radiation affected the metal uptake to a great extent, increasing the dose of exposure to the cells incubated with lead. led to the increase in the uptake of the metal. When the dose of exposure was 8 kGy, the metal removal reached a maximum of 91% compared to 84 for non-irradiated samples. When the irradiated cells were incubated with lead a variable uptake capacity was observed. When the cells were exposed to 4 kGy, they were capable of removing the metal more efficiently, other exposure doses showed an uptake that was almost the same. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that lead was deposited as electron dense granules around the cells. The EDX identified the metal. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the cells was affected when radiation was used, the cells shrunk and lost their ellipsoidal shape, while the addition of lead did not affect their morphology at all

  7. Magnetic separation techniques in sample preparation for biological analysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jincan; Huang, Meiying; Wang, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke

    2014-12-01

    Sample preparation is a fundamental and essential step in almost all the analytical procedures, especially for the analysis of complex samples like biological and environmental samples. In past decades, with advantages of superparamagnetic property, good biocompatibility and high binding capacity, functionalized magnetic materials have been widely applied in various processes of sample preparation for biological analysis. In this paper, the recent advancements of magnetic separation techniques based on magnetic materials in the field of sample preparation for biological analysis were reviewed. The strategy of magnetic separation techniques was summarized. The synthesis, stabilization and bio-functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles were reviewed in detail. Characterization of magnetic materials was also summarized. Moreover, the applications of magnetic separation techniques for the enrichment of protein, nucleic acid, cell, bioactive compound and immobilization of enzyme were described. Finally, the existed problems and possible trends of magnetic separation techniques for biological analysis in the future were proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Mass spectrometry technology and its application in analysis of biological samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long-Shan; Li, Qing; Guo, Chao-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Kai-Shun

    2012-02-01

    With the excellent merits of wide analytical range, high sensitivity, small sample size, fast analysis speed, good repeatability, simple operation, low mobile phase consumption, as well as its capability of simultaneous isolation and identification, etc, mass spectrometry techniques have become widely used in the area of environmental science, energy chemical industry, biological medicine, and so on. This article reviews the application of mass spectrometry technology in biological sample analysis in the latest three years with the focus on the new applications in pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence, toxicokinetics, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic, population pharmacokinetics, identification and fragmentation pathways of drugs and their metabolites and metabonomics to provide references for further study of biological sample analysis.

  9. o-TOF ICPMS analysis of environmental, food and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejcova, A.; Cernohorsky, T.; Ludvikova, I.; Pouzar, M.; Capova, L.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: o-TOF ICPMS was used for inorganic analysis of environmental, food and biological samples. The method validity was proved by analysis of spiked samples, reference materials, by determination without/with internal standards and the standard addition technique. The technique was shown to be powerful, and reliable for analysis of the samples mentioned, and high sample throughput enables environmental or biological screening studies. Independent of the number of elements analyzed, complete analysis and whole mass spectra are gained from a small sample amount in a very short time. (author)

  10. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation applied to biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, S.M.; Matsumoto, E.; Jesus, E.F.O.; Lopes, R.T.; Perez, C.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.; Costa, R.S.S.; Tavares do Carmo, M.G.; Saunders, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence has been applied for trace elements in water and aqueous solutions, environmental samples and biological materials after sample preparation and to surface analysis of silicon wafers. The present paper shows some results of applications for rainwater, atmospheric particulate material, colostrum and nuclear samples. (author)

  11. Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a...

  12. Sample Preparation and Identification of Biological, Chemical and Mid-Spectrum Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hancock, J. R; Dragon, D. C

    2005-01-01

    A general survey of sample preparation and identification techniques for biological, chemical and mid-spectrum agents was conducted as part of Canada's contribution to a joint NATO Allied Engineering Publication (AEP) handbook...

  13. [Confirming Indicators of Qualitative Results by Chromatography-mass Spectrometry in Biological Samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S D; Zhang, D M; Zhang, W; Zhang, W F

    2017-04-01

    Because of the exist of complex matrix, the confirming indicators of qualitative results for toxic substances in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry are different from that in non-biological samples. Even in biological samples, the confirming indicators are different in various application areas. This paper reviews the similarities and differences of confirming indicators for the analyte in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry in the field of forensic toxicological analysis and other application areas. These confirming indicators include retention time (RT), relative retention time (RRT), signal to noise (S/N), characteristic ions, relative abundance of characteristic ions, parent ion-daughter ion pair and abundance ratio of ion pair, etc. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  14. Dynamical 'in situ' observation of biological samples using variable pressure scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedela, V

    2008-01-01

    Possibilities of 'in-situ' observation of non-conductive biological samples free of charging artefacts in dynamically changed surrounding conditions are the topic of this work. The observed biological sample, the tongue of a rat, was placed on a cooled Peltier stage. We studied the visibility of topographical structure depending on transition between liquid and gas state of water in the specimen chamber of VP SEM.

  15. Unrealistic Assumptions in Economics: an Analysis under the Logic of Socioeconomic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ivarola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The realism of assumptions is an ongoing debate within the philosophy of economics. One of the most referenced papers in this matter belongs to Milton Friedman. He defends the use of unrealistic assumptions, not only because of a pragmatic issue, but also the intrinsic difficulties of determining the extent of realism. On the other hand, realists have criticized (and still do today the use of unrealistic assumptions - such as the assumption of rational choice, perfect information, homogeneous goods, etc. However, they did not accompany their statements with a proper epistemological argument that supports their positions. In this work it is expected to show that the realism of (a particular sort of assumptions is clearly relevant when examining economic models, since the system under study (the real economies is not compatible with logic of invariance and of mechanisms, but with the logic of possibility trees. Because of this, models will not function as tools for predicting outcomes, but as representations of alternative scenarios, whose similarity to the real world will be examined in terms of the verisimilitude of a class of model assumptions

  16. Sample preparation strategies for food and biological samples prior to nanoparticle detection and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Löschner, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    microscopy (TEM) proved to be necessary for trouble shooting of results obtained from AFFF-LS-ICP-MS. Aqueous and enzymatic extraction strategies were tested for thorough sample preparation aiming at degrading the sample matrix and to liberate the AgNPs from chicken meat into liquid suspension. The resulting...... AFFF-ICP-MS fractograms, which corresponded to the enzymatic digests, showed a major nano-peak (about 80 % recovery of AgNPs spiked to the meat) plus new smaller peaks that eluted close to the void volume of the fractograms. Small, but significant shifts in retention time of AFFF peaks were observed...... for the meat sample extracts and the corresponding neat AgNP suspension, and rendered sizing by way of calibration with AgNPs as sizing standards inaccurate. In order to gain further insight into the sizes of the separated AgNPs, or their possible dissolved state, fractions of the AFFF eluate were collected...

  17. Solid Phase Microextraction and Related Techniques for Drugs in Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Said, Rana; Bassyouni, Fatma; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In drug discovery and development, the quantification of drugs in biological samples is an important task for the determination of the physiological performance of the investigated drugs. After sampling, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. Because of the low concentration levels of drug in plasma and the variety of the metabolites, the selected extraction technique should be virtually exhaustive. Recent developments of sample handling techniques are directed, from o...

  18. Microfluidic devices for sample clean-up and screening of biological samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical chemistry plays an important role in the separation and identification of analytes from raw samples (e.g. plant extracts, blood), but the whole analytical process is tedious, difficult to automate and time consuming. To overcome these drawbacks, the concept of μTAS (miniaturized total

  19. Application of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to biological sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hifumi

    1990-01-01

    Some major issues and problems related with the analysis of biological samples are discussed, focusing on demonstrated and possible solutions and the application of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to investigation of the composition of biological samples. The effective use of secondary electrons in combination with negative ions is most practical for the analysis of biological samples. Regardless of whether positive or negative ions are used, the electric potential at the surface of a sample stays around a constant value because of the absense of the accumulation of electric charges at the surface, leading to almost complete avoidance of the charging of the biological sample. A soft tissue sample can suffer damage to the tissue or migration of atoms in removing water from the sample. Some processes including fixation and freeze drying are available to prevent this. The application of SIMS to biological analysis is still in the basic research stage and further studies will be required to develop practical methods. Possible areas of its application include medicine, pathology, toxicology, pharmacology, plant physiology and other areas related with marine life and marine contamination. (N.K.)

  20. Determination of drugs in biological fluids by direct injection of samples for liquid-chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullett, Wayne M

    2007-03-10

    The analysis of drugs in various biological fluids is an important criterion for the determination of the physiological performance of a drug. After sampling of the biological fluid, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. The complexity of biological fluids adds to the challenge of direct determination of the drug by chromatographic analysis, therefore demanding a sample preparation step that is often time-consuming, tedious, and frequently overlooked. However, direct on-line injection methods offer the advantage of reducing sample preparation steps and enabling effective pre-concentration and clean-up of biological fluids. These procedures can be automated and therefore reduce the requirements for handling potentially infectious biomaterial, improve reproducibility, and minimize sample manipulations and potential contamination. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the existing literature with emphasis on advances in automated sample preparation methods for liquid-chromatographic methods. More specifically, this review concentrates on the use of direct injection techniques, such as restricted-access materials, turbulent-flow chromatography and other automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures. It also includes short overviews of emerging automated extraction-phase technologies, such as molecularly imprinted polymers, in-tube solid-phase micro-extraction, and micro-extraction in a packed syringe for a more selective extraction of analytes from complex samples, providing further improvements in the analysis of biological materials. Lastly, the outlook for these methods and potential new applications for these technologies are briefly discussed.

  1. A method for three-dimensional quantitative observation of the microstructure of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Chen, Dieyan; Ma, Wanyun; Wu, Hongxin; Ji, Liang; Sun, Jialin; Lv, Danyu; Zhang, Lu; Li, Ying; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Jinggao; Zhao, Fengying

    2009-07-01

    Contemporary biology has developed into the era of cell biology and molecular biology, and people try to study the mechanism of all kinds of biological phenomena at the microcosmic level now. Accurate description of the microstructure of biological samples is exigent need from many biomedical experiments. This paper introduces a method for 3-dimensional quantitative observation on the microstructure of vital biological samples based on two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). TPLSM is a novel kind of fluorescence microscopy, which has excellence in its low optical damage, high resolution, deep penetration depth and suitability for 3-dimensional (3D) imaging. Fluorescent stained samples were observed by TPLSM, and afterward the original shapes of them were obtained through 3D image reconstruction. The spatial distribution of all objects in samples as well as their volumes could be derived by image segmentation and mathematic calculation. Thus the 3-dimensionally and quantitatively depicted microstructure of the samples was finally derived. We applied this method to quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of chromosomes in meiotic mouse oocytes at metaphase, and wonderful results came out last.

  2. A study on the ranges of low energy ions in biological samples and its mechanism of biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ting; Xie Liqing; Li Junping; Xia Ji

    1993-01-01

    The seeds of wheat and bean are irradiated by iron ion beam with energy 100 keV. The RBS spectra of the samples are observed and the ranges and distributions of the iron ions in the wheat and bean are calculated theoretically by means of Monte Carlo method. The results of theory and experiment are compared and the mechanism of biological effects induced by ion is discussed

  3. Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, M; Zhang, F; Chen, B; Bhartiya, A; Cunnea, K; Wagner, U; Cacho-Nerin, F; Schwenke, J; Robinson, I K

    2017-03-01

    Biological sample-preparation procedures have been developed for imaging human chromosomes under cryogenic conditions. A new experimental setup, developed for imaging frozen samples using beamline I13 at Diamond Light Source, is described. This manuscript describes the equipment and experimental procedures as well as the authors' first ptychographic reconstructions using X-rays.

  4. Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological sample-preparation procedures have been developed for imaging human chromosomes under cryogenic conditions. A new experimental setup, developed for imaging frozen samples using beamline I13 at Diamond Light Source, is described. This manuscript describes the equipment and experimental procedures as well as the authors' first ptychographic reconstructions using X-rays.

  5. Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM) for the imaging of biological samples at sub-nanometer resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joens, Matthew S.; Huynh, Chuong; Kasuboski, James M.; Ferranti, David; Sigal, Yury J.; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Obst, Martin; Burkhardt, Claus J.; Curran, Kevin P.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.; Stern, Lewis A.; Goetze, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has long been the standard in imaging the sub-micrometer surface ultrastructure of both hard and soft materials. In the case of biological samples, it has provided great insights into their physical architecture. However, three of the fundamental challenges in the SEM imaging of soft materials are that of limited imaging resolution at high magnification, charging caused by the insulating properties of most biological samples and the loss of subtle surface features by heavy metal coating. These challenges have recently been overcome with the development of the Helium Ion Microscope (HIM), which boasts advances in charge reduction, minimized sample damage, high surface contrast without the need for metal coating, increased depth of field, and 5 angstrom imaging resolution. We demonstrate the advantages of HIM for imaging biological surfaces as well as compare and contrast the effects of sample preparation techniques and their consequences on sub-nanometer ultrastructure.

  6. Preparation of Biological Samples Containing Metoprolol and Bisoprolol for Applying Methods for Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Mahu Ştefania

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a complex disease with many serious complications, representing a leading cause of mortality. Selective beta-blockers such as metoprolol and bisoprolol are frequently used in the management of hypertension. Numerous analytical methods have been developed for the determination of these substances in biological fluids, such as liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography. Due to the complex composition of biological fluids a biological sample pre-treatment before the use of the method for quantitative determination is required in order to remove proteins and potential interferences. The most commonly used methods for processing biological samples containing metoprolol and bisoprolol were identified through a thorough literature search using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Willey Journals databases. Articles published between years 2005-2015 were reviewed. Protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction are the main techniques for the extraction of these drugs from plasma, serum, whole blood and urine samples. In addition, numerous other techniques have been developed for the preparation of biological samples, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, carrier-mediated liquid phase microextraction, hollow fiber-protected liquid phase microextraction, on-line molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The analysis of metoprolol and bisoprolol in human plasma, urine and other biological fluids provides important information in clinical and toxicological trials, thus requiring the application of appropriate extraction techniques for the detection of these antihypertensive substances at nanogram and picogram levels.

  7. In modelling effects of global warming, invalid assumptions lead to unrealistic projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; McKenzie, David J; Nilsson, Göran E

    2018-02-01

    In their recent Opinion, Pauly and Cheung () provide new projections of future maximum fish weight (W ∞ ). Based on criticism by Lefevre et al. (2017) they changed the scaling exponent for anabolism, d G . Here we find that changing both d G and the scaling exponent for catabolism, b, leads to the projection that fish may even become 98% smaller with a 1°C increase in temperature. This unrealistic outcome indicates that the current W ∞ is unlikely to be explained by the Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory (GOLT) and, therefore, GOLT cannot be used as a mechanistic basis for model projections about fish size in a warmer world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems.

  9. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, A; Kuznetsov, D; Kolesnikov, E; Chuprunov, K; Kondakov, S; Osipov, A; Samsonova, J

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems. (paper)

  10. Electromembrane extraction as a rapid and selective miniaturized sample preparation technique for biological fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Seip, Knut Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    This special report discusses the sample preparation method electromembrane extraction, which was introduced in 2006 as a rapid and selective miniaturized extraction method. The extraction principle is based on isolation of charged analytes extracted from an aqueous sample, across a thin film....... Technical aspects of electromembrane extraction, important extraction parameters as well as a handful of examples of applications from different biological samples and bioanalytical areas are discussed in the paper....

  11. Standard operating procedure for combustion of 14C - samples with OX-500 biological material oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure is for the purpose of safe operation of OX-500 biological material oxidizer. For ease of operation, the operation flow chart (including testing the system and sample combustion) and end of day maintenance flow chart were simplified. The front view, diagrams and switches are duly copied from operating manual. Steps on sample preparation are also included for biotic and a biotic samples. This operating procedure is subjected to future reviews

  12. Quantitating morphological changes in biological samples during scanning electron microscopy sample preparation with correlative super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Huang, Tao; Jorgens, Danielle M; Nickerson, Andrew; Lin, Li-Jung; Pelz, Joshua; Gray, Joe W; López, Claudia S; Nan, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Sample preparation is critical to biological electron microscopy (EM), and there have been continuous efforts on optimizing the procedures to best preserve structures of interest in the sample. However, a quantitative characterization of the morphological changes associated with each step in EM sample preparation is currently lacking. Using correlative EM and superresolution microscopy (SRM), we have examined the effects of different drying methods as well as osmium tetroxide (OsO4) post-fixation on cell morphology during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) sample preparation. Here, SRM images of the sample acquired under hydrated conditions were used as a baseline for evaluating morphological changes as the sample went through SEM sample processing. We found that both chemical drying and critical point drying lead to a mild cellular boundary retraction of ~60 nm. Post-fixation by OsO4 causes at least 40 nm additional boundary retraction. We also found that coating coverslips with adhesion molecules such as fibronectin prior to cell plating helps reduce cell distortion from OsO4 post-fixation. These quantitative measurements offer useful information for identifying causes of cell distortions in SEM sample preparation and improving current procedures.

  13. Chemometric and Statistical Analyses of ToF-SIMS Spectra of Increasingly Complex Biological Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E S; Wu, L; Fortson, S L; Nelson, D O; Kulp, K S; Wu, K J

    2007-10-24

    Characterizing and classifying molecular variation within biological samples is critical for determining fundamental mechanisms of biological processes that will lead to new insights including improved disease understanding. Towards these ends, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to examine increasingly complex samples of biological relevance, including monosaccharide isomers, pure proteins, complex protein mixtures, and mouse embryo tissues. The complex mass spectral data sets produced were analyzed using five common statistical and chemometric multivariate analysis techniques: principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and decision tree analysis by recursive partitioning. PCA was found to be a valuable first step in multivariate analysis, providing insight both into the relative groupings of samples and into the molecular basis for those groupings. For the monosaccharides, pure proteins and protein mixture samples, all of LDA, PLSDA, and SIMCA were found to produce excellent classification given a sufficient number of compound variables calculated. For the mouse embryo tissues, however, SIMCA did not produce as accurate a classification. The decision tree analysis was found to be the least successful for all the data sets, providing neither as accurate a classification nor chemical insight for any of the tested samples. Based on these results we conclude that as the complexity of the sample increases, so must the sophistication of the multivariate technique used to classify the samples. PCA is a preferred first step for understanding ToF-SIMS data that can be followed by either LDA or PLSDA for effective classification analysis. This study demonstrates the strength of ToF-SIMS combined with multivariate statistical and chemometric techniques to classify increasingly complex biological samples

  14. Research on stored biological samples: views of African American and White American cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Rebecca D; Billot, Laurent; Wendler, David

    2006-04-01

    Proposals on consent for research with biological samples should be informed by empirical studies of individuals' views. Studies to date queried mostly white research subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the views of two groups of patients: cancer patients at a university clinic (Winship Cancer Institute at Emory Healthcare) and cancer patients at an inner city county hospital (Grady) who were given the option of tissue banking. Overall, 315/452 (70%) patients completed the survey. The Grady cohort was 86% African American; the Winship cohort was 82% White. The vast majority (95%) of individuals in both cohorts agreed to provide a biological sample for future research. Both cohorts were willing for their samples to be used to study cancer and other diseases, including Alzheimer disease. Few participants preferred to control the disease to be studied (10%) or wished to be contacted again for consent for each future research project (11%). In our sample, almost all clinical patients, regardless of site of care, ethnicity or socioeconomic status, were willing to provide a biological sample for research purposes and allow investigators to determine the research to be done without contacting the patients again. These findings support the recommendation to offer individuals a simplified consent with a one-time binary choice whether to provide biological samples for future research. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. JURISPRUDENTIAL EXAMINATION REGARDING BIOLOGICAL SAMPLING IN THE CASE OF CONVICTED PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela\tNEMŢOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research devotes particular attention to the timing of biological sampling in the case of convicted persons. The main idea of the research is the factual situation regarding the criminal case law, which is not unified; problematic that prevents the formation of the National System of Judicial Genetic Data. Materials and Methods: The study focuses on evaluating the two opinions of jurisprudence on the implementation of the text of the law (Law no. 76/2008. Results: The carried research on different cases has shown that legal text is not mandatory, but its application is arbitrary, at the discretion of the court, but, nevertheless, the biological sampling in the case of convicted persons disregards the form for penalty. Conclusions: In the context of the creation of the National System of Judicial Genetic Data is a control condition on the typology of criminal profiling, we believe that biological sampling should be a priority to ensure safety of the individual.

  16. On the accuracy of protein determination in large biological samples by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasviki, K. [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis 15310 (Greece); Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Stamatelatos, I.E. [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis 15310 (Greece)], E-mail: ion@ipta.demokritos.gr; Yannakopoulou, E. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis 15310 (Greece); Papadopoulou, P. [Institute of Technology of Agricultural Products, NAGREF, Lycovrissi, Attikis 14123 (Greece); Kalef-Ezra, J. [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

    2007-10-15

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility has been developed for the determination of nitrogen and thus total protein in large volume biological samples or the whole body of small animals. In the present work, the accuracy of nitrogen determination by PGNAA in phantoms of known composition as well as in four raw ground meat samples of about 1 kg mass was examined. Dumas combustion and Kjeldahl techniques were also used for the assessment of nitrogen concentration in the meat samples. No statistically significant differences were found between the concentrations assessed by the three techniques. The results of this work demonstrate the applicability of PGNAA for the assessment of total protein in biological samples of 0.25-1.5 kg mass, such as a meat sample or the body of small animal even in vivo with an equivalent radiation dose of about 40 mSv.

  17. On the accuracy of protein determination in large biological samples by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasviki, K.; Stamatelatos, I.E.; Yannakopoulou, E.; Papadopoulou, P.; Kalef-Ezra, J.

    2007-01-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility has been developed for the determination of nitrogen and thus total protein in large volume biological samples or the whole body of small animals. In the present work, the accuracy of nitrogen determination by PGNAA in phantoms of known composition as well as in four raw ground meat samples of about 1 kg mass was examined. Dumas combustion and Kjeldahl techniques were also used for the assessment of nitrogen concentration in the meat samples. No statistically significant differences were found between the concentrations assessed by the three techniques. The results of this work demonstrate the applicability of PGNAA for the assessment of total protein in biological samples of 0.25-1.5 kg mass, such as a meat sample or the body of small animal even in vivo with an equivalent radiation dose of about 40 mSv

  18. Presence of pesticide residues in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the presence of persistent pesticides in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras during the period 1995-98. Additionally, the LC 50 for 2 fungicides and 2 insecticides on post-larval Penaeus vannamei was determined in static water bioassays. A total of 80 water samples, 16 sediment samples and 7 biological samples (fish muscle tissue) were analyzed for detection of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues. The results of sample analyses indicate a widespread contamination of Honduran continental and coastal waters with organochlorine pesticides. Most detections were of low ( 50 values and were therefore found to be much more toxic to the post-larval shrimp than the fungicides tridemorph and propiconazole. (author)

  19. Quantitative HPLC determination of [99mTc]-pertechnetate in radiopharmaceuticals and biological samples: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tianze Zhou; Hirth, W.W.; Heineman, W.R.; Deutsch, Edward

    1988-01-01

    Techniques have been developed which allow HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) to be used for the quantitative determination of [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate in radiopharmaceuticals and biological samples. An instrumental technique accounts for 99m Tc species which do not elute from the HPLC column, while a chemical technique obviates interferences caused by Sn(II). These two techniques are incorporated into an anion exchange HPLC procedure which is applied to the determination of [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate in 99m Tc-diphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals and biological samples. (author)

  20. Direct analysis of biological samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue M, Marco P.; Hernandez-Caraballo, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    The technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is well suited for the direct analysis of biological samples due to the low matrix interferences and simultaneous multi-element nature. Nevertheless, biological organic samples are frequently analysed after digestion procedures. The direct determination of analytes requires shorter analysis time, low reactive consumption and simplifies the whole analysis process. On the other hand, the biological/clinical samples are often available in minimal amounts and routine studies require the analysis of large number of samples. To overcome the difficulties associated with the analysis of organic samples, particularly of solid ones, different procedures of sample preparation and calibration to approach the direct analysis have been evaluated: (1) slurry sampling, (2) Compton peak standardization, (3) in situ microwave digestion, (4) in situ chemical modification and (5) direct analysis with internal standardization. Examples of analytical methods developed by our research group are discussed. Some of them have not been previously published, illustrating alternative strategies for coping with various problems that may be encountered in the direct analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

  1. Views of female breast cancer patients who donated biologic samples regarding storage and use of samples for genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, K A; Janoff, J M; Harris, L N; Emmons, K M

    2006-05-01

    Although social and ethical issues related to the storage and use of biologic specimens for genetic research have been discussed extensively in the medical literature, few empiric data exist describing patients' views. This qualitative study explored the views of 26 female breast cancer patients who had consented to donate blood or tissue samples for breast cancer research. Participants generally did not expect personal benefits from research and had few unprompted concerns. Few participants had concerns about use of samples for studies not planned at the time of consent. Some participants did express concerns about insurance or employment discrimination, while others believed that current privacy protections might actually slow breast cancer research. Participants were generally more interested in receiving individual genetic test results from research studies than aggregate results. Most participants did not want individual results of uncertain clinical significance, although others believed that they should be able to receive such information. These data examined the range of participants' views regarding the storage and use of biologic samples. Further research with different and diverse patient populations is critical to establishing an appropriate balance between protecting the rights of human subjects in genetic research and allowing research to progress.

  2. The validation of a pixe system for trace element analysis of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saied, S. O.; Crumpton, D.; Francois, P. E.

    1981-03-01

    A PIXE system has been developed for measuring trace element levels in biological samples and a study made of the precision and accuracy achievable. The calibration of the system has been established using thin targets of known elemental composition and the reproducibility studied using protons of energy 2.5 MeV. Both thick and thin samples prepared from NBS bovine liver have been analysed and the elemental ratios present established for a set of replicate samples. These are compared with the results of other workers. Problems relating to sample preparation are discussed.

  3. Flexible automated approach for quantitative liquid handling of complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palandra, Joe; Weller, David; Hudson, Gary; Li, Jeff; Osgood, Sarah; Hudson, Emily; Zhong, Min; Buchholz, Lisa; Cohen, Lucinda H

    2007-11-01

    A fully automated protein precipitation technique for biological sample preparation has been developed for the quantitation of drugs in various biological matrixes. All liquid handling during sample preparation was automated using a Hamilton MicroLab Star Robotic workstation, which included the preparation of standards and controls from a Watson laboratory information management system generated work list, shaking of 96-well plates, and vacuum application. Processing time is less than 30 s per sample or approximately 45 min per 96-well plate, which is then immediately ready for injection onto an LC-MS/MS system. An overview of the process workflow is discussed, including the software development. Validation data are also provided, including specific liquid class data as well as comparative data of automated vs manual preparation using both quality controls and actual sample data. The efficiencies gained from this automated approach are described.

  4. On multielement analysis of biological samples with the aid of neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    A main objective of this study was elucidation of problems of sampling and sample preparation methods for multielement analysis of environmental and biological specimens. Another was assessment of the potentials of multielement neutron activation analysis (NAA) in environmental and biological research. In an attempt to explain the great differences in the elemental concentration ranges between biopsy and autopsy samples as reported in the literature, it was shown that post mortem changes induce great variations in the apparent elemental composition of autopsy specimens resulting in serious systematic errors. Applications of NAA to analysis of tissues of experimental animals, human tissues in health and disease, and environmental samples are illustrated with several examples. The suitability of NAA for routine analysis of elements such as Cr, Mo and Se, which are difficult to determine by other methods has been specially discussed. (author)

  5. Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting. 3 figs

  6. Determination of element concentrations in biological reference materials by solid sampling and other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauenburg, H.; Weigert, P.

    1992-01-01

    Using solid sampling with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), values for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in six biological reference materials were obtained from up to four laboratories participating in three collaborative studies. These results are compared with those obtained with other methods used in routine analysis from laboratories of official food control. Under certain conditions solid sampling with GFAAS seems to be suitable for routine analysis as well as conventional methods. (orig.)

  7. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in biological and water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    During Balkan conflicts in 1994-1995, depleted uranium (DU) ordnance was employed and was left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, radiological survey of DU in biological and water samples were carried out over the period 12-24 October 2002. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly lichens, mosses and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.27-35.7 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 0.24-16.8 Bq kg -1 for 234 U, and 0.02-1.11 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control site. Moreover, the 236 U in some of the samples was detectable. The isotopic ratios of 234 U/ 238 U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at most sites examined, but in very low levels. The presence of DU in the biological samples was as a result of DU contamination in air. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina were found to be in the range of 0.27-16.2 mBq l -1 for 238 U, 0.41-15.6 mBq l -1 for 234 U and 0.012-0.695 mBq l -1 for 235 U, and two water samples were observed to be DU positive; these values are much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for public drinking water. From radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of possible DU contamination of water and/or plants

  8. Controlled dehydration of a biological sample using an alternative form of environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 237, č. 1 (2010), s. 7-11 ISSN 0022-2720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : biological sample * dehydration * environmental SEM * AQUASEM II * hydration system Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.872, year: 2010

  9. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachroni, D.; Graikou, K.; Kosalec, I.; Damianakos, H.; Ingram, V.J.; Chinou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their

  10. The elimination of charging in the PIXE analysis of thick biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papper, C.S.; Chaudhri, M.A.; Rouse, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A simple technique is described for the elimination of charging of thick biological samples subjected to proton bombardment. This involves evaporating a thin layer of carbon onto the target face and results in the reduction of background and therefore enhances the sensitivity of the technique. (Auth.)

  11. Micro-electromembrane extraction across free liquid membranes. Extractions of basic drugs from undiluted biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1337, Apr (2014), s. 32-39 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : micro-electromembrane extraction * free liquid membranes * biological samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014

  12. Sample preparation for liquid chromatographic analysis of phytochemicals in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Young-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have been used traditionally for the treatment and prevention of diseases for thousands of years and are nowadays consumed as dietary supplements and herbal medicine. To ensure the safe and effective use of these herbal products, information about bioavailability of active compounds in plasma or target tissues should be provided via validated analytical methods combined with appropriate sampling methods. To provide comprehensive and abridged information about sample preparation methods for the quantification of phytochemicals in biological samples using liquid chromatography analysis. Sample pre-treatment procedures used in analytical methods for in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of natural compounds or herbal medicines were reviewed. These were categorised according to the biological matrices (plasma, bile, urine, faeces and tissues) and sample clean-up processes (protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction). Although various kinds of sample pre-treatment methods have been developed, liquid-liquid extraction is still widely used and solid-phase extraction is becoming increasingly popular because of its efficiency for extensive clean up of complex matrix samples. However, protein precipitation is still favoured due to its simplicity. Sample treatment for phytochemical analysis in biological fluids is an indispensable and critical step to obtain high quality results. This step could dominate the overall analytical process because both the duration of the process as well as the reliability of the data depend in large part on its efficiency. Thus, special attention should be given to the choice of a proper sample treatment method that targets analytes and their biomatrix. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effects of different temperature treatments on biological ice nuclei in snow samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazutaka; Maki, Teruya; Kakikawa, Makiko; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Matsuki, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    The heat tolerance of biological ice nucleation activity (INA) depends on their types. Different temperature treatments may cause varying degrees of inactivation on biological ice nuclei (IN) in precipitation samples. In this study, we measured IN concentration and bacterial INA in snow samples using a drop freezing assay, and compared the results for unheated snow and snow treated at 40 °C and 90 °C. At a measured temperature of -7 °C, the concentration of IN in untreated snow was 100-570 L-1, whereas the concentration in snow treated at 40 °C and 90 °C was 31-270 L-1 and 2.5-14 L-1, respectively. In the present study, heat sensitive IN inactivated by heating at 40 °C were predominant, and ranged 23-78% of IN at -7 °C compared with untreated samples. Ice nucleation active Pseudomonas strains were also isolated from the snow samples, and heating at 40 °C and 90 °C inactivated these microorganisms. Consequently, different temperature treatments induced varying degrees of inactivation on IN in snow samples. Differences in the concentration of IN across a range of treatment temperatures might reflect the abundance of different heat sensitive biological IN components.

  14. Toward greener analytical techniques for the absolute quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eeckhaut, Ann; Mangelings, Debby

    2015-09-10

    Peptide-based biopharmaceuticals represent one of the fastest growing classes of new drug molecules. New reaction types included in the synthesis strategies to reduce the rapid metabolism of peptides, along with the availability of new formulation and delivery technologies, resulted in an increased marketing of peptide drug products. In this regard, the development of analytical methods for quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples is of utmost importance. From the sample preparation step to their analysis by means of chromatographic or electrophoretic methods, many difficulties should be tackled to analyze them. Recent developments in analytical techniques emphasize more and more on the use of green analytical techniques. This review will discuss the progresses in and challenges observed during green analytical method development for the quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Advantages of infrared transflection micro spectroscopy and paraffin-embedded sample preparation for biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Li, Qian; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Dan; Wu, Rie

    2018-04-01

    Fourier-Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. In this paper, series metal coating films on ITO glass were prepared by the electrochemical method and the different thicknesses of paraffin embedding rat's brain tissue on the substrates were studied by IR micro-spetroscopy in attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode and transflection mode respectively. The Co-Ni-Cu alloy coating film with low cost is good reflection substrates for the IR analysis. The infrared microscopic transflection mode needs not to touch the sample at all and can get the IR spectra with higher signal to noise ratios. The Paraffin-embedding method allows tissues to be stored for a long time for re-analysis to ensure the traceability of the sample. Also it isolates the sample from the metal and avoids the interaction of biological tissue with the metals. The best thickness of the tissues is 4 μm.

  16. A Method for Determining the Content of Glycoproteins in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein purified from the mycelium extract of Tremella fuciformis was marked with iodine through the iodine substitution reaction. The content of iodine, which is indicative of the amount of the marked tremella glycoprotein (ITG, was detected with Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The method was found to be stable, sensitive, and accurate at detecting the content of iodine-substituted glycoprotein, and was used in the quantitative analysis of biological samples, including blood and organs. Different biological samples were collected from rats after oral administration of ITG, and were tested for iodine content by ICP-MS to calculate the amount of ITG in the samples. The results suggested that ICP-MS is a sensitive, stable, and accurate method for detection of iodinated glycoproteins in blood and organs.

  17. Activation of concrete samples from the biological shield of the ASTRA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smecka, F.

    2006-09-01

    Drill cores from the biological shield of the ASTRA reactor in Seibersdorf were taken and milled because of the different size of the Baryt crystals in the concrete in order to get homogenous samples. The powder samples were put into bore holes of a graphite block which was placed into the thermal column of the TRIGA Mark II reactor. The block was irradiated for 10 minutes at a reactor power of 25 kW. After one hour the dose rate was examined and the samples were ready for further save handling. The gamma spectrum was measured with a Ge detector and the results were compared with simulation data. (nevyjel)

  18. Evaluation of laser phosphorimetry for the analysis of uranium in biological samples from laboratory animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.; Eidsom, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Laser phosphorimetry has been used for uranium analyses in a variety of sample matrices, including environmental and human bioassay samples. The Scientrex-UA-3 Uranium Analyzer has been used at ITRI to acquire data on the applicability of laser phosphorimetry to analyses of uranium in the highly concentrated solutions resulting from chemical processing of biological comparisons of results with those obtained from conventional fluorometry. These comparisons have been very favorable for many sample types. Results of these comparisons and an evaluation of the data obtained with the Scintrex unit are presented

  19. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  20. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the analysis of biological samples and pharmaceutical drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossipov, K.; Seregina, I. F.; Bolshov, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is widely used in the analysis of biological samples (whole blood, serum, blood plasma, urine, tissues, etc.) and pharmaceutical drugs. The shortcomings of this method related to spectral and non-spectral interferences are manifested in full measure in determination of the target analytes in these complex samples strongly differing in composition. The spectral interferences are caused by similarity of masses of the target component and sample matrix components. Non-spectral interferences are related to the influence of sample matrix components on the physicochemical processes taking place during formation and transportation of liquid sample aerosols into the plasma, on the value and spatial distribution of plasma temperature and on the transmission of the ion beam from the interface to mass spectrometer detector. The review is devoted to analysis of different mechanisms of appearance of non-spectral interferences and to ways for their minimization or elimination. Special attention is paid to the techniques of biological sample preparation, which largely determine the mechanisms of the influence of sample composition on the results of element determination. The ways of lowering non-spectral interferences by instrumental parameter tuning and application of internal standards are considered. The bibliography includes 189 references.

  1. Will Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer Provide Biological Samples for Research Purposes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley A Harris

    Full Text Available Little is known about the response rates for biological sample donation and attitudes towards control recruitment, especially in younger women. The goals of this pilot study were to determine in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of cases willing to provide biological samples and for purposes of control recruitment, contact information for friends or colleagues.A population-based sample of breast cancer cases (n = 417, 25-74 years was recruited from the Ontario Cancer Registry in 2010 and self-administered questionnaires were completed to determine willingness to provide samples (spot or 24-hr urine, saliva, blood and contact information for friends/colleagues for control recruitment. Using Χ2 analyses of contingency tables we evaluated if these proportions varied by age group (<45 and 45+ and other factors such as ethnicity, education, income, body mass index (BMI, smoking status and alcohol consumption.Cases were willing to provide blood samples, by visiting a clinic (62% or by having a nurse visit the home (61%. Moreover, they would provide saliva (73%, and morning or 24-hr urine samples (66% and 52%. Younger cases (≤45 were 3 times (OR more likely more than older cases to agree to collect morning urine (95% CI: 1.15-8.35. Only 26% of cases indicated they would provide contact information of friends or work colleagues to act as controls. Educated cases were more likely to agree to provide samples, and cases who consumed alcohol were more willing to provide contact information. Ethnicity, income, BMI and smoking had little effect on response rates.Reasonable response rates for biological sample collection should be expected in future case controls studies in younger women, but other methods of control selection must be devised.

  2. Second harmonic sound field after insertion of a biological tissue sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Gong, Xiu-Fen; Zhang, Bo

    2002-01-01

    Second harmonic sound field after inserting a biological tissue sample is investigated by theory and experiment. The sample is inserted perpendicular to the sound axis, whose acoustical properties are different from those of surrounding medium (distilled water). By using the superposition of Gaussian beams and the KZK equation in quasilinear and parabolic approximations, the second harmonic field after insertion of the sample can be derived analytically and expressed as a linear combination of self- and cross-interaction of the Gaussian beams. Egg white, egg yolk, porcine liver, and porcine fat are used as the samples and inserted in the sound field radiated from a 2 MHz uniformly excited focusing source. Axial normalized sound pressure curves of the second harmonic wave before and after inserting the sample are measured and compared with the theoretical results calculated with 10 items of Gaussian beam functions.

  3. Elemental and isotopic imaging of biological samples using NanoSIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Matt R; Clode, Peta L

    2014-01-01

    With its low detection limits and the ability to analyze most of the elements in the periodic table, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) represents one of the most versatile in situ analytical techniques available, and recent developments have resulted in significant advantages for the use of imaging mass spectrometry in biological and biomedical research. Increases in spatial resolution and sensitivity allow detailed interrogation of samples at relevant scales and chemical concentrations. Advances in dynamic SIMS, specifically with the advent of NanoSIMS, now allow the tracking of stable isotopes within biological systems at subcellular length scales, while static SIMS combines subcellular imaging with molecular identification. In this chapter, we present an introduction to the SIMS technique, with particular reference to NanoSIMS, and discuss its application in biological and biomedical research.

  4. Estimating the biological value of soft-bottom sediments with sediment profile imaging and grab sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoey, Gert; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Hostens, Kris

    2014-02-01

    Biological value estimation is based on a set of assessment questions and several thresholds to delineate areas of ecological importance (e.g. biodiversity). An existing framework, that was specifically designed to assess the ecosystem biodiversity, was expanded by adding new questions on the productivity, functionality and biogeochemical status of benthic habitats. The additional ecological and sedimentological information was collected by using sediment profile imagery (SPI) and grab sampling. Additionally, information on the performance and comparability of both techniques is provided in this study. The research idea was tested at a site near the harbor of Zeebrugge, an area under consideration as a new disposal site for dredged material from the harbor entrance. The sedimentology of the area can be adequately described based on the information from both SPI and Van Veen grab samples, but only the SPI revealed structural information on the physical habitat (layering, a-RPD). The latter information represented the current status of the benthic habitat, which was confirmed by the Van Veen grab samples. All information was summarized through the biological valuation framework, and provided clear evidence of the differences in biological value for the different sediment types within the area. We concluded that the installation of a new dredged material disposal site in this area was not in conflict with the benthic ecology. This area has a low biological value and the benthic system is adapted to changing conditions, which was signaled by the dominance of mobile, short living and opportunistic species. This study showed that suitable sedimentological and ecological information can be gathered by these traditional and complementary techniques, to estimate the biological value of an area in the light of marine spatial planning and environmental impact assessments.

  5. Differential determination of 203Hg and 14C or 35S in double labelled biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bem, E.M.; Bem, H.; Reimschussel, W.

    1979-01-01

    The differential determination of 203 Hg and 14 C or 35 S in double labelled biological samples is presented. The biological samples were mineralized with 70% HClO 4 and 30% H 2 O 2 in glass vials, MILLI-6. The γ-activity of 203 Hg was measured on a well scintillation counter. The total activity, due to 203 Hg and 14 C or 35 S, was measured by the liquid scintillation technique after addition of Aquasol into the same vials. The method of external standard channel ratio was used for standardization. Very good recoveries were obtained: 100+-0.7% for 203 Hg and 94.6-101.0% for 14 C and 35 S. This method could be used for other β, γ and β-active nuclides with similar β-spectra. (author)

  6. Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The medical and biological applications of radioisotopes depend on two basically different types of measurements, those on living subjects in vivo and those on samples in vitro. The International Atomic Energy Agency has in the past held several meetings on in vivo measurement techniques, notably whole-body counting and radioisotope scanning. The present volume contains the Proceedings of the first Symposium the Agency has organized to discuss the various aspects of techniques for sample measurement in vitro. The range of these sample measurement techniques is very wide. The sample may weigh a few milligrams or several hundred grams, and may be in the gaseous, liquid or solid state. Its radioactive content may consist of a single, known radioisotope or several unknown ones. The concentration of radioactivity may be low, medium or high. The measurements may be made manually or automatically and any one of the many radiation detectors now available may be used. The 53 papers presented at the Symposium illustrate the great variety of methods now in use for radioactive- sample measurements. The first topic discussed is gamma-ray spectrometry, which finds an increasing number of applications in sample measurements. Other sections of the Proceedings deal with: the use of computers in gamma-ray spectrometry and multiple tracer techniques; recent developments in activation analysis where both gamma-ray spectrometry and computing techniques are applied; thin-layer and paper radio chromatographic techniques for use with low energy beta-ray emitters; various aspects of liquid scintillation counting techniques in the measurement of alpha- and beta-ray emitters, including chemical and colour quenching; autoradiographic techniques; calibration of equipment; and standardization of radioisotopes. Finally, some applications of solid-state detectors are presented; this section may be regarded as a preview of important future developments. The meeting was attended by 203 participants

  7. Specific determination of clinical and toxicological important substances in biological samples by LC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitulovic, G.

    2001-02-01

    This thesis of this dissertation is the specific determination of clinical and toxicological important substances in biological samples by LC-MS. Nicotine was determined in serum after application of nicotine plaster and nicotine nasal spray with HPLC-ESI-MS. Cotinine was determined direct in urine with HPLC-ESI-MS. Short time anesthetics were determined in blood and cytostatics were determined in liquor with HPLC-ESI-MS. (botek)

  8. Dynamical "in situ" observation of biological samples using variable pressure scanning electron microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 126, - (2008), 012046:1-4 ISSN 1742-6588. [Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group Conference 2007 (EMAG 2007). Glasgow, 03.09.2007-07.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0886; GA AV ČR KJB200650602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : biological sample * VP-SEM * dynamical experiments Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  9. Determination of phosphorus in biological samples by thermal neutron activation followed by β--counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weginwar, R.G.; Samudralwar, D.L.; Garg, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    Phosphorus was determined using the β - emitter 32 P by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in several NBS and IAEA standards, and in samples of biological origin such as human and animal blood, cancerous tissue, edible plant leaves, diets, milk samples, etc. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation (for 2-10 h in a reactor) followed by β - counting on an end-window gas flow proportional counter using aluminium filter. The results are within ±10% of the certified values in most cases. (author) 29 refs.; 3 tabs

  10. A comparative examination of sample treatment procedures for ICAP-AES analysis of biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, J. L. M.; Maessen, F. J. M. J.

    The objective of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of existing sample preparation procedures for ICAP-AES analysis of biological material. Performance characteristics were established of current digestion procedures comprising extraction, solubilization, pressure digestion, and wet and dry ashing methods. Apart from accuracy and precision, a number of criteria of special interest for the analytical practice was applied. As a test sample served SRM bovine liver. In this material six elements were simultaneously determined. Results showed that every procedure has its defects and advantages. Hence, unambiguous recommendation of standard digestion procedures can be made only when taking into account the specific analytical problem.

  11. Convergent synthesis of a deuterium-labeled serine dipeptide lipid for analysis of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Christopher; Clark, Robert B; Nichols, Frank C; Smith, Michael B

    2017-05-30

    Bacterial serine dipeptide lipids are known to promote inflammatory processes and are detected in human tissues associated with periodontal disease or atherosclerosis. Accurate quantification of bacterial serine lipid, specifically lipid 654 [((S)-15-methyl-3-((13-methyltetradecanoyl)oxy)hexadecanoyl)glycyl-l-serine, (3S)-l-serine] isolated from Porphyromonas gingivalis, in biological samples requires the preparation of a stable isotope internal standard for sample supplementation and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. This report describes the convergent synthesis of a deuterium-substituted serine dipeptide lipid, which is an isotopically labeled homologue that represents a dominant form of serine dipeptide lipid recovered in bacteria. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Application of Compton suppression spectrometry in the improvement of nuclear analytical techniques for biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y. A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Funtua, I.I.; Jonah, S.A.; Landsberger, S.

    2007-01-01

    Compton Suppression Factors (SF) and Compton Reduction Factors (RF) of the UT Austin's Compton suppression spectrometer being parameters characterizing the system performance were measured using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources. The system performance was evaluated as a function of energy and geometry. The (P/C), A(P/C), (P/T), Cp, and Ce were obtained for each of the parameters. The natural background reduction factor in the anticoincidence mode and that of normal mode was calculated and its effect on the detection limit of biological samples evaluated. Applicability of the spectrometer and the method for biological samples was tested in the measurement of twenty-four elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn, In, K, Mo, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Rb, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco items. They were determined from seven National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (rice flour, oyster tissue, non-fat powdered milk, peach leaves, tomato leaves, apple leaves, and citrus leaves). Our results shows good agreement with the NIST certified values, indicating that the method developed in the present study is suitable for the determination of aforementioned elements in biological samples without undue interference problems

  13. Biological samples positioning device for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Gual, Maritza; Mas Milian, Felix; Deppman, Airton; Pinto Coelho, Paulo Rogerio

    2010-01-01

    For the demand of an experimental device for biological samples positioning system for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor in operation was constructed and started up a device for the place and remove of the biological samples from the irradiation channels without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The economical valuations are effected comparing with another type of device with the same functions. This work formed part of an international project between Cuba and Brazil that undertook the study of the induced damages by various types of ionizing radiation in DNA molecules. Was experimentally tested the proposed solution, which demonstrates the practical validity of the device. As a result of the work, the experimental device for biological samples irradiations are installed and operating in the radial beam hole No3(BH3) for more than five years at the IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor according to the solicited requirements the device. The designed device increases considerably the type of studies can be conducted in this reactor. Its practical application in research taking place in that facility, in the field of radiobiology and dosimetry, and so on is immediate

  14. Imaging systems and algorithms to analyze biological samples in real-time using mobile phone microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Akshaya; Usmani, Mohammad; Mayberry, Addison; Perkins, David L; Holcomb, Daniel E

    2018-01-01

    Miniaturized imaging devices have pushed the boundaries of point-of-care imaging, but existing mobile-phone-based imaging systems do not exploit the full potential of smart phones. This work demonstrates the use of simple imaging configurations to deliver superior image quality and the ability to handle a wide range of biological samples. Results presented in this work are from analysis of fluorescent beads under fluorescence imaging, as well as helminth eggs and freshwater mussel larvae under white light imaging. To demonstrate versatility of the systems, real time analysis and post-processing results of the sample count and sample size are presented in both still images and videos of flowing samples.

  15. Progress in quantitative X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated bulk biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    The analysis of bulk frozen-hydrated biological samples has developed now to a level where practical application of the technique is possible. Provided the sample is carefully coated with a conductive metal, the development of a space charge capable of causing a significant distortion of the electron diffusion volume does not seem to occur, and analytical resolution can be conveniently held to approximately 2 micron (both depth and lateral resolution). Two valid quantitative methods are available, and two methods of determining dry weight fractions are also available. An area where further research could lead to improvement in analysis of frozen-hydrated bulk samples is in the investigation of fracturing methods. If fracture planes that were flat and reproducible could be easily obtained, some of the difficulties of analysing frozen-hydrated bulk samples would be considerably reduced

  16. Paper-based archiving of biological samples from fish for detecting betanodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneeth Krishnan, A; Bhuvaneswari, T; Ezhil Praveena, P; Jithendran, K P

    2016-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of the Flinders Technology Associates (FTA(®)) card (Whatman(®)) as a sampling device and storage platform for RNA from betanodavirus-infected biological samples (viz., larvae, broodstock, cell culture supernatants and rearing seawater spiked with infected materials). The study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect betanodaviruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The diagnostic efficiency of RT-PCR from all sample types on FTA cards decreased after 21 days of storage at 4 °C, although the virus could be detected up to 28 days by nested RT-PCR. The FTA card protocol thus provides a supplementary method for quick and easy collection of samples, preservation of RNA on a dry storage basis, and detection of betanodavirus-infected fish.

  17. Purification and concentration of lead samples in biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rahimi-Froushani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Lead is an important environmental constituent widely used in industrialprocesses for production of synthetic materials and therefore can be released in the environmentcausing public exposure especially around the industrial residence area. For evaluation of humanexposure to trace toxic metal of Pb (II, environmental and biological monitoring are essentialprocesses, in which, preparation of such samples is one of the most time-consuming and errorproneaspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has grown and is a fertiletechnique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquidextraction (LLE. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing sample pretreatmentfor trace analysis of lead in biological samples for evaluation of occupational exposure.Method :To evaluate factors influencing quantitative analysis scheme of lead, solid phaseextraction using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized with regard to sample pH,ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume (up to 500 ml, elutionvolume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences.Results :Lead was retained on solid sorbent and eluted followed by simple determination ofanalytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of the metal ionwere more than 92%. The amount of the analyte detected after simultaneous pre-concentrationwas basically in agreement with the added amounts. The optimized procedure was also validatedwith three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over sixconsecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. The developed method promised to beapplicable for evaluation of other metal ions present in different environmental and occupationalsamples as suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation (less than 10%.Conclusion:This optimized method can be considered to be

  18. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Grant; Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J; Butler, Matthew J; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km(2) cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions

  19. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Harris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling, it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos. Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion, and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture

  20. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J.; Butler, Matthew J.; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions, which

  1. Preconcentration and determination of heavy metals in water, sediment and biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkhanloo Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simple, sensitive and accurate column preconcentration method was developed for the determination of Cd, Cu and Pb ions in river water, urine and sediment samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure is based on the retention of the analytes on a mixed cellulose ester membrane (MCEM column from buffered sample solutions and then their elution from the column with nitric acid. Several parameters, such as pH of the sample solution, volume of the sample and eluent and flow rates of the sample were evaluated. The effects of diverse ions on the preconcentration were also investigated. The recoveries were >95 %. The developed method was applied to the determination of trace metal ions in river water, urine and sediment samples, with satisfactory results. The 3δ detection limits for Cu, Pb and Cd were found to be 2, 3 and 0.2 μg dm−3, respectively. The presented procedure was successfully applied for determination of the copper, lead and cadmium contents in real samples, i.e., river water and biological samples.

  2. Attempts to develop a new nuclear measurement technique of β-glucuronidase levels in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, T.; Avcibasi, U.; Yildirim, Y.; Cetinkaya, B.

    2003-01-01

    β-Glucuronidase is one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes in living systems and plays an essential role in the detoxification pathway of toxic materials incorporated into the metabolism. Some organs, especially liver and some tumour tissues, have high level of β-glucuronidase activity. As a result the enzymatic activity of some kind of tumour cells, the radiolabelled glucuronide conjugates of cytotoxic, as well as radiotoxic compounds have potentially very valuable diagnostic and therapeutic applications in cancer research. For this reason, a sensitive measurement of β-glucuronidase levels in normal and tumour tissues is a very important step for these kinds of applications. According to the classical measurement method of β-glucuronidase activity, in general, the quantity of phenolphthalein liberated from its glucuronide conjugate, i.e. phenolphthalein-glucuronide, by β-glucuronidase has been measured by use of the spectrophotometric technique. The lower detection limit of phenolphthalein by the spectrophotometric technique is about 1-3 mg. This means that the β-glucuronidase levels could not be detected in biological samples having lower levels of β-glucuronidase activity and therefore the applications of the spectrophotometric technique in cancer research are very seriously limited. Starting from this consideration, we recently attempted to develop a new nuclear technique to measure much lower concentrations of β-glucuronidase in biological samples. To improve the detection limit, phenolphthalein-glucuronide and also phenyl-N-glucuronide were radioiodinated with 131 I and their radioactivity was measured by use of the counting technique. Therefore, the quantity of phenolphthalein or aniline radioiodinated with 131 I and liberated by the deglucuronidation reactivity of β-glucuronidase was used in an attempt to measure levels lower than the spectrophotometric measurement technique. The results obtained clearly verified that 0.01 pg level of

  3. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for the Demolition of the Masonry Block for the 108-F Biological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrnes, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) has been prepared to clearly define the sampling and analysis activities to be performed in support of the demolition and disposition (or disposal) of the 108-F Biological Laboratory masonry block walls

  4. Controlled power delivery for super-resolution imaging of biological samples using digital micromirror device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiya Peedikakkal, Liyana; Cadby, Ashley

    2017-02-01

    Localization based super resolution images of a biological sample is generally achieved by using high power laser illumination with long exposure time which unfortunately increases photo-toxicity of a sample, making super resolution microscopy, in general, incompatible with live cell imaging. Furthermore, the limitation of photobleaching reduces the ability to acquire time lapse images of live biological cells using fluorescence microscopy. Digital Light Processing (DLP) technology can deliver light at grey scale levels by flickering digital micromirrors at around 290 Hz enabling highly controlled power delivery to samples. In this work, Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is implemented in an inverse Schiefspiegler telescope setup to control the power and pattern of illumination for super resolution microscopy. We can achieve spatial and temporal patterning of illumination by controlling the DMD pixel by pixel. The DMD allows us to control the power and spatial extent of the laser illumination. We have used this to show that we can reduce the power delivered to the sample to allow for longer time imaging in one area while achieving sub-diffraction STORM imaging in another using higher power densities.

  5. Measurement of specimen-induced aberrations of biological samples using phase stepping interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertner, M; Booth, M J; Neil, M A A; Wilson, T

    2004-01-01

    Confocal or multiphoton microscopes, which deliver optical sections and three-dimensional (3D) images of thick specimens, are widely used in biology. These techniques, however, are sensitive to aberrations that may originate from the refractive index structure of the specimen itself. The aberrations cause reduced signal intensity and the 3D resolution of the instrument is compromised. It has been suggested to correct for aberrations in confocal microscopes using adaptive optics. In order to define the design specifications for such adaptive optics systems, one has to know the amount of aberrations present for typical applications such as with biological samples. We have built a phase stepping interferometer microscope that directly measures the aberration of the wavefront. The modal content of the wavefront is extracted by employing Zernike mode decomposition. Results for typical biological specimens are presented. It was found for all samples investigated that higher order Zernike modes give only a small contribution to the overall aberration. Therefore, these higher order modes can be neglected in future adaptive optics sensing and correction schemes implemented into confocal or multiphoton microscopes, leading to more efficient designs.

  6. Challenges of biological sample preparation for SIMS imaging of elements and molecules at subcellular resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash

    2008-12-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging techniques capable of subcellular resolution characterization of elements and molecules are becoming valuable tools in many areas of biology and medicine. Due to high vacuum requirements of SIMS, the live cells cannot be analyzed directly in the instrument. The sample preparation, therefore, plays a critical role in preserving the native chemical composition for SIMS analysis. This work focuses on the evaluation of frozen-hydrated and frozen freeze-dried sample preparations for SIMS studies of cultured cells with a CAMECA IMS-3f dynamic SIMS ion microscope instrument capable of producing SIMS images with a spatial resolution of 500 nm. The sandwich freeze-fracture method was used for fracturing the cells. The complimentary fracture planes in the plasma membrane were characterized by field-emission secondary electron microscopy (FESEM) in the frozen-hydrated state. The cells fractured at the dorsal surface were used for SIMS analysis. The frozen-hydrated SIMS analysis of individual cells under dynamic primary ion beam (O 2+) revealed local secondary ion signal enhancements correlated with the water image signals of 19(H 3O) +. A preferential removal of water from the frozen cell matrix in the Z-axis was also observed. These complications render the frozen-hydrated sample type less desirable for subcellular dynamic SIMS studies. The freeze-drying of frozen-hydrated cells, either inside the instrument or externally in a freeze-drier, allowed SIMS imaging of subcellular chemical composition. Morphological evaluations of fractured freeze-dried cells with SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed well-preserved mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and stress fibers. SIMS analysis of fractured freeze-dried cells revealed well-preserved chemical composition of even the most highly diffusible ions like K + and Na + in physiologically relevant concentrations. The high K-low Na signature in individual cells

  7. Challenges of biological sample preparation for SIMS imaging of elements and molecules at subcellular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Subhash

    2008-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging techniques capable of subcellular resolution characterization of elements and molecules are becoming valuable tools in many areas of biology and medicine. Due to high vacuum requirements of SIMS, the live cells cannot be analyzed directly in the instrument. The sample preparation, therefore, plays a critical role in preserving the native chemical composition for SIMS analysis. This work focuses on the evaluation of frozen-hydrated and frozen freeze-dried sample preparations for SIMS studies of cultured cells with a CAMECA IMS-3f dynamic SIMS ion microscope instrument capable of producing SIMS images with a spatial resolution of 500 nm. The sandwich freeze-fracture method was used for fracturing the cells. The complimentary fracture planes in the plasma membrane were characterized by field-emission secondary electron microscopy (FESEM) in the frozen-hydrated state. The cells fractured at the dorsal surface were used for SIMS analysis. The frozen-hydrated SIMS analysis of individual cells under dynamic primary ion beam (O 2 + ) revealed local secondary ion signal enhancements correlated with the water image signals of 19 (H 3 O) + . A preferential removal of water from the frozen cell matrix in the Z-axis was also observed. These complications render the frozen-hydrated sample type less desirable for subcellular dynamic SIMS studies. The freeze-drying of frozen-hydrated cells, either inside the instrument or externally in a freeze-drier, allowed SIMS imaging of subcellular chemical composition. Morphological evaluations of fractured freeze-dried cells with SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed well-preserved mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and stress fibers. SIMS analysis of fractured freeze-dried cells revealed well-preserved chemical composition of even the most highly diffusible ions like K + and Na + in physiologically relevant concentrations. The high K-low Na signature in individual cells

  8. Mapping molecular orientational distributions for biological sample in 3D (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    HE, Wei; Ferrand, Patrick; Richter, Benjamin; Bastmeyer, Martin; Brasselet, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Measuring molecular orientation properties is very appealing for scientists in molecular and cell biology, as well as biomedical research. Orientational organization at the molecular scale is indeed an important brick to cells and tissues morphology, mechanics, functions and pathologies. Recent work has shown that polarized fluorescence imaging, based on excitation polarization tuning in the sample plane, is able to probe molecular orientational order in biological samples; however this applies only to information in 2D, projected in the sample plane. To surpass this limitation, we extended this approach to excitation polarization tuning in 3D. The principle is based on the decomposition of any arbitrary 3D linear excitation in a polarization along the longitudinal z-axis, and a polarization in the transverse xy-sample plane. We designed an interferometer with one arm generating radial polarization light (thus producing longitudinal polarization under high numerical aperture focusing), the other arm controlling a linear polarization in the transverse plane. The amplitude ratio between the two arms can vary so as to get any linear polarized excitation in 3D at the focus of a high NA objective. This technique has been characterized by polarimetry imaging at the back focal plane of the focusing objective, and modeled theoretically. 3D polarized fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated on actin stress fibers in non-flat cells suspended on synthetic polymer structures forming supporting pillars, for which heterogeneous actin orientational order could be identified. This technique shows a great potential in structural investigations in 3D biological systems, such as cell spheroids and tissues.

  9. A Prototype Ice-Melting Probe for Collecting Biological Samples from Cryogenic Ice at Low Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ashley

    2017-08-01

    In the Solar System, the surface of an icy moon is composed of irregular ice formations at cryogenic temperatures (pumps. The device contains a heated conical probe with a central orifice, which is forced into surface ice and directs the meltwater upward into a reservoir. The force on the probe is proportional to the height of meltwater (pressure) obtained in the system and allows regulation of the melt rate and temperature of the sample. The device can collect 5-50 mL of meltwater from the surface of an ice block at 233-208 K with an environmental pressure of less than 10-2 atm while maintaining a sample temperature between 273 and 293 K. These conditions maintain most biological samples in a pristine state and maintain the integrity of most organisms' structure and function.

  10. High resolution x-ray stereomicroscopy: True three-dimensional imaging of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.W.Jr.; Williams, S.; Meizel, S.; Rothman, S.S.; Univ. of California, Berkeley/San Francisco, CA; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA

    1993-01-01

    X-ray microscopy has the potential to become a powerful tool for the study of biological samples, allowing the imaging of intact cells and subcellular organelles in an aqueous environment at resolutions previously achievable only by electron microscopy. The ability to examine a relatively thick sample raises the issue of superposition of objects from multiple planes within the sample, making difficult the interpretation of conventional, orthogonally projected images. This paper describes early attempts at developing three-dimensional methods for x-ray microimaging: the first to use x-ray optics, and to the authors' knowledge, the first demonstrating sub-visible resolutions and natural contrast. These studies were performed using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory

  11. MALDI-MS drug analysis in biological samples: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Drug analysis represents a large field in different disciplines. Plasma is commonly considered to be the biosample of choice for that purpose. However, concentrations often do not represent the levels present within deeper compartments and therefore cannot sufficiently explain efficacy or toxicology of drugs. MALDI-MS in drug analysis is of great interest for high-throughput quantification and particularly spatially resolved tissue imaging. The current perspective article will deal with challenges and opportunities of MALDI-MS drug analysis in different biological samples. A particular focus will be on hair samples. Recent applications were included, reviewed for their instrumental setup and sample preparation and pros and cons as well as future perspectives are critically discussed.

  12. A Systematic Review of Published Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys Collecting Behavioral and Biologic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa G; Hakim, Avi J; Dittrich, Samantha; Burnett, Janet; Kim, Evelyn; White, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Reporting key details of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey implementation and analysis is essential for assessing the quality of RDS surveys. RDS is both a recruitment and analytic method and, as such, it is important to adequately describe both aspects in publications. We extracted data from peer-reviewed literature published through September, 2013 that reported collected biological specimens using RDS. We identified 151 eligible peer-reviewed articles describing 222 surveys conducted in seven regions throughout the world. Most published surveys reported basic implementation information such as survey city, country, year, population sampled, interview method, and final sample size. However, many surveys did not report essential methodological and analytical information for assessing RDS survey quality, including number of recruitment sites, seeds at start and end, maximum number of waves, and whether data were adjusted for network size. Understanding the quality of data collection and analysis in RDS is useful for effectively planning public health service delivery and funding priorities.

  13. Simple Sensitive Spectrophotometric Determination of Vanadium in Biological and Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Krishna Priya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel, rapid, highly sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for the determination of traces of vanadium (V in environmental and biological samples, pharmaceutical and steel samples was studied. The method is based on oxidation of 2,4- dinitro phenyl hydrazine(2,4-DNPH by vanadium (V followed by coupling reaction with N-(1-naphthalene-1-ylethane-1,2-diamine-dihydrochloride (NEDA in acidic medium to give red colored derivative or on oxidation of 4-Amino Pyridine by vanadium (V followed by coupling reaction with NEDA in basic medium to give pink colored derivative. The red colored derivative having an λmax 495 nm which is stable for 8 days and the pink colored derivative with 525 nm is stable for more than 7 days at 350C. Beer's law is obeyed for vanadium (V in the concentration range of 0.02 - 3.5 μg mL–1 (red derivative and 0.03 – 4.5 μg mL–1 (pink derivative at the wave length of maximum absorption. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were investigated to enhance the sensitivity of the present method. The detailed study of various interferences made the method more selective. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of vanadium in natural water samples, plant material, soil samples, synthetic mixtures, pharmaceutical samples and biological samples. The results obtained were agreed with the reported methods at the 95 % confidence level. The performance of proposed method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and Variance ratio f-test which indicates the significance of proposed method over reported method.

  14. A direct solid sampling analysis method for the detection of silver nanoparticles in biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtmeier, Nadine S; Ruchter, Nadine; Zimmermann, Sonja; Sures, Bernd; Leopold, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are implemented in food contact materials due to their powerful antimicrobial properties and so may enter the human food chain. Hence, it is desirable to develop easy, sensitive and fast analytical screening methods for the determination of AgNPs in complex biological matrices. This study describes such a method using solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). A recently reported novel evaluation strategy uses the atomization delay of the respective GFAAS signal as significant indicator for AgNPs and thereby allows discrimination of AgNPs from ionic silver (Ag(+)) in the samples without elaborate sample pre-treatment. This approach was further developed and applied to a variety of biological samples. Its suitability was approved by investigation of eight different food samples (parsley, apple, pepper, cheese, onion, pasta, maize meal and wheat flour) spiked with ionic silver or AgNPs. Furthermore, the migration of AgNPs from silver-impregnated polypropylene food storage boxes to fresh pepper was observed and a mussel sample obtained from a laboratory exposure study with silver was investigated. The differences in the atomization delays (Δt(ad)) between silver ions and 20-nm AgNPs vary in a range from -2.01 ± 1.38 s for maize meal to +2.06 ± 1.08 s for mussel tissue. However, the differences were significant in all investigated matrices and so indicative of the presence/absence of AgNPs. Moreover, investigation of model matrices (cellulose, gelatine and water) gives the first indication of matrix-dependent trends. Reproducibility and homogeneity tests confirm the applicability of the method.

  15. Analytical methodologies for aluminium speciation in environmental and biological samples--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, S P; Yang, X D; Zhang, F P; Wang, X L; Zou, G W

    2001-08-01

    It is recognized that aluminium (Al) is a potential environmental hazard. Acidic deposition has been linked to increased Al concentrations in natural waters. Elevated levels of Al might have serious consequences for biological communities. Of particular interest is the speciation of Al in aquatic environments, because Al toxicity depends on its forms and concentrations. In this paper, advances in analytical methodologies for Al speciation in environmental and biological samples during the past five years are reviewed. Concerns about the specific problems of Al speciation and highlights of some important methods are elucidated in sections devoted to hybrid techniques (HPLC or FPLC coupled with ET-AAS, ICP-AES, or ICP-MS), flow-injection analysis (FIA), nuclear magnetic resonance (27Al NMR), electrochemical analysis, and computer simulation. More than 130 references are cited.

  16. Monitoring prion protein expression in complex biological samples by SERS for diagnostic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, D; Filippo, E; Fiore, R; Serra, A; Urso, E; Rizzello, A; Maffia, M

    2010-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) allows a new insight into the analysis of cell physiology. In this work, the difficulty of producing suitable substrates that, besides permitting the amplification of the Raman signal, do not interact with the biological material causing alteration, has been overcome by a combined method of hydrothermal green synthesis and thermal annealing. The SERS analysis of the cell membrane has been performed with special attention to the cellular prion protein PrP C . In addition, SERS has also been used to reveal the prion protein-Cu(II) interaction in four different cell models (B104, SH-SY5Y, GN11, HeLa), expressing PrP C at different levels. A significant implication of the current work consists of the intriguing possibility of revealing and quantifying prion protein expression in complex biological samples by a cheap SERS-based method, replacing the expensive and time-consuming immuno-assay systems commonly employed.

  17. Determination of traces of lithium in biological, environmental and metal samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.Y.; Tseng, C.L.; Lo, J.M.; Yang, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Lithium in environmental, biological and metal samples was determined by neutron activation analysis via the 6 Li(n,α)T and 16 O(T,n) 18 F reactions. The samples were converted to aqueous solutions either by dissolution or by digestion and their aliquots were irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 2 h. The irradiated sample solution, was placed in a ZrO 2 column on which the 18 F nuclide was adsorbed. Most of the coexisting nuclides 24 Na, 82 Br, 38 Cl, 64 Cu, etc. were separated by elution with pH 1proportional3 solution. The column was subjected to a Ge(Li) detector for γ-ray spectrometry. The lithium content in the sample was estimated from the 18 F activity obtained. The matrix effect can be eliminated by either strong dilution of the samples in aqueous medium or by the method of standard addition. Lithium can be determined with high precision and accuracy in sub-ppm samples. (orig.) [de

  18. Method and apparatus for imaging substances in biological samples by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.

    1984-01-01

    A method of determining the distribution of non-proton nuclei having a magnetic moment in a biological sample is described. It comprises subjecting the sample to a magnetic field, irradiating the sample with RF radiation at a proton magnetic resonance frequency and deriving a first NMR signal, indicative of electromagnetic absorption of the sample at the proton magnetic resonance frequency. A second such NMR signal at the proton resonance frequency is then derived from the sample in the presence of RF radiation at the nuclear magnetic resonance frequency of the non-proton nuclei so as to decouple protons in the sample from the non-proton nuclei. By applying an imaging technique, an image indicative of the spatial variation of the difference between the first and second signals can be produced. Imaging may be performed on the difference between the two NMR signals, or on each NMR signal followed by subtraction of the images. The method can be used to trace how a 13 C-labelled material introduced into a patient, and its breakdown products, become distributed. (author)

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of silver nanoparticles in environmental and biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Huiyuan [Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Xing, Baoshan, E-mail: bx@umass.edu [Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hamlet, Leigh C.; Chica, Andrea [Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); He, Lili, E-mail: lilihe@foodsci.umass.edu [Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Growing concerns over the potential release and threat of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to environmental and biological systems urge researchers to investigate their fate and behavior. However, current analytical techniques cannot meet the requirements for rapidly, sensitively and reliably probing AgNPs in complex matrices. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has shown great capability for rapid detection of AgNPs based on an indicator molecule that can bind on the AgNP surface. The objective of this study was to exploit SERS to detect AgNPs in environmental and biological samples through optimizing the Raman indicator for SERS. Seven indicator molecules were selected and determined to obtain their SERS signals at optimal concentrations. Among them, 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE), crystal violet and ferric dimethyl-dithiocarbamate (ferbam) produced the highest SERS intensities. Further experiments on binding competition between each two of the three candidates showed that ferbam had the highest AgNPs-binding ability. The underlying mechanism lies in the strong binding affinity of ferbam with AgNPs via multiple sulfur atoms. We further validated ferbam to be an effective indicator for SERS detection of as low as 0.1 mg/L AgNPs in genuine surface water and 0.57 mg/L in spinach juice. Moreover, limited interference on SERS detection of AgNPs was found from environmentally relevant inorganic ions, organic matter, inorganic particles, as well as biologically relevant components, demonstrating the ferbam-assisted SERS is an effective and sensitive method to detect AgNPs in complex environmental and biological samples. - Graphical abstract: SERS signal intensity of ferbam indicates the concentration of AgNPs. - Highlights: • Ferbam was found to be the best indicator for SERS detection of AgNPs. • SERS was able to detect AgNPs in both environmental and biological samples. • Major components in the two matrices had limited effect on AgNP detection.

  20. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of silver nanoparticles in environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Huiyuan; Xing, Baoshan; Hamlet, Leigh C.; Chica, Andrea; He, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Growing concerns over the potential release and threat of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to environmental and biological systems urge researchers to investigate their fate and behavior. However, current analytical techniques cannot meet the requirements for rapidly, sensitively and reliably probing AgNPs in complex matrices. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has shown great capability for rapid detection of AgNPs based on an indicator molecule that can bind on the AgNP surface. The objective of this study was to exploit SERS to detect AgNPs in environmental and biological samples through optimizing the Raman indicator for SERS. Seven indicator molecules were selected and determined to obtain their SERS signals at optimal concentrations. Among them, 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE), crystal violet and ferric dimethyl-dithiocarbamate (ferbam) produced the highest SERS intensities. Further experiments on binding competition between each two of the three candidates showed that ferbam had the highest AgNPs-binding ability. The underlying mechanism lies in the strong binding affinity of ferbam with AgNPs via multiple sulfur atoms. We further validated ferbam to be an effective indicator for SERS detection of as low as 0.1 mg/L AgNPs in genuine surface water and 0.57 mg/L in spinach juice. Moreover, limited interference on SERS detection of AgNPs was found from environmentally relevant inorganic ions, organic matter, inorganic particles, as well as biologically relevant components, demonstrating the ferbam-assisted SERS is an effective and sensitive method to detect AgNPs in complex environmental and biological samples. - Graphical abstract: SERS signal intensity of ferbam indicates the concentration of AgNPs. - Highlights: • Ferbam was found to be the best indicator for SERS detection of AgNPs. • SERS was able to detect AgNPs in both environmental and biological samples. • Major components in the two matrices had limited effect on AgNP detection.

  1. Analysis of biological slurry samples by total x-ray fluorescence after in situ microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue-Meru, M.P.; Capote, T.; Greaves, E.

    2000-01-01

    Biological slurry samples were analyzed by total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) after an in situ microwave digestion procedure on the quartz reflector. This method lead to the removal of the matrix by the digestion and permits the enrichment of the analites by using sample amounts higher than those normally used in TXRF for the thin layer requirement since the organic matrix is removed. In consequence, the pre-concentration of sample is performed and the detection capability is increased by a quasi direct method. The samples analyzed were the international IAEA blood standard, the SRM bovine liver 1577-a standard and fresh onion tissues. Slurries were prepared in three ways: a.- weighing a sample amount on the reflector and adding suprapure nitric acid and internal standard followed by microwave digestion, b.-weighing a sample amount and water with an appropriate concentration of the internal standard in an Eppendorf vial, taking then an aliquot to the quartz reflector for microwave digestion with suprapure nitric acid, c.- weighing a sample amount of fresh tissue, homogenising with high speed homegenator to obtain a slurry sample which can be diluted in an ependorf vial with water an the internal standard. Then an aliquot is taken to the reflector for microwave digestion with suprapure nitric acid. Further details of sample preparation procedures will be discussed during presentation. The analysis was carried out in a Canberra spectrometer using the Kalpha lines of the Ag and Mo tubes. The elements Ca, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Mn, Rb, Br, Sr were determined. The effect of the preparation procedure was evaluated by the accuracy and precision of the results for each element and the percent of recovery. (author)

  2. General guidelines for safe and expeditious international transport of samples subjected to biological dosimetry assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Radl, Analía; Taja, María R; Bubniak, Ruth; Deminge, Mayra; Sapienza, Carla; Vázquez, Marina; Baciu, Florian; Kenny, Pat

    2014-06-01

    It has been observed that victims of accidental overexposures show better chance of survival if they receive medical treatment early. The increased risk of scenarios involving mass casualties has stimulated the scientific community to develop tools that would help the medical doctors to treat victims. The biological dosimetry has become a routine test to estimate the dose, supplementing physical and clinical dosimetry. In case of radiation emergencies, in order to provide timely and effectively biological dosimetry assistance it is essential to guarantee an adequate transport of blood samples in principal, for providing support to countries that do not have biodosimetry laboratories. The objective of the present paper is to provide general guidelines, summarised in 10 points, for timely and proper receiving and sending of blood samples under National and International regulations, for safe and expeditious international transport. These guidelines cover the classification, packaging, marking, labelling, refrigeration and documentation requirements for the international shipping of blood samples and pellets, to provide assistance missions with a tool that would contribute with the preparedness for an effective biodosimetric response in cases of radiological or nuclear emergencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Cellular characterization of compression induced-damage in live biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Chiara; Balzer, Jens; Hahnel, Mark; Rankin, Sara M.; Brown, Katherine A.; Proud, William G.

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the dysfunctions that high-intensity compression waves induce in human tissues is critical to impact on acute-phase treatments and requires the development of experimental models of traumatic damage in biological samples. In this study we have developed an experimental system to directly assess the impact of dynamic loading conditions on cellular function at the molecular level. Here we present a confinement chamber designed to subject live cell cultures in liquid environment to compression waves in the range of tens of MPa using a split Hopkinson pressure bars system. Recording the loading history and collecting the samples post-impact without external contamination allow the definition of parameters such as pressure and duration of the stimulus that can be related to the cellular damage. The compression experiments are conducted on Mesenchymal Stem Cells from BALB/c mice and the damage analysis are compared to two control groups. Changes in Stem cell viability, phenotype and function are assessed flow cytometry and with in vitro bioassays at two different time points. Identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the damage caused by dynamic loading in live biological samples could enable the development of new treatments for traumatic injuries.

  4. Bioanalytical methods for the determination of cocaine and metabolites in human biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, M; Gallardo, E; Queiroz, J A

    2009-08-01

    Determination of cocaine and its metabolites in biological specimens is of great importance, not only in clinical and forensic toxicology, but also in workplace drug testing. These compounds are normally screened for using sensitive immunological methods. However, screening methods are unspecific and, therefore, the posterior confirmation of presumably positive samples by a specific technique is mandatory. Although GC-MS-based techniques are still the most commonly used for confirmation purposes of cocaine and its metabolites in biological specimens, the advent of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS has enabled the detection of even lower amounts of these drugs, which assumes particular importance when sample volume available is small, as frequently occurs with oral fluid. This paper will review recently-published papers that describe procedures for detection of cocaine and metabolites, not only in the most commonly used specimens, such as blood and urine, but also in other 'alternative' matrices (e.g., oral fluid and hair) with a special focus on sample preparation and chromatographic analysis.

  5. The scope of detector Medipix2 in micro-radiography of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, F.; Jakubek, J.; Skrabal, P.; Sopko, V.; Vavrik, D.

    2011-01-01

    We present our experimental setup devoted to high resolution X-ray micro-radiography that is suitable for imaging of small biological samples. The photon source is a FeinFocus micro-focus X-ray tube. The single photon counting pixel device Medipix2 serves as imaging area. Recently used imaging detectors as radiography films or scintillator detectors, cannot visualize required information about inner structure of scanned sample. Detectors Medipix2 do not suffer from so-called dark current noise and work in unlimited dynamic range. These features of detectors confer high quality and high contrast of final images. The radiographic imaging with detectors Medipix2 represents non-invasive and non-destructive method of investigation. Hereby, we demonstrate results of micro-radiographic study of internal structures of tiny biological samples. In addition to morphological and anatomical studies, we would like to present preliminary study of dynamic processes inside of organisms using micro-radiographic video-capturing.

  6. The scope of detector Medipix2 in micro-radiography of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, J., E-mail: jiri.dammer@utef.cvut.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Weyda, F. [Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Entomology, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Jakubek, J. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Skrabal, P. [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Nam. Sitna 3105, CZ-272 01 Kladno (Czech Republic); Sopko, V.; Vavrik, D. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-15

    We present our experimental setup devoted to high resolution X-ray micro-radiography that is suitable for imaging of small biological samples. The photon source is a FeinFocus micro-focus X-ray tube. The single photon counting pixel device Medipix2 serves as imaging area. Recently used imaging detectors as radiography films or scintillator detectors, cannot visualize required information about inner structure of scanned sample. Detectors Medipix2 do not suffer from so-called dark current noise and work in unlimited dynamic range. These features of detectors confer high quality and high contrast of final images. The radiographic imaging with detectors Medipix2 represents non-invasive and non-destructive method of investigation. Hereby, we demonstrate results of micro-radiographic study of internal structures of tiny biological samples. In addition to morphological and anatomical studies, we would like to present preliminary study of dynamic processes inside of organisms using micro-radiographic video-capturing.

  7. High resolution x-ray microtomography of biological samples: Requirements and strategies for satisfying them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, B.W. Jr. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rothman, S.S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    High resolution x-ray microscopy has been made possible in recent years primarily by two new technologies: microfabricated diffractive lenses for soft x-rays with about 30-50 nm resolution, and high brightness synchrotron x-ray sources. X-ray microscopy occupies a special niche in the array of biological microscopic imaging methods. It extends the capabilities of existing techniques mainly in two areas: a previously unachievable combination of sub-visible resolution and multi-micrometer sample size, and new contrast mechanisms. Because of the soft x-ray wavelengths used in biological imaging (about 1-4 nm), XM is intermediate in resolution between visible light and electron microscopies. Similarly, the penetration depth of soft x-rays in biological materials is such that the ideal sample thickness for XM falls in the range of 0.25 - 10 {mu}m, between that of VLM and EM. XM is therefore valuable for imaging of intermediate level ultrastructure, requiring sub-visible resolutions, in intact cells and subcellular organelles, without artifacts produced by thin sectioning. Many of the contrast producing and sample preparation techniques developed for VLM and EM also work well with XM. These include, for example, molecule specific staining by antibodies with heavy metal or fluorescent labels attached, and sectioning of both frozen and plastic embedded tissue. However, there is also a contrast mechanism unique to XM that exists naturally because a number of elemental absorption edges lie in the wavelength range used. In particular, between the oxygen and carbon absorption edges (2.3 and 4.4 nm wavelength), organic molecules absorb photons much more strongly than does water, permitting element-specific imaging of cellular structure in aqueous media, with no artifically introduced contrast agents. For three-dimensional imaging applications requiring the capabilities of XM, an obvious extension of the technique would therefore be computerized x-ray microtomography (XMT).

  8. The correlation of arsenic levels in drinking water with the biological samples of skin disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Arain, Muhammad Balal [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com; Baig, Jameel Ahmed [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com; Jamali, Muhammad Khan [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mkhanjamali@yahoo.com; Afridi, Hassan Imran [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com; Jalbani, Nusrat [Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, University Road Karachi-75280 (Pakistan)], E-mail: nusratjalbani_21@yahoo.com; Sarfraz, Raja Adil [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: rajaadilsarfraz@gmail.com; Shah, Abdul Qadir [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com; Niaz, Abdul [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: niazchemist2k6@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15

    Arsenic (As) poisoning has become a worldwide public health concern. The skin is quite sensitive to As and skin lesions are the most common and earliest nonmalignant effects associated to chronic As exposure. In 2005-2007, a survey was carried out on surface and groundwater arsenic contamination and relationships between As exposure via the drinking water and related adverse health effects (melanosis and keratosis) on villagers resides on the banks of Manchar lake, southern part of Sindh, Pakistan. We screened the population from arsenic-affected villages, 61 to 73% population were identified patients suffering from chronic arsenic toxicity. The effects of As toxicity via drinking water were estimated by biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of adults (males and females), have or have not skin problem (n = 187). The referent samples of both genders were also collected from the areas having low level of As (< 10 {mu}g/L) in drinking water (n = 121). Arsenic concentration in drinking water and biological samples were analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The range of arsenic concentrations in lake surface water was 35.2-158 {mu}g/L, which is 3-15 folds higher than World Health Organization [WHO, 2004. Guidelines for drinking-water quality third ed., WHO Geneva Switzerland.]. It was observed that As concentration in the scalp hair and blood samples were above the range of permissible values 0.034-0.319 {mu}g As/g for hair and < 0.5-4.2 {mu}g/L for blood. The linear regressions showed good correlations between arsenic concentrations in water versus hair and blood samples of exposed skin diseased subjects (R{sup 2} = 0.852 and 0.718) as compared to non-diseased subjects (R{sup 2} = 0.573 and 0.351), respectively.

  9. Non-destructive high-resolution thermal imaging techniques to evaluate wildlife and delicate biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, C; Franklin, P; Franklin, P; Plowman, A; Sayers, G; Bol, J; Shepard, D; Fields, D

    2009-01-01

    Thermal imaging cameras now allows routine monitoring of dangerous yet endangered wildlife in captivity. This study looks at the potential applications of radiometrically calibrated thermal data to wildlife, as well as providing parameters for future materials applications. We present a non-destructive active testing technique suitable for enhancing imagery contrast of thin or delicate biological specimens yielding improved thermal contrast at room temperature, for analysis of sample thermal properties. A broad spectrum of animals is studied with different textured surfaces, reflective and emissive properties in the infra red part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some surface features offer biomimetic materials design opportunities.

  10. Non-destructive high-resolution thermal imaging techniques to evaluate wildlife and delicate biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavers, C; Franklin, P; Franklin, P; Plowman, A; Sayers, G; Bol, J; Shepard, D; Fields, D, E-mail: brnc-radarcomms1@nrta.mod.u [Sensors Team, Plymouth University at Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, Devon (United Kingdom) and Paignton Zoological Park, Paignton, Devon (United Kingdom); Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc., 845 Livernoise St, Ferndale, MI (United States); Buckfast Butterfly and Otter Sanctuary, Buckfast, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Thermal imaging cameras now allows routine monitoring of dangerous yet endangered wildlife in captivity. This study looks at the potential applications of radiometrically calibrated thermal data to wildlife, as well as providing parameters for future materials applications. We present a non-destructive active testing technique suitable for enhancing imagery contrast of thin or delicate biological specimens yielding improved thermal contrast at room temperature, for analysis of sample thermal properties. A broad spectrum of animals is studied with different textured surfaces, reflective and emissive properties in the infra red part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some surface features offer biomimetic materials design opportunities.

  11. Evaluation of Botanical Reference Materials for the Determination of Vanadium in Biological Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1982-01-01

    Three botanical reference materials prepared by the National Bureau of Standards have been studied by neutron activation analysis to evaluate their suitability with respect to the determination of vanadium in biological samples. Various decomposition methods were applied in connection with chemic....... A reference value of 1.15 mg/kg of this material is recommended, based on results from 3 different methods. All three materials are preferable to SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, while Bowen's Kale remains the material of choice because of its lower concentration....

  12. Measurement of tissue free water tritium in biological samples by liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei; Zheng Xiaomin

    1993-01-01

    The authors introduced a method of extracting tissue free water tritium (TFWT) by the azeotropic distribution with toluene and of measuring the activity of the TFWT in biological samples by liquid scintillation counter. The TFWT recovery ratio of pine needles (fresh), green vegetables, radish, rice, pork (muscle) and milk is 0.90, 0.95, 0.96, 0.90, 0.52 and 0.85, and TFWT activity is 1.8, 3.2, 1.8, 2.7, 3.3 and 4.0 Bq/L-H 2 O, respectively

  13. Activity measurement of tritium in biological samples by azeotropic distillation liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei; Zheng Xiaomin

    1994-01-01

    The authors introduced a method of extracting tissue free water tritium (TFWT) in biological samples by azeotropic distillation with toluene and of measuring its activity by liquid scintillation counter. Measured TFWT recovery ratios of pine needles (fresh), green vegetables, radish, milk, meat, rice are 0.90, 0.95, 0.95, 0.85, 0.53 and 0.90; and the activities of TFWT are 1.8, 3.2, 1.8, 4.0, 3.3 and 2.7 Bq/L, respectively

  14. Development and application of a micro-digestion device for biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlen, A. von; Klockenkaemper, R.; Messerschmidt, J.; Alt, F.

    2000-01-01

    The analytical characterization of small amounts of a sample is of increasing importance for various research projects in biology, biochemistry and medicine. Reliable determinations of minor and trace elements in microsamples can be performed by total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). This microanalytical method is suitable for direct multielement analyses of a tiny amount of a liquid or solid sample. Instead of a direct analysis, however, a complete digestion or mineralisation of the sample material prior to analysis can be recommendable. It can be advantageous for a favorable presentation, for a preconcentration and/or homogenization of the material and particularly for an accurate quantification. Unfortunately, commercially available digestion devices are optimized for amounts of 50 to 400 mg of a sample. For smaller amounts, a microdigestion device was constructed and adapted to an equipment of high pressure ashing, which is commercially available. Digestions of very different microsamples between some μg and some mg were carried out, followed by quantitative determinations of a lot of elements. Besides, different Standard Reference Materials (SRM) were analyzed. The homogeneity of these materials could be investigated by comparing the results found for microsamples with those obtained for samples of 200 mg, the latter after digestion in a conventional device. (author)

  15. Direct determination of uranium in soil, rock, ore and biological samples by laser-induced fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingzhen; Zhang Yanan

    1993-03-01

    A laser-induced fluorometric method with modified J-22 anti-interferent fluorescent reagent for directly determining the uranium in soil, rock, ore, geochemical, biological and other samples has been studied. The effects of external ions and dilution law of sample are examined in detail. A method for correcting inner effect is proposed. A mixed solution of 0.25% NaOH-10% J-22 is prepared which can be added to the sample cuvette for direct measurement without any pre-adjustment of acidity. Therefore, it is much simpler for operation and reduces the loss and contamination of uranium. By changing the laser fluorometer sensitivity (400 ∼ 200), up to 3000 ng uranium in the cuvette can be detected. Thus, both analytical accuracy and detectable range are improved. This method is simple, rapid, accurate and applicable to various uranium-bearing samples. The detection limit is better than 0.05 μgU/g. The relative standard deviation is ≤+-5% for the rock reference samples of 0.95, 84.8, 669 and 7240 μgU/g

  16. Sample sizing of biological materials analyzed by energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Jose D.S.; Franca, Elvis J.; Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Almeida, Marcio E.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical portions used in chemical analyses are usually less than 1g. Errors resulting from the sampling are barely evaluated, since this type of study is a time-consuming procedure, with high costs for the chemical analysis of large number of samples. The energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence - EDXRF is a non-destructive and fast analytical technique with the possibility of determining several chemical elements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide information on the minimum analytical portion for quantification of chemical elements in biological matrices using EDXRF. Three species were sampled in mangroves from the Pernambuco, Brazil. Tree leaves were washed with distilled water, oven-dried at 60 deg C and milled until 0.5 mm particle size. Ten test-portions of approximately 500 mg for each species were transferred to vials sealed with polypropylene film. The quality of the analytical procedure was evaluated from the reference materials IAEA V10 Hay Powder, SRM 2976 Apple Leaves. After energy calibration, all samples were analyzed under vacuum for 100 seconds for each group of chemical elements. The voltage used was 15 kV and 50 kV for chemical elements of atomic number lower than 22 and the others, respectively. For the best analytical conditions, EDXRF was capable of estimating the sample size uncertainty for further determination of chemical elements in leaves. (author)

  17. Sample sizing of biological materials analyzed by energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Jose D.S.; Franca, Elvis J.; Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Almeida, Marcio E.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: maensoal@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Analytical portions used in chemical analyses are usually less than 1g. Errors resulting from the sampling are barely evaluated, since this type of study is a time-consuming procedure, with high costs for the chemical analysis of large number of samples. The energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence - EDXRF is a non-destructive and fast analytical technique with the possibility of determining several chemical elements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide information on the minimum analytical portion for quantification of chemical elements in biological matrices using EDXRF. Three species were sampled in mangroves from the Pernambuco, Brazil. Tree leaves were washed with distilled water, oven-dried at 60 deg C and milled until 0.5 mm particle size. Ten test-portions of approximately 500 mg for each species were transferred to vials sealed with polypropylene film. The quality of the analytical procedure was evaluated from the reference materials IAEA V10 Hay Powder, SRM 2976 Apple Leaves. After energy calibration, all samples were analyzed under vacuum for 100 seconds for each group of chemical elements. The voltage used was 15 kV and 50 kV for chemical elements of atomic number lower than 22 and the others, respectively. For the best analytical conditions, EDXRF was capable of estimating the sample size uncertainty for further determination of chemical elements in leaves. (author)

  18. Analytical Methodologies for the Determination of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Biological and Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disruptor compounds (EDCs can mimic natural hormones and produce adverse effects in the endocrine functions by interacting with estrogen receptors. EDCs include both natural and synthetic chemicals, such as hormones, personal care products, surfactants, and flame retardants, among others. EDCs are characterised by their ubiquitous presence at trace-level concentrations and their wide diversity. Since the discovery of the adverse effects of these pollutants on wildlife and human health, analytical methods have been developed for their qualitative and quantitative determination. In particular, mass-based analytical methods show excellent sensitivity and precision for their quantification. This paper reviews recently published analytical methodologies for the sample preparation and for the determination of these compounds in different environmental and biological matrices by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The various sample preparation techniques are compared and discussed. In addition, recent developments and advances in this field are presented.

  19. Fiber laser-microscope system for femtosecond photodisruption of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavaş, Seydi; Erdogan, Mutlu; Gürel, Kutan; Ilday, F Ömer; Eldeniz, Y Burak; Tazebay, Uygar H

    2012-03-01

    We report on the development of a ultrafast fiber laser-microscope system for femtosecond photodisruption of biological targets. A mode-locked Yb-fiber laser oscillator generates few-nJ pulses at 32.7 MHz repetition rate, amplified up to ∼125 nJ at 1030 nm. Following dechirping in a grating compressor, ∼240 fs-long pulses are delivered to the sample through a diffraction-limited microscope, which allows real-time imaging and control. The laser can generate arbitrary pulse patterns, formed by two acousto-optic modulators (AOM) controlled by a custom-developed field-programmable gate array (FPGA) controller. This capability opens the route to fine optimization of the ablation processes and management of thermal effects. Sample position, exposure time and imaging are all computerized. The capability of the system to perform femtosecond photodisruption is demonstrated through experiments on tissue and individual cells.

  20. Towards a new method for the quantification of metabolites in the biological sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugnot, B.

    2005-03-01

    The quantification of metabolites is a key step in drug development. The aim of this Ph.D. work was to study the feasibility of a new method for this quantification, in the biological sample, without the drawbacks (cost, time, ethics) of the classical quantification methods based on metabolites synthesis or administration to man of the radiolabelled drug. Our strategy consists in determining the response factor, in mass spectrometry, of the metabolites. This approach is based on tritium labelling of the metabolites, ex vivo, by isotopic exchange. The labelling step was studied with deuterium. Metabolites of a model drug, recovered from in vitro or urinary samples, were labelled by three ways (Crab tree's catalyst ID2, deuterated trifluoroacetic acid or rhodium chloride ID20). Then, the transposition to tritium labelling was studied and the first results are very promising for the ultimate validation of the method. (author)

  1. Surface plasmon resonance based sensing of different chemical and biological samples using admittance loci method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Kaushik; Ghosh, Sharmila; Ray, Mina

    2013-06-01

    The admittance loci method plays an important role in the design of multilayer thin film structures. In this paper, admittance loci method has been explored theoretically for sensing of various chemical and biological samples based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon. A dielectric multilayer structure consisting of a Boro silicate glass (BSG) substrate, calcium fluoride (CaF2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) along with different dielectric layers has been investigated. Moreover, admittance loci as well as SPR curves of metal-dielectric multilayer structure consisting of the BSG substrate, gold metal film and various dielectric samples has been simulated in MATLAB environment. To validate the proposed simulation results, calibration curves have also been provided.

  2. The application of extraction chromatography to the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Delle Site, A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describe the application of extraction chromatography to the determination of several alpha and beta emitters in biological and environmental samples. Both column extraction chromatography and batch extraction process have been used to isolate the radionuclides from the samples. The effect of several parameters (extractant concentration, support granulometry, stirring time, temperature, presence of a complexing agent) on the extraction and elution has been examined. The application of redox extraction chromatography is also described. A very simple and rapid determination of the activity retained on the column can be obtained by transferring the slurry to a counting vial and by adding the scintillation liquid for a direct detection of the α or β emission. The counting efficiencies obtained with this technique are compared with those obtained with ion exchange resins. The organic polymers used for the extraction chromatography give about 100% counting efficiency. The conventional ion exchange resin cannot be used to this purpose because of their strong light absorption. (T.G.)

  3. ASPIRE: An automated sample positioning and irradiation system for radiation biology experiments at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Ashok; Barua, P.; Archunan, M.; Rani, Kusum; Subramanian, E.T.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Kaur, Harminder; Satyanarayanan, V.V.V.; Sarma, Asitikantha; Avasthi, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    An automated irradiation setup for biology samples has been built at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. It can automatically load and unload 20 biology samples in a run of experiment. It takes about 20 min [2% of the cell doubling time] to irradiate all the 20 samples. Cell doubling time is the time taken by the cells (kept in the medium) to grow double in numbers. The cells in the samples keep growing during entire of the experiment. The fluence irradiated to the samples is measured with two silicon surface barrier detectors. Tests show that the uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions reaches to 2% at the sample area in diameter of 40 mm. The accuracy of mean fluence at the center of the target area is within 1%. The irradiation setup can be used to the studies of radiation therapy, radiation dosimetry and molecular biology at the heavy ion accelerator. - Highlights: • Automated positioning and irradiation setup for biology samples at IUAC is built. • Loading and unloading of 20 biology samples can be automatically carried out. • Biologicals cells keep growing during entire experiment. • Fluence and dose of heavy ions are measured by two silicon barrier detectors. • Uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions at sample position reaches to 2%

  4. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Expedient data mining for nontargeted high-resolution LC-MS profiles of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatyshyn, Serhiy; Shipkova, Petia; Sanders, Mark

    2013-05-01

    The application of high-resolution LC-MS metabolomics for drug candidate toxicity screening reflects phenotypic changes of an organism caused by induced chemical interferences. Its success depends not only on the ability to translate the acquired analytical information into biological knowledge, but also on the timely delivery of the results to aid the decision making process in drug discovery and development. Recent improvements in analytical instrumentation have resulted in the ability to acquire extremely information-rich datasets. These new data collection abilities have shifted the bottleneck in the timeline of metabolomic studies to the data analysis step. This paper describes our approach to expedient data analysis of nontargeted high-resolution LC-MS profiles of biological samples. The workflow is illustrated with the example of metabolomics study of time-dependent fasting in male rats. The results from measurement of 220 endogenous metabolites in urine samples illustrate significant biochemical changes induced by fasting. The developed software enables the reporting of relative quantities of annotated components while maintaining practical turnaround times. Each component annotation in the report is validated using both calculated isotopic peaks patterns and experimentally determined retention time data on standards.

  6. Wavelet data processing of micro-Raman spectra of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlingo, C.; Zenone, F.; Gaeta, G. M.; Riccio, R.; Lepore, M.

    2006-02-01

    A wavelet multi-component decomposition algorithm is proposed for processing data from micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) of biological tissue. The μ-RS has been recently recognized as a promising tool for the biopsy test and in vivo diagnosis of degenerative human tissue pathologies, due to the high chemical and structural information contents of this spectroscopic technique. However, measurements of biological tissues are usually hampered by typically low-level signals and by the presence of noise and background components caused by light diffusion or fluorescence processes. In order to overcome these problems, a numerical method based on discrete wavelet transform is used for the analysis of data from μ-RS measurements performed in vitro on animal (pig and chicken) tissue samples and, in a preliminary form, on human skin and oral tissue biopsy from normal subjects. Visible light μ-RS was performed using a He-Ne laser and a monochromator with a liquid nitrogen cooled charge coupled device equipped with a grating of 1800 grooves mm-1. The validity of the proposed data procedure has been tested on the well-characterized Raman spectra of reference acetylsalicylic acid samples.

  7. Experience of an inter-laboratory exercise for the determination of Carbon-14 in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, A.; Rajaram, S.; D'Souza, Renita Shiny; Nayak, Rasmi; Karunakara, N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon-14 is one of the naturally occurring cosmogenic nuclide with long half life of 5730 y and beta energy, E max : 156 keV produced continuously in the outer atmosphere. It is also produced by the anthropogenic activities like nuclear weapon test, nuclear power plant etc. contributing to the atmospheric inventory. The 14 CO 2 gets incorporated with the plant species during photosynthesis and ultimately reaches to man through food chain. It is important to accurately quantify the level of 14 C in different biological matrices for the computation of radiation dose due to ingestion. There are different methods available for the determination of 14 C in biological samples. The oxidation of the dried sample is one of the methods used for liberating the 14 CO 2 and which in turn re-absorbed using Carbo Sorb and subjected to Liquid scintillation analyses with Permaflour scintillator solution. The paper deals with the quality assurance programme initiated by ESL, Tarapur along with ESL, Kalpakkam and CARER, Mangalore University and share the experience of the inter-laboratory comparison exercise

  8. A comparison of quantitative reconstruction techniques for PIXE-tomography analysis applied to biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, D.G., E-mail: dgbeasley@ctn.ist.utl.pt [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Barberet, Ph.; Bourret, S.; Devès, G.; Gordillo, N.; Michelet, C. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Le Trequesser, Q. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB, UPR9048) CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Marques, A.C. [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Seznec, H. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Silva, R.C. da [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    The tomographic reconstruction of biological specimens requires robust algorithms, able to deal with low density contrast and low element concentrations. At the IST/ITN microprobe facility new GPU-accelerated reconstruction software, JPIXET, has been developed, which can significantly increase the speed of quantitative reconstruction of Proton Induced X-ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) data. It has a user-friendly graphical user interface for pre-processing, data analysis and reconstruction of PIXE-T and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T). The reconstruction of PIXE-T data is performed using either an algorithm based on a GPU-accelerated version of the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) method or a GPU-accelerated version of the Discrete Image Space Reconstruction Algorithm (DISRA) (Sakellariou (2001) [2]). The original DISRA, its accelerated version, and the MLEM algorithm, were compared for the reconstruction of a biological sample of Caenorhabditis elegans – a small worm. This sample was analysed at the microbeam line of the AIFIRA facility of CENBG, Bordeaux. A qualitative PIXE-T reconstruction was obtained using the CENBG software package TomoRebuild (Habchi et al. (2013) [6]). The effects of pre-processing and experimental conditions on the elemental concentrations are discussed.

  9. Liquid chromatographic determination of CPZEN-45, a novel anti-tubercular drug, in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, S N M; Hickey, A J; Garcia-Contreras, L

    2014-01-01

    CPZEN-45 is a new drug candidate being considered for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to develop and validate a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method suitable to determine CPZEN-45 concentrations in biological samples. CPZEN-45 was extracted from biological fluids and tissues (plasma, lung and spleen from guinea pig) by sequential extraction with acetonitrile and quantified by a Waters HPLC Alliance System coupled with a ZORBAX Bonus-RP column, guard column and UV detection at 263nm. The mobile phase was 20:80 acetonitrile:ultrapure-water with 0.05% TFA. The CPZEN-45 peak was eluted at 5.1min with no interference from the inherent peaks of plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung or spleen tissues. Recovery of CPZEN-45 from biological samples was >96% of the spiked amount. The limit of detection was 0.05μg/ml and the limit of quantitation was 0.29μg/ml which was more than 5 and 21 times lower than the reported minimal inhibitory concentration of CPZEN-45 (MIC=1.56μg/ml for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6.25μg/ml for MDR-TB, respectively). Thus, HPLC method was deemed reliable, sensitive, reproducible and accurate for the determination of CPZEN-45 concentrations in plasma, BAL, lung and spleen tissues. Therefore, this method was used in subsequent studies in the guinea pig model to determine the disposition of CPZEN-45 after administration of solutions by the IV and SC routes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol, Bis(2-ethylehxyl) phathalate in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Jeonju University, Chonju (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    A comprehensive analytical method of endocrine disruptors[i.e., nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) in meat or pork samples was developed. The method employed closed culture tube extraction with dichloromethane and solvent exchange to iso-hexane and SPE 92g) aminopropyl column, followed by determination on gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in the single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. For the multipoint recovery of nonylphenol, octylphenol and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate OP, NP were shown good recoveries in 0.125 {approx} 1.25 {mu}g/g range of concentration, and BEHP more good recoveries on 0.0125 {approx} 12.5 {mu}g/g wide range of concentration. The present method was applied to beef or pork samples of mart and butcher in Cheonju city and near cheonju. The range of concentrations was respectively, 0.06 {approx} 0.24 {mu}g/g in bis (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), but octylphenol (OP) was not dec ted in any samples. This method provides a powerful analytical tool to investigate a wide range of endocrine disruptors in biological samples of limited quantity. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  11. An inexpensive and portable microvolumeter for rapid evaluation of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John K; Wcislo, William T

    2010-08-01

    We describe an improved microvolumeter (MVM) for rapidly measuring volumes of small biological samples, including live zooplankton, embryos, and small animals and organs. Portability and low cost make this instrument suitable for widespread use, including at remote field sites. Beginning with Archimedes' principle, which states that immersing an arbitrarily shaped sample in a fluid-filled container displaces an equivalent volume, we identified procedures that maximize measurement accuracy and repeatability across a broad range of absolute volumes. Crucial steps include matching the overall configuration to the size of the sample, using reflected light to monitor fluid levels precisely, and accounting for evaporation during measurements. The resulting precision is at least 100 times higher than in previous displacement-based methods. Volumes are obtained much faster than by traditional histological or confocal methods and without shrinkage artifacts due to fixation or dehydration. Calibrations using volume standards confirmed accurate measurements of volumes as small as 0.06 microL. We validated the feasibility of evaluating soft-tissue samples by comparing volumes of freshly dissected ant brains measured with the MVM and by confocal reconstruction.

  12. Generator and Setup for Emulating Exposures of Biological Samples to Lightning Strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebersek, Matej; Marjanovic, Igor; Begus, Samo; Pillet, Flavien; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Miklavcic, Damijan; Kotnik, Tadej

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to develop a system for controlled exposure of biological samples to conditions they experience when lightning strikes their habitats. We based the generator on a capacitor charged via a bridge rectifier and a dc-dc converter, and discharged via a relay, delivering arcs similar to natural lightning strokes in electric current waveform and similarly accompanied by acoustic shock waves. We coupled the generator to our exposure chamber described previously, measured electrical and acoustic properties of arc discharges delivered, and assessed their ability to inactivate bacterial spores. Submicrosecond discharges descended vertically from the conical emitting electrode across the air gap, entering the sample centrally and dissipating radially toward the ring-shaped receiving electrode. In contrast, longer discharges tended to short-circuit the electrodes. Recording at 341 000 FPS with Vision Research Phantom v2010 camera revealed that initial arc descent was still vertical, but became accompanied by arcs leaning increasingly sideways; after 8-12 μs, as the first of these arcs formed direct contact with the receiving electrode, it evolved into a channel of plasmified air and short-circuited the electrodes. We eliminated this artefact by incorporating an insulating cylinder concentrically between the electrodes, precluding short-circuiting between them. While bacterial spores are highly resistant to electric pulses delivered through direct contact, we showed that with arc discharges accompanied by an acoustic shock wave, spore inactivation is readily obtained. The presented system allows scientific investigation of effects of arc discharges on biological samples. This system will allow realistic experimental studies of lightning-triggered horizontal gene transfer and assessment of its role in evolution.

  13. Exploring Earth's Atmospheric Biology using a Platform-Extensible Sampling Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Rothschild, L.

    2012-12-01

    The interactions between Earth's atmosphere and its biosphere, or aerobiology, remain a significant unknown. What few studies have been done conclusively show that Earth's atmosphere has a rich and dynamic microbial presence[Bowers et al., 2010]; that microbes suspended in air survive over long times (1-2 weeks)[Smith et al., 2010] and travel great distances (>5000 km)[Kellogg and Griffin, 2006]; that some airborne bacteria actively nucleate ice crystals, affecting meteorology[Delort et al., 2010]; and that the presence of microbes in the atmosphere has other planetary-scale effects[Delort et al., 2010]. Basic questions, however, such as the number of microbes present, their activity level and state, the different species present and their variance over time and space, remain largely unquantified. Compounding the significant physical and environmental challenges of reliable aerobiological sampling, collection and analysis of biological samples at altitudes above ~10-20 km has traditionally used ad hoc instrumentation and techniques, yielding primarily qualitative analytical results that lack a common basis for comparison[Bowers et al., 2010]. There is a strong need for broad-basis, repeatable, reliably comparable data about aerobiological basics. We describe here a high-altitude environmental and biological sampling project designed specifically to address these issues. The goal is a robust, reliable, re-usable sampling system, with open reproducibility and adaptability for multiple low-cost flight platforms (including ground-tethered systems, high-altitude balloons, and suborbital sounding rockets); by establishing a common modular payload structure for high-altitude sampling with appeal to a broad user base, we hope to encourage widespread collection of comparable aerobiological data. We are on our third prototype iteration, with demonstrated function of two sample capture modules, a support backbone (tracking, data logging, event response, etc.), a simple ground

  14. Quantifying biological samples using Linear Poisson Independent Component Analysis for MALDI-ToF mass spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepaisarn, S; Tar, P D; Thacker, N A; Seepujak, A; McMahon, A W

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Motivation Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI) facilitates the analysis of large organic molecules. However, the complexity of biological samples and MALDI data acquisition leads to high levels of variation, making reliable quantification of samples difficult. We present a new analysis approach that we believe is well-suited to the properties of MALDI mass spectra, based upon an Independent Component Analysis derived for Poisson sampled data. Simple analyses have been limited to studying small numbers of mass peaks, via peak ratios, which is known to be inefficient. Conventional PCA and ICA methods have also been applied, which extract correlations between any number of peaks, but we argue makes inappropriate assumptions regarding data noise, i.e. uniform and Gaussian. Results We provide evidence that the Gaussian assumption is incorrect, motivating the need for our Poisson approach. The method is demonstrated by making proportion measurements from lipid-rich binary mixtures of lamb brain and liver, and also goat and cow milk. These allow our measurements and error predictions to be compared to ground truth. Availability and implementation Software is available via the open source image analysis system TINA Vision, www.tina-vision.net. Contact paul.tar@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:29091994

  15. [Detection and typing by molecular biology of human papillomavirus in genital samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Moya, A; Esquivias Gómez, J I; Vidart Aragón, J A; Picazo de la Garza, J J

    2006-06-01

    Recently, there has been a marked increase in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the etiological relationship between some HPV genotypes and genital cancer has been confirmed. Therefore, we used current molecular biology techniques to evaluate the prevalence of these viruses and their genotype in genital samples. We processed 401 genital samples from 281 women and 120 men, all with a diagnosis compatible with HPV infection. Virus was detected using PCR, and positive samples were typed using an array technique which enabled us to detect the 35 most common types of mucous-associated HPV. Of the 401 patients studied, 185 (46.1%) were positive, and only one type of HPV was detected in 133 cases. We found that 41.6% of the women and 56.7% of the men were positive. A total of 260 HPVs were typed; 154 were high oncogenic risk. They infected 16 men (23.5%) and 88 women (75.2%). The difference was statistically significant (pHVP 16 in 52 cases. We found a 46% prevalence of HPV infection. More than half of these patients were infected by high-risk HPV. The presence of high-risk HPV was significantly higher in women.

  16. Rare earth analysis in human biological samples by atomic absorption using electrothermal atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citron, I.M.; Holtzman, R.B.; Leiman, J.

    1982-01-01

    The determination of Sc and seven rare earth elements, Nd, Sm, Dy, Ho, Eu, Tm, and Yb, in biological samplesby atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) using electrothermal atomization in a pyrolytic graphite tube is shown to be rapid, precise and accurate. The technique utilizes the method of standard additions and linear regression analysis to determine results from peak area data. Inter-elemental interferences are negligible. The elements found sensitive enough for this type of analysis are, in order of decreasing sensitivity, Yb, Eu, Tm, Dy, Sc, Ho, Sm and Nd. The determination in these types of materials of Gd and elements less sensitive to AAS detection than Gd does not appear to be feasible. Results are presented on the concentrations of these elements in 41 samples from human subjects, cows and vegetables with normal environmental exposure to the rare earth elements. The composite percent mean deviation in peak-area readings for all samples and all elements examined was 4%. The mean standard error in the results among samples was about 6.5%

  17. Large area synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempson, I.; Thierry, B.; Smith, E.; Gao, M.; De Jonge, M.

    2014-01-01

    Large area mapping of inorganic material in biological samples has suffered severely from prohibitively long acquisition times. With the advent of new detector technology we can now generate statistically relevant information for studying cell populations, inter-variability and bioinorganic chemistry in large specimen. We have been implementing ultrafast synchrotron-based XRF mapping afforded by the MAIA detector for large area mapping of biological material. For example, a 2.5 million pixel map can be acquired in 3 hours, compared to a typical synchrotron XRF set-up needing over 1 month of uninterrupted beamtime. Of particular focus to us is the fate of metals and nanoparticles in cells, 3D tissue models and animal tissues. The large area scanning has for the first time provided statistically significant information on sufficiently large numbers of cells to provide data on intercellular variability in uptake of nanoparticles. Techniques such as flow cytometry generally require analysis of thousands of cells for statistically meaningful comparison, due to the large degree of variability. Large area XRF now gives comparable information in a quantifiable manner. Furthermore, we can now image localised deposition of nanoparticles in tissues that would be highly improbable to 'find' by typical XRF imaging. In addition, the ultra fast nature also makes it viable to conduct 3D XRF tomography over large dimensions. This technology avails new opportunities in biomonitoring and understanding metal and nanoparticle fate ex-vivo. Following from this is extension to molecular imaging through specific anti-body targeted nanoparticles to label specific tissues and monitor cellular process or biological consequence

  18. Monitoring prion protein expression in complex biological samples by SERS for diagnostic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manno, D; Filippo, E; Fiore, R; Serra, A [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Urso, E; Rizzello, A; Maffia, M [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Universita del Salento, Lecce (Italy)

    2010-04-23

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) allows a new insight into the analysis of cell physiology. In this work, the difficulty of producing suitable substrates that, besides permitting the amplification of the Raman signal, do not interact with the biological material causing alteration, has been overcome by a combined method of hydrothermal green synthesis and thermal annealing. The SERS analysis of the cell membrane has been performed with special attention to the cellular prion protein PrP{sup C}. In addition, SERS has also been used to reveal the prion protein-Cu(II) interaction in four different cell models (B104, SH-SY5Y, GN11, HeLa), expressing PrP{sup C} at different levels. A significant implication of the current work consists of the intriguing possibility of revealing and quantifying prion protein expression in complex biological samples by a cheap SERS-based method, replacing the expensive and time-consuming immuno-assay systems commonly employed.

  19. Development of radiochemical separation method for determination of toxic elements in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Armelin, M.J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine Hg, Sb, As and Se in biological materials by neutron activation analysis, a radiochemical separation was developed. The chemical separation procedure used was based on the digestion of the irradiated sample in a mixture of H NO 3 and H 2 SO 4 in a teflon bomb, at 130 0 C for 1 to 4 hours. After the dissolution of organic matter, Hg and Sb were retained by a Dowex 2-X8 resin column in 6 M HCl. The effluent was passed through a TDO, tin dioxide column which retains As and Se in 3 M HCl medium. Radioactive tracers of these elements were used to determine the yields of the separation process. Certified reference materials were analyzed to check the precision and accuracy of the method. (author)

  20. Development of a radiochemical separation method for toxic elements determination from biologic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Armelin, M.J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine Hg, Sb, As and Se in biological materials by neutron activation analysis, a radiochemical separation was developed. The chemical separation procedure used was based on the digestion of the irradiated sample in a mixture of HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 in a teflon bomb, at 130 0 C for 1 to 4 hours. After the dissolution of organic matter, Hg and Sb were retained by a Dowex 2-XB resin column in 6M HCI. The efluent was passed through a TDO, tin dioxide column which retains As and Se in 3M HCI medium. Radioactive tracers of these elements were used to determine the yields of the separation process. Certified reference materials were analyzed to check the precision and accuracy of the method. (author)

  1. A validated HPTLC method for determination of terbutaline sulfate in biological samples: Application to pharmacokinetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Faiyazuddin, Md.; Rauf, Abdul; Ahmad, Niyaz; Ahmad, Sayeed; Iqbal, Zeenat; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Khar, Roop K.; Ahmad, Farhan J.

    2011-01-01

    Terbutaline sulfate (TBS) was assayed in biological samples by validated HPTLC method. Densitometric analysis of TBS was carried out at 366 nm on precoated TLC aluminum plates with silica gel 60F254 as a stationary phase and chloroform–methanol (9.0:1.0, v/v) as a mobile phase. TBS was well resolved at RF 0.34 ± 0.02. In all matrices, the calibration curve appeared linear (r2 ⩾ 0.9943) in the tested range of 100–1000 ng spot−1 with a limit of quantification of 18.35 ng spot−1. Drug recovery f...

  2. Ethics and law in research with human biological samples: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    During the last century a large number of documents (regulations, ethical codes, treatises, declarations, conventions) were published on the subject of ethics and clinical trials, many of them focusing on the protection of research participants. More recently various proposals have been put forward to relax some of the constraints imposed on research by these documents and regulations. It is important to distinguish between risks deriving from direct interventions on human subjects and other types of risk. In Italy the Data Protection Authority has acted in the question of research using previously collected health data and biological samples to simplify the procedures regarding informed consent. The new approach may be of help to other researchers working outside Italy.

  3. Determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Mizera, J.; Randa, Z.; Byrne, A.R.; Lucanikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation procedures using liquid-liquid extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from 1 M HCl and solid extraction with ALIQUAT 336 incorporated in a polyacrylonitrile binding matrix from 0.1 M HCl were developed for accurate determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples at the sub-ng.g -1 level. Concentrations of Re in the range of 0.1 to 2.4 ng.g -1 were determined in several botanical reference materials (RM), while in a RM of road dust a value of approx. 10 ng.g -1 was found. Significantly elevated values of Re, up to 90 ng.g -1 , were found in seaweed (brown algae). Results for Re in the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus in which elevated 99 Tc values had previously been determined suggest possible competition between Re and Tc in the accumulation process. (author)

  4. X-ray microanalytical surveys of minor element concentrations in unsectioned biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, R. M. S.; Lefevre, H. W.; Overley, J. C.; Macdonald, J. D.

    1988-03-01

    Approximate concentration maps of small unsectioned biological samples are made using the pixel by pixel ratio of PIXE images to areal density images. Areal density images are derived from scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) proton energy-loss images. Corrections for X-ray production cross section variations, X-ray attenuation, and depth averaging are approximated or ignored. Estimates of the magnitude of the resulting error are made. Approximate calcium concentrations within the head of a fruit fly are reported. Concentrations in the retinula cell region of the eye average about 1 mg/g dry weight. Concentrations of zinc in the mandible of several ant species average about 40 mg/g. Zinc concentrations in the stomachs of these ants are at least 1 mg/g.

  5. Sensitivity and accuracy of atomic absorption spectrophotometry for trace elements in marine biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    During the course of 1974-75 atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) has been used extensively in our laboratory for measuring various trace elements in marine biological materials in order to conduct homogeneity tests on the intercalibration samples for trace metal analysis as well as to obtain baseline data for trace elements in various kinds of marine organisms collected from different locations in the Mediterranean Sea. Several series of test experiments have been conducted on the current methodology in use in our laboratory to ensure satisfactory analytical performance in measuring a number of trace elements for which analytical problems have not completely been solved. Sensitivities of the techniques used were repeatedly checked for various elements and the accuracy of the analyses were always critically evaluated by analyzing standard reference materials. The results of these test experiments have uncovered critical points relevant to the application of the AAS to routine analysis

  6. Evaluation of botanical reference materials for the determination of vanadium in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.; Damsgaard, E.

    1982-01-01

    Three botanical reference materials prepared by the National Bureau of Standards have been studied by neutron activation analysis to evaluate their suitability with respect to the determination of vanadium in biological samples. Various decomposition methods were applied in connection with chemical or radiochemical separations, and results for vanadium were compared with those found by purely instrumental neutron activation analysis. Significantly lower results indicate losses or incomplete dissolution, which makes SRM 1575 Pine Needles and SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves less satisfactory than SRM 1570 Spinach. A reference value of 1.15 mg/kg of this material is recommended, based on results from 3 different methods. All three materials are preferable to SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, while Bowen's Kale remains the material of choice because of its lower concentration. (author)

  7. Study on methods of quantitative analysis of the biological thin samples in EM X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Detian; Zhang Xuemin; He Kun; Yang Yi; Zhang Sa; Wang Baozhen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the methods of quantitative analysis of the biological thin samples. Methods: Hall theory was used to study the qualitative analysis, background subtraction, peel off overlap peaks; external radiation and aberrance of spectra. Results: The results of reliable qualitative analysis and precise quantitative analysis were achieved. Conclusion: The methods for analysis of the biological thin samples in EM X-ray microanalysis can be used in biomedical research

  8. Microscopy of biological sample through advanced diffractive optics from visible to X-ray wavelength regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Cojoc, Dan; Emiliani, Valentina; Cabrini, Stefano; Coppey-Moisan, Maite; Ferrari, Enrico; Garbin, Valeria; Altissimo, Matteo

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this report is to demonstrate a unified version of microscopy through the use of advanced diffractive optics. The unified scheme derives from the technical possibility of realizing front wave engineering in a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum. The unified treatment is realized through the design and nanofabrication of phase diffractive elements (PDE) through which wave front beam shaping is obtained. In particular, we will show applications, by using biological samples, ranging from micromanipulation using optical tweezers to X-ray differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy combined with X-ray fluorescence. We report some details on the design and physical implementation of diffractive elements that besides focusing also perform other optical functions: beam splitting, beam intensity, and phase redistribution or mode conversion. Laser beam splitting is used for multiple trapping and independent manipulation of micro-beads surrounding a cell as an array of tweezers and for arraying and sorting microscopic size biological samples. Another application is the Gauss to Laguerre-Gauss mode conversion, which allows for trapping and transfering orbital angular momentum of light to micro-particles immersed in a fluid. These experiments are performed in an inverted optical microscope coupled with an infrared laser beam and a spatial light modulator for diffractive optics implementation. High-resolution optics, fabricated by means of e-beam lithography, are demonstrated to control the intensity and the phase of the sheared beams in x-ray DIC microscopy. DIC experiments with phase objects reveal a dramatic increase in image contrast compared to bright-field x-ray microscopy. Besides the topographic information, fluorescence allows detection of certain chemical elements (Cl, P, Sc, K) in the same setup, by changing the photon energy of the x-ray beam. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Lead levels in some biological samples of auto-mechanics in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, O O; Ojo, L O; Aderemi, M O

    2005-12-01

    Lead levels were determined in the blood, scalp hair and fingernails of 38, all male auto-mechanics (aged 18-45 years) from Abeokuta, South-western Nigeria. The subjects were classified into four sub-groups based on the period of exposure namely: 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and >16 years. Thirty-two occupationally unexposed subjects (mainly office workers) served as the control. The weight, height and body mass indexes of all subjects were noted, in addition to other information obtained through structured questionnaire. The mean values of blood lead (BPb), hair lead (HPb) and fingernail lead (NPb) of the occupationally exposed subjects (n=38) were 48.50 +/- 9.08 microg/dL, 17.75 +/- 5.16 microg/g, and 5.92 +/- 3.30 microg/g respectively, while the corresponding mean values for these parameters in the control subjects (n = 32) were 33.(,5 +/- 10.09 microg/dL, 14.30 +/- 5.90 microg/g and 5.31 +/- 2.77 microg/g respectively. The differences in BPb and HPb levels of the two groups were statistically significant (P <0.05 and P <0.01 respectively), while that of NPb was not significant. The levels of lead in the biological samples appeared to have no relationship with the number of years on the job. From these results, it was obvious that the higher levels of lead in the biological samples of test subjects, compared with those of the controls were from environmental sources.

  10. Determination of total mercury and methylmercury in biological samples by photochemical vapor generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Mariana A.; Ribeiro, Anderson S.; Curtius, Adilson J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Sturgeon, Ralph E. [National Research Council Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-06-15

    Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) based on photochemical reduction by exposure to UV radiation is described for the determination of methylmercury and total mercury in biological samples. Two approaches were investigated: (a) tissues were digested in either formic acid or tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), and total mercury was determined following reduction of both species by exposure of the solution to UV irradiation; (b) tissues were solubilized in TMAH, diluted to a final concentration of 0.125% m/v TMAH by addition of 10% v/v acetic acid and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} was selectively quantitated, or the initial digests were diluted to 0.125% m/v TMAH by addition of deionized water, adjusted to pH 0.3 by addition of HCl and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} was selectively quantitated. For each case, the optimum conditions for photochemical vapor generation (photo-CVG) were investigated. The photochemical reduction efficiency was estimated to be {proportional_to}95% by comparing the response with traditional SnCl{sub 2} chemical reduction. The method was validated by analysis of several biological Certified Reference Materials, DORM-1, DORM-2, DOLT-2 and DOLT-3, using calibration against aqueous solutions of Hg{sup 2+}; results showed good agreement with the certified values for total and methylmercury in all cases. Limits of detection of 6 ng/g for total mercury using formic acid, 8 ng/g for total mercury and 10 ng/g for methylmercury using TMAH were obtained. The proposed methodology is sensitive, simple and inexpensive, and promotes ''green'' chemistry. The potential for application to other sample types and analytes is evident. (orig.)

  11. TLC-spectrophometric separation and trace determination of monocrotophos and dichlorvos in enviromental and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghel, Etesh K; Rai, J K; Khan, S; Rai, M K; Gupta, V K

    2007-04-01

    Organophosphorus insecticides, monocrotophos and dichlrovos are increasingly being used in agriculture to control insects on a wide range of crops. Their ready access has resulted in misuse in many instances of homicidal and suicidal poisoning cases. This paper describes about a chromogenic spray reagent for the detection/determination of monocrophos and dichlrovos in environmental and biological samples by TLC and spectrophotometric method. Monocrotophos and dichlorvos on alkaline hydrolysis yield N-methyl acetoacetamide and dichlroacetaldehyde respectively, which in turn react with diazotized p-amino acetophenone to give red-violet and red coloured compounds. Other organophosphorus insecticides do not give this reaction. Moreover, organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides and constituents of viscera (amino acids, peptides, proteins etc), which are generally coextracted with the insecticides, do not interfere. However, phenolic compounds and hydrolysed product of carbamate insecticides may interfere and differentiate from monocrotophos and dichlrovos by Rf values. The lower limit of detection is 0.2 mg for monocrotophos and 0.1 mg for dichlorovos. The absorption maxima of the reddish-violet and red colour formed by monocrotophos and dichlrovos, are measured at 560 nm and 540 nm respectively. Beer's Law is obeyed over the concentration range of 1.2 to 6.8 mg and 6.2 to 35 mg in the final solution volume of 25 mL. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of monocrotophos and dichlrovos were found to be 7.1 x 10(5) (+100) 1 mole(-1) cm(-1) and 0.008 mg cm(-2), 1.2 x 10(5) 1 mole(-1) cm(-1) and 0.003 mg cm(-2) respectively. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation were found be +/- 0.005 and 2.05% +/- 0.007 and 2.02% respectively. The developed method has been successfully applied to the detection and determination of monocrotophos and dichlrovos in environmental and biological samples.

  12. Cadmium determination in biological samples using neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz A, Luis; Gras R, Nuri

    2005-01-01

    Chile has 7500 km of coastline on the Southern Pacific ocean,with about 4500 km of continental coastline that contains a variety of different geographical zones.This variety means that there is a great diversity of marine resources such as fish, shellfish and seaweeds. The utilization of these resources has been increasing in recent years making this sector an economically important one. The catch as of May 2002 came to 1.9 million tons and exports of the different species amounted to US$611.5 million as of April.But this important economic resource is being threatened by the technical demands imposed by importing countries, mainly the specific requirements for sanitary certification for fishery export products, depending on the markets of destination. The chemical element cadmium is one of the most strictly controlled elements due some shellfish accumulate a large amount of this element and to its high toxicity. The Chilean standard's analytical procedures for cadmium determination in hydro biological products, which must be met by laboratories that certify and control these products for export, are now being evaluated. Through its Chemical Metrology Unit, the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission is strongly supporting this sector by preparing the secondary reference or control materials, and it has developed and implemented nuclear analytical methods for the certification of these materials, which will be used mostly in collaborative studies. This work describes the methodology developed for the determination of cadmium in biological samples, particularly in shellfish and fish. The method is based on neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separations, using the radioisotopes 115 Cd and 115m In, generated in the samples by bombarding with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. The samples were digested at 110 o C with H 2 SO 4 and H 2 O 2 and then the radioactive cadmium element was separated from the other elements present in the samples using a Bio Rad AG 2-X8

  13. Identification of cadmium in biological samples using neutron activation analysis with radiochemistry separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz A, Luis; Gras R, Nuri

    2002-01-01

    Chile's 7500 km coastline of the Southern Pacific ocean, with about 4500 km of continental coastline that contains a variety of different geographical zones. This variety means that there is a great diversity of marine resources such as fish, shellfish and seaweeds. The utilization of these resources has been increasing in recent years making this sector an economically important one. The catch as of May 2002 came to 1.9 million tons and exports of the different species amounted to US$611.5 million as of April. But this important economic resource is being threatened by the technical demands imposed by importing countries, mainly the specific requirements for sanitary certification for fishery export products, depending on the markets of destination. The chemical element cadmium is one of the most strictly controlled elements due some shellfish accumulate a large amount of this element and to its high toxicity. The Chilean standard's analytical procedures for cadmium determination in hydro biological products, which must be met by laboratories that certify and control these products for export, are now being evaluated. Through its Chemical Metrology Unit, the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission is strongly supporting this sector by preparing the secondary reference or control materials, and it has developed and implemented nuclear analytical methods for the certification of these materials, which will be used mostly in collaborative studies. This work describes the methodology developed for the determination of cadmium in biological samples, particularly in shellfish and fish. The method is based on neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separations, using the radioisotopes 115 Cd and 115m In, generated in the samples by bombarding with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. The samples were digested at 110 o C with H 2 SO 4 and H 2 O 2 and then the radioactive cadmium element was separated from the other elements present in the samples using a Bio Rad AG 2-X8 resin

  14. Determination of phosphorus and calcium in biological samples by activation with 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berretta, Jose Roberto

    1995-01-01

    Analytical methods for phosphorus and calcium in biological samples by means of activation with 14 MeV neutrons, using the Van de Graaff accelerator from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, SP, Brazil are developed. For phosphorus analysis, powder samples were pressed into pellets, weighed and transferred to polyethylene plastic envelopes. The pellets with cadmium shielding were irradiated under a fast neutron flux for 5 to 10 minutes, and further counted in a HPGe detector for 5 minutes. Calcium analysis was performed by cyclic irradiation. Samples were irradiated for 10 minutes. After a decay time of 2 minutes, gamma counting was performed for 10 minutes. After a decay time of 2 minutes, a new irradiation ws made. The irradiation cycle was repeated 5 times and the counting spectrum obtained in each cycle was accumulated in the multi channel analyser. The variation of the neutron flux was followed by using a BF 3 detector calibrated with and aluminium monitor. By means of the gamma spectrum and the neutron counting of the BF 3 detector it was possible to estimate phosphorus and calcium concentrations in the sample analyzed. The methods were checked in the reference samples from the International Atomic Energy Agency and in commercial samples of powder milk, fertilizer and animal bone. Phosphorus contents in bone (A3/74) and milk (A-11) reference materials were (15.6 +- 1.8%) and (0.9 +- 0.1)%, respectively. These values are in good agreement to the certified values (15.5 +- 0.5)% and (0.910 +- 0.102)%, respectively. Calcium analysis carried out in bone (A3/74) presented a value of (31.8+-4.1)% and the certified value was of (31.3 +- 0.3)%. Detection limits for phosphorus and calcium were determined in different analyzed samples. The agreement of the results obtained with the certified values confirmed the suitability of the methods for phosphorus and calcium analysis. The methods are fast and laborious chemical procedures are not required. (author)

  15. Study on the determination of palladium in biological samples by the method of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Cassio Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Palladium is one of platinum group elements present in the nature at very low concentrations. However with the use of this element in the automobile catalyzers Pd became a new pollutant. Besides, Pd has been studied in the preparation of new antitumour drugs. Consequently, there is a need to determine Pd concentrations in biological and environmental samples. This study presents palladium results obtained in the analysis of biological samples and reference materials using instrumental thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis (INAA and ENAA). The solvent extraction and solid phase extraction separation methods were also applied before ENAA. The samples analyzed in this study were, reference material BCR 723 - Palladium, Platinum and Rhodium in road dust, CCQM-P63 automotive catalyst material of the Proficiency Test and bovine tissue samples containing palladium prepared in the laboratory. Samples and palladium synthetic standard were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under thermal neutron flux of about 4 x 10 12 n cm-2 s-1, during a period of 4 and 16 h for INAA and ENAA, respectively. The induced gamma activity of 109 Pd to the sample and standard was measured using a hyper pure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The palladium concentration was calculated by comparative method. The gamma ray energy of 109 Pd radioisotope measured was of 88.0 keV, located in a spectrum region of low energy where occurs the interference of X rays, 'Bremsstrahlung' radiations, as well as Compton effect of 24 Na. The pre-separation of palladium from interfering elements by solvent extraction was performed using dimethylglyoxime complexant and chloroform as diluent. In the case of the pre separation procedure using solid reversed phase column, the palladium was retained using N,N-diethyl-N'-benzoyl thiourea complexant and eluted using ethanol. Aliquots of the resulting solutions from the pre-separations, free of interfering elements, were

  16. Application of ion mobility spectrometry for the determination of tramadol in biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sheibani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simple and rapid ion mobility spectrometry (IMS method has been described for the determination of tramadol. The operating instrumental parameters that could influence IMS were investigated and optimized (temperature; injection: 220 and IMS cell: 190°C, flow rate; carrier: 300 and drift: 600 mL/minute, voltage; corona: 2300 and drift: 7000 V, pulse width: 100 μs. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curves were linear within two orders of magnitude with R2 ≥ 0.998 for the determination of tramadol in human plasma, saliva, serum, and urine samples. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were between 0.1 and 0.3 and 0.3 and 1 ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations were between 7.5 and 8.8%. The recovery results (90–103.9% indicate that the proposed method can be applied for tramadol analysis in different biological samples.

  17. Assessment of DDT levels in selected environmental media and biological samples from Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Trejo, Antonio; Ruepert, Clemens; Jovel, Reyna del Carmen; Méndez, Mónica Patricia; Ferrari, Mirtha; Saballos-Sobalvarro, Emilio; Alexander, Carlos; Yáñez-Estrada, Leticia; Lopez, Dania; Henao, Samuel; Pinto, Emilio R; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Taking into account the environmental persistence and the toxicity of DDT, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) organized a surveillance program in Mesoamerica which included the detection of residual DDT in environmental (soil) and biological samples (fish tissue and children's blood). This program was carried out in communities from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. This paper presents the first report of that program. As expected, the results show that the levels for [summation operator] DDT in soil (outdoor or indoor) and fish samples in the majority of the locations studied are below guidelines. However, in some locations, we found children with high concentrations of DDT as in Mexico (mean level 50.2 ng/mL). Furthermore, in some communities and for some matrices, the DDT/DDE quotient is higher than one and this may reflect a recent DDT exposure. Therefore, more efforts are needed to avoid exposure and to prevent the reintroduction of DDT into the region. In this regard it is important to know that under the surveillance of PAHO and with the support of UNEP, a regional program in Mesoamerica for the collection and disposal of DDT and other POPs stockpiles is in progress. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kouji H.; Tanaka, Keiko; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Imanaka, Mie; Niisoe, Tamon; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Inoue, Sumiko; Kusakawa, Koichi; Oshima, Masayo; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Yasojima, Makoto; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53–3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake. PMID:26731104

  19. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji H Harada

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults.Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53-3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake.

  20. New Hybrid Monte Carlo methods for efficient sampling. From physics to biology and statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a class of novel hybrid methods for detailed simulations of large complex systems in physics, biology, materials science and statistics. These generalized shadow Hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) methods combine the advantages of stochastic and deterministic simulation techniques. They utilize a partial momentum update to retain some of the dynamical information, employ modified Hamiltonians to overcome exponential performance degradation with the system’s size and make use of multi-scale nature of complex systems. Variants of GSHMCs were developed for atomistic simulation, particle simulation and statistics: GSHMC (thermodynamically consistent implementation of constant-temperature molecular dynamics), MTS-GSHMC (multiple-time-stepping GSHMC), meso-GSHMC (Metropolis corrected dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method), and a generalized shadow Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, GSHmMC (a GSHMC for statistical simulations). All of these are compatible with other enhanced sampling techniques and suitable for massively parallel computing allowing for a range of multi-level parallel strategies. A brief description of the GSHMC approach, examples of its application on high performance computers and comparison with other existing techniques are given. Our approach is shown to resolve such problems as resonance instabilities of the MTS methods and non-preservation of thermodynamic equilibrium properties in DPD, and to outperform known methods in sampling efficiency by an order of magnitude. (author)

  1. Recent developments in HPLC analysis of β-blockers in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kishwar; Ali, Imran; Kulsum, Umma; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-09-01

    β-Adrenergic blockers represent a very important class of drugs that are used worldwide for treating various cardiac diseases. The present article describes the state-of-the art of analyses of β-adrenergic blockers using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sample preparation techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction have been discussed, which are essential prior to HPLC analysis. Additionally, applications of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry are included. HPLC methods have been reported to include 0.6-26 min as the run times and 0.01 ng/mL to 25 µg/mL as detection limits. The most commonly used columns were C18 with various buffers as the mobile phases, along with various organic modifiers. The optimization of HPLC conditions has been discussed. It has been observed that the reported methods are quite satisfactory for the analyses of β-adrenergic blockers in biological samples. Future perspectives in the hyphenation of solid-phase microextraction-nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry have also been highlighted to achieve detections at nanogram and picogram levels. The present article is very useful for academicians, scientists, drug and pharmaceutical personnel and government regulatory authorities.

  2. The correlation of arsenic levels in drinking water with the biological samples of skin disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Jamali, Muhammad Khan; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Jalbani, Nusrat; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Niaz, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic (As) poisoning has become a worldwide public health concern. The skin is quite sensitive to As and skin lesions are the most common and earliest nonmalignant effects associated to chronic As exposure. In 2005-2007, a survey was carried out on surface and groundwater arsenic contamination and relationships between As exposure via the drinking water and related adverse health effects (melanosis and keratosis) on villagers resides on the banks of Manchar lake, southern part of Sindh, Pakistan. We screened the population from arsenic-affected villages, 61 to 73% population were identified patients suffering from chronic arsenic toxicity. The effects of As toxicity via drinking water were estimated by biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of adults (males and females), have or have not skin problem (n = 187). The referent samples of both genders were also collected from the areas having low level of As ( 2 = 0.852 and 0.718) as compared to non-diseased subjects (R 2 = 0.573 and 0.351), respectively

  3. Methods of biological fluids sample preparation - biogenic amines, methylxanthines, water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płonka, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In recent years demands on the amount of information that can be obtained from the analysis of a single sample have increased. For time and economic reasons it is necessary to examine at the same time larger number of compounds, and compounds from different groups. This can best be seen in such areas as clinical analysis. In many diseases, the best results for patients are obtained when treatment fits the individual characteristics of the patient. Dosage monitoring is important at the beginning of therapy and in the full process of treatment. In the treatment of many diseases biogenic amines (dopamine, serotonin) and methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine, caffeine) play an important role. They are used as drugs separately or in combination with others to support and strengthen the action of other drugs - for example, the combination of caffeine and paracetamol. Vitamin supplementation may be also an integral part of the treatment process. Specification of complete sample preparation parameters for extraction of the above compounds from biological matrices has been reviewed. Particular attention was given to the preparation stage and extraction methods. This review provides universal guidance on establishing a common procedures across laboratories to facilitate the preparation and analysis of all discussed compounds. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Improving off-line accelerated tryptic digestion. Towards fast-lane proteolysis of complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Jadranka; Loftheim, Håvard; Winther, Bjørn; Reubsaet, J Léon E

    2008-06-27

    Off-line digestion of proteins using immobilized trypsin beads is studied with respect to the format of the digestion reactor, the digestion conditions, the comparison with in-solution digestion and its use in complex biological samples. The use of the filter vial as the most appropriate digestion reactor enables simple, efficient and easy-to-handle off-line digestion of the proteins on trypsin beads. It was shown that complex proteins like bovine serum albumin (BSA) need much longer time (89 min) and elevated temperature (37 degrees C) to be digested to an acceptable level compared to smaller proteins like cytochrome c (5 min, room temperature). Comparing the BSA digestion using immobilized trypsin beads with conventional in-solution digestion (overnight at 37 degrees C), it was shown that comparable results were obtained with respect to sequence coverage (>90%) and amount of missed cleavages (in both cases around 20 peptides with 1 or 2 missed cleavages were detected). However, the digestion using immobilized trypsin beads was considerable less time consuming. Good reproducibility and signal intensities were obtained for the digestion products of BSA in a complex urine sample. In addition to this, peptide products of proteins typically present in urine were identified.

  5. [Environmental and biological determinants of neuropsychomotor development in a sample of children in Canoas/RS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Elsa Maria Luz; Schermann, Lígia Braun

    2007-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the prevalence of potential delays in neuropsychomotor development and their possible association with, on one hand, environmental and biological factors, and maternal competence on the other, in a sample of children up to six years old living in Canoas, in Rio Grande do Sul state. A questionnaire was submitted to mothers including questions on social, economic and reproduction factors; child's conditions at birth; child's pathologies; family structure; child care and elements on maternal competence. The potential for neuropsychomotor development delay was assessed by the Denver II Test. Forty clusters were visited in Canoas, a city in Rio Grande do Sul state, in accordance with the cluster probabilistic sampling process. From 197 children assessed by this analytical cross-section study, there was a 27% (n=53) prevalence of potential delay in neuropsychomotor development. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with potential development delays were: low income (or = 9,3); mothers with less than 18-month intervals between pregnancies (or=3,9) ; and lack of support from child's father (or=7,0). These results support the importance of implementing income generating programs, health education, and family planning in order to prevent child development delays.

  6. Phosphorus in biological standards and samples by thermal neutron irradiation and β-counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Kumar, A.; Choudhury, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    A nondestructive NAA method based on the reaction 31 P(n,γ) 32 P (T 1/2 = 14.23 d) has been developed where the product nucleus, a pure β-emitter with end point energy 1.71 MeV is measured by using an end window G.M counter and an Al filter of 27 mg x cm -2 . 32 P was identified by measuring E β using Feather's analysis and its half-life was found to be 15.3±0.2 days in standard reference materials (SRMs) and samples. For most reference materials (RMs) from NIST (USA) and IAEA (Vienna), our values agree within ±5% of the certified values. A variety of biological samples have also been analyzed and our values are in the range; medicinal herbs (n 43), 0.29-5.23 mg/g; bhasmas (n = 19), 0.09-51.4 mg/g; vegetables (n = 8), 1.85-5.73 mg/g; lentils (n = 6), 2.1-5.5 mg/g; flours (n = 6), 1.3-3.3 mg/g; vegetarian diet (n = 5), 2.41-2.90 mg/g; fish (n = 43), 3.61-36.8 mg/g; human and animal milk (n = 6), 1.24-7.95 mg/g; commercial milk powders (n = 14), 2.76-11.9 mg/g; water from various sources (n = 14), 1-417 μg/l; human and animal blood (n = 9), 1.00-15.0 mg/g; cancerous and healthy breast tissue (n = 60), 1.00-8.63 mg/g; human hair (n = 43), 0.12-5.81 mg/g, where n is the number of samples analyzed. The method is simple, fast, and nondestructive and provides data within ±5% error limit with a detection limit of 0.1 mg/g. (author)

  7. In-focus electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated biological samples with a Boersch phase plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, B.; Rhinow, D.; Walter, A.; Schroeder, R. [Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue Str. 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Benner, G.; Majorovits, E.; Matijevic, M.; Niebel, H. [Carl Zeiss NTS GmbH, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Mueller, H.; Haider, M. [CEOS GmbH, Englerstr. 26, 69126 Heidleberg (Germany); Lacher, M.; Schmitz, S.; Holik, P. [Caesar Research Center, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Kuehlbrandt, W., E-mail: werner.kuehlbrandt@mpibp-frankfurt.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue Str. 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We report the implementation of an electrostatic Einzel lens (Boersch) phase plate in a prototype transmission electron microscope dedicated to aberration-corrected cryo-EM. The combination of phase plate, C{sub s} corrector and Diffraction Magnification Unit (DMU) as a new electron-optical element ensures minimal information loss due to obstruction by the phase plate and enables in-focus phase contrast imaging of large macromolecular assemblies. As no defocussing is necessary and the spherical aberration is corrected, maximal, non-oscillating phase contrast transfer can be achieved up to the information limit of the instrument. A microchip produced by a scalable micro-fabrication process has 10 phase plates, which are positioned in a conjugate, magnified diffraction plane generated by the DMU. Phase plates remained fully functional for weeks or months. The large distance between phase plate and the cryo sample permits the use of an effective anti-contaminator, resulting in ice contamination rates of <0.6 nm/h at the specimen. Maximal in-focus phase contrast was obtained by applying voltages between 80 and 700 mV to the phase plate electrode. The phase plate allows for in-focus imaging of biological objects with a signal-to-noise of 5-10 at a resolution of 2-3 nm, as demonstrated for frozen-hydrated virus particles and purple membrane at liquid-nitrogen temperature. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We implement an electrostatic Boersch phase plate into a dedicated prototypical TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase contrast aberration-corrected electron microscope (PACEM) includes a diffraction magnification unit (DMU). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DMU minimizes obstruction of low spatial frequencies by the phase plate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-focus phase contrast generation is demonstrated for frozen-hydrated biological specimens.

  8. Methods for the physical characterization and quantification of extracellular vesicles in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Déborah L M; Claudio, Virginia; Lässer, Cecilia; Bally, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Our body fluids contain a multitude of cell-derived vesicles, secreted by most cell types, commonly referred to as extracellular vesicles. They have attracted considerable attention for their function as intercellular communication vehicles in a broad range of physiological processes and pathological conditions. Extracellular vesicles and especially the smallest type, exosomes, have also generated a lot of excitement in view of their potential as disease biomarkers or as carriers for drug delivery. In this context, state-of-the-art techniques capable of comprehensively characterizing vesicles in biological fluids are urgently needed. This review presents the arsenal of techniques available for quantification and characterization of physical properties of extracellular vesicles, summarizes their working principles, discusses their advantages and limitations and further illustrates their implementation in extracellular vesicle research. The small size and physicochemical heterogeneity of extracellular vesicles make their physical characterization and quantification an extremely challenging task. Currently, structure, size, buoyant density, optical properties and zeta potential have most commonly been studied. The concentration of vesicles in suspension can be expressed in terms of biomolecular or particle content depending on the method at hand. In addition, common quantification methods may either provide a direct quantitative measurement of vesicle concentration or solely allow for relative comparison between samples. The combination of complementary methods capable of detecting, characterizing and quantifying extracellular vesicles at a single particle level promises to provide new exciting insights into their modes of action and to reveal the existence of vesicle subpopulations fulfilling key biological tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification of Hg excretion and distribution in biological samples of mercury-dental-amalgam users and its correlation with biological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Nayab; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Abbas; Nawab, Javed; Shamshad, Isha; Yu, Xinwei

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study conducted to quantify the excretion and distribution of mercury (Hg) with time (days) in the biological samples collected from Hg dental amalgam users (MDA). The individuals, with Hg-based dental filling were selected, and their biological samples (red blood cells (RBCs), plasma, urine, hair, and nails) were collected on first, third, and 12th day of fillings. The concentrations of Hg observed in the biological samples of MDA were also correlated with the biological variables such as age, weight, restoration, fish consumption, number, and surface area of fillings. The concentrations of Hg in the biological samples of MDA were found 6-8 times higher than the non-amalgam users (control). The concentrations of Hg in the RBCs (4.39 μg/L), plasma (3.02 μg/L), and urine (22.5 μg/L) on first day of filling were found comparatively higher than the concentrations observed on third day (2.15, 1.46, and 12.3 μg/L for RBCs, plasma, urine, respectively) and 12th day (3.05, 2.5, 9.12 μg/L for RBCs, plasma, urine, respectively), while Hg concentrations were found lower in the hair and nails on third day of fillings (1.53 μg/g for hair and 2.35 μg/g for nails) as compared to the 12th day (2.95 μg/g for hair and 3.5 μg/g for nails). The correlations were found significant (p ˂ 0.05) between Hg concentrations in the biological samples of MDA and biological variables (the number of restoration, fish consumption, number, and surface area of fillings), while no significant (p ˃ 0.05) correlations were observed for Hg concentrations in the biological samples with age and weight of MDA. These observations unveil the fact that the use of Hg-based dental filling is the undesirable exposure to Hg which should be replaced by composite (a safer filling material).

  10. A user-friendly robotic sample preparation program for fully automated biological sample pipetting and dilution to benefit the regulated bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Ouyang, Zheng; Zeng, Jianing; Yuan, Long; Zheng, Naiyu; Jemal, Mohammed; Arnold, Mark E

    2012-06-01

    Biological sample dilution is a rate-limiting step in bioanalytical sample preparation when the concentrations of samples are beyond standard curve ranges, especially when multiple dilution factors are needed in an analytical run. We have developed and validated a Microsoft Excel-based robotic sample preparation program (RSPP) that automatically transforms Watson worklist sample information (identification, sequence and dilution factor) to comma-separated value (CSV) files. The Freedom EVO liquid handler software imports and transforms the CSV files to executable worklists (.gwl files), allowing the robot to perform sample dilutions at variable dilution factors. The dynamic dilution range is 1- to 1000-fold and divided into three dilution steps: 1- to 10-, 11- to 100-, and 101- to 1000-fold. The whole process, including pipetting samples, diluting samples, and adding internal standard(s), is accomplished within 1 h for two racks of samples (96 samples/rack). This platform also supports online sample extraction (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, protein precipitation, etc.) using 96 multichannel arms. This fully automated and validated sample dilution and preparation process has been applied to several drug development programs. The results demonstrate that application of the RSPP for fully automated sample processing is efficient and rugged. The RSPP not only saved more than 50% of the time in sample pipetting and dilution but also reduced human errors. The generated bioanalytical data are accurate and precise; therefore, this application can be used in regulated bioanalysis.

  11. Automated, feature-based image alignment for high-resolution imaging mass spectrometry of large biological samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, A.; Liere, van R.; Altelaar, A.F.M.; Heeren, R.M.A.; McDonnell, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution imaging mass spectrometry of large biological samples is the goal of several research groups. In mosaic imaging, the most common method, the large sample is divided into a mosaic of small areas that are then analyzed with high resolution. Here we present an automated alignment

  12. Fast screening of ketamine in biological samples based on molecularly imprinted photonic hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Liang; Meng, Pinjia; Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Yanji

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel label-free colorimetric chemosensor: with the increase in the concentration of ketamine, the Bragg diffraction peak of MIPHs gradually shifted to the longer wavelength region. Accompanying the peak shift, the color change of MIPHs was also observed obviously: from green to red. Highlights: ► We developed the label-free colorimetric MIPHs for handy and fast screening of ketamine. ► The obvious color change of MIPHs was observed upon ketamine. ► The MIPHs exhibited good sensing abilities in an aqueous environment. ► The sensing mechanisms of the water-compatible MIPHs were investigated. ► The MIPHs were employed to screening ketamine in real biological samples. -- Abstract: A novel label-free colorimetric chemosensor was developed for handy and fast screening of ketamine with high sensitivity and specificity based on molecularly imprinted photonic hydrogels (MIPHs) that combined the colloidal-crystal with molecular imprinting technique. The unique inverse opal arrays with a thin polymer wall in which the imprinted nanocavities of ketamine moleculars distributed allowed high sensitive, quick responsive, specific detection of the target analyte, and good regenerating ability in an aqueous environment. Due to the hierarchical inverse opal structural characteristics, the specific ketamine molecular recognition process can induce obvious swelling of the MIPHs to be directly transferred into visually perceptible optical signal (change in color) which can be detected by the naked eye through Bragg diffractive shifts of ordered macroporous arrays. In order to enhance the recognition ability in aqueous environments, the MIPHs were designed as water-compatible and synthesized in a water–methanol system. The molecular recognition mechanisms were investigated. The proposed MIPHs were successfully employed to screen trace level ketamine in human urine and saliva samples, exhibiting high sensitivity, rapid response, and specificity in the

  13. Fast screening of ketamine in biological samples based on molecularly imprinted photonic hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Liang [Department of Forensic Science, People' s Public Security University of China, Beijing (China); Meng, Pinjia, E-mail: mengpinjia@163.com [Department of Forensic Science, People' s Public Security University of China, Beijing (China); Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Yanji [Department of Forensic Science, People' s Public Security University of China, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-10

    Graphical abstract: A novel label-free colorimetric chemosensor: with the increase in the concentration of ketamine, the Bragg diffraction peak of MIPHs gradually shifted to the longer wavelength region. Accompanying the peak shift, the color change of MIPHs was also observed obviously: from green to red. Highlights: ► We developed the label-free colorimetric MIPHs for handy and fast screening of ketamine. ► The obvious color change of MIPHs was observed upon ketamine. ► The MIPHs exhibited good sensing abilities in an aqueous environment. ► The sensing mechanisms of the water-compatible MIPHs were investigated. ► The MIPHs were employed to screening ketamine in real biological samples. -- Abstract: A novel label-free colorimetric chemosensor was developed for handy and fast screening of ketamine with high sensitivity and specificity based on molecularly imprinted photonic hydrogels (MIPHs) that combined the colloidal-crystal with molecular imprinting technique. The unique inverse opal arrays with a thin polymer wall in which the imprinted nanocavities of ketamine moleculars distributed allowed high sensitive, quick responsive, specific detection of the target analyte, and good regenerating ability in an aqueous environment. Due to the hierarchical inverse opal structural characteristics, the specific ketamine molecular recognition process can induce obvious swelling of the MIPHs to be directly transferred into visually perceptible optical signal (change in color) which can be detected by the naked eye through Bragg diffractive shifts of ordered macroporous arrays. In order to enhance the recognition ability in aqueous environments, the MIPHs were designed as water-compatible and synthesized in a water–methanol system. The molecular recognition mechanisms were investigated. The proposed MIPHs were successfully employed to screen trace level ketamine in human urine and saliva samples, exhibiting high sensitivity, rapid response, and specificity in the

  14. Nanoparticle sensor for label free detection of swine DNA in mixed biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M E; Hashim, U [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INNE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Lot 104-108, Tingkat 1, Block A, Taman Pertiwi Indah, Jalan Kangar-Alor Star, Seriab, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Mustafa, S; Che Man, Y B; Yusop, M H M [Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Bari, M F [School of Materials Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Seriab 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Islam, Kh N [Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hasan, M F, E-mail: uda@unimap.edu.my [Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-05-13

    We used 40 {+-} 5 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as colorimetric sensor to visually detect swine-specific conserved sequence and nucleotide mismatch in PCR-amplified and non-amplified mitochondrial DNA mixtures to authenticate species. Colloidal GNPs changed color from pinkish-red to gray-purple in 2 mM PBS. Visually observed results were clearly reflected by the dramatic reduction of surface plasmon resonance peak at 530 nm and the appearance of new features in the 620-800 nm regions in their absorption spectra. The particles were stabilized against salt-induced aggregation upon the adsorption of single-stranded DNA. The PCR products, without any additional processing, were hybridized with a 17-base probe prior to exposure to GNPs. At a critical annealing temperature (55 {sup 0}C) that differentiated matched and mismatched base pairing, the probe was hybridized to pig PCR product and dehybridized from the deer product. The dehybridized probe stuck to GNPs to prevent them from salt-induced aggregation and retained their characteristic red color. Hybridization of a 27-nucleotide probe to swine mitochondrial DNA identified them in pork-venison, pork-shad and venison-shad binary admixtures, eliminating the need of PCR amplification. Thus the assay was applied to authenticate species both in PCR-amplified and non-amplified heterogeneous biological samples. The results were determined visually and validated by absorption spectroscopy. The entire assay (hybridization plus visual detection) was performed in less than 10 min. The LOD (for genomic DNA) of the assay was 6 {mu}g ml{sup -1} swine DNA in mixed meat samples. We believe the assay can be applied for species assignment in food analysis, mismatch detection in genetic screening and homology studies between closely related species.

  15. Mass amplifying probe for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy detection of small molecules in complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Zou, Yuan; Lin, Ninghang; Zhu, Zhi; Jenkins, Gareth; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2012-07-03

    detection of small molecules by means of FA in complex biological samples.

  16. Nanoparticle sensor for label free detection of swine DNA in mixed biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M E; Hashim, U; Mustafa, S; Che Man, Y B; Yusop, M H M; Bari, M F; Islam, Kh N; Hasan, M F

    2011-01-01

    We used 40 ± 5 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as colorimetric sensor to visually detect swine-specific conserved sequence and nucleotide mismatch in PCR-amplified and non-amplified mitochondrial DNA mixtures to authenticate species. Colloidal GNPs changed color from pinkish-red to gray-purple in 2 mM PBS. Visually observed results were clearly reflected by the dramatic reduction of surface plasmon resonance peak at 530 nm and the appearance of new features in the 620-800 nm regions in their absorption spectra. The particles were stabilized against salt-induced aggregation upon the adsorption of single-stranded DNA. The PCR products, without any additional processing, were hybridized with a 17-base probe prior to exposure to GNPs. At a critical annealing temperature (55 0 C) that differentiated matched and mismatched base pairing, the probe was hybridized to pig PCR product and dehybridized from the deer product. The dehybridized probe stuck to GNPs to prevent them from salt-induced aggregation and retained their characteristic red color. Hybridization of a 27-nucleotide probe to swine mitochondrial DNA identified them in pork-venison, pork-shad and venison-shad binary admixtures, eliminating the need of PCR amplification. Thus the assay was applied to authenticate species both in PCR-amplified and non-amplified heterogeneous biological samples. The results were determined visually and validated by absorption spectroscopy. The entire assay (hybridization plus visual detection) was performed in less than 10 min. The LOD (for genomic DNA) of the assay was 6 μg ml -1 swine DNA in mixed meat samples. We believe the assay can be applied for species assignment in food analysis, mismatch detection in genetic screening and homology studies between closely related species.

  17. Development of novel separation techniques for biological samples in capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Huan -Tsung [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-07-27

    This dissertation includes three different topics: general introduction of capillary electrophoresis (CE); gradient in CE and CE in biological separations; and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) for DNA separation. Factors such as temperature, viscosity, pH, and the surface of capillary walls affecting the separation performance are demonstrated. A pH gradient between 3.0 and 5.2 is useful to improve the resolution among eight different organic acids. A flow gradient due to the change in the concentration of surfactant, which is able to coat to the capillary wall to change the flow rate and its direction, is also shown as a good way to improve the resolution for organic compounds. A temperature gradient caused by joule heat is shown by voltage programming to enhance the resolution and shorten the separation time for several phenolic compounds. The author also shows that self-regulating dynamic control of electroosmotic flow in CE by simply running separation in different concentrations of surfactant has less matrix effect on the separation performance. One of the most important demonstrations in this dissertation is that the author proposes on-column reaction which gives several advantages including the use of a small amount of sample, low risk of contamination, and time saving and kinetic features. The author uses this idea with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) as a detection mode to detect an on-column digestion of sub-ng of protein. This technique also is applied to single cell analysis in the group.

  18. Substrate-zymography: a still worthwhile method for gelatinases analysis in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Serena; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Oriente, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Di Carlo, Angelina

    2016-08-01

    Matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, capable of degrading all the molecular components of extracellular matrix. A class of MMPs is gelatinases which includes gelatinase A or MMP-2 (72 kDa) and gelatinase B or MMP-9 (92 kDa), which have been shown to play critical roles in pathophysiology of many human disease and, in particular, cancer progression. For these reasons they obtained a great interest as potential non-invasive biomarker in providing useful clinical information in cancer diagnosis and therapy. A sensitive and unexpensive method for analysis of gelatinases is the gelatine zymography, which allows to measure the relative amounts of active and inactive enzymes in body fluids and tissue extracts. The procedure involves the electrophoretic separation of proteins under denaturing but non reducing conditions through a polyacrylamide gel containing a synthetic substrate (gelatin). The aim of this mini-review has been to describe the general principles of gelatine zymography technique, underling the main advantages and disadvantages. Even though an improvement of this method is necessary for a better applicability in laboratory medicine, gelatine zymography represents the most convenient method to detect the activity of the different gelatinases from a wide range of biological samples.

  19. The method of radioactive tracer for measuring the amount of inorganic nanoparticles in biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzulukov, Yu; Antsiferova, A.; Demin, V. A.; Demin, V. F.; Kashkarov, P.

    2015-11-01

    The method to measure the mass of inorganic nanoparticles in biological (or any other samples) using nanoparticles labeled with radioactive tracers is developed and applied to practice. The tracers are produced in original nanoparticles by radioactive activation of some of their atomic nuclei. The method of radioactive tracers demonstrates a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy equal or better than popular methods of optical and mass spectrometry, or electron microscopy and has some specific advantages. The method can be used for study of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in living organism, as well as in ecological and fundamental research. It was used in practice to study absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of nanoparticles of Ag, Au, Se, ZnO, TiO2 as well as to study transportation of silver nanoparticles through the barriers of blood-brain, placenta and milk gland of rats. Brief descriptions of data obtained in experiments with application of this method included in the article. The method was certified in Russian Federation standard system GOST-R and recommended by the Russian Federation regulation authority ROSPOTREBNADZOR for measuring of toxicokinetic and organotropy parameters of nanoparticles.

  20. Simple and sensitive determination of sparfloxacin in pharmaceuticals and biological samples by immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Jin Zeng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma quinolone concentrations are not routinely measured in clinical practice. However, in order to optimize quinolone treatment, monitoring of plasma concentrations could sometimes be useful particularly in critically ill patients. In this study, anti-sparfloxacin antibody was obtained by immunizing rabbits with sparfloxacin conjugated with bovine serum albumin using isobutyl chloroformate method. After the assay procedure was optimized, the standard curve of sparfloxacin was established. The practical measuring range of the competitive ELISA extended from 5 ng/mL to 2 μg/mL. The recovery rates and coefficients of variation for rat plasma, urine and tissues were 87.7–106.2% and 4.8–15.3%, respectively. To demonstrate the potential of the ELISA, a preliminary pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of sparfloxacin in rats and quantitative analysis of sparfloxacin in several pharmaceuticals were performed and compared with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The experimental data indicated that the proposed method would be a valuable tool in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM for sparfloxacin. Keywords: Sparfloxacin, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Biological samples, Pharmacokinetics, Tissue distribution

  1. A novel visible spectrophotometric method for the determination of ethamsylate in pharmaceutical preparations and biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiyun; Zhang, Yan; Li, Quanmin

    2010-03-01

    A highly sensitive visible spectrophotometric method has been developed to determine ethamsylate in this paper, which is based on using Cu(II) as spectroscopic probe reagent. The study indicates that in the presence of SCN - and KNO 3, Cu(II) is reduced to Cu(I) by ethamsylate at pH 5.0, and the in situ formed Cu(I) reacts with SCN - to form into the white emulsion CuSCN that could be stayed upon the surface of water. According to the amount of residual Cu(II), the amount of ethamsylate can be indirectly determined. Under the optimal conditions, Beer's law is applicable in the range of 0.2-9.0 μg/mL (7.60 × 10 -7-3.42 × 10 -5 mol/L) for aqueous standard solution of ethamsylate with linear correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The detection limit and relative standard deviation are 0.12 μg/mL and 1.5%, respectively. And the molar absorption coefficient of the indirect determination of ethamsylate is 1.0 × 10 5 L/mol cm. The method is successfully applied to determine ethamsylate in pharmaceutical preparations and biological samples.

  2. Study on Solid Phase Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Nickel in Waters and Biological Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Qiufen; Yang, Guangyu; Huang, Zhangjie; Yin, Jiayuan

    2004-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and rapid method for the determination of nickel based on the rapid reaction of nickel(II) with QADMAA and the solid phase extraction of the Ni(II)-QADMAA chelate with C 18 membrane disks has been developed. In the presence of pH 6.0 buffer solution and sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) medium, QADMAA reacts with nickel to form a violet complex of a molar ratio of 1 : 2 (nickel to QADMAA). This chelate was enriched by solid phase extraction with C 18 membrane disks. An enrichment factor of 50 was obtained by elution of the chelates form the disks with the minimal amount of isopentyl alcohol. The molar absorptivity of the chelate was 1.32 x 10 5 L mol -1 cm -1 at 590 nm in the measured solution. Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0.01-0.6 μg/mL. This method was applied to the determination of nickel in water and biological samples with good results

  3. Synthesis of [13C6]-labelled phenethylamine derivatives for drug quantification in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Morten; Liu, HuiLing; Berg, Thomas; Johansen, Jon Eigill; Hoff, Bård Helge

    2014-05-15

    The availability of high-quality (13)C-labelled internal standards will improve accurate quantification of narcotics and drugs in biological samples. Thus, the synthesis of 10 [(13)C6]-labelled phenethylamine derivatives, namely amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, 4-methoxyamphetamine, 4-methoxymethamphetamine, 3,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine, have been undertaken. [(13)C6]-Phenol proved to be an excellent starting material for making (13)C-labelled narcotic substances in the phenethylamine class, and a developed Stille-type coupling enabled an efficient synthesis of the 3,4-methylenedioxy and 4-methoxy derivatives. The pros and cons of alternative routes and transformations are also discussed. The [(13)C6]-labelled compounds are intended for use as internal standards in forensic analysis, health sciences and metabolomics studies by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Development of a new catalase activity assay for biological samples using optical CUPRAC sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdeşer, Burcu; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Alkan, Fulya Üstün; Apak, Reşat

    2014-11-11

    A novel catalase activity assay was developed for biological samples (liver and kidney tissue homogenates) using a rapid and low-cost optical sensor-based 'cupric reducing antioxidant capacity' (CUPRAC) method. The reagent, copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) complex, was immobilized onto a cation-exchanger film of Nafion, and the absorbance changes associated with the formation of the highly-colored Cu(I)-Nc chelate as a result of reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured at 450 nm. When catalase was absent, H2O2 produced the CUPRAC chromophore, whereas catalase, being an effective H2O2 scavenger, completely annihilated the CUPRAC signal due to H2O2. Thus, the CUPRAC absorbance due to H2O2 oxidation concomitant with Cu(I)-Nc formation decreased proportionally with catalase. The developed sensor gave a linear response over a wide concentration range of H2O2 (0.68-78.6 μM). This optical sensor-based method applicable to tissue homogenates proved to be efficient for low hydrogen peroxide concentrations (physiological and nontoxic levels) to which the widely used UV method is not accurately responsive. Thus, conventional problems of the UV method arising from relatively low sensitivity and selectivity, and absorbance disturbance due to gaseous oxygen evolution were overcome. The catalase findings of the proposed method for tissue homogenates were statistically alike with those of HPLC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of drugs in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line sample processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, R; Richter, K; Gramatté, T; Kirch, W

    1998-02-27

    An automated two column HPLC system with the new packing material LiChrospher RP-18 ADS (alkyl-diol-silica) was tested for the determination of several drugs and metabolites (talinolol, celiprolol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, triamterene, trimethoprim, tiracizine, articaine, detajmium, ajmaline, lamotrigine) in various biological fluids (serum, urine, intestinal aspirates, supernatants of cell cultures and supernatants after protein denaturation). The method allows the direct injection of biological fluids into a reversed-phase HPLC system and on-line clean-up and sample enrichment by a column-switching technique. Precision, accuracy and sensitivity were similar to conventional assays as described in the literature. With this new method it was possible to measure drug concentrations in various biological fluids without changing the sample preparation procedure. In some cases an additional sample preparation like protein denaturation or solid-phase extraction was advantageous to enhance the sensitivity of the method and the life-time of the ADS column.

  6. Analysis of Investigational Drugs in Biological Fluids - Method Development and Analysis of Pre-Clinical Samples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Emil

    2001-01-01

    ... (and metabolites and artesunate). Work on routine analyses of biological specimens during this period was performed for studies that required determination of concentrations of artelinic acid, choroquine...

  7. Determination of short half-life elements in biological, foodstuff, and environmental samples qualitatively by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syukria Kurniawati; Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2010-01-01

    NAA applications at routine operation power of 15 MW at Multipurpose Reactor GA Siwabessy (MPR-GAS) for sample matrices analysis have been widely applied. However, the results are not optimum for some matrices especially for short half-live elements. Preliminary study of short half-life elements determination in biological, foodstuff, and environmental samples using 1 MW power have been conducted to solve this problem. The samples were irradiated in rabbit system of MPR-GAS for 5 minutes, counted for 200 seconds by HPGe detector, and the spectrum were analyzed further using software Genie 2000 and Bandung NAA Utility. Analysis under 1 MW power on biological and foodstuff samples were capable to detect eight elements: Al, Br, CI, Ca, I, K, Mg, Ti, and Na for biological samples; Al, Br, CI, Ca, I, K, Mg, Mn, and Na for foodstuff samples, while at 15 MW power only three elements (CI, K, Na) were detected. At 1 MW power the counting process is more optimum due to smaller radiation exposure and dead time. For the environmental samples, the number of elements detected by 1 MW and 15 MW powers did not differ significantly. Generally, the results on the three types of samples showed that the elements of short half-life are better detected at 1 MW than that of 15 MW power. Further research needs to be done to obtain the optimum analytical conditions for irradiation and counting time determination. (author)

  8. Bias in tensor based morphometry Stat-ROI measures may result in unrealistic power estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Wesley K; Holland, Dominic

    2011-07-01

    A series of reports have recently appeared using tensor based morphometry statistically-defined regions of interest, Stat-ROIs, to quantify longitudinal atrophy in structural MRIs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). This commentary focuses on one of these reports, Hua et al. (2010), but the issues raised here are relevant to the others as well. Specifically, we point out a temporal pattern of atrophy in subjects with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment whereby the majority of atrophy in two years occurs within the first 6 months, resulting in overall elevated estimated rates of change. Using publicly-available ADNI data, this temporal pattern is also found in a group of identically-processed healthy controls, strongly suggesting that methodological bias is corrupting the measures. The resulting bias seriously impacts the validity of conclusions reached using these measures; for example, sample size estimates reported by Hua et al. (2010) may be underestimated by a factor of five to sixteen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  10. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of "1"4C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and "1"4C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the "1"4C concentration in "1"4C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of "1"4C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a "1"4C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. "1"4C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean "1"4C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of "1"4C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, "1"4C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. "1"4C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; "1"4C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  11. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and {sup 14}C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko, E-mail: tteiko@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the {sup 14}C concentration in {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of {sup 14}C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a {sup 14}C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. {sup 14}C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean {sup 14}C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of {sup 14}C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, {sup 14}C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. {sup 14}C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; {sup 14}C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  12. Latest developments and opportunities for 3D analysis of biological samples by confocal μ-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Roberto D.; Sanchez, Hector J.; Perez, Carlos A.; Rubio, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis performed with a primary radiation focused in the micrometer range is known as micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF). It is characterized by a penetration depth higher than other micro-analytical methods, reaching hundreds of micrometers in biological samples. This characteristic of the X-ray beam can be employed in 3D analysis. An innovative method to perform 3D analysis by μ-XRF is the so-called confocal setup. The confocal setup consists of X-ray lenses in the excitation as well as in the detection channel. In this configuration, a micro-volume defined by the overlap of the foci of both X-ray lenses is analyzed. Scanning this micro-volume through the sample can be used to perform a study in three dimensions. At present, X-ray lenses used in confocal μ-XRF experiments are mainly glass capillaries and polycapillaries. Glass capillaries are used in the excitation channel with sources of high photon flux like synchrotron radiation. Half polycapillaries or conical polycapillary concentrators are used almost exclusively in the detection channel. Spatial resolution of the confocal μ-XRF depends on the dimensions of the foci of both X-ray lenses. The overlap of these foci forms an ellipsoid which is the probing volume of the confocal setup. The axis length of the probing volume reported in confocal μ-XRF experiments are of order of few tens of micrometer. In our confocal setup, we used a commercial glass monocapillary in the excitation channel and a monolithic half polycapillary in the detection channel. The polycapillary was home-made by means of drawing of multibundles of glass capillaries in a heating furnace. The experiment was carried out at the beamline D09B-XRF of the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, LNLS) using white beam. A model for the theoretical description of X-ray fluorescence intensity registered by confocal μ-XRF was introduced by Malzer and Kanngieβer [2005. A model for the

  13. Elemental analysis of samples of biological origin relative to their protein content by means of charged particle bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Demeter, I.; Varga, L.; Hollos-Nagy, K.; Keszthelyi, L.

    1981-04-01

    The particle excited X-ray emission (PIXE) and the 14 N(d,p) 15 N nuclear reaction is combined for simultaneous elemental composition and nitrogen content determination in biological samples. Using the correlation between nitrogen and proton content the elemental composition is related to the protein content of the sample. The principles and main characteristics of the method are described and illustrative applications are also given. (author)

  14. Critical tests for determination of microbiological quality and biological activity in commercial vermicompost samples of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantina-Ievina, Lelde; Andersone, Una; Berkolde-Pīre, Dace; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to show that differences in biological activity among commercially produced vermicompost samples can be found by using a relatively simple test system consisting of microorganism tests on six microbiological media and soilless seedling growth tests with four vegetable crop species. Significant differences in biological properties among analyzed samples were evident both at the level of microbial load as well as plant growth-affecting activity. These differences were mostly manufacturer- and feedstock-associated, but also resulted from storage conditions of vermicompost samples. A mature vermicompost sample that was produced from sewage sludge still contained considerable number of Escherichia coli. Samples from all producers contained several potentially pathogenic fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudallescheria boidii, Pseudallescheria fimeti, Pseudallescheria minutispora, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Stachybotrys chartarum, Geotrichum spp., Aphanoascus terreus, and Doratomyces columnaris. In addition, samples from all producers contained plant growth-promoting fungi from the genera Trichoderma and Mortierella. The described system can be useful both for functional studies aiming at understanding of factors affecting quality characteristics of vermicompost preparations and for routine testing of microbiological quality and biological activity of organic waste-derived composts and vermicomposts.

  15. Development of a radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure for determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples at ultratrace level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Byrne, A. R.; Mizera, Jiří; Lučaníková, M.; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 269, č. 2 (2006), s. 251-257 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/04/0943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiochemical neutron activation analysis * rhenium * biological and environmental samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.509, year: 2006

  16. Socioeconomic Status and School Grades: Placing Their Association in Broader Context in a Sample of Biological and Adoptive Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    SES has long interested researchers investigating school achievement. Its effects are often addressed by studying predictors of achievement in economically disadvantaged samples living primarily in biological families, confounding genetic and environmental influences. Little is known about SES's purely environmental effects. We measured them in…

  17. Microbial Degradation of Forensic Samples of Biological Origin: Potential Threat to Human DNA Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Hirak Ranjan; Das, Surajit

    2018-02-01

    Forensic biology is a sub-discipline of biological science with an amalgam of other branches of science used in the criminal justice system. Any nucleated cell/tissue harbouring DNA, either live or dead, can be used as forensic exhibits, a source of investigation through DNA typing. These biological materials of human origin are rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, trace elements as well as water and, thus, provide a virtuous milieu for the growth of microbes. The obstinate microbial growth augments the degradation process and is amplified with the passage of time and improper storage of the biological materials. Degradation of these biological materials carriages a huge challenge in the downstream processes of forensic DNA typing technique, such as short tandem repeats (STR) DNA typing. Microbial degradation yields improper or no PCR amplification, heterozygous peak imbalance, DNA contamination from non-human sources, degradation of DNA by microbial by-products, etc. Consequently, the most precise STR DNA typing technique is nullified and definite opinion can be hardly given with degraded forensic exhibits. Thus, suitable precautionary measures should be taken for proper storage and processing of the biological exhibits to minimize their decaying process by micro-organisms.

  18. Lipidomic analysis of biological samples: Comparison of liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography and direct infusion mass spectrometry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lísa, Miroslav; Cífková, Eva; Khalikova, Maria; Ovčačíková, Magdaléna; Holčapek, Michal

    2017-11-24

    Lipidomic analysis of biological samples in a clinical research represents challenging task for analytical methods given by the large number of samples and their extreme complexity. In this work, we compare direct infusion (DI) and chromatography - mass spectrometry (MS) lipidomic approaches represented by three analytical methods in terms of comprehensiveness, sample throughput, and validation results for the lipidomic analysis of biological samples represented by tumor tissue, surrounding normal tissue, plasma, and erythrocytes of kidney cancer patients. Methods are compared in one laboratory using the identical analytical protocol to ensure comparable conditions. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/MS (UHPLC/MS) method in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode and DI-MS method are used for this comparison as the most widely used methods for the lipidomic analysis together with ultrahigh-performance supercritical fluid chromatography/MS (UHPSFC/MS) method showing promising results in metabolomics analyses. The nontargeted analysis of pooled samples is performed using all tested methods and 610 lipid species within 23 lipid classes are identified. DI method provides the most comprehensive results due to identification of some polar lipid classes, which are not identified by UHPLC and UHPSFC methods. On the other hand, UHPSFC method provides an excellent sensitivity for less polar lipid classes and the highest sample throughput within 10min method time. The sample consumption of DI method is 125 times higher than for other methods, while only 40μL of organic solvent is used for one sample analysis compared to 3.5mL and 4.9mL in case of UHPLC and UHPSFC methods, respectively. Methods are validated for the quantitative lipidomic analysis of plasma samples with one internal standard for each lipid class. Results show applicability of all tested methods for the lipidomic analysis of biological samples depending on the analysis requirements

  19. Study of a large rapid ashing apparatus and a rapid dry ashing method for biological samples and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Meisun; Wang Benli; Liu Wencang

    1988-04-01

    A large rapid-dry-ashing apparatus and a rapid ashing method for biological samples are described. The apparatus consists of specially made ashing furnace, gas supply system and temperature-programming control cabinet. The following adventages have been showed by ashing experiment with the above apparatus: (1) high speed of ashing and saving of electric energy; (2) The apparatus can ash a large amount of samples at a time; (3) The ashed sample is pure white (or spotless), loose and easily soluble with few content of residual char; (4) The fresh sample can also be ashed directly. The apparatus is suitable for ashing a large amount of the environmental samples containing low level radioactivity trace elements and the medical, food and agricultural research samples

  20. State of the art of environmentally friendly sample preparation approaches for determination of PBDEs and metabolites in environmental and biological samples: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Paula; Lana, Nerina B; Ríos, Juan M; García-Reyes, Juan F; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2016-01-28

    Green chemistry principles for developing methodologies have gained attention in analytical chemistry in recent decades. A growing number of analytical techniques have been proposed for determination of organic persistent pollutants in environmental and biological samples. In this light, the current review aims to present state-of-the-art sample preparation approaches based on green analytical principles proposed for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metabolites (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) in environmental and biological samples. Approaches to lower the solvent consumption and accelerate the extraction, such as pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and ultrasound-assisted extraction, are discussed in this review. Special attention is paid to miniaturized sample preparation methodologies and strategies proposed to reduce organic solvent consumption. Additionally, extraction techniques based on alternative solvents (surfactants, supercritical fluids, or ionic liquids) are also commented in this work, even though these are scarcely used for determination of PBDEs. In addition to liquid-based extraction techniques, solid-based analytical techniques are also addressed. The development of greener, faster and simpler sample preparation approaches has increased in recent years (2003-2013). Among green extraction techniques, those based on the liquid phase predominate over those based on the solid phase (71% vs. 29%, respectively). For solid samples, solvent assisted extraction techniques are preferred for leaching of PBDEs, and liquid phase microextraction techniques are mostly used for liquid samples. Likewise, green characteristics of the instrumental analysis used after the extraction and clean-up steps are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of carbon nanotubes and analytical methods for their determination in environmental and biological samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero-Latorre, C., E-mail: carlos.herrero@usc.es; Álvarez-Méndez, J.; Barciela-García, J.; García-Martín, S.; Peña-Crecente, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analytical techniques for characterization of CNTs: classification, description and examples. • Determination methods for CNTs in biological and environmental samples. • Future trends and perspectives for characterization and determination of CNTs. - Abstract: In the present paper, a critical overview of the most commonly used techniques for the characterization and the determination of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is given on the basis of 170 references (2000–2014). The analytical techniques used for CNT characterization (including microscopic and diffraction, spectroscopic, thermal and separation techniques) are classified, described, and illustrated with applied examples. Furthermore, the performance of sampling procedures as well as the available methods for the determination of CNTs in real biological and environmental samples are reviewed and discussed according to their analytical characteristics. In addition, future trends and perspectives in this field of work are critically presented.

  2. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in reactors is just as important for prediction of removal rates as knowledge of the kinetic parameters. The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample, taken from a packed...... bed reactor, was determined using a batch kinetic based approach. The procedure involved modeling of methyl tert-butyl ether removal rates from batch experiments followed by parameter estimations. It was estimated to be 5-14% (w/w) of the measured volatile suspended solids concentration in the reactor....

  3. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvesen, Anders, E-mail: anders.arvesen@ntnu.no [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway); Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: > We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. > Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. > Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  4. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvesen, Anders; Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: → We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. → Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. → Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  5. The use of reference materials in the elemental analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Reference materials (RMs) are useful to compare the accuracy and precision of laboratories and techniques. The desirable properties of biological reference materials are listed, and the problems of production, homogenization and storage described. At present there are only 10 biological RMs available compared with 213 geological and 520 metallurgical RMs. There is a need for more biological RMs including special materials for microprobe analysis and for in vivo activation analysis. A study of 650 mean values for elements in RM Kale, analysed by many laboratories, leads to the following conclusions. 61% of the values lie within +-10% of the best mean, and 80% lie within +-20% of the best mean. Atomic absorption spectrometry gives results that are 5-30% high for seven elements, while intrumental neutron activation analysis gives low and imprecise results for K. Other techniques with poor interlaboratory precision include neutron activation for Mg, polarography for Zn and arc-spectrometry for many elements. More than half the values for elements in Kale were obtained by neutron activation, confirming the importance of this technique and the need for RMs. As a rough estimate, 6 x 10 9 elemental analyses of biological materials are carried out each year, mostly by medical, agricultural and food scientists. It seems likely that a substantial percentage of these are inaccurate, a situation that might be improved by quality control using standard RMs. (author)

  6. How Parents Influence School Grades: Hints from a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic…

  7. Microwave-ultrasound combined reactor suitable for atmospheric sample preparation procedure of biological and chemical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagha, A.; Chemat, S.; Bartels, P.V.; Chemat, F.

    1999-01-01

    A compact apparatus in which a specific position can be irradiated by microwaves (MW) and ultrasound (US) simultaneously has been developed. The MW-US reactor has been designed for atmospheric pressure digestion and dissolution of biological and chemical products. The reactor can treat a range of

  8. Constant-Distance Mode Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Biological Samples with Complex Topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Son N.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Laskin, Julia

    2017-01-17

    A new approach for constant distance mode mass spectrometry imaging of biological samples using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI MSI) was developed by integrating a shear-force probe with nano-DESI probe. The technical concept and basic instrumental setup as well as general operation of the system are described. Mechanical dampening of resonant oscillations due to the presence of shear forces between the probe and the sample surface enables constant-distance imaging mode via a computer controlled closed feedback loop. The capability of simultaneous chemical and topographic imaging of complex biological samples is demonstrated using living Bacillus Subtilis ATCC 49760 colonies on agar plates. The constant-distance mode nano-DESI MSI enabled imaging of many metabolites including non-ribosomal peptides (surfactin, plipastatin and iturin) and iron-bound heme on the surface of living bacterial colonies ranging in diameter from 10 mm to 13 mm with height variations of up to 0.8 mm above the agar plate. Co-registration of ion images to topographic images provided higher-contrast images. Constant-mode nano-DESI MSI is ideally suited for imaging biological samples of complex topography in their native state.

  9. A review of the known biological characteristics of the Great Meteor East site together with a sampling programme for a biological site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, H.S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Existing biological information on GME is reviewed. In common with most other oceanic areas there is very little data available from depths below 2000m. There is virtually no direct benthic information and none at all on the midwater/benthic boundary layer. Existing data from a wider geographic area are relevant to GME but the applicability of such data varies according to the hydrography. A sampling programme is outlined which will allow a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative assessment of the midwater and benthic ecosystems. Particular attention will be paid to the interactions between benthic and midwater communities just above the sea floor. (author)

  10. Application of XRF and AAS for the elemental analysis of biological samples as monitors to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, Wafa Salih

    1999-12-01

    In the present study, hair and urine samples were collected from selected group of workers in industrial areas, and control group was collected from individuals resident far from contaminated areas. Air samples were collected form indoors atmosphere of these industries. Sudan Mint Company and Mirghani workshop are selected as a possible contaminated cities in Khartoum and Omdurman cities. X-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption techniques were applied to the analysis of the biological and air samples. AXIL computer program was used for fitting the collected spectra. The concentration of calcium, chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, bromine, and lead were evaluated. The result revealed that zinc and copper showed highest concentration in hair and air samples, while zinc was not detected in urine. In Mirghani workshop calcium, chromium, iron and zinc shows the highest values in air and hair samples also, zinc was not detected in urine. The correlation between the elemental content of the biological and environmental samples confirm that these elements can reach to the human body.(Author)

  11. Automated sample mounting and technical advance alignment system for biological crystallography at a synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, Gyorgy; Cork, Carl; Nordmeyer, Robert; Cornell, Earl; Meigs, George; Yegian, Derek; Jaklevic, Joseph; Jin, Jian; Stevens, Raymond C.; Earnest, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    High-throughput data collection for macromolecular crystallography requires an automated sample mounting system for cryo-protected crystals that functions reliably when integrated into protein-crystallography beamlines at synchrotrons. Rapid mounting and dismounting of the samples increases the efficiency of the crystal screening and data collection processes, where many crystals can be tested for the quality of diffraction. The sample-mounting subsystem has random access to 112 samples, stored under liquid nitrogen. Results of extensive tests regarding the performance and reliability of the system are presented. To further increase throughput, we have also developed a sample transport/storage system based on 'puck-shaped' cassettes, which can hold sixteen samples each. Seven cassettes fit into a standard dry shipping Dewar. The capabilities of a robotic crystal mounting and alignment system with instrumentation control software and a relational database allows for automated screening and data collection to be developed

  12. Determination of cobalt in biological samples by line-source and high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using solid sampling or alkaline treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Anderson Schwingel; Vieira, Mariana Antunes; Furtado da Silva, Alessandra; Borges, Daniel L. Gallindo; Welz, Bernhard; Heitmann, Uwe; Curtius, Adilson Jose

    2005-01-01

    Two procedures for the determination of Co in biological samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) were compared: solid sampling (SS) and alkaline treatment with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using two different instruments for the investigation: a conventional line-source (LS) atomic absorption spectrometer and a prototype high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer. For the direct introduction of the solid samples, certified reference materials (CRM) were ground to a particle size ≤50 μm. Alkaline treatment was carried out by placing about 250 mg of the sample in polypropylene flasks, adding 2 mL of 25% m/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide and de-ionized water. Due to its unique capacity of providing a 3-D spectral plot, a high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used as a tool to evaluate potential spectral interferences, including background absorption for both sample introduction procedures, revealing that a continuous background preceded the atomic signal for pyrolysis temperatures lower than 700 deg. C. Molecular absorption bands with pronounced rotational fine structure appeared for atomization temperatures >1800 deg. C probably as a consequence of the formation of PO. After optimization had been carried out using high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry, the optimized conditions were adopted also for line-source atomic absorption spectrometry. Six biological certified reference materials were analyzed, with calibration against aqueous standards, resulting in agreement with the certified values (according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level) and in detection limits as low as 5 ng g -1

  13. Study of phosphors determination in biological samples; Estudo da determinacao de fosforo em amostras biologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rosangela Magda de

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, phosphors determination by neutron activation analysis in milk and bone samples was studied employing both instrumental and radiochemical separation methods. The analysis with radiochemistry separation consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, dissolution of the samples, hold back carrier, addition precipitation of phosphorus with ammonium phosphomolibdate (A.M.P.) and phosphorus-32 by counting by using Geiger-Mueller detector. The instrumental analysis consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, transfer of the samples into a counting planchet and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus-32, after a suitable decay period. After the phosphorus analysis methods were established they were applied to both commercial milk and animal bone samples, and data obtained in the instrumental and radiochemical separation methods for each sample, were compared between themselves. In this work, it became possible to obtain analysis methods for phosphorus that can be applied independently of the sample quantity available, and the phosphorus content in the samples or interference that can be present in them. (author). 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2005-01-01

    During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in water, air and biological samples were carried out over the period 27 October-5 November 2001. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro, mainly lichens and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.67-704 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 0.48-93.9 Bq kg -1 for 234 U and 0.02-12.2 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control sites. Moreover, 236 U was detectable in some of the samples. The isotopic ratios of 234 U/ 238 U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at all examined sites, especially in Montenegro, indicating widespread ground-surface DU contamination, albeit at very low level. The uranium isotopic concentrations in air obtained from the air filter samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 1.99-42.1 μBq m -3 for 238 U, 0.96-38.0 μBq m -3 for 234 U, and 0.05-1.83 μBq m -3 for 235 U, being in the typical range of natural uranium values. Thus said, most of the air samples are DU positive, this fact agreeing well with the widespread DU contamination detected in the biological samples. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 0.40-21.9 mBq l -1 for 238 U, 0.27-28.1 mBq l -1 for 234 U, and 0.01-0.88 mBq l -1 for 235 U, these values being much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for drinking water. From a radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of

  15. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2005-09-01

    During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in water, air and biological samples were carried out over the period 27 October-5 November 2001. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro, mainly lichens and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.67-704 Bqkg(-1) for (238)U, 0.48-93.9 Bqkg(-1) for (234)U and 0.02-12.2 Bqkg(-1) for (235)U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control sites. Moreover, (236)U was detectable in some of the samples. The isotopic ratios of (234)U/(238)U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at all examined sites, especially in Montenegro, indicating widespread ground-surface DU contamination, albeit at very low level. The uranium isotopic concentrations in air obtained from the air filter samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 1.99-42.1 microBqm(-3) for (238)U, 0.96-38.0 microBqm(-3) for (234)U, and 0.05-1.83 microBqm(-3) for (235)U, being in the typical range of natural uranium values. Thus said, most of the air samples are DU positive, this fact agreeing well with the widespread DU contamination detected in the biological samples. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 0.40-21.9 mBql(-1) for (238)U, 0.27-28.1 mBql(-1) for (234)U, and 0.01-0.88 mBql(-1) for (235)U, these values being much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for drinking water. From a radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated

  16. The Analysis of Cyanide and Its Breakdown Products in Biological Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Biological sampleb Speciesc CN Minutes-hours Some in a few species Low Blood, urine, saliva, tissue, expired air, rumen Human, fish, cow, mouse, rat...higher content in the left ventricle of fire victims. Journal of Chromatography 490 (1989):319–327. 96. R. H. Cardozo and I. S. Edelman, The volume of...Hagedorn, and R. Schulz, Development of a method for determination of cyanide concentrations in serum and rumen fluid of cattle. American Journal of

  17. Electrochemiluminescence from Tunicate, Tunichrome--Metal Complexes and Other Biological Samples (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-17

    terrestrial grass ( Eleusine indica ) was gathered from wooded areas around St Andrew Sound. Several blades of each plant species were crushed with...that live (green) grass (E. indica ) extracts exhibited high solution-phase ECL levels 200 ~ Ill c Cll .. .E .J 0 w c Ill Cll :;: 900 800...Figure 12. Comparison of intrinsic biological ECL from live (green) and dead (brown) terrestrial grass (E. indica ) and liv’ seagrass (T. testudinum

  18. Preparation of Biological Samples Containing Metoprolol and Bisoprolol for Applying Methods for Quantitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Mahu Ştefania; Monica Hăncianu; Luminiţa Agoroaei; Anda Cristina Coman Băbuşanu; Elena Butnaru

    2015-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is a complex disease with many serious complications, representing a leading cause of mortality. Selective beta-blockers such as metoprolol and bisoprolol are frequently used in the management of hypertension. Numerous analytical methods have been developed for the determination of these substances in biological fluids, such as liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography. ...

  19. Study of the relationship between peaks scattering Rayleigh to Compton ratio and effective atomic number in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marcelo O.; Conti, Claudio de Carvalho; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a new method to correct the absorbed radiation (the mass attenuation coefficient curve) in low energy (E B O 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , K 2 SO 4 and MgO) of radiation produced by a gamma-ray source of Am-241(59.54 keV) also applied to certified biological samples of milk powder, hay powder and bovine liver (NIST 155 7B). In addition, six methods of effective atomic number determination were used as described in literature to determinate the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) , in order to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the transmission method. The experimental results were in good agreement with transmission values suggesting that the method to correct radiation absorption presented in this paper is adequate for biological samples. (author)

  20. Fast screening of glycosaminoglycan disaccharides by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE): applications to biologic samples and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karousou, Evgenia; Asimakopoulou, Athanasia P; Zafeiropoulou, Vassiliki; Viola, Manuela; Monti, Luca; Rossi, Antonio; Passi, Alberto; Karamanos, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and heparan sulfate (HS) are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with a great importance in biological processes as they participate in functional cell properties, such as migration, adhesion, and proliferation. A perturbation of the quantity and/or the sulfation of GAGs is often associated with pathological conditions. In this chapter, we present valuable and validated protocols for the analysis of HA-, CS-, and HS-derived disaccharides after derivatization with 2-aminoacridone and by using the fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). FACE is a well-known technique and a reliable tool for a fast screening of GAGs, as it is possible to analyze 16 samples at the same time with one electrophoretic apparatus. The protocols for the gel preparation are based on the variations of the acrylamide/bisacrylamide and buffer concentrations. Different approaches for the extraction and purification of the disaccharides of various biologic samples and pharmaceutical preparations are also stressed.

  1. Active Learning Not Associated with Student Learning in a Random Sample of College Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. M.; Leonard, M. J.; Colgrove, C. A.; Kalinowski, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning. PMID:22135373

  2. Metabolomics identifies a biological response to chronic low-dose natural uranium contamination in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Stéphane; Favé, Gaëlle; Maillot, Matthieu; Manens, Line; Delissen, Olivia; Blanchardon, Eric; Banzet, Nathalie; Defoort, Catherine; Bott, Romain; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Gourmelon, Patrick; Martin, Jean-Charles; Souidi, Maâmar

    2013-01-01

    Because uranium is a natural element present in the earth's crust, the population may be chronically exposed to low doses of it through drinking water. Additionally, the military and civil uses of uranium can also lead to environmental dispersion that can result in high or low doses of acute or chronic exposure. Recent experimental data suggest this might lead to relatively innocuous biological reactions. The aim of this study was to assess the biological changes in rats caused by ingestion of natural uranium in drinking water with a mean daily intake of 2.7 mg/kg for 9 months and to identify potential biomarkers related to such a contamination. Subsequently, we observed no pathology and standard clinical tests were unable to distinguish between treated and untreated animals. Conversely, LC-MS metabolomics identified urine as an appropriate biofluid for discriminating the experimental groups. Of the 1,376 features detected in urine, the most discriminant were metabolites involved in tryptophan, nicotinate, and nicotinamide metabolic pathways. In particular, N -methylnicotinamide, which was found at a level seven times higher in untreated than in contaminated rats, had the greatest discriminating power. These novel results establish a proof of principle for using metabolomics to address chronic low-dose uranium contamination. They open interesting perspectives for understanding the underlying biological mechanisms and designing a diagnostic test of exposure.

  3. Preparing Monodisperse Macromolecular Samples for Successful Biological Small-Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cy M.; Graewert, Melissa A.; Blanchet, Clément E.; Langley, David B.; Whitten, Andrew E.; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2017-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) are techniques used to extract structural parameters and determine the overall structures and shapes of biological macromolecules, complexes and assemblies in solution. The scattering intensities measured from a sample contain contributions from all atoms within the illuminated sample volume including the solvent and buffer components as well as the macromolecules of interest. In order to obtain structural information, it is essential to prepare an exactly matched solvent blank so that background scattering contributions can be accurately subtracted from the sample scattering to obtain the net scattering from the macromolecules in the sample. In addition, sample heterogeneity caused by contaminants, aggregates, mismatched solvents, radiation damage or other factors can severely influence and complicate data analysis so it is essential that the samples are pure and monodisperse for the duration of the experiment. This Protocol outlines the basic physics of SAXS and SANS and reveals how the underlying conceptual principles of the techniques ultimately ‘translate’ into practical laboratory guidance for the production of samples of sufficiently high quality for scattering experiments. The procedure describes how to prepare and characterize protein and nucleic acid samples for both SAXS and SANS using gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography and light scattering. Also included are procedures specific to X-rays (in-line size exclusion chromatography SAXS) and neutrons, specifically preparing samples for contrast matching/variation experiments and deuterium labeling of proteins. PMID:27711050

  4. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysi...

  5. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  6. Optimized IMAC-IMAC protocol for phosphopeptide recovery from complex biological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Xumin; Young, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    using Fe(III)-NTA IMAC resin and it proved to be highly selective in the phosphopeptide enrichment of a highly diluted standard sample (1:1000) prior to MALDI MS analysis. We also observed that a higher iron purity led to an increased IMAC enrichment efficiency. The optimized method was then adapted...... to phosphoproteome analyses of cell lysates of high protein complexity. From either 20 microg of mouse sample or 50 microg of Drosophila melanogaster sample, more than 1000 phosphorylation sites were identified in each study using IMAC-IMAC and LC-MS/MS. We demonstrate efficient separation of multiply phosphorylated...... characterization of phosphoproteins in functional phosphoproteomics research projects....

  7. Automatic sampling for unbiased and efficient stereological estimation using the proportionator in biological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardi, Jonathan Eyal; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb

    2008-01-01

    Quantification of tissue properties is improved using the general proportionator sampling and estimation procedure: automatic image analysis and non-uniform sampling with probability proportional to size (PPS). The complete region of interest is partitioned into fields of view, and every field...... of view is given a weight (the size) proportional to the total amount of requested image analysis features in it. The fields of view sampled with known probabilities proportional to individual weight are the only ones seen by the observer who provides the correct count. Even though the image analysis...... cerebellum, total number of orexin positive neurons in transgenic mice brain, and estimating the absolute area and the areal fraction of β islet cells in dog pancreas.  The proportionator was at least eight times more efficient (precision and time combined) than traditional computer controlled sampling....

  8. Automated Sample Exchange Robots for the Structural Biology Beam Lines at the Photon Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Gaponov, Yurii; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2007-01-01

    We are now developing automated sample exchange robots for high-throughput protein crystallographic experiments for onsite use at synchrotron beam lines. It is part of the fully automated robotics systems being developed at the Photon Factory, for the purposes of protein crystallization, monitoring crystal growth, harvesting and freezing crystals, mounting the crystals inside a hutch and for data collection. We have already installed the sample exchange robots based on the SSRL automated mounting system at our insertion device beam lines BL-5A and AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory. In order to reduce the time required for sample exchange further, a prototype of a double-tonged system was developed. As a result of preliminary experiments with double-tonged robots, the sample exchange time was successfully reduced from 70 seconds to 10 seconds with the exception of the time required for pre-cooling and warming up the tongs

  9. The scope of detector Medipix2 in micro-radiography of biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, František; Jakůbek, J.; Škrabal, P.; Sopko, V.; Vavřík, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), s. 175-176 ISSN 0168-9002. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /11./. Praha, 29.06.2009-03.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant - others:Ministerstvo školství(CZ) 6840770040; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA211; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Program:1P; LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : x-ray imaging * digital radiography * photon and x-ray detectors Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  10. Development of an improved immunoassay for detection of sorLA in cells and biological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Olav Michael; Thakurta, Ishita Guha; West, Mark J.

    Background: SorLA (Sorting - related receptor with A- type repeats) is a 250 kDa type I transmembrane protein, belonging to the VPS10P (vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein) family of neuronal receptors. It is implicated in the development of AD (Alzheimer's Disease), atherosclerosis, diabetic...... retinopathy, and acute leukemia. Despite the overwhelming evidence regarding the role of sorLA in various diseases, there has been a lack of technologies which can precisely quantitate the levels of sorLA in various complex biological matrices. The methods are either qualitative like immunohistochemistry...

  11. Study of performance characteristics of a radiochemical method to determine uranium in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puga, Maria J.; Cerchietti, Maria L.R.; Prudenzo, J.E.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper is described a methodology to calculate detection limit (Ld), quantification level (Lq) and minimum detectable activity (MDA) in a radiochemical method for determination of uranium in urine samples. The concentration is measured by fluorimetry and alpha gross activity using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The calculation of total propagated uncertainty on a spike sample is presented. Furthermore, the major sources of uncertainty and percentage contribution in both measurements are assessed. (author)

  12. Sample Preparation for Determination of Biological Thiols by Liquid Chromatography and Electromigration Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bald, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Wydrukowano z dostarczonych Wydawnictwu UŁ gotowych materiałów Majority of the bioanalytical or environmental methods do not use just one chromatografie or electrophoretic step, but rather involve several sample pretreatment steps which simplfy the matrix, and often preconcentrate and chemically modify the analytes. This work surveys typical procedures for sample preparation for most commonly analyzed biofluids with particular emphasis placed on chemical derivatization of su...

  13. Development of tomographic reconstruction algorithms for the PIXE analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.T.

    2008-05-01

    The development of 3-dimensional microscopy techniques offering a spatial resolution of 1 μm or less has opened a large field of investigation in Cell Biology. Amongst them, an interesting advantage of ion beam micro-tomography is its ability to give quantitative results in terms of local concentrations in a direct way, using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXET) combined to Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIMT) Tomography. After a brief introduction of existing reconstruction techniques, we present the principle of the DISRA code, the most complete written so far, which is the basis of the present work. We have modified and extended the DISRA algorithm by considering the specific aspects of biologic specimens. Moreover, correction procedures were added in the code to reduce noise in the tomograms. For portability purpose, a Windows graphic interface was designed to easily enter and modify experimental parameters used in the reconstruction, and control the several steps of data reduction. Results of STIMT and PIXET experiments on reference specimens and on human cancer cells will be also presented. (author)

  14. High-frame-rate imaging of biological samples with optoacoustic micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; López-Schier, Hernán.; Razansky, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Optical microscopy remains a major workhorse in biological discovery despite the fact that light scattering limits its applicability to depths of ˜ 1 mm in scattering tissues. Optoacoustic imaging has been shown to overcome this barrier by resolving optical absorption with microscopic resolution in significantly deeper regions. Yet, the time domain is paramount for the observation of biological dynamics in living systems that exhibit fast motion. Commonly, acquisition of microscopy data involves raster scanning across the imaged volume, which significantly limits temporal resolution in 3D. To overcome these limitations, we have devised a fast optoacoustic micro-tomography (OMT) approach based on simultaneous acquisition of 3D image data with a high-density hemispherical ultrasound array having effective detection bandwidth around 25 MHz. We performed experiments by imaging tissue-mimicking phantoms and zebrafish larvae, demonstrating that OMT can provide nearly cellular resolution and imaging speed of 100 volumetric frames per second. As opposed to other optical microscopy techniques, OMT is a hybrid method that resolves optical absorption contrast acoustically using unfocused light excitation. Thus, no penetration barriers are imposed by light scattering in deep tissues, suggesting it as a powerful approach for multi-scale functional and molecular imaging applications.

  15. Direct quantification of lipopeptide biosurfactants in biological samples via HPLC and UPLC-MS requires sample modification with an organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biniarz, Piotr; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2017-06-01

    The rapid and accurate quantification of biosurfactants in biological samples is challenging. In contrast to the orcinol method for rhamnolipids, no simple biochemical method is available for the rapid quantification of lipopeptides. Various liquid chromatography (LC) methods are promising tools for relatively fast and exact quantification of lipopeptides. Here, we report strategies for the quantification of the lipopeptides pseudofactin and surfactin in bacterial cultures using different high- (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) systems. We tested three strategies for sample pretreatment prior to LC analysis. In direct analysis (DA), bacterial cultures were injected directly and analyzed via LC. As a modification, we diluted the samples with methanol and detected an increase in lipopeptide recovery in the presence of methanol. Therefore, we suggest this simple modification as a tool for increasing the accuracy of LC methods. We also tested freeze-drying followed by solvent extraction (FDSE) as an alternative for the analysis of "heavy" samples. In FDSE, the bacterial cultures were freeze-dried, and the resulting powder was extracted with different solvents. Then, the organic extracts were analyzed via LC. Here, we determined the influence of the extracting solvent on lipopeptide recovery. HPLC methods allowed us to quantify pseudofactin and surfactin with run times of 15 and 20 min per sample, respectively, whereas UPLC quantification was as fast as 4 and 5.5 min per sample, respectively. Our methods provide highly accurate measurements and high recovery levels for lipopeptides. At the same time, UPLC-MS provides the possibility to identify lipopeptides and their structural isoforms.

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography of respiratory quinones for microbial community analysis in environmental and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-05

    Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA) detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ) and menaquinones (MK) without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost) and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces).

  17. Iodine 129 measurements by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. Results in seaweeds (Fucus serratus et laminaria digitata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maro, D.; Hebert, D.; Gandon, R.; Solier, L.

    1999-01-01

    A iodine selective radiochemistry method was developed to measure 129 I(period 1,57 x 10 10 7 years) by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. This method avoids using neutron activation analysis or accelerator mass spectrometry. The method is based on iodine extraction from samples in order to obtain an aqueous matrix with no attenuation agent except 127 I(stable isotope). The parallel determination of 127 I allows to correct 129 I measurements for self attenuation and also monitor seasonal changes in iodine metabolism in biological species. Measurements were performed in two seaweed species (Fucus serratus and Laminaria digitata) samples in the area of La Hague reprocessing plant discharge between January and February 1997). Samples from stations close to the point of release (Goury and Herquemoulin), showed 129 I activities around 60 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and around 300 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. 300 km away from the realize point, 129 I activities were 10 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and 171 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. 127 I concentrations were between 547 and 1,232 mg kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and between 6,624 and 14,296 mg kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. (authors)

  18. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of histamine in biological samples: the cerebrospinal fluid challenge--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaopin; Wu, Juanli; Wu, Shihua; Bao, Aimin

    2013-04-24

    Histamine, a neurotransmitter crucially involved in a number of basic physiological functions, undergoes changes in neuropsychiatric disorders. Detection of histamine in biological samples such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thus of clinical importance. The most commonly used method for measuring histamine levels is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, factors such as very low levels of histamine, the even lower CSF-histamine and CSF-histamine metabolite levels, especially in certain neuropsychiatric diseases, rapid formation of histamine metabolites, and other confounding elements during sample collection, make analysis of CSF-histamine and CSF-histamine metabolites a challenging task. Nonetheless, this challenge can be met, not only with respect to HPLC separation column, derivative reagent, and detector, but also in terms of optimizing the CSF sample collection. This review aims to provide a general insight into the quantitative analyses of histamine in biological samples, with an emphasis on HPLC instruments, methods, and hyphenated techniques, with the aim of promoting the development of an optimal and practical protocol for the determination of CSF-histamine and/or CSF-histamine metabolites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Fujie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ and menaquinones (MK without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces.

  20. Evaluation of biological samples for specimen banking and biomonitoring by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.F.; Zeisler, R.

    1984-01-01

    In a pilot program for environmental specimen banking, human livers and marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) were sampled, analyzed and banked. Nuclear methods played a major role in the evaluation of the samples by providing concentration data for up to 37 major, mineral, and trace elements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was complemented by neutron-capture prompt gamma activation analysis, radiochemical separations and, for the mussels, by instrumental X-ray fluorescence analysis. A cryogenic homogenization procedure was applied for sample preparation and evaluated. Assessment of accuracy was made by analyzing Standard Reference Materials and by intercomparing the techniques. Results are reported for 66 individual human liver specimens, collected at three locations in the United States, and for batches of 65 mussels from a collection made at Narragansett Bay, RI. 19 references, 23 figures, 4 tables

  1. Conceptual design and sampling procedures of the biological programme of NuukBasic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Nymand, Josephine; Raundrup, Katrine

    uorescence in three series of plots. Arthropods are sampled by means of yellow pitfall traps as well as in window traps. Microarthropods are sampled in soil cores and extracted in an extractor by gradually heating up soil. The avifauna is monitored with special emphasis on passerine birds. Only few...... Vegetation Index (NDVI). The fl ux of CO2 is measured in natural conditions as well as in manipulations simulating increased temperature, increased cloud cover, shorter growing season, and longer growing season. The effect of increased UV-B radiation on plant stress is studied by measuring chlorophyll fl...

  2. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MELOXICAM IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Noreen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Meloxicam (MX belongs to the family of oxicams which is the most important group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and is widely used for their analgesics and antipyretic activities. It inhibits both COX-I and COX-II enzymes with less gastric and local tissues irritation. A number of analytical techniques have been used for the determination of MX in pharmaceutical as well as in biological fluids. These techniques include titrimetry, spectrometry, chromatography, flow injection spectrometry, fluorescence spectrometry, capillary zone electrophoresis and electrochemical techniques. Many of these techniques have also been used for the simultaneous determination of MX with other compounds. A comprehensive review of these analytical techniques has been done which could be useful for the analytical chemists and quality control pharmacists.

  3. Set-up and calibration of a method to measure {sup 10}B concentration in biological samples by neutron autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadan, M.A. [National Commission for Atomic Energy (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S., E-mail: silva.bortolussi@pv.infn.it [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Postuma, I. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Ballarini, F. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Protti, N.; Santoro, D.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, A.; Zonta, C. [Department of Experimental Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    2012-03-01

    A selective uptake of boron in the tumor is the base of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, which can destroy the tumor substantially sparing the normal tissue. In order to deliver a lethal dose to the tumor, keeping the dose absorbed by normal tissues below the tolerance level, it is mandatory to know the {sup 10}B concentration present in each kind of tissue at the moment of irradiation. This work presents the calibration procedure adopted for a boron concentration measurement method based on neutron autoradiography, where biological samples are deposited on sensitive films and irradiated in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor (University of Pavia). The latent tracks produced in the film by the charged particles coming from the neutron capture in {sup 10}B are made visible by a proper etching, allowing the measurement of the track density. A calibration procedure with standard samples provides curves of track density as a function of boron concentration, to be used in the measurement of biological samples. In this paper, the bulk etch rate parameter and the calibration curves obtained for both liquid samples and biological tissues with known boron concentration are presented. A bulk etch rate value of (1.64 {+-} 0.02) {mu}m/h and a linear dependence with etching time were found. The plots representing the track density versus the boron concentration in a range between 5 and 50 {mu}g/g (ppm) are linear, with an angular coefficient of (1.614 {+-} 0.169){center_dot}10{sup -3} tracks/({mu}m{sup 2} ppm) for liquids and (1.598 {+-} 0.097){center_dot}10{sup -2} tracks/({mu}m{sup 2} ppm) for tissues.

  4. Determination of some trace elements in biological samples using XRF and TXRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuder, A.; Karjou, J.; Sawan, M. K.

    2006-07-01

    XRF and TXRF techniques were successfully used for the multi-element determination of trace elements in whole blood and human head hair samples. This was achieved by the direct analysis using XRF technique with different collimation units and by the optimized chemical procedures for TXRF analysis. Light element of S and P were preferably determined by XRF with primary x-ray excitation, while, elements of K, Ca, Fe, and Br were determined with a very good accuracy and precision using XRF with Cu- and Mo-secondary targets. The chemical procedure dependent on the preconcentration of trace elements by APDC was superiorly used for the determination of traces of Ni and Pb in the range of 1.0-1.7 μg/dl and 11-23 μg/dl, respectively, in whole blood samples by TXRF technique; determination of other elements as Cu and Zn was also achievable using this approach. Rb in whole blood samples was determined directly after the digestion of samples using PTFE-bomb for TXRF analysis. (author)

  5. Detection of triglycerides using immobilized enzymes in food and biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichur, Ashish; Lesi, Abiodun; Pedersen, Henrik

    1996-04-01

    A scheme for the determination of total triglyceride (fat) content in biomedical and food samples is being developed. The primary emphasis is to minimize the reagents used, simplify sample preparation and develop a robust system that would facilitate on-line monitoring. The new detection scheme developed thus far involves extracting triglycerides into an organic solvent (cyclohexane) and performing partial least squares (PLS) analysis on the NIR (1100 - 2500 nm) absorbance spectra of the solution. A training set using 132 spectra of known triglyceride mixtures was complied. Eight PLS calibrations were generated and were used to predict the total fat extracted from commercial samples such as mayonnaise, butter, corn oil and coconut oil. The results typically gave a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.99 or better. Predictions were typically within 90% and better at higher concentrations. Experiments were also performed using an immobilized lipase reactor to hydrolyze the fat extracted into the organic solvent. Performing PLS analysis on the difference spectra of the substrate and product could enhance specificity. This is being verified experimentally. Further work with biomedical samples is to be performed. This scheme may be developed into a feasible detection method for triglycerides in the biomedical and food industries.

  6. Analysis of mercury and selenium in biological samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catharino, Marilia Gabriela Miranda

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, hair samples from populations suspected of contamination by mercury, in the localities of Serra do Navio, Vila Nova and Tartarugalzinho, in the State of Amapa, were analyzed. Hair samples of children under odontopediatric treatment were also analyzed for mercury, in order to study the possibility of transfer of mercury from the dental amalgam and also to obtain data of hair mercury in a control population of children. Another step of the work was the development of a method for the determination of selenium, by using the short-lived radioisotope 77 mSe. After the certification of the method it was applied to the analysis of hair, nails and a vitamin supplement. A comparison was made with the results obtain ed by using the long-lived radioisotope of selenium, 75 Se. The results obtained for mercury in the hair samples of populations living in the State of Amapa have shown that the mercury concentrations in these populations are much higher than in the controls. As for the hair samples of children under treatment with mercury amalgam, no significant differences were found in the concentrations of mercury after the treatment. On the other hand, these data were important to obtain data for a control population of children. The results obtained by using the radioisotope 77 mSe showed that the method developed was suitable for the analyzed matrixes and the results were similar to the ones obtained by employing the usual AANI method, with the radioisotope 75 Se. (author)

  7. Determination of the plutonium contamination level in biological samples by liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemot, J.M.; Verry, M.; Lataillade, G.

    1989-01-01

    Usual radiochemical processes are unable to carry out without delay the very large number of analyses as required in plutonium toxicology studies. Liquid scintillation is the best method to quickly determine plutonium contamination levels in most various samples (bone, organs,...) [fr

  8. Development of a radioimmunoassay for the determination of buprenorphine in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debrabandere, L.; Boven, M. Van; Daenens, P.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for the detection of buprenorphine in urine samples is described. With minor adjustments, the assay was also applied to the analysis for buprenorphine in plasma samples. The 2-diazobenzoic acid derivative of buprenorphine has been prepared as a hapten. The immunization of rabbits with the hapten-bovine serum albumin conjugate resulted in the production of antibodies, which cross-reacted with N-dealkylbuprenophine up to about the 90% level. The antibodies showed very low cross-reactivities with the 3-O-glucuronides and with the structural analogue etorphine. The assay was mainly used to prescreen for buprenorphine in urine samples of persons suspected of Temgesic misuse and to determine buprenorphine in plasma samples. A linear calibration graph for buprenorphine was obtained after logit-log regression. The spiking recovery study showed a linear regression. Intra-and inter-assay relative standard deviations were -1 (Student's t-distribution, p 0.01, degrees of freedom = 8). (Author)

  9. Headspace solid-phase microextraction with 1-pyrenyldiazomethane on-fibre derivatisation for analysis of fluoroacetic acid in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporkert, Frank; Pragst, Fritz; Hübner, Sandra; Mills, Graham

    2002-05-25

    A new and in part automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method for quantitative determination of the highly toxic rodenticide fluoroacetic acid (FAA) in serum and other biological samples has been developed. FAA and deuterated acetic acid (internal standard) were extracted from acidified samples by a StableFlex divinylbenzene-Carboxen on polydimethylsiloxane fibre. The acids were derivatised on the fibre in-situ with 1-pyrenyldiazomethane and detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation and selected ion monitoring. The calibration curve for FAA in serum was linear over the range from 0.02 to 5 microg/ml, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.02 and 0.07 microg/ml, respectively. The method was also tested with spiked whole blood, urine, stomach contents and kidney samples. It was sufficiently reliable, reproducible and sensitive for use in routine forensic toxicology applications.

  10. RIA of PGFsub(2α) and PGE2 in biological samples of different origin: comparison with the mass fragmentographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattabeni, F.; Borghi, C.; Folco, G.C.; Nicosia, S.; Spagnuolo, C.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe some results obtained measuring PGFsub(2α) and PGE 2 with bioassay, RIA and mass fragmentography in samples of different biological origin such as rat brain cortex and human urine of normal subjects and patients with Bartter's Syndrome. The results reported here clearly indicate that the assay of PGFsub(2α) and PGE 2 require an accurate validation with different analytical techniques. In fact, RIA of PGFsub(2α) gave different results if the samples were of different origin. It can be concluded that all the methods today available for PGs measurements need to be accurately validated utilizing different assays and that this validation is required everytime the sample matrix is changed. (Auth.)

  11. Determination of sodium in biological samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parwate, D.V.; Garg, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    Sodium is one of the most essential elements needed for metabolic processes amongst human beings. It is consumed in the form of sodium chloride but it is also present in edible plant leaves. Sodium is mostly analyzed by flame photometric method, a destructive and time consuming technique. Sodium has been determined in some green leave vegetables samples-palak, radish, khatta palak (ambat chuka), chaulai leaves, chauli bean covers and its seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The method involves irradiation of samples with thermal neutrons from 241 Am-Be source and counting 24 Na activity (half life 15 hr) from the reaction 23 Na(n,γ) 24 Na. Activity due to 1.37 MeV photopeak was counted with a NaI(Tl) crystal coupled to gamma ray spectrometer. Green leaves of the vegetables were thoroughly washed, dried at constant temperature and powdered. Bowen's Kale powder was used as standard for measuring sodium abundances. About 2g each of samples and the standard were packed in polythene vials. They were irradiated for 24 hrs, delayed by 1 hr and then counted for 20 mts. It is found that radish leaves are most enriched in sodium (14.0 +-0.45%) amongst four leave samples analyzed. For three different parts of chaulai leaves, bean covers and seeds, sodium contents are 1.38%, 1820 and 1010 ppm. Palak contains 2.84 +-0.29% while khatta palak contains only 4210 +- 830 ppm sodium. All values reported here are for dry weight samples and are means of three replicate measurements with standard deviation. (author)

  12. A retrospective cross-sectional quantitative molecular approach in biological samples from patients with syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Miguel; Antelo, Minia; Ferreira, Rita; Azevedo, Jacinta; Santo, Irene; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Syphilis is the sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, a pathogen highly adapted to the human host. As a multistage disease, syphilis presents distinct clinical manifestations that pose different implications for diagnosis. Nevertheless, the inherent factors leading to diverse disease progressions are still unknown. We aimed to assess the association between treponemal loads and dissimilar disease outcomes, to better understand syphilis. We retrospectively analyzed 309 DNA samples distinct anatomic sites associated with particular syphilis manifestations. All samples had previously tested positive by a PCR-based diagnostic kit. An absolute quantitative real-time PCR procedure was used to precisely quantify the number of treponemal and human cells to determine T. pallidum loads in each sample. In general, lesion exudates presented the highest T. pallidum loads in contrast with blood-derived samples. Within the latter, a higher dispersion of T. pallidum quantities was observed for secondary syphilis. T. pallidum was detected in substantial amounts in 37 samples of seronegative individuals and in 13 cases considered as syphilis-treated. No association was found between treponemal loads and serological results or HIV status. This study suggests a scenario where syphilis may be characterized by: i) heterogeneous and high treponemal loads in primary syphilis, regardless of the anatomic site, reflecting dissimilar duration of chancres development and resolution; ii) high dispersion of bacterial concentrations in secondary syphilis, potentially suggesting replication capability of T. pallidum while in the bloodstream; and iii) bacterial evasiveness, either to the host immune system or antibiotic treatment, while remaining hidden in privileged niches. This work highlights the importance of using molecular approaches to study uncultivable human pathogens, such as T. pallidum, in the infection process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Determination of 2-Octanone in Biological Samples Using Liquid–Liquid Microextractions Followed by Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detectio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Jouyban, Maryam Abbaspour, Mir Ali Farajzadeh, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analysis of chemicals in biological fluids is required in many areas of medical sciences. Rapid, highly efficient, and reliable dispersive and air assisted liquid–liquid microextraction methods followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection were developed for the extraction, preconcentration, and determination of 2-octanone in human plasma and urine samples. Methods: Proteins of plasma samples are precipitated by adding methanol and urine sample is diluted with water prior to performing the microextraction procedure. Fine organic solvent droplets are formed by repeated suction and injection of the mixture of sample solution and extraction solvent into a test tube with a glass syringe. After extraction, phase separation is performed by centrifuging and the enriched analyte in the sedimented organic phase is determined by the separation system. The main factors influencing the extraction efficiency including extraction solvent type and volume, salt addition, pH, and extraction times are investigated. Results: Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed good precision (relative standard deviation less than 7%. Limit of detection and lower limit of quantification for 2-octanone were obtained in the range of 0.1–0.5 µg mL−1. The linear ranges were 0.5-500 and 0.5-200 µg mL−1 in plasma and urine, respectively (r2 ≥ 0.9995. Enrichment factors were in the range of 13-37. Good recoveries (55–86% were obtained for the spiked samples. Conclusion: Preconcentration methods coupled with GC analysis were developed and could be used to monitor 2-octanone in biological samples.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in sediment and biological samples from the coastal lagoons of Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, S.; Lacayo, M.; Picado, F.; Lopez, A.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua to investigate the contamination of the coastal lagoons with residues of agricultural pesticides. Samples were taken during 1995 from the areas of Estero Real, Padre Ramos, Maderas Negras, Naranjo and Paso Caballos, and during 1996 from Aposentillo to Estero Barquito - Posoltega River. Analysis of the samples of sediment and aquatic life (fishes, oysters and bivalves) showed that they were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. The pesticides found in the highest concentrations were toxaphene (1,734 μg.kg -1 ) and p,p-DDE (275 μg kg -1 ). These data indicate widespread contamination of the ecosystem with organochlorine pesticides in the main Pacific coastal lagoons of Nicaragua, resulting from intensive agricultural use of pesticides during the past decades. The contamination has been carried from the agricultural areas to the coastal lagoons by the rivers passing through the cultivated areas. (author)

  15. Trace determination of uranium and thorium in biological samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedik, Ljudmila; Repinc, Urska; Byrne, Anthony R.; Stegnar, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) is an excellent method for determining uranium and thorium; it offers unique possibilities for their ultratrace analysis using selective radiochemical separations. Regarding the favourably sensitive nuclear characteristics of uranium and of thorium with respect to RNAA, but the different half-lives of their induced nuclides, two different approaches were used. In the first approach uranium and thorium were determined separately via 239 U, 239 Np and 233 Pa. In the second approach these elements were 239 239 233 determined simultaneously in a single sample using U and/or Np and Pa. Isolation of induced nuclides was based on separation by extraction and/or anion exchange chromatography. Chemical yields were measured in each sample aliquot using added 235 U, 238 Np and 231 Pa radioisotopic tracers. (author)

  16. Determination of technetium 99 in marine biological samples. Choice of a method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patti, Francois; Cappellini, Liliane; Jeanmaire, Lucien.

    1980-06-01

    The technique is easily carried out; it can be applied to the simultaneous analysis of several samples and requires no special instrumentation. Chemical yields, reproductibility and sensitivity are satisfying. The technique is based on the formation of pertechnetate ions un-entrained by hydroxides and retained on anionic resins; the nitric eluate is evaporated to dryness and its β - activity counted. The detection limit for 50 g of dry matter is 0.1 pCi.g -1 [fr

  17. Surface plasmon resonance: advances of label-free approaches in the analysis of biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riedel, Tomáš; Majek, P.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Brynda, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 24 (2014), s. 3325-3336 ISSN 1757-6180 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance sensors * polymer brushes * human serum samples Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.003, year: 2014

  18. Electrochemical Analysis of Antichemotherapeutic Drug Zanosar in Pharmaceutical and Biological Samples by Differential Pulse Polarography

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Chennupalle Nageswara; ReddyPrasad, Puthalapattu; Sreedhar, NeelamYughandhar

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of zanosar was investigated systematically by direct current polarography, cyclic voltammetry, and differential pulse polarography (DPP). A simple DPP technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of anticancer drug zanosar in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The reduction potential was −0.28 V versus Ag/AgCl with a hanging mercury drop electrode in Britton-Robinson buffer as supporting electrolyte. ...

  19. Electrochemical analysis of antichemotherapeutic drug zanosar in pharmaceutical and biological samples by differential pulse polarography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Chennupalle Nageswara; Reddyprasad, Puthalapattu; Sreedhar, Neelamyughandhar

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of zanosar was investigated systematically by direct current polarography, cyclic voltammetry, and differential pulse polarography (DPP). A simple DPP technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of anticancer drug zanosar in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The reduction potential was -0.28 V versus Ag/AgCl with a hanging mercury drop electrode in Britton-Robinson buffer as supporting electrolyte. The dependence of the intensities of currents and potentials on pH, concentration, scan rate, deposition time, and nature of the supporting electrolyte was investigated. The calibration curve was found to be linear with the following equation: y = 0.4041x + 0.012, with a correlation coefficient of 0.992 (R (2)) over a concentration range from 1.0 × 10(-7) M to 1.0 × 10(-3) M. In the present investigation, the achieved limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantization (LQD) were 7.42 × 10(-8) M and 2.47 × 10(-8) M; respectively. Excipients did not interfere with the determination of zanosar in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked urine samples. Precision and accuracy of the developed method were checked by recovery studies in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human urine samples.

  20. Electrochemical Analysis of Antichemotherapeutic Drug Zanosar in Pharmaceutical and Biological Samples by Differential Pulse Polarography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennupalle Nageswara Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical reduction of zanosar was investigated systematically by direct current polarography, cyclic voltammetry, and differential pulse polarography (DPP. A simple DPP technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of anticancer drug zanosar in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The reduction potential was −0.28 V versus Ag/AgCl with a hanging mercury drop electrode in Britton-Robinson buffer as supporting electrolyte. The dependence of the intensities of currents and potentials on pH, concentration, scan rate, deposition time, and nature of the supporting electrolyte was investigated. The calibration curve was found to be linear with the following equation: y=0.4041x+0.012, with a correlation coefficient of 0.992 (R2 over a concentration range from 1.0×10-7 M to 1.0×10-3 M. In the present investigation, the achieved limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantization (LQD were 7.42×10-8 M and 2.47×10-8 M; respectively. Excipients did not interfere with the determination of zanosar in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked urine samples. Precision and accuracy of the developed method were checked by recovery studies in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human urine samples.

  1. Label-free quantification of Tacrolimus in biological samples by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menotta, Michele; Biagiotti, Sara; Streppa, Laura; Rossi, Luigia; Magnani, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressant drug that has to be continually monitored. • We present an atomic force microscope approach for quantification of Tacrolimus in blood samples. • Detection and quantification have been successfully achieved. - Abstract: In the present paper we describe an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based method for the quantitative analysis of FK506 (Tacrolimus) in whole blood (WB) samples. Current reference methods used to quantify this immunosuppressive drug are based on mass spectrometry. In addition, an immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) has been developed and is widely used in clinic, even though it shows a small but consistent overestimation of the actual drug concentration when compared with the mass spectrometry method. The AFM biosensor presented herein utilises the endogen drug receptor, FKBP12, to quantify Tacrolimus levels. The biosensor was first assayed to detect the free drug in solution, and subsequently used for the detection of Tacrolimus in blood samples. The sensor was suitable to generate a dose–response curve in the full range of clinical drug monitoring. A comparison with the clinically tested ELISA assay is also reported

  2. Label-free quantification of Tacrolimus in biological samples by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menotta, Michele, E-mail: michele.menotta@uniurb.it [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino “Carlo Bo” via Saffi 2, Urbino (Italy); Biagiotti, Sara [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino “Carlo Bo” via Saffi 2, Urbino (Italy); Streppa, Laura [Physics Laboratory, CNRS-ENS, UMR 5672, Lyon (France); Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, CNRS-ENS Lyon, UMR 5239, IFR128, Lyon (France); Rossi, Luigia; Magnani, Mauro [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino “Carlo Bo” via Saffi 2, Urbino (Italy)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressant drug that has to be continually monitored. • We present an atomic force microscope approach for quantification of Tacrolimus in blood samples. • Detection and quantification have been successfully achieved. - Abstract: In the present paper we describe an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based method for the quantitative analysis of FK506 (Tacrolimus) in whole blood (WB) samples. Current reference methods used to quantify this immunosuppressive drug are based on mass spectrometry. In addition, an immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) has been developed and is widely used in clinic, even though it shows a small but consistent overestimation of the actual drug concentration when compared with the mass spectrometry method. The AFM biosensor presented herein utilises the endogen drug receptor, FKBP12, to quantify Tacrolimus levels. The biosensor was first assayed to detect the free drug in solution, and subsequently used for the detection of Tacrolimus in blood samples. The sensor was suitable to generate a dose–response curve in the full range of clinical drug monitoring. A comparison with the clinically tested ELISA assay is also reported.

  3. Conditional-sampling spectrograph detection system for fluorescence measurements of individual airborne biological particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Paul; Pinnick, R. G.; Hill, Steven C.; Chen, Gang; Chang, Richard K.; Mayo, Michael W.; Fernandez, Gilbert L.

    1996-03-01

    We report the design and operation of a prototype conditional-sampling spectrograph detection system that can record the fluorescence spectra of individual, micrometer-sized aerosols as they traverse an intense 488-nm intracavity laser beam. The instrument's image-intensified CCD detector is gated by elastic scattering or by undispersed fluorescence from particles that enter the spectrograph's field of view. It records spectra only from particles with preselected scattering-fluorescence levels (a fiber-optic-photomultiplier subsystem provides the gating signal). This conditional-sampling procedure reduces data-handling rates and increases the signal-to-noise ratio by restricting the system's exposures to brief periods when aerosols traverse the beam. We demonstrate these advantages by reliably capturing spectra from individual fluorescent microspheres dispersed in an airstream. The conditional-sampling procedure also permits some discrimination among different types of particles, so that spectra may be recorded from the few interesting particles present in a cloud of background aerosol. We demonstrate such discrimination by measuring spectra from selected fluorescent microspheres in a mixture of two types of microspheres, and from bacterial spores in a mixture of spores and nonfluorescent kaolin particles.

  4. Analysis of Biological Samples Using Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry: An Investigation of Impacts by the Substrates, Solvents and Elution Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yue; Wang, He; Liu, Jiangjiang; Zhang, Zhiping; McLuckey, Morgan N; Ouyang, Zheng

    2013-10-01

    Paper spray has been developed as a fast sampling ionization method for direct analysis of raw biological and chemical samples using mass spectrometry (MS). Quantitation of therapeutic drugs in blood samples at high accuracy has also been achieved using paper spray MS without traditional sample preparation or chromatographic separation. The paper spray ionization is a process integrated with a fast extraction of the analyte from the raw sample by a solvent, the transport of the extracted analytes on the paper, and a spray ionization at the tip of the paper substrate with a high voltage applied. In this study, the influence on the analytical performance by the solvent-substrate systems and the selection of the elution methods was investigated. The protein hemoglobin could be observed from fresh blood samples on silanized paper or from dried blood spots on silica-coated paper. The on-paper separation of the chemicals during the paper spray was characterized through the analysis of a mixture of the methyl violet 2B and methylene blue. The mode of applying the spray solvent was found to have a significant impact on the separation. The results in this study led to a better understanding of the analyte elution, on-paper separation, as well as the ionization processes of the paper spray. This study also help to establish a guideline for optimizing the analytical performance of paper spray for direct analysis of target analytes using mass spectrometry.

  5. Demonstration Exercise of a Validated Sample Collection Method for Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents in Georgia 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, B.

    2007-01-01

    August 7, 2006 the state of Georgia conducted a collaborative sampling exercise between the Georgia National Guard 4th Civil Support Team Weapons of Mass Destruction (CST-WMD) and the Georgia Department of Human Resources Division of Public Health demonstrating a recently validated bulk powder sampling method. The exercise was hosted at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) at Glynn County, Georgia and involved the participation of the Georgia Emergency Management Agency (GEMA), Georgia National Guard, Georgia Public Health Laboratories, the Federal Bureau of Investigation Atlanta Office, Georgia Coastal Health District, and the Glynn County Fire Department. The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate a recently validated national sampling standard developed by the American Standards and Test Measures (ASTM) International; ASTM E2458 S tandard Practice for Bulk Sample Collection and Swab Sample Collection of Visible Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents from Nonporous Surfaces . The intent of the exercise was not to endorse the sampling method, but to develop a model for exercising new sampling methods in the context of existing standard operating procedures (SOPs) while strengthening operational relationships between response teams and analytical laboratories. The exercise required a sampling team to respond real-time to an incident cross state involving a clandestine bio-terrorism production lab found within a recreational vehicle (RV). Sample targets consisted of non-viable gamma irradiated B. anthracis Sterne spores prepared by Dugway Proving Ground. Various spore concentration levels were collected by the ASTM method, followed by on- and off-scene analysis utilizing the Center for Disease Control (CDC) Laboratory Response Network (LRN) and National Guard Bureau (NGB) CST mobile Analytical Laboratory Suite (ALS) protocols. Analytical results were compared and detailed surveys of participant evaluation comments were examined. I will

  6. A comparison of sample preparation strategies for biological tissues and subsequent trace element analysis using LA-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonta, Maximilian; Török, Szilvia; Hegedus, Balazs; Döme, Balazs; Limbeck, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is one of the most commonly applied methods for lateral trace element distribution analysis in medical studies. Many improvements of the technique regarding quantification and achievable lateral resolution have been achieved in the last years. Nevertheless, sample preparation is also of major importance and the optimal sample preparation strategy still has not been defined. While conventional histology knows a number of sample pre-treatment strategies, little is known about the effect of these approaches on the lateral distributions of elements and/or their quantities in tissues. The technique of formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) has emerged as the gold standard in tissue preparation. However, the potential use for elemental distribution studies is questionable due to a large number of sample preparation steps. In this work, LA-ICP-MS was used to examine the applicability of the FFPE sample preparation approach for elemental distribution studies. Qualitative elemental distributions as well as quantitative concentrations in cryo-cut tissues as well as FFPE samples were compared. Results showed that some metals (especially Na and K) are severely affected by the FFPE process, whereas others (e.g., Mn, Ni) are less influenced. Based on these results, a general recommendation can be given: FFPE samples are completely unsuitable for the analysis of alkaline metals. When analyzing transition metals, FFPE samples can give comparable results to snap-frozen tissues. Graphical abstract Sample preparation strategies for biological tissues are compared with regard to the elemental distributions and average trace element concentrations.

  7. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jamil Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  8. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  9. [Amanitine determination as an example of peptide analysis in the biological samples with HPLC-MS technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Tomasz; Jasionowicz, Ewa; Potocka-Banaś, Barbara; Borowiak, Krzysztof

    Routine toxicological analysis is mostly focused on the identification of non-organic and organic, chemically different compounds, but generally with low mass, usually not greater than 500–600 Da. Peptide compounds with atomic mass higher than 900 Da are a specific analytical group. Several dozen of them are highly-toxic substances well known in toxicological practice, for example mushroom toxin and animal venoms. In the paper the authors present an example of alpha-amanitin to explain the analytical problems and different original solutions in identifying peptides in urine samples with the use of the universal LC MS/MS procedure. The analyzed material was urine samples collected from patients with potential mushroom intoxication, routinely diagnosed for amanitin determination. Ultra filtration with centrifuge filter tubes (limited mass cutoff 3 kDa) was used. Filtrate fluid was directly injected on the chromatographic column and analyzed with a mass detector (MS/MS). The separation of peptides as organic, amphoteric compounds from biological material with the use of the SPE technique is well known but requires dedicated, specific columns. The presented paper proved that with the fast and simple ultra filtration technique amanitin can be effectively isolated from urine, and the procedure offers satisfactory sensitivity of detection and eliminates the influence of the biological matrix on analytical results. Another problem which had to be solved was the non-characteristic fragmentation of peptides in the MS/MS procedure providing non-selective chromatograms. It is possible to use higher collision energies in the analytical procedure, which results in more characteristic mass spectres, although it offers lower sensitivity. The ultra filtration technique as a procedure of sample preparation is effective for the isolation of amanitin from the biological matrix. The monitoring of selected mass corresponding to transition with the loss of water molecule offers

  10. Sample handling in surface sensitive chemical and biological sensing: a practical review of basic fluidics and analyte transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgovan, Norbert; Patko, Daniel; Hos, Csaba; Kurunczi, Sándor; Szabó, Bálint; Ramsden, Jeremy J; Horvath, Robert

    2014-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the advantages and associated caveats of the most common sample handling methods in surface-sensitive chemical and biological sensing. We summarize the basic theoretical and practical considerations one faces when designing and assembling the fluidic part of the sensor devices. The influence of analyte size, the use of closed and flow-through cuvettes, the importance of flow rate, tubing length and diameter, bubble traps, pressure-driven pumping, cuvette dead volumes, and sample injection systems are all discussed. Typical application areas of particular arrangements are also highlighted, such as the monitoring of cellular adhesion, biomolecule adsorption-desorption and ligand-receptor affinity binding. Our work is a practical review in the sense that for every sample handling arrangement considered we present our own experimental data and critically review our experience with the given arrangement. In the experimental part we focus on sample handling in optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) measurements, but the present study is equally applicable for other biosensing technologies in which an analyte in solution is captured at a surface and its presence is monitored. Explicit attention is given to features that are expected to play an increasingly decisive role in determining the reliability of (bio)chemical sensing measurements, such as analyte transport to the sensor surface; the distorting influence of dead volumes in the fluidic system; and the appropriate sample handling of cell suspensions (e.g. their quasi-simultaneous deposition). At the appropriate places, biological aspects closely related to fluidics (e.g. cellular mechanotransduction, competitive adsorption, blood flow in veins) are also discussed, particularly with regard to their models used in biosensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Advancements in mass spectrometry for biological samples: Protein chemical cross-linking and metabolite analysis of plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Adam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents work on advancements and applications of methodology for the analysis of biological samples using mass spectrometry. Included in this work are improvements to chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CXMS) for the study of protein structures and mass spectrometry imaging and quantitative analysis to study plant metabolites. Applications include using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to further explore metabolic heterogeneity in plant tissues and chemical interactions at the interface between plants and pests. Additional work was focused on developing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods to investigate metabolites associated with plant-pest interactions.

  12. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, Helene, E-mail: helene.rahn@gmail.com [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [ENT-Department, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftungsprofessur), University Hospital Erlangen, Waldstraße 1, Erlangen 91054 (Germany); Trahms, Lutz [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, Berlin 10587 (Germany); Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration. - Highlights: • Local cancer treatments are promising in reducing negative side effects occurring during conventional chemotherapy. • The nanoparticles play an important role in delivering drugs to the designated area during local cancer treatments as magnetic drug targeting. • We study the nanoparticles distribution in tumor tissue after magnetic drug targeting with X-ray computed tomography. • We achieved a 3-dimensional quantification of the nanoparticles content in tumor tissue out of digital tomographic data.

  13. Three-dimensional distributions of elements in biological samples by energy-filtered electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leapman, R.D.; Kocsis, E.; Zhang, G.; Talbot, T.L.; Laquerriere, P

    2004-07-15

    By combining electron tomography with energy-filtered electron microscopy, we have shown the feasibility of determining the three-dimensional distributions of phosphorus in biological specimens. Thin sections of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans were prepared by high-pressure freezing, freeze-substitution and plastic embedding. Images were recorded at energy losses above and below the phosphorus L{sub 2,3} edge using a post-column imaging filter operating at a beam energy of 120 keV. The unstained specimens exhibited minimal contrast in bright-field images. After it was determined that the specimen was sufficiently thin to allow two-window ratio imaging of phosphorus, pairs of pre-edge and post-edge images were acquired in series over a tilt range of {+-}55 deg. at 5 deg. increments for two orthogonal tilt axes. The projected phosphorus distributions were aligned using the pre-edge images that contained inelastic contrast from colloidal gold particles deposited on the specimen surface. A reconstruction and surface rendering of the phosphorus distribution clearly revealed features 15-20 nm in diameter, which were identified as ribosomes distributed along the stacked membranes of endoplasmic reticulum and in the cytoplasm. The sensitivity of the technique was estimated at <35 phosphorus atoms per voxel based on the known total ribosomal phosphorus content of approximately 7000 atoms. Although a high electron dose of approximately 10{sup 7} e/nm{sup 2} was required to record two-axis tilt series, specimens were sufficiently stable to allow image alignment and tomographic reconstruction.

  14. Gamma aminobutyric acid radioreceptor assay: a confirmatory quantitative assay for toxaphene in environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, M.A.; Blancato, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of polychlorinated monoterpenes, and was found to be acutely and chronically toxic to aquatic and wild life and posed a carcinogenic risk to humans before its ban in 1982. However, it is still found in the environment due to its relative persistence with an estimated half life time of about 10 years in soils. Toxaphenes neurotoxicity is attributed to a few isomers with a mode of action through binding to the chloride channel of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor ionophore complex. [ 35 S] tertiary butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) with specific activity higher than 60 Ci/mmole has a high binding affinity to the same sites and is now commercially available and can be used to label the GABA receptor for the development of radioreceptor assay technique. The GABA receptor was prepared by a sequence of ultra centrifugation and dialysis of mammalian (rats, cows, catfish and goats) brain homogenates. The receptor is then labeled with [ 35 S] TBPS and the assay was conducted by measuring the displacement of radioactivity following incubation with the sample containing the analytes. The assay is fast, sensitive and requires very little or no sample preparation prior to the analysis. (Author)

  15. Replica exchange with solute tempering: A method for sampling biological systems in explicit water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Kim, Byungchan; Friesner, Richard A.; Berne, B. J.

    2005-09-01

    An innovative replica exchange (parallel tempering) method called replica exchange with solute tempering (REST) for the efficient sampling of aqueous protein solutions is presented here. The method bypasses the poor scaling with system size of standard replica exchange and thus reduces the number of replicas (parallel processes) that must be used. This reduction is accomplished by deforming the Hamiltonian function for each replica in such a way that the acceptance probability for the exchange of replica configurations does not depend on the number of explicit water molecules in the system. For proof of concept, REST is compared with standard replica exchange for an alanine dipeptide molecule in water. The comparisons confirm that REST greatly reduces the number of CPUs required by regular replica exchange and increases the sampling efficiency. This method reduces the CPU time required for calculating thermodynamic averages and for the ab initio folding of proteins in explicit water. Author contributions: B.J.B. designed research; P.L. and B.K. performed research; P.L. and B.K. analyzed data; and P.L., B.K., R.A.F., and B.J.B. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: REST, replica exchange with solute tempering; REM, replica exchange method; MD, molecular dynamics.*P.L. and B.K. contributed equally to this work.

  16. Determination of iodine in biological samples by neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geetha, P.V.; Karunakara, N.; Prabhu, Ujwal; Yashodhara, I.; Ravi, P.M.; Sudhakar, J.; Ajith, Nicy; Swain, K.K.; Verma, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.

    2010-01-01

    During normal operating conditions of a nuclear reactor, the release of radionuclides to the environment will be extremely low and well within the limits. Radioiodine ( 131 I) is one of the radionuclides likely to get released into the atmosphere in case of a reactor accident. During the short initial phase of release of radioactivity, 131 I is rapidly transferred to milk, leading to significant thyroid dose to those consuming milk, especially infant and children. Hence, studies on Iodine transfer through grass-cow-milk is very important. Extensive studies on transfer for 131 I through grass-cow-milk pathway after Chernobyl accident has been reported. But, under normal operational conditions of the power reactor, 131 I is not present in measurable concentration in environmental matrices of a nuclear power generating station. Stable iodine is present in all environmental samples and from the concentration of stable iodine in grass and milk, one can estimate the transfer factor. The measurement of stable iodine in environmental sample is very challenging because of its extremely low concentration. Neutron activation analysis can be used for estimation of stable iodine in the environment after suitably optimizing the condition to minimize interferences. A method has been developed based on thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) to estimate the iodine concentration present in grass and cow milk

  17. Optimisation of Pt sensitivity in PIXE analysis of thin biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiourina, T.B.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    1998-01-01

    To obtain Pt concentration distributions in tumor biopsies, micro-PIXE is used. The limit of detection (LOD) for Pt is determined by the background production cross section together with the production cross section for the Pt-L lines. Both are functions of the type and energy of the projectile. In order to optimise the experimental conditions, the proton energy is varied from 2.5 to 5 MeV and the corresponding X-ray spectra are analysed. The optimum LOD is about 1 μg/g for a sample thickness of 1 mg/cm 2 and a total charge of 100 μC. A study is performed to investigate the possibility of elemental analysis by means of α excitation. The corresponding LOD is 6 μg/g with 200 μC charge (He ++ was used). For α excitation, sample damage limits the beam current and, thus, causes a tremendous increase in the measurement time. (orig.)

  18. An intercomparison of γ-spectrometry on two samples of biological origin by eight laboratories in four countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twining, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    This report gives details of the first inter-laboratory comparison of γ-spectrometry to be run within SPERA, the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association since its inauguration in 1991. Laboratories in Australia, Chile, French Polynesia and New Zealand participated in the exercise. Two 'unknown' samples of biological origin were analysed. The first was a sample of milk powder derived from IAEA reference material. This sample provided an assessment of overall accuracy of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K determinations. The second sample consisted of dried fish flesh including natural 40 K and spiked with a mixed nuclide solution containing 210 Pb, 109 Cd, 54 Mn, 60 Co and trace 133 Ba. Together the samples gave information on analytical precision over a range of energies and activities. When the results were compared with the recommended values and confidence intervals of the IAEA reference material, the overall accuracy of the γ-spectrometry analytical procedures was found to be good. The average mean values for combined laboratory data fell within the recommended value ranges for each isotope. Ninety percent of the individual laboratory isotope mean values were within two standard errors of the 95% confidence interval of the standard, 75% were within 1 s.e., and 33% of the analyses fell within the confidence interval. The largest sources of error were derived from reporting and calculating of results which gave a 16% gross error rate. (Author)

  19. The Upgrade Programme for the Structural Biology beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - High throughput sample evaluation and automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theveneau, P.; Baker, R.; Barrett, R.; Beteva, A.; Bowler, M. W.; Carpentier, P.; Caserotto, H.; de Sanctis, D.; Dobias, F.; Flot, D.; Guijarro, M.; Giraud, T.; Lentini, M.; Leonard, G. A.; Mattenet, M.; McCarthy, A. A.; McSweeney, S. M.; Morawe, C.; Nanao, M.; Nurizzo, D.; Ohlsson, S.; Pernot, P.; Popov, A. N.; Round, A.; Royant, A.; Schmid, W.; Snigirev, A.; Surr, J.; Mueller-Dieckmann, C.

    2013-03-01

    Automation and advances in technology are the key elements in addressing the steadily increasing complexity of Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) experiments. Much of this complexity is due to the inter-and intra-crystal heterogeneity in diffraction quality often observed for crystals of multi-component macromolecular assemblies or membrane proteins. Such heterogeneity makes high-throughput sample evaluation an important and necessary tool for increasing the chances of a successful structure determination. The introduction at the ESRF of automatic sample changers in 2005 dramatically increased the number of samples that were tested for diffraction quality. This "first generation" of automation, coupled with advances in software aimed at optimising data collection strategies in MX, resulted in a three-fold increase in the number of crystal structures elucidated per year using data collected at the ESRF. In addition, sample evaluation can be further complemented using small angle scattering experiments on the newly constructed bioSAXS facility on BM29 and the micro-spectroscopy facility (ID29S). The construction of a second generation of automated facilities on the MASSIF (Massively Automated Sample Screening Integrated Facility) beam lines will build on these advances and should provide a paradigm shift in how MX experiments are carried out which will benefit the entire Structural Biology community.

  20. Non-destructive evaluation of scientific and biological samples by scattering of 145 keV gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.P.; Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of present experiment is to assign effective atomic number (Z eff ) to samples of scientific interest (oxides of lanthanoids, also called rare earths, and alloys of lead and tin of known composition) and to measure stable iodine content of tissue (biological sample). An HPGe semiconductor detector, placed at 70 o to the incident beam, detects gamma photons scattered from the sample under investigation. The experiment is performed on various elements with atomic number satisfying, 6 ≤Z ≤ 82, for 145 keV incident photons. The intensity ratio of Rayleigh to Compton scattered peaks, corrected for photo-peak efficiency of gamma detector and absorption of photons in the sample and air, is plotted as a function of atomic number and constituted a fit curve. From this fit curve, the respective effective atomic numbers of the scientific samples are determined. The agreement of measured values of Z eff with theoretical calculations is found to be quite satisfactory. The measured intensity ratio from phantom (KI solutions, simulating thyroid content of stable iodine) varies linearly with KI concentration and provides stable iodine content of tissue.

  1. Introduction of ice protective film for 3D microscale analysis of biological sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanami, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Nojima, M.; Owari, M.

    2008-01-01

    It is urgently necessary for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis to overcome influence on the compositional distribution of the sample in vacuum chamber. In this study, we investigated the handling of the ice protective film in techniques such as the gallium focused ion beam (Ga FIB) etching. Here we demonstrate the technique with frozen Hymenochirus boettgeri red blood cell. The red blood cells covered with an ice protective film were cross-sectioned by using Ga FIB, and the two-dimensional SIMS mapping over the cross-section was carried out. The distributions of Na and K were observed on the cross-section and surface of red blood cell with ice protective film. This result agrees qualitatively with physiological intracellular and extracellular concentrations of vital cells. The technique used for SIMS was proved to be a reliable method, preserving the cells in their living state.

  2. Determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in biological samples: an in-depth review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monostori, Péter; Wittmann, Gyula; Karg, Eszter; Túri, Sándor

    2009-10-15

    Glutathione (GSH) is a thiol-containing tripeptide, which plays central roles in the defence against oxidative damage and in signaling pathways. Upon oxidation, GSH is transformed to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). The concentrations of GSH and GSSG and their molar ratio are indicators of cell functionality and oxidative stress. Assessment of redox homeostasis in various clinical states and medical applications for restoration of the glutathione status are of growing importance. This review is intended to provide a state-of-the-art overview of issues relating to sample pretreatment and choices for the separation and detection of GSH and GSSG. High-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography (as techniques with a separation step) with photometric, fluorimetric, electrochemical and mass spectrometric detection are discussed, stress being laid on novel approaches.

  3. Magnetic restricted-access microspheres for extraction of adrenaline, dopamine and noradrenaline from biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Deli; Liu, Shubo; Liang, Liyun; Bi, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Epoxy propyl bonded magnetic microspheres were prepared by atomic layer deposition using Fe 3 O 4 -SiO 2 microspheres as a core support material. Then, a restricted-access magnetic sorbent was prepared that contains diol groups on the external surface and m-aminophenylboronic acid groups on the internal surface. This kind of microspheres achieved excellent specific adsorption of the ortho-dihydroxy compounds (dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline). Following desorption with sorbitol, the ortho-dihydroxy compounds were quantified by HPLC. The limits of detection for dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline were 0.074, 0.053 and 0.095 μg mL −1 , respectively. Recoveries from spiked mice serum samples range from 80.2 to 89.1 %. (author)

  4. Optimization of a radiochemistry method for plutonium determination in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerchetti, Maria L.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium has been widely used for civilian an military activities. Nevertheless, the methods to control work exposition have not evolved in the same way, remaining as one of the major challengers for the radiological protection practice. Due to the low acceptable incorporation limit, the usual determination is based on indirect methods in urine samples. Our main objective was to optimize a technique used to monitor internal contamination of workers exposed to Plutonium isotopes. Different parameters were modified and their influence on the three steps of the method was evaluated. Those which gave the highest yield and feasibility were selected. The method involves: 1-) Sample concentration (coprecipitation); 2-) Plutonium purification; and 3-) Source preparation by electrodeposition. On the coprecipitation phase, changes on temperature and concentration of the carrier were evaluated. On the ion-exchange separation, changes on the type of the resin, elution solution for hydroxylamine (concentration and volume), length and column recycle were evaluated. Finally, on the electrodeposition phase, we modified the following: electrolytic solution, pH and time. Measures were made by liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry (PIPS). We obtained the following yields: 88% for coprecipitation (at 60 C degree with 2 ml of CaHPO 4 ), 71% for ion-exchange (resins AG 1x8 Cl - 100-200 mesh, hydroxylamine 0.1N in HCl 0.2N as eluent, column between 4.5 and 8 cm), and 93% for electrodeposition (H 2 SO 4 -NH 4 OH, 100 minutes and pH from 2 to 2.8). The expand uncertainty was 30% (NC 95%), the decision threshold (Lc) was 0.102 Bq/L and the minimum detectable activity was 0.218 Bq/L of urine. We obtained an optimized method to screen workers exposed to Plutonium. (author)

  5. k0-INAA application at IPEN Neutron Activation Laboratory by using the k0-IAEA program: biological sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, Daniel Correa

    2013-01-01

    The results obtained in the application of the k 0 -standardization method at LAN-IPEN for biological matrices analysis, by using the k 0 -IAEA software, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are presented. The flux parameters f and a of the IEA-R1 reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and for one selected irradiation position, 24B/shelf2, for short and long irradiations, respectively. In order to obtain these parameters, the bare triple-monitor method with 197 Au- 96 Zr- 94 Zr was used. In order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the methodology, the biological reference materials Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547), Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) e Tomato Leaves (NIST SRM 1573a) were analyzed. The statistical criteria Relative Errors (bias, %), Coefficient of Variation (CV) and U-score were applied to the obtained results (mean of six replicates). The relative errors (bias, %) in relation to certified values, were, for most elements, in the range of 0 e 30. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The U-score test showed that all results, except Na in Peach Leaves and in Tomato Leaves, were within 95% confidence interval. These results point out to a promising use of the k 0 -INAA method at LAN-IPEN for biological sample analysis. (author)

  6. Application of isotope dilution for the determination of thorium in biological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Shiraishi, Kunio; Takaku, Yuichi; Masuda, Kimihiko; Seki, Riki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) was examined for Th in biological samples. A naturally occurring isotope of Th(Th-230) was used as the spiking isotope. The concentration of Th-230 in the final sample solution was about 50 - 60 pg/ml; an isotope ratio of 232/230 could be measured with a relative standard deviation of less than 2%. The error magnification depended on the amount of Th-232 being concomitant with the Th-230. Though it was shown that one ng of Th-232 could be determined with reasonable precision with a tracer of the present purity, more care should be taken to reduce any source of systematic error. (author)

  7. Unrealistic optimism, fatalism, and risk-taking in New Zealand farmers' descriptions of quad-bike incidents: a directed qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Lynne; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Treharne, Gareth J; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Quad-bike incidents are a major cause of occupational injury and fatality on farms warranting health and safety attention. As part of a larger study, we carried out a face-to-face survey with 216 farmers in New Zealand. We quantitatively identified farmers' propensity for risk-taking, unrealistic optimism, and fatalism as risk factors in quad-bike loss-of-control events (LCEs). The purpose of the analysis presented in this article was to use these same farmers' recollections of LCEs to explore the a priori constructs in more detail using qualitative methods. Participants reporting one or more LCEs described their first LCE and any experienced in the previous 12 months. Participants provided open-text responses about what occurred at each LCE, their reflections, and general thoughts on LCE risk factors. Directed qualitative content analysis (QCA) was used to "unpack" risk-taking, unrealistic optimism, and fatalism whilst also delineating any additional concepts that farmers associate with LCEs. Risk-taking elements were more evident than unrealistic optimism or fatalism and more suggestive of farmers finding themselves in risky situations rather than engaging in risk-seeking behavior per se. Additional inductively derived categories of fatigue/stress, multitasking, inexperience, and quad-bike faults highlight the complex nature of LCEs and the importance of risk assessment covering these concepts as well as risky situations.

  8. A bench-top K X-ray fluorescence system for quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticles for biological sample diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, K., E-mail: k.ricketts@ucl.ac.uk [Division of Surgery and Interventional Sciences, University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Guazzoni, C.; Castoldi, A. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria Politecnico di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano P.za Leonardo da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Royle, G. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-21

    Gold nanoparticles can be targeted to biomarkers to give functional information on a range of tumour characteristics. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques offer potential quantitative measurement of the distribution of such heavy metal nanoparticles. Biologists are developing 3D tissue engineered cellular models on the centimetre scale to optimise targeting techniques of nanoparticles to a range of tumour characteristics. Here we present a high energy bench-top K-X-ray fluorescence system designed for sensitivity to bulk measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration for intended use in such thick biological samples. Previous work has demonstrated use of a L-XRF system in measuring gold concentrations but being a low energy technique it is restricted to thin samples or superficial tumours. The presented system comprised a high purity germanium detector and filtered tungsten X-ray source, capable of quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration of thicker samples. The developed system achieved a measured detection limit of between 0.2 and 0.6 mgAu/ml, meeting specifications of biologists and being approximately one order of magnitude better than the detection limit of alternative K-XRF nanoparticle detection techniques. The scatter-corrected K-XRF signal of gold was linear with GNP concentrations down to the detection limit, thus demonstrating potential in GNP concentration quantification. The K-XRF system demonstrated between 5 and 9 times less sensitivity than a previous L-XRF bench-top system, due to a fundamental limitation of lower photoelectric interaction probabilities at higher K-edge energies. Importantly, the K-XRF technique is however less affected by overlying thickness, and so offers future potential in interrogating thick biological samples.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water, sediment, soil, and biological samples from different industrial areas in Zhejiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junxia; Lin, Zhenkun; Lin, Kuangfei; Wang, Chunyan; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Changyuan; Lin, Junda; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined PBDE concentrations in various matrices from different industrial areas. ► Elevated PBDE levels were found in areas with low-voltage electrical manufactures. ► Areas with e-waste recycling activities also had higher PBDE concentrations. ► PBDE content and composition in water samples varied from one area to another. ► PBDE composition in sediment/soil and biological samples was predominated by BDE-209. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively in electrical and electronic products, but little is known about their distribution in the environment surrounding the manufacturing factories. This study reports PBDE contamination in various matrices from the location (Liushi, Zhejiang province) that produces more than 70% of the low-voltage electrical appliances in China. Additionally, PBDE contamination was compared with other industries such as the e-waste recycling business (Fengjiang) in the same region. Specifically, we measured seven PBDE congeners (BDEs – 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) in water, sediment, soil, plant, and animal tissues from four different areas in this region. The present study revealed elevated PBDE concentrations in all matrices collected from Liushi and Fengjiang in comparison with highly industrialized areas without significant PBDE contamination sources. In water samples, there were large variations of PBDE content and composition across different areas. In sediment/soil and biological samples, BDE-209 was the predominant congener and this could be due to the abundant usage of deca-BDE mixtures in China. Our findings provide the very first data on PBDE contamination in the local environments surrounding the electronics industry, and also reveal widespread PBDE contamination in highly industrialized coastal regions of China.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water, sediment, soil, and biological samples from different industrial areas in Zhejiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junxia; Lin, Zhenkun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Lin, Kuangfei [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology/State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Chunyan [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhang, Wei [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology/State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); Cui, Changyuan [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Lin, Junda [Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Dong, Qiaoxiang, E-mail: dqxdong@163.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined PBDE concentrations in various matrices from different industrial areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated PBDE levels were found in areas with low-voltage electrical manufactures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Areas with e-waste recycling activities also had higher PBDE concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE content and composition in water samples varied from one area to another. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE composition in sediment/soil and biological samples was predominated by BDE-209. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively in electrical and electronic products, but little is known about their distribution in the environment surrounding the manufacturing factories. This study reports PBDE contamination in various matrices from the location (Liushi, Zhejiang province) that produces more than 70% of the low-voltage electrical appliances in China. Additionally, PBDE contamination was compared with other industries such as the e-waste recycling business (Fengjiang) in the same region. Specifically, we measured seven PBDE congeners (BDEs - 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) in water, sediment, soil, plant, and animal tissues from four different areas in this region. The present study revealed elevated PBDE concentrations in all matrices collected from Liushi and Fengjiang in comparison with highly industrialized areas without significant PBDE contamination sources. In water samples, there were large variations of PBDE content and composition across different areas. In sediment/soil and biological samples, BDE-209 was the predominant congener and this could be due to the abundant usage of deca-BDE mixtures in China. Our findings provide the very first data on PBDE contamination in the local environments surrounding the electronics industry, and also reveal widespread PBDE contamination in highly industrialized coastal regions of China.

  11. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. Brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling; Empfehlungen fuer die Probenahme zur Gefahrenabwehr im Bevoelkerungsschutz. Zur Analytik von chemischen, biologischen und radioaktiven Kontaminationen. Kurzanleitung fuer die CBRN-Probenahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Udo; Biederbick, Walter; Derakshani, Nahid (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The recommendation for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense is describing the analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations and includes detail information on the sampling, protocol preparation and documentation procedures. The volume includes a separate brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling.

  12. Radioreceptor assay for analysis of fentanyl and its analogs in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alburges, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The assay is based on the competition of these drugs with ({sup 3}H) fentanyl for opioid receptors in membrane preparations of rat forebrain in vitro. The binding in stereospecific, reversible and saturable. Scatchard plots of saturation suggest the presence of high and low affinity binding sites. Morphine and hydromorphone complete with ({sup 3}H)fentanyl for the opioid receptor, but other morphine-like compounds were relatively weak displacers of ({sup 3}H)fentanyl. Many other commonly abused drugs do not compete with ({sup 3}H)fentanyl for the opioid receptors. Urine samples from animals injected with fentanyl, ({plus minus})-cis-3-methylfentanyl, alpha-methylfentanyl, butyrylfentanyl and benzylfentanyl were analyzed by radioreceptor assay, radioimmunoassay, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Urinary analysis of fentanyl showed a good correlation with these three methods; however, discrepancies were observed in the analysis of fentanyl analogs. This radioreceptor assay is well-suited as an initial assay for the detection of active analogs of fentanyl in urine with good correlation with other techniques in the analysis of fentanyl; however, there is substantial disagreement between techniques in the quantitation of fentanyl analogs. The implications of these discrepancies are discussed.

  13. Rapid determination of amino acids in biological samples using a monolithic silica column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanting; Funatsu, Takashi; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2012-05-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method in which fluorescence detection is used for the simultaneous determination of 21 amino acids is proposed. Amino acids were derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) and then separated on a monolithic silica column (MonoClad C18-HS, 150 mm×3 mm i.d.). A mixture of 25 mM citrate buffer containing 25 mM sodium perchlorate (pH 5.5) and acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase. We found that the most significant factor in the separation was temperature, and a linear temperature gradient from 30 to 49°C was used to control the column temperature. The limits of detection and quantification for all amino acids ranged from 3.2 to 57.2 fmol and 10.8 to 191 fmol, respectively. The calibration curves for the NBD-amino acid had good linearity within the range of 40 fmol to 40 pmol when 6-aminocaproic acid was used as an internal standard. Using only conventional instruments, the 21 amino acids could be analyzed within 10 min. This method was found to be suitable for the quantification of the contents of amino acids in mouse plasma and adrenal gland samples.

  14. Low cost label-free live cell imaging for biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniya, C.; Towers, C. E.; Towers, D. P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the progress to develop a practical phase measuring microscope offering new capabilities in terms of phase measurement accuracy and quantification of cell:cell interactions over the longer term. A novel, low cost phase interference microscope for imaging live cells (label-free) is described. The method combines the Zernike phase contrast approach with a dual mirror design to enable phase modulation between the scattered and un-scattered optical fields. Two designs are proposed and demonstrated, one of which retains the common path nature of Zernike's original microscopy concept. In both setups the phase shift is simple to control via a piezoelectric driven mirror in the back focal plane of the imaging system. The approach is significantly cheaper to implement than those based on spatial light modulators (SLM) at approximately 20% of the cost. A quantitative assessment of the performance of a set of phase shifting algorithms is also presented, specifically with regard to broad bandwidth illumination in phase contrast microscopy. The simulation results show that the phase measurement accuracy is strongly dependent on the algorithm selected and the optical path difference in the sample.

  15. Biological variability of the minutiae in the fingerprints of a sample of the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Esperanza; Galera, Virginia; Martínez, Jose Manuel; Alonso, Concepción

    2007-10-25

    The minutiae, a term coined by Galton to refer to the small peculiarities present along the length of every isolated ridge, or characteristic points, a term used primarily by the Spanish Police Scientists, have an inter- and intrapopulation variability which has not been extensively studied. However, these peculiarities constitute the bases for the fingerprint identification of individuals in the field of criminology. Using the adhesive paper and graphite method, the fingerprints of 200 students, 100 males and 100 females, with ages ranging between 20 and 35, have been taken at the University of Alcala (Madrid). From this sample, the distal phalanx of the index finger of the right hand has been studied. The total count of the minutiae, as well as that of each different type, was made of the entire print area, and inside and outside of a circle with a radius of 18 ridges. The highest frequencies were of ridge endings, followed by bifurcations and convergences, all others appearing with frequencies of lower than 5%. The distribution of the minutiae was not homogeneous for the area of the fingerprint (inside and outside the circle). In the study of minutiae statistically significant differences were found between the sexes, and between the different types of general pattern (arches, loops, and whorls).

  16. Visual detection of Brucella in bovine biological samples using DNA-activated gold nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Pal

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a bacterial disease, which, although affecting cattle primarily, has been associated with human infections, making its detection an important challenge. The existing gold standard diagnosis relies on the culture of bacteria which is a lengthy and costly process, taking up to 45 days. New technologies based on molecular diagnosis have been proposed, either through dip-stick, immunological assays, which have limited specificity, or using nucleic acid tests, which enable to identify the pathogen, but are impractical for use in the field, where most of the reservoir cases are located. Here we demonstrate a new test based on hybridization assays with metal nanoparticles, which, upon detection of a specific pathogen-derived DNA sequence, yield a visual colour change. We characterise the components used in the assay with a range of analytical techniques and show sensitivities down to 1000 cfu/ml for the detection of Brucella. Finally, we demonstrate that the assay works in a range of bovine samples including semen, milk and urine, opening up the potential for its use in the field, in low-resource settings.

  17. Electrokinetic migration across artificial liquid membranes. New concept for rapid sample preparation of biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Rasmussen, Knut Einar

    2006-03-24

    Basic drug substances were transported across a thin artificial organic liquid membrane by the application of 300 V d.c. From a 300 microl aqueous donor compartment (containing 10 mM HCl), the drugs migrated through a 200 microm artificial liquid membrane of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether immobilized in the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber, and into a 30 microl aqueous acceptor solution of 10 mM HCl inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The transport was forced by an electrical potential difference sustained over the liquid membrane, resulting in electrokinetic migration of drug substances from the donor compartment to the acceptor solution. Within 5 min of operation at 300 V, pethidine, nortriptyline, methadone, haloperidol, and loperamide were extracted with recoveries in the range 70-79%, which corresponded to enrichments in the range 7.0-7.9. The chemical composition of the organic liquid membrane strongly affected the permeability, and may serve as an efficient tool for controlling the transport selectivity. Water samples, human plasma, and human urine were successfully processed, and in light of the present report, electrokinetic migration across thin artificial liquid membranes may be an interesting tool for future isolation within chemical analysis.

  18. Radioreceptor assay for analysis of fentanyl and its analogs in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alburges, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The assay is based on the competition of these drugs with [ 3 H] fentanyl for opioid receptors in membrane preparations of rat forebrain in vitro. The binding in stereospecific, reversible and saturable. Scatchard plots of saturation suggest the presence of high and low affinity binding sites. Morphine and hydromorphone complete with [ 3 H]fentanyl for the opioid receptor, but other morphine-like compounds were relatively weak displacers of [ 3 H]fentanyl. Many other commonly abused drugs do not compete with [ 3 H]fentanyl for the opioid receptors. Urine samples from animals injected with fentanyl, (±)-cis-3-methylfentanyl, alpha-methylfentanyl, butyrylfentanyl and benzylfentanyl were analyzed by radioreceptor assay, radioimmunoassay, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Urinary analysis of fentanyl showed a good correlation with these three methods; however, discrepancies were observed in the analysis of fentanyl analogs. This radioreceptor assay is well-suited as an initial assay for the detection of active analogs of fentanyl in urine with good correlation with other techniques in the analysis of fentanyl; however, there is substantial disagreement between techniques in the quantitation of fentanyl analogs. The implications of these discrepancies are discussed

  19. Use of Complementary Approaches to Imaging Biomolecules and Endogenous and Exogenous Trace Elements and Nanoparticles in Biological Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Koshonna Dinettia

    X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM) is a useful technique for study of biological samples. XFM was used to map and quantify endogenous biological elements as well as exogenous materials in biological samples, such as the distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. TiO 2 nanoparticles are produced for many different purposes, including development of therapeutic and diagnostic particles for cancer detection and treatment, drug delivery, and induction of DNA breaks. Delivery of such nanoparticles can be targeted to specific cells and subcellular structures. In this work, we develop two novel approaches to stain TiO2 nanoparticles for optical microscopy and to confirm that staining by XFM. The first approach utilizes fluorescent biotin and fluorescent streptavidin to label the nanoparticles before and after cellular uptake; the second approach is based on the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, the so-called CLICK chemistry, for labeling of azide conjugated TiO2 nanoparticles with "clickable" dyes such as alkyne Alexa Fluor dyes with a high fluorescent yield. To confirm that the optical fluorescence signals of nanoparticles stained in situ match the distribution of the Ti element, we used high resolution synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM) using the Bionanoprobe instrument at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Titanium-specific X-ray fluorescence showed excellent overlap with the location of Alexa Fluor optical fluorescence detected by confocal microscopy. In this work XFM was also used to investigate native elemental differences between two different types of head and neck cancer, one associated with human papilloma virus infection, the other virus free. Future work may see a cross between these themes, for example, exploration of TiO2 nanoparticles as anticancer treatment for these two different types of head and neck cancer.

  20. Expression of DNA repair genes in ovarian cancer samples: biological and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzinelli, M; Mariani, P; Cattaneo, D; Fossati, R; Fruscio, R; Corso, S; Ricci, F; Broggini, M; Damia, G

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively the mRNA expression of genes involved in different DNA repair pathways implicated in processing platinum-induced damage in 171 chemotherapy-naïve ovarian tumours and correlate the expression of the different genes with clinical parameters. The expression of genes involved in DNA repair pathways (PARP1, ERCC1, XPA, XPF, XPG, BRCA1, FANCA, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCF and PolEta), and in DNA damage transduction (Chk1 and Claspin) was measured by RT-PCR in 13 stage I borderline and 77 stage I and 88 III ovarian carcinomas. ERCC1, XPA, XPF and XPG genes were significantly less expressed in stage III than in stage I carcinoma; BRCA1, FANCA, FANCC, FANCD2 gene expressions were low in borderline tumours, higher in stage I carcinomas and lower in stage III samples. High levels of ERCC1, XPA, FANCC, XPG and PolEta correlated with an increase in Overall Survival (OS) and Progression Free Survival (PFS), whilst high BRCA1 levels were associated with PFS on univariate analysis. With multivariate analyses no genes retained an association when adjusted by stage, grade and residual tumour. A tendency towards a better PFS was observed in patients with the highest level of ERCC1 and BRCA1 after platinum-based therapy than those given both platinum and taxol. The expression of DNA repair genes differed in borderline stage I, stage I and stage III ovarian carcinomas. The role of DNA repair genes in predicting the response in ovarian cancer patients seems far from being established. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction uncertainty assessment of a systems biology model requires a sample of the full probability distribution of its parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Mourik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-parameter models in systems biology are typically ‘sloppy’: some parameters or combinations of parameters may be hard to estimate from data, whereas others are not. One might expect that parameter uncertainty automatically leads to uncertain predictions, but this is not the case. We illustrate this by showing that the prediction uncertainty of each of six sloppy models varies enormously among different predictions. Statistical approximations of parameter uncertainty may lead to dramatic errors in prediction uncertainty estimation. We argue that prediction uncertainty assessment must therefore be performed on a per-prediction basis using a full computational uncertainty analysis. In practice this is feasible by providing a model with a sample or ensemble representing the distribution of its parameters. Within a Bayesian framework, such a sample may be generated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm that infers the parameter distribution based on experimental data. Matlab code for generating the sample (with the Differential Evolution Markov Chain sampler and the subsequent uncertainty analysis using such a sample, is supplied as Supplemental Information.

  2. Determination of Physicals, Chemical, Biologicals and Radioactivity Parameters of Sediments and Water Samples of Seropan River of First Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri Rusmanto; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    Seropan river water quality as residential water resources can be controlled by physical, chemical, and biological parameters. The water quality with the parameters of temperature, suspended solid (SS), gross β radioactivity, hardwater, COD, BOD, Escherichia Coli have been experimentally conducted. The sediment and water samples have been taken at February and August 2006. Measurement result of Seropan river water quality showed that the temperature was 28°C, maximum SS was 48 mg/L, maximum pH was 6.8 maximum hardwater was 257.49 mg/L, maximum COD was 8 mg/L, maximum BOD was 4.9 mg/L, maximum bacteria E. coli > 2400 mpn/100 mL, maximum water gross β was 0.9071 Bq/L. All the parameters were lower than maximum permissible for water condition that decided by Governor of Yogyakarta Special Province No/214/Kpts/1991 and Public Health Minister of Republic of Indonesia Number 907/Menkes/SK/VlI/2002. Sediment sample can not be evaluated because it was not included yet in the river water quality natural radionuclides gamma transmitter identified in river water samples were Tl-208 and K-40. More element detected in sediment samples, they were, Tl-208, Ac-228, Ra-226, Pb-212, Pb-214, Bi-214, Ac-228, Ac-228 and of K-40. (author)

  3. On-line preconcentration and determination of mercury in biological and environmental samples by cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrua, N.; Cerutti, S.; Salonia, J.A.; Olsina, R.A.; Martinez, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    An on-line procedure for the determination of traces of total mercury in environmental and biological samples is described. The present methodology combines cold vapor generation associated to atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) with preconcentration of the analyte on a minicolumn packed with activated carbon. The retained analyte was quantitatively eluted from the minicolumn with nitric acid. After that, volatile specie of mercury was generated by merging the acidified sample and sodium tetrahydroborate(III) in a continuous flow system. The gaseous analyte was subsequently introduced via a stream of Ar carrier into the atomizer device. Optimizations of both, preconcentration and mercury volatile specie generation variables were carried out using two level full factorial design (2 3 ) with 3 replicates of the central point. Considering a sample consumption of 25 mL, an enrichment factor of 13-fold was obtained. The detection limit (3σ) was 10 ng L -1 and the precision (relative standard deviation) was 3.1% (n = 10) at the 5 μg L -1 level. The calibration curve using the preconcentration system for mercury was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995 at levels near the detection limit up to at least 1000 μg L -1 . Satisfactory results were obtained for the analysis of mercury in tap water and hair samples

  4. Determination of arsenenic compounds in environmental and biological samples with LAMMA and HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessler, W.

    1997-07-01

    Different arsonium salts and alkyl- or aryl arsine sulfides were analyzed with a Laser-Microprobe-Mass-Analyzer (LAMMA-500). The positive-ion spectra of the arsonium salts showed clear signals for the (CH 3 ) 3 AsR + fragment. In the positive-ion spectra of alkyl- or arylarsine sulfides these arsenic compounds the molecular ions R 3 AsS + were never observed, but in most of the spectra the protonated parent compounds R 3 AsSH2 + were present. The negative-ion spectra showed mainly fragments S-n (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) and AsS n (n = 1, 2, 3). Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck var. vulgaris with a concentration of 13,000 mg As/kg dry mass were analyzed with the LAMMA-500 to identify arsenic compounds. Surprisingly, arsenic could not be detected by the LAMMA technique at these high arsenic concentrations. Electron microscopy of Chlorella cells reveals, that particles adhered at the surface of the cells. Scanning transmission electron microscopy showed a high correlation between the arsenic concentration and the iron concentration in these particles. Algae may protect themselves from high arsenic concentrations, by precipitating FeAsO 4 at the cell surface. Different Chlorella sp. were grown to investigate the arsenic tolerance of Chlorella strains. Chlorella Boehm and Chlorella Kessleri grew better in arsenic-containing than in arsenic-free media. The growth of Chlorella 108 was depressed in high-arsenic media. After harvesting, the algal biomass was extracted and arsenic compounds determined in the extracts with HPLC-ICP-MS. Approximately 98 % of the total arsenic were present as arsenic acid. A method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of arsenocholine, arsenous acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, methylarsonic acid, and arsenic acid at concentrations below 1 μg/L was developed. The developed HPLC-MPN-ICP-MS system allows the determination of arsenic compounds in urine sample at concentrations of 0.5 μg As/L with a relative standard deviation of

  5. Bayesian Estimation of Fish Disease Prevalence from Pooled Samples Incorporating Sensitivity and Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher J.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2003-03-01

    An important emerging issue in fisheries biology is the health of free-ranging populations of fish, particularly with respect to the prevalence of certain pathogens. For many years, pathologists focused on captive populations and interest was in the presence or absence of certain pathogens, so it was economically attractive to test pooled samples of fish. Recently, investigators have begun to study individual fish prevalence from pooled samples. Estimation of disease prevalence from pooled samples is straightforward when assay sensitivity and specificity are perfect, but this assumption is unrealistic. Here we illustrate the use of a Bayesian approach for estimating disease prevalence from pooled samples when sensitivity and specificity are not perfect. We also focus on diagnostic plots to monitor the convergence of the Gibbs-sampling-based Bayesian analysis. The methods are illustrated with a sample data set.

  6. Speciation of trace elements in biological samples by nuclear analytical and related techniques coupled with chemical and biochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Gao, Y.X.; Li, B.; Yu, H.W.; Li, Y.F.; Sun, J.; Chai, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    indicated quite different distribution patterns between malignant and their adjacent normal liver -tissues by using online technique of HPLC-ICP-MS or offline detection of gel electrophoresis with SRXRF. The imbalances of trace elements related to oxidative stress, e.g. Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase, Cu Zn-superoxide dismutase, Fe-dependent catalase, were also discussed. In another cohort study, Se and Hg species in human serum, urine or hair samples can be elucidated by reverse phase HPLC-ICP-MS, providing new data for interaction between Se and Hg under Hg exposure. The coordination status of Hg can be further obtained by EXAFS study, In conclusion, the information of elemental speciation based on the application of INAA, HPLC-ICP-MS, XRF, and so on would help to understand their biological function, especially in the occurrence and development of certain diseases in vivo.

  7. Digital ELISA for the quantification of attomolar concentrations of Alzheimer's disease biomarker protein Tau in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruiz, Elena; Decrop, Deborah; Ven, Karen; Tripodi, Lisa; Leirs, Karen; Rosseels, Joelle; van de Wouwer, Marlies; Geukens, Nick; De Vos, Ann; Vanmechelen, Eugeen; Winderickx, Joris; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Spasic, Dragana

    2018-07-26

    The close correlation between Tau pathology and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression makes this protein a suitable biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of the disorder evolution. However, the use of Tau in diagnostics has been hampered, as it currently requires collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is an invasive clinical procedure. Although measuring Tau-levels in blood plasma would be favorable, the concentrations are below the detection limit of a conventional ELISA. In this work, we developed a digital ELISA for the quantification of attomolar protein Tau concentrations in both buffer and biological samples. Individual Tau molecules were first captured on the surface of magnetic particles using in-house developed antibodies and subsequently isolated into the femtoliter-sized wells of a 2 × 2 mm 2 microwell array. Combination of high-affinity antibodies, optimal assay conditions and a digital quantification approach resulted in a 24 ± 7 aM limit of detection (LOD) in buffer samples. Additionally, a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude was achieved by combining the digital readout with an analogue approach, allowing quantification from attomolar to picomolar levels of Tau using the same platform. This proves the compatibility of the presented assay with the wide range of Tau concentrations encountered in different biological samples. Next, the developed digital assay was applied to detect total Tau levels in spiked blood plasma. A similar LOD (55 ± 29 aM) was obtained compared to the buffer samples, which was 5000-fold more sensitive than commercially available ELISAs and even outperformed previously reported digital assays with 10-fold increase in sensitivity. Finally, the performance of the developed digital ELISA was assessed by quantifying protein Tau in three clinical CSF samples. Here, a high correlation (i.e. Pearson coefficient of 0.99) was found between the measured percentage of active particles and the reference protein Tau

  8. Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of the Donation and Use of Human Biological Samples for Research: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Patterson

    Full Text Available Human biological samples (biosamples are increasingly important in diagnosing, treating and measuring the prevalence of illnesses. For the gay and bisexual population, biosample research is particularly important for measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. By determining people's understandings of, and attitudes towards, the donation and use of biosamples, researchers can design studies to maximise acceptability and participation. In this study we examine gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 gay and bisexual men aged between 18 and 63 recruited in commercial gay scene venues in two Scottish cities. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using the framework approach. Most men interviewed seemed to have given little prior consideration to the issues. Participants were largely supportive of donating tissue for medical research purposes, and often favourable towards samples being stored, reused and shared. Support was often conditional, with common concerns related to: informed consent; the protection of anonymity and confidentiality; the right to withdraw from research; and ownership of samples. Many participants were in favour of the storage and reuse of samples, but expressed concerns related to data security and potential misuse of samples, particularly by commercial organisations. The sensitivity of tissue collection varied between tissue types and collection contexts. Blood, urine, semen and bowel tissue were commonly identified as sensitive, and donating saliva and as unlikely to cause discomfort. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth study of gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. While most men in this study were supportive of donating tissue for research, some clear areas of concern were identified. We suggest that these minority concerns should be accounted

  9. Determination of captopril in biological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with ThioGlo 3 derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykin, N; Neal, R; Yusof, M; Ercal, N

    2001-11-01

    Captopril, a well-known angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, is widely used for treatment of arterial hypertension. Recent studies suggest that it may also act as a scavenger of free radicals because of its thiol group. Therefore, the present study describes a rapid, sensitive and relatively simple method for the detection of captopril in biological tissues with reverse-phase HPLC. Captopril was first derivatized with ThioGlo 3 [3H-Naphto[2,1-b]pyran,9-acetoxy-2-(4-(2,5-dihydro-2,5-dioxo-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)phenyl-3-oxo-)]. It was then detected by fluorescence-HPLC using an Astec C(18) column as the stationary phase and a water:acetonitrile:acetic acid:phosphoric acid mixture (50:50; 1 mL/L acids) as the mobile phase (excitation wavelength, 365 nm; emission wavelength, 445 nm). The calibration curve for captopril was linear over a range of 10-2500 nM and the coefficient of variation acquired for the within- and between-run precision for captopril was 0.5 and 3.8%, respectively. The detection limit of captopril with this method was found to be 200 fmol/20 microL injection volume. Its relative recovery from biological samples was determined to the range from 93.3 to 105.3%. Based on these results, we believe that our method is advantageous for captopril determination. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A New Technique for Quantitative Determination of Dexamethasone in Pharmaceutical and Biological Samples Using Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Akhoundi-Khalafi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone is a type of steroidal medications that is prescribed in many cases. In this study, a new reaction system using kinetic spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of dexamethasone is proposed. The method is based on the catalytic effect of dexamethasone on the oxidation of Orange G by bromate in acidic media. The change in absorbance as a criterion of the oxidation reaction progress was followed spectrophotometrically. To obtain the maximum sensitivity, the effective reaction variables were optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, calibration graph was linear over the range 0.2–54.0 mg L−1. The calculated detection limit (3sb/m was 0.14 mg L−1 for six replicate determinations of blank signal. The interfering effect of various species was also investigated. The present method was successfully applied for the determination of dexamethasone in pharmaceutical and biological samples satisfactorily.

  11. Recent advances in the determination of tocopherols in biological fluids: from sample pretreatment and liquid chromatography to clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervinkova, Barbora; Krcmova, Lenka Kujovska; Solichova, Dagmar; Melichar, Bohuslav; Solich, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin E comprises eight related compounds: α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocotrienols. In the past, α-tocopherol has been the isomer that was studied most, and its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects have been described. Therefore, many prevention trials have investigated the effect of α-tocopherol on human health. Current research studies have also defined the important roles of other tocopherols, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cancer preventative effects. Knowledge of the individual tocopherols could help to understand their roles in various metabolic pathways. This review summarizes the recent trends in sample pretreatment, liquid chromatography and selected applications of the determination of tocopherols in various biological materials. The relationship between tocopherol isomers and serious diseases is also described. Graphical Abstract Article structure.

  12. A comparative examination of several techniques for the routine determination of mercury in biological samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Das, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative examination of the most important techniques for the separation of mercury from irradiated biological material was made. Procedures for routine analysis and results for standard materials are given. Activation was performed at a thermal neutron flux of approximately 5x10 12 nxcm -2 xs -1 during ( 3 ) 2 offers a convenient solution to this problem. The variation of the neutron flux with the irradiation position can be measured by the application of thin iron rings as flux monitors. Losses of mercury due to uptake in the wall of the irradiation containers are negligible. The most powerful destruction technique for large samples is that based on a stainless-steel bomb. (T. I.)

  13. Recent progress of task-specific ionic liquids in chiral resolution and extraction of biological samples and metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Datong; Cai, Pengfei; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Kong, Yong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2018-01-01

    Ionic liquids have been functionalized for modern applications. The functional ionic liquids are also called task-specific ionic liquids. Various task-specific ionic liquids with certain groups have been constructed and exploited widely in the field of separation. To take advantage of their properties in separation science, task-specific ionic liquids are generally used in techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. This review mainly covers original research papers published in the last five years, and we will focus on task-specific ionic liquids as the chiral selectors in chiral resolution and as extractant or sensor for biological samples and metal ion purification. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Development of a radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure for determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples at ultratrace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Lucanikova, M.; Czech Technical Univ., Prague

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation procedures using liquid-liquid extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from 1M HCl and solid extraction with ALIQUAT 336 incorporated in a polyacrylonitrile binding matrix from 0.1M HCl were developed for accurate determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples at the sub-ng x g -1 level. Concentrations of Re in the range of 0.1 to 2.4 ng x g -1 were determined in several botanical reference materials (RM), while in a RM of road dust a value of ∼ 10 ng x g -1 was found. Significantly elevated values of Re, up to 90 ng x g -1 were found in seaweed (brown algae). Results for Re in the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus in which elevated 99 Tc values had previously been determined suggested possible competition between Re and Tc in the accumulation process. (author)

  15. New Detection Modality for Label-Free Quantification of DNA in Biological Samples via Superparamagnetic Bead Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Daniel C.; Li, Jingyi; Strachan, Briony C.; Begley, Matthew R.; Finkler, David; Bazydlo, Lindsay L.; Barker, N. Scott; Haverstick, Doris; Utz, Marcel; Landers, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Combining DNA and superparamagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field produces multiparticle aggregates that are visually striking, and enables label-free optical detection and quantification of DNA at levels in the picogram per microliter range. DNA in biological samples can be quantified directly by simple analysis of optical images of microfluidic wells placed on a magnetic stirrer without DNA purification. Aggregation results from DNA/bead interactions driven either by the presence of a chaotrope (a nonspecific trigger for aggregation) or by hybridization with oligonucleotides on functionalized beads (sequence-specific). This paper demonstrates quantification of DNA with sensitivity comparable to that of the best currently available fluorometric assays. The robustness and sensitivity of the method enable a wide range of applications, illustrated here by counting eukaryotic cells. Using widely available and inexpensive benchtop hardware, the approach provides a highly accessible low-tech microscale alternative to more expensive DNA detection and cell counting techniques. PMID:22423674

  16. Spectrofluorimetric determination of gallium with N-(3-hydroxy-2-pyridyl) salicrystaldimine and its application to the analysis of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Rojas, F.; Cano Pavon, J.M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Malaga (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The fluorimetric determination of gallium at the nanogram level, based on the formation of a fluorescent complex between Ga(III) and N-(3-hydroxy-2-pyridyl) salicylaldimine (3-OH-PSA), is purposed. With excitation at 397 nm, the chelate has a maximum emission at 498 nm. The reaction is carried out at acidic pH in aqueous-DMF medium (40% v/v DMF). The influence of the reaction variables are discussed. The detection limit is 0.9 ng ml``-1 and the range of application is 1-125 ng ml``-1. The relative error of the methods is + - 1.6%. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of gallium in biological sample. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. A human monocytic NF-κB fluorescent reporter cell line for detection of microbial contaminants in biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Battin

    Full Text Available Sensing of pathogens by innate immune cells is essential for the initiation of appropriate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs, which are highly sensitive for various structurally and evolutionary conserved molecules derived from microbes have a prominent role in this process. TLR engagement results in the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, which induces the expression of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. The exquisite sensitivity of TLR signalling can be exploited for the detection of bacteria and microbial contaminants in tissue cultures and in protein preparations. Here we describe a cellular reporter system for the detection of TLR ligands in biological samples. The well-characterized human monocytic THP-1 cell line was chosen as host for an NF-ᴋB-inducible enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene. We studied the sensitivity of the resultant reporter cells for a variety of microbial components and observed a strong reactivity towards TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 ligands. Mycoplasma lipoproteins are potent TLR2/6 agonists and we demonstrate that our reporter cells can be used as reliable and robust detection system for mycoplasma contaminations in cell cultures. In addition, a TLR4-sensitive subline of our reporters was engineered, and probed with recombinant proteins expressed in different host systems. Bacterially expressed but not mammalian expressed proteins induced strong reporter activity. We also tested proteins expressed in an E. coli strain engineered to lack TLR4 agonists. Such preparations also induced reporter activation in THP-1 cells highlighting the importance of testing recombinant protein preparations for microbial contaminations beyond endotoxins. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of monocytic reporter cells for high-throughput screening for microbial contaminations in diverse biological samples, including tissue culture supernatants and recombinant protein preparations. Fluorescent reporter

  18. Determination of As, Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb in biological samples by modern electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardans, Jordi; Montes, Fernando; Penuelas, Josep

    2010-01-01

    this technique that reaches figures of merit equivalent to Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Herein is presented an overview of recent advances and applications of (ETAAS) for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb in biological samples drawn from studies over the last decade.

  19. Determination of As, Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb in biological samples by modern electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardans, Jordi, E-mail: j.sardans@creaf.uab.ca [Ecophysiological and Global Change Unit CSIC-CREAF, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona (Spain); Montes, Fernando [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/ Senda del Rey 9. 28040 Madrid (Spain); Penuelas, Josep [Ecophysiological and Global Change Unit CSIC-CREAF, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    of this technique that reaches figures of merit equivalent to Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Herein is presented an overview of recent advances and applications of (ETAAS) for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb in biological samples drawn from studies over the last decade.

  20. Determination of mercury species in biological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with solvent extraction and ultrasonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.; Li, Y.F.; Wang, J.X.; Chen, C.Y.; Li, B.; Gao, Y.X.; Chai, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a well-known toxic element. The toxic effects of Hg depend on its chemical forms. The most important chemical forms are elemental Hg (Hg 0 ), inorganic Hg (Hg 2+ ) and methylmercury (CH 3 Hg + ). In the biogeochemical cycle of Hg, these species may interchange in atmospheric, aquatic and terrestrial environments. Among them, methylmercury is considerably higher toxic than elemental mercury and inorganic mercury because it is recognized as one of major health hazards for human due to its teratogenic, immunotoxic, and neurotoxic effects. Therefore, determinations of not only total mercury, but also methylmercury content in biological samples is necessary. In large numbers of analytical methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using conventional sample introduction with a peristaltic pump is widely used for the determination of trace metals in a wide variety of different sample matrices. ICP-MS can offer high sensitivity, low detection limit, reasonable accuracy and precision, and can easily be automated. However, mercury is considered as an element with analytical problems. One problem is well known in Hg analysis that the memory effect increases the blank counts and worsens the analytical performance of ICP-MS. The possibility of Hg losses during sample decomposition procedure due to its volatility is another important issue. Additionally, its high first ionization potential and numerous isotopes have limited its sensitivity in ICP-MS analysis. In order to solve the above questions, the present work was carried out to develop a method based on ICP-MS coupled with solvent extraction for determination of mercury species in biological samples. At first step, we investigated different solvent extraction methods including acid leaching, CuSO 4 extraction, alkaline-methanol extraction, and surfactant extraction with ultrasonication for methylmercury determination using the certified reference materials GBW07601 (Human Hair). Next, we

  1. Towards a system level understanding of non-model organisms sampled from the environment: a network biology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Williams

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition and analysis of datasets including multi-level omics and physiology from non-model species, sampled from field populations, is a formidable challenge, which so far has prevented the application of systems biology approaches. If successful, these could contribute enormously to improving our understanding of how populations of living organisms adapt to environmental stressors relating to, for example, pollution and climate. Here we describe the first application of a network inference approach integrating transcriptional, metabolic and phenotypic information representative of wild populations of the European flounder fish, sampled at seven estuarine locations in northern Europe with different degrees and profiles of chemical contaminants. We identified network modules, whose activity was predictive of environmental exposure and represented a link between molecular and morphometric indices. These sub-networks represented both known and candidate novel adverse outcome pathways representative of several aspects of human liver pathophysiology such as liver hyperplasia, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. At the molecular level these pathways were linked to TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, AGT and VEGF signalling. More generally, this pioneering study has important implications as it can be applied to model molecular mechanisms of compensatory adaptation to a wide range of scenarios in wild populations.

  2. [Patient identification errors and biological samples in the analytical process: Is it possible to improve patient safety?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado-Cenzual, M A; García Briñón, M; de Gracia Hills, Y; González Estecha, M; Collado Yurrita, L; de Pedro Moro, J A; Fernández Pérez, C; Arroyo Fernández, M

    2015-01-01

    Patient identification errors and biological samples are one of the problems with the highest risk factor in causing an adverse event in the patient. To detect and analyse the causes of patient identification errors in analytical requests (PIEAR) from emergency departments, and to develop improvement strategies. A process and protocol was designed, to be followed by all professionals involved in the requesting and performing of laboratory tests. Evaluation and monitoring indicators of PIEAR were determined, before and after the implementation of these improvement measures (years 2010-2014). A total of 316 PIEAR were detected in a total of 483,254 emergency service requests during the study period, representing a mean of 6.80/10,000 requests. Patient identification failure was the most frequent in all the 6-monthly periods assessed, with a significant difference (Perrors. However, we must continue working with this strategy, promoting a culture of safety for all the professionals involved, and trying to achieve the goal that 100% of the analytical and samples are properly identified. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards a system level understanding of non-model organisms sampled from the environment: a network biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tim D; Turan, Nil; Diab, Amer M; Wu, Huifeng; Mackenzie, Carolynn; Bartie, Katie L; Hrydziuszko, Olga; Lyons, Brett P; Stentiford, Grant D; Herbert, John M; Abraham, Joseph K; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Leaver, Michael J; Taggart, John B; George, Stephen G; Viant, Mark R; Chipman, Kevin J; Falciani, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    The acquisition and analysis of datasets including multi-level omics and physiology from non-model species, sampled from field populations, is a formidable challenge, which so far has prevented the application of systems biology approaches. If successful, these could contribute enormously to improving our understanding of how populations of living organisms adapt to environmental stressors relating to, for example, pollution and climate. Here we describe the first application of a network inference approach integrating transcriptional, metabolic and phenotypic information representative of wild populations of the European flounder fish, sampled at seven estuarine locations in northern Europe with different degrees and profiles of chemical contaminants. We identified network modules, whose activity was predictive of environmental exposure and represented a link between molecular and morphometric indices. These sub-networks represented both known and candidate novel adverse outcome pathways representative of several aspects of human liver pathophysiology such as liver hyperplasia, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. At the molecular level these pathways were linked to TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, AGT and VEGF signalling. More generally, this pioneering study has important implications as it can be applied to model molecular mechanisms of compensatory adaptation to a wide range of scenarios in wild populations.

  4. Highly selective ionic liquid-based microextraction method for sensitive trace cobalt determination in environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berton, Paula; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2010-01-01

    A simple and rapid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure based on an ionic liquid (IL-DLLME) was developed for selective determination of cobalt (Co) with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) detection. Cobalt was initially complexed with 1-nitroso-2-naphtol (1N2N) reagent at pH 4.0. The IL-DLLME procedure was then performed by using a few microliters of the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C 6 mim][PF 6 ] as extractant while methanol was the dispersant solvent. After microextraction procedure, the Co-enriched RTIL phase was solubilized in methanol and directly injected into the graphite furnace. The effect of several variables on Co-1N2N complex formation, extraction with the dispersed RTIL phase, and analyte detection with ETAAS, was carefully studied in this work. An enrichment factor of 120 was obtained with only 6 mL of sample solution and under optimal experimental conditions. The resultant limit of detection (LOD) was 3.8 ng L -1 , while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.4% (at 1 μg L -1 Co level and n = 10), calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals. The accuracy of the proposed methodology was tested by analysis of a certified reference material. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Co in environmental and biological samples.

  5. Application of slurry nebulization to trace elemental analysis of some biological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, T.; Sakashita, A.; Iwata, H.; Ishibashi, Y.; Gunji, N.

    1991-01-01

    The application of slurry nebulization/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to trace elemental analysis of biological samples has been investigated. Three standard samples of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were dispersed in 1% aqueous Triton X-100 solution by grinding with a planetary micronizing mill. The resulting slurries were nebulized into an ICP without any additional treatments. The 1% (m/v) slurry of the NIST bovine liver showed no significant influence on cone blockage and signal suppression/enhancement. Detection limit, precision and accuracy were discussed for the determination of 24 elements of interest in bovine liver, rice flour and pine needles. Detection limits ranged from 0.0001 μg g -1 for U to 0.52 μg g -1 for Zn at the effective integrating time of 10 s. For high mass elements, low blank values were obtained, yielding excellent limits ( -1 ). Acceptable accuracy and precision were obtained for most of the elements in the NIST bovine liver and rice flour, even for the volatile elements, such as As, Se and Br. However, relatively poor accuracy was obtained for the analysis of pine needles. (orig.)

  6. Recoil Reactions in Neutron-Activation Analysis. The Szilard-Chalmers Effect Applied in the Analysis of Biological Samples; II. Transfer of Activities from Container Material to Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D

    1965-01-15

    The present investigation consists of two parts. The one part concerns the application of the Szilard-Chalmers effect in the separation of activities from neutron-irradiated biological material. The nuclides As-76, Au-198, Br-82, Ca-47, Cd-115, Cl-38, Co-60, Cr-51, Cs-134, Cu-64, Fe-59, Mg-27, Mo-99, Na-24, P-32, Rb-86, Se-75 and Zn-65 were extracted from either liver tissue, whole blood or muscle tissue. The extractions were made in water, 0.1 N HCl, 1 N HCl or conc. HCl respectively. The nuclides belonging to the alkali metals together with Br and Cl, were found present in the water and hydrochloric extracts to 96 per cent or more. In the conc. HCl extracts, the greater part of the nuclides were recovered to 90 per cent or more. The enrichment of the different nuclides obtained in the Szilard-Chalmers process was investigated as follows. After extraction of the nuclides from the irradiated material the solution obtained was divided into two parts, one of which was reactivated. The specific activities of the nuclides in the two solutions were then compared, thus giving the enrichment factor In one case, the residue of organic material after extraction was reactivated and the activity compared to the initial one. The effect of dilution together with the application of short irradiation periods favouring higher yield was investigated in the separation of Fe-59 from whole blood samples irradiated in frozen conditions. The other part of the investigation concerns an estimation of the amounts of the activities originating from polyethylene and quartz containers transferred to container surface due to the recoil effect in the thermal neutron-capture process, thus causing contamination of the sample. The universal range-energy relationship given by Lindhard and Scharff has been applied in these calculations. As regards containers with impurities in the ppm region, the amounts of activities transferred owing to this effect were found to be quite negligible. However, when

  7. Chemical Data for Rock, Sediment, Biological, Precipitate, and Water Samples from Abandoned Copper Mines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.; Munk, LeeAnn

    2007-01-01

    In the early 20th century, approximately 6 million metric tons of copper ore were mined from numerous deposits located along the shorelines of fjords and islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. At the Beatson, Ellamar, and Threeman mine sites (fig. 1), rocks containing Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb sulfide minerals are exposed to chemical weathering in abandoned mine workings and remnant waste piles that extend into the littoral zone. Field investigations in 2003 and 2005 as well as analytical data for rock, sediment, precipitate, water, and biological samples reveal that the oxidation of sulfides at these sites is resulting in the generation of acid mine drainage and the transport of metals into the marine environment (Koski and others, 2008; Stillings and others, 2008). At the Ellamar and Threeman sites, plumes of acidic and metal-enriched water are flowing through beach gravels into the shallow offshore environment. Interstitial water samples collected from beach sediment at Ellamar have low pH levels (to ~3) and high concentrations of metals including iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, and mercury. The abundant precipitation of the iron sulfate mineral jarosite in the Ellamar gravels also signifies a low-pH environment. At the Beatson mine site (the largest copper mine in the region) seeps containing iron-rich microbial precipitates drain into the intertidal zone below mine dumps (Foster and others, 2008). A stream flowing down to the shoreline from underground mine workings at Beatson has near-neutral pH, but elevated levels of zinc, copper, and lead (Stillings and others, 2008). Offshore sediment samples at Beatson are enriched in these metals. Preliminary chemical data for tissue from marine mussels collected near the Ellamar, Threeman, and Beatson sites reveal elevated levels of copper, zinc, and lead compared to tissue in mussels from other locations in Prince William Sound (Koski and others, 2008). Three papers presenting results of this ongoing investigation of

  8. The IAEA worldwide intercomparison exercises (1990-1997). Determination of trace elements in marine sediments and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquery, M.; Carvalho, F.P.; Azemard, S.; Horvat, M.

    1999-01-01

    Four major worldwide intercomparison exercises for the determination of trace elements in various environmental matrices were completed by the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory since 1990: SD-M-2/TM, deep sea marine sediment; IAEA-350, tuna fish homogenate; IAEA-356, contaminated coastal sediment and IAEA-140, sea plant (Fucus sp.). These intercomparison exercises aim at enabling individual laboratories to monitor their performance. The results of these exercises allowed us to make an overall evaluation of the quality of data provided for environmental assessment and to identify the trends of analytical performance in the determination of trace elements over the years. The number of participants in each exercise varied between 68 and 130, and permits statistical evaluation of the performance for a number of elements. For each intercomparison exercise, the performance of the participant laboratories was assessed by comparing reported results with established reference values calculating 'Z-scores'. The results show that for each sample matrix, the values reported by some laboratories were far from satisfactory in the earlier exercises, in particular for Cd, Cr and Pb. Nevertheless, over time, a general improvement of performance can clearly be seen for all elements. Moreover, there was a noticeable increase in the number of laboratories with good performance in the two most recent exercises, observed both for biological and for sediment matrices. However, the determination of trace elements such as Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg in low level environmental samples still remains a major challenge to the analysts. For this reason and in order to assess the current performance of laboratories for low environmental levels of contaminants, the future intercomparison exercises will concentrate on low level sediment and fish samples

  9. Critical assessment of the performance of electronic moisture analyzers for small amounts of environmental samples and biological reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachler, M

    2001-12-01

    Two electronic moisture analyzers were critically evaluated with regard to their suitability for determining moisture in small amounts (environmental matrices such as leaves, needles, soil, peat, sediments, and sewage sludge, as well as various biological reference materials. To this end, several homogeneous bulk materials were prepared which were subsequently employed for the development and optimization of all analytical procedures. The key features of the moisture analyzers included a halogen or ceramic heater and an integrated balance with a resolution of 0.1 mg, which is an essential prerequisite for obtaining precise results. Oven drying of the bulk materials in a conventional oven at 105 degrees C until constant mass served as reference method. A heating temperature of 65degrees C was found to provide accurate and precise results for almost all matrices investigated. To further improve the accuracy and precision, other critical parameters such as handling of sample pans, standby temperature, and measurement delay were optimized. Because of its ponderous heating behavior, the performance of the ceramic radiator was inferior to that of the halogen heater, which produced moisture results comparable to those obtained by oven drying. The developed drying procedures were successfully applied to the fast moisture analysis (1.4-6.3 min) of certified biological reference materials of similar provenance to the investigated the bulk materials. Moisture results for 200 mg aliquots ranged from 1.4 to 7.8% and good agreement was obtained between the recommended drying procedure for the reference materials and the electronic moisture analyzers with absolute uncertainties amounting to 0.1% and 0.2-0.3%, respectively.

  10. Mercury in Environmental and Biological Samples Using Online Combustion with Sequential Atomic Absorption and Fluorescence Measurements: A Direct Comparison of Two Fundamental Techniques in Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizdziel, James V.

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students quantitatively determine the concentration of an element (mercury) in an environmental or biological sample while comparing and contrasting the fundamental techniques of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). A mercury analyzer based on sample combustion,…

  11. Preliminary biological sampling of GT3 and BT1 cores and the microbial community dynamics of existing subsurface wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. A.; Stamps, B. W.; Rempfert, K. R.; Ellison, E. T.; Nothaft, D. B.; Boyd, E. S.; Templeton, A. S.; Spear, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface microbial life is poorly understood but potentially very important to the search for life on other planets as well as increasing our understanding of Earth's geobiological processes. Fluids and rocks of actively serpentinizing subsurface environments are a recent target of biological study due to their apparent ubiquity across the solar system. Areas of serpentinization can contain high concentrations of molecular hydrogen, H2, that can serve as the dominant fuel source for subsurface microbiota. Working with the Oman Drilling Project, DNA and RNA were extracted from fluids of seven alkaline wells and two rock cores from drill sites GT3 and BT1 within the Samail ophiolite. DNA and cDNA (produced via reverse transcription from the recovered RNA) were sequenced using universal primers to identify microbial life across all three domains. Alkaline subsurface fluids support a microbial community that changes with pH and host-rock type. In peridotite with pH values of >11, wells NSHQ 14 and WAB 71 have high relative abundances of Meiothermus, Methanobacterium, the family Nitrospiraceae, and multiple types of the class Dehalococcoidia. While also hosted in peridotite but at pH 8.5, wells WAB 104 and 105 have a distinct, more diverse microbial community. This increased variance in community make-up is seen in wells that sit near/at the contact of gabbro and peridotite formations as well. Core results indicate both sampled rock types host a very low biomass environment subject to multiple sources of contamination during the drilling process. Suggestions for contaminant reduction, such as having core handlers wear nitrile gloves and flame-sterilizing the outer surfaces of core rounds for biological sampling, would have minimal impact to overall ODP coreflow and maximize the ability to better understand in situ microbiota in this low-biomass serpentinizing subsurface environment. While DNA extraction was successful with gram amounts of crushed rock, much can be

  12. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    Full Text Available Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8% had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005, lower age (p < 0.001, attending a local derby (p < 0.001, alcohol use prior to having entered the arena (p < 0.001, attending a weekend match (p < 0.001, and being a spectator at supporter sections (p < 0.001. About half of all spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.

  14. The analytical calibration in (bio)imaging/mapping of the metallic elements in biological samples--definitions, nomenclature and strategies: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurowski, Kamil; Buszewski, Bogusław; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, studies related to the distribution of metallic elements in biological samples are one of the most important issues. There are many articles dedicated to specific analytical atomic spectrometry techniques used for mapping/(bio)imaging the metallic elements in various kinds of biological samples. However, in such literature, there is a lack of articles dedicated to reviewing calibration strategies, and their problems, nomenclature, definitions, ways and methods used to obtain quantitative distribution maps. The aim of this article was to characterize the analytical calibration in the (bio)imaging/mapping of the metallic elements in biological samples including (1) nomenclature; (2) definitions, and (3) selected and sophisticated, examples of calibration strategies with analytical calibration procedures applied in the different analytical methods currently used to study an element's distribution in biological samples/materials such as LA ICP-MS, SIMS, EDS, XRF and others. The main emphasis was placed on the procedures and methodology of the analytical calibration strategy. Additionally, the aim of this work is to systematize the nomenclature for the calibration terms: analytical calibration, analytical calibration method, analytical calibration procedure and analytical calibration strategy. The authors also want to popularize the division of calibration methods that are different than those hitherto used. This article is the first work in literature that refers to and emphasizes many different and complex aspects of analytical calibration problems in studies related to (bio)imaging/mapping metallic elements in different kinds of biological samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of inorganic elements in biological samples of C57BL/6J mouse strain using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Kovacs, Luciana, E-mail: metairon@usp.br, E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br, E-mail: mfsuzuki@ipen.br, E-mail: lukovacs@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno Junior, Carlos R., E-mail: carmao11@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IB/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Centro de Estudos do Genoma Humano

    2013-07-01

    The research for new medicine, vaccines and other products of interest in health area, for any disease, requires several in vivo tests using animal models on experiments for clinical analysis of actions in organism, focusing on the relation between these and the responses or reactions to their use, allowing or not their use in human being. The present investigation deals with the determination of elements concentration (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na) of clinical relevance in kidney and liver of C57BL/6J mice strain using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Particularly, the C57BL/6J strain is one of the most widely used mice genetically modified for human disease studies. The biological samples were collected from 2 month old adult mice bred in the Biotherium (animal breeding) of UNIFESP (Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and at Human Genome Research Center (University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and Biotechnology Center (IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brasil). The measurements were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN. These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time, by knowing the basal reference values in blood and organs of this strain. Additionally, this analytical procedure meets the needs of the world tendency that emphasizes the requirements to propose alternative methods for clinical research that contribute to animal welfare. (author)

  16. The application of near-infrared spectra micro-image in the imaging analysis of biology samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, suitable imaging methods were used for acquiring single compound images of biology samples of chicken pectorales tissue section, tobacco dry leaf, fresh leaf and plant glandular hair, respectively. The adverse effects caused by the high water content and the thermal effect of near infrared (NIR light were effectively solved during the experiment procedures and the data processing. PCA algorithm was applied to the NIR micro-image of chicken pectorales tissue. Comparing the loading vector of PC3 with the NIR spectrum of dry albumen, the information of PC3 was confirmed to be provided mainly by protein, i.e., the 3rd score image represents the distribution trend of protein mainly. PCA algorithm was applied to the NIR micro-image of tobacco dry leaf. The information of PC2 was confirmed to be provided by carbohydrate including starch mainly. Compared to the 2nd score image of tobacco dry leaf, the compared correlation image with the reference spectrum of starch had the same distribution trend as the 2nd score image. The comparative correlation images with the reference spectra of protein, glucose, fructose and the total plant alkaloid were acquired to confirm the distribution trend of these compounds in tobacco dry leaf respectively. Comparative correlation images of fresh leaf with the reference spectra of protein, starch, fructose, glucose and water were acquired to confirm the distribution trend of these compounds in fresh leaf. Chemimap imaging of plant glandular hair was acquired to show the tubular structure clearly.

  17. Analysis of inorganic elements in biological samples of C57BL/6J mouse strain using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Kovacs, Luciana; Bueno Junior, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    The research for new medicine, vaccines and other products of interest in health area, for any disease, requires several in vivo tests using animal models on experiments for clinical analysis of actions in organism, focusing on the relation between these and the responses or reactions to their use, allowing or not their use in human being. The present investigation deals with the determination of elements concentration (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na) of clinical relevance in kidney and liver of C57BL/6J mice strain using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Particularly, the C57BL/6J strain is one of the most widely used mice genetically modified for human disease studies. The biological samples were collected from 2 month old adult mice bred in the Biotherium (animal breeding) of UNIFESP (Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and at Human Genome Research Center (University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and Biotechnology Center (IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brasil). The measurements were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN. These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time, by knowing the basal reference values in blood and organs of this strain. Additionally, this analytical procedure meets the needs of the world tendency that emphasizes the requirements to propose alternative methods for clinical research that contribute to animal welfare. (author)

  18. An introduction to the technique of combined ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry for the analysis of complex biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowall, Mark A.; Bateman, Robert H.; Bajic, Steve; Giles, Kevin; Langridge, Jim; McKenna, Therese; Pringle, Steven D.; Wildgoose, Jason L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text: Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) offers several advantages compared with conventional High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) as an 'inlet system' for mass spectrometry. UPLC provides improved chromatographic resolution, increased sensitivity and reduced analysis time. This is achieved through the use of sub 2μm particles (stationary phase) combined with high-pressure solvent delivery (up to 15,000 psi). When coupled with orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (oa-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), UPLC presents a means to achieve high sample throughput with reduced spectral overlap, increased sensitivity, and exact mass measurement capabilities with high mass spectral resolution (Ca 20,000 FWHM). Dispersive ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) implemented within a traveling-wave ion guide provides an orthogonal separation strategy for ions in the gas phase that can resolve isobaric ions formed by either Electrospray of MALDI ionization typically in Ca 20 mille seconds. All three techniques have the potential to be combined on-line (e.g. UPLC-IMS-MS/MS) in real time to maximize peak capacity and resolving power for the analysis of complex biological mixtures including; intact proteins, modified peptides and endogenous/exogenous metabolites

  19. Evolution in the design of a low sheath-flow interface for CE-MS and application to biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruiz, Víctor; Codesido, Santiago; Rudaz, Serge; Schappler, Julie

    2018-03-01

    Although several interfaces for CE-MS hyphenation are commercially available, the development of new versatile, simple and yet efficient and sensitive alternatives remains an important field of research. In a previous work, a simple low sheath-flow interface was developed from inexpensive parts. This interface features a design easy to build, maintain, and adapt to particular needs. The present work introduces an improved design of the previous interface. By reducing the diameter of the separation capillary and the emitter, a smaller Taylor cone is spontaneously formed, minimizing the zone dispersion while the analytes go through the interface and leading to less peak broadening associated to the ESI process. Numerical modeling allowed studying the mixing and diffusion processes taking place in the Taylor cone. The analytical performance of this new interface was tested with pharmaceutically relevant molecules and endogenous metabolites. The interface was eventually applied to the analysis of neural cell culture samples, allowing the identification of a panel of neurotransmission-related molecules. An excellent migration time repeatability was obtained (intra-day RSD 10 with an injected volume of 6.7 nL of biological extract. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Inalienably Yours? The new case for an inalienable property right in human biological material: Empowerment of sample donors or a recipe for a tragic Anti-Commons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper A. Bovenberg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern biomedical research into the genetic component of common diseases calls for broad access to existing and novel collections of samples of human biological material, aka Biobanks. Groups of donors of these samples, however, increasingly claim a property right in their samples. They perceive the recognition of a personal property right in their biological material as the best means to serve two goals: to secure ongoing control over their samples after donation and to underpin their claim for a share in the proceeds that the research on their samples may yield. Given the objective of ensuring ongoing control, this property right is claimed to be inalienable. Recognition of a personal property right in one’s biological material is problematic, especially where the requirement of inalienability seems at odds with the claim for a share of the profits. Yet, property rights in human biological material may be justified in a certain context, e.g. to enable subsets of patients to negotiate the terms and conditions of the research into their specific disorders. Biobanks, however, contain so many samples, which can be used for so many research purposes, that the unrestricted exercise of personal property rights by the sample donors will lead to a proliferation of rights. This proliferation is likely to deter or slow down both the creation of de novo Biobanks and the use of existing sample collections. Thus, recognising inalienable property rights in human biological material may lead to suboptimal use of these resources and create a classic ‘anticommons property’ scenario. It would also undermine the current trend to simplify existing informed consent requirements which aims to facilitate broad and previously unanticipated research on de novo and existing Biobanks. In addition, the tradition of altruistic participation in research and the notion that large-scale collections of human biological material are global public goods are arguments against

  1. Three-dimensional temperature fields of the North Patagonian Sea recorded by Magellanic penguins as biological sampling platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Juan E.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a primary determinant of biogeographic patterns and ecosystem processes. Standard techniques to study the ocean temperature in situ are, however, particularly limited by their time and spatial coverage, problems which might be partially mitigated by using marine top predators as biological platforms for oceanographic sampling. We used small archival tags deployed on 33 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), and obtained 21,070 geo-localized profiles of water temperature, during late spring of 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013; in a region of the North Patagonian Sea with limited oceanographic records in situ. We compared our in situ data of sea surface temperature (SST) with those available from satellite remote sensing; to describe the three-dimensional temperature fields around the area of influence of two important tidal frontal systems; and to study the inter-annual variation in the three-dimensional temperature fields. There was a strong positive relationship between satellite- and animal-derived SST data although there was an overestimation by remote-sensing by a maximum difference of +2 °C. Little inter-annual variability in the 3-dimensional temperature fields was found, with the exception of 2012 (and to a lesser extent in 2013) where the SST was significantly higher. In 2013, we found weak stratification in a region which was unexpected. In addition, during the same year, a warm small-scale vortex is indicated by the animal-derived temperature data. This allowed us to describe and better understand the dynamics of the water masses, which, so far, have been mainly studied by remote sensors and numerical models. Our results highlight again the potential of using marine top predators as biological platforms to collect oceanographic data, which will enhance and accelerate studies on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In a changing world, threatened by climate change, it is urgent to fill information gaps on the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  2. Matrix effects break the LC behavior rule for analytes in LC-MS/MS analysis of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Nianbai; Yu, Shanggong; Ronis, Martin Jj; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-04-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are generally accepted as the preferred techniques for detecting and quantitating analytes of interest in biological matrices on the basis of the rule that one chemical compound yields one LC-peak with reliable retention time (Rt.). However, in the current study, we have found that under the same LC-MS conditions, the Rt. and shape of LC-peaks of bile acids in urine samples from animals fed dissimilar diets differed significantly among each other. To verify this matrix effect, 17 authentic bile acid standards were dissolved in pure methanol or in methanol containing extracts of urine from pigs consuming either breast milk or infant formula and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The matrix components in urine from piglets fed formula significantly reduced the LC-peak Rt. and areas of bile acids. This is the first characterization of this matrix effect on Rt. in the literature. Moreover, the matrix effect resulted in an unexpected LC behavior: one single compound yielded two LC-peaks, which broke the rule of one LC-peak for one compound. The three bile acid standards which exhibited this unconventional LC behavior were chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and glycocholic acid. One possible explanation for this effect is that some matrix components may have loosely bonded to analytes, which changed the time analytes were retained on a chromatography column and interfered with the ionization of analytes in the MS ion source to alter the peak area. This study indicates that a comprehensive understanding of matrix effects is needed towards improving the use of HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of analytes in pharmacokinetics, proteomics/metabolomics, drug development, and sports drug testing, especially when LC-MS/MS data are analyzed by automation software where identification of an analyte is based on its exact molecular weight and Rt

  3. FACE Analysis as a Fast and Reliable Methodology to Monitor the Sulfation and Total Amount of Chondroitin Sulfate in Biological Samples of Clinical Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Karousou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs due to their hydrophilic character and high anionic charge densities play important roles in various (pathophysiological processes. The identification and quantification of GAGs in biological samples and tissues could be useful prognostic and diagnostic tools in pathological conditions. Despite the noteworthy progress in the development of sensitive and accurate methodologies for the determination of GAGs, there is a significant lack in methodologies regarding sample preparation and reliable fast analysis methods enabling the simultaneous analysis of several biological samples. In this report, developed protocols for the isolation of GAGs in biological samples were applied to analyze various sulfated chondroitin sulfate- and hyaluronan-derived disaccharides using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE. Applications to biologic samples of clinical importance include blood serum, lens capsule tissue and urine. The sample preparation protocol followed by FACE analysis allows quantification with an optimal linearity over the concentration range 1.0–220.0 µg/mL, affording a limit of quantitation of 50 ng of disaccharides. Validation of FACE results was performed by capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography techniques.

  4. Use of oxidative and reducing vapor generation for reducing the detection limits of iodine in biological samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtorushina, Eh.A.; Saprykin, A.I.; Knapp, G.

    2009-01-01

    Procedures of microwave combustion in an oxygen flow and microwave acid decomposition of biological samples were optimized for the subsequent determination of iodine. A new method was proposed for the generation of molecular iodine from periodate iona using hydrogen peroxide as a reductant. Procedures were developed for determining iodine in biological samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using oxidative and reducing vapor generation; these allowed the detection limit for iodine to be lowered by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The developed procedures were used to analyze certified reference materials of milk (Skim Milk Powder BCR 150) and seaweed (Sea Lettuce BCR 279) and a Supradyn vitamin complex

  5. Tripodal chelating ligand-based sensor for selective determination of Zn(II) in biological and environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Singh, Ashok; Mehtab, Sameena; Singh, Udai P.; Aggarwal, Vaibhave [Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Department of Chemistry, Roorkee (India)

    2007-08-15

    Potassium hydrotris(N-tert-butyl-2-thioimidazolyl)borate [KTt{sup t-Bu}] and potassium hydrotris(3-tert-butyl-5-isopropyl-l-pyrazolyl)borate [KTp{sup t-Bu,i-Pr}] have been synthesized and evaluated as ionophores for preparation of a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane sensor for Zn(II) ions. The effect of different plasticizers, viz. benzyl acetate (BA), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), and o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE), and the anion excluders sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB), potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl)borate (KTpClPB), and oleic acid (OA) were studied to improve the performance of the membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained from a sensor with a of [KTt{sup t-Bu}] membrane of composition (mg): [KTt{sup t-Bu}] (15), PVC (150), DBP (275), and NaTPB (4). This sensor had a Nernstian response (slope, 29.4 {+-} 0.2 mV decade of activity) for Zn{sup 2+} ions over a wide concentration range (1.4 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1}) with a limit of detection of 9.5 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}. It had a relatively fast response time (12 s) and could be used for 3 months without substantial change of the potential. The membrane sensor had very good selectivity for Zn{sup 2+} ions over a wide variety of other cations and could be used in a working pH range of 3.5-7.8. The sensor was also found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media and could be successfully used for estimation of zinc at trace levels in biological and environmental samples. (orig.)

  6. Field-based detection of biological samples for forensic analysis: Established techniques, novel tools, and future innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jack; Watts, Giles; Hobbs, Glyn; Dawnay, Nick

    2018-04-01

    Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user. In doing so it is now possible for enforcement officers to generate a crime scene DNA profile which can then be matched to a reference or database profile. The introduction of these novel genetic platforms also allows for further development of new molecular assays aimed at answering the more traditional questions relating to body fluid identity and species detection. The current drive for field-based molecular tools is in response to the needs of the criminal justice system and enforcement agencies, and promises a step-change in how forensic evidence is processed. However, the adoption of such systems by the law enforcement community does not represent a new strategy in the way forensic science has integrated previous novel approaches. Nor do they automatically represent a threat to the quality control and assurance practices that are central to the field. This review examines the historical need and subsequent research and developmental breakthroughs in field-based forensic analysis over the past two decades with particular focus on genetic methods Emerging technologies from a range of scientific fields that have potential applications in forensic analysis at the crime scene are identified and associated issues that arise from the shift from laboratory into operational field use are discussed

  7. Scanning transmission ion microscopy mass measurements for quantitative trace element analysis within biological samples and validation using atomic force microscopy thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deves, Guillaume [Laboratoire de chimie nucleaire analytique et bioenvironnementale, UMR 5084, CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux 1, BP 120 Chemin du solarium, F33175 Gradignan cedex (France)]. E-mail: deves@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Cohen-Bouhacina, Touria [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, F33405 Talence cedex (France); Ortega, Richard [Laboratoire de chimie nucleaire analytique et bioenvironnementale, UMR 5084, CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux 1, BP 120 Chemin du solarium, F33175 Gradignan cedex (France)

    2004-10-08

    We used the nuclear microprobe techniques, micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission), micro-RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) in order to perform the characterization of trace element content and spatial distribution within biological samples (dehydrated cultured cells, tissues). The normalization of PIXE results was usually expressed in terms of sample dry mass as determined by micro-RBS recorded simultaneously to micro-PIXE. However, the main limit of RBS mass measurement is the sample mass loss occurring during irradiation and which could be up to 30% of the initial sample mass. We present here a new methodology for PIXE normalization and quantitative analysis of trace element within biological samples based on dry mass measurement performed by mean of STIM. The validation of STIM cell mass measurements was obtained in comparison with AFM sample thickness measurements. Results indicated the reliability of STIM mass measurement performed on biological samples and suggested that STIM should be performed for PIXE normalization. Further information deriving from direct confrontation of AFM and STIM analysis could as well be obtained, like in situ measurements of cell specific gravity within cells compartment (nucleolus and cytoplasm)

  8. Applying a low energy HPGe detector gamma ray spectrometric technique for the evaluation of Pu/Am ratio in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, I S; Mishra, Lokpati; Yadav, J R; Nadar, M Y; Rao, D D; Pradeepkumar, K S

    2015-10-01

    The estimation of Pu/(241)Am ratio in the biological samples is an important input for the assessment of internal dose received by the workers. The radiochemical separation of Pu isotopes and (241)Am in a sample followed by alpha spectrometry is a widely used technique for the determination of Pu/(241)Am ratio. However, this method is time consuming and many times quick estimation is required. In this work, Pu/(241)Am ratio in the biological sample was estimated with HPGe detector based measurements using gamma/X-rays emitted by these radionuclides. These results were compared with those obtained from alpha spectroscopy of sample after radiochemical analysis and found to be in good agreement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Grey’s Anatomy effect: television portrayal of patients with trauma may cultivate unrealistic patient and family expectations after injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrone, Rosemarie O; Weinberg, Jordan A; Goslar, Pamela W; Wilkinson, Erin P; Thompson, Terrell M; Dameworth, Jonathan L; Dempsey, Shawna R; Petersen, Scott R

    2018-01-01

    Background Expectations of the healthcare experience may be influenced by television dramas set in the hospital workplace. It is our perception that the fictional television portrayal of hospitalization after injury in such dramas is misrepresentative. The purpose of this study was to compare trauma outcomes on television dramas versus reality. Methods We screened 269 episodes of Grey’s Anatomy, a popular medical drama. A television (TV) registry was constructed by collecting data for each fictional trauma portrayed in the television series. Comparison data for a genuine patient cohort were obtained from the 2012 National Trauma Databank (NTDB) National Program Sample. Results 290 patients composed of the TV registry versus 4812 patients from NTDB. Mortality was higher on TV (22% vs 7%, P<0.0001). Most TV patients went straight from emergency department (ED) to operating room (OR) (71% vs 25%, P<0.0001). Among TV survivors, a relative minority were transferred to long-term care (6% vs 22%, P<0.0001). For severely injured (Injury Severity Score ≥25) survivors, hospital length of stay was less than 1 week for 50% of TV patients versus 20% in NTDB (P<0.0001). Conclusions Trauma patients as depicted on television dramas typically go from ED to OR, and survivors usually return home. Television portrayal of rapid functional recovery after major injury may cultivate false expectations among patients and their families. Level of evidence Level III. PMID:29766127

  10. The use of double laser pulses for the atomic-emission spectral estimation of uranium content in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patapovich, M.P.; Umreiko, D.S.; Zajogin, A.P.; Buloichik, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at the development of the techniques for estimation of the uranium content in biological objects (hair) using the atomic-emission laser analysis with a sufficient accuracy and high processing rate. (authors)

  11. Solid-phase extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the sensitive determination of ecstasy compounds and amphetamines in biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Mashayekhi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for the determination of ecstasy and amphetamines (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA and 3,4-methylenedioxypropylamphetamine (MDPA in biological samples is presented. The analytes were extracted from the matrix and transferred to a small volume of a high density, water insoluble solvent using solid-phase extraction (SPE followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME. This combination not only resulted in a high enrichment factor, but also it could be used in complex matrices (biological samples. Some important extraction parameters, such as sample solution flow rate, sample pH, type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents as well as the salt addition, were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graphs were linear in the range of 0.5-500 µg L-1 and 1.0-500 µg L-1 with detection limits in the range of 0.1-0.3 µg L-1 and 0.2-0.7 µg L-1 in urine and plasma samples, respectively. The results showed that SPE-DLLME is a suitable method for the determination of ecstasy components and amphetamines in biological and water samples. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i3.3

  12. Determination of beta-radiation in 14C-labelled biological samples by 2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehl, B.; Neumann, R.; Beger, J.

    1991-01-01

    2,5-Diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PPD) has been investigated for its suitability as a primary szintillator. This compound can be used together with the secondary szintillator POPOP in toluene solution for the measurement of low-energetic β-radiation in biological samples marked by 14 C. A convenient approach to laboratory syntheses is presented. (orig.) [de

  13. Biological validation of a sample preparation method for ER-CALUX bioanalysis of estrogenic activity in sediments using mixtures of xeno-estrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Houten, Y.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Brouwer, A.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.

    2006-01-01

    The combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of environmental pollutants in the in vitro ER-CALUX (chemical activated luciferase gene expression) bioassay were examined to biologically validate a sample preparation method for the analysis of estrogenic compounds in sediment. The method used

  14. Screening and identification of antioxidants in biological samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and its application on Salacca edulis Reinw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Guanghou; Leong, Lai Peng

    2005-02-23

    In this study, a new approach was developed for screening and identifying antioxidants in biological samples. The approach was based on significant decreases of the intensities of ion peaks obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) upon reaction with 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals. HPLC-MS/MS was further applied to elucidate structures of antioxidant peaks characterized in a spiking test. The new approach could also be used to monitor the reactivity of antioxidants in biological sample with free radicals. The approach was successfully applied to the identification of antioxidants in salak (Salacca edulis Reinw), a tropical fruit that is reported to be a very good source of natural antioxidants, but it was still not clear which compounds were responsible for its antioxidant property. The antioxidants in salak were identified to be chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin, and singly linked proanthocyanidins that mainly existed as dimers through hexamers of catechin or epicatechin. In salak, chlorogenic acid was identified to be an antioxidant of the slow reaction type as it reacted with free radicals much more slowly than either (-)-epicatechin or proanthocyanidins. The new approach was proved to be useful for the characterization and identification of antioxidants in biological samples as a mass detector combined with an HPLC separation system not only serves as an ideal tool to monitor free radical active components but also provides their possible chemical structures in a biological sample.

  15. Experiences performed at the C:R: Saluggia of ENEA in low-level determination of plutonium in biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spezzano, Pasquale

    1997-10-01

    This report describes some experiences performed at the Research Center Saluggia of ENEA concerning low-level determination of plutonium in biological and environmental samples, with discussions of practical analytical problems. The main characteristics and properties of plutonium with emphasis to aqueous solutions chemistry and environmental behaviour are also reported

  16. Assessment of beta-emitter radionuclides in biological samples using liquid scintillation counting. Application to the study of internal doses in molecular and cellular biology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, I.; Delgado, A.; Navarro, T.; Macias, M. T.

    2007-01-01

    The radioisotopic techniques used in Molecular and Cellular Biology involve external and internal irradiation risk. It is necessary to control the possible internal contamination associated to the development of these techniques. The internal contamination risk can be due to physical and chemical properties of the labelled compounds, aerosols generated during the performance technique. The aim of this work was to estimate the possible intake of specific beta emitters during the technique development and to propose the required criterions to perform Individual Monitoring. The most representative radioisotopic techniques were selected attending their potential risk of internal contamination. Techniques were analysed applying IAEA methodology according to the used activity in each technique. It was necessary to identify the worker groups that would require individual monitoring on the base of their specific risk. Different measurement procedures were applied to study the possible intake in group risk and more than 160 persons were measured by in vitro bioassay. (Author) 96 refs

  17. Some Physical, Chemical, and Biological Parameters of Samples of Scleractinium Coral Aquaculture Skeleton Used for Reconstruction/Engineering of the Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A A; Sergeeva, N S; Britaev, T A; Komlev, V S; Sviridova, I K; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Dgebuadze, P Yu; Teterina, A Yu; Kuvshinova, E A; Schanskii, Ya D

    2015-08-01

    Physical and chemical (phase and chemical composition, dynamics of resorption, and strength properties), and biological (cytological compatibility and scaffold properties of the surface) properties of samples of scleractinium coral skeletons from aquacultures of three types and corresponding samples of natural coral skeletons (Pocillopora verrucosa, Acropora formosa, and Acropora nobilis) were studied. Samples of scleractinium coral aquaculture skeleton of A. nobilis, A. formosa, and P. verrucosa met the requirements (all study parameters) to materials for osteoplasty and 3D-scaffolds for engineering of bone tissue.

  18. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  19. A study of energy and effective atomic number dependence of the exposure build-up factors in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, G.S.; Singh, P.S.; Mudahar, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented to determine the gamma-radiation build-up factors in various biological materials. The gamma energy range is 0.015-15.0 MeV, with penetration depths up to 40 mean free paths considered. The dependence of the exposure build-up factor on incident photon energy and the effective atomic number (Z eff ) has also been assessed. In a practical analysis of dose burden to gamma-irradiated biological materials, the sophistication of Monte Carlo computer techniques would be applied, with associated detailed modelling. However, a feature of the theoretical method presented is its ability to make the consequences of the physics of the scattering process in biological materials more transparent. In addition, it can be quickly employed to give a first-pass dose estimate prior to a more detailed computer study. (author)

  20. Rapid, simple, and highly sensitive analysis of drugs in biological samples using thin-layer chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and precise identification of toxic substances is necessary for urgent diagnosis and treatment of poisoning cases and for establishing the cause of death in postmortem examinations. However, identification of compounds in biological samples using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry entails time-consuming and labor-intensive sample preparations. In this study, we examined a simple preparation and highly sensitive analysis of drugs in biological samples such as urine, plasma, and organs using thin-layer chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC/MALDI/MS). When the urine containing 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) without sample dilution was spotted on a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate and was analyzed by TLC/MALDI/MS, the detection limit of the MDMA spot was 0.05 ng/spot. The value was the same as that in aqueous solution spotted on a stainless steel plate. All the 11 psychotropic compounds tested (MDMA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, methamphetamine, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, amphetamine, ketamine, caffeine, chlorpromazine, triazolam, and morphine) on a TLC plate were detected at levels of 0.05-5 ng, and the type (layer thickness and fluorescence) of TLC plate did not affect detection sensitivity. In addition, when rat liver homogenate obtained after MDMA administration (10 mg/kg) was spotted on a TLC plate, MDMA and its main metabolites were identified using TLC/MALDI/MS, and the spots on a TLC plate were visualized by MALDI/imaging MS. The total analytical time from spotting of intact biological samples to the output of analytical results was within 30 min. TLC/MALDI/MS enabled rapid, simple, and highly sensitive analysis of drugs from intact biological samples and crude extracts. Accordingly, this method could be applied to rapid drug screening and precise identification of toxic substances in poisoning cases and

  1. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-08-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: {yields} Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological

  2. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: → Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological matrices

  3. Development of a Univariate Membrane-Based Mid-Infrared Method for Protein Quantitation and Total Lipid Content Analysis of Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Strug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples present a range of complexities from homogeneous purified protein to multicomponent mixtures. Accurate qualification of such samples is paramount to downstream applications. We describe the development of an MIR spectroscopy-based analytical method offering simultaneous protein quantitation (0.25–5 mg/mL and analysis of total lipid or detergent species, as well as the identification of other biomolecules present in biological samples. The method utilizes a hydrophilic PTFE membrane engineered for presentation of aqueous samples in a dried format compatible with fast infrared analysis. Unlike classical quantification techniques, the reported method is amino acid sequence independent and thus applicable to complex samples of unknown composition. By comparison to existing platforms, this MIR-based method enables direct quantification using minimal sample volume (2 µL; it is well-suited where repeat access and limited sample size are critical parameters. Further, accurate results can be derived without specialized training or knowledge of IR spectroscopy. Overall, the simplified application and analysis system provides a more cost-effective alternative to high-throughput IR systems for research laboratories with minimal throughput demands. In summary, the MIR-based system provides a viable alternative to current protein quantitation methods; it also uniquely offers simultaneous qualification of other components, notably lipids and detergents.

  4. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-01-01

    application in the environmental and biological researches, these radionuclides include H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Ca-41 Ni-59,Ni-63, Sr-89,Sr-90, Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135,Cs-137, Pb-210, Ra-226,Ra-228, Np-237, Am-241, and isotopes of thorium, uranium and plutonium. The application of on-line methods (flow injection...

  5. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. 2. ed.; Empfehlungen fuer die Probenahme zur Gefahrenabwehr im Bevoelkerungsschutz. Zur Analytik von chemischen, biologischen und radioaktiven Kontaminationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Udo; Derakshani, Nahid; Drobig, Matthias; Koenig, Mario; Mentfewitz, Joachim; Prast, Hartmut; Uelpenich, Gerhard; Vidmayer, Marc; Wilbert, Stefan; Wolf, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    The recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense (analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations) cover the following topics: Requirements for sampling, description of the materials (chemical, biological and radioactive contaminated materials), decontamination, sample transport and protocol documents.

  6. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of five glycopeptide antibiotics in food and biological samples using solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fenfang; Yu, Hong; Pan, Xinhong; Hu, Guoyuan; Wang, Qiqin; Peng, Rongfei; Tan, Lei; Yang, Zhicong

    2018-02-23

    This paper demonstrated the development and validation of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of five glycopeptide antibiotics in food and biological samples. The target glycopeptide antibiotics were isolated from the samples by solvent extraction, and the extracts were cleaned with a tandem solid-phase extraction step using mixed strong cation exchange and hydrophilic/lipophilic balance cartridges. Subsequently, the analytes were eluted with different solvents, and then quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS in the positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Under optimal conditions, good linear correlations were obtained for the five glycopeptide antibiotics in the concentration range of 1.0 μg/L to 20.0 μg/L, and with linear correlation coefficients >0.998. Employing this method, the target glycopeptide antibiotics in food and biological samples were identified with a recovery of 83.0-102%, and a low quantitation limit of 1.0 μg/kg in food and 2.0 μg/L in biological samples with low matrix effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of an Analytical Protocol for Determination of Cyanide in Human Biological Samples Based on Application of Ion Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jaszczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and accurate ion chromatography (IC method with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD was proposed for the determination of cyanide ion in urine, sweat, and saliva samples. The sample pretreatment relies on alkaline digestion and application of Dionex OnGuard II H cartridge. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 1–100 μg/L for urine, 5–100 μg/L for saliva, and 3–100 μg/L for sweat samples with determination coefficients (R>0.992. Low detection limits (LODs in the range of 1.8 μg/L, 5.1 μg/L, and 5.8 μg/L for urine, saliva, and sweat samples, respectively, and good repeatability (CV < 3%, n=3 were obtained. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of human biological samples.

  8. Development of an Analytical Protocol for Determination of Cyanide in Human Biological Samples Based on Application of Ion Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Ewa; Ruman, Marek; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2017-01-01

    A simple and accurate ion chromatography (IC) method with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was proposed for the determination of cyanide ion in urine, sweat, and saliva samples. The sample pretreatment relies on alkaline digestion and application of Dionex OnGuard II H cartridge. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 1-100  μ g/L for urine, 5-100  μ g/L for saliva, and 3-100  μ g/L for sweat samples with determination coefficients ( R ) > 0.992. Low detection limits (LODs) in the range of 1.8  μ g/L, 5.1  μ g/L, and 5.8  μ g/L for urine, saliva, and sweat samples, respectively, and good repeatability (CV < 3%, n = 3) were obtained. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of human biological samples.

  9. Ultra-Sensitive Elemental Analysis Using Plasmas 5.Speciation of Arsenic Compounds in Biological Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaise, Toshikazu

    Arsenic originating from the lithosphere is widely distributed in the environment. Many arsenicals in the environment are in organic and methylated species. These arsenic compounds in drinking water or food products of marine origin are absorbed in human digestive tracts, metabolized in the human body, and excreted viatheurine. Because arsenic shows varying biological a spects depending on its chemical species, the biological characteristics of arsenic must be determined. It is thought that some metabolic pathways for arsenic and some arsenic circulation exist in aqueous ecosystems. In this paper, the current status of the speciation analysis of arsenic by HPLC/ICP-MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry) in environmental and biological samples is summarized using recent data.

  10. Comparison Of INAA Methods (Long Conventional, Cyclic And Pseudo-Cyclic) For The Determination Of Se In Biological Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarheel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Selenium content in serum blood, sample were received from international comparison programme (SABC) has been determined by Cyclic irradiation, pseudo-cyclic irradiation and long irradiation conventional Instrumental neutron activation analysis through the 162 keV gamma ray of the 77m Se nuclide for both cyclic and pseudo-cyclic and 264 keV gamma ray of 75 Se nuclide for conventional (long irradiation). The CINAA involve irradiation of samples for 20 s, decay for 15 s and counting for 20 s, samples recycling four times to improve the precision. The PCINAA involve irradiation of samples for 20 s, decay for 20 s and counting for 30s, samples recycling four times day by day. The Conventional (long irradiation) involve irradiation of samples for 20 hr (1 week), decay for 4 weeks and counting for 20 hr. The accuracy has been evaluated by analyzing the certified reference materials. (Author)

  11. High sensitivity and selectivity in quantitative analysis of drugs in biological samples using 4-column multidimensional micro-UHPLC-MS enabling enhanced sample loading capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald; Vereyken, Liesbeth; François, Isabelle; Dillen, Lieve; Vreeken, Rob J; Cuyckens, Filip

    2017-10-09

    Sensitivity is often a critical parameter in quantitative bioanalyses in drug development. For liquid-chromatography-based methods, sensitivity can be improved by reducing the column diameter, but practical sensitivity gains are limited by the reduced sample loading capacity on small internal diameter (I.D.) columns. We developed a set-up that has overcome these limitations in sample loading capacity. The set-up uses 4 columns with gradually decreasing column diameters along the flow-path (2.1 → 1 → 0.5 → 0.15 mm). Samples are pre-concentrated on-line on a 2.1 mm I.D. trapping column and back flushed to a 1 mm I.D. UHPLC analytical column and separated. The peak(s) of interest are transferred using heartcutting to a second trapping column (0.5 mm I.D.), which is back-flushed to a 0.15 mm I.D. micro-UHPLC analytical column for orthogonal separation. The proof of concept of the set-up was demonstrated by the simultaneous analysis of midazolam and 1'-hydroxy midazolam in plasma by injection of 80 μL of protein precipitated plasma. The 4-column funnel set-up proved to be robust and resulted in a 10-50 times better sensitivity compared to a trap-elute approach and 250-500 fold better compared to direct micro-UHPLC analysis. A lower limit of quantification of 100 fg/mL in plasma was obtained for both probe compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of biological samples for transmission X-ray microanalysis: a review of alternative procedures to the use of sectioned material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigee, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Although transmission X-ray microanalysis of biological material has traditionally been carried out mainly on sectioned preparations, a number of alternative procedures exist. These are considered under three major headings - whole cell preparations, analysis of cell homogenates and biological fluids, and applications of the technique to microsamples of purified biochemicals. These three aspects provide a continuous range of investigative level - from the cellular to the molecular. The use of X-ray microanalysis with whole cell preparations is considered in reference to eukaryote (animal) cells and prokaryotes - where it has particular potential in environmental studies on bacteria. In the case of cell homogenates and biological fluids, the technique has been used mainly with microdroplets of animal material. The use of X-ray microanalysis with purified biochemicals is considered in relation to both particulate and non-particulate samples. In the latter category, the application of this technique for analysis of thin films of metalloprotein is particularly emphasised. It is concluded that wider use could be made of the range of preparative techniques available - both within a particular investigation, and in diverse fields of study. Transmission X-ray microanalysis has implications for environmental, physiological and molecular biology as well as cell biology

  13. Automated extraction of DNA from reference samples from various types of biological materials on the Qiagen BioRobot EZ1 Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2009-01-01

    , and muscle biopsies. The DNA extraction was validated according to EN/ISO 17025 for the STR kits AmpFlSTR« Identifiler« and AmpFlSTR« Yfiler« (Applied Biosystems). Of 298 samples extracted, 11 (4%) did not yield acceptable results. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that extraction of DNA from various types......We have validated and implemented a protocol for DNA extraction from various types of biological materials using a Qiagen BioRobot EZ1 Workstation. The sample materials included whole blood, blood from deceased, buccal cells on Omni swabs and FTA Cards, blood on FTA Cards and cotton swabs...... of biological material can be performed quickly and without the use of hazardous chemicals, and that the DNA may be successfully STR typed according to the requirements of forensic genetic investigations accredited according to EN/ISO 17025...

  14. Landscape evolution models using the stream power incision model show unrealistic behavior when m ∕ n equals 0.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Kwang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evolution models often utilize the stream power incision model to simulate river incision: E = KAmSn, where E is the vertical incision rate, K is the erodibility constant, A is the upstream drainage area, S is the channel gradient, and m and n are exponents. This simple but useful law has been employed with an imposed rock uplift rate to gain insight into steady-state landscapes. The most common choice of exponents satisfies m ∕ n = 0.5. Yet all models have limitations. Here, we show that when hillslope diffusion (which operates only on small scales is neglected, the choice m ∕ n = 0.5 yields a curiously unrealistic result: the predicted landscape is invariant to horizontal stretching. That is, the steady-state landscape for a 10 km2 horizontal domain can be stretched so that it is identical to the corresponding landscape for a 1000 km2 domain.

  15. Biological Agent Sample Preparation for the Detection and Identification of Multiple Agents by Nucleic Acid-Based Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fields, Robert

    2002-01-01

    .... The AutoLyser instrument which we have developed, provides fully automated purification of viral, bacterial and human genomic DNA and RNA from clinical samples, cell culture and swabs in as little...

  16. Analysis of thyroid hormones in biological samples using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster presentation will describe analytical chemistry methods for measuring thyroid hormones and related precursors and metabolites in very small tissue or plasma samples. These methods are amenable to measure thyroid hormones in amphibian tadpoles or small mammals used as ...

  17. Elimination of the effects of interferents on the quantitative determination of deuterium oxide in biological samples by infrared photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.N.; Hentges, E.J.; Trenkle, A.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications to a procedure utilising sample purification by lyophilisation and automated infrared analysis were necessary to measure accurately the deuterium oxide content of various tissues and gastrointestinal tract contents of ruminants. Volatile fatty acids produced in the digestive tract of ruminants interfered with the measurement of deuterium oxide by infrared analysis. The volatile fatty acids were removed from samples by making the pH of the samples basic prior to lyophilisation. Contaminants in water extracted from tissues by lyophilisation of samples allowed the removal of the contaminants. The precision (Ssub(x-circumflex)) attained with this procedure was 3-6 mg l -1 for the range of deuterium oxide concentrations between 120 and 800 mg l -1 . (author)

  18. Minimization of the blank values in the neutron activation analysis of biological samples considering the whole procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, F.; Bereznai, T.; Haeberlin, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    In our determination of trace element contents of animal tissue by neutron activation analysis in the course of structure-activity relationship studies on platinum containing cancer drugs and wound healing we have tried to minimize the blank values that are caused by different sources of contamination during surgery, sampling and the activation analysis procedure. The following topics have been investigated: the abrasions from scalpels made of stainless steel, titanium or quartz; the type of surgery; the homogenisation of the samples before irradiation by use of a ball milll; the surface contaminations of the quartz ampoules that pass into the digestion solution of the irradiated samples. The appropriate measures taken in order to reduce the blank values are described. The results of analyses performed under these conditions indicate the effectiveness of the given measures, especially shown by the low values obtained for the chromium contents of the analysed muscle samples. (author)

  19. Sample collections from healthy volunteers for biological variation estimates' update: a new project undertaken by the Working Group on Biological Variation established by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carobene, Anna; Strollo, Marta; Jonker, Niels; Barla, Gerhard; Bartlett, William A; Sandberg, Sverre; Sylte, Marit Sverresdotter; Røraas, Thomas; Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Fernandez-Calle, Pilar; Díaz-Garzón, Jorge; Tosato, Francesca; Plebani, Mario; Coşkun, Abdurrahman; Serteser, Mustafa; Unsal, Ibrahim; Ceriotti, Ferruccio

    2016-10-01

    Biological variation (BV) data have many fundamental applications in laboratory medicine. At the 1st Strategic Conference of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) the reliability and limitations of current BV data were discussed. The EFLM Working Group on Biological Variation is working to increase the quality of BV data by developing a European project to establish a biobank of samples from healthy subjects to be used to produce high quality BV data. The project involved six European laboratories (Milan, Italy; Bergen, Norway; Madrid, Spain; Padua, Italy; Istanbul, Turkey; Assen, The Netherlands). Blood samples were collected from 97 volunteers (44 men, aged 20-60 years; 43 women, aged 20-50 years; 10 women, aged 55-69 years). Initial subject inclusion required that participants completed an enrolment questionnaire to verify their health status. The volunteers provided blood specimens once per week for 10 weeks. A short questionnaire was completed and some laboratory tests were performed at each sampling consisting of blood collected under controlled conditions to provide serum, K2EDTA-plasma and citrated-plasma samples. Samples from six out of the 97 enroled subjects were discarded as a consequence of abnormal laboratory measurements. A biobank of 18,000 aliquots was established consisting of 120 aliquots of serum, 40 of EDTA-plasma, and 40 of citrated-plasma from each subject. The samples were stored at -80 °C. A biobank of well-characterised samples collected under controlled conditions has been established delivering a European resource to enable production of contemporary BV data.

  20. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuomin; Wang Qingtang; Li Gongke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. ► NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. ► NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7–4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient analytical method for the potential study of trace and small molecular

  1. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhuomin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Qingtang [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li Gongke, E-mail: cesgkl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2012-05-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7-4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient

  2. Preparation and evaluation of a novel molecularly imprinted polymer coating for selective extraction of indomethacin from biological samples by electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asiabi, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yamini, Yadollah, E-mail: yyamini@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seidi, Shahram; Ghahramanifard, Fazel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-24

    In the present work, an automated on-line electrochemically controlled in-tube solid-phase microextraction (EC-in-tube SPME) coupled with HPLC-UV was developed for the selective extraction and preconcentration of indomethacin as a model analyte in biological samples. Applying an electrical potential can improve the extraction efficiency and provide more convenient manipulation of different properties of the extraction system including selectivity, clean-up, rate, and efficiency. For more enhancement of the selectivity and applicability of this method, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer coated tube was prepared and applied for extraction of indomethacin. For this purpose, nanostructured copolymer coating consisting of polypyrrole doped with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was prepared on the inner surface of a stainless-steel tube by electrochemical synthesis. The characteristics and application of the tubes were investigated. Electron microscopy provided a cross linked porous surface and the average thickness of the MIP coating was 45 μm. Compared with the non-imprinted polymer coated tubes, the special selectivity for indomethacin was discovered with the molecularly imprinted coated tube. Moreover, stable and reproducible responses were obtained without being considerably influenced by interferences commonly existing in biological samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection were in the range of 0.07–2.0 μg L{sup −1} in different matrices. This method showed good linearity for indomethacin in the range of 0.1–200 μg L{sup −1}, with coefficients of determination better than 0.996. The inter- and intra-assay precisions (RSD%, n = 3) were respectively in the range of 3.5–8.4% and 2.3–7.6% at three concentration levels of 7, 70 and 150 μg L{sup −1}. The results showed that the proposed method can be successfully applied for selective analysis of indomethacin in biological samples. - Graphical abstract: An automated on

  3. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of pyrethroid insecticides in high salinity and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zongliang; Yu, Chunwei; He, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jun; Wen, Yingying

    2017-09-05

    A salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of four pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) in high salinity and biological samples. Several parameters including sample pH, salting-out solution volume and salting-out solution pH influencing the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated with the aid of orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions of SALLE were: 4mL of salting-out solution with pH=4 and the sample pH=3. Under the optimum extraction and determination conditions, good responses for four PYRs were obtained in a range of 5-5000ng/mL, with linear coefficients greater than 0.998. The recoveries of the four PYRs ranged from 74% to 110%, with standard deviations ranging from 1.8% to 9.8%. The limits of detection based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were between 1.5-60.6ng/mL. The method was applied to the determination of PYRs in urine, seawater and wastewater samples with a satisfactory result. The results demonstrated that this SALLE-GC-MS method was successfully applied to determine PYRs in high salinity and biological samples. SALLE avoided the need for the elimination of salinity and protein in the sample matrix, as well as clean-up of the extractant. Most of all, no centrifugation or any special apparatus are required, make this a promising method for rapid sample preparation procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of psychoeducation on regulating biological rhythm in a sample of patients with bipolar II disorder: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria AD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Augusto Duarte Faria,1 Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza,2 Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso,2 Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro,2 Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro,2 Ricardo Azevedo da Silva,2 Karen Jansen21Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil; 2Health and Behavior Postgraduate Program, Universidade Católica de Pelotas – UCPEL, Pelotas, RS, BrazilIntroduction: Changes in biological rhythm are among the various characteristics of bipolar disorder, and have long been associated with the functional impairment of the disease. There are only a few viable options of psychosocial interventions that deal with this specific topic; one of them is psychoeducation, a model that, although it has been used by practitioners for some time, only recently have studies shown its efficacy in clinical practice.Aim: To assess if patients undergoing psychosocial intervention in addition to a pharmacological treatment have better regulation of their biological rhythm than those only using medication.Method: This study is a randomized clinical trial that compares a standard medication intervention to an intervention combined with drugs and psychoeducation. The evaluation of the biological rhythm was made using the Biological Rhythm Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, an 18-item scale divided in four areas (sleep, activity, social rhythm, and eating pattern. The combined intervention consisted of medication and a short-term psychoeducation model summarized in a protocol of six individual sessions of 1 hour each.Results: The sample consisted of 61 patients with bipolar II disorder, but during the study, there were 14 losses to follow-up. Therefore, the final sample consisted of 45 individuals (26 for standard intervention and 19 for combined. The results showed that, in this sample and time period evaluated, the combined treatment of medication and psychoeducation had no statistically significant impact on the

  5. Performance of Identifiler Direct and PowerPlex 16 HS on the Applied Biosystems 3730 DNA Analyzer for processing biological samples archived on FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Nancy; DeMoors, Anick; Frégeau, Chantal

    2012-09-01

    Direct amplification of STR loci from biological samples collected on FTA cards without prior DNA purification was evaluated using Identifiler Direct and PowerPlex 16 HS in conjunction with the use of a high throughput Applied Biosystems 3730 DNA Analyzer. In order to reduce the overall sample processing cost, reduced PCR volumes combined with various FTA disk sizes were tested. Optimized STR profiles were obtained using a 0.53 mm disk size in 10 μL PCR volume for both STR systems. These protocols proved effective in generating high quality profiles on the 3730 DNA Analyzer from both blood and buccal FTA samples. Reproducibility, concordance, robustness, sample stability and profile quality were assessed using a collection of blood and buccal samples on FTA cards from volunteer donors as well as from convicted offenders. The new developed protocols offer enhanced throughput capability and cost effectiveness without compromising the robustness and quality of the STR profiles obtained. These results support the use of these protocols for processing convicted offender samples submitted to the National DNA Data Bank of Canada. Similar protocols could be applied to the processing of casework reference samples or in paternity or family relationship testing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis - The study on human health and environment by neutron activation analysis of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Yeon; Yoo, Jong Ik; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sung Jun; Lee, Sang Sun; Jeon, Ki Hong; Na, Kyung Won; Kang, Sang Hun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    With the development of the precise quantitative analytical method for the analysis of trace elements in the various biological samples such as hair and food, evaluation in view of health and environment to the trace elements in various sources which can be introduced inside human body was done. The trace elemental distribution in Korean total diet and representative food stuff was identified first. With the project the elemental distributions in supplemental healthy food and Korean and Chinese origin oriental medicine were identified. The amount of trace elements ingested with the hair analysis of oriental medicine takers were also estimated. The amounts of trace elements inhaled with the analysis of foundry air, blood and hair of foundry workers were also estimated. The basic estimation method in view of health and environment with the neutron activation analysis of biological samples such as foods and hair was established with the result. Nationwide usage system of the NAA facility in Hanaro in many different and important areas of biological area can be initiated with the results. The output of the project can support public heath, environment, and medical research area. The results can be applied for the process of micronutrients enhanced health food production and for the health safety and health status enhancement with the additional necessary data expansion and the development of various evaluation technique. 19 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  7. Ion-Exchange Sample Displacement Chromatography as a Method for Fast and Simple Isolation of Low- and High-Abundance Proteins from Complex Biological Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Srajer Gajdosik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample displacement chromatography (SDC in reversed phase and ion-exchange modes was introduced at the end of 1980s. This chromatographic method was first used for preparative purification of synthetic peptides, and subsequently adapted for protein fractionation, mainly in anion-exchange mode. In the past few years, SDC has been successfully used for enrichment of low- and medium-abundance proteins from complex biological fluids on both monolithic and bulk chromatographic supports. If aqueous mobile phase is used with the application of mild chromatographic conditions, isolated proteins are not denatured and can also keep their biological activity. In this paper, the use of SDC in anion-exchange mode on a high-capacity chromatographic resin for separation of proteins from complex biological mixtures such as human plasma is demonstrated. By use of three and more columns coupled in series during sample application, and subsequent parallel elution of detached columns, additional separation of bound proteins was achieved. Highly enriched human serum albumin fraction and a number of physiologically active medium- and low-abundance proteins could be fractionated and detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The use of the aforementioned columns that can be sanitized with 1 M sodium hydroxide for further application of SDC in biotechnology and food technology was discussed.

  8. Determination of sertraline in pharmaceutical and biological samples using 1, 10-phenanthroline-terbium probe and silver nanoparticles enhanced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotfi, Ali, E-mail: alilotfi67@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Manzoori, Jamshid L. [Department of Chemistry, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohagheghi, Arash [Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Sertraline is an antidepressant widely prescribed for major depressive disorders. In this contribution we report a novel, rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric technique, developed and validated for the determination of sertraline in pharmaceutical, human urine and human plasma samples, based on the fluorescence enhancement of the sertraline by 1, 10-phenanthroline-terbium probe with Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs). The effect of pH, buffer concentration, the order of addition of reagents, terbium and 1, 10-phenanthroline concentrations, and concentration of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) as well as reaction time on the fluorescence intensity were investigated and the optimum conditions were determined. The linear range for determination of sertraline was obtained as 0.001–3 mg L{sup −1}. The limit of detection (b+3s) and the limit of quantification was calculated as 2.9×10{sup −4} mg L{sup −1} and 9.8×10{sup −4} mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The interference effects of common excipients found in pharmaceutical preparations were studied. The presented technique was used to determine the sertraline in pharmaceutical samples, human urine and plasma as real samples. The presented method was indicated a comparable results with the standard analytical techniques for sertraline. Good linearity, reproducibility, recovery and limit of detection have made this method suitable for determination of sertraline in various types of samples.

  9. Determination of sertraline in pharmaceutical and biological samples using 1, 10-phenanthroline-terbium probe and silver nanoparticles enhanced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, Ali; Manzoori, Jamshid L.; Mohagheghi, Arash

    2017-01-01

    Sertraline is an antidepressant widely prescribed for major depressive disorders. In this contribution we report a novel, rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric technique, developed and validated for the determination of sertraline in pharmaceutical, human urine and human plasma samples, based on the fluorescence enhancement of the sertraline by 1, 10-phenanthroline-terbium probe with Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs). The effect of pH, buffer concentration, the order of addition of reagents, terbium and 1, 10-phenanthroline concentrations, and concentration of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) as well as reaction time on the fluorescence intensity were investigated and the optimum conditions were determined. The linear range for determination of sertraline was obtained as 0.001–3 mg L −1 . The limit of detection (b+3s) and the limit of quantification was calculated as 2.9×10 −4 mg L −1 and 9.8×10 −4 mg L −1 , respectively. The interference effects of common excipients found in pharmaceutical preparations were studied. The presented technique was used to determine the sertraline in pharmaceutical samples, human urine and plasma as real samples. The presented method was indicated a comparable results with the standard analytical techniques for sertraline. Good linearity, reproducibility, recovery and limit of detection have made this method suitable for determination of sertraline in various types of samples.

  10. Solid-phase microextraction for gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of dimethoate in human biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, E; Barroso, M; Margalho, C; Cruz, A; Vieira, D N; López-Rivadulla, M

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple and rapid procedure for the determination of dimethoate in urine and blood samples was developed using direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This technique required only 0.1 mL of sample, and ethion was used as internal standard. Two types of coated fibre were compared (100 microm polydimethylsiloxane, and 65 microm Carbowax/divinylbenzene). Other parameters, such as extraction temperature, adsorption and desorption time, salt addition, agitation and pH, were optimized to enhance the sensitivity of the method. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) were 50 and 100 ng/mL for urine and 200 and 500 ng/mL for blood, respectively. The method was found to be linear between the LOQ and 40 microg/mL for urine, and between the LOQ and 50 microg/mL for blood, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9923-0.9996. Precision (intra- and interday) and accuracy were in conformity with the criteria normally accepted in bioanalytical method validation. The mean absolute recoveries of dimethoate were 1.24 and 0.50% for urine and blood, respectively. Because of its simplicity and the fact that small volumes of sample are used, the described method can be successfully used in the diagnosis of poisoning by this pesticide, namely in those situations where the sample volume is limited, as frequently occurs in forensic toxicology. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Evaluating the biological potential in samples returned from planetary satellites and small solar system bodies: framework for decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Space Studies Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... from Planetary Satellites and