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Sample records for biologically plausible visual

  1. A biologically plausible transform for visual recognition that is invariant to translation, scale and rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel eSountsov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual object recognition occurs easily despite differences in position, size, and rotation of the object, but the neural mechanisms responsible for this invariance are not known. We have found a set of transforms that achieve invariance in a neurally plausible way. We find that a transform based on local spatial frequency analysis of oriented segments and on logarithmic mapping, when applied twice in an iterative fashion, produces an output image that is unique to the object and that remains constant as the input image is shifted, scaled or rotated.

  2. Speech recognition employing biologically plausible receptive fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Bothe, Hans-Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    The main idea of the project is to build a widely speaker-independent, biologically motivated automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. The two main differences between our approach and current state-of-the-art ASRs are that i) the features used here are based on the responses of neuronlike...... Model-based adaptation procedures. Two databases are used, TI46 for discrete speech a subset of the TIMIT database collected from speakers belonging to the New York dialect region. Each of the selection of 10 sentences is uttered once by each of 35 speakers. The major differences between the two data...... sets initiate the development and comparison of two distinct ASRs within the project, which will be presented in the following. Employing a reduced sampling frequency and bandwidth of the signals, the ASR algorithm reaches and goes beyond recognition results that are known from humans....

  3. Sentence plausibility influences the link between action words and the perception of biological human movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Gimenes, Manuel; Toussaint, Lucette; Almecija, Yves; Badets, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the role of sentence plausibility in the functional link between action words and visual judgments of point-light human actions. Following the oral presentation of action verbs included in a plausible or implausible sentence, participants were asked to detect the presence of congruent or incongruent biological movements. Sentence plausibility was manipulated by inverting the positions of the subject and the complement (e.g., the neighbor is running in the garden vs the garden is running in the neighbor). The results showed that for both plausible and implausible sentences, the detection of human movements is greater following presentation of congruent action verbs. These results suggest that the presentation of action verbs affects the subsequent perception of point-light human movements, regardless of the associated semantic context. However, the link between action verbs and judgment of biological movements is strengthened when plausible sentences are presented, as illustrated by the increase in visual detection capacity in plausible congruent conditions. Concerning the analysis of the detection speed, the performance is only affected in plausible sentences with slower response times associated with the presentation of an incongruent action verb. These findings are discussed in light of an embodied mechanism and the domain of biological movement perception.

  4. On the biological plausibility of Wind Turbine Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert V

    2015-01-01

    An emerging environmental health issue relates to potential ill-effects of wind turbine noise. There have been numerous suggestions that the low-frequency acoustic components in wind turbine signals can cause symptoms associated with vestibular system disorders, namely vertigo, nausea, and nystagmus. This constellation of symptoms has been labeled as Wind Turbine Syndrome, and has been identified in case studies of individuals living close to wind farms. This review discusses whether it is biologically plausible for the turbine noise to stimulate the vestibular parts of the inner ear and, by extension, cause Wind Turbine Syndrome. We consider the sound levels that can activate the semicircular canals or otolith end organs in normal subjects, as well as in those with preexisting conditions known to lower vestibular threshold to sound stimulation.

  5. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  6. Biologically plausible learning in neural networks with modulatory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W Shane; Tanner, James; Itti, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Although Hebbian learning has long been a key component in understanding neural plasticity, it has not yet been successful in modeling modulatory feedback connections, which make up a significant portion of connections in the brain. We develop a new learning rule designed around the complications of learning modulatory feedback and composed of three simple concepts grounded in physiologically plausible evidence. Using border ownership as a prototypical example, we show that a Hebbian learning rule fails to properly learn modulatory connections, while our proposed rule correctly learns a stimulus-driven model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time a border ownership network has been learned. Additionally, we show that the rule can be used as a drop-in replacement for a Hebbian learning rule to learn a biologically consistent model of orientation selectivity, a network which lacks any modulatory connections. Our results predict that the mechanisms we use are integral for learning modulatory connections in the brain and furthermore that modulatory connections have a strong dependence on inhibition. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A robust and biologically plausible spike pattern recognition network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric; Perrone, Ben P; Sen, Kamal; Billimoria, Cyrus P

    2010-11-17

    The neural mechanisms that enable recognition of spiking patterns in the brain are currently unknown. This is especially relevant in sensory systems, in which the brain has to detect such patterns and recognize relevant stimuli by processing peripheral inputs; in particular, it is unclear how sensory systems can recognize time-varying stimuli by processing spiking activity. Because auditory stimuli are represented by time-varying fluctuations in frequency content, it is useful to consider how such stimuli can be recognized by neural processing. Previous models for sound recognition have used preprocessed or low-level auditory signals as input, but complex natural sounds such as speech are thought to be processed in auditory cortex, and brain regions involved in object recognition in general must deal with the natural variability present in spike trains. Thus, we used neural recordings to investigate how a spike pattern recognition system could deal with the intrinsic variability and diverse response properties of cortical spike trains. We propose a biologically plausible computational spike pattern recognition model that uses an excitatory chain of neurons to spatially preserve the temporal representation of the spike pattern. Using a single neural recording as input, the model can be trained using a spike-timing-dependent plasticity-based learning rule to recognize neural responses to 20 different bird songs with >98% accuracy and can be stimulated to evoke reverse spike pattern playback. Although we test spike train recognition performance in an auditory task, this model can be applied to recognize sufficiently reliable spike patterns from any neuronal system.

  8. Bio-physically plausible visualization of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical models for in silico experimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdellah, Marwan

    2017-02-15

    Background We present a visualization pipeline capable of accurate rendering of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical neuronal models. The pipeline is mainly developed to serve the computational neurobiology community. It allows the scientists to visualize the results of their virtual experiments that are performed in computer simulations, or in silico. The impact of the presented pipeline opens novel avenues for assisting the neuroscientists to build biologically accurate models of the brain. These models result from computer simulations of physical experiments that use fluorescence imaging to understand the structural and functional aspects of the brain. Due to the limited capabilities of the current visualization workflows to handle fluorescent volumetric datasets, we propose a physically-based optical model that can accurately simulate light interaction with fluorescent-tagged scattering media based on the basic principles of geometric optics and Monte Carlo path tracing. We also develop an automated and efficient framework for generating dense fluorescent tissue blocks from a neocortical column model that is composed of approximately 31000 neurons. Results Our pipeline is used to visualize a virtual fluorescent tissue block of 50 μm3 that is reconstructed from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The fluorescence optical model is qualitatively analyzed and validated against experimental emission spectra of different fluorescent dyes from the Alexa Fluor family. Conclusion We discussed a scientific visualization pipeline for creating images of synthetic neocortical neuronal models that are tagged virtually with fluorescent labels on a physically-plausible basis. The pipeline is applied to analyze and validate simulation data generated from neuroscientific in silico experiments.

  9. Epidemiologic studies of occupational pesticide exposure and cancer: regulatory risk assessments and biologic plausibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavella, John; Doe, John; Tomenson, John; Chester, Graham; Cowell, John; Bloemen, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies frequently show associations between self-reported use of specific pesticides and human cancers. These findings have engendered debate largely on methodologic grounds. However, biologic plausibility is a more fundamental issue that has received only superficial attention. The purpose of this commentary is to review briefly the toxicology and exposure data that are developed as part of the pesticide regulatory process and to discuss the applicability of this data to epidemiologic research. The authors also provide a generic example of how worker pesticide exposures might be estimated and compared to relevant toxicologic dose levels. This example provides guidance for better characterization of exposure and for consideration of biologic plausibility in epidemiologic studies of pesticides.

  10. Current evidence and biological plausibility linking periodontitis to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Tabeta, DDS,PhD

    2014-08-01

    The accumulation of multiple individual epidemiological studies has paved the way for subsequent systematic reviews that have demonstrated that periodontitis can be considered as an emerging risk factor for ACVD. Although the causal mechanisms by which periodontitis accelerates ACVD have not been fully elucidated, plausible evidence regarding the inflammatory response due to inflammatory mediators and bacterial etiologies, and the recognition of altered lipid metabolism in patients with periodontitis suggest that infection with periodontopathic bacteria can influence atherogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Animal model studies have strengthened this evidence. However, there have been a lack of interventional studies that show the effects of periodontal treatment on the future risk of ACVD; this lack of evidence critically weakens the importance of the relationship between the two diseases. This review presents a summary of the current evidence and biological plausibility that link periodontitis to ACVD.

  11. A swarm intelligence framework for reconstructing gene networks: searching for biologically plausible architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentzoglanakis, Kyriakos; Poole, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of reverse engineering the topology of gene regulatory networks from temporal gene expression data. We adopt a computational intelligence approach comprising swarm intelligence techniques, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO) and ant colony optimization (ACO). In addition, the recurrent neural network (RNN) formalism is employed for modeling the dynamical behavior of gene regulatory systems. More specifically, ACO is used for searching the discrete space of network architectures and PSO for searching the corresponding continuous space of RNN model parameters. We propose a novel solution construction process in the context of ACO for generating biologically plausible candidate architectures. The objective is to concentrate the search effort into areas of the structure space that contain architectures which are feasible in terms of their topological resemblance to real-world networks. The proposed framework is initially applied to the reconstruction of a small artificial network that has previously been studied in the context of gene network reverse engineering. Subsequently, we consider an artificial data set with added noise for reconstructing a subnetwork of the genetic interaction network of S. cerevisiae (yeast). Finally, the framework is applied to a real-world data set for reverse engineering the SOS response system of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Results demonstrate the relative advantage of utilizing problem-specific knowledge regarding biologically plausible structural properties of gene networks over conducting a problem-agnostic search in the vast space of network architectures.

  12. Particulate air pollution and increased mortality: Biological plausibility for causal relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, a number of epidemiological studies have concluded that ambient particulate exposure is associated with increased mortality and morbidity at PM concentrations well below those previously thought to affect human health. These studies have been conducted in several different geographical locations and have involved a range of populations. While the consistency of the findings and the presence of an apparent concentration response relationship provide a strong argument for causality, epidemiological studies can only conclude this based upon inference from statistical associations. The biological plausibility of a causal relationship between low concentrations of PM and daily mortality and morbidity rates is neither intuitively obvious nor expected based on past experimental studies on the toxicity of inhaled particles. Chronic toxicity from inhaled, poorly soluble particles has been observed based on the slow accumulation of large lung burdens of particles, not on small daily fluctuations in PM levels. Acute toxicity from inhaled particles is associated mainly with acidic particles and is observed at much higher concentrations than those observed in the epidemiology studies reporting an association between PM concentrations and morbidity/mortality. To approach the difficult problem of determining if the association between PM concentrations and daily morbidity and mortality is biologically plausible and causal, one must consider (1) the chemical and physical characteristics of the particles in the inhaled atmospheres, (2) the characteristics of the morbidity/mortality observed and the people who are affected, and (3) potential mechanisms that might link the two

  13. Biologic plausibility, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borow, Kenneth M; Nelson, John R; Mason, R Preston

    2015-09-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains in dyslipidemic patients despite intensive statin therapy, underscoring the need for additional intervention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is incorporated into membrane phospholipids and atherosclerotic plaques and exerts beneficial effects on the pathophysiologic cascade from onset of plaque formation through rupture. Specific salutary actions have been reported relating to endothelial function, oxidative stress, foam cell formation, inflammation, plaque formation/progression, platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and plaque rupture. EPA also improves atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by reduction of triglycerides without raising low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Other beneficial effects of EPA include vasodilation, resulting in blood pressure reductions, as well as improved membrane fluidity. EPA's effects are at least additive to those of statins when given as adjunctive therapy. In this review, we present data supporting the biologic plausibility of EPA as an anti-atherosclerotic agent with potential clinical benefit for prevention of CV events, as well as its cellular effects and molecular mechanisms of action. REDUCE-IT is an ongoing, randomized, controlled study evaluating whether the high-purity ethyl ester of EPA (icosapent ethyl) at 4 g/day combined with statin therapy is superior to statin therapy alone for reducing CV events in high-risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia. The results from this study are expected to clarify the role of EPA as adjunctive therapy to a statin for reduction of residual CV risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Information Visualization for Biological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, Tobias; Schreiber, Falk

    2017-01-01

    Visualization is a powerful method to present and explore a large amount of data. It is increasingly important in the life sciences and is used for analyzing different types of biological data, such as structural information, high-throughput data, and biochemical networks. This chapter gives a brief introduction to visualization methods for bioinformatics, presents two commonly used techniques in detail, and discusses a graphical standard for biological networks and cellular processes.

  15. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  16. The Processing of Biologically Plausible and Implausible forms in American Sign Language: Evidence for Perceptual Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Diogo; Poeppel, David; Corina, David

    The human auditory system distinguishes speech-like information from general auditory signals in a remarkably fast and efficient way. Combining psychophysics and neurophysiology (MEG), we demonstrate a similar result for the processing of visual information used for language communication in users of sign languages. We demonstrate that the earliest visual cortical responses in deaf signers viewing American Sign Language (ASL) signs show specific modulations to violations of anatomic constraints that would make the sign either possible or impossible to articulate. These neural data are accompanied with a significantly increased perceptual sensitivity to the anatomical incongruity. The differential effects in the early visual evoked potentials arguably reflect an expectation-driven assessment of somatic representational integrity, suggesting that language experience and/or auditory deprivation may shape the neuronal mechanisms underlying the analysis of complex human form. The data demonstrate that the perceptual tuning that underlies the discrimination of language and non-language information is not limited to spoken languages but extends to languages expressed in the visual modality.

  17. The processing of biologically plausible and implausible forms in American Sign Language: evidence for perceptual tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Diogo; Poeppel, David; Corina, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human auditory system distinguishes speech-like information from general auditory signals in a remarkably fast and efficient way. Combining psychophysics and neurophysiology (MEG), we demonstrate a similar result for the processing of visual information used for language communication in users of sign languages. We demonstrate that the earliest visual cortical responses in deaf signers viewing American Sign Language signs show specific modulations to violations of anatomic constraints that would make the sign either possible or impossible to articulate. These neural data are accompanied with a significantly increased perceptual sensitivity to the anatomical incongruity. The differential effects in the early visual evoked potentials arguably reflect an expectation-driven assessment of somatic representational integrity, suggesting that language experience and/or auditory deprivation may shape the neuronal mechanisms underlying the analysis of complex human form. The data demonstrate that the perceptual tuning that underlies the discrimination of language and non-language information is not limited to spoken languages but extends to languages expressed in the visual modality. PMID:27135041

  18. Integrative Systems Biology Visualization with MAYDAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symonsy Stephan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is pivotal for gaining insight in systems biology data. As the size and complexity of datasets and supplemental information increases, an efficient, integrated framework for general and specialized views is necessary. MAYDAY is an application for analysis and visualization of general ‘omics’ data. It follows a trifold approach for data visualization, consisting of flexible data preprocessing, highly customizable data perspective plots for general purpose visualization and systems based plots. Here, we introduce two new systems biology visualization tools for MAYDAY. Efficiently implemented genomic viewers allow the display of variables associated with genomic locations. Multiple variables can be viewed using our new track-based ChromeTracks tool. A functional perspective is provided by visualizing metabolic pathways either in KEGG or BioPax format. Multiple options of displaying pathway components are available, including Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN glyphs. Furthermore, pathways can be viewed together with gene expression data either as heatmaps or profiles.

  19. DeviceEditor visual biological CAD canvas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological Computer Aided Design (bioCAD) assists the de novo design and selection of existing genetic components to achieve a desired biological activity, as part of an integrated design-build-test cycle. To meet the emerging needs of Synthetic Biology, bioCAD tools must address the increasing prevalence of combinatorial library design, design rule specification, and scar-less multi-part DNA assembly. Results We report the development and deployment of web-based bioCAD software, DeviceEditor, which provides a graphical design environment that mimics the intuitive visual whiteboard design process practiced in biological laboratories. The key innovations of DeviceEditor include visual combinatorial library design, direct integration with scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation, and a graphical user interface for the creation and modification of design specification rules. We demonstrate how biological designs are rendered on the DeviceEditor canvas, and we present effective visualizations of genetic component ordering and combinatorial variations within complex designs. Conclusions DeviceEditor liberates researchers from DNA base-pair manipulation, and enables users to create successful prototypes using standardized, functional, and visual abstractions. Open and documented software interfaces support further integration of DeviceEditor with other bioCAD tools and software platforms. DeviceEditor saves researcher time and institutional resources through correct-by-construction design, the automation of tedious tasks, design reuse, and the minimization of DNA assembly costs. PMID:22373390

  20. DeviceEditor visual biological CAD canvas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Ham, Timothy S; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J

    2012-02-28

    Biological Computer Aided Design (bioCAD) assists the de novo design and selection of existing genetic components to achieve a desired biological activity, as part of an integrated design-build-test cycle. To meet the emerging needs of Synthetic Biology, bioCAD tools must address the increasing prevalence of combinatorial library design, design rule specification, and scar-less multi-part DNA assembly. We report the development and deployment of web-based bioCAD software, DeviceEditor, which provides a graphical design environment that mimics the intuitive visual whiteboard design process practiced in biological laboratories. The key innovations of DeviceEditor include visual combinatorial library design, direct integration with scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation, and a graphical user interface for the creation and modification of design specification rules. We demonstrate how biological designs are rendered on the DeviceEditor canvas, and we present effective visualizations of genetic component ordering and combinatorial variations within complex designs. DeviceEditor liberates researchers from DNA base-pair manipulation, and enables users to create successful prototypes using standardized, functional, and visual abstractions. Open and documented software interfaces support further integration of DeviceEditor with other bioCAD tools and software platforms. DeviceEditor saves researcher time and institutional resources through correct-by-construction design, the automation of tedious tasks, design reuse, and the minimization of DNA assembly costs.

  1. DeviceEditor visual biological CAD canvas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Joanna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological Computer Aided Design (bioCAD assists the de novo design and selection of existing genetic components to achieve a desired biological activity, as part of an integrated design-build-test cycle. To meet the emerging needs of Synthetic Biology, bioCAD tools must address the increasing prevalence of combinatorial library design, design rule specification, and scar-less multi-part DNA assembly. Results We report the development and deployment of web-based bioCAD software, DeviceEditor, which provides a graphical design environment that mimics the intuitive visual whiteboard design process practiced in biological laboratories. The key innovations of DeviceEditor include visual combinatorial library design, direct integration with scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation, and a graphical user interface for the creation and modification of design specification rules. We demonstrate how biological designs are rendered on the DeviceEditor canvas, and we present effective visualizations of genetic component ordering and combinatorial variations within complex designs. Conclusions DeviceEditor liberates researchers from DNA base-pair manipulation, and enables users to create successful prototypes using standardized, functional, and visual abstractions. Open and documented software interfaces support further integration of DeviceEditor with other bioCAD tools and software platforms. DeviceEditor saves researcher time and institutional resources through correct-by-construction design, the automation of tedious tasks, design reuse, and the minimization of DNA assembly costs.

  2. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  3. Fourier power, subjective distance and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Lescroart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.

  4. Visualizing dimensionality reduction of systems biology data

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrmann, Andreas; Huber, Michael; Polatkan, Aydin C.; Pritzkau, Albert; Nieselt, Kay

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges in analyzing high-dimensional expression data is the detection of important biological signals. A common approach is to apply a dimension reduction method, such as principal component analysis. Typically, after application of such a method the data is projected and visualized in the new coordinate system, using scatter plots or profile plots. These methods provide good results if the data have certain properties which become visible in the new coordinate system and which...

  5. REPRESENTASI VISUAL BUKU BIOLOGI SMA PADA MATERI KINGDOM PLANTAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Mulyani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini berjudul “Representasi Visual Buku Biologi SMA pada Materi Kingdom Plantae”. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui representasi visual yang terdapat pada buku teks biologi SMA. Pendekatan penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah tujuh buku biologi SMA kelas X. Instrument yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu lembar observasi dalam bentuk checklist untuk mengidentifikasi representasi visual yang terdapat pada buku biologi. Data yang telah didapatkan dideskripsikan berdasarkan tipe-tipe representasi visual. Hasil penelitian menunjukan, jenis representasi visual dalam bentuk gambar menunjukan tingkat yang paling banyak digunakan dibandingkan dengan diagram. Hubungan antara representasi visual dengan isi materi banyak yang bermakna. Hubungan representasi visual dengan realitas menunjukan hubungan yang realistis. Representasi visual yang terdapat dalam buku biologi mayoritas berfungsi dalam memberikan contoh. Kesimpulan yang didapatkan dalam penelitian ini menunjukan kalau representasi visual dalam buku biologi mempunyai peranan yang penting. Kata Kunci: Representasi visual, Buku teks, gambar, diagram.

  6. Nicotine dose-concentration relationship and pregnancy outcomes in rat: Biologic plausibility and implications for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Jabeen; Farkas, Svetlana; MacKinnon, Yolanda; Ariano, Robert E.; Sitar, Daniel S.; Hasan, Shabih U.

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure during pregnancy can lead to profound adverse effects on fetal development. Although CS contains several thousand chemicals, nicotine has been widely used as its surrogate as well as in its own right as a neuroteratogen. The justification for the route and dose of nicotine administration is largely based on inferential data suggesting that nicotine 6 mg/kg/day infused continuously via osmotic mini pumps (OMP) would mimic maternal CS exposure. We provide evidence that 6 mg/kg/day nicotine dose as commonly administered to pregnant rats leads to plasma nicotine concentrations that are 3-10-fold higher than those observed in moderate to heavy smokers and pregnant mothers, respectively. Furthermore, the cumulative daily nicotine dose exceeds by several hundred fold the amount consumed by human heavy smokers. Our study does not support the widely accepted notion that regardless of the nicotine dose, a linear nicotine dose-concentration relationship exists in a steady-state OMP model. We also show that total nicotine clearance increases with advancing pregnancy but no significant change is observed between the 2nd and 3rd trimester. Furthermore, nicotine infusion even at this extremely high dose has little effect on a number of maternal and fetal biologic variables and pregnancy outcome suggesting that CS constituents other than nicotine mediate the fetal growth restriction in infants born to smoking mothers. Our current study has major implications for translational research in developmental toxicology and pharmacotherapy using nicotine replacement treatment as an aid to cessation of cigarette smoking in pregnant mothers

  7. Seeing Cells: Teaching the Visual/Verbal Rhetoric of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinolfo, John; Heifferon, Barbara; Temesvari, Lesly A.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study obtained baseline information on verbal and visual rhetorics to teach microscopy techniques to college biology majors. We presented cell images to students in cell biology and biology writing classes and then asked them to identify textual, verbal, and visual cues that support microscopy learning. Survey responses suggest that…

  8. REPRESENTASI VISUAL BUKU BIOLOGI SMA PADA MATERI KINGDOM PLANTAE

    OpenAIRE

    Asep Mulyani

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini berjudul “Representasi Visual Buku Biologi SMA pada Materi Kingdom Plantae”. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui representasi visual yang terdapat pada buku teks biologi SMA. Pendekatan penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah tujuh buku biologi SMA kelas X. Instrument yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu lembar observasi dalam bentuk checklist untuk mengidentifikasi representasi visual yang terdapat pada bu...

  9. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of diarrhoeal disease in young children identifies FUT2 locus and provides plausible biological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mariona; Standl, Marie; Bassat, Quique; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Bonilla, Carolina; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Bacelis, Jonas; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Tiesler, Carla M T; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ring, Susan; Vissing, Nadja H; Fink, Nadia R; Jugessur, Astanand; Mentch, Frank D; Ballester, Ferran; Kriebel, Jennifer; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Wolsk, Helene M; Llop, Sabrina; Thiering, Elisabeth; Beth, Systke A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Andersen, Josefine; Schulz, Holger; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Evans, David M; Waage, Johannes; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F A; Jacobsson, Bo; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Davey Smith, George; Moll, Henriette A; Heinrich, Joachim; Estivill, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-09-15

    More than a million childhood diarrhoeal episodes occur worldwide each year, and in developed countries a considerable part of them are caused by viral infections. In this study, we aimed to search for genetic variants associated with diarrhoeal disease in young children by meta-analyzing genome-wide association studies, and to elucidate plausible biological mechanisms. The study was conducted in the context of the Early Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium. Data about diarrhoeal disease in two time windows (around 1 year of age and around 2 years of age) was obtained via parental questionnaires, doctor interviews or medical records. Standard quality control and statistical tests were applied to the 1000 Genomes imputed genotypic data. The meta-analysis (N = 5758) followed by replication (N = 3784) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8111874 and diarrhoea at age 1 year. Conditional analysis suggested that the causal variant could be rs601338 (W154X) in the FUT2 gene. Children with the A allele, which results in a truncated FUT2 protein, had lower risk of diarrhoea. FUT2 participates in the production of histo-blood group antigens and has previously been implicated in the susceptibility to infections, including Rotavirus and Norovirus Gene-set enrichment analysis suggested pathways related to the histo-blood group antigen production, and the regulation of ion transport and blood pressure. Among others, the gastrointestinal tract, and the immune and neuro-secretory systems were detected as relevant organs. In summary, this genome-wide association meta-analysis suggests the implication of the FUT2 gene in diarrhoeal disease in young children from the general population. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Trial-by-Trial Modulation of Associative Memory Formation by Reward Prediction Error and Reward Anticipation as Revealed by a Biologically Plausible Computational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer C; Müller, Julia; Schwartz, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Anticipation and delivery of rewards improves memory formation, but little effort has been made to disentangle their respective contributions to memory enhancement. Moreover, it has been suggested that the effects of reward on memory are mediated by dopaminergic influences on hippocampal plasticity. Yet, evidence linking memory improvements to actual reward computations reflected in the activity of the dopaminergic system, i.e., prediction errors and expected values, is scarce and inconclusive. For example, different previous studies reported that the magnitude of prediction errors during a reinforcement learning task was a positive, negative, or non-significant predictor of successfully encoding simultaneously presented images. Individual sensitivities to reward and punishment have been found to influence the activation of the dopaminergic reward system and could therefore help explain these seemingly discrepant results. Here, we used a novel associative memory task combined with computational modeling and showed independent effects of reward-delivery and reward-anticipation on memory. Strikingly, the computational approach revealed positive influences from both reward delivery, as mediated by prediction error magnitude, and reward anticipation, as mediated by magnitude of expected value, even in the absence of behavioral effects when analyzed using standard methods, i.e., by collapsing memory performance across trials within conditions. We additionally measured trait estimates of reward and punishment sensitivity and found that individuals with increased reward (vs. punishment) sensitivity had better memory for associations encoded during positive (vs. negative) prediction errors when tested after 20 min, but a negative trend when tested after 24 h. In conclusion, modeling trial-by-trial fluctuations in the magnitude of reward, as we did here for prediction errors and expected value computations, provides a comprehensive and biologically plausible description of

  11. Perception of Biological Motion in Central and Peripheral Visual Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laicāne Ilze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies analysing biological motion perception based on reduced number of dots have demonstrated that biological motion can be perceived even when only the lower part of the body is visible or when the number of dots representing the object is reduced. What is the minimal amount of information that enables biological motion to be distinguished from its scrambled version? The results of the current experiment demonstrate that biological motion can be distinguished from its scrambled version when the object is formed of approximately 5 (4.7 ± 0.1 dots. Additionally, we also investigated whether the threshold value for biological motion perception differs in central and peripheral visual fields. By using stimulus magnification, we demonstrate that the number of dots sufficient for biological motion perception is similar in the central visual field and near periphery. Hence, stimulus magnification can compensate for reduced task performance in the peripheral visual field. The current results suggest that reduced performance of biological motion perception in the peripheral visual field (as demonstrated in other studies is due to difficulties with the global perception of biological motion.

  12. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods for synthetic biology biobricks' visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaoyun; Wang, Haipeng; Ding, Huitong; An, Ning; Alterovitz, Gil

    2017-01-19

    Visualizing data by dimensionality reduction is an important strategy in Bioinformatics, which could help to discover hidden data properties and detect data quality issues, e.g. data noise, inappropriately labeled data, etc. As crowdsourcing-based synthetic biology databases face similar data quality issues, we propose to visualize biobricks to tackle them. However, existing dimensionality reduction methods could not be directly applied on biobricks datasets. Hereby, we use normalized edit distance to enhance dimensionality reduction methods, including Isomap and Laplacian Eigenmaps. By extracting biobricks from synthetic biology database Registry of Standard Biological Parts, six combinations of various types of biobricks are tested. The visualization graphs illustrate discriminated biobricks and inappropriately labeled biobricks. Clustering algorithm K-means is adopted to quantify the reduction results. The average clustering accuracy for Isomap and Laplacian Eigenmaps are 0.857 and 0.844, respectively. Besides, Laplacian Eigenmaps is 5 times faster than Isomap, and its visualization graph is more concentrated to discriminate biobricks. By combining normalized edit distance with Isomap and Laplacian Eigenmaps, synthetic biology biobircks are successfully visualized in two dimensional space. Various types of biobricks could be discriminated and inappropriately labeled biobricks could be determined, which could help to assess crowdsourcing-based synthetic biology databases' quality, and make biobricks selection.

  13. Visual Literacy in Biology: A Comparison of Visual Representations in Textbooks and Journal Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Using course materials to promote visual literacy skills is an important aspect of undergraduate science education. A comparison study was undertaken to determine the composition of visual representations, specifically representations of data generated from experimental research, found in general biology and discipline-specific textbooks compared…

  14. Visual Literacy in Preservice Teachers: a Case Study in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gallardo, José Reyes; García Fernández, Beatriz; Mateos Jiménez, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we explore the competence of preservice teachers (n = 161) in labelling and creating new cross-sectional human diagrams, based on anatomy knowledge depicted in longitudinal sections. Using educational standards to assess visual literacy and ad hoc open questions, results indicate limited skills for both tasks. However, their competence is particularly poor creating diagrams, where shortcomings were observed not only in visual literacy but in content knowledge. We discuss the misconceptions detected during these assessments. Visual literacy training should be strengthened for these students, as it is a skill that is especially important for future teachers to use in learning, assessing, and reflecting on content in science education. This is particularly important in preservice teachers since they should be fluent in the use of visual teaching tools in teaching anatomy and other content in the biology curriculum.

  15. Synthetic Biology Open Language Visual (SBOL Visual) Version 2.0

    KAUST Repository

    Cox, Robert Sidney

    2018-03-24

    People who are engineering biological organisms often find it useful to communicate in diagrams, both about the structure of the nucleic acid sequences that they are engineering and about the functional relationships between sequence features and other molecular species. Some typical practices and conventions have begun to emerge for such diagrams. The Synthetic Biology Open Language Visual (SBOL Visual) has been developed as a standard for organizing and systematizing such conventions in order to produce a coherent language for expressing the structure and function of genetic designs. This document details version 2.0 of SBOL Visual, which builds on the prior SBOL Visual 1.0 standard by expanding diagram syntax to include functional interactions and molecular species, making the relationship between diagrams and the SBOL data model explicit, supporting families of symbol variants, clarifying a number of requirements and best practices, and significantly expanding the collection of diagram glyphs.

  16. Biological plausibility as a tool to associate analytical data for micropollutants and effect potentials in wastewater, surface water, and sediments with effects in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Diana; Blaha, Ludek; Giesy, John P; Henneberg, Anja; Köhler, Heinz-R; Kuch, Bertram; Osterauer, Raphaela; Peschke, Katharina; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-04-01

    of micronuclei in erythrocytes of chub from the river. Chemicals potentially responsible for effects on DNA were identified. Embryotoxic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), investigated in the laboratory, were associated with embryotoxic effects in trout exposed in streamwater bypass systems at the two rivers. In general, responses at all levels of organization were more pronounced in samples from the Schussen than in those from the Argen. These results are consistent with the magnitudes of chemical pollution in these two streams. Plausibility chains to establish causality between exposures and effects and to predict effects in biota in the river from studies in the laboratory are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. VANLO - Interactive visual exploration of aligned biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsen Lars

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI is fundamental to many biological processes. In the course of evolution, biological networks such as protein-protein interaction networks have developed. Biological networks of different species can be aligned by finding instances (e.g. proteins with the same common ancestor in the evolutionary process, so-called orthologs. For a better understanding of the evolution of biological networks, such aligned networks have to be explored. Visualization can play a key role in making the various relationships transparent. Results We present a novel visualization system for aligned biological networks in 3D space that naturally embeds existing 2D layouts. In addition to displaying the intra-network connectivities, we also provide insight into how the individual networks relate to each other by placing aligned entities on top of each other in separate layers. We optimize the layout of the entire alignment graph in a global fashion that takes into account inter- as well as intra-network relationships. The layout algorithm includes a step of merging aligned networks into one graph, laying out the graph with respect to application-specific requirements, splitting the merged graph again into individual networks, and displaying the network alignment in layers. In addition to representing the data in a static way, we also provide different interaction techniques to explore the data with respect to application-specific tasks. Conclusion Our system provides an intuitive global understanding of aligned PPI networks and it allows the investigation of key biological questions. We evaluate our system by applying it to real-world examples documenting how our system can be used to investigate the data with respect to these key questions. Our tool VANLO (Visualization of Aligned Networks with Layout Optimization can be accessed at http://www.math-inf.uni-greifswald.de/VANLO.

  18. A primer in biological data analysis and visualization using R

    CERN Document Server

    Hartvigsen, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    R is a popular programming language that statisticians use to perform a variety of statistical computing tasks. Rooted in Gregg Hartvigsen's extensive experience teaching biology, this text is an engaging, practical, and lab-oriented introduction to R for students in the life sciences. Underscoring the importance of R and RStudio to the organization, computation, and visualization of biological statistics and data, Hartvigsen guides readers through the processes of entering data into R, working with data in R, and using R to express data in histograms, boxplots, barplots, scatterplots, before/

  19. New tools for the visualization of biological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Tomojit; Ma, Xiaofeng; Kirby, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents several geometrically motivated techniques for the visualization of high-dimensional biological data sets. The Grassmann manifold provides a robust framework for measuring data similarity in a subspace context. Sparse radial basis function classification as a visualization technique leverages recent advances in radial basis function learning via convex optimization. In the spirit of deep belief networks, supervised centroid-encoding is proposed as a way to exploit class label information. These methods are compared to linear and nonlinear principal component analysis (autoencoders) in the context of data visualization; these approaches may perform poorly for visualization when the variance of the data is spread across more than three dimensions. In contrast, the proposed methods are shown to capture significant data structure in two or three dimensions, even when the information in the data lives in higher dimensional subspaces. To illustrate these ideas, the visualization techniques are applied to gene expression data sets that capture the host immune system's response to infection by the Ebola virus in non-human primate and collaborative cross mouse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Visual form Cues, Biological Motions, Auditory Cues, and Even Olfactory Cues Interact to Affect Visual Sex Discriminations

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Van Der Zwan; Anna Brooks; Duncan Blair; Coralia Machatch; Graeme Hacker

    2011-01-01

    Johnson and Tassinary (2005) proposed that visually perceived sex is signalled by structural or form cues. They suggested also that biological motion cues signal sex, but do so indirectly. We previously have shown that auditory cues can mediate visual sex perceptions (van der Zwan et al., 2009). Here we demonstrate that structural cues to body shape are alone sufficient for visual sex discriminations but that biological motion cues alone are not. Interestingly, biological motions can resolve ...

  1. Optimality and Plausibility in Language Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Levot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Minimalist Program in generative syntax has been the subject of much rancour, a good proportion of it stoked by Noam Chomsky’s suggestion that language may represent “a ‘perfect solution’ to minimal design specifications.” A particular flash point has been the application of Minimalist principles to speculations about how language evolved in the human species. This paper argues that Minimalism is well supported as a plausible approach to language evolution. It is claimed that an assumption of minimal design specifications like that employed in MP syntax satisfies three key desiderata of evolutionary and general scientific plausibility: Physical Optimism, Rational Optimism, and Darwin’s Problem. In support of this claim, the methodologies employed in MP to maximise parsimony are characterised through an analysis of recent theories in Minimalist syntax, and those methodologies are defended with reference to practices and arguments from evolutionary biology and other natural sciences.

  2. explorase: Multivariate Exploratory Analysis and Visualization for Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The datasets being produced by high-throughput biological experiments, such as microarrays, have forced biologists to turn to sophisticated statistical analysis and visualization tools in order to understand their data. We address the particular need for an open-source exploratory data analysis tool that applies numerical methods in coordination with interactive graphics to the analysis of experimental data. The software package, known as explorase, provides a graphical user interface (GUI on top of the R platform for statistical computing and the GGobi software for multivariate interactive graphics. The GUI is designed for use by biologists, many of whom are unfamiliar with the R language. It displays metadata about experimental design and biological entities in tables that are sortable and filterable. There are menu shortcuts to the analysis methods implemented in R, including graphical interfaces to linear modeling tools. The GUI is linked to data plots in GGobi through a brush tool that simultaneously colors rows in the entity information table and points in the GGobi plots.

  3. Binding biological motion and visual features in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yangfan; Wu, Fan; Lu, Xiqian; Gao, Zaifeng; Shen, Mowei

    2015-06-01

    Working memory mechanisms for binding have been examined extensively in the last decade, yet few studies have explored bindings relating to human biological motion (BM). Human BM is the most salient and biologically significant kinetic information encountered in everyday life and is stored independently from other visual features (e.g., colors). The current study explored 3 critical issues of BM-related binding in working memory: (a) how many BM binding units can be retained in working memory, (b) whether involuntarily object-based binding occurs during BM binding, and (c) whether the maintenance of BM bindings in working memory requires attention above and beyond that needed to maintain the constituent dimensions. We isolated motion signals of human BM from non-BM sources by using point-light displays as to-be-memorized BM and presented the participants colored BM in a change detection task. We found that working memory capacity for BM-color bindings is rather low; only 1 or 2 BM-color bindings could be retained in working memory regardless of the presentation manners (Experiments 1-3). Furthermore, no object-based encoding took place for colored BM stimuli regardless of the processed dimensions (Experiments 4 and 5). Central executive attention contributes to the maintenance of BM-color bindings, yet maintaining BM bindings in working memory did not require more central attention than did maintaining the constituent dimensions in working memory (Experiment 6). Overall, these results suggest that keeping BM bindings in working memory is a fairly resource-demanding process, yet central executive attention does not play a special role in this cross-module binding. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. VISUALIZATION APPROACH TO STRUCTURE-FUNCTION RELATIONSHIP IN BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luetić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most of recent research in the field of education strongly recommends the use of visualization in the daily teacher’s practice, especially when it comes to teaching science. Objectives: We investigated the impact of different kinds of visualization on student’s accomplishments, and the relationship between 2D and 3D visualization on the learning outcomes in biochemistry teaching, as well as gender-related differences in 2D vs 3D perception abilities. Materials and Methods: The research study was conducted on a sample of 149 senior secondary school students, devided into three groups: control group (usual teaching approach, and two experimental groups taught using different kinds of visualization: E1 (2D and 3D static visualization tools, and E2 (3D dynamic visualization tools, in addition. Discussion and results: We measured the students’ learning outcomes in biochemistry, as well as the level of satisfaction with different teaching methods. The data were interpreted by performing statistical measures and analyses. In order to validate our hypothesis, we used one-tail and two-tail ANOVA analyses (along with the t-test.Conclusions: There was no statistical significance regarding 2D vs 3D visualization tools in biochemistry teaching. Although there existed some gender-related differences in students’ achievements (in favor of females, it was not established that they were related to the type of visualization (2D or 3D tools applied. However students from the E2 group (additional computer animations were more interested and involved in this kind of teaching. Although the results do not show a statistical significance in favor of 3D visualization, we must conclude that in teaching biochemistry it is certainly a more efficient approach than traditional teacher-oriented lessons. By using this kind of visualization tools in everyday teaching practice, chemistry teachers are given the opportunity to enlighten students with somewhat

  5. The essence of student visual-spatial literacy and higher order thinking skills in undergraduate biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Nashon, Samson Madera

    2012-02-01

    Science, engineering and mathematics-related disciplines have relied heavily on a researcher's ability to visualize phenomena under study and being able to link and superimpose various abstract and concrete representations including visual, spatial, and temporal. The spatial representations are especially important in all branches of biology (in developmental biology time becomes an important dimension), where 3D and often 4D representations are crucial for understanding the phenomena. By the time biology students get to undergraduate education, they are supposed to have acquired visual-spatial thinking skills, yet it has been documented that very few undergraduates and a small percentage of graduate students have had a chance to develop these skills to a sufficient degree. The current paper discusses the literature that highlights the essence of visual-spatial thinking and the development of visual-spatial literacy, considers the application of the visual-spatial thinking to biology education, and proposes how modern technology can help to promote visual-spatial literacy and higher order thinking among undergraduate students of biology.

  6. TRAFFIC SIGN DETECTION BASED ON BIOLOGICALLY VISUAL MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Hu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available TSR (Traffic sign recognition is an important problem in ITS (intelligent traffic system, which is being paid more and more attention for realizing drivers assisting system and unmanned vehicle etc. TSR consists of two steps: detection and recognition, and this paper describe a new traffic sign detection method. The design principle of the traffic sign is comply with the visual attention mechanism of human, so we propose a method using visual attention mechanism to detect traffic sign ,which is reasonable. In our method, the whole scene will firstly be analyzed by visual attention model to acquire the area where traffic signs might be placed. And then, these candidate areas will be analyzed according to the shape characteristics of the traffic sign to detect traffic signs. In traffic sign detection experiments, the result shows the proposed method is effectively and robust than other existing saliency detection method.

  7. Reflections on Supporting a Visually Impaired Student Complete a Biological Psychology Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R.; Cross, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    While there are a number of technologies that have been used, with varying levels of success, to support visually impaired students, the purpose of this article is to reflect upon the authors' experiences of supporting a visually impaired student through a nine-month level two undergraduate biological psychology module. The authors developed a…

  8. JColorGrid: software for the visualization of biological measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Joachimiak, Marcin P; Weisman, Jennifer L; May, Barnaby Ch

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Two-dimensional data colourings are an effective medium by which to represent three-dimensional data in two dimensions. Such "color-grid" representations have found increasing use in the biological sciences (e.g. microarray 'heat maps' and bioactivity data) as they are particularly suited to complex data sets and offer an alternative to the graphical representations included in traditional statistical software packages. The effectiveness of color-grids lies in their graphi...

  9. Plausibility and evidence: the case of homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Lex; Mathie, Robert T; Fisher, Peter; Goossens, Maria; van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-08-01

    Homeopathy is controversial and hotly debated. The conclusions of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy vary from 'comparable to conventional medicine' to 'no evidence of effects beyond placebo'. It is claimed that homeopathy conflicts with scientific laws and that homoeopaths reject the naturalistic outlook, but no evidence has been cited. We are homeopathic physicians and researchers who do not reject the scientific outlook; we believe that examination of the prior beliefs underlying this enduring stand-off can advance the debate. We show that interpretations of the same set of evidence--for homeopathy and for conventional medicine--can diverge. Prior disbelief in homeopathy is rooted in the perceived implausibility of any conceivable mechanism of action. Using the 'crossword analogy', we demonstrate that plausibility bias impedes assessment of the clinical evidence. Sweeping statements about the scientific impossibility of homeopathy are themselves unscientific: scientific statements must be precise and testable. There is growing evidence that homeopathic preparations can exert biological effects; due consideration of such research would reduce the influence of prior beliefs on the assessment of systematic review evidence.

  10. Visual analysis of transcriptome data in the context of anatomical structures and biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid eJunker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and temporal as well as spatial resolution of transcriptome datasets is constantly increasing due to extensive technological developments. Here we present methods for advanced visualization and intuitive exploration of transcriptomics data as necessary prerequisites in order to facilitate the gain of biological knowledge. Color-coding of structural images based on the expression level enables a fast visual data analysis in the background of the examined biological system. The network-based exploration of these visualizations allows for comparative analysis of genes with specific transcript patterns and supports the extraction of functional relationships even from large datasets. In order to illustrate the presented methods, the tool HIVE was applied for visualization and exploration of database-retrieved expression data for master regulators of Arabidopsis thaliana flower and seed development in the context of corresponding tissue-specific regulatory networks.

  11. ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES FOR TEACHING STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT IN DISTRITO FEDERAL’S SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Carvalho Mota de Souza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual impairment is a limitation that occurs in the sensory part of the vision, and can be classified as blindness, low vision or subnormal vision. The people with visually impaired have guaranteed rights to study in regular schools or special education schools. Therefore, a differentiated teaching is necessary for the learning of visually impaired students to happen effectively and ensure educational inclusion within the school. The aim of this study was to qualitatively analyze the teaching of Biological Sciences for the visually impaired in schools of the Distrito Federal, noting the institution, teachers and visually impaired students. The study was conducted using semi-structured interviews analyzed epistemologically. The results showed that: the institutions do not have adequate physical infrastructure; Biology teachers have no qualifications required; teachers of resource rooms are able to meet visually impaired students, even if resources are not sufficient, and the students do not understand all the benefits they could have. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt the teaching and learning materials to allow for a better education for visually impaired students and thus ensure appropriate learning for all students within the same educational institution.

  12. JColorGrid: software for the visualization of biological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimiak, Marcin P; Weisman, Jennifer L; May, Barnaby Ch

    2006-04-27

    Two-dimensional data colourings are an effective medium by which to represent three-dimensional data in two dimensions. Such "color-grid" representations have found increasing use in the biological sciences (e.g. microarray 'heat maps' and bioactivity data) as they are particularly suited to complex data sets and offer an alternative to the graphical representations included in traditional statistical software packages. The effectiveness of color-grids lies in their graphical design, which introduces a standard for customizable data representation. Currently, software applications capable of generating limited color-grid representations can be found only in advanced statistical packages or custom programs (e.g. micro-array analysis tools), often associated with steep learning curves and requiring expert knowledge. Here we describe JColorGrid, a Java library and platform independent application that renders color-grid graphics from data. The software can be used as a Java library, as a command-line application, and as a color-grid parameter interface and graphical viewer application. Data, titles, and data labels are input as tab-delimited text files or Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and the color-grid settings are specified through the graphical interface or a text configuration file. JColorGrid allows both user graphical data exploration as well as a means of automatically rendering color-grids from data as part of research pipelines. The program has been tested on Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems, and the binary executables and source files are available for download at http://jcolorgrid.ucsf.edu.

  13. JColorGrid: software for the visualization of biological measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Barnaby CH

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-dimensional data colourings are an effective medium by which to represent three-dimensional data in two dimensions. Such "color-grid" representations have found increasing use in the biological sciences (e.g. microarray 'heat maps' and bioactivity data as they are particularly suited to complex data sets and offer an alternative to the graphical representations included in traditional statistical software packages. The effectiveness of color-grids lies in their graphical design, which introduces a standard for customizable data representation. Currently, software applications capable of generating limited color-grid representations can be found only in advanced statistical packages or custom programs (e.g. micro-array analysis tools, often associated with steep learning curves and requiring expert knowledge. Results Here we describe JColorGrid, a Java library and platform independent application that renders color-grid graphics from data. The software can be used as a Java library, as a command-line application, and as a color-grid parameter interface and graphical viewer application. Data, titles, and data labels are input as tab-delimited text files or Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and the color-grid settings are specified through the graphical interface or a text configuration file. JColorGrid allows both user graphical data exploration as well as a means of automatically rendering color-grids from data as part of research pipelines. Conclusion The program has been tested on Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems, and the binary executables and source files are available for download at http://jcolorgrid.ucsf.edu.

  14. Believeability and Plausibility Functions over Infinite Sets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kramosil, Ivan

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (1995), s. 173-198 ISSN 0308-1079 Keywords : uncertainty processing * believeability function * plausibility function * probability measure * Dempster-Shafer theory Impact factor: 0.268, year: 1995

  15. Intellectual Tension: Connecting Biology and Visual Art in the Secondary Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Susan L.

    1999-01-01

    A study surveyed staff and student participants in Genetic Robotics, a week-long program linking biology and the visual arts. Staff perceptions centered about interdisciplinary phobias, shifting art-education roles, administrative support, and collaborative efforts. Student responses focused on apprehension/adaptation, attitudes, motivational…

  16. Visualizing genome and systems biology: technologies, tools, implementation techniques and trends, past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Malliarakis, Dimitris; Papanikolaou, Nikolas; Theodosiou, Theodosis; Enright, Anton J; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    "Α picture is worth a thousand words." This widely used adage sums up in a few words the notion that a successful visual representation of a concept should enable easy and rapid absorption of large amounts of information. Although, in general, the notion of capturing complex ideas using images is very appealing, would 1000 words be enough to describe the unknown in a research field such as the life sciences? Life sciences is one of the biggest generators of enormous datasets, mainly as a result of recent and rapid technological advances; their complexity can make these datasets incomprehensible without effective visualization methods. Here we discuss the past, present and future of genomic and systems biology visualization. We briefly comment on many visualization and analysis tools and the purposes that they serve. We focus on the latest libraries and programming languages that enable more effective, efficient and faster approaches for visualizing biological concepts, and also comment on the future human-computer interaction trends that would enable for enhancing visualization further.

  17. Escher: A Web Application for Building, Sharing, and Embedding Data-Rich Visualizations of Biological Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; Draeger, Andreas; Ebrahim, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Escher is a web application for visualizing data on biological pathways. Three key features make Escher a uniquely effective tool for pathway visualization. First, users can rapidly design new pathway maps. Escher provides pathway suggestions based on user data and genome-scale models, so users can......IP)-in conjunction with metabolite-and reaction-oriented data types (e.g. metabolomics, fluxomics). Third, Escher harnesses the strengths of web technologies (SVG, D3, developer tools) so that visualizations can be rapidly adapted, extended, shared, and embedded. This paper provides examples of each...... of these features and explains how the development approach used for Escher can be used to guide the development of future visualization tools....

  18. A Multilevel Gamma-Clustering Layout Algorithm for Visualization of Biological Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruz, Tomas; Lucas, Christoph; Laule, Oliver; Zimmermann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of large complex networks has become an indispensable part of systems biology, where organisms need to be considered as one complex system. The visualization of the corresponding network is challenging due to the size and density of edges. In many cases, the use of standard visualization algorithms can lead to high running times and poorly readable visualizations due to many edge crossings. We suggest an approach that analyzes the structure of the graph first and then generates a new graph which contains specific semantic symbols for regular substructures like dense clusters. We propose a multilevel gamma-clustering layout visualization algorithm (MLGA) which proceeds in three subsequent steps: (i) a multilevel γ-clustering is used to identify the structure of the underlying network, (ii) the network is transformed to a tree, and (iii) finally, the resulting tree which shows the network structure is drawn using a variation of a force-directed algorithm. The algorithm has a potential to visualize very large networks because it uses modern clustering heuristics which are optimized for large graphs. Moreover, most of the edges are removed from the visual representation which allows keeping the overview over complex graphs with dense subgraphs. PMID:23864855

  19. Ventral aspect of the visual form pathway is not critical for the perception of biological motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the movements of those around us is fundamental for many daily activities, such as recognizing actions, detecting predators, and interacting with others socially. A key question concerns the neurobiological substrates underlying biological motion perception. Although the ventral “form” visual cortex is standardly activated by biologically moving stimuli, whether these activations are functionally critical for biological motion perception or are epiphenomenal remains unknown. To address this question, we examined whether focal damage to regions of the ventral visual cortex, resulting in significant deficits in form perception, adversely affects biological motion perception. Six patients with damage to the ventral cortex were tested with sensitive point-light display paradigms. All patients were able to recognize unmasked point-light displays and their perceptual thresholds were not significantly different from those of three different control groups, one of which comprised brain-damaged patients with spared ventral cortex (n > 50). Importantly, these six patients performed significantly better than patients with damage to regions critical for biological motion perception. To assess the necessary contribution of different regions in the ventral pathway to biological motion perception, we complement the behavioral findings with a fine-grained comparison between the lesion location and extent, and the cortical regions standardly implicated in biological motion processing. This analysis revealed that the ventral aspects of the form pathway (e.g., fusiform regions, ventral extrastriate body area) are not critical for biological motion perception. We hypothesize that the role of these ventral regions is to provide enhanced multiview/posture representations of the moving person rather than to represent biological motion perception per se. PMID:25583504

  20. Automated numerical simulation of biological pattern formation based on visual feedback simulation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhu; Xu, Hui; Zeng, Xingjuan; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    There are various fantastic biological phenomena in biological pattern formation. Mathematical modeling using reaction-diffusion partial differential equation systems is employed to study the mechanism of pattern formation. However, model parameter selection is both difficult and time consuming. In this paper, a visual feedback simulation framework is proposed to calculate the parameters of a mathematical model automatically based on the basic principle of feedback control. In the simulation framework, the simulation results are visualized, and the image features are extracted as the system feedback. Then, the unknown model parameters are obtained by comparing the image features of the simulation image and the target biological pattern. Considering two typical applications, the visual feedback simulation framework is applied to fulfill pattern formation simulations for vascular mesenchymal cells and lung development. In the simulation framework, the spot, stripe, labyrinthine patterns of vascular mesenchymal cells, the normal branching pattern and the branching pattern lacking side branching for lung branching are obtained in a finite number of iterations. The simulation results indicate that it is easy to achieve the simulation targets, especially when the simulation patterns are sensitive to the model parameters. Moreover, this simulation framework can expand to other types of biological pattern formation.

  1. The Bio-Analytic Resource: Data visualization and analytic tools for multiple levels of plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waese

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bio-Analytic Resource for Plant Biology (BAR is a portal for accessing large data sets from approximately 15 different plant species, with a focus on transcriptomic, protein-protein interaction, and promoter data. It consists of numerous databases for which its curators have added useful metadata, data visualization tools to display the query results from these databases, and visual analytic tools to identify e.g. gene expression patterns of interest based on publicly-available data. We briefly cover some of these tools and scenarios in which they might be useful for plant researchers.

  2. The Biological Connection Markup Language: a SBGN-compliant format for visualization, filtering and analysis of biological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Luca; Calura, Enrica; Popovici, Razvan R; Rizzetto, Lisa; Guedez, Damariz Rivero; Donato, Michele; Romualdi, Chiara; Draghici, Sorin; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2011-08-01

    Many models and analysis of signaling pathways have been proposed. However, neither of them takes into account that a biological pathway is not a fixed system, but instead it depends on the organism, tissue and cell type as well as on physiological, pathological and experimental conditions. The Biological Connection Markup Language (BCML) is a format to describe, annotate and visualize pathways. BCML is able to store multiple information, permitting a selective view of the pathway as it exists and/or behave in specific organisms, tissues and cells. Furthermore, BCML can be automatically converted into data formats suitable for analysis and into a fully SBGN-compliant graphical representation, making it an important tool that can be used by both computational biologists and 'wet lab' scientists. The XML schema and the BCML software suite are freely available under the LGPL for download at http://bcml.dc-atlas.net. They are implemented in Java and supported on MS Windows, Linux and OS X.

  3. Visual processing and social cognition in schizophrenia: relationships among eye movements, biological motion perception, and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yukiko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have impairments at several levels of cognition including visual attention (eye movements), perception, and social cognition. However, it remains unclear how lower-level cognitive deficits influence higher-level cognition. To elucidate the hierarchical path linking deficient cognitions, we focused on biological motion perception, which is involved in both the early stage of visual perception (attention) and higher social cognition, and is impaired in schizophrenia. Seventeen schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy controls participated in the study. Using point-light walker stimuli, we examined eye movements during biological motion perception in schizophrenia. We assessed relationships among eye movements, biological motion perception and empathy. In the biological motion detection task, schizophrenia patients showed lower accuracy and fixated longer than healthy controls. As opposed to controls, patients exhibiting longer fixation durations and fewer numbers of fixations demonstrated higher accuracy. Additionally, in the patient group, the correlations between accuracy and affective empathy index and between eye movement index and affective empathy index were significant. The altered gaze patterns in patients indicate that top-down attention compensates for impaired bottom-up attention. Furthermore, aberrant eye movements might lead to deficits in biological motion perception and finally link to social cognitive impairments. The current findings merit further investigation for understanding the mechanism of social cognitive training and its development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  4. What can we learn from Plausible Values?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, M.; Maris, G.; Bechger, T.; Glas, C.

    In this paper, we show that the marginal distribution of plausible values is a consistent estimator of the true latent variable distribution, and, furthermore, that convergence is monotone in an embedding in which the number of items tends to infinity. We use this result to clarify some of the

  5. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation ...

  6. VisBOL: Web-Based Tools for Synthetic Biology Design Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, James Alastair; Pocock, Matthew; Mısırlı, Göksel; Madsen, Curtis; Wipat, Anil

    2016-08-19

    VisBOL is a Web-based application that allows the rendering of genetic circuit designs, enabling synthetic biologists to visually convey designs in SBOL visual format. VisBOL designs can be exported to formats including PNG and SVG images to be embedded in Web pages, presentations and publications. The VisBOL tool enables the automated generation of visualizations from designs specified using the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) version 2.0, as well as a range of well-known bioinformatics formats including GenBank and Pigeoncad notation. VisBOL is provided both as a user accessible Web site and as an open-source (BSD) JavaScript library that can be used to embed diagrams within other content and software.

  7. ePlant: Visualizing and Exploring Multiple Levels of Data for Hypothesis Generation in Plant Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waese, Jamie; Fan, Jim; Pasha, Asher; Yu, Hans; Fucile, Geoffrey; Shi, Ruian; Cumming, Matthew; Kelley, Lawrence A; Sternberg, Michael J; Krishnakumar, Vivek; Ferlanti, Erik; Miller, Jason; Town, Chris; Stuerzlinger, Wolfgang; Provart, Nicholas J

    2017-08-01

    A big challenge in current systems biology research arises when different types of data must be accessed from separate sources and visualized using separate tools. The high cognitive load required to navigate such a workflow is detrimental to hypothesis generation. Accordingly, there is a need for a robust research platform that incorporates all data and provides integrated search, analysis, and visualization features through a single portal. Here, we present ePlant (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant), a visual analytic tool for exploring multiple levels of Arabidopsis thaliana data through a zoomable user interface. ePlant connects to several publicly available web services to download genome, proteome, interactome, transcriptome, and 3D molecular structure data for one or more genes or gene products of interest. Data are displayed with a set of visualization tools that are presented using a conceptual hierarchy from big to small, and many of the tools combine information from more than one data type. We describe the development of ePlant in this article and present several examples illustrating its integrative features for hypothesis generation. We also describe the process of deploying ePlant as an "app" on Araport. Building on readily available web services, the code for ePlant is freely available for any other biological species research. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. iBET: Immersive visualization of biological electron-transfer dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, C Masato; Moen, Erick; Byun, Hye Suk; Ma, Heng; Newman, Bradley; McDowell, Alexander; Wei, Tao; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y

    2016-04-01

    Recently, we presented a computational framework named VizBET to simulate and visualize biological electron-transfer (ET) dynamics. The visualization process was encapsulated as a plugin to the Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) software. However, the user's ability to understand complex, multidimensional ET pathways was severely limited when visualized in 2D on traditional computer monitors. To provide a more accurate representation with enhanced depth perception, we here present an extension of VizBET named iBET to render the VMD model of ET dynamics in a commodity virtual reality (VR) platform. The paper describes detailed procedures to export VMD models into the Unity game engine and render it in an Oculus Rift head mounted display. With the increasing availability of low-cost VR systems like the Rift and rich programmability of game engines, the iBET framework provides a powerful means to explore and understand not only biological ET processes but also a unique experiential tool for broad scientific communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Generalized lattice graphs for 2D-visualization of biological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, H; Pérez-Montoto, L G; Duardo-Sanchez, A; Paniagua, E; Vázquez-Prieto, S; Vilas, R; Dea-Ayuela, M A; Bolas-Fernández, F; Munteanu, C R; Dorado, J; Costas, J; Ubeira, F M

    2009-11-07

    Several graph representations have been introduced for different data in theoretical biology. For instance, complex networks based on Graph theory are used to represent the structure and/or dynamics of different large biological systems such as protein-protein interaction networks. In addition, Randic, Liao, Nandy, Basak, and many others developed some special types of graph-based representations. This special type of graph includes geometrical constrains to node positioning in space and adopts final geometrical shapes that resemble lattice-like patterns. Lattice networks have been used to visually depict DNA and protein sequences but they are very flexible. However, despite the proved efficacy of new lattice-like graph/networks to represent diverse systems, most works focus on only one specific type of biological data. This work proposes a generalized type of lattice and illustrates how to use it in order to represent and compare biological data from different sources. We exemplify the following cases: protein sequence; mass spectra (MS) of protein peptide mass fingerprints (PMF); molecular dynamic trajectory (MDTs) from structural studies; mRNA microarray data; single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 1D or 2D-Electrophoresis study of protein polymorphisms and protein-research patent and/or copyright information. We used data available from public sources for some examples but for other, we used experimental results reported herein for the first time. This work may break new ground for the application of Graph theory in theoretical biology and other areas of biomedical sciences.

  10. Biologically Inspired Model for Visual Cognition Achieving Unsupervised Episodic and Semantic Feature Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hong; Li, Yinlin; Li, Fengfu; Xi, Xuanyang; Wu, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Recently, many biologically inspired visual computational models have been proposed. The design of these models follows the related biological mechanisms and structures, and these models provide new solutions for visual recognition tasks. In this paper, based on the recent biological evidence, we propose a framework to mimic the active and dynamic learning and recognition process of the primate visual cortex. From principle point of view, the main contributions are that the framework can achieve unsupervised learning of episodic features (including key components and their spatial relations) and semantic features (semantic descriptions of the key components), which support higher level cognition of an object. From performance point of view, the advantages of the framework are as follows: 1) learning episodic features without supervision-for a class of objects without a prior knowledge, the key components, their spatial relations and cover regions can be learned automatically through a deep neural network (DNN); 2) learning semantic features based on episodic features-within the cover regions of the key components, the semantic geometrical values of these components can be computed based on contour detection; 3) forming the general knowledge of a class of objects-the general knowledge of a class of objects can be formed, mainly including the key components, their spatial relations and average semantic values, which is a concise description of the class; and 4) achieving higher level cognition and dynamic updating-for a test image, the model can achieve classification and subclass semantic descriptions. And the test samples with high confidence are selected to dynamically update the whole model. Experiments are conducted on face images, and a good performance is achieved in each layer of the DNN and the semantic description learning process. Furthermore, the model can be generalized to recognition tasks of other objects with learning ability.

  11. Linking Automated Data Analysis and Visualization with Applications in Developmental Biology and High-Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge discovery from large and complex collections of today's scientific datasets is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the increasing number of data dimensions and data objects is presenting tremendous challenges for data analysis and effective data exploration methods and tools. Researchers are overwhelmed with data and standard tools are often insufficient to enable effective data analysis and knowledge discovery. The main objective of this thesis is to provide important new capabilities to accelerate scientific knowledge discovery form large, complex, and multivariate scientific data. The research covered in this thesis addresses these scientific challenges using a combination of scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies, such as efficient data management. The effectiveness of the proposed analysis methods is demonstrated via applications in two distinct scientific research fields, namely developmental biology and high-energy physics.Advances in microscopy, image analysis, and embryo registration enable for the first time measurement of gene expression at cellular resolution for entire organisms. Analysis of high-dimensional spatial gene expression datasets is a challenging task. By integrating data clustering and visualization, analysis of complex, time-varying, spatial gene expression patterns and their formation becomes possible. The analysis framework MATLAB and the visualization have been integrated, making advanced analysis tools accessible to biologist and enabling bioinformatic researchers to directly integrate their analysis with the visualization. Laser wakefield particle accelerators (LWFAs) promise to be a new compact source of high-energy particles and radiation, with wide applications ranging from medicine to physics. To gain insight into the complex physical processes of particle

  12. Linking Automated Data Analysis and Visualization with Applications in Developmental Biology and High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, Oliver [Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-11-20

    Knowledge discovery from large and complex collections of today's scientific datasets is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the increasing number of data dimensions and data objects is presenting tremendous challenges for data analysis and effective data exploration methods and tools. Researchers are overwhelmed with data and standard tools are often insufficient to enable effective data analysis and knowledge discovery. The main objective of this thesis is to provide important new capabilities to accelerate scientific knowledge discovery form large, complex, and multivariate scientific data. The research covered in this thesis addresses these scientific challenges using a combination of scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies, such as efficient data management. The effectiveness of the proposed analysis methods is demonstrated via applications in two distinct scientific research fields, namely developmental biology and high-energy physics.Advances in microscopy, image analysis, and embryo registration enable for the first time measurement of gene expression at cellular resolution for entire organisms. Analysis of high-dimensional spatial gene expression datasets is a challenging task. By integrating data clustering and visualization, analysis of complex, time-varying, spatial gene expression patterns and their formation becomes possible. The analysis framework MATLAB and the visualization have been integrated, making advanced analysis tools accessible to biologist and enabling bioinformatic researchers to directly integrate their analysis with the visualization. Laser wakefield particle accelerators (LWFAs) promise to be a new compact source of high-energy particles and radiation, with wide applications ranging from medicine to physics. To gain insight into the complex physical processes of particle

  13. BioJS: an open source JavaScript framework for biological data visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, John; García, Leyla J; Salazar, Gustavo A; Villaveces, Jose; Gore, Swanand; García, Alexander; Martín, Maria J; Launay, Guillaume; Alcántara, Rafael; Del-Toro, Noemi; Dumousseau, Marine; Orchard, Sandra; Velankar, Sameer; Hermjakob, Henning; Zong, Chenggong; Ping, Peipei; Corpas, Manuel; Jiménez, Rafael C

    2013-04-15

    BioJS is an open-source project whose main objective is the visualization of biological data in JavaScript. BioJS provides an easy-to-use consistent framework for bioinformatics application programmers. It follows a community-driven standard specification that includes a collection of components purposely designed to require a very simple configuration and installation. In addition to the programming framework, BioJS provides a centralized repository of components available for reutilization by the bioinformatics community. http://code.google.com/p/biojs/. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Hyperspectral imaging of nanoparticles in biological samples: Simultaneous visualization and elemental identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, María Del Pilar Sosa; Gottipati, Abhishek; Tahiliani, Sahil; Neu-Baker, Nicole M; Frame, Mary D; Friedman, Adam J; Brenner, Sara A

    2016-05-01

    While engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly incorporated into industrial processes and consumer products, the potential biological effects and health outcomes of exposure remain unknown. Novel advanced direct visualization techniques that require less time, cost, and resource investment than electron microscopy (EM) are needed for identifying and locating ENMs in biological samples. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) combines spectrophotometry and imaging, using advanced optics and algorithms to capture a spectrum from 400 to 1000 nm at each pixel in an enhanced dark-field microscopic (EDFM) image. HSI-EDFM can be used to confirm the identity of the materials of interest in a sample and generate an image "mapping" their presence and location in a sample. Hyperspectral mapping is particularly important for biological samples, where ENM morphology is visually indistinct from surrounding tissue structures. While use of HSI (without mapping) is increasing, no studies to date have compared results from hyperspectral mapping with conventional methods. Thus, the objective of this study was to utilize EDFM-HSI to locate, identify, and map metal oxide ENMs in ex vivo histological porcine skin tissues, a toxicological model of cutaneous exposure, and compare findings with those of Raman spectroscopy (RS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results demonstrate that EDFM-HSI mapping is capable of locating and identifying ENMs in tissue, as confirmed by conventional methods. This study serves as initial confirmation of EDFM-HSI mapping as a novel and higher throughput technique for ENM identification in biological samples, and serves as the basis for further protocol development utilizing EDFM-HSI for semiquantitation of ENMs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Spectral Mixing in Nervous Systems: Experimental Evidenceand Biologically Plausible Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinfeld, D.; Mehta, S. B.

    The ability to compute the difference frequency for two periodic signals depends on a nonlinear operation that mixes those signals. Behavioral and psychophysical evidence suggest that such mixing is likely to occur in the vertebrate nervous system as a means to compare rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input. Electrophysiological data from electroreceptors in the immobilized electric fish and somatosensory cortex in the anesthetized rat yield direct evidence for such mixing, providing a neurological substrate for the modulation and demodulation of rhythmic neuronal signals. We consider an analytical model of spectral mixing that makes use of the threshold characteristics of neuronal firing and which has features consistent with the experimental observations. This model serves as a guide for constructing circuits that isolate given mixture components. In particular, such circuits can generate nearly pure difference tones from sinusoidal inputs without the use of band-pass filters, in analogy to an image-reject mixer in communications engineering. We speculate that such computations may play a role in coding of sensory input and feedback stabilization of motor output in nervous systems.

  16. Non-visual biological effects of light on human cognition, alertness, and mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaye; Wang, Huihui; Shen, Junfei; Sun, Peng; Xie, Ting; Zhang, Siman; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2017-09-01

    Light exerts non-visual effects on a wide range of biological functions and behavior apart from the visual effect. Light can regulate human circadian rhythms, like the secretion of melatonin and cortisol. Light also has influence on body's physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature. However, human cognitive performance, alertness and mood under different lighting conditions have not been considered thoroughly especially for the complicated visual task like surgical operating procedure. In this paper, an experiment was conducted to investigate the cognition, alertness and mood of healthy participants in a simulated operating room (OR) in the hospital. A LED surgical lamp was used as the light source, which is mixed by three color LEDs (amber, green and blue). The surgical lamp is flexible on both spectrum and intensity. Exposed to different light settings, which are varied from color temperature and luminance, participants were asked to take psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) for alertness measurement, alphabet test for cognitive performance measurement, positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) for mood measurement. The result showed the participants' cognitive performance, alertness and mood are related to the color temperature and luminance of the LED light. This research will have a guidance for the surgical lighting environment, which can not only enhance doctors' efficiency during the operations, but also create a positive and peaceful surgical lighting environment.

  17. IBS: an illustrator for the presentation and visualization of biological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzhong; Xie, Yubin; Ma, Jiyong; Luo, Xiaotong; Nie, Peng; Zuo, Zhixiang; Lahrmann, Urs; Zhao, Qi; Zheng, Yueyuan; Zhao, Yong; Xue, Yu; Ren, Jian

    2015-10-15

    Biological sequence diagrams are fundamental for visualizing various functional elements in protein or nucleotide sequences that enable a summarization and presentation of existing information as well as means of intuitive new discoveries. Here, we present a software package called illustrator of biological sequences (IBS) that can be used for representing the organization of either protein or nucleotide sequences in a convenient, efficient and precise manner. Multiple options are provided in IBS, and biological sequences can be manipulated, recolored or rescaled in a user-defined mode. Also, the final representational artwork can be directly exported into a publication-quality figure. The standalone package of IBS was implemented in JAVA, while the online service was implemented in HTML5 and JavaScript. Both the standalone package and online service are freely available at http://ibs.biocuckoo.org. renjian.sysu@gmail.com or xueyu@hust.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Arena3D: visualizing time-driven phenotypic differences in biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secrier Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidating the genotype-phenotype connection is one of the big challenges of modern molecular biology. To fully understand this connection, it is necessary to consider the underlying networks and the time factor. In this context of data deluge and heterogeneous information, visualization plays an essential role in interpreting complex and dynamic topologies. Thus, software that is able to bring the network, phenotypic and temporal information together is needed. Arena3D has been previously introduced as a tool that facilitates link discovery between processes. It uses a layered display to separate different levels of information while emphasizing the connections between them. We present novel developments of the tool for the visualization and analysis of dynamic genotype-phenotype landscapes. Results Version 2.0 introduces novel features that allow handling time course data in a phenotypic context. Gene expression levels or other measures can be loaded and visualized at different time points and phenotypic comparison is facilitated through clustering and correlation display or highlighting of impacting changes through time. Similarity scoring allows the identification of global patterns in dynamic heterogeneous data. In this paper we demonstrate the utility of the tool on two distinct biological problems of different scales. First, we analyze a medium scale dataset that looks at perturbation effects of the pluripotency regulator Nanog in murine embryonic stem cells. Dynamic cluster analysis suggests alternative indirect links between Nanog and other proteins in the core stem cell network. Moreover, recurrent correlations from the epigenetic to the translational level are identified. Second, we investigate a large scale dataset consisting of genome-wide knockdown screens for human genes essential in the mitotic process. Here, a potential new role for the gene lsm14a in cytokinesis is suggested. We also show how phenotypic

  19. Comprehending Conflicting Science-Related Texts: Graphs as Plausibility Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias; Maier, Johanna; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Horz, Holger; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When reading conflicting science-related texts, readers may attend to cues which allow them to assess plausibility. One such plausibility cue is the use of graphs in the texts, which are regarded as typical of "hard science." The goal of our study was to investigate the effects of the presence of graphs on the perceived plausibility and…

  20. ProteoLens: a visual analytic tool for multi-scale database-driven biological network data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Tianxiao; Sivachenko, Andrey Y; Harrison, Scott H; Chen, Jake Y

    2008-08-12

    New systems biology studies require researchers to understand how interplay among myriads of biomolecular entities is orchestrated in order to achieve high-level cellular and physiological functions. Many software tools have been developed in the past decade to help researchers visually navigate large networks of biomolecular interactions with built-in template-based query capabilities. To further advance researchers' ability to interrogate global physiological states of cells through multi-scale visual network explorations, new visualization software tools still need to be developed to empower the analysis. A robust visual data analysis platform driven by database management systems to perform bi-directional data processing-to-visualizations with declarative querying capabilities is needed. We developed ProteoLens as a JAVA-based visual analytic software tool for creating, annotating and exploring multi-scale biological networks. It supports direct database connectivity to either Oracle or PostgreSQL database tables/views, on which SQL statements using both Data Definition Languages (DDL) and Data Manipulation languages (DML) may be specified. The robust query languages embedded directly within the visualization software help users to bring their network data into a visualization context for annotation and exploration. ProteoLens supports graph/network represented data in standard Graph Modeling Language (GML) formats, and this enables interoperation with a wide range of other visual layout tools. The architectural design of ProteoLens enables the de-coupling of complex network data visualization tasks into two distinct phases: 1) creating network data association rules, which are mapping rules between network node IDs or edge IDs and data attributes such as functional annotations, expression levels, scores, synonyms, descriptions etc; 2) applying network data association rules to build the network and perform the visual annotation of graph nodes and edges

  1. A high-throughput screening approach to discovering good forms of biologically inspired visual representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nicolas; Doukhan, David; DiCarlo, James J; Cox, David D

    2009-11-01

    While many models of biological object recognition share a common set of "broad-stroke" properties, the performance of any one model depends strongly on the choice of parameters in a particular instantiation of that model--e.g., the number of units per layer, the size of pooling kernels, exponents in normalization operations, etc. Since the number of such parameters (explicit or implicit) is typically large and the computational cost of evaluating one particular parameter set is high, the space of possible model instantiations goes largely unexplored. Thus, when a model fails to approach the abilities of biological visual systems, we are left uncertain whether this failure is because we are missing a fundamental idea or because the correct "parts" have not been tuned correctly, assembled at sufficient scale, or provided with enough training. Here, we present a high-throughput approach to the exploration of such parameter sets, leveraging recent advances in stream processing hardware (high-end NVIDIA graphic cards and the PlayStation 3's IBM Cell Processor). In analogy to high-throughput screening approaches in molecular biology and genetics, we explored thousands of potential network architectures and parameter instantiations, screening those that show promising object recognition performance for further analysis. We show that this approach can yield significant, reproducible gains in performance across an array of basic object recognition tasks, consistently outperforming a variety of state-of-the-art purpose-built vision systems from the literature. As the scale of available computational power continues to expand, we argue that this approach has the potential to greatly accelerate progress in both artificial vision and our understanding of the computational underpinning of biological vision.

  2. A high-throughput screening approach to discovering good forms of biologically inspired visual representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pinto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available While many models of biological object recognition share a common set of "broad-stroke" properties, the performance of any one model depends strongly on the choice of parameters in a particular instantiation of that model--e.g., the number of units per layer, the size of pooling kernels, exponents in normalization operations, etc. Since the number of such parameters (explicit or implicit is typically large and the computational cost of evaluating one particular parameter set is high, the space of possible model instantiations goes largely unexplored. Thus, when a model fails to approach the abilities of biological visual systems, we are left uncertain whether this failure is because we are missing a fundamental idea or because the correct "parts" have not been tuned correctly, assembled at sufficient scale, or provided with enough training. Here, we present a high-throughput approach to the exploration of such parameter sets, leveraging recent advances in stream processing hardware (high-end NVIDIA graphic cards and the PlayStation 3's IBM Cell Processor. In analogy to high-throughput screening approaches in molecular biology and genetics, we explored thousands of potential network architectures and parameter instantiations, screening those that show promising object recognition performance for further analysis. We show that this approach can yield significant, reproducible gains in performance across an array of basic object recognition tasks, consistently outperforming a variety of state-of-the-art purpose-built vision systems from the literature. As the scale of available computational power continues to expand, we argue that this approach has the potential to greatly accelerate progress in both artificial vision and our understanding of the computational underpinning of biological vision.

  3. Visual gravity cues in the interpretation of biological movements: neural correlates in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Vincenzo; Indovina, Iole; Macaluso, Emiliano; Ivanenko, Yuri P; A Orban, Guy; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Our visual system takes into account the effects of Earth gravity to interpret biological motion (BM), but the neural substrates of this process remain unclear. Here we measured functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) signals while participants viewed intact or scrambled stick-figure animations of walking, running, hopping, and skipping recorded at normal or reduced gravity. We found that regions sensitive to BM configuration in the occipito-temporal cortex (OTC) were more active for reduced than normal gravity but with intact stimuli only. Effective connectivity analysis suggests that predictive coding of gravity effects underlies BM interpretation. This process might be implemented by a family of snapshot neurons involved in action monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-04-01

    Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of their nervous systems, have made honeybees an attractive model in which to pursue general principles of sensorimotor function in a variety of contexts, many of which pertain not just to honeybees, but several other animal species, including humans. This review begins by describing the principles of visual guidance that underlie perception of the world in three dimensions, obstacle avoidance, control of flight speed, and orchestrating smooth landings. We then consider how navigation over long distances is accomplished, with particular reference to how bees use information from the celestial compass to determine their flight bearing, and information from the movement of the environment in their eyes to gauge how far they have flown. Finally, we illustrate how some of the principles gleaned from these studies are now being used to design novel, biologically inspired algorithms for the guidance of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  5. BioCircos.js: an interactive Circos JavaScript library for biological data visualization on web applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ya; Chen, Xiaowei; Luo, Huaxia; Fan, Zhen; Luo, Jianjun; He, Shunmin; Yue, Haiyan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Runsheng

    2016-06-01

    We here present BioCircos.js, an interactive and lightweight JavaScript library especially for biological data interactive visualization. BioCircos.js facilitates the development of web-based applications for circular visualization of various biological data, such as genomic features, genetic variations, gene expression and biomolecular interactions. BioCircos.js and its manual are freely available online at http://bioinfo.ibp.ac.cn/biocircos/ rschen@ibp.ac.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. PathText: a text mining integrator for biological pathway visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Brian; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Tsuruoka, Yoshimasa; Kitano, Hiroaki; Ananiadou, Sophia; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Metabolic and signaling pathways are an increasingly important part of organizing knowledge in systems biology. They serve to integrate collective interpretations of facts scattered throughout literature. Biologists construct a pathway by reading a large number of articles and interpreting them as a consistent network, but most of the models constructed currently lack direct links to those articles. Biologists who want to check the original articles have to spend substantial amounts of time to collect relevant articles and identify the sections relevant to the pathway. Furthermore, with the scientific literature expanding by several thousand papers per week, keeping a model relevant requires a continuous curation effort. In this article, we present a system designed to integrate a pathway visualizer, text mining systems and annotation tools into a seamless environment. This will enable biologists to freely move between parts of a pathway and relevant sections of articles, as well as identify relevant papers from large text bases. The system, PathText, is developed by Systems Biology Institute, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, National Centre for Text Mining (University of Manchester) and the University of Tokyo, and is being used by groups of biologists from these locations. Contact: brian@monrovian.com. PMID:20529930

  7. A GEO-VISUAL ANALYTICS APPROACH TO BIOLOGICAL SHEPHERDING: MODELLING ANIMAL MOVEMENTS AND IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Benke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The lamb industry in Victoria is a significant component of the state economy with annual exports in the vicinity of $1 billion. GPS and visualisation tools can be used to monitor grazing animal movements at the farm scale and observe interactions with the environment. Modelling the spatial-temporal movements of grazing animals in response to environmental conditions provides input for the design of paddocks with the aim of improving management procedures, animal performance and animal welfare. The term "biological shepherding" is associated with the re-design of environmental conditions and the analysis of responses from grazing animals. The combination of biological shepherding with geo-visual analytics (geo-spatial data analysis with visualisation provides a framework for improving landscape design and supports research in grazing behaviour in variable landscapes, heat stress avoidance behaviour during summer months, and modelling excreta distributions (with respect to nitrogen emissions and nitrogen return for fertilising the paddock. Nitrogen losses due to excreta are mainly in the form of gaseous emissions to the atmosphere and leaching into the groundwater. In this study, background and context are provided in the case of biological shepherding and tracking animal movements. Examples are provided of recent applications in regional Australia and New Zealand. Based on experimental data and computer simulation, and using data visualisation and feature extraction, it was demonstrated that livestock excreta are not always randomly located, but concentrated around localised gathering points, sometimes separated by the nature of the excretion. Farmers require information on the nitrogen losses in order to reduce emissions to meet local and international nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas targets and to improve the efficiency of nutrient management.

  8. Analytic models of plausible gravitational lens potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modelled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sérsic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasising that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential. We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sérsic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modelled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses

  9. Exploring local plausible reasoning: the case of inequality tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiki, I.; Nusantara, T.; Subanji; Chandra, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    This study explores local plausible reasoning in solving inequality tasks. The study was conducted to 78 students of mathematics education major from a university in Surabaya, Indonesia. Data were collected through written tasks and interviews. The data were analysed by a constant comparative method. The results of the study were the characteristics of local plausible reasoning shown by these behaviours: (1) students applied plausible reasoning in the local part of task solving or (2) students involved a conceptual understanding or a relational understanding in a few part of entirely argumentations. Educators can overcome the students’ behaviours by designing a meaningful learning strategy which develops students’ plausible reasoning in the whole of task solving.

  10. Computational intelligence in multi-feature visual pattern recognition hand posture and face recognition using biologically inspired approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Pisharady, Pramod Kumar; Poh, Loh Ai

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of computational intelligence algorithms that addresses issues in visual pattern recognition such as high computational complexity, abundance of pattern features, sensitivity to size and shape variations and poor performance against complex backgrounds. The book has 3 parts. Part 1 describes various research issues in the field with a survey of the related literature. Part 2 presents computational intelligence based algorithms for feature selection and classification. The algorithms are discriminative and fast. The main application area considered is hand posture recognition. The book also discusses utility of these algorithms in other visual as well as non-visual pattern recognition tasks including face recognition, general object recognition and cancer / tumor classification. Part 3 presents biologically inspired algorithms for feature extraction. The visual cortex model based features discussed have invariance with respect to appearance and size of the hand, and provide good...

  11. Ways of incorporating photographic images in learning and assessing high school biology: A study of visual perception and visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Brenda Chaumont

    This study evaluated the cognitive benefits and costs of incorporating biology-textbook and student-generated photographic images into the learning and assessment processes within a 10th grade biology classroom. The study implemented Wandersee's (2000) 20-Q Model of Image-Based Biology Test-Item Design (20-Q Model) to explore the use of photographic images to assess students' understanding of complex biological processes. A thorough review of the students' textbook using ScaleMaster R with PC Interface was also conducted. The photographs, diagrams, and other representations found in the textbook were measured to determine the percentage of each graphic depicted in the book and comparisons were made to the text. The theoretical framework that guided the research included Human Constructivist tenets espoused by Mintzes, Wandersee and Novak (2000). Physiological and cognitive factors of images and image-based learning as described by Robin (1992), Solso (1997) and Wandersee (2000) were examined. Qualitative case study design presented by Yin (1994), Denzin and Lincoln (1994) was applied and data were collected through interviews, observations, student activities, student and school artifacts and Scale Master IIRTM measurements. The results of the study indicate that although 24% of the high school biology textbook is devoted to photographic images which contribute significantly to textbook cost, the teacher and students paid little attention to photographic images other than as aesthetic elements for creating biological ambiance, wasting valuable opportunities for learning. The analysis of the photographs corroborated findings published by the Association American Association for the Advancement of Science that indicated "While most of the books are lavishly illustrated, these representations are rarely helpful, because they are too abstract, needlessly complicated, or inadequately explained" (Roseman, 2000, p. 2). The findings also indicate that applying the 20-Q

  12. Exposures to airborne particulate matter and adverse perinatal outcomes: a biologically plausible mechanistic framework for exploring potential Exposição à matéria particulada aérea e efeitos perinatais adversos: referencial mecanístico biologicamente plausível para exploração de potenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimathi Kannan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has three objectives: to describe the biologically plausible mechanistic pathways by which exposure to particulate matter (PM may lead to adverse perinatal outcomes of low birth weight (LBW, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR, and preterm delivery (PTD; review evidence showing that nutrition affects biologic pathways; and explain mechanisms by which nutrition may modify the impact of PM exposure on perinatal outcomes. We propose an interdisciplinary framework that brings together maternal and infant nutrition, air pollution exposure assessment, and cardiopulmonary and perinatal epidemiology. Five possible biologic mechanisms have been put forth in the emerging environmental sciences literature and provide corollaries for the proposed framework. The literature indicates that the effects of PM on LBW, PTD, and IUGR may manifest through the cardiovascular mechanisms of oxidative stress, inflammation, coagulation, endothelial function, and hemodynamic responses. PM exposure studies relating mechanistic pathways to perinatal outcomes should consider the likelihood that biologic responses and adverse birth outcomes may be derived from both PM and non-PM sources. We present strategies for empirically testing the proposed model and developing future research efforts.São três os objetivos deste artigo: descrever rotas mecanísticas biologicamente plausíveis pelas quais a exposição à matéria particulada (MP pode levar a efeitos perinatais adversos, como baixo peso ao nascer (BPN, retardo do crescimento intra-uterino (RCIU e nascimentos pré-termo (NPT; fazer uma revisão de evidências mostrando que a nutrição afeta rotas biológicas; explicar os mecanismos através dos quais a nutrição pode modificar o impacto da exposição a MP nos efeitos perinatais adversos. Propomos um referencial interdisciplinar que aproxime nutrição materna e infantil, avaliação de poluição do ar e epidemiologia cardiopulmonar e perinatal

  13. Source Effects and Plausibility Judgments When Reading about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Doug; Seyranian, Viviane; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Gaps between what scientists and laypeople find plausible may act as a barrier to learning complex and/or controversial socioscientific concepts. For example, individuals may consider scientific explanations that human activities are causing current climate change as implausible. This plausibility judgment may be due-in part-to individuals'…

  14. Lighten the Load: Scaffolding Visual Literacy in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Arneson, Jessie B.; Byrne, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The development of scientific visual literacy has been identified as critical to the training of tomorrow’s scientists and citizens alike. Within the context of the molecular life sciences in particular, visual representations frequently incorporate various components, such as discipline-specific graphical and diagrammatic features, varied levels of abstraction, and spatial arrangements of visual elements to convey information. Visual literacy is achieved when an individual understands the various ways in which a discipline uses these components to represent a particular way of knowing. Owing to the complex nature of visual representations, the activities through which visual literacy is developed have high cognitive load. Cognitive load can be reduced by first helping students to become fluent with the discrete components of visual representations before asking them to simultaneously integrate these components to extract the intended meaning of a representation. We present a taxonomy for characterizing one component of visual representations—the level of abstraction—as a first step in understanding the opportunities afforded students to develop fluency. Further, we demonstrate how our taxonomy can be used to analyze course assessments and spur discussions regarding the extent to which the development of visual literacy skills is supported by instruction within an undergraduate biochemistry curriculum. PMID:28130273

  15. A Biologically-Inspired Framework for Contour Detection Using Superpixel-Based Candidates and Hierarchical Visual Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Sun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contour detection has been extensively investigated as a fundamental problem in computer vision. In this study, a biologically-inspired candidate weighting framework is proposed for the challenging task of detecting meaningful contours. In contrast to previous models that detect contours from pixels, a modified superpixel generation processing is proposed to generate a contour candidate set and then weigh the candidates by extracting hierarchical visual cues. We extract the low-level visual local cues to weigh the contour intrinsic property and mid-level visual cues on the basis of Gestalt principles for weighting the contour grouping constraint. Experimental results tested on the BSDS benchmark show that the proposed framework exhibits promising performances to capture meaningful contours in complex scenes.

  16. A biologically-inspired framework for contour detection using superpixel-based candidates and hierarchical visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Shang, Ke; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Ma, Jiayi

    2015-10-20

    Contour detection has been extensively investigated as a fundamental problem in computer vision. In this study, a biologically-inspired candidate weighting framework is proposed for the challenging task of detecting meaningful contours. In contrast to previous models that detect contours from pixels, a modified superpixel generation processing is proposed to generate a contour candidate set and then weigh the candidates by extracting hierarchical visual cues. We extract the low-level visual local cues to weigh the contour intrinsic property and mid-level visual cues on the basis of Gestalt principles for weighting the contour grouping constraint. Experimental results tested on the BSDS benchmark show that the proposed framework exhibits promising performances to capture meaningful contours in complex scenes.

  17. The what, when, where, and how of visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, Manuel; Armstrong, Blair C; Perea, Manuel; Frost, Ram

    2014-02-01

    A long-standing debate in reading research is whether printed words are perceived in a feedforward manner on the basis of orthographic information, with other representations such as semantics and phonology activated subsequently, or whether the system is fully interactive and feedback from these representations shapes early visual word recognition. We review recent evidence from behavioral, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, and biologically plausible connectionist modeling approaches, focusing on how each approach provides insight into the temporal flow of information in the lexical system. We conclude that, consistent with interactive accounts, higher-order linguistic representations modulate early orthographic processing. We also discuss how biologically plausible interactive frameworks and coordinated empirical and computational work can advance theories of visual word recognition and other domains (e.g., object recognition). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Visual Representations on High School Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, Nicole D.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive use of visual representations in textbooks, curricula, and assessments underscores their importance in K-12 science education. For example, visual representations figure prominently in the recent publication of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: for states, by states.…

  19. A biologically inspired neural model for visual and proprioceptive integration including sensory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Maryam; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Lari, Abdolaziz Azizi

    2013-12-01

    Humans perceive the surrounding world by integration of information through different sensory modalities. Earlier models of multisensory integration rely mainly on traditional Bayesian and causal Bayesian inferences for single causal (source) and two causal (for two senses such as visual and auditory systems), respectively. In this paper a new recurrent neural model is presented for integration of visual and proprioceptive information. This model is based on population coding which is able to mimic multisensory integration of neural centers in the human brain. The simulation results agree with those achieved by casual Bayesian inference. The model can also simulate the sensory training process of visual and proprioceptive information in human. Training process in multisensory integration is a point with less attention in the literature before. The effect of proprioceptive training on multisensory perception was investigated through a set of experiments in our previous study. The current study, evaluates the effect of both modalities, i.e., visual and proprioceptive training and compares them with each other through a set of new experiments. In these experiments, the subject was asked to move his/her hand in a circle and estimate its position. The experiments were performed on eight subjects with proprioception training and eight subjects with visual training. Results of the experiments show three important points: (1) visual learning rate is significantly more than that of proprioception; (2) means of visual and proprioceptive errors are decreased by training but statistical analysis shows that this decrement is significant for proprioceptive error and non-significant for visual error, and (3) visual errors in training phase even in the beginning of it, is much less than errors of the main test stage because in the main test, the subject has to focus on two senses. The results of the experiments in this paper is in agreement with the results of the neural model

  20. SensorDB: a virtual laboratory for the integration, visualization and analysis of varied biological sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Ali; Jimenez-Berni, Jose; Deery, David M; Palmer, Doug; Holland, Edward; Rozas-Larraondo, Pablo; Chapman, Scott C; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios; Furbank, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, there is no software or database solution that supports large volumes of biological time series sensor data efficiently and enables data visualization and analysis in real time. Existing solutions for managing data typically use unstructured file systems or relational databases. These systems are not designed to provide instantaneous response to user queries. Furthermore, they do not support rapid data analysis and visualization to enable interactive experiments. In large scale experiments, this behaviour slows research discovery, discourages the widespread sharing and reuse of data that could otherwise inform critical decisions in a timely manner and encourage effective collaboration between groups. In this paper we present SensorDB, a web based virtual laboratory that can manage large volumes of biological time series sensor data while supporting rapid data queries and real-time user interaction. SensorDB is sensor agnostic and uses web-based, state-of-the-art cloud and storage technologies to efficiently gather, analyse and visualize data. Collaboration and data sharing between different agencies and groups is thereby facilitated. SensorDB is available online at http://sensordb.csiro.au.

  1. A biologically inspired psychometric function for accuracy of visual identification as a function of exposure duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

    in modelling human performance in whole and partial report tasks in which multiple simultaneously presented letters are to be reported (Shibuya & Bundesen, 1988). Therefore, we investigated visual letter identification as a function of exposure duration. On each trial, a single randomly chosen letter (A...... rising from zero, then peaking, and finally decaying to a somewhat sustained plateau, mimicking closely observed instantaneous firing rates of monkey visual cortex neurons. The new psychometric function fits well to experimental data in both the present study and in a previous study of single...... into Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990), the new psychometric function enables closer fits to data from a previous whole and partial report experiment....

  2. Polarization Calculation and Underwater Target Detection Inspired by Biological Visual Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In challenging underwater environments, the polarization parameter maps calculated by the Stokes model are characterized by the high noise and error, harassing the underwater target detection tasks. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel bionic polarization calculation and underwater target detection method by modeling the visual system of mantis shrimps. This system includes many operators including a polarization-opposition calculation, a factor optimization and a visual neural network model. A calibration learning method is proposed to search the optimal value of the factors in the linear subtraction model. Finally, a six-channel visual neural network model is proposed to detect the underwater targets. Experimental results proved that the maps produced by the polarization-opposition parameter is more accurate and have lower noise than that produced by the Stokes parameter, achieving better performance in underwater target detection tasks.

  3. RBioplot: an easy-to-use R pipeline for automated statistical analysis and data visualization in molecular biology and biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Statistical analysis and data visualization are two crucial aspects in molecular biology and biology. For analyses that compare one dependent variable between standard (e.g., control and one or multiple independent variables, a comprehensive yet highly streamlined solution is valuable. The computer programming language R is a popular platform for researchers to develop tools that are tailored specifically for their research needs. Here we present an R package RBioplot that takes raw input data for automated statistical analysis and plotting, highly compatible with various molecular biology and biochemistry lab techniques, such as, but not limited to, western blotting, PCR, and enzyme activity assays. Method The package is built based on workflows operating on a simple raw data layout, with minimum user input or data manipulation required. The package is distributed through GitHub, which can be easily installed through one single-line R command. A detailed installation guide is available at http://kenstoreylab.com/?page_id=2448. Users can also download demo datasets from the same website. Results and Discussion By integrating selected functions from existing statistical and data visualization packages with extensive customization, RBioplot features both statistical analysis and data visualization functionalities. Key properties of RBioplot include: -Fully automated and comprehensive statistical analysis, including normality test, equal variance test, Student’s t-test and ANOVA (with post-hoc tests; -Fully automated histogram, heatmap and joint-point curve plotting modules; -Detailed output files for statistical analysis, data manipulation and high quality graphs; -Axis range finding and user customizable tick settings; -High user-customizability.

  4. RBioplot: an easy-to-use R pipeline for automated statistical analysis and data visualization in molecular biology and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-01-01

    Statistical analysis and data visualization are two crucial aspects in molecular biology and biology. For analyses that compare one dependent variable between standard (e.g., control) and one or multiple independent variables, a comprehensive yet highly streamlined solution is valuable. The computer programming language R is a popular platform for researchers to develop tools that are tailored specifically for their research needs. Here we present an R package RBioplot that takes raw input data for automated statistical analysis and plotting, highly compatible with various molecular biology and biochemistry lab techniques, such as, but not limited to, western blotting, PCR, and enzyme activity assays. The package is built based on workflows operating on a simple raw data layout, with minimum user input or data manipulation required. The package is distributed through GitHub, which can be easily installed through one single-line R command. A detailed installation guide is available at http://kenstoreylab.com/?page_id=2448. Users can also download demo datasets from the same website. By integrating selected functions from existing statistical and data visualization packages with extensive customization, RBioplot features both statistical analysis and data visualization functionalities. Key properties of RBioplot include: -Fully automated and comprehensive statistical analysis, including normality test, equal variance test, Student's t-test and ANOVA (with post-hoc tests);-Fully automated histogram, heatmap and joint-point curve plotting modules;-Detailed output files for statistical analysis, data manipulation and high quality graphs;-Axis range finding and user customizable tick settings;-High user-customizability.

  5. New Algorithm and Software (BNOmics) for Inferring and Visualizing Bayesian Networks from Heterogeneous Big Biological and Genetic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoshin, Grigoriy; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rodin, Andrei S

    2017-04-01

    Bayesian network (BN) reconstruction is a prototypical systems biology data analysis approach that has been successfully used to reverse engineer and model networks reflecting different layers of biological organization (ranging from genetic to epigenetic to cellular pathway to metabolomic). It is especially relevant in the context of modern (ongoing and prospective) studies that generate heterogeneous high-throughput omics datasets. However, there are both theoretical and practical obstacles to the seamless application of BN modeling to such big data, including computational inefficiency of optimal BN structure search algorithms, ambiguity in data discretization, mixing data types, imputation and validation, and, in general, limited scalability in both reconstruction and visualization of BNs. To overcome these and other obstacles, we present BNOmics, an improved algorithm and software toolkit for inferring and analyzing BNs from omics datasets. BNOmics aims at comprehensive systems biology-type data exploration, including both generating new biological hypothesis and testing and validating the existing ones. Novel aspects of the algorithm center around increasing scalability and applicability to varying data types (with different explicit and implicit distributional assumptions) within the same analysis framework. An output and visualization interface to widely available graph-rendering software is also included. Three diverse applications are detailed. BNOmics was originally developed in the context of genetic epidemiology data and is being continuously optimized to keep pace with the ever-increasing inflow of available large-scale omics datasets. As such, the software scalability and usability on the less than exotic computer hardware are a priority, as well as the applicability of the algorithm and software to the heterogeneous datasets containing many data types-single-nucleotide polymorphisms and other genetic/epigenetic/transcriptome variables, metabolite

  6. The processing of images of biological threats in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Philip T; Yue, Yue; Cohen, Dale J

    2017-08-30

    The idea that there is enhanced memory for negatively, emotionally charged pictures was examined. Performance was measured under rapid, serial visual presentation (RSVP) conditions in which, on every trial, a sequence of six photo-images was presented. Briefly after the offset of the sequence, two alternative images (a target and a foil) were presented and participants attempted to choose which image had occurred in the sequence. Images were of threatening and non-threatening cats and dogs. The target depicted either an animal expressing an emotion distinct from the other images, or the sequences contained only images depicting the same emotional valence. Enhanced memory was found for targets that differed in emotional valence from the other sequence images, compared to targets that expressed the same emotional valence. Further controls in stimulus selection were then introduced and the same emotional distinctiveness effect obtained. In ruling out possible visual and attentional accounts of the data, an informal dual route topic model is discussed. This places emphasis on how visual short-term memory reveals a sensitivity to the emotional content of the input as it unfolds over time. Items that present with a distinctive emotional content stand out in memory. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. PROMISE AND PLAUSIBILITY: HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION DECISIONS WITH LIMITED EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce; Knox, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of new medical devices and diagnostics is often hampered by lack of published evidence which makes conventional health technology assessment (HTA) difficult. We now have 5 years' experience of the Medical Technologies Advisory Committee of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom, addressing this problem. This committee assesses devices and diagnostics against claims of advantage, to produce guidance on adoption for the health service. We have reflected on the practical, technical, and intellectual processes we have used in developing guidance for the health service. When scientific and clinical evidence is sparse, promise and plausibility play an increased part in decision-making. Drivers of promise include a clear design and mechanism of action, the possibility of radical improvement in care and/or resource use, and improving health outcomes for large numbers of patients. Plausibility relates to judgements about the whether the promise is likely to be delivered in a "real world" setting. Promise and plausibility need to be balanced against the amount of evidence available. We examine the influence they may have on decision-making compared with other factors such as risk and cost. Decisions about adoption of new devices and diagnostics with little evidence are influenced by judgements of their promise and the plausibility of claims that they will provide benefits in a real-world setting. This kind of decision making needs to be transparent and this article explains how these influences can be balanced against the use of more familiar criteria.

  8. Objectivity and Plausibility in the Study of Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, R.

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that though it is impossible to know whether a theoretical claim is epistemically objective or not, it may be accepted as plausible when it is felt to be in some accordance with “the given”— empirical findings, subjective/intersubjective ideas, thoughts and feelings, and the

  9. Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of atherosclerosis: toward coronary arterial visualization of biologically high-risk plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfon, Marcella A.; Vinegoni, Claudio; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2010-01-01

    New imaging methods are urgently needed to identify high-risk atherosclerotic lesions prior to the onset of myocardial infarction, stroke, and ischemic limbs. Molecular imaging offers a new approach to visualize key biological features that characterize high-risk plaques associated with cardiovascular events. While substantial progress has been realized in clinical molecular imaging of plaques in larger arterial vessels (carotid, aorta, iliac), there remains a compelling, unmet need to develop molecular imaging strategies targeted to high-risk plaques in human coronary arteries. We present recent developments in intravascular near-IR fluorescence catheter-based strategies for in vivo detection of plaque inflammation in coronary-sized arteries. In particular, the biological, light transmission, imaging agent, and engineering principles that underlie a new intravascular near-IR fluorescence sensing method are discussed. Intravascular near-IR fluorescence catheters appear highly translatable to the cardiac catheterization laboratory, and thus may offer a new in vivo method to detect high-risk coronary plaques and to assess novel atherosclerosis biologics.

  10. Zebrafish as a visual and dynamic model to study the transport of nanosized drug delivery systems across the biological barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Miao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Tongkai; Yi, Xiang; Wang, Ruibing; Zhao, Haitao; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Wang, Xueqing; Zheng, Ying

    2017-08-01

    With the wide application of nanotechnology to drug delivery systems, a simple, dynamic and visual in vivo model for high-throughput screening of novel formulations with fluorescence markers across biological barriers is desperately needed. In vitro cell culture models have been widely used, although they are far from a complimentary in vivo system. Mammalian animal models are common predictive models to study transport, but they are costly and time consuming. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small vertebrate model, have the potential to be developed as an "intermediate" model for quick evaluations. Based on our previously established coumarin 6 nanocrystals (C6-NCs), which have two different sizes, the present study investigates the transportation of C6-NCs across four biological barriers, including the chorion, blood brain barrier (BBB), blood retinal barrier (BRB) and gastrointestinal (GI) barrier, using zebrafish embryos and larvae as in vivo models. The biodistribution and elimination of C6 from different organs were quantified in adult zebrafish. The results showed that compared to 200nm C6-NCs, 70nm C6-NCs showed better permeability across these biological barriers. A FRET study suggested that intact C6-NCs together with the free dissolved form of C6 were absorbed into the larval zebrafish. More C6 was accumulated in different organs after incubation with small sized NCs via lipid raft-mediated endocytosis in adult zebrafish, which is consistent with the findings from in vitro cell monolayers and the zebrafish larvae model. C6-NCs could be gradually eliminated in each organ over time. This study demonstrated the successful application of zebrafish as a simple and dynamic model to simultaneously assess the transport of nanosized drug delivery systems across several biological barriers and biodistribution in different organs, especially in the brain, which could be used for central nervous system (CNS) drug and delivery system screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  11. An Augmented γ-Spray System to Visualize Biological Effects for Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Seiya; Tenzou, Hideki; Kasuga, Takaaki; Iwakura, Yukiko; Johnston, Robert

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new educational system with an easy-to-use interface in order to support comprehension of the biological effects of radiation on the human body within a short period of time. A paint spray-gun was used as a gamma rays source mock-up for the system. The application screen shows the figure of a human body for radiation deposition using the γ-Sprayer, a virtual radiation source, as well as equivalent dosage and a panel for setting the irradiation conditions. While the learner stands in front of the PC monitor, the virtual radiation source is used to deposit radiation on the graphic of the human body that is displayed. Tissue damage is calculated using an interpolation method from the data calculated by the PHITS simulation code in advance while the learner is pulling the trigger with respect to the irradiation time, incident position, and distance from the screen. It was confirmed that the damage was well represented by the interpolation method. The augmented ?-Spray system was assessed by questionnaire. Pre-post questionnaire was taken for our 41 students in National Institute of Technology, Kagawa College. It was also confirmed that the system has a capability of teaching the basic radiation protection concept, quantitative feeling of the radiation dose, and the biological effects

  12. Visual detection of Brucella in bovine biological samples using DNA-activated gold nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Pal

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a bacterial disease, which, although affecting cattle primarily, has been associated with human infections, making its detection an important challenge. The existing gold standard diagnosis relies on the culture of bacteria which is a lengthy and costly process, taking up to 45 days. New technologies based on molecular diagnosis have been proposed, either through dip-stick, immunological assays, which have limited specificity, or using nucleic acid tests, which enable to identify the pathogen, but are impractical for use in the field, where most of the reservoir cases are located. Here we demonstrate a new test based on hybridization assays with metal nanoparticles, which, upon detection of a specific pathogen-derived DNA sequence, yield a visual colour change. We characterise the components used in the assay with a range of analytical techniques and show sensitivities down to 1000 cfu/ml for the detection of Brucella. Finally, we demonstrate that the assay works in a range of bovine samples including semen, milk and urine, opening up the potential for its use in the field, in low-resource settings.

  13. Probabilistic reasoning in intelligent systems networks of plausible inference

    CERN Document Server

    Pearl, Judea

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems is a complete and accessible account of the theoretical foundations and computational methods that underlie plausible reasoning under uncertainty. The author provides a coherent explication of probability as a language for reasoning with partial belief and offers a unifying perspective on other AI approaches to uncertainty, such as the Dempster-Shafer formalism, truth maintenance systems, and nonmonotonic logic. The author distinguishes syntactic and semantic approaches to uncertainty--and offers techniques, based on belief networks, that provid

  14. Searching for Plausible N-k Contingencies Endangering Voltage Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel search algorithm using time-domain simulations to identify plausible N − k contingencies endangering voltage stability. Starting from an initial list of disturbances, progressively more severe contingencies are investigated. After simulation of a N − k contingency, the...... of component protections. The performance of the proposed search algorithm is compared to a brute-force algorithm and demonstrated on the IEEE Nordic test system....

  15. ANALISIS KUALITAS REPRESENTASI VISUAL BUKU BIOLOGI SMA KELAS XI KURIKULUM 2013 PADA MATERI SEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Sophie Elfada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Representasi Visual (RV yang ditampilkan di dalam buku teks akan menambah nilai estetika buku, namun buku yang berkualis akan memperhatikan seluruh aspek tampilan buku agar bermanfaat dalam penyampaian materi, termasuk tampilan RV. Penggunaan RV yang tepat akan mempermudah pembaca dalam mempelajari konsep materi dan menghindari terjadinya miskonsepsi. Keberadaan RV sangat signifikan di dalam buku teks, oleh karena itu perlu adanya penelitian RV pada buku teks.Penelitian analisis RV bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas buku teks dari segi ketepatan RV yang digunakan di dalam buku teks. Analisis yang dilakukan meliputi: 1 ketepatan konsep; 2 tipe RV; 3 hubungan RV dengan konten materi; 4 hubungan RV dengan realitas; dan 5 fungsi RV. Buku teks yang dianalisis meliputi tiga penerbit buku kurikulum 2013 yaitu penerbit Erlangga  (buku sampel A, Platinum (buku sampel B, dan Yrama Widya (buku sampel C. Analisis RV yang dilakukan yaitu pada materi sel kelas XI semester I. Penelitian ini termasuk ke dalam penelitian kualitatif yang bersifat deskriptif. Instrumen yang digunakan pada penelitian ini ialah tabel daftar (list table yang terdiri dari tabel analisis ketepatan konsep dan tabel analisis RV. Konsep materi sel terlebih dahulu dianalisis, kemudian dilakukan analisis RV.   Penelitian menghasilkan data bahwa buku sampel yang memiliki ketepatan konsep memadai yang tertinggi ialah buku sampel A sebesar 65,85%. Buku sampel B memiliki ketepatan konsep memadai sebesar 51,22%, dan buku sampel C sebesar 41,46%. Buku sampel A, B, dan C ditinjau dari segi tipe RV, masing – masing sudah relatif tepat dalam menampilkan tipe RV karena disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan bacaan. Tipe RV buku sampel A, B, dan C yang tertinggi ialah tipe sketsa – komik sebesar 30,00% pada buku sampel A; 28,26% pada buku sampel B; dan  28,99% pada buku sampel C. Analisis hubungan RV dengan konten materi menghasilkan data bahwa Buku sampel B memiliki hubungan bermakna dengan konten

  16. Biological Principles and Threshold Concepts for Understanding Natural Selection. Implications for Developing Visualizations as a Pedagogic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibell, Lena A. E.; Harms, Ute

    2017-11-01

    Modern evolutionary theory is both a central theory and an integrative framework of the life sciences. This is reflected in the common references to evolution in modern science education curricula and contexts. In fact, evolution is a core idea that is supposed to support biology learning by facilitating the organization of relevant knowledge. In addition, evolution can function as a pivotal link between concepts and highlight similarities in the complexity of biological concepts. However, empirical studies in many countries have for decades identified deficiencies in students' scientific understanding of evolution mainly focusing on natural selection. Clearly, there are major obstacles to learning natural selection, and we argue that to overcome them, it is essential to address explicitly the general abstract concepts that underlie the biological processes, e.g., randomness or probability. Hence, we propose a two-dimensional framework for analyzing and structuring teaching of natural selection. The first—purely biological—dimension embraces the three main principles variation, heredity, and selection structured in nine key concepts that form the core idea of natural selection. The second dimension encompasses four so-called thresholds, i.e., general abstract and/or non-perceptual concepts: randomness, probability, spatial scales, and temporal scales. We claim that both of these dimensions must be continuously considered, in tandem, when teaching evolution in order to allow development of a meaningful understanding of the process. Further, we suggest that making the thresholds tangible with the aid of appropriate kinds of visualizations will facilitate grasping of the threshold concepts, and thus, help learners to overcome the difficulties in understanding the central theory of life.

  17. Action video game players' visual search advantage extends to biologically relevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Research investigating the effects of action video game experience on cognition has demonstrated a host of performance improvements on a variety of basic tasks. Given the prevailing evidence that these benefits result from efficient control of attentional processes, there has been growing interest in using action video games as a general tool to enhance everyday attentional control. However, to date, there is little evidence indicating that the benefits of action video game playing scale up to complex settings with socially meaningful stimuli - one of the fundamental components of our natural environment. The present experiment compared action video game player (AVGP) and non-video game player (NVGP) performance on an oculomotor capture task that presented participants with face stimuli. In addition, the expression of a distractor face was manipulated to assess if action video game experience modulated the effect of emotion. Results indicate that AVGPs experience less oculomotor capture than NVGPs; an effect that was not influenced by the emotional content depicted by distractor faces. It is noteworthy that this AVGP advantage emerged despite participants being unaware that the investigation had to do with video game playing, and participants being equivalent in their motivation and treatment of the task as a game. The results align with the notion that action video game experience is associated with superior attentional and oculomotor control, and provides evidence that these benefits can generalize to more complex and biologically relevant stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological Visualization, Imaging and Simulation(Bio-VIS) at NASA Ames Research Center: Developing New Software and Technology for Astronaut Training and Biology Research in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    The Bio- Visualization, Imaging and Simulation (BioVIS) Technology Center at NASA's Ames Research Center is dedicated to developing and applying advanced visualization, computation and simulation technologies to support NASA Space Life Sciences research and the objectives of the Fundamental Biology Program. Research ranges from high resolution 3D cell imaging and structure analysis, virtual environment simulation of fine sensory-motor tasks, computational neuroscience and biophysics to biomedical/clinical applications. Computer simulation research focuses on the development of advanced computational tools for astronaut training and education. Virtual Reality (VR) and Virtual Environment (VE) simulation systems have become important training tools in many fields from flight simulation to, more recently, surgical simulation. The type and quality of training provided by these computer-based tools ranges widely, but the value of real-time VE computer simulation as a method of preparing individuals for real-world tasks is well established. Astronauts routinely use VE systems for various training tasks, including Space Shuttle landings, robot arm manipulations and extravehicular activities (space walks). Currently, there are no VE systems to train astronauts for basic and applied research experiments which are an important part of many missions. The Virtual Glovebox (VGX) is a prototype VE system for real-time physically-based simulation of the Life Sciences Glovebox where astronauts will perform many complex tasks supporting research experiments aboard the International Space Station. The VGX consists of a physical display system utilizing duel LCD projectors and circular polarization to produce a desktop-sized 3D virtual workspace. Physically-based modeling tools (Arachi Inc.) provide real-time collision detection, rigid body dynamics, physical properties and force-based controls for objects. The human-computer interface consists of two magnetic tracking devices

  19. Prebiotically plausible oligoribonucleotide ligation facilitated by chemoselective acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Bowler, Frank R.; Chan, Christopher K. W.; Duffy, Colm D.; Gerland, Béatrice; Islam, Saidul; Powner, Matthew W.; Sutherland, John D.; Xu, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    The recent synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleoside-2′,3′-cyclic phosphates under prebiotically plausible conditions has strengthened the case for the involvement of RNA at an early stage in the origin of life. However, a prebiotic conversion of these weakly activated monomers, and their purine counterparts, to the 3′,5′-linked RNA polymers of extant biochemistry has been lacking – previous attempts leading only to short oligomers with mixed linkages. Here we show that the 2′-hydroxyl group of ...

  20. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  1. Neural networks, nativism, and the plausibility of constructivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartz, S R

    1993-09-01

    Recent interest in PDP (parallel distributed processing) models is due in part to the widely held belief that they challenge many of the assumptions of classical cognitive science. In the domain of language acquisition, for example, there has been much interest in the claim that PDP models might undermine nativism. Related arguments based on PDP learning have also been given against Fodor's anti-constructivist position--a position that has contributed to the widespread dismissal of constructivism. A limitation of many of the claims regarding PDP learning, however, is that the principles underlying this learning have not been rigorously characterized. In this paper, I examine PDP models from within the framework of Valiant's PAC (probably approximately correct) model of learning, now the dominant model in machine learning, and which applies naturally to neural network learning. From this perspective, I evaluate the implications of PDP models for nativism and Fodor's influential anti-constructivist position. In particular, I demonstrate that, contrary to a number of claims, PDP models are nativist in a robust sense. I also demonstrate that PDP models actually serve as a good illustration of Fodor's anti-constructivist position. While these results may at first suggest that neural network models in general are incapable of the sort of concept acquisition that is required to refute Fodor's anti-constructivist position, I suggest that there is an alternative form of neural network learning that demonstrates the plausibility of constructivism. This alternative form of learning is a natural interpretation of the constructivist position in terms of neural network learning, as it employs learning algorithms that incorporate the addition of structure in addition to weight modification schemes. By demonstrating that there is a natural and plausible interpretation of constructivism in terms of neural network learning, the position that nativism is the only plausible model of

  2. The ethical plausibility of the 'Right To Try' laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, D; Peccatori, F A; Boniolo, G

    2018-02-01

    'Right To Try' (RTT) laws originated in the USA to allow terminally ill patients to request access to early stage experimental medical products directly from the producer, removing the oversight and approval of the Food and Drug Administration. These laws have received significant media attention and almost equally unanimous criticism by the bioethics, clinical and scientific communities. They touch indeed on complex issues such as the conflict between individual and public interest, and the public understanding of medical research and its regulation. The increased awareness around RTT laws means that healthcare providers directly involved in the management of patients with life-threatening conditions such as cancer, infective, or neurologic conditions will deal more frequently with patients' requests of access to experimental medical products. This paper aims to assess the ethical plausibility of the RTT laws, and to suggest some possible ethical tools and considerations to address the main issues they touch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Regional Monitoring and Visualization System for Decision Support and Disaster Management Applications for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC)-a network of managed and protected areas extending from Mexico to Columbia-is a crucial initiative for the Mesoamerican region, with a central development concept of integrating conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity within the framework of sustainable economic development. The MBC is of particular importance to the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), which is comprised of the environmental ministers from the seven Central American countries. Responsible for determining priority areas for action in the corridor, CCAD decision makers require current and accurate information, and access to the dynamic knowledge of the changes in the MBC such as deforestation hotspots, fires, and the effects of natural disasters. Currently this information is not integrated and in disparate locations throughout the region and the world. Leveraging NASA technology, satellite data, and capability, we propose to team with the World Bank and the CCAD to develop a regional monitoring and visualization system-with central nodes at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and at CCAD headquarters. This system will assimilate NASA spatial datasets (e.g. MODIS, Landsat, etc.), spatial data from other sources (commercial and public-domain), and ancillary data developed in each of the seven Central American countries (soils, transportation networks, biodiversity indicator maps, etc.). The system will function as a "virtual dashboard" for monitoring the MBC and provide the critical decision support tools for CCAD decision makers. The CCAD central node will also serve as a high-tech showcase for the corridor among the international community, other decision-makers, the media, and students.

  4. Learning Complex Cell Invariance from Natural Videos: A Plausibility Proof

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masquelier, Timothee; Serre, Thomas; Thorpe, Simon; Poggio, Tomaso

    2007-01-01

    .... Here we focus on the class of hierarchical feed-forward models of the ventral stream of the visual cortex, which extend the classical simple-to-complex cells model by Hubel and Wiesel to extra...

  5. Plausible inference: A multi-valued logic for problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L.

    1979-01-01

    A new logic is developed which permits continuously variable strength of belief in the truth of assertions. Four inference rules result, with formal logic as a limiting case. Quantification of belief is defined. Propagation of belief to linked assertions results from dependency-based techniques of truth maintenance so that local consistency is achieved or contradiction discovered in problem solving. Rules for combining, confirming, or disconfirming beliefs are given, and several heuristics are suggested that apply to revising already formed beliefs in the light of new evidence. The strength of belief that results in such revisions based on conflicting evidence are a highly subjective phenomenon. Certain quantification rules appear to reflect an orderliness in the subjectivity. Several examples of reasoning by plausible inference are given, including a legal example and one from robot learning. Propagation of belief takes place in directions forbidden in formal logic and this results in conclusions becoming possible for a given set of assertions that are not reachable by formal logic.

  6. A perspective on SIDS pathogenesis. The hypotheses: plausibility and evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldwater Paul N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several theories of the underlying mechanisms of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS have been proposed. These theories have born relatively narrow beach-head research programs attracting generous research funding sustained for many years at expense to the public purse. This perspective endeavors to critically examine the evidence and bases of these theories and determine their plausibility; and questions whether or not a safe and reasoned hypothesis lies at their foundation. The Opinion sets specific criteria by asking the following questions: 1. Does the hypothesis take into account the key pathological findings in SIDS? 2. Is the hypothesis congruent with the key epidemiological risk factors? 3. Does it link 1 and 2? Falling short of any one of these answers, by inference, would imply insufficient grounds for a sustainable hypothesis. Some of the hypotheses overlap, for instance, notional respiratory failure may encompass apnea, prone sleep position, and asphyxia which may be seen to be linked to co-sleeping. For the purposes of this paper, each element will be assessed on the above criteria.

  7. Liderazgo preventivo para la universidad. Una experiencia plausible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo del liderazgo, en el ámbito educativo superior, busca soluciones de aplicación inmediata a contextos en que todo líder se desenvuelve, pero se diluye el sustento teórico-práctico en la formación del líder que posibilite entender los procesos intelectivos durante la toma de decisiones. El paradigma de convergencia entre el método antropológico lonerganiano, la comunidad de aprendizaje vygotskiana y una relectura del sistema preventivo salesiano se presentan como propuesta plausible de formación al liderazgo preventivo entre los diversos actores de una comunidad universitaria. Un estudio de caso de la Universidad Salesiana en México empleando un método mixto de investigación, facilita una relectura del liderazgo desde una óptica preventiva como posibilidad de convergencia en un diálogo interdisciplinar. Los resultados teórico-práctico propuestos y examinados se muestran como herramienta útil para evaluar, enriquecer y renovar la teoría sobre el líder y el desarrollo de liderazgo en las universidades frente a una sociedad globalizada.

  8. Applying Data Analytics and Visualization to Assessing the Research Impact of the Cancer Cell Biology (CCB Program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this paper is to report on a research impact assessment (RIA project conducted by the Health Sciences Library (HSL at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH for the Cancer Cell Biology (CCB program in the institution’s cancer center through bibliometric data analysis and visualization. Methods: A total of 642 publications produced by the CCB researchers from 2010 to 2014 was used as the original dataset. After the citations of these publications were cleaned and standardized, the citations were imported into selected bibliometric and other tools for quantitative analysis and visualization. Results: The CCB program at the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center had significant scientific output and citation impact in the examined five-year period, which was quantitatively measured not only by the total number of publications and citation counts, but also by comparative citation impact measures. In addition, the research collaboration network visualizations helped identify the most productive CCB researchers, the most highly cited CCB researchers, the research groups composed by co-authors, and the internal and external research partners. Further, the research topic visualizations confirmed the alignment of publication concentrations with the five core areas on which the CCB program has been focusing. Conclusions: The bibliometric data analysis and visualizations produced for this project were able to provide quick insights to the administrators in terms of identified patterns, trends, and gaps of the supported research activities.

  9. Structure before meaning: sentence processing, plausibility, and subcategorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kizach

    Full Text Available Natural language processing is a fast and automatized process. A crucial part of this process is parsing, the online incremental construction of a syntactic structure. The aim of this study was to test whether a wh-filler extracted from an embedded clause is initially attached as the object of the matrix verb with subsequent reanalysis, and if so, whether the plausibility of such an attachment has an effect on reaction time. Finally, we wanted to examine whether subcategorization plays a role. We used a method called G-Maze to measure response time in a self-paced reading design. The experiments confirmed that there is early attachment of fillers to the matrix verb. When this attachment is implausible, the off-line acceptability of the whole sentence is significantly reduced. The on-line results showed that G-Maze was highly suited for this type of experiment. In accordance with our predictions, the results suggest that the parser ignores (or has no access to information about implausibility and attaches fillers as soon as possible to the matrix verb. However, the results also show that the parser uses the subcategorization frame of the matrix verb. In short, the parser ignores semantic information and allows implausible attachments but adheres to information about which type of object a verb can take, ensuring that the parser does not make impossible attachments. We argue that the evidence supports a syntactic parser informed by syntactic cues, rather than one guided by semantic cues or one that is blind, or completely autonomous.

  10. Representação visual de estruturas biológicas em materiais de ensino Visual representation of biological structures in teaching material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Azevedo Morato

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade de se definir parâmetros de apresentação e tratamento da informação científica em materiais de ensino. Através de consultas a bibliotecas e a especialistas em ciências da saúde e artes gráficas e visuais, fez-se uma pesquisa que resultou na descrição comparativa entre as primeiras manifestações da ilustração científica na anatomia e a trajetória da representação visual do conhecimento sobre a célula. O estudo traz ainda exemplos significativos de ilustrações utilizadas como elementos de análise.Parameters must be defined for presenting and handling scientific information presented in the form of teaching materials. Through library research and consultations with specialists in the health sciences and in graphic arts and design, this study undertook a comparative description of the first examples of scientific illustrations of anatomy and the evolution of visual representations of knowledge on the cell. The study includes significant examples of illustrations which served as elements of analysis.

  11. The Experiment Data Depot: A Web-Based Software Tool for Biological Experimental Data Storage, Sharing, and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morell, William C.; Birkel, Garrett W.; Forrer, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Although recent advances in synthetic biology allow us to produce biological designs more efficiently than ever, our ability to predict the end result of these designs is still nascent. Predictive models require large amounts of high quality data to be parametrized and tested, which...

  12. Detection of Low-order Curves in Images using Biologically-plausible Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-29

    param *p) { float theta,dtheta,cth, sth ; int f; dtheta = M_PI / (p->numorientations * p->df); // how many frames is also how many angles for(f=0;f < p...numorientations;f++) { theta=f*dtheta; cth = cos(theta); sth = sin(theta); for(r=p->nr;r>=0;r--)for(c=p->nc;c>=0;c--) { pointer = p->v->ifsptr...vtemp; //place to store a temporatry double sth , cth; // place to remember cos and sin of theta double rho; //the rho in the equation of a st line

  13. Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of “anabolic resistance” in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age.

  14. Cannabis and psychosis: an update on course and biological plausible mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linszen, Don; van Amelsvoort, Therese

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cannabis use is the most commonly abused illicit substance. Its relation with psychosis remains a topic of debate. Epidemiological studies suggest that cannabis is a component cause accounting for approximately 10% of cases. An increasing number of studies have been published on

  15. Warfarin and acetaminophen interaction: a summary of the evidence and biologic plausibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Renato D; Horowitz, John D; Garcia, David A; Crowther, Mark A; Hylek, Elaine M

    2011-12-08

    Ms TS is a 66-year-old woman who receives warfarin for prevention of systemic embolization in the setting of hypertension, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation. She had a transient ischemic attack about 4 years ago when she was receiving aspirin. Her INR control was excellent; however, over the past few months it has become erratic, and her average dose required to maintain an INR of 2.0 to 3.0 appears to have decreased. She has had back pain over this same period and has been taking acetaminophen at doses at large as 650 mg four times daily, with her dose varying based on her symptoms. You recall a potential interaction and wonder if (1) her acetaminophen use is contributing to her loss of INR control, and (2) does this interaction place her at increased risk of warfarin-related complications?

  16. On the Biological Plausibility of Grandmother Cells: Implications for Neural Network Theories in Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated…

  17. CellNetVis: a web tool for visualization of biological networks using force-directed layout constrained by cellular components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Henry; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Telles, Guilherme P; Meirelles, Gabriela Vaz; Minghim, Rosane

    2017-09-13

    The advent of "omics" science has brought new perspectives in contemporary biology through the high-throughput analyses of molecular interactions, providing new clues in protein/gene function and in the organization of biological pathways. Biomolecular interaction networks, or graphs, are simple abstract representations where the components of a cell (e.g. proteins, metabolites etc.) are represented by nodes and their interactions are represented by edges. An appropriate visualization of data is crucial for understanding such networks, since pathways are related to functions that occur in specific regions of the cell. The force-directed layout is an important and widely used technique to draw networks according to their topologies. Placing the networks into cellular compartments helps to quickly identify where network elements are located and, more specifically, concentrated. Currently, only a few tools provide the capability of visually organizing networks by cellular compartments. Most of them cannot handle large and dense networks. Even for small networks with hundreds of nodes the available tools are not able to reposition the network while the user is interacting, limiting the visual exploration capability. Here we propose CellNetVis, a web tool to easily display biological networks in a cell diagram employing a constrained force-directed layout algorithm. The tool is freely available and open-source. It was originally designed for networks generated by the Integrated Interactome System and can be used with networks from others databases, like InnateDB. CellNetVis has demonstrated to be applicable for dynamic investigation of complex networks over a consistent representation of a cell on the Web, with capabilities not matched elsewhere.

  18. [Biological adaptation and immune status of preschool children with visual function disorders in conditions of preschool educational institutions of compensating type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikova, L P; Koksharov, A V

    2013-01-01

    For implementation of a comprehensive approach in the elaboration of preventive and corrective measures in children with impaired visual function in conditions of preschool educational institutions of compensating type there were studied adaptation reserves of their organism, as well as indices of immune status. Biological adaptation was studied with the help ofcardiointervalography in 111 children aged 6-7years. With the use of ELISA 88 children were examined in terms of IgA, IgM, IgG, slgA in saliva.

  19. A plausible neural circuit for decision making and its formation based on reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Dai, Dawei; Bu, Yijie

    2017-06-01

    A human's, or lower insects', behavior is dominated by its nervous system. Each stable behavior has its own inner steps and control rules, and is regulated by a neural circuit. Understanding how the brain influences perception, thought, and behavior is a central mandate of neuroscience. The phototactic flight of insects is a widely observed deterministic behavior. Since its movement is not stochastic, the behavior should be dominated by a neural circuit. Based on the basic firing characteristics of biological neurons and the neural circuit's constitution, we designed a plausible neural circuit for this phototactic behavior from logic perspective. The circuit's output layer, which generates a stable spike firing rate to encode flight commands, controls the insect's angular velocity when flying. The firing pattern and connection type of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are considered in this computational model. We simulated the circuit's information processing using a distributed PC array, and used the real-time average firing rate of output neuron clusters to drive a flying behavior simulation. In this paper, we also explored how a correct neural decision circuit is generated from network flow view through a bee's behavior experiment based on the reward and punishment feedback mechanism. The significance of this study: firstly, we designed a neural circuit to achieve the behavioral logic rules by strictly following the electrophysiological characteristics of biological neurons and anatomical facts. Secondly, our circuit's generality permits the design and implementation of behavioral logic rules based on the most general information processing and activity mode of biological neurons. Thirdly, through computer simulation, we achieved new understanding about the cooperative condition upon which multi-neurons achieve some behavioral control. Fourthly, this study aims in understanding the information encoding mechanism and how neural circuits achieve behavior control

  20. Plausibility Reappraisals and Shifts in Middle School Students' Climate Change Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plausibility is a central but under-examined topic in conceptual change research. Climate change is an important socio-scientific topic; however, many view human-induced climate change as implausible. When learning about climate change, students need to make plausibility judgments but they may not be sufficiently critical or reflective. The…

  1. Visualization in simulation tools: requirements and a tool specification to support the teaching of dynamic biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Katarina M; Haddow, Pauline C

    2011-08-01

    Simulation tools are playing an increasingly important role behind advances in the field of systems biology. However, the current generation of biological science students has either little or no experience with such tools. As such, this educational glitch is limiting both the potential use of such tools as well as the potential for tighter cooperation between the designers and users. Although some simulation tool producers encourage their use in teaching, little attempt has hitherto been made to analyze and discuss their suitability as an educational tool for noncomputing science students. In general, today's simulation tools assume that the user has a stronger mathematical and computing background than that which is found in most biological science curricula, thus making the introduction of such tools a considerable pedagogical challenge. This paper provides an evaluation of the pedagogical attributes of existing simulation tools for cell signal transduction based on Cognitive Load theory. Further, design recommendations for an improved educational simulation tool are provided. The study is based on simulation tools for cell signal transduction. However, the discussions are relevant to a broader biological simulation tool set.

  2. Biological Principles and Threshold Concepts for Understanding Natural Selection: Implications for Developing Visualizations as a Pedagogic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibell, Lena A. E.; Harms, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Modern evolutionary theory is both a central theory and an integrative framework of the life sciences. This is reflected in the common references to evolution in modern science education curricula and contexts. In fact, evolution is a core idea that is supposed to support biology learning by facilitating the organization of relevant knowledge. In…

  3. BioVenn - a web application for the comparison and visualization of biological lists using area-proportional Venn diagrams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsen, T.; Vlieg, J. de; Alkema, W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many genomics projects, numerous lists containing biological identifiers are produced. Often it is useful to see the overlap between different lists, enabling researchers to quickly observe similarities and differences between the data sets they are analyzing. One of the most popular

  4. Early nutrition patterns and diseases of adulthood: a plausible link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Baselli, Lucia; Mazzoni, Marta Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades several studies tested the hypothesis that at early development stages certain foods or nutrients, in specific amounts, fed during limited sensitive periods, may determine an endocrine metabolic asset leading to clinical alterations that take place decades later (early nutritional programming of long term health). Evidence is mounting for programming effects of infant feeding. Observational studies indicate that breast feeding, relative to formula feeding, reduces the risk for obesity at school age by about 20% even after adjustment for biological and sociodemographic confounders. Moreover, breastfeeding is constantly associated with increased neurodevelopmental scores up to early adulthood, while its outcome in terms of delayed decay of brain function is still unknown. Besides the environment surrounding breastfeeding, specific nutrients within human milk may play a direct role. With the introduction of solids the major changes in diet are represented by the sudden decrease of fat intake from 50 to 30% of total energy. A protein excess, commonly found throughout all European Countries, has been associated to a higher risk of adiposity in early childhood, as confirmed by first reports from a large European trial. The amount of fat does not seem to be associated with later adiposity, while its quality may affect blood lipoproteins, blood pressure and neurodevelopmental performance. Early intake of dietary fibers might also have beneficial effects. Epidemiologic data show that episodes of rapid growth (growth acceleration hypothesis), whichever the dietary habits, are associated with later unfavorable health conditions and should be prevented. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. People believe it is plausible to have forgotten memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2007-08-01

    Pezdek, Blandon-Gitlin, and Gabbay (2006) found that perceptions of the plausibility of events increase the likelihood that imagination may induce false memories of those events. Using a survey conducted by Gallup, we asked a large sample of the general population how plausible it would be for a person with longstanding emotional problems and a need for psychotherapy to be a victim of childhood sexual abuse, even though the person could not remember the abuse. Only 18% indicated that it was implausible or very implausible, whereas 67% indicated that such an occurrence was either plausible or very plausible. Combined with Pezdek et al.s' findings, and counter to their conclusions, our findings imply that there is a substantial danger of inducing false memories of childhood sexual abuse through imagination in psychotherapy.

  6. bcl::Cluster : A method for clustering biological molecules coupled with visualization in the Pymol Molecular Graphics System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nathan; Woetzel, Nils; Meiler, Jens

    2011-02-01

    Clustering algorithms are used as data analysis tools in a wide variety of applications in Biology. Clustering has become especially important in protein structure prediction and virtual high throughput screening methods. In protein structure prediction, clustering is used to structure the conformational space of thousands of protein models. In virtual high throughput screening, databases with millions of drug-like molecules are organized by structural similarity, e.g. common scaffolds. The tree-like dendrogram structure obtained from hierarchical clustering can provide a qualitative overview of the results, which is important for focusing detailed analysis. However, in practice it is difficult to relate specific components of the dendrogram directly back to the objects of which it is comprised and to display all desired information within the two dimensions of the dendrogram. The current work presents a hierarchical agglomerative clustering method termed bcl::Cluster. bcl::Cluster utilizes the Pymol Molecular Graphics System to graphically depict dendrograms in three dimensions. This allows simultaneous display of relevant biological molecules as well as additional information about the clusters and the members comprising them.

  7. People Believe it is Plausible to have Forgotten Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    Pezdek, Blandon-Gitlin, and Gabbay (2006) found that perceptions of the plausibility of events increase the likelihood of imagination inducing false memories of those events. Using a survey conducted by Gallup, we asked a large sample of the general population how plausible it would be for a person with longstanding emotional problems and a need for psychotherapy to be a victim of childhood sexual abuse, even though the person could not remember the abuse. Only 18% indicated that it was impla...

  8. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising Bayesian segmentation strategy. We incorporate cognitive plausibility by using an age-appropriate unit of perceptual representation, evaluating the model output in terms of its utility, and incorporating cognitive constraints into the inference process. Our more cognitively plausible model shows a beneficial effect of cognitive constraints on segmentation performance. One interpretation of this effect is as a synergy between the naive theories of language structure that infants may have and the cognitive constraints that limit the fidelity of their inference processes, where less accurate inference approximations are better when the underlying assumptions about how words are generated are less accurate. More generally, these results highlight the utility of incorporating cognitive plausibility more fully into computational models of language acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Portable magnetic tweezers device enables visualization of the three-dimensional microscale deformation of soft biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yali; Lin, Jun; Meschewski, Ryan; Watson, Erin; Valentine, Megan T

    2011-07-01

    We have designed and built a magnetic tweezers device that enables the application of calibrated stresses to soft materials while simultaneously measuring their microscale deformation using confocal microscopy. Unlike previous magnetic tweezers designs, our device is entirely portable, allowing easy use on microscopes in core imaging facilities or in collaborators' laboratories. The imaging capabilities of the microscope are unimpaired, enabling the 3-D structures of fluorescently labeled materials to be precisely determined under applied load. With this device, we can apply a large range of forces (~1-1200 pN) over micron-scale contact areas to beads that are either embedded within 3-D matrices or attached to the surface of thin slab gels. To demonstrate the usefulness of this instrument, we have studied two important and biologically relevant materials: polyacrylamide-based hydrogel films typical of those used in cell traction force microscopy, and reconstituted networks of microtubules, essential cytoskeletal filaments.

  10. 3-D components of a biological neural network visualized in computer generated imagery. II - Macular neural network organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Meyer, Glenn; Lam, Tony; Cutler, Lynn; Vaziri, Parshaw

    1990-01-01

    Computer-assisted reconstructions of small parts of the macular neural network show how the nerve terminals and receptive fields are organized in 3-dimensional space. This biological neural network is anatomically organized for parallel distributed processing of information. Processing appears to be more complex than in computer-based neural network, because spatiotemporal factors figure into synaptic weighting. Serial reconstruction data show anatomical arrangements which suggest that (1) assemblies of cells analyze and distribute information with inbuilt redundancy, to improve reliability; (2) feedforward/feedback loops provide the capacity for presynaptic modulation of output during processing; (3) constrained randomness in connectivities contributes to adaptability; and (4) local variations in network complexity permit differing analyses of incoming signals to take place simultaneously. The last inference suggests that there may be segregation of information flow to central stations subserving particular functions.

  11. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandan eRamakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2 and V3. However BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  12. Using critical evaluation to reappraise plausibility judgments: A critical cognitive component of conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, D.

    2011-12-01

    Plausibility judgments-although well represented in conceptual change theories (see, for example, Chi, 2005; diSessa, 1993; Dole & Sinatra, 1998; Posner et al., 1982)-have received little empirical attention until our recent work investigating teachers' and students' understanding of and perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010, 2011). In our first study with undergraduate students, we found that greater plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate accounted for significantly greater understanding of weather and climate distinctions after instruction, even after accounting for students' prior knowledge (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a follow-up study with inservice science and preservice elementary teachers, we showed that anger about the topic of climate change and teaching about climate change was significantly related to implausible perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2011). Results from our recent studies helped to inform our development of a model of the role of plausibility judgments in conceptual change situations. The model applies to situations involving cognitive dissonance, where background knowledge conflicts with an incoming message. In such situations, we define plausibility as a judgment on the relative potential truthfulness of incoming information compared to one's existing mental representations (Rescher, 1976). Students may not consciously think when making plausibility judgments, expending only minimal mental effort in what is referred to as an automatic cognitive process (Stanovich, 2009). However, well-designed instruction could facilitate students' reappraisal of plausibility judgments in more effortful and conscious cognitive processing. Critical evaluation specifically may be one effective method to promote plausibility reappraisal in a classroom setting (Lombardi & Sinatra, in progress). In science education, critical evaluation involves the analysis of how evidentiary

  13. BioVenn – a web application for the comparison and visualization of biological lists using area-proportional Venn diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vlieg Jacob

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many genomics projects, numerous lists containing biological identifiers are produced. Often it is useful to see the overlap between different lists, enabling researchers to quickly observe similarities and differences between the data sets they are analyzing. One of the most popular methods to visualize the overlap and differences between data sets is the Venn diagram: a diagram consisting of two or more circles in which each circle corresponds to a data set, and the overlap between the circles corresponds to the overlap between the data sets. Venn diagrams are especially useful when they are 'area-proportional' i.e. the sizes of the circles and the overlaps correspond to the sizes of the data sets. Currently there are no programs available that can create area-proportional Venn diagrams connected to a wide range of biological databases. Results We designed a web application named BioVenn to summarize the overlap between two or three lists of identifiers, using area-proportional Venn diagrams. The user only needs to input these lists of identifiers in the textboxes and push the submit button. Parameters like colors and text size can be adjusted easily through the web interface. The position of the text can be adjusted by 'drag-and-drop' principle. The output Venn diagram can be shown as an SVG or PNG image embedded in the web application, or as a standalone SVG or PNG image. The latter option is useful for batch queries. Besides the Venn diagram, BioVenn outputs lists of identifiers for each of the resulting subsets. If an identifier is recognized as belonging to one of the supported biological databases, the output is linked to that database. Finally, BioVenn can map Affymetrix and EntrezGene identifiers to Ensembl genes. Conclusion BioVenn is an easy-to-use web application to generate area-proportional Venn diagrams from lists of biological identifiers. It supports a wide range of identifiers from the most used

  14. Audio Cartography: Visual Encoding of Acoustic Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Kornfeld, A.; Schiewe, J.; Dykes, J.

    2011-01-01

    Our sonic environment is the matter of subject in multiple domains which developed individual means of its description. As a result, it lacks an established visual language through which knowledge can be connected and insights shared. We provide a visual communication framework for the systematic and coherent documentation of sound in large-scale environments. This consists of visual encodings and mappings of acoustic parameters into distinct graphic variables that present plausible solutions...

  15. Stereotyping to infer group membership creates plausible deniability for prejudice-based aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William T L; Devine, Patricia G

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, participants administered painful electric shocks to an unseen male opponent who was either explicitly labeled as gay or stereotypically implied to be gay. Identifying the opponent with a gay-stereotypic attribute produced a situation in which the target's group status was privately inferred but plausibly deniable to others. To test the plausible deniability hypothesis, we examined aggression levels as a function of internal (personal) and external (social) motivation to respond without prejudice. Whether plausible deniability was present or absent, participants high in internal motivation aggressed at low levels, and participants low in both internal and external motivation aggressed at high levels. The behavior of participants low in internal and high in external motivation, however, depended on experimental condition. They aggressed at low levels when observers could plausibly attribute their behavior to prejudice and aggressed at high levels when the situation granted plausible deniability. This work has implications for both obstacles to and potential avenues for prejudice-reduction efforts.

  16. The semiosis of prayer and the creation of plausible fictional worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peter Södergård

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Prayer and incantation can perhaps be said to be 'mechanisms' that promise that lack will be liquidated and that there is an unlimited signator, a father, or some other metaphysical creature, standing behind and legitimizing the discourse. A way of communicating with the Unlimited that is privileged by an interpretive community that read the prayers aloud and enacted the magical stage-scripts. These highly overlapping categories function as one of the most common subforms of religious discourse for the creation, actualization and maintenance of plausible fictional worlds. They are liminal and transitional mechanisms that manipulate an empirical reader to phase-shift from an actual world to a plausible, by being inscribed in a possible and fictional world, thus creating a model reader, that perceives and acts according to the plausible world outlined by a given interpretive community, and that hears god talking in voces magicae and in god-speaking silence.

  17. Don't Plan for the Unexpected: Planning Based on Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm

    2015-01-01

    that the agent achieves this goal. Conversely, a weak plan promises only the possibility of leading to the goal. In real-life planning scenarios where the planning agent is faced with a high degree of uncertainty and an almost endless number of possible exogenous events, strong epistemic planning......We present a framework for automated planning based on plausibility models, as well as algorithms for computing plans in this framework. Our plausibility models include postconditions, as ontic effects are essential for most planning purposes. The framework presented extends a previously developed...... framework based on dynamic epistemic logic (DEL), without plausibilities/beliefs. In the pure epistemic framework, one can distinguish between strong and weak epistemic plans for achieving some, possibly epistemic, goal. By taking all possible outcomes of actions into account, a strong plan guarantees...

  18. Looking for a Location: Dissociated Effects of Event-Related Plausibility and Verb–Argument Information on Predictive Processing in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Warren, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the influence of verb–argument information and event-related plausibility on prediction of upcoming event locations in people with aphasia, as well as older and younger, neurotypical adults. It investigated how these types of information interact during anticipatory processing and how the ability to take advantage of the different types of information is affected by aphasia. Method This study used a modified visual-world task to examine eye movements and offline photo selection. Twelve adults with aphasia (aged 54–82 years) as well as 44 young adults (aged 18–31 years) and 18 older adults (aged 50–71 years) participated. Results Neurotypical adults used verb argument status and plausibility information to guide both eye gaze (a measure of anticipatory processing) and image selection (a measure of ultimate interpretation). Argument status did not affect the behavior of people with aphasia in either measure. There was only limited evidence of interaction between these 2 factors in eye gaze data. Conclusions Both event-related plausibility and verb-based argument status contributed to anticipatory processing of upcoming event locations among younger and older neurotypical adults. However, event-related likelihood had a much larger role in the performance of people with aphasia than did verb-based knowledge regarding argument structure. PMID:27997951

  19. Looking for a Location: Dissociated Effects of Event-Related Plausibility and Verb-Argument Information on Predictive Processing in Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Rebecca A; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Warren, Tessa

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the influence of verb-argument information and event-related plausibility on prediction of upcoming event locations in people with aphasia, as well as older and younger, neurotypical adults. It investigated how these types of information interact during anticipatory processing and how the ability to take advantage of the different types of information is affected by aphasia. This study used a modified visual-world task to examine eye movements and offline photo selection. Twelve adults with aphasia (aged 54-82 years) as well as 44 young adults (aged 18-31 years) and 18 older adults (aged 50-71 years) participated. Neurotypical adults used verb argument status and plausibility information to guide both eye gaze (a measure of anticipatory processing) and image selection (a measure of ultimate interpretation). Argument status did not affect the behavior of people with aphasia in either measure. There was only limited evidence of interaction between these 2 factors in eye gaze data. Both event-related plausibility and verb-based argument status contributed to anticipatory processing of upcoming event locations among younger and older neurotypical adults. However, event-related likelihood had a much larger role in the performance of people with aphasia than did verb-based knowledge regarding argument structure.

  20. The classical laws and rules in Bantu languages: How plausible are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study uses mainly secondary data, from comparative Bantu studies, to describe each of these processes, so as to determine their phonetic plausibility and geographical extent in the Bantu speaking area. The article points out cases which appear to be 'lawless', that is cases in which the respective changes are not ...

  1. Dietary fiber and associations with adiposity and fasting insulin among college students with plausible dietary reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Strother, Myra L; Kelly, Louise A; Huang, Terry T K

    2009-09-01

    We examined dietary fiber intake, food sources of dietary fiber, and relation of dietary fiber to body composition and metabolic parameters in college students with plausible dietary reports. Students (18-24 y of age) provided data on anthropometry, fasting blood chemistries, and body composition (bioelectric impedance). Diet and physical activity were assessed with the Diet History Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Plausible dietary reporters were identified (+/-1 SD cutoffs for reported energy intake as a percentage of predicted energy requirement). Multiple regression analyses were conducted with the total (n = 298) and plausible (n = 123) samples, adjusting for age, race, sex, smoking status, physical activity, energy intake, and fat-free mass (where applicable). Food sources of dietary fiber were similar in men and women. In the plausible sample compared with the total sample, dietary fiber was more strongly associated with fat mass (beta = -0.24, P fasting insulin (beta = -0.15, P fasting insulin and fat mass in men and women and inversely related to percentage of body fat, body mass index, and waist circumference in men only (P fasting insulin levels in men and women and consistently associated with adiposity measurements in men.

  2. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  3. High School Students' Evaluations, Plausibility (Re) Appraisals, and Knowledge about Topics in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Doug; Bickel, Elliot S.; Bailey, Janelle M.; Burrell, Shondricka

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation is an important aspect of science and is receiving increasing attention in science education. The present study investigated (1) changes to plausibility judgments and knowledge as a result of a series of instructional scaffolds, called model-evidence link activities, that facilitated evaluation of scientific and alternative models in…

  4. Causality vs. Plausibility: Alternative Stances for Inquiry into Human Behavior. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guba, Egon G.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    Arguing that the concept of causality in human experience is archaic, unnecessary, and misleading, particularly in the social/behavioral sciences, a new plausibility approach is proposed for understanding relationships among entities. The epistemological history of causality includes positivist, deductive-nomological, essentialist, activity or…

  5. The Development of Hand-Centered Visual Representations in the Primate Brain: A Computer Modeling Study Using Natural Visual Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Juan M; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M

    2015-01-01

    Neurons that respond to visual targets in a hand-centered frame of reference have been found within various areas of the primate brain. We investigate how hand-centered visual representations may develop in a neural network model of the primate visual system called VisNet, when the model is trained on images of the hand seen against natural visual scenes. The simulations show how such neurons may develop through a biologically plausible process of unsupervised competitive learning and self-organization. In an advance on our previous work, the visual scenes consisted of multiple targets presented simultaneously with respect to the hand. Three experiments are presented. First, VisNet was trained with computerized images consisting of a realistic image of a hand and a variety of natural objects, presented in different textured backgrounds during training. The network was then tested with just one textured object near the hand in order to verify if the output cells were capable of building hand-centered representations with a single localized receptive field. We explain the underlying principles of the statistical decoupling that allows the output cells of the network to develop single localized receptive fields even when the network is trained with multiple objects. In a second simulation we examined how some of the cells with hand-centered receptive fields decreased their shape selectivity and started responding to a localized region of hand-centered space as the number of objects presented in overlapping locations during training increases. Lastly, we explored the same learning principles training the network with natural visual scenes collected by volunteers. These results provide an important step in showing how single, localized, hand-centered receptive fields could emerge under more ecologically realistic visual training conditions.

  6. The development of hand-centred visual representations in the primate brain: a computer modelling study using natural visual scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Galeazzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons that respond to visual targets in a hand-centred frame of reference have been found within various areas of the primate brain. We investigate how hand-centred visual representations may develop in a neural network model of the primate visual system called VisNet, when the model is trained on images of the hand seen against natural visual scenes. The simulations show how such neurons may develop through a biologically plausible process of unsupervised competitive learning and self-organisation. In an advance on our previous work, the visual scenes consisted of multiple targets presented simultaneously with respect to the hand. Three experiments are presented. First, VisNet was trained with computerized images consisting of a realistic image of a hand and and a variety of natural objects, presented in different textured backgrounds during training. The network was then tested with just one textured object near the hand in order to verify if the output cells were capable of building hand-centered representations with a single localised receptive field. We explain the underlying principles of the statistical decoupling that allows the output cells of the network to develop single localised receptive fields even when the network is trained with multiple objects. In a second simulation we examined how some of the cells with hand-centred receptive fields decreased their shape selectivity and started responding to a localised region of hand-centred space as the number of objects presented in overlapping locations during training increases. Lastly, we explored the same learning principles training the network with natural visual scenes collected by volunteers. These results provide an important step in showing how single, localised, hand-centered receptive fields could emerge under more ecologically realistic visual training conditions.

  7. Of paradox and plausibility: the dynamic of change in medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a model of change in medical law. Drawing on systems theory, it argues that medical law participates in a dynamic of 'deparadoxification' and 'reparadoxification' whereby the underlying contingency of the law is variously concealed through plausible argumentation, or revealed by critical challenge. Medical law is, thus, thoroughly rhetorical. An examination of the development of the law on abortion and on the sterilization of incompetent adults shows that plausibility is achieved through the deployment of substantive common sense and formal stylistic devices. It is undermined where these elements are shown to be arbitrary and constructed. In conclusion, it is argued that the politics of medical law are constituted by this antagonistic process of establishing and challenging provisionally stable normative regimes. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Acquiring Plausible Predications from MEDLINE by Clustering MeSH Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose Antonio; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Bernhardt-Melischnig, Johannes; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The massive accumulation of biomedical knowledge is reflected by the growth of the literature database MEDLINE with over 23 million bibliographic records. All records are manually indexed by MeSH descriptors, many of them refined by MeSH subheadings. We use subheading information to cluster types of MeSH descriptor co-occurrences in MEDLINE by processing co-occurrence information provided by the UMLS. The goal is to infer plausible predicates to each resulting cluster. In an initial experiment this was done by grouping disease-pharmacologic substance co-occurrences into six clusters. Then, a domain expert manually performed the assignment of meaningful predicates to the clusters. The mean accuracy of the best ten generated biomedical facts of each cluster was 85%. This result supports the evidence of the potential of MeSH subheadings for extracting plausible medical predications from MEDLINE.

  9. Motion in Augmented Reality Games: an Engine for Creating Plausible Physical Interactions in Augmented Reality Games

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Namee, Brian; Beaney, David; Dong, Qingqing

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of Augmented Reality (AR) games will require real and virtual objects to coexist in motion in immersive game environments. This will require the illusion that real and virtual objects interact physically together in a plausible way. The Motion in Augmented Reality Games (MARG) engine described in this paper has been developed to allow these kinds of game environments. The paper describes the design and implementation of the MARG engine and presents two pr...

  10. Resolution of cosmological singularity and a plausible mechanism of the big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    The initial cosmological singularity in the framework of the general theory of relativity is resolved by introducing the effect of the uncertainty principle of quantum theory without violating conventional laws of physics. A plausible account of the mechanism of the big bang, analogous to that of a nuclear explosion, is given and the currently accepted Planck temperature of ≅10 32 K at the beginning of the big bang is predicted

  11. Parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading: Independent effects of plausibility and orthographic relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence from studies using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm has suggested that parafoveal preview benefit is contingent on the fit between a preview word and the sentence context. We investigated whether this plausibility preview benefit is modulated by preview-target orthographic relatedness. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences in which the parafoveal preview of a target word was manipulated. The nonidentical previews were plausible or implausible continuations of the sentence and were either orthographic neighbors of the target or unrelated to the target. All first-pass reading measures showed strong plausibility preview benefits. There was also a benefit from preview-target orthographic relatedness across the reading measures. These two preview effects did not interact for any fixation measure. We also found no evidence that the relatedness effect was caused by misperception of an orthographically similar preview as the target word. These data highlight the existence of two independent mechanisms underlying preview effects: a benefit from the contextual fit of the preview word in the sentence, and a benefit from the sublexical overlap between the preview and target words.

  12. Bridging the gap between physiology and behavior: evidence from the sSoTS model of human visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2011-01-01

    We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance-enabling psychological results to be simulated from implemented networks and also inferences to be made from simulations concerning processing at a neural level. These models also emphasize particular factors (e.g., the dynamics of performance in relation to real-time neuronal processing) that are not highlighted in other approaches and that can be tested empirically. We illustrate our argument from neural-level models that select stimuli by biased competition. We show that a model with biased competition dynamics can simulate data ranging from physiological studies of single-cell activity (Study 1) to whole-system behavior in human visual search (Study 2), while also capturing effects at an intermediate level, including performance breakdown after neural lesion (Study 3) and data from brain imaging (Study 4). We also show that, at each level of analysis, novel predictions can be derived from the biologically plausible parameters adopted, which we proceed to test (Study 5). We argue that, at least for studying the dynamics of visual attention, the approach productively links single-cell to psychological data.

  13. When plausibility manipulations work: an examination of their role in the development of false beliefs and memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Rebecca B; Zabrucky, Karen M; Gagne, Phill

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we examined whether prevalence information and imagery encoding influence participants' general plausibility, personal plausibility, belief, and memory ratings for suggested childhood events. Results showed decreases in general and personal plausibility ratings for low prevalence events when encoding instructions were not elaborate; however, instructions to repeatedly imagine suggested events elicited personal plausibility increases for low-prevalence events, evidence that elaborate imagery negated the effect of our prevalence manipulation. We found no evidence of imagination inflation or false memory construction. We discuss critical differences in researchers' manipulations of plausibility and imagery that may influence results of false memory studies in the literature. In future research investigators should focus on the specific nature of encoding instructions when examining the development of false memories.

  14. Scientific visualization uncertainty, multifield, biomedical, and scalable visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Min; Johnson, Christopher; Kaufman, Arie; Hagen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Based on the seminar that took place in Dagstuhl, Germany in June 2011, this contributed volume studies the four important topics within the scientific visualization field: uncertainty visualization, multifield visualization, biomedical visualization and scalable visualization. • Uncertainty visualization deals with uncertain data from simulations or sampled data, uncertainty due to the mathematical processes operating on the data, and uncertainty in the visual representation, • Multifield visualization addresses the need to depict multiple data at individual locations and the combination of multiple datasets, • Biomedical is a vast field with select subtopics addressed from scanning methodologies to structural applications to biological applications, • Scalability in scientific visualization is critical as data grows and computational devices range from hand-held mobile devices to exascale computational platforms. Scientific Visualization will be useful to practitioners of scientific visualization, ...

  15. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  16. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  17. Resolution of Cosmological Singularity and a Plausible Mechanism of the Big Bang

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    The initial cosmological singularity in the framework of the general theory of relativity is resolved by introducing the effect of the uncertainty principle of quantum theory without violating conventional laws of physics. A plausible account of the mechanism of the big bang, analogous to that of a nuclear explosion, is given and the currently accepted Planck temperature of about 10^(32)K at the beginning of the big bang is predicted. Subj-class: cosmology: theory-pre-big bang; mechanism of t...

  18. A Novel Discovery of Growth Process for Ag Nanowires and Plausible Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiejun Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel growth process of silver nanowires was revealed by tracing the morphology evolution of Ag nanostructures fabricated by an improved polyol process. A mixture of Ag nanowires and nanoparticles was obtained with the usage of PVP-K25 (MW = 38,000. The products sampled at different reaction time were studied in detail using UV-visible absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. An interesting phenomenon unknown in the past was observed where Ag nanoparticles undergo an important dissolution-recrystallization process and Ag nanowires are formed at the expense of the preformed Ag nanoparticles. A plausible novel growth mechanism for the silver nanowires was proposed.

  19. Higher Data Quality by Online Data-Entry and Automated Plausibility Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietragalla, Barbara; Sigg, Christian; Güsewell, Sabine; Clot, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Long-term phenological observations are now recognized as important indicators for climate change impact studies. With the increased need for phenological data, there is also an increased need for higher data quality. Since 1951 MeteoSwiss has been operating a national phenological observation network. Currently the network consists of about 150 active stations observing up to 69 different phenophases. An important aim of a running three years project at MeteoSwiss is a further increase of the quality of the collected data. The higher data quality will be achieved by an automated procedure performing plausibility checks on the data and by online data-entry. Further measures such as intensified observer instructions and collection of more detailed metadata also contribute to a high data quality standard. The plausibility checks include the natural order of the phenophases within a species and also between different species (with regard to possible natural deviation). Additionally it will be checked if the observed date differs by less than two standard deviations from the average for this phenophase at the altitude of the station. A value outside of these limits is not necessarily a false value, since occurrences of extreme values will be beyond these limits. Therefore, within this check of the limits, the timing of the season of the respective year will also be taken into account. In case of an implausible value a comparison with other stations of the same region and sea level is proposed. A further possibility of data quality control could be to model the different phenophases statistically and to use this model for estimating the likelihood of observed values. An overall exploratory data analysis is currently performed providing a solid basis to implement the best possible methods for the plausibility checks. Important advantages of online data-entry are the near real-time availability of the data as well as the avoidance of various kinds of typical mistakes

  20. Emergent structured transition from variation to repetition in a biologically-plausible model of learning in basal ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin eShah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Often, when animals encounter an unexpected sensory event, they transition from executing a variety of movements to repeating the movement(s that may have caused the event. According to a recent theory of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney 2006, repetition allows the animal to represent those movements, and the outcome, as an action for later recruitment. The transition from variation to repetition often follows a non-random, structured, pattern. While the structure of the pattern can be explained by sophisticated cognitive mechanisms, simpler mechanisms based on dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia (BG activity are thought to underlie action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney 2006. In this paper we ask the question: can simple BG-mediated mechanisms account for a structured transition from variation to repetition, or are more sophisticated cognitive mechanisms always necessary?To address this question, we present a computational model of BG-mediated biasing of behavior. In our model, unlike most other models of BG function, the BG biases behaviour through modulation of cortical response to excitation; many possible movements are represented by the cortical area; and excitation to the cortical area is topographically-organized. We subject the model to simple reaching tasks, inspired by behavioral studies, in which a location to which to reach must be selected. Locations within a target area elicit a reinforcement signal. A structured transition from variation to repetition emerges from simple BG-mediated biasing of cortical response to excitation. We show how the structured pattern influences behavior in simple and complicated tasks. We also present analyses that describe the structured transition from variation to repetition due to BG-mediated biasing and from biasing that would be expected from a type of cognitive biasing, allowing us to compare behaviour resulting from these types of biasing and make connections with future behavioural experiments.

  1. The Sarrazin effect: the presence of absurd statements in conspiracy theories makes canonical information less plausible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Marius Hans; Auer, Nikolas; Ortlieb, Stefan A; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers-extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect.

  2. Association of rheumatic fever & rheumatic heart disease with plausible early & late-stage disease markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Subendu; Rastogi, Mukul; Chaudhary, Priyanka; Kumar, Rajesh; Arora, Priya; Sagar, Vivek; Sahni, Inderpal Singh; Shethi, Sunil; Thakur, Khemraj; Ailawadhi, Sourav; Toor, Devinder; Chakraborti, Anuradha

    2017-06-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are the autoimmune sequelae caused by Group A Streptococcus. RHD still remains a major concern in the developing countries due to its poor diagnosis, lack of vaccines and social awareness among population. This study was aimed to identify the plausible early- and late-stage disease markers associated with RF/RHD. A total of 84 patients with confirmed pharyngitis (n=18), RF (n=23) and RHD (n=43) were included in the comparative analysis of different factors involved in host-pathogen interaction during RF/RHD pathogenesis. This study revealed high titre of serum antistreptolysin O (ASO) antibody in pharyngitis compared to RF and RHD patients, whereas procollagen type 1 C-peptide (PICP) level was elevated in RHD which showed an inverse correlation with serum ASO titre. The significant elevation of serum anti-peptide associated with RF (PARF) antibody in RF patients was correlated as a probable stage-specific determinant. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine profile revealed high levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12)/IL-23p40, IL-17A in RF, whereas IL-6 concentration was higher in RHD compared to healthy controls. The overall assessment of the factors/ disease markers involved in host-pathogen interaction in RF/RHD may be suggestive of plausible disease marker in different groups of patients. Further studies with larger sample need to be done to better understand RF/RHD pathogenesis.

  3. Neural correlates of early-closure garden-path processing: Effects of prosody and plausibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Anderson, Catherine; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate neural correlates of early-closure garden-path sentence processing and use of extrasyntactic information to resolve temporary syntactic ambiguities. Sixteen participants performed an auditory picture verification task on sentences presented with natural versus flat intonation. Stimuli included sentences in which the garden-path interpretation was plausible, implausible because of a late pragmatic cue, or implausible because of a semantic mismatch between an optionally transitive verb and the following noun. Natural sentence intonation was correlated with left-hemisphere temporal activation, but also with activation that suggests the allocation of more resources to interpretation when natural prosody is provided. Garden-path processing was associated with upregulation in bilateral inferior parietal and right-hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex, while differences between the strength and type of plausibility cues were also reflected in activation patterns. Region of interest (ROI) analyses in regions associated with complex syntactic processing are consistent with a role for posterior temporal cortex supporting access to verb argument structure. Furthermore, ROI analyses within left-hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus suggest a division of labour, with the anterior-ventral part primarily involved in syntactic-semantic mismatch detection, the central part supporting structural reanalysis, and the posterior-dorsal part showing a general structural complexity effect.

  4. A Color-Opponency Based Biological Model for Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Color constancy is the ability of the human visual system to adaptively correct color-biased scenes under different illuminants. Most of the existing color constancy models are nonphysiologically plausible. Among the limited biological models, the great majority is Retinex and its variations, and only two or three models directly simulate the feature of color-opponency, but only of the very earliest stages of visual pathway, i.e., the single-opponent mechanisms involved at the levels of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons. Considering the extensive physiological evidences supporting that both the single-opponent cells in retina and LGN and the double-opponent neurons in primary visual cortex (V1 are the building blocks for color constancy, in this study we construct a color-opponency based color constancy model by simulating the opponent fashions of both the single-opponent and double-opponent cells in a forward manner. As for the spatial structure of the receptive fields (RF, both the classical RF (CRF center and the nonclassical RF (nCRF surround are taken into account for all the cells. The proposed model was tested on several typical image databases commonly used for performance evaluation of color constancy methods, and exciting results were achieved.

  5. Signature of Plausible Accreting Supermassive Black Holes in Mrk 261/262 and Mrk 266

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Ter-Kazarian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the neutrino radiation of plausible accreting supermassive black holes closely linking to the 5 nuclear components of galaxy samples of Mrk 261/262 and Mrk 266. We predict a time delay before neutrino emission of the same scale as the age of the Universe. The ultrahigh energy neutrinos are produced in superdense protomatter medium via simple (quark or pionic reactions or modified URCA processes (G. Gamow was inspired to name the process URCA after the name of a casino in Rio de Janeiro. The resulting neutrino fluxes for quark reactions are ranging from to , where is the opening parameter. For pionic and modified URCA reactions, the fluxes are and , respectively. These fluxes are highly beamed along the plane of accretion disk, peaked at ultrahigh energies, and collimated in smaller opening angle .

  6. BioCichlid: central dogma-based 3D visualization system of time-course microarray data on a hierarchical biological network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Ryosuke R; Morioka, Masaki S; Ogishima, Soichi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2009-02-15

    BioCichlid is a 3D visualization system of time-course microarray data on molecular networks, aiming at interpretation of gene expression data by transcriptional relationships based on the central dogma with physical and genetic interactions. BioCichlid visualizes both physical (protein) and genetic (regulatory) network layers, and provides animation of time-course gene expression data on the genetic network layer. Transcriptional regulations are represented to bridge the physical network (transcription factors) and genetic network (regulated genes) layers, thus integrating promoter analysis into the pathway mapping. BioCichlid enhances the interpretation of microarray data and allows for revealing the underlying mechanisms causing differential gene expressions. BioCichlid is freely available and can be accessed at http://newton.tmd.ac.jp/. Source codes for both biocichlid server and client are also available.

  7. On computational modeling of visual saliency: Examining what's right, and what's left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Neil D B; Wloka, Calden; Frosst, Nick; Rahman, Shafin; Tsotsos, John K

    2015-11-01

    In the past decade, a large number of computational models of visual saliency have been proposed. Recently a number of comprehensive benchmark studies have been presented, with the goal of assessing the performance landscape of saliency models under varying conditions. This has been accomplished by considering fixation data, annotated image regions, and stimulus patterns inspired by psychophysics. In this paper, we present a high-level examination of challenges in computational modeling of visual saliency, with a heavy emphasis on human vision and neural computation. This includes careful assessment of different metrics for performance of visual saliency models, and identification of remaining difficulties in assessing model performance. We also consider the importance of a number of issues relevant to all saliency models including scale-space, the impact of border effects, and spatial or central bias. Additionally, we consider the biological plausibility of models in stepping away from exemplar input patterns towards a set of more general theoretical principles consistent with behavioral experiments. As a whole, this presentation establishes important obstacles that remain in visual saliency modeling, in addition to identifying a number of important avenues for further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual Culture and Visual Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Onursoy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently visual literacy gains importance in the context of understanding the rising visual culture products, thinking about them and producing these products. The purpose of this article examines the concept of visual literacy that is the relationship with visual culture depending on the literature. Visual literacy is one of the multiple literatures that emerge from the development of information and information dissemination forms. Visual literacy is an interdisciplinary concept and associated with some areas, such as graphic design, visual arts, architectural engineering, industrial product design, visual communication and media literacy. Visual culture covers every human product, so visual products that we face in everyday life and visual realities with abundant alternatives constitute our daily life itself. Sometimes, this confusing visual understanding creates a gap between contemporary cultural richness and what can be observed.

  9. Visual Signs of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Rexbye

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer culture has placed the ageing body in a dilemma of representation. Physical appearance has become increasingly important as a symbol of identity, and at the same time society idealizes youth. This study explores visual ageing empirically. By using photographs of older persons (70+ as starting point, it is explored how visual age is assessed and interpreted. It is shown that informants read age in a spread of stages and categories. Main age indicators are biological markers: skin, eyes, and hair colour, but supplemented by vigour, style, and grooming. Furthermore, in-depth interviews indicate that visual age is mainly interpreted into categories and moral regulations rooted in early modernity. Subsequently the question of a postmodern perspective of visual ageing is discussed in this article. The empirical findings in the study question a postmodern fluidity of visual signs – at least when the concern is signs of ageing.

  10. The visual development of hand-centered receptive fields in a neural network model of the primate visual system trained with experimentally recorded human gaze changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Juan M; Navajas, Joaquín; Mender, Bedeho M W; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw. A camera mounted on the head captured images of the hand and jigsaw, while eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracking device. This combination of data allowed us to reconstruct the retinal images seen as humans undertook the jigsaw task. These retinal images were then fed into the neural network model during self-organization of its synaptic connectivity using a biologically plausible trace learning rule. A trace learning mechanism encourages neurons in the model to learn to respond to input images that tend to occur in close temporal proximity. In the data recorded from human subjects, we found that the participant's gaze often shifted through a sequence of locations around a fixed spatial configuration of the hand and one of the jigsaw pieces. In this case, trace learning should bind these retinal images together onto the same subset of output neurons. The simulation results consequently confirmed that some cells learned to respond selectively to the hand and a jigsaw piece in a fixed spatial configuration across different retinal views.

  11. Visualizing multiple word similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit-Kylar, Brent; Jones, Michael N

    2012-09-01

    Although many recent advances have taken place in corpus-based tools, the techniques used to guide exploration and evaluation of these systems have advanced little. Typically, the plausibility of a semantic space is explored by sampling the nearest neighbors to a target word and evaluating the neighborhood on the basis of the modeler's intuition. Tools for visualization of these large-scale similarity spaces are nearly nonexistent. We present a new open-source tool to plot and visualize semantic spaces, thereby allowing researchers to rapidly explore patterns in visual data that describe the statistical relations between words. Words are visualized as nodes, and word similarities are shown as directed edges of varying strengths. The "Word-2-Word" visualization environment allows for easy manipulation of graph data to test word similarity measures on their own or in comparisons between multiple similarity metrics. The system contains a large library of statistical relationship models, along with an interface to teach them from various language sources. The modularity of the visualization environment allows for quick insertion of new similarity measures so as to compare new corpus-based metrics against the current state of the art. The software is available at www.indiana.edu/~semantic/word2word/.

  12. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning , which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning , which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15

  13. A plausible two-dimensional vertical model of the East Mesa Geothermal Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Kassoy, D. R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1981-11-10

    For this study, a two-dimensional conceptual model of the East Mesa Geothermal system is developed on the basis of existing geological, geophysical, geochemical, heat flux, and borehole logging data. Hot water rising in a set of faults is assumed to charge the reservoir, which is overlaid by a clay-rich cap. The temperature-depth distribution observed at the site implies that the liquid is converting at a high Rayleigh number. In this approximation, liquid rises up the fault and spreads isothermally into the nearby sections of the reservoir. The cooling effect of the surface on the flow in the reservoir is confined to a thin layer adjacent to the cap-reservoir interface near the fault. This layer grows with the distance from the fault. Eventually, the entire depth of the reservoir is cooled by the surface. The mathematical model is based on the flow of liquid water in a saturated porous medium. Results are obtained for the velocities, pressures, and temperatures in the entire system consisting of fault zone, aquifer, and clay cap. Finally we compare the predicted surface heat flux to that measured at the site in shallow wells. We conclude that the model represents a plausible description of fault zone controlled systems like that at East Mesa.

  14. Event-based plausibility immediately influences on-line language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Kazunaga; Chow, Tracy; Hare, Mary; Elman, Jeffrey L; Scheepers, Christoph; McRae, Ken

    2011-07-01

    In some theories of sentence comprehension, linguistically relevant lexical knowledge, such as selectional restrictions, is privileged in terms of the time-course of its access and influence. We examined whether event knowledge computed by combining multiple concepts can rapidly influence language understanding even in the absence of selectional restriction violations. Specifically, we investigated whether instruments can combine with actions to influence comprehension of ensuing patients of (as in Rayner, Warren, Juhuasz, & Liversedge, 2004; Warren & McConnell, 2007). Instrument-verb-patient triplets were created in a norming study designed to tap directly into event knowledge. In self-paced reading (Experiment 1), participants were faster to read patient nouns, such as hair, when they were typical of the instrument-action pair (Donna used the shampoo to wash vs. the hose to wash). Experiment 2 showed that these results were not due to direct instrument-patient relations. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 1 using eyetracking, with effects of event typicality observed in first fixation and gaze durations on the patient noun. This research demonstrates that conceptual event-based expectations are computed and used rapidly and dynamically during on-line language comprehension. We discuss relationships among plausibility and predictability, as well as their implications. We conclude that selectional restrictions may be best considered as event-based conceptual knowledge rather than lexical-grammatical knowledge.

  15. Non-specific effects of vaccines: plausible and potentially important, but implications uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Andrew J; Finn, Adam; Curtis, Nigel

    2017-11-01

    Non-specific effects (NSE) or heterologous effects of vaccines are proposed to explain observations in some studies that certain vaccines have an impact beyond the direct protection against infection with the specific pathogen for which the vaccines were designed. The importance and implications of such effects remain controversial. There are several known immunological mechanisms which could lead to NSE, since it is widely recognised that the generation of specific immunity is initiated by non-specific innate immune mechanisms that may also have wider effects on adaptive immune function. However, there are no published studies that demonstrate a mechanistic link between such immunological phenomena and clinically relevant NSE in humans. While it is highly plausible that some vaccines do have NSE, their magnitude and duration, and thus importance, remain uncertain. Although the WHO recently concluded that current evidence does not justify changes to immunisation policy, further studies of sufficient size and quality are needed to assess the importance of NSE for all-cause mortality. This could provide insights into vaccine immunobiology with important implications for infant health and survival. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. The public's perception of the plausibility of dementia risk factors is not influenced by scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lee-Fay; Anstey, Kaarin Jane

    2007-01-01

    The public know little about risk factors for dementia. The aim of this study was to explore belief structures underlying how plausible risk factors for dementia appear to the general public. Two thousand members of the Australian public were surveyed by telephone on their beliefs regarding dementia risk factors. Factor analysis was performed on 17 modifiable behaviours that were rated by participants as increasing, not changing or decreasing the risk of dementia. Three factors were obtained - Health and Lifestyle, Activity, and Nutrition. Items loading on the Health and Lifestyle factor were management of cardiovascular risk factors, drinking more water, reducing stress, coffee and tea, and alcohol intake. Items loading on the Activity factor were mental, physical and social activity and getting out and about more. Items loading on the Nutrition factor were eating foods high in omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants and estrogen, using non-aluminium cookware and taking vitamin and nutritional supplements. Factors were characterised by similarity of items, rather than level of scientific evidence of an association with dementia. Factor scale scores differed according to sociodemographic characteristics. The public do not process dementia risk factor information based on level of scientific evidence.

  17. Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Eric B; Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B; Fresco, David M; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A; Fulwiler, Carl

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy.

  18. Is Palmitoleic Acid a Plausible Nonpharmacological Strategy to Prevent or Control Chronic Metabolic and Inflammatory Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Camila O; Vannice, Gretchen K; Rosa Neto, José C; Calder, Philip C

    2018-01-01

    Although dietary fatty acids can modulate metabolic and immune responses, the effects of palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) remain unclear. Since this monounsaturated fatty acid is described as a lipokine, studies with cell culture and rodent models have suggested it enhances whole body insulin sensitivity, stimulates insulin secretion by β cells, increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation, improves the blood lipid profile, and alters macrophage differentiation. However, human studies report elevated blood levels of palmitoleic acid in people with obesity and metabolic syndrome. These findings might be reflection of the level or activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, which synthesizes palmitoleate and is enhanced in liver and adipose tissue of obese patients. The aim of this review is to describe the immune-metabolic effects of palmitoleic acid observed in cell culture, animal models, and humans to answer the question of whether palmitoleic acid is a plausible nonpharmacological strategy to prevent, control, or ameliorate chronic metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Despite the beneficial effects observed in cell culture and in animal studies, there are insufficient human intervention studies to fully understand the physiological effects of palmitoleic acid. Therefore, more human-based research is needed to identify whether palmitoleic acid meets the promising therapeutic potential suggested by the preclinical research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B.; Fresco, David M.; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A.; Fulwiler, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy. PMID:26482755

  20. The missing link between sleep disorders and age-related dementia: recent evidence and plausible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Rujia; Li, Song; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Le, Weidong

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disorders are among the most common clinical problems and possess a significant concern for the geriatric population. More importantly, while around 40% of elderly adults have sleep-related complaints, sleep disorders are more frequently associated with co-morbidities including age-related neurodegenerative diseases and mild cognitive impairment. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that disturbed sleep may not only serve as the consequence of brain atrophy, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia and, therefore, significantly increase dementia risk. Since the current therapeutic interventions lack efficacies to prevent, delay or reverse the pathological progress of dementia, a better understanding of underlying mechanisms by which sleep disorders interact with the pathogenesis of dementia will provide possible targets for the prevention and treatment of dementia. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological roles of sleep in learning/memory, and specifically update the recent research evidence demonstrating the association between sleep disorders and dementia. Plausible mechanisms are further discussed. Moreover, we also evaluate the possibility of sleep therapy as a potential intervention for dementia.

  1. Plausible futures of a social-ecological system: Yahara watershed, Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural watersheds are affected by changes in climate, land use, agricultural practices, and human demand for energy, food, and water resources. In this context, we analyzed the agricultural, urbanizing Yahara watershed (size: 1345 km², population: 372,000 to assess its responses to multiple changing drivers. We measured recent trends in land use/cover and water quality of the watershed, spatial patterns of 10 ecosystem services, and spatial patterns and nestedness of governance. We developed scenarios for the future of the Yahara watershed by integrating trends and events from the global scenarios literature, perspectives of stakeholders, and models of biophysical drivers and ecosystem services. Four qualitative scenarios were created to explore plausible trajectories to the year 2070 in the watershed's social-ecological system under different regimes: no action on environmental trends, accelerated technological development, strong intervention by government, and shifting values toward sustainability. Quantitative time-series for 2010-2070 were developed for weather and land use/cover during each scenario as inputs to model changes in ecosystem services. Ultimately, our goal is to understand how changes in the social-ecological system of the Yahara watershed, including management of land and water resources, can build or impair resilience to shifting drivers, including climate.

  2. Visual art and visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their

  3. Parathyroid hormone is a plausible mediator for the metabolic syndrome in the morbidly obese: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Calster Ben

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological mechanisms in the association between the metabolic syndrome (MS and various biomarkers, such as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vit D and magnesium, are not fully understood. Several of the proposed predictors of MS are also possible predictors of parathyroid hormone (PTH. We aimed to explore whether PTH is a possible mediator between MS and various possible explanatory variables in morbidly obese patients. Methods Fasting serum levels of PTH, vit D and magnesium were assessed in a cross-sectional study of 1,017 consecutive morbidly obese patients (68% women. Dependencies between MS and a total of seven possible explanatory variables as suggested in the literature, including PTH, vit D and magnesium, were specified in a path diagram, including both direct and indirect effects. Possible gender differences were also included. Effects were estimated using Bayesian path analysis, a multivariable regression technique, and expressed using standardized regression coefficients. Results Sixty-eight percent of the patients had MS. In addition to type 2 diabetes and age, both PTH and serum phosphate had significant direct effects on MS; 0.36 (95% Credibility Interval (CrI [0.15, 0.57] and 0.28 (95% CrI [0.10,0.47], respectively. However, due to significant gender differences, an increase in either PTH or phosphate corresponded to an increased OR for MS in women only. All proposed predictors of MS had significant direct effects on PTH, with vit D and phosphate the strongest; -0.27 (95% CrI [-0.33,-0.21] and -0.26 (95% CrI [-0.32,-0.20], respectively. Though neither vit D nor magnesium had significant direct effects on MS, for women they both affected MS indirectly, due to the strong direct effect of PTH on MS. For phosphate, the indirect effect on MS, mediated through serum calcium and PTH, had opposite sign than the direct effect, resulting in the total effect on MS being somewhat attenuated compared to the direct effect only

  4. Toward a visual cognitive system using active top-down saccadic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LaCroix, J.; Postma, E.; van den Herik, J.; Murre, J.

    2008-01-01

    The saccadic selection of relevant visual input for preferential processing allows the efficient use of computational resources. Based on saccadic active human vision, we aim to develop a plausible saccade-based visual cognitive system for a humanoid robot. This paper presents two initial steps

  5. Correlation-Based Network Generation, Visualization, and Analysis as a Powerful Tool in Biological Studies: A Case Study in Cancer Cell Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Batushansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade vast data sets are being generated in biological and medical studies. The challenge lies in their summary, complexity reduction, and interpretation. Correlation-based networks and graph-theory based properties of this type of networks can be successfully used during this process. However, the procedure has its pitfalls and requires specific knowledge that often lays beyond classical biology and includes many computational tools and software. Here we introduce one of a series of methods for correlation-based network generation and analysis using freely available software. The pipeline allows the user to control each step of the network generation and provides flexibility in selection of correlation methods and thresholds. The pipeline was implemented on published metabolomics data of a population of human breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 under two conditions: normal and hypoxia. The analysis revealed significant differences between the metabolic networks in response to the tested conditions. The network under hypoxia had 1.7 times more significant correlations between metabolites, compared to normal conditions. Unique metabolic interactions were identified which could lead to the identification of improved markers or aid in elucidating the mechanism of regulation between distantly related metabolites induced by the cancer growth.

  6. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  7. A plausible (overlooked) super-luminous supernova in the Sloan digital sky survey stripe 82 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Djorgovski, S. George; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Glikman, Eilat; Koposov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of a plausible super-luminous supernova (SLSN), found in the archival data of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, called PSN 000123+000504. The supernova (SN) peaked at m g < 19.4 mag in the second half of 2005 September, but was missed by the real-time SN hunt. The observed part of the light curve (17 epochs) showed that the rise to the maximum took over 30 days, while the decline time lasted at least 70 days (observed frame), closely resembling other SLSNe of SN 2007bi type. The spectrum of the host galaxy reveals a redshift of z = 0.281 and the distance modulus of μ = 40.77 mag. Combining this information with the SDSS photometry, we found the host galaxy to be an LMC-like irregular dwarf galaxy with an absolute magnitude of M B = –18.2 ± 0.2 mag and an oxygen abundance of 12+log [O/H]=8.3±0.2; hence, the SN peaked at M g < –21.3 mag. Our SLSN follows the relation for the most energetic/super-luminous SNe exploding in low-metallicity environments, but we found no clear evidence for SLSNe to explode in low-luminosity (dwarf) galaxies only. The available information on the PSN 000123+000504 light curve suggests the magnetar-powered model as a likely scenario of this event. This SLSN is a new addition to a quickly growing family of super-luminous SNe.

  8. Visual Literacy and Message Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers from different disciplines have explained their views and interpretations and written about visual literacy from their various perspectives. Visual literacy may be applied in almost all areas such as advertising, anatomy, art, biology, business presentations, communication, education, engineering, etc. (Pettersson, 2002a). Despite…

  9. A computational model of the development of separate representations of facial identity and expression in the primate visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromans, James Matthew; Harris, Mitchell; Stringer, Simon Maitland

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have provided evidence that the visual processing areas of the primate brain represent facial identity and facial expression within different subpopulations of neurons. For example, in non-human primates there is evidence that cells within the inferior temporal gyrus (TE) respond primarily to facial identity, while cells within the superior temporal sulcus (STS) respond to facial expression. More recently, it has been found that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of non-human primates contains some cells that respond exclusively to changes in facial identity, while other cells respond exclusively to facial expression. How might the primate visual system develop physically separate representations of facial identity and expression given that the visual system is always exposed to simultaneous combinations of facial identity and expression during learning? In this paper, a biologically plausible neural network model, VisNet, of the ventral visual pathway is trained on a set of carefully-designed cartoon faces with different identities and expressions. The VisNet model architecture is composed of a hierarchical series of four Self-Organising Maps (SOMs), with associative learning in the feedforward synaptic connections between successive layers. During learning, the network develops separate clusters of cells that respond exclusively to either facial identity or facial expression. We interpret the performance of the network in terms of the learning properties of SOMs, which are able to exploit the statistical indendependence between facial identity and expression.

  10. A computational model of the development of separate representations of facial identity and expression in the primate visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Matthew Tromans

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have provided evidence that the visual processing areas of the primate brain represent facial identity and facial expression within different subpopulations of neurons. For example, in non-human primates there is evidence that cells within the inferior temporal gyrus (TE respond primarily to facial identity, while cells within the superior temporal sulcus (STS respond to facial expression. More recently, it has been found that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of non-human primates contains some cells that respond exclusively to changes in facial identity, while other cells respond exclusively to facial expression. How might the primate visual system develop physically separate representations of facial identity and expression given that the visual system is always exposed to simultaneous combinations of facial identity and expression during learning? In this paper, a biologically plausible neural network model, VisNet, of the ventral visual pathway is trained on a set of carefully-designed cartoon faces with different identities and expressions. The VisNet model architecture is composed of a hierarchical series of four Self-Organising Maps (SOMs, with associative learning in the feedforward synaptic connections between successive layers. During learning, the network develops separate clusters of cells that respond exclusively to either facial identity or facial expression. We interpret the performance of the network in terms of the learning properties of SOMs, which are able to exploit the statistical indendependence between facial identity and expression.

  11. Embodied Learning of a Generative Neural Model for Biological Motion Perception and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eSchrodt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although an action observation network and mirror neurons for understanding the actions and intentions of others have been under deep, interdisciplinary consideration over recent years, it remains largely unknown how the brain manages to map visually perceived biological motion of others onto its own motor system. This paper shows how such a mapping may be established, even if the biologically motion is visually perceived from a new vantage point. We introduce a learning artificial neural network model and evaluate it on full body motion tracking recordings. The model implements an embodied, predictive inference approach. It first learns to correlate and segment multimodal sensory streams of own bodily motion. In doing so, it becomes able to anticipate motion progression, to complete missing modal information, and to self-generate learned motion sequences. When biological motion of another person is observed, this self-knowledge is utilized to recognize similar motion patterns and predict their progress. Due to the relative encodings, the model shows strong robustness in recognition despite observing rather large varieties of body morphology and posture dynamics. By additionally equipping the model with the capability to rotate its visual frame of reference, it is able to deduce the visual perspective onto the observed person, establishing full consistency to the embodied self-motion encodings by means of active inference. In further support of its neuro-cognitive plausibility, we also model typical bistable perceptions when crucial depth information is missing. In sum, the introduced neural model proposes a solution to the problem of how the human brain may establish correspondence between observed bodily motion and its own motor system, thus offering a mechanism that supports the development of mirror neurons.

  12. Adipogenic placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells are not lineage restricted by withdrawing extrinsic factors: developing a novel visual angle in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C; Cao, H; Pan, X; Li, J; He, J; Pan, Q; Xin, J; Yu, X; Li, J; Wang, Y; Zhu, D; Li, L

    2016-03-17

    Current evidence implies that differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) can act as progenitor cells and transdifferentiate across lineage boundaries. However, whether this unrestricted lineage has specificities depending on the stem cell type is unknown. Placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSCs), an easily accessible and less invasive source, are extremely useful materials in current stem cell therapies. No studies have comprehensively analyzed the transition in morphology, surface antigens, metabolism and multilineage potency of differentiated PDMSCs after their dedifferentiation. In this study, we showed that after withdrawing extrinsic factors, adipogenic PDMSCs reverted to a primitive cell population and retained stem cell characteristics. The mitochondrial network during differentiation and dedifferentiation may serve as a marker of absent or acquired pluripotency in various stem cell models. The new population proliferated faster than unmanipulated PDMSCs and could be differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and hepatocytes. The cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) signaling pathway and extracellular matrix (ECM) components modulate cell behavior and enable the cells to proliferate or differentiate during the differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation processes in our study. These observations indicate that the dedifferentiated PDMSCs are distinguishable from the original PDMSCs and may serve as a novel source in stem cell biology and cell-based therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, whether PDMSCs differentiated into other lineages can be dedifferentiated to a primitive cell population needs to be investigated.

  13. Cortical spatiotemporal dimensionality reduction for visual grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocci, Giacomo; Barbieri, Davide; Citti, Giovanna; Sarti, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    The visual systems of many mammals, including humans, are able to integrate the geometric information of visual stimuli and perform cognitive tasks at the first stages of the cortical processing. This is thought to be the result of a combination of mechanisms, which include feature extraction at the single cell level and geometric processing by means of cell connectivity. We present a geometric model of such connectivities in the space of detected features associated with spatiotemporal visual stimuli and show how they can be used to obtain low-level object segmentation. The main idea is to define a spectral clustering procedure with anisotropic affinities over data sets consisting of embeddings of the visual stimuli into higher-dimensional spaces. Neural plausibility of the proposed arguments will be discussed.

  14. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  15. Lead-induced SCC of alloy 600 in plausible steam generator crevice environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Manolescu, A. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mirzai, M. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Laboratory stress corrosion cracking (SCC) test environments developed to simulate representative BNGS-A steam generator (SG) crevice chemistries have been used to determine the susceptibility of Alloy 600 to lead-induced SCC under plausible SG conditions. Test environments were based on plant SG hideout return data and analysis of removed tubes and deposits. Deviations from the normal near neutral crevice pH environment were considered to simulate possible faulted excursion crevice chemistry and to bound the postulated crevice pH range of 3-9 (at temperature). The effect of lead contamination up to 1000 ppm, but with an emphasis on the 100 to 500 ppm range, was determined. SCC susceptibility was investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests and encapsulated C-ring tests. CERT tests were performed at 305 degrees C on tubing representative of BNGS-A SG U-bends. The C-ring test method allowed a wider test matrix covering three temperatures (280, 304 and 315 degrees C), three strain levels (0.2%, 2% and 4%) and tubing representative of U-bends plus tubing given a simulated stress relief to represent material at the tubesheet. The results of this test program confirmed that in the absence of lead contamination, cracking does not occur in these concentrated, 3.3 to 8.9 pH range, crevice environments. Also, it appears that the concentrated crevice environments suppress lead-induced cracking relative to that seen in all-volatile-treatment (AVT) water. For the (static) C-ring tests, lead-induced SCC was only produced in the near-neutral crevice environment and was more severe at 500 ppm than 100 ppm PbO. This trend was also observed in CERT tests but some cracking/grain boundary attack occurred in acidic (pH 3.3) and alkaline (pH 8.9) environments. The C-ring tests indicated that a certain amount of resistance to cracking was imparted by simulated stress relief of the tubing. This heat treatment, confirmed to have resulted in sensitization, promoted

  16. Lead-induced stress-corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in plausible steam generator crevice environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Manolescu, A. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mirzai, M. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    Laboratory stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) test environments were developed to simulate crevice chemistries representative of Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A (BNPD A) steam generators (SGs); these test environments were used to determine the susceptibility of Alloy 600 to lead-induced SCC under plausible SG conditions. Test environments were based on plant SG hideout return data and analysis of removed tubes and deposits. Deviations from the normal near-neutral crevice pH environment were considered to simulate possible faulted excursion crevice chemistry and to bound the postulated crevice pH range of 3 to 9 (at temperature). The effect of lead contamination up to 1000 ppm, but with an emphasis on the 100- to 500-ppm range, was determined. SCC susceptibility was investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests and encapsulated C-ring tests. CERT tests were performed at 305 degrees C on tubing representative of BNPD A SG U-bends. The C-ring test method allowed a wider test matrix, covering 3 temperatures (280 degrees C, 304 degrees C and 315 degrees C), 3 strain levels (0.2%, 2% and 4%), and tubing representative of U-bends plus tubing given a simulated stress relief to represent material at the tube sheet. The results of this test program confirmed that in the absence of lead contamination, cracking does not occur in these concentrated, 3.3 to 8.9 pH range, crevice environments. Also, it appears that the concentrated crevice environments suppress lead-induced cracking relative to that seen in all-volatile-treatment (AVT) water. For the (static) C-ring tests, lead-induced SCC was only produced in the near-neutral crevice environment and was more severe at 500 ppm than at 100 ppm PbO. This trend was also observed in CERT tests, but some cracking-grain boundary attack occurred in acidic (pH 3.3) and alkaline (pH 8.9) environments. The C-ring tests indicated that a certain amount of resistance to cracking was imparted by simulated stress relief of

  17. Community-based intervention packages facilitated by NGOs demonstrate plausible evidence for child mortality impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Jim; Kureshy, Nazo; LeBan, Karen; Prosnitz, Debra; Ryan, Leo

    2014-03-01

    Evidence exists that community-based intervention packages can have substantial child and newborn mortality impact, and may help more countries meet Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) targets. A non-governmental organization (NGO) project using such programming in Mozambique documented an annual decline in under-five mortality rate (U5MR) of 9.3% in a province in which Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data showed a 4.2% U5MR decline during the same period. To test the generalizability of this finding, the same analysis was applied to a group of projects funded by the US Agency for International Development. Projects supported implementation of community-based intervention packages aimed at increasing use of health services while improving preventive and home-care practices for children under five. All projects collect baseline and endline population coverage data for key child health interventions. Twelve projects fitted the inclusion criteria. U5MR decline was estimated by modelling these coverage changes in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) and comparing with concurrent measured DHS mortality data. Average coverage changes for all interventions exceeded average concurrent trends. When population coverage changes were modelled in LiST, they were estimated to give a child mortality improvement in the project area that exceeded concurrent secular trend in the subnational DHS region in 11 of 12 cases. The average improvement in modelled U5MR (5.8%) was more than twice the concurrent directly measured average decline (2.5%). NGO projects implementing community-based intervention packages appear to be effective in reducing child mortality in diverse settings. There is plausible evidence that they raised coverage for a variety of high-impact interventions and improved U5MR by more than twice the concurrent secular trend. All projects used community-based strategies that achieved frequent interpersonal contact for health behaviour change. Further study of the

  18. Coming to grips with the past: effect of repeated simulation on the perceived plausibility of episodic counterfactual thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K; Schacter, Daniel L

    2013-07-01

    When people revisit previous experiences, they often engage in episodic counterfactual thinking: mental simulations of alternative ways in which personal past events could have occurred. The present study employed a novel experimental paradigm to examine the influence of repeated simulation on the perceived plausibility of upward, downward, and neutral episodic counterfactual thoughts. Participants were asked to remember negative, positive, and neutral autobiographical memories. One week later, they self-generated upward, downward, and neutral counterfactual alternatives to those memories. The following day, they resimulated each of those counterfactuals either once or four times. The results indicate that repeated simulation of upward, downward, and neutral episodic counterfactual events decreases their perceived plausibility while increasing ratings of the ease, detail, and valence of the simulations. This finding suggests a difference between episodic counterfactual thoughts and other kinds of self-referential simulations. Possible implications of this finding for pathological and nonpathological anxiety are discussed.

  19. Uncertain socioeconomic projections used in travel demand and emissions models: could plausible errors result in air quality nonconformity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, C.J.; Johnston, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of plausible errors in population, employment, fuel price, and income projections is conducted using the travel demand and emissions models of the Sacramento, CA, USA, region for their transportation plan. The results of the analyses indicate that plausible error ranges for household income and fuel prices are not a significant source of uncertainty with respect to the region's travel demand and emissions projections. However, plausible errors in population and employment projections (within approximately one standard deviation) may result in the region's transportation plan not meeting the conformity test for nitrogens of oxides (NO x ) in the year 2005 (i.e., an approximately 16% probability). This outcome is also possible in the year 2015 but less likely (within approximately two standard deviations or a 2.5% probability). Errors in socioeconomic projections are only one of many sources of error in travel demand and emissions models. These results have several policy implications. First, regions like Sacramento that meet their conformity tests by a very small margin should rethink new highway investment and consider contingency transportation plans that incorporate more aggressive emissions reduction policies. Second, regional transportation planning agencies should conduct sensitivity analyses as part of their conformity analysis to make explicit significant uncertainties in the methods and to identify the probability of their transportation plan not conforming. Third, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should clarify the interpretation of ''demonstrate'' conformity of transportation plans; that is, specify the level of certainty that it considers a sufficient demonstration of conformity. (author)

  20. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization...... techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...... officers, city planners) to support our arguments....

  1. Distributed Visualization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere, to see any simulation, at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and...

  2. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  3. Visual art and visual perception

    OpenAIRE

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their weight in gold”. I perceive a metabletic (van den Berg, 1956) parallel to philosophy transforming itself into speculative logic games, and psychology going cognitive by freeing itself from phenomen...

  4. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...

  5. Correlation networks visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Provart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available New, in silico ways of generating hypotheses based on large data sets have emerged in the past decade. These data sets have been used to investigate different aspects of plant biology, especially at the level of transcriptome, from tissue-specific expression patterns to patterns in as little as a few cells. Such publicly-available data are a boon to researchers for hypothesis generation by providing a guide for experimental work such as phenotyping or genetic analysis. More advanced computational methods can leverage these data via gene coexpression analysis, the results of which can be visualized and refined using network analysis. Other kinds of networks of e.g. protein-protein interactions, can also be used to inform biology. These networks can be visualized and analyzed with additional information on gene expression levels, subcellular localization, etc., or with other emerging kinds information. Finally, cross-level correlation is an area that will become increasingly important. Visualizing these cross-level correlations will require new data visualization tools.

  6. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perception Enhancement using Visual Attributes in Sequence Motif Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Oon, Yin; Lee, Nung; Kok, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Sequence logo is a well-accepted scientific method to visualize the conservation characteristics of biological sequence motifs. Previous studies found that using sequence logo graphical representation for scientific evidence reports or arguments could seriously cause biases and misinterpretation by users. This study investigates on the visual attributes performance of a sequence logo in helping users to perceive and interpret the information based on preattentive theories and Gestalt principl...

  8. Student Interpretations of Phylogenetic Trees in an Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Jonathan; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Jarad; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are widely used visual representations in the biological sciences and the most important visual representations in evolutionary biology. Therefore, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to characterize reasoning used by introductory biology students in interpreting taxa…

  9. Plausible Roles for RAGE in Conditions Exacerbated by Direct and Indirect (Secondhand) Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joshua B; Hirschi, Kelsey M; Arroyo, Juan A; Bikman, Benjamin T; Kooyman, David L; Reynolds, Paul R

    2017-03-17

    Approximately 1 billion people smoke worldwide, and the burden placed on society by primary and secondhand smokers is expected to increase. Smoking is the leading risk factor for myriad health complications stemming from diverse pathogenic programs. First- and second-hand cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents, including several carcinogens and cytotoxic chemicals that orchestrate chronic inflammatory responses and destructive remodeling events. In the current review, we outline details related to compromised pulmonary and systemic conditions related to smoke exposure. Specifically, data are discussed relative to impaired lung physiology, cancer mechanisms, maternal-fetal complications, cardiometabolic, and joint disorders in the context of smoke exposure exacerbations. As a general unifying mechanism, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and its signaling axis is increasingly considered central to smoke-related pathogenesis. RAGE is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor whose expression increases following cigarette smoke exposure. RAGE signaling participates in the underpinning of inflammatory mechanisms mediated by requisite cytokines, chemokines, and remodeling enzymes. Understanding the biological contributions of RAGE during cigarette smoke-induced inflammation may provide critically important insight into the pathology of lung disease and systemic complications that combine during the demise of those exposed.

  10. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linbin Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.

  11. Plausible Roles for RAGE in Conditions Exacerbated by Direct and Indirect (Secondhand Smoke Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Lewis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1 billion people smoke worldwide, and the burden placed on society by primary and secondhand smokers is expected to increase. Smoking is the leading risk factor for myriad health complications stemming from diverse pathogenic programs. First- and second-hand cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents, including several carcinogens and cytotoxic chemicals that orchestrate chronic inflammatory responses and destructive remodeling events. In the current review, we outline details related to compromised pulmonary and systemic conditions related to smoke exposure. Specifically, data are discussed relative to impaired lung physiology, cancer mechanisms, maternal-fetal complications, cardiometabolic, and joint disorders in the context of smoke exposure exacerbations. As a general unifying mechanism, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE and its signaling axis is increasingly considered central to smoke-related pathogenesis. RAGE is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor whose expression increases following cigarette smoke exposure. RAGE signaling participates in the underpinning of inflammatory mechanisms mediated by requisite cytokines, chemokines, and remodeling enzymes. Understanding the biological contributions of RAGE during cigarette smoke-induced inflammation may provide critically important insight into the pathology of lung disease and systemic complications that combine during the demise of those exposed.

  12. The apoptotic effect and the plausible mechanism of microwave radiation on rat myocardial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhe; Cui, Yan; Feng, Xianmin; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Junjie; Wang, Huiyan; Lv, Shijie

    2016-08-01

    Microwaves may exert adverse biological effects on the cardiovascular system at the integrated system and cellular levels. However, the mechanism underlying such effects remains poorly understood. Here, we report a previously uncharacterized mechanism through which microwaves damage myocardial cells. Rats were treated with 2450 MHz microwave radiation at 50, 100, 150, or 200 mW/cm(2) for 6 min. Microwave treatment significantly enhanced the levels of various enzymes in serum. In addition, it increased the malondialdehyde content while decreasing the levels of antioxidative stress enzymes, activities of enzyme complexes I-IV, and ATP in myocardial tissues. Notably, irradiated myocardial cells exhibited structural damage and underwent apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed significant changes in expression levels of proteins involved in oxidative stress regulation and apoptotic signaling pathways, indicating that microwave irradiation could induce myocardial cell apoptosis by interfering with oxidative stress and cardiac energy metabolism. Our findings provide useful insights into the mechanism of microwave-induced damage to the cardiovascular system.

  13. Organ visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The advantages of selenium-75-labelled cholesterol derivatives for the visualization of the adren in nuclear medicine are outlined. Selenium-75 is a sole gamma emitter; its chemical preparation is described

  14. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  15. Virtual neurorobotics (VNR to accelerate development of plausible neuromorphic brain architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H Goodman

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional research in artificial intelligence and machine learning has viewed the brain as a specially adapted information-processing system. More recently the field of social robotics has been advanced to capture the important dynamics of human cognition and interaction. An overarching societal goal of this research is to incorporate the resultant knowledge about intelligence into technology for prosthetic, assistive, security, and decision support applications. However, despite many decades of investment in learning and classification systems, this paradigm has yet to yield truly “intelligent” systems. For this reason, many investigators are now attempting to incorporate more realistic neuromorphic properties into machine learning systems, encouraged by over two decades of neuroscience research that has provided parameters that characterize the brain’s interdependent genomic, proteomic, metabolomic, anatomic, and electrophysiological networks. Given the complexity of neural systems, developing tenable models to capture the essence of natural intelligence for real-time application requires that we discriminate features underlying information processing and intrinsic motivation from those reflecting biological constraints (such as maintaining structural integrity and transporting metabolic products. We propose herein a conceptual framework and an iterative method of virtual neurorobotics (VNR intended to rapidly forward-engineer and test progressively more complex putative neuromorphic brain prototypes for their ability to support intrinsically intelligent, intentional interaction with humans. The VNR system is based on the viewpoint that a truly intelligent system must be driven by emotion rather than programmed tasking, incorporating intrinsic motivation and intentionality. We report pilot results of a closed-loop, real-time interactive VNR system with a spiking neural brain, and provide a video demonstration as online supplemental

  16. A modified echocardiographic protocol with intrinsic plausibility control to determine intraventricular asynchrony based on TDI and TSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Henryk; Borges, Adrian C; Ismer, Bruno; Schattke, Sebastian; Stegemann, Berthold; Baumann, Gert; Melzer, Christoph

    2009-09-25

    Established methods to determine asynchrony suffer from high intra- and interobserver variability and failed to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Thus, there is a need for easy and robust approaches to reliably assess cardiac asynchrony. We performed echocardiography in 100 healthy subjects and 33 patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). To detect intraventricular asynchrony, we combined two established methods, i.e., tissue synchronization imaging (TSI) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). The time intervals from the onset of aortic valve opening (AVO) to the peak systolic velocity (S') were measured separately in six basal segments in the apical four-, two-, and three-chamber view. Color-coded TSI served as an intrinsic plausibility control and helped to identify the correct S' measuring point in the TDI curves. Next, we identified the segment with the shortest AVO-S' interval. Since this segment most likely represents vital and intact myocardium it served as a reference for other segments. Segments were considered asynchronous when the delay between the segment in question and the reference segment was above the upper limit of normal delays derived from the control population. Intra- and interobserver variability were 7.0% and 7.7%, respectively. Our results suggest that combination of TDI and TSI with intrinsic plausibility control improves intra- and interobserver variability and allows easy and reliable assessment of cardiac asynchrony.

  17. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  18. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  19. Hebbian learning of hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Jannis; Stringer, Simon M.

    2017-01-01

    A subset of neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor areas of the primate brain respond to the locations of visual targets in a hand-centred frame of reference. Such hand-centred visual representations are thought to play an important role in visually-guided reaching to target locations in space. In this paper we show how a biologically plausible, Hebbian learning mechanism may account for the development of localized hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system, VisNet. The hand-centered neurons developed in the model use an invariance learning mechanism known as continuous transformation (CT) learning. In contrast to previous theoretical proposals for the development of hand-centered visual representations, CT learning does not need a memory trace of recent neuronal activity to be incorporated in the synaptic learning rule. Instead, CT learning relies solely on a Hebbian learning rule, which is able to exploit the spatial overlap that naturally occurs between successive images of a hand-object configuration as it is shifted across different retinal locations due to saccades. Our simulations show how individual neurons in the network model can learn to respond selectively to target objects in particular locations with respect to the hand, irrespective of where the hand-object configuration occurs on the retina. The response properties of these hand-centred neurons further generalise to localised receptive fields in the hand-centred space when tested on novel hand-object configurations that have not been explored during training. Indeed, even when the network is trained with target objects presented across a near continuum of locations around the hand during training, the model continues to develop hand-centred neurons with localised receptive fields in hand-centred space. With the help of principal component analysis, we provide the first theoretical framework that explains the behavior of Hebbian learning

  20. Hebbian learning of hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis Born

    Full Text Available A subset of neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor areas of the primate brain respond to the locations of visual targets in a hand-centred frame of reference. Such hand-centred visual representations are thought to play an important role in visually-guided reaching to target locations in space. In this paper we show how a biologically plausible, Hebbian learning mechanism may account for the development of localized hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system, VisNet. The hand-centered neurons developed in the model use an invariance learning mechanism known as continuous transformation (CT learning. In contrast to previous theoretical proposals for the development of hand-centered visual representations, CT learning does not need a memory trace of recent neuronal activity to be incorporated in the synaptic learning rule. Instead, CT learning relies solely on a Hebbian learning rule, which is able to exploit the spatial overlap that naturally occurs between successive images of a hand-object configuration as it is shifted across different retinal locations due to saccades. Our simulations show how individual neurons in the network model can learn to respond selectively to target objects in particular locations with respect to the hand, irrespective of where the hand-object configuration occurs on the retina. The response properties of these hand-centred neurons further generalise to localised receptive fields in the hand-centred space when tested on novel hand-object configurations that have not been explored during training. Indeed, even when the network is trained with target objects presented across a near continuum of locations around the hand during training, the model continues to develop hand-centred neurons with localised receptive fields in hand-centred space. With the help of principal component analysis, we provide the first theoretical framework that explains the behavior

  1. Biological Implications of Artificial Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1968-01-01

    Environmental lighting exerts profound biologic effects on humans and other mammals, in addition to providing the visual stimulus. Light acts on the skin to stimulate the synthesis of Vitamin D. It also acts, through the eyes, to control several glands and many metabolic processes. Light, or its absence, "induces" certain biologic functions. Light…

  2. Quantum mechanical wavefunction: visualization at undergraduate level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Mahima; Das, Ritwick

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics (QM) forms the most crucial ingredient of modern-era physical science curricula at undergraduate level. The abstract ideas involved in QM related concepts pose a challenge towards appropriate visualization as a consequence of their counter-intuitive nature and lack of experiment-assisted visualization tools. At the heart of the quantum mechanical formulation lies the concept of ‘wavefunction’, which forms the basis for understanding the behavior of physical systems. At undergraduate level, the concept of ‘wavefunction’ is introduced in an abstract framework using mathematical tools and therefore opens up an enormous scope for alternative conceptions and erroneous visualization. The present work is an attempt towards exploring the visualization models constructed by undergraduate students for appreciating the concept of ‘wavefunction’. We present a qualitative analysis of the data obtained from administering a questionnaire containing four visualization based questions on the topic of ‘wavefunction’ to a group of ten undergraduate-level students at an institute in India which excels in teaching and research of basic sciences. Based on the written responses, all ten students were interviewed in detail to unravel the exact areas of difficulty in visualization of ‘wavefunction’. The outcome of present study not only reveals the gray areas in students’ conceptualization, but also provides a plausible route to address the issues at the pedagogical level within the classroom.

  3. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM) as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility. PMID:25276860

  4. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility.

  5. Hierarchical acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Kin-Pou

    2015-01-01

    Spatial contextual cueing refers to visual search performance's being improved when invariant associations between target locations and distractor spatial configurations are learned incidentally. Using the instance theory of automatization and the reverse hierarchy theory of visual perceptual learning, this study explores the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing. Two experiments in which detailed visual features were irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts found that spatial contextual cueing was visually generic in difficult trials when the trials were not preceded by easy trials (Experiment 1) but that spatial contextual cueing progressed to visual specificity when difficult trials were preceded by easy trials (Experiment 2). These findings support reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that even when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing can progress to visual specificity if the stimuli remain constant, the task is difficult, and difficult trials are preceded by easy trials. However, these findings are inconsistent with instance theory, which predicts that when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing will not progress to visual specificity. This study concludes that the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing is more plausibly hierarchical, rather than instance-based.

  6. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  7. Information Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Baños, Carlos José; Andreasson, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Reasoning graphs are one of many ways to visualize information. It is very hard to understand certain type of information when it is presented in text or in tables with a huge amount of numbers. It is easier to present it graphically. People can have a general idea of the information and if it is necessary to see the details, it is possible to have a way to add more information to the graphical display. A graphical visualization is able to compress the information, which represented in text c...

  8. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...

  9. Information Visualization Techniques in Bioinformatics during the Postgenomic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Friedman, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Information visualization techniques, which take advantage of the bandwidth of human vision, are powerful tools for organizing and analyzing a large amount of data. In the postgenomic era, information visualization tools are indispensable for biomedical research. This paper aims to present an overview of current applications of information visualization techniques in bioinformatics for visualizing different types of biological data, such as from genomics, proteomics, expression profiling and structural studies. Finally, we discuss the challenges of information visualization in bioinformatics related to dealing with more complex biological information in the emerging fields of systems biology and systems medicine. PMID:20976032

  10. Biology Teachers' Conceptions of the Diversity of Life and the Historical Development of Evolutionary Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paloma Rodrigues; de Andrade, Mariana A. Bologna Soares; de Andrade Caldeira, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Biology is a science that involves study of the diversity of living organisms. This diversity has always generated questions and has motivated cultures to seek plausible explanations for the differences and similarities between types of organisms. In biology teaching, these issues are addressed by adopting an evolutionary approach. The aim of this…

  11. Dormancy and Recovery Testing for Biological Wastewater Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary F.; Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Spencer, LaShelle; Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Frances, Someliz; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Resource recovery and recycling waste streams to usable water via biological water processors is a plausible component of an integrated water purification system. Biological processing as a pretreatment can reduce the load of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds entering physiochemical systems downstream. Aerated hollow fiber membrane bioreactors, have been proposed and studied for a number of years as an approach for treating wastewater streams for space exploration.

  12. Visualizing Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The importance of visualisation and multiple representations in mathematics has been stressed, especially in a context of problem solving. Hanna and Sidoli comment that "Diagrams and other visual representations have long been welcomed as heuristic accompaniments to proof, where they not only facilitate the understanding of theorems and their…

  13. Visual sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huron, Samuel; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2013-12-01

    We introduce Visual Sedimentation, a novel design metaphor for visualizing data streams directly inspired by the physical process of sedimentation. Visualizing data streams (e. g., Tweets, RSS, Emails) is challenging as incoming data arrive at unpredictable rates and have to remain readable. For data streams, clearly expressing chronological order while avoiding clutter, and keeping aging data visible, are important. The metaphor is drawn from the real-world sedimentation processes: objects fall due to gravity, and aggregate into strata over time. Inspired by this metaphor, data is visually depicted as falling objects using a force model to land on a surface, aggregating into strata over time. In this paper, we discuss how this metaphor addresses the specific challenge of smoothing the transition between incoming and aging data. We describe the metaphor's design space, a toolkit developed to facilitate its implementation, and example applications to a range of case studies. We then explore the generative capabilities of the design space through our toolkit. We finally illustrate creative extensions of the metaphor when applied to real streams of data.

  14. Further explorations of the facing bias in biological motion perception: perspective cues, observer sex, and response times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Schouten

    Full Text Available The human visual system has evolved to be highly sensitive to visual information about other persons and their movements as is illustrated by the effortless perception of point-light figures or 'biological motion'. When presented orthographically, a point-light walker is interpreted in two anatomically plausible ways: As 'facing the viewer' or as 'facing away' from the viewer. However, human observers show a 'facing bias': They perceive such a point-light walker as facing towards them in about 70-80% of the cases. In studies exploring the role of social and biological relevance as a possible account for the facing bias, we found a 'figure gender effect': Male point-light figures elicit a stronger facing bias than female point-light figures. Moreover, we also found an 'observer gender effect': The 'figure gender effect' was stronger for male than for female observers. In the present study we presented to 11 males and 11 females point-light walkers of which, very subtly, the perspective information was manipulated by modifying the earlier reported 'perspective technique'. Proportions of 'facing the viewer' responses and reaction times were recorded. Results show that human observers, even in the absence of local shape or size cues, easily pick up on perspective cues, confirming recent demonstrations of high visual sensitivity to cues on whether another person is potentially approaching. We also found a consistent difference in how male and female observers respond to stimulus variations (figure gender or perspective cues that cause variations in the perceived in-depth orientation of a point-light walker. Thus, the 'figure gender effect' is possibly caused by changes in the relative locations and motions of the dots that the perceptual system tends to interpret as perspective cues. Third, reaction time measures confirmed the existence of the facing bias and recent research showing faster detection of approaching than receding biological motion.

  15. Further explorations of the facing bias in biological motion perception: perspective cues, observer sex, and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Ben; Davila, Alex; Verfaillie, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The human visual system has evolved to be highly sensitive to visual information about other persons and their movements as is illustrated by the effortless perception of point-light figures or 'biological motion'. When presented orthographically, a point-light walker is interpreted in two anatomically plausible ways: As 'facing the viewer' or as 'facing away' from the viewer. However, human observers show a 'facing bias': They perceive such a point-light walker as facing towards them in about 70-80% of the cases. In studies exploring the role of social and biological relevance as a possible account for the facing bias, we found a 'figure gender effect': Male point-light figures elicit a stronger facing bias than female point-light figures. Moreover, we also found an 'observer gender effect': The 'figure gender effect' was stronger for male than for female observers. In the present study we presented to 11 males and 11 females point-light walkers of which, very subtly, the perspective information was manipulated by modifying the earlier reported 'perspective technique'. Proportions of 'facing the viewer' responses and reaction times were recorded. Results show that human observers, even in the absence of local shape or size cues, easily pick up on perspective cues, confirming recent demonstrations of high visual sensitivity to cues on whether another person is potentially approaching. We also found a consistent difference in how male and female observers respond to stimulus variations (figure gender or perspective cues) that cause variations in the perceived in-depth orientation of a point-light walker. Thus, the 'figure gender effect' is possibly caused by changes in the relative locations and motions of the dots that the perceptual system tends to interpret as perspective cues. Third, reaction time measures confirmed the existence of the facing bias and recent research showing faster detection of approaching than receding biological motion.

  16. Visual rehabilitation of children with visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, M.P.J.; Janssen, N.M.; Knoors, H.E.T.

    2006-01-01

    Visual rehabilitation, consisting of visual stimulation and visual training, is a common practice in the education of children with visual impairments. Ferrell and Muir have stated that scientific research into the effects of visual stimulation and training is ambiguous and that therefore

  17. Visualizing Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Reality Capture Technologies, Inc. is a spinoff company from Ames Research Center. Offering e-business solutions for optimizing management, design and production processes, RCT uses visual collaboration environments (VCEs) such as those used to prepare the Mars Pathfinder mission.The product, 4-D Reality Framework, allows multiple users from different locations to manage and share data. The insurance industry is one targeted commercial application for this technology.

  18. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  19. Pathways to plausibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2008-01-01

    Herbal medicine has long been contrasted to modern medicine in terms of a holistic approach to healing, vitalistic theories of health and illness and an emphasis on the body’s innate self-healing capacities. At the same time, since the early 20th century, the cultivation, preparation and mass...... production of herbal medicines have become increasingly industrialised, scientificised and commercialised. What is more, phytochemical efforts to identify and isolate particular ‘active ingredients’ from whole-plant extracts have intensified, often in response to increasing regulatory scrutiny of the safety...... and quality of herbal medicinal products. In this paper, I examine whether describing these developments in terms of a biomedical ‘colonisation’ of herbal medicine, as has been common, allows us to sufficiently account for the mundane collaborative efforts of herbalists, botanists, phytochemists...

  20. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of diarrhoeal disease in young children identifies FUT2 locus and provides plausible biological pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bustamante, Mariona; Standl, Marie; Bassat, Quique

    2016-01-01

    questionnaires, doctor interviews or medical records. Standard quality control and statistical tests were applied to the 1000 Genomes imputed genotypic data. The meta-analysis (N = 5758) followed by replication (N = 3784) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8111874 and diarrhoea at age 1...

  1. Auditory recognition memory is inferior to visual recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael A; Horowitz, Todd S; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2009-04-07

    Visual memory for scenes is surprisingly robust. We wished to examine whether an analogous ability exists in the auditory domain. Participants listened to a variety of sound clips and were tested on their ability to distinguish old from new clips. Stimuli ranged from complex auditory scenes (e.g., talking in a pool hall) to isolated auditory objects (e.g., a dog barking) to music. In some conditions, additional information was provided to help participants with encoding. In every situation, however, auditory memory proved to be systematically inferior to visual memory. This suggests that there exists either a fundamental difference between auditory and visual stimuli, or, more plausibly, an asymmetry between auditory and visual processing.

  2. Misreporting of energy intake in the 2007 Australian Children's Survey: differences in the reporting of food types between plausible, under- and over-reporters of energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, A; Allman-Farinelli, M; Donohoe, E; Gill, T

    2014-10-01

    Misreporting is common when collecting dietary intake data, although relatively little is known about the types of foods misreported among children. The present study aimed to identify differences in the reporting of food types between plausible and misreporters of energy intake in a national nutrition survey of Australian children. Dietary data were collected using a 24-h recall from 4826 children aged 2-16 years who were participating in the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Misreporters of energy intake were classified using the Goldberg criteria. Differences in the reporting of a range of food types were examined between plausible, under- and over-reporters. Compared with plausible reporters, under-reporters reported less frequent consumption and smaller quantities of consumption of both core and noncore foods. Older children (self-report) under-reported a larger selection of noncore foods than younger children (parental report). Over-reporters reported similar percentages of consumption of many core and noncore foods, with some exceptions. The quantities consumed by over-reporters were generally much larger and this was evident in younger and older children. Compared with plausible reporters, under-reporters had significantly higher intakes of protein and starch but lower intakes of sugar and fat, as percentage energy, than plausible reporters, whereas over-reporters had higher fat and lower carbohydrate intakes. Differences in the reporting of food types were common between plausible, under- and over-reporters of energy intake by children (or their parents) and were not restricted to noncore foods. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Removal of hazardous organics from water using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): plausible mechanisms for selective adsorptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zubair; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Provision of clean water is one of the most important issues worldwide because of continuing economic development and the steady increase in the global population. However, clean water resources are decreasing everyday, because of contamination with various pollutants including organic chemicals. Pharmaceutical and personal care products, herbicides/pesticides, dyes, phenolics, and aromatics (from sources such as spilled oil) are typical organics that should be removed from water. Because of their huge porosities, designable pore structures, and facile modification, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are used in various adsorption, separation, storage, and delivery applications. In this review, the adsorptive purifications of contaminated water with MOFs are discussed, in order to understand possible applications of MOFs in clean water provision. More importantly, plausible adsorption or interaction mechanisms and selective adsorptions are summarized. The mechanisms of interactions such as electrostatic interaction, acid-base interaction, hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking/interaction, and hydrophobic interaction are discussed for the selective adsorption of organics over MOFs. The adsorption mechanisms will be very helpful not only for understanding adsorptions but also for applications of adsorptions in selective removal, storage, delivery and so on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-canonical 3'-5' extension of RNA with prebiotically plausible ribonucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Hannes; Holliger, Philipp

    2014-04-09

    Ribonucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates (N>p's) are generated by multiple prebiotically plausible processes and are credible building blocks for the assembly of early RNA oligomers. While N>p's can be polymerized into short RNAs by non-enzymatic processes with variable efficiency and regioselectivity, no enzymatic route for RNA synthesis had been described. Here we report such a non-canonical 3'-5' nucleotidyl transferase activity. We engineered a variant of the hairpin ribozyme to catalyze addition of all four N>p's (2',3'-cyclic A-, G-, U-, and CMP) to the 5'-hydroxyl termini of RNA strands with 5' nucleotide addition enhanced in all cases by eutectic ice phase formation at -7 °C. We also observed 5' addition of 2',3'-cyclic phosphate-activated β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD>p) and ACA>p RNA trinucleotide, and multiple additions of GUCCA>p RNA pentamers. Our results establish a new mode of RNA 3'-5' extension with implications for RNA oligomer synthesis from prebiotic nucleotide pools.

  5. The plausibility of maternal toxicant exposure and nutritional status as contributing factors to the risk of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Johnathan R

    2017-05-01

    Recent research suggests the maternal environment may be especially important for the risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In particular maternal infections, micronutrient deficiencies, obesity, and toxicant exposures are likely to interact with genetic risk factors to disrupt fetal brain development. The goal of this paper is to investigate the plausibility of maternal toxicant exposure and nutritional status as causal factors in the development of ASD. This paper reviews current research investigating the hypothesis that maternal toxicant exposure and prenatal micronutrient intake are important modifiable risk factors for ASD. Zinc, copper, iron, and vitamin B9 are identified as specific micronutrients with relevance to the etiology of ASD. Specific toxicants induce a maternal inflammatory response leading to fetal micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt early brain development. Importantly, maternal micronutrient supplementation is associated with reduced risk of ASD. Furthermore, animal studies show that micronutrient supplementation can prevent the teratogenicity and developmental neurotoxicity of specific toxicants. These findings lead to the hypothesis that maternal infection, obesity, and toxicant exposures (e.g. valproic acid, endocrine disrupting plasticizers, ethanol, and heavy metals) are all environmental risk factors for ASD that lead to fetal micronutrient deficiencies resulting from a maternal inflammatory response. It could be possible to use markers of inflammation and micronutrient status to identify women that would benefit from micronutrient supplementation or dietary interventions to reduce the risk of ASD. However, more research is needed to demonstrate a causal role of fetal micronutrient deficiencies and clarify the underlying mechanisms that contribute to ASD.

  6. Bilinguals' Plausibility Judgments for Phrases with a Literal vs. Non-literal Meaning: The Influence of Language Brokering Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem G. López

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that prior experience in language brokering (informal translation may facilitate the processing of meaning within and across language boundaries. The present investigation examined the influence of brokering on bilinguals' processing of two word collocations with either a literal or a figurative meaning in each language. Proficient Spanish-English bilinguals classified as brokers or non-brokers were asked to judge if adjective+noun phrases presented in each language made sense or not. Phrases with a literal meaning (e.g., stinging insect were interspersed with phrases with a figurative meaning (e.g., stinging insult and non-sensical phrases (e.g., stinging picnic. It was hypothesized that plausibility judgments would be facilitated for literal relative to figurative meanings in each language but that experience in language brokering would be associated with a more equivalent pattern of responding across languages. These predictions were confirmed. The findings add to the body of empirical work on individual differences in language processing in bilinguals associated with prior language brokering experience.

  7. The Plausibility of Tonal Evolution in the Malay Dialect Spoken in Thailand: Evidence from an Acoustic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanintra Teeranon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The F0 values of vowels following voiceless consonants are higher than those of vowels following voiced consonants; high vowels have a higher F0 than low vowels. It has also been found that when high vowels follow voiced consonants, the F0 values decrease. In contrast, low vowels following voiceless consonants show increasing F0 values. In other words, the voicing of initial consonants has been found to counterbalance the intrinsic F0 values of high and low vowels (House and Fairbanks 1953, Lehiste and Peterson 1961, Lehiste 1970, Laver 1994, Teeranon 2006. To test whether these three findings are applicable to a disyllabic language, the F0 values of high and low vowels following voiceless and voiced consonants were studied in a Malay dialect of the Austronesian language family spoken in Pathumthani Province, Thailand. The data was collected from three male informants, aged 30-35. The Praat program was used for acoustic analysis. The findings revealed the influence of the voicing of initial consonants on the F0 of vowels to be greater than that of the influence of vowel height. Evidence from this acoustic study shows the plausibility for the Malay dialect spoken in Pathumthani to become a tonal language by the influence of initial consonants rather by the influence of the high-low vowel dimension.

  8. Synchronous volcanic eruptions and abrupt climate change ˜17.7 ka plausibly linked by stratospheric ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Joseph R.; Burke, Andrea; Dunbar, Nelia W.; Köhler, Peter; Thomas, Jennie L.; Arienzo, Monica M.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Maselli, Olivia J.; Sigl, Michael; Adkins, Jess F.; Baggenstos, Daniel; Burkhart, John F.; Brook, Edward J.; Buizert, Christo; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Fudge, T. J.; Knorr, Gregor; Graf, Hans-F.; Grieman, Mackenzie M.; Iverson, Nels; McGwire, Kenneth C.; Mulvaney, Robert; Paris, Guillaume; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Taylor, Kendrick C.; Winckler, Gisela

    2017-09-01

    Glacial-state greenhouse gas concentrations and Southern Hemisphere climate conditions persisted until ˜17.7 ka, when a nearly synchronous acceleration in deglaciation was recorded in paleoclimate proxies in large parts of the Southern Hemisphere, with many changes ascribed to a sudden poleward shift in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies and subsequent climate impacts. We used high-resolution chemical measurements in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide, Byrd, and other ice cores to document a unique, ˜192-y series of halogen-rich volcanic eruptions exactly at the start of accelerated deglaciation, with tephra identifying the nearby Mount Takahe volcano as the source. Extensive fallout from these massive eruptions has been found >2,800 km from Mount Takahe. Sulfur isotope anomalies and marked decreases in ice core bromine consistent with increased surface UV radiation indicate that the eruptions led to stratospheric ozone depletion. Rather than a highly improbable coincidence, circulation and climate changes extending from the Antarctic Peninsula to the subtropics—similar to those associated with modern stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica—plausibly link the Mount Takahe eruptions to the onset of accelerated Southern Hemisphere deglaciation ˜17.7 ka.

  9. Classification-by-Analogy: Using Vector Representations of Implicit Relationships to Identify Plausibly Causal Drug/Side-effect Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Justin; Subramanian, Devika; Shang, Ning; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of post-marketing drug surveillance involves identifying potential side-effects utilizing adverse drug event (ADE) reporting systems and/or Electronic Health Records. These data are noisy, necessitating identified drug/ADE associations be manually reviewed - a human-intensive process that scales poorly with large numbers of possibly dangerous associations and rapid growth of biomedical literature. Recent work has employed Literature Based Discovery methods that exploit implicit relationships between biomedical entities within the literature to estimate the plausibility of drug/ADE connections. We extend this work by evaluating machine learning classifiers applied to high-dimensional vector representations of relationships extracted from the literature as a means to identify substantiated drug/ADE connections. Using a curated reference standard, we show applying classifiers to such representations improves performance (+≈37%AUC) over previous approaches. These trained systems reproduce outcomes of the manual literature review process used to create the reference standard, but further research is required to establish their generalizability.

  10. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  11. How information visualization novices construct visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Lars; Tory, Melanie; Storey, Margaret-Anne

    2010-01-01

    It remains challenging for information visualization novices to rapidly construct visualizations during exploratory data analysis. We conducted an exploratory laboratory study in which information visualization novices explored fictitious sales data by communicating visualization specifications to a human mediator, who rapidly constructed the visualizations using commercial visualization software. We found that three activities were central to the iterative visualization construction process: data attribute selection, visual template selection, and visual mapping specification. The major barriers faced by the participants were translating questions into data attributes, designing visual mappings, and interpreting the visualizations. Partial specification was common, and the participants used simple heuristics and preferred visualizations they were already familiar with, such as bar, line and pie charts. We derived abstract models from our observations that describe barriers in the data exploration process and uncovered how information visualization novices think about visualization specifications. Our findings support the need for tools that suggest potential visualizations and support iterative refinement, that provide explanations and help with learning, and that are tightly integrated into tool support for the overall visual analytics process.

  12. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Parshad, Rana D.; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a...

  13. Visual Literacy in Bloom: Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Support Visual Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Jessie B.; Offerdahl, Erika G.

    2018-01-01

    "Vision and Change" identifies science communication as one of the core competencies in undergraduate biology. Visual representations are an integral part of science communication, allowing ideas to be shared among and between scientists and the public. As such, development of scientific visual literacy should be a desired outcome of…

  14. On Matrix Sampling and Imputation of Context Questionnaires with Implications for the Generation of Plausible Values in Large-Scale Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Su, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings on the consequences of matrix sampling of context questionnaires for the generation of plausible values in large-scale assessments. Three studies are conducted. Study 1 uses data from PISA 2012 to examine several different forms of missing data imputation within the chained equations framework: predictive mean…

  15. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE

  16. The Mediterranean dietary pattern as the diet of choice for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence and plausible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Salomone, Federico; Mlynarsky, Liat

    2017-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major global health burden, leading to increased risk for cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle intervention aiming at weight reduction is the most established treatment. However, changing the dietary composition even without weight loss can also reduce steatosis and improve metabolic alterations as insulin resistance and lipid profile. The Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern has been proposed as appropriate for this goal, and was recommended as the diet of choice for the treatment of NAFLD by the EASL-EASD-EASO Clinical Practice Guidelines. The MD has an established superiority in long term weight reduction over low fat diet, but it improves metabolic status and steatosis even without it. However, the effect on liver inflammation and fibrosis was tested only in few observational studies with positive results. Furthermore, considering the strong association between NAFLD and diabetes and CVD, the MD has a highly established advantage in prevention of these diseases, demonstrated in randomized clinical trials. The individual components of the MD such as olive oil, fish, nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, have been shown to beneficially effect or negatively correlate with NAFLD, while consumption of components that characterize a Western dietary pattern as soft drinks, fructose, meat and saturated fatty acids have been shown to have detrimental association with NAFLD. In this review we will cover the epidemiological evidence and the plausible molecular mechanisms by which the MD as a whole and each of its components can be of benefit in NAFLD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. In Silico Structure Prediction of Human Fatty Acid Synthase-Dehydratase: A Plausible Model for Understanding Active Site Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Arun; Umashankar, Vetrivel; Samdani, A; Sangeetha, Manoharan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Deepa, Perinkulam Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN, UniProt ID: P49327) is a multienzyme dimer complex that plays a critical role in lipogenesis. Consequently, this lipogenic enzyme has gained tremendous biomedical importance. The role of FASN and its inhibition is being extensively researched in several clinical conditions, such as cancers, obesity, and diabetes. X-ray crystallographic structures of some of its domains, such as β-ketoacyl synthase, acetyl transacylase, malonyl transacylase, enoyl reductase, β-ketoacyl reductase, and thioesterase, (TE) are already reported. Here, we have attempted an in silico elucidation of the uncrystallized dehydratase (DH) catalytic domain of human FASN. This theoretical model for DH domain was predicted using comparative modeling methods. Different stand-alone tools and servers were used to validate and check the reliability of the predicted models, which suggested it to be a highly plausible model. The stereochemical analysis showed 92.0% residues in favorable region of Ramachandran plot. The initial physiological substrate β-hydroxybutyryl group was docked into active site of DH domain using Glide. The molecular dynamics simulations carried out for 20 ns in apo and holo states indicated the stability and accuracy of the predicted structure in solvated condition. The predicted model provided useful biochemical insights into the substrate-active site binding mechanisms. This model was then used for identifying potential FASN inhibitors using high-throughput virtual screening of the National Cancer Institute database of chemical ligands. The inhibitory efficacy of the top hit ligands was validated by performing molecular dynamics simulation for 20 ns, where in the ligand NSC71039 exhibited good enzyme inhibition characteristics and exhibited dose-dependent anticancer cytotoxicity in retinoblastoma cancer cells in vitro.

  18. Visualizing Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    1999-10-01

    This report describes two classroom activities that help students visualize the abstract concept of entropy and apply the second law of thermodynamics to real situations. (i) A sealed "rainbow tube" contains six smaller vessels, each filled with a different brightly colored solution (low entropy). When the tube is inverted, the solutions mix together and react to form an amorphous precipitate (high entropy). The change from low entropy to high entropy is irreversible as long as the tube remains sealed. (ii) When U.S. currency is withdrawn from circulation, intact bills (low entropy) are shredded into small fragments (high entropy). Shredding is quick and easy; the reverse process is clearly nonspontaneous. It is theoretically possible, but it is time-consuming and energy-intensive, to reassemble one bill from a pile that contains fragments of hundreds of bills. We calculate the probability P of drawing pieces of only one specific bill from a mixture containing one pound of bills, each shredded into n fragments. This result can be related to Boltzmann's entropy formula S?=klnW.

  19. Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  20. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  1. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...

  2. The visual divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Alfons

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is a playground for visualization. Yet research and technological innovations in visual communication and data visualization do not account for a substantial part of the world's population: vulnerable audiences with low levels of literacy.

  3. Learning Visualizations by Analogy: Promoting Visual Literacy through Visualization Morphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchikachorn, Puripant; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    We propose the concept of teaching (and learning) unfamiliar visualizations by analogy, that is, demonstrating an unfamiliar visualization method by linking it to another more familiar one, where the in-betweens are designed to bridge the gap of these two visualizations and explain the difference in a gradual manner. As opposed to a textual description, our morphing explains an unfamiliar visualization through purely visual means. We demonstrate our idea by ways of four visualization pair examples: data table and parallel coordinates, scatterplot matrix and hyperbox, linear chart and spiral chart, and hierarchical pie chart and treemap. The analogy is commutative i.e. any member of the pair can be the unfamiliar visualization. A series of studies showed that this new paradigm can be an effective teaching tool. The participants could understand the unfamiliar visualization methods in all of the four pairs either fully or at least significantly better after they observed or interacted with the transitions from the familiar counterpart. The four examples suggest how helpful visualization pairings be identified and they will hopefully inspire other visualization morphings and associated transition strategies to be identified.

  4. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  5. Interrelationships between visual-motor integration, visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (4th ed.) (VMI), was used to evaluate visual skills, while the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 evaluated six object control skills. There was a statistical significant (p≤0.01) association between VMI, two object control skills and total score for object control skills. Visual ...

  6. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. ... National Center for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  7. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  8. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  9. Biological Motion Cues Trigger Reflexive Attentional Orienting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinfu; Weng, Xuchu; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The human visual system is extremely sensitive to biological signals around us. In the current study, we demonstrate that biological motion walking direction can induce robust reflexive attentional orienting. Following a brief presentation of a central point-light walker walking towards either the left or right direction, observers' performance…

  10. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  11. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  12. Concordance of visual and manipulative responses to novel and familiar stimuli: a reply to Rubenstein (1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, H R

    1975-03-01

    Rubenstein's failure to find evidence for the previously suggested lack of concordance between visual and manipulative responses to novel and familiar stimuli in 6-month-old infants is discussed. It is shown that a lack of concordance is not specific to the use of 1 measure of manipulative behavior, and other possible explanations for the discrepancy in findings are examined. A 2-stage development of responsiveness to familiarity-novelty in infancy remains the most plausible account.

  13. Biological Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Biological Pathways Fact Sheet Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  14. Bridging the Gap between Physiology and Behavior: Evidence from the sSoTS Model of Human Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavritsaki, Eirini; Heinke, Dietmar; Allen, Harriet; Deco, Gustavo; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case for a role of biologically plausible neural network modeling in bridging the gap between physiology and behavior. We argue that spiking-level networks can allow "vertical" translation between physiological properties of neural systems and emergent "whole-system" performance--enabling psychological results to be simulated from…

  15. Understanding mid-level representations in visual processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that early visual processing provides an image-based representation of the visual scene: Neurons in Striate cortex (V1) encode nothing about the meaning of a scene, but they do provide a great deal of information about the image features within it. The mechanisms of these “low-level” visual processes are relatively well understood. We can construct plausible models for how neurons, up to and including those in V1, build their representations from preceding inputs down to the level of photoreceptors. It is also clear that at some point we have a semantic, “high-level” representation of the visual scene because we can describe verbally the objects that we are viewing and their meaning to us. A huge number of studies are examining these “high-level” visual processes each year. Less well studied are the processes of “mid-level” vision, which presumably provide the bridge between these “low-level” representations of edges, colors, and lights and the “high-level” semantic representations of objects, faces, and scenes. This article and the special issue of papers in which it is published consider the nature of “mid-level” visual processing and some of the reasons why we might not have made as much progress in this domain as we would like. PMID:26053241

  16. Synthetic biology and its alternatives. Descartes, Kant and the idea of engineering biological machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogge, Werner; Richter, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The engineering-based approach of synthetic biology is characterized by an assumption that 'engineering by design' enables the construction of 'living machines'. These 'machines', as biological machines, are expected to display certain properties of life, such as adapting to changing environments and acting in a situated way. This paper proposes that a tension exists between the expectations placed on biological artefacts and the notion of producing such systems by means of engineering; this tension makes it seem implausible that biological systems, especially those with properties characteristic of living beings, can in fact be produced using the specific methods of engineering. We do not claim that engineering techniques have nothing to contribute to the biotechnological construction of biological artefacts. However, drawing on Descartes's and Kant's thinking on the relationship between the organism and the machine, we show that it is considerably more plausible to assume that distinctively biological artefacts emerge within a paradigm different from the paradigm of the Cartesian machine that underlies the engineering approach. We close by calling for increased attention to be paid to approaches within molecular biology and chemistry that rest on conceptions different from those of synthetic biology's engineering paradigm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  18. Visual Processing Speed

    OpenAIRE

    Owsley, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Older adults commonly report difficulties in visual tasks of everyday living that involve visual clutter, secondary task demands, and time sensitive responses. These difficulties often cannot be attributed to visual sensory impairment. Techniques for measuring visual processing speed under divided attention conditions and among visual distractors have been developed and have established construct validity in that those older adults performing poorly in these tests are more likely to exhibit d...

  19. [Medical and biological consequences of nuclear disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalpers, Lukas J A; van Dullemen, Simon; Franken, N A P Klaas

    2012-01-01

    Medical risks of radiation exaggerated; psychological risks underestimated. The discussion about atomic energy has become topical again following the nuclear accident in Fukushima. There is some argument about the gravity of medical and biological consequences of prolonged exposure to radiation. The risk of cancer following a low dose of radiation is usually estimated by linear extrapolation of the incidence of cancer among survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The radiobiological linear-quadratic model (LQ-model) gives a more accurate description of observed data, is radiobiologically more plausible and is better supported by experimental and clinical data. On the basis of this model there is less risk of cancer being induced following radiation exposure. The gravest consequence of Chernobyl and Fukushima is not the medical and biological damage, but the psychological and economical impact on rescue workers and former inhabitants.

  20. Consequentialism and the Synthetic Biology Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavey, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    This article analyzes the ethics of synthetic biology (synbio) from a consequentialist perspective, examining potential effects on food and agriculture, and on medicine, fuel, and the advancement of science. The issues of biosafety and biosecurity are also examined. A consequentialist analysis offers an essential road map to policymakers and regulators as to how to deal with synbio. Additionally, the article discusses the limitations of consequentialism as a tool for analysing synbioethics. Is it possible to predict, with any degree of plausibility, what the consequences of synthetic biology will be in 50 years, or in 100, or in 500? Synbio may take humanity to a place of radical departure from what is known or knowable.

  1. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  2. Visualization analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Munzner, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Visualization Analysis and Design provides a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about visualization in terms of principles and design choices. The book features a unified approach encompassing information visualization techniques for abstract data, scientific visualization techniques for spatial data, and visual analytics techniques for interweaving data transformation and analysis with interactive visual exploration. It emphasizes the careful validation of effectiveness and the consideration of function before form. The book breaks down visualization design according to three questions: what data users need to see, why users need to carry out their tasks, and how the visual representations proposed can be constructed and manipulated. It walks readers through the use of space and color to visually encode data in a view, the trade-offs between changing a single view and using multiple linked views, and the ways to reduce the amount of data shown in each view. The book concludes with six case stu...

  3. Biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, F.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of basic features of biological rhythms. The classification of periodic behavior of physical and psychological characteristics as circadian, circannual, diurnal, and ultradian is discussed, and the notion of relativistic time as it applies in biology is examined. Special attention is given to circadian rhythms which are dependent on the adrenocortical cycle. The need for adequate understanding of circadian variations in the basic physiological indicators of an individual (heart rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc.) to ensure the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic measures is stressed.

  4. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  5. Visual memory and visual perception: when memory improves visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Benoit; Lesourd, Mathieu; Brunel, Lionel; Versace, Rémy

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between memory and perception in order to identify the influence of a memory dimension in perceptual processing. Our aim was to determine whether the variation of typical size between items (i.e., the size in real life) affects visual search. In two experiments, the congruency between typical size difference and perceptual size difference was manipulated in a visual search task. We observed that congruency between the typical and perceptual size differences decreased reaction times in the visual search (Exp. 1), and noncongruency between these two differences increased reaction times in the visual search (Exp. 2). We argue that these results highlight that memory and perception share some resources and reveal the intervention of typical size difference on the computation of the perceptual size difference.

  6. A Reexamination of the Factor Structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Is a One-Factor Model Plausible?

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Michael C.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Heiy, Jane E.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES–D) is one of the most widely used measures of depressive symptoms in research today. The original psychometric work in support of the CES–D (Radloff, 1977) described a 4-factor model underlying the 20 items on the scale. Despite a long history of evidence supporting this structure, researchers routinely report single-number summaries from the CES–D. The research described in this article examines the plausibility of 1-factor model usi...

  7. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  8. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in ...

  9. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  10. Biological digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the biological degradation of non-radioactive organic material occurring in radioactive wastes. The biochemical steps are often performed using microbes or isolated enzymes in combination with chemical steps and the aim is to oxidise the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur to their respective oxides. (U.K.)

  11. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  12. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  13. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations ...

  14. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  15. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  16. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ...

  17. Visual acuity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003396.htm Visual acuity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest ...

  18. Topological Methods for Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berres, Anne Sabine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United Stat

    2016-04-07

    This slide presentation describes basic topological concepts, including topological spaces, homeomorphisms, homotopy, betti numbers. Scalar field topology explores finding topological features and scalar field visualization, and vector field topology explores finding topological features and vector field visualization.

  19. The Visual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  20. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  1. Visual Control of Locomotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loomis, Jack M; Beall, Andrew C

    2005-01-01

    The accomplishments were threefold. First, a software tool for rendering virtual environments was developed, a tool useful for other researchers interested in visual perception and visual control of action...

  2. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...

  3. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations ...

  4. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  5. Cortically-controlled population stochastic facilitation as a plausible substrate for guiding sensory transfer across the thalamic gateway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Béhuret

    Full Text Available The thalamus is the primary gateway that relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex. While a single recipient cortical cell receives the convergence of many principal relay cells of the thalamus, each thalamic cell in turn integrates a dense and distributed synaptic feedback from the cortex. During sensory processing, the influence of this functional loop remains largely ignored. Using dynamic-clamp techniques in thalamic slices in vitro, we combined theoretical and experimental approaches to implement a realistic hybrid retino-thalamo-cortical pathway mixing biological cells and simulated circuits. The synaptic bombardment of cortical origin was mimicked through the injection of a stochastic mixture of excitatory and inhibitory conductances, resulting in a gradable correlation level of afferent activity shared by thalamic cells. The study of the impact of the simulated cortical input on the global retinocortical signal transfer efficiency revealed a novel control mechanism resulting from the collective resonance of all thalamic relay neurons. We show here that the transfer efficiency of sensory input transmission depends on three key features: i the number of thalamocortical cells involved in the many-to-one convergence from thalamus to cortex, ii the statistics of the corticothalamic synaptic bombardment and iii the level of correlation imposed between converging thalamic relay cells. In particular, our results demonstrate counterintuitively that the retinocortical signal transfer efficiency increases when the level of correlation across thalamic cells decreases. This suggests that the transfer efficiency of relay cells could be selectively amplified when they become simultaneously desynchronized by the cortical feedback. When applied to the intact brain, this network regulation mechanism could direct an attentional focus to specific thalamic subassemblies and select the appropriate input lines to the cortex according to the descending

  6. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  7. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Computational visual distinctness metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Baena, J.; Toet, A.; Fdez-Vidal, X.R.; Garrido, A.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, R.

    1998-01-01

    A new computational visual distinctness metric based on principles of the early human visual system is presented. The metric is applied to quantify (1) the visual distinctness of targets in complex natural scenes and (2) the perceptual differences between compressed and uncompressed images. The new

  9. Programming Visual Basic 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    This information-packed guide helps you understand Visual Basic 2005, the next-generation release of the popular Visual Basic programming language. This book aims to make you immediately productive in creating Windows and web applications using Visual Basic 2005 and all of its tools. Perfect for experienced VB6 and novice programmers

  10. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as

  11. Digital 'faces' of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Kathrin

    2013-06-01

    In silicio design plays a fundamental role in the endeavour to synthesise biological systems. In particular, computer-aided design software enables users to manage the complexity of biological entities that is connected to their construction and reconfiguration. The software's graphical user interface bridges the gap between the machine-readable data on the algorithmic subface of the computer and its human-amenable surface represented by standardised diagrammatic elements. Notations like the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), together with interactive operations such as drag & drop, allow the user to visually design and simulate synthetic systems as 'bio-algorithmic signs'. Finally, the digital programming process should be extended to the wet lab to manufacture the designed synthetic biological systems. By exploring the different 'faces' of synthetic biology, I argue that in particular computer-aided design (CAD) is pushing the idea to automatically produce de novo objects. Multifaceted software processes serve mutually aesthetic, epistemic and performative purposes by simultaneously black-boxing and bridging different data sources, experimental operations and community-wide standards. So far, synthetic biology is mainly a product of digital media technologies that structurally mimic the epistemological challenge to take both qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of biological systems into account in order to understand and produce new and functional entities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biologic Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alessandra; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Londono, Ricardo; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    Biologic scaffold materials composed of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix are commonly used for the repair and functional reconstruction of injured and missing tissues. These naturally occurring bioscaffolds are manufactured by the removal of the cellular content from source tissues while preserving the structural and functional molecular units of the remaining extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanisms by which these bioscaffolds facilitate constructive remodeling and favorable clinical outcomes include release or creation of effector molecules that recruit endogenous stem/progenitor cells to the site of scaffold placement and modulation of the innate immune response, specifically the activation of an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. The methods by which ECM biologic scaffolds are prepared, the current understanding of in vivo scaffold remodeling, and the associated clinical outcomes are discussed in this article. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  14. Crusts: biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  15. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  16. Construction of direction selectivity through local energy computations in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, Timm; Blanche, Timothy J; Butts, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Despite detailed knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1), the large numbers of inputs onto a given V1 neuron make it difficult to relate them to the neuron's functional properties. For example, models of direction selectivity (DS), such as the Energy Model, can successfully describe the computation of phase-invariant DS at a conceptual level, while leaving it unclear how such computations are implemented by cortical circuits. Here, we use statistical modeling to derive a description of DS computation for both simple and complex cells, based on physiologically plausible operations on their inputs. We present a new method that infers the selectivity of a neuron's inputs using extracellular recordings in macaque in the context of random bar stimuli and natural movies in cat. Our results suggest that DS is initially constructed in V1 simple cells through summation and thresholding of non-DS inputs with appropriate spatiotemporal relationships. However, this de novo construction of DS is rare, and a majority of DS simple cells, and all complex cells, appear to receive both excitatory and suppressive inputs that are already DS. For complex cells, these numerous DS inputs typically span a fraction of their overall receptive fields and have similar spatiotemporal tuning but different phase and spatial positions, suggesting an elaboration to the Energy Model that incorporates spatially localized computation. Furthermore, we demonstrate how these computations might be constructed from biologically realizable components, and describe a statistical model consistent with the feed-forward framework suggested by Hubel and Wiesel.

  17. Construction of direction selectivity through local energy computations in primary visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm Lochmann

    Full Text Available Despite detailed knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1, the large numbers of inputs onto a given V1 neuron make it difficult to relate them to the neuron's functional properties. For example, models of direction selectivity (DS, such as the Energy Model, can successfully describe the computation of phase-invariant DS at a conceptual level, while leaving it unclear how such computations are implemented by cortical circuits. Here, we use statistical modeling to derive a description of DS computation for both simple and complex cells, based on physiologically plausible operations on their inputs. We present a new method that infers the selectivity of a neuron's inputs using extracellular recordings in macaque in the context of random bar stimuli and natural movies in cat. Our results suggest that DS is initially constructed in V1 simple cells through summation and thresholding of non-DS inputs with appropriate spatiotemporal relationships. However, this de novo construction of DS is rare, and a majority of DS simple cells, and all complex cells, appear to receive both excitatory and suppressive inputs that are already DS. For complex cells, these numerous DS inputs typically span a fraction of their overall receptive fields and have similar spatiotemporal tuning but different phase and spatial positions, suggesting an elaboration to the Energy Model that incorporates spatially localized computation. Furthermore, we demonstrate how these computations might be constructed from biologically realizable components, and describe a statistical model consistent with the feed-forward framework suggested by Hubel and Wiesel.

  18. Models of deletion for visualizing bacterial variation: an application to tuberculosis spoligotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Andrew R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular typing methods are commonly used to study genetic relationships among bacterial isolates. Many of these methods have become standardized and produce portable data. A popular approach for analyzing such data is to construct graphs, including phylogenies. Inferences from graph representations of data assist in understanding the patterns of transmission of bacterial pathogens, and basing these graph constructs on biological models of evolution of the molecular marker helps make these inferences. Spoligotyping is a widely used method for genotyping isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that exploits polymorphism in the direct repeat region. Our goal was to examine a range of models describing the evolution of spoligotypes in order to develop a visualization method to represent likely relationships among M. tuberculosis isolates. Results We found that inferred mutations of spoligotypes frequently involve the loss of a single or very few adjacent spacers. Using a second-order variant of Akaike's Information Criterion, we selected the Zipf model as the basis for resolving ambiguities in the ancestry of spoligotypes. We developed a method to construct graphs of spoligotypes (which we call spoligoforests. To demonstrate this method, we applied it to a tuberculosis data set from Cuba and compared the method to some existing methods. Conclusion We propose a new approach in analyzing relationships of M. tuberculosis isolates using spoligotypes. The spoligoforest recovers a plausible history of transmission and mutation events based on the selected deletion model. The method may be suitable to study markers based on loci of similar structure from other bacteria. The groupings and relationships in the spoligoforest can be analyzed along with the clinical features of strains to provide an understanding of the evolution of spoligotypes.

  19. Python data visualization cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Milovanovic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook style targeted towards an advanced audience. It covers the advanced topics of data visualization in Python.Python Data Visualization Cookbook is for developers that already know about Python programming in general. If you have heard about data visualization but you don't know where to start, then this book will guide you from the start and help you understand data, data formats, data visualization, and how to use Python to visualize data.You will need to know some general programming concepts, and any kind of programming experience will be helpful, but the co

  20. Visualization system on ITBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    Visualization systems PATRAS/ITBL and AVS/ITBL, which are based on visualization software PATRAS and AVS/Express respectively, have been developed on a global, heterogeneous computing environment, Information Technology Based Laboratory (ITBL). PATRAS/ITBL allows for real-time visualization of the numerical results acquired from coupled multi-physics numerical simulations, executed on different hosts situated in remote locations. AVS/ITBL allow for post processing visualization. The scientific data located in remote sites may be selected and visualized on a web browser installed in a user terminal. The global structure and main functions of these systems are presented. (author)

  1. Professional Visual Studio 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Randolph, Nick; Anderson, Chris

    2010-01-01

    A must-have guide that covers all the new features of Visual Studio 2010. Visual Studio allows you to create and manage programming projects for the Windows platform, and the new 2010 version has undergone a major overhaul comprised of significant changes. Written by an author team of veteran programmers and developers, Professional Visual Studio 2010 gets you quickly up to speed on what you can expect from the newest version of Visual Studio. This book's first section is dedicated to familiarizing you with the core aspects of Visual Studio 2010. Everything you need is contained in the first f

  2. Visual Semiotics & Uncertainty Visualization: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachren, A M; Roth, R E; O'Brien, J; Li, B; Swingley, D; Gahegan, M

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents two linked empirical studies focused on uncertainty visualization. The experiments are framed from two conceptual perspectives. First, a typology of uncertainty is used to delineate kinds of uncertainty matched with space, time, and attribute components of data. Second, concepts from visual semiotics are applied to characterize the kind of visual signification that is appropriate for representing those different categories of uncertainty. This framework guided the two experiments reported here. The first addresses representation intuitiveness, considering both visual variables and iconicity of representation. The second addresses relative performance of the most intuitive abstract and iconic representations of uncertainty on a map reading task. Combined results suggest initial guidelines for representing uncertainty and discussion focuses on practical applicability of results.

  3. A survey of visual preprocessing and shape representation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshausen, Bruno A.

    1988-01-01

    Many recent theories and methods proposed for visual preprocessing and shape representation are summarized. The survey brings together research from the fields of biology, psychology, computer science, electrical engineering, and most recently, neural networks. It was motivated by the need to preprocess images for a sparse distributed memory (SDM), but the techniques presented may also prove useful for applying other associative memories to visual pattern recognition. The material of this survey is divided into three sections: an overview of biological visual processing; methods of preprocessing (extracting parts of shape, texture, motion, and depth); and shape representation and recognition (form invariance, primitives and structural descriptions, and theories of attention).

  4. Halftone visual cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Arce, Gonzalo R; Di Crescenzo, Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    Visual cryptography encodes a secret binary image (SI) into n shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are xeroxed onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the n shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. Extended visual cryptography [1] was proposed recently to construct meaningful binary images as shares using hypergraph colourings, but the visual quality is poor. In this paper, a novel technique named halftone visual cryptography is proposed to achieve visual cryptography via halftoning. Based on the blue-noise dithering principles, the proposed method utilizes the void and cluster algorithm [2] to encode a secret binary image into n halftone shares (images) carrying significant visual information. The simulation shows that the visual quality of the obtained halftone shares are observably better than that attained by any available visual cryptography method known to date.

  5. Contrasting gist-based and template-based guidance during real-world visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahle, Brett; Matsukura, Michi; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Visual search through real-world scenes is guided both by a representation of target features and by knowledge of the sematic properties of the scene (derived from scene gist recognition). In 3 experiments, we compared the relative roles of these 2 sources of guidance. Participants searched for a target object in the presence of a critical distractor object. The color of the critical distractor either matched or mismatched (a) the color of an item maintained in visual working memory for a secondary task (Experiment 1), or (b) the color of the target, cued by a picture before search commenced (Experiments 2 and 3). Capture of gaze by a matching distractor served as an index of template guidance. There were 4 main findings: (a) The distractor match effect was observed from the first saccade on the scene, (b) it was independent of the availability of scene-level gist-based guidance, (c) it was independent of whether the distractor appeared in a plausible location for the target, and (d) it was preserved even when gist-based guidance was available before scene onset. Moreover, gist-based, semantic guidance of gaze to target-plausible regions of the scene was delayed relative to template-based guidance. These results suggest that feature-based template guidance is not limited to plausible scene regions after an initial, scene-level analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Anticipating and Communicating Plausible Environmental and Health Concerns Associated with Future Disasters: The ShakeOut and ARkStorm Scenarios as Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Alpers, C. N.; Hoefen, T. M.; Meeker, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    Disasters commonly pose immediate threats to human safety, but can also produce hazardous materials (HM) that pose short- and long-term environmental-health threats. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has helped assess potential environmental health characteristics of HM produced by various natural and anthropogenic disasters, such as the 2001 World Trade Center collapse, 2005 hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2007-2009 southern California wildfires, various volcanic eruptions, and others. Building upon experience gained from these responses, we are now developing methods to anticipate plausible environmental and health implications of the 2008 Great Southern California ShakeOut scenario (which modeled the impacts of a 7.8 magnitude earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, http://urbanearth.gps.caltech.edu/scenario08/), and the recent ARkStorm scenario (modeling the impacts of a major, weeks-long winter storm hitting nearly all of California, http://urbanearth.gps.caltech.edu/winter-storm/). Environmental-health impacts of various past earthquakes and extreme storms are first used to identify plausible impacts that could be associated with the disaster scenarios. Substantial insights can then be gleaned using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to link ShakeOut and ARkStorm effects maps with data extracted from diverse database sources containing geologic, hazards, and environmental information. This type of analysis helps constrain where potential geogenic (natural) and anthropogenic sources of HM (and their likely types of contaminants or pathogens) fall within areas of predicted ShakeOut-related shaking, firestorms, and landslides, and predicted ARkStorm-related precipitation, flooding, and winds. Because of uncertainties in the event models and many uncertainties in the databases used (e.g., incorrect location information, lack of detailed information on specific facilities, etc.) this approach should only be considered as the first of multiple steps

  7. HMMEditor: a visual editing tool for profile hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Jianlin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profile Hidden Markov Model (HMM is a powerful statistical model to represent a family of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences. Profile HMM has been widely used in bioinformatics research such as sequence alignment, gene structure prediction, motif identification, protein structure prediction, and biological database search. However, few comprehensive, visual editing tools for profile HMM are publicly available. Results We develop a visual editor for profile Hidden Markov Models (HMMEditor. HMMEditor can visualize the profile HMM architecture, transition probabilities, and emission probabilities. Moreover, it provides functions to edit and save HMM and parameters. Furthermore, HMMEditor allows users to align a sequence against the profile HMM and to visualize the corresponding Viterbi path. Conclusion HMMEditor provides a set of unique functions to visualize and edit a profile HMM. It is a useful tool for biological sequence analysis and modeling. Both HMMEditor software and web service are freely available.

  8. Podcasts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Matte

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Biochemistry and Molecular Biology represents a big challenge in the undergraduate courses. The topics are complex and integrate knowledge that will be essential for the development of several professional activities. In the classroom, we have a very heterogeneous audience, which may respond better to visual or auditory stimuli. In addition, we need to consider the universal access to information, considering the possibility of having visually impaired students. In this context, we developed a new teaching methodology through the creation and use of podcasts that deal with the content of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. We selected the most complex subjects in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, according to the students' performance in the tests to do the podcasts: synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, nucleic acid metabolism and protein synthesis. We believe the development of podcasts can contribute effectively to the learning of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Visual Literacy in Bloom: Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Support Visual Learning Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Jessie B; Offerdahl, Erika G

    2018-01-01

    Vision and Change identifies science communication as one of the core competencies in undergraduate biology. Visual representations are an integral part of science communication, allowing ideas to be shared among and between scientists and the public. As such, development of scientific visual literacy should be a desired outcome of undergraduate instruction. We developed the Visualization Blooming Tool (VBT), an adaptation of Bloom's taxonomy specifically focused on visual representations, to aid instructors in designing instruction and assessments to target scientific visual literacy in undergraduate instruction. In this article, we identify the need for the VBT, describe its development, and provide concrete examples of its application to a curriculum redesign effort in undergraduate biochemistry. © 2018 J. B. Arneson and E. G. Offerdahl. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  11. Introduction to the special issue on visual aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual aesthetics encompasses the studies of the relationship between vision and various aesthetic phenomena - from the beauty ratings of simple visual patterns to the appreciation of visual art, from the preference for natural objects and scenes to the preference for products of human creativity, from the aesthetic effects of culture to the aesthetic effects of biology, from the universal aesthetic sensitivity to the individual differences in taste, and so on. In this special issue ten papers reported the most recent studies on very different subjects related to visual aesthetics.

  12. Molecular Biology of Exfoliation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula

    2018-02-06

    Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a common age-related matrix process resulting from excessive production and disordered assembly of elastic microfibrillar components into highly cross-linked fibrillary aggregates throughout the anterior eye segment and various organ systems. The underlying molecular pathophysiology involves a complex interplay of pro-fibrotic protagonists including growth factors, proteolytic enzymes and inhibitors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, chaperones, and dysregulated stress response pathways including insufficient autophagy. Interaction between individual genetic predisposition and stress factors is a plausible theory explaining the development of XFS in the aging individual. Genome-wide association studies have identified robust genetic associations with LOXL1, CACNA1A, and five additional genes including POMP and TMEM136, which provide new biological insights into the pathology of XFS and highlight a role for abnormal matrix cross-linking processes, Ca channel deficiency, blood-aqueous barrier dysfunction, and abnormal ubiquitin-proteasome signaling in XFS pathophysiology. However, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms, the functional role of genetic risk variants and gene-environmental interactions still remain to be characterized.

  13. Visualizer cognitive style enhances visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura

    2016-02-26

    In the last two decades, interest towards creativity has increased significantly since it was recognized as a skill and as a cognitive reserve and is now always more frequently used in ageing training. Here, the relationships between visual creativity and Visualization-Verbalization cognitive style were investigated. Fifty college students were administered the Creative Synthesis Task aimed at measuring the ability to construct creative objects and the Visualization-Verbalization Questionnaire (VVQ) aimed at measuring the attitude to preferentially use either imagery or verbal strategy while processing information. Analyses showed that only the originality score of inventions was positively predicted by the VVQ score: higher VVQ score (indicating the preference to use imagery) predicted originality of inventions. These results showed that the visualization strategy is involved especially in the originality dimension of creative objects production. In light of neuroimaging results, the possibility that different strategies, such those that involve motor processes, affect visual creativity is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Applying quantitative bias analysis to estimate the plausible effects of selection bias in a cluster randomised controlled trial: secondary analysis of the Primary care Osteoarthritis Screening Trial (POST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, L A; Lewis, M; Mallen, C D; Peat, G

    2017-12-04

    Selection bias is a concern when designing cluster randomised controlled trials (c-RCT). Despite addressing potential issues at the design stage, bias cannot always be eradicated from a trial design. The application of bias analysis presents an important step forward in evaluating whether trial findings are credible. The aim of this paper is to give an example of the technique to quantify potential selection bias in c-RCTs. This analysis uses data from the Primary care Osteoarthritis Screening Trial (POST). The primary aim of this trial was to test whether screening for anxiety and depression, and providing appropriate care for patients consulting their GP with osteoarthritis would improve clinical outcomes. Quantitative bias analysis is a seldom-used technique that can quantify types of bias present in studies. Due to lack of information on the selection probability, probabilistic bias analysis with a range of triangular distributions was also used, applied at all three follow-up time points; 3, 6, and 12 months post consultation. A simple bias analysis was also applied to the study. Worse pain outcomes were observed among intervention participants than control participants (crude odds ratio at 3, 6, and 12 months: 1.30 (95% CI 1.01, 1.67), 1.39 (1.07, 1.80), and 1.17 (95% CI 0.90, 1.53), respectively). Probabilistic bias analysis suggested that the observed effect became statistically non-significant if the selection probability ratio was between 1.2 and 1.4. Selection probability ratios of > 1.8 were needed to mask a statistically significant benefit of the intervention. The use of probabilistic bias analysis in this c-RCT suggested that worse outcomes observed in the intervention arm could plausibly be attributed to selection bias. A very large degree of selection of bias was needed to mask a beneficial effect of intervention making this interpretation less plausible.

  15. [Migraine with visual aura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidot, S; Biotti, D

    2016-06-01

    Migraine with visual aura is marked by recurrent episodes of transient visual disturbance, often followed by headaches. Its pathophysiology has not been fully understood, but visual auras might be related to a self-propagating wave of cortical depolarization called "cortical spreading depression", triggering a trigemino-vascular "storm" ultimately leading to headaches. The most specific visual symptom is the "fortification spectrum" consisting of glimmering jagged lines spreading from the center to the periphery, and leaving a transient scotoma in its wake. Other visual symptoms are numerous, ranging from elementary positive or negative visual phenomena to complex and elaborate hallucinations. The diagnosis can be made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders revised in 2013. The main goal of the treatment is to relieve the patient's pain quickly and to decrease the frequency of the episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Attention and visual memory in visualization and computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Christopher G; Enns, James T

    2012-07-01

    A fundamental goal of visualization is to produce images of data that support visual analysis, exploration, and discovery of novel insights. An important consideration during visualization design is the role of human visual perception. How we "see" details in an image can directly impact a viewer's efficiency and effectiveness. This paper surveys research on attention and visual perception, with a specific focus on results that have direct relevance to visualization and visual analytics. We discuss theories of low-level visual perception, then show how these findings form a foundation for more recent work on visual memory and visual attention. We conclude with a brief overview of how knowledge of visual attention and visual memory is being applied in visualization and graphics. We also discuss how challenges in visualization are motivating research in psychophysics.

  17. Visualization: Teaching the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Visualization : Teaching the Art A Monograph by Major Phillip M. Johnson United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...DSN 585-3171 SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Major Phillip M. Johnson Title of Monograph: Visualization : Teaching the Art ...ABSTRACT VISUALIZATION : TEACHING THE ART by MAJOR Phillip M. Johnson, USA, 53 pages. Effectively applying operational art and battle command is a

  18. Visual computing scientific visualization and imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume aims to stimulate discussions on research involving the use of data and digital images as an understanding approach for analysis and visualization of phenomena and experiments. The emphasis is put not only on graphically representing data as a way of increasing its visual analysis, but also on the imaging systems which contribute greatly to the comprehension of real cases. Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems encompass multidisciplinary areas, with applications in many knowledge fields such as Engineering, Medicine, Material Science, Physics, Geology, Geographic Information Systems, among others. This book is a selection of 13 revised and extended research papers presented in the International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting -ACE-X conferences 2010 (Paris), 2011 (Algarve), 2012 (Istanbul) and 2013 (Madrid). The examples were particularly chosen from materials research, medical applications, general concepts applied in simulations and image analysis and ot...

  19. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  20. Visualization in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    MacEachren, AM

    1994-01-01

    Visualization in Modern Cartography explores links between the centuries-old discipline of cartography and today's revolutionary developments in scientific visualization. The book has three main goals: (1) to pass on design and symbolization expertise to the scientific visualization community - information that comes from centuries of pre-computer visualization by cartographers, and their more recent experiences with computerizing the discipline; (2) to help cartographers cope with the dramatic shift from print cartography to a dynamic virtual cartography for which their role is changing from

  1. Visual languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Visual languages have long been a pursuit of effective communication between human and machine. With rapid advances of the Internet and Web technology, human-human communication through the Web or electronic mobile devices is becoming more and more prevalent. Visual Languages and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to diagrammatical visual languages. This book discusses what visual programming languages are, and how such languages and their underlying foundations can be usefully applied to other fields in computer science. It also covers a broad range of contents from the underlying t

  2. Tracking the emergence of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Philip; Kwon, Seokbeom; Youtie, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging domain that combines biological and engineering concepts and which has seen rapid growth in research, innovation, and policy interest in recent years. This paper contributes to efforts to delineate this emerging domain by presenting a newly constructed bibliometric definition of synthetic biology. Our approach is dimensioned from a core set of papers in synthetic biology, using procedures to obtain benchmark synthetic biology publication records, extract keywords from these benchmark records, and refine the keywords, supplemented with articles published in dedicated synthetic biology journals. We compare our search strategy with other recent bibliometric approaches to define synthetic biology, using a common source of publication data for the period from 2000 to 2015. The paper details the rapid growth and international spread of research in synthetic biology in recent years, demonstrates that diverse research disciplines are contributing to the multidisciplinary development of synthetic biology research, and visualizes this by profiling synthetic biology research on the map of science. We further show the roles of a relatively concentrated set of research sponsors in funding the growth and trajectories of synthetic biology. In addition to discussing these analyses, the paper notes limitations and suggests lines for further work.

  3. Biological motion distorts size perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veto, Peter; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2017-02-01

    Visual illusions explore the limits of sensory processing and provide an ideal testbed to study perception. Size illusions - stimuli whose size is consistently misperceived - do not only result from sensory cues, but can also be induced by cognitive factors, such as social status. Here we investigate, whether the ecological relevance of biological motion can also distort perceived size. We asked observers to judge the size of point-light walkers (PLWs), configurations of dots whose movements induce the perception of human movement, and visually matched control stimuli (inverted PLWs). We find that upright PLWs are consistently judged as larger than inverted PLWs, while static point-light figures do not elicit the same effect. We also show the phenomenon using an indirect paradigm: observers judged the relative size of a disc that followed an inverted PLW larger than a disc following an upright PLW. We interpret this as a contrast effect: The upright PLW is perceived larger and thus the subsequent disc is judged smaller. Together, these results demonstrate that ecologically relevant biological-motion stimuli are perceived larger than visually matched control stimuli. Our findings present a novel case of illusory size perception, where ecological importance leads to a distorted perception of size.

  4. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  5. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  6. Exploring Visual Bookmarks and Layered Visualizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Teuben (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCultural heritage experts are confronted with a difficult information gathering task while conducting comparison searches. Saving searches and re-examining previous work could help them to do their work. In this paper we propose a solution in which we combine visual bookmarks for saving

  7. Personal Visualization and Personal Visual Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dandan; Tory, Melanie; Aseniero, Bon Adriel; Bartram, Lyn; Bateman, Scott; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Tang, Anthony; Woodbury, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Data surrounds each and every one of us in our daily lives, ranging from exercise logs, to archives of our interactions with others on social media, to online resources pertaining to our hobbies. There is enormous potential for us to use these data to understand ourselves better and make positive changes in our lives. Visualization (Vis) and visual analytics (VA) offer substantial opportunities to help individuals gain insights about themselves, their communities and their interests; however, designing tools to support data analysis in non-professional life brings a unique set of research and design challenges. We investigate the requirements and research directions required to take full advantage of Vis and VA in a personal context. We develop a taxonomy of design dimensions to provide a coherent vocabulary for discussing personal visualization and personal visual analytics. By identifying and exploring clusters in the design space, we discuss challenges and share perspectives on future research. This work brings together research that was previously scattered across disciplines. Our goal is to call research attention to this space and engage researchers to explore the enabling techniques and technology that will support people to better understand data relevant to their personal lives, interests, and needs.

  8. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo eNakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2 was impaired when a first target (T1 was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms SOA; identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention.

  9. The Visual Effects of Intraocular Colored Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern life is associated with a myriad of visual problems, most notably refractive conditions such as myopia. Human ingenuity has addressed such problems using strategies such as spectacle lenses or surgical correction. There are other visual problems, however, that have been present throughout our evolutionary history and are not as easily solved by simply correcting refractive error. These problems include issues like glare disability and discomfort arising from intraocular scatter, photostress with the associated transient loss in vision that arises from short intense light exposures, or the ability to see objects in the distance through a veil of atmospheric haze. One likely biological solution to these more long-standing problems has been the use of colored intraocular filters. Many species, especially diurnal, incorporate chromophores from numerous sources (e.g., often plant pigments called carotenoids into ocular tissues to improve visual performance outdoors. This review summarizes information on the utility of such filters focusing on chromatic filtering by humans.

  10. Visual Factors in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chris; Henderson, Lisa-Marie

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about how the visual system recognizes letters and words, and the impact on reading when parts of the visual system malfunction. The physiology of eye and brain places important constraints on how we process text, and the efficient organization of the neurocognitive systems involved is not inherent but…

  11. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  12. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ... Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  13. English 3135: Visual Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Oriana

    2013-01-01

    As an advanced rhetoric and composition doctoral student, I taught Engl 3135: Visual Rhetoric, a three-credit upper-level course offered by the Department of English at Georgia State University. Mary E. Hocks originally designed this course in 2000 to, in her words, "introduce visual information design theories and practices for writers [and]…

  14. Critical Reading: Visual Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dennis M.

    The computer controlled visual media, particularly television, are becoming an increasingly powerful instrument for the manipulation of thought. Powerful visual images increasingly reflect and shape personal and external reality--politics being one such example--and it is crucial that the viewing public understand the nature of these media…

  15. Mathematica data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Saquib, Nazmus

    2014-01-01

    If you are planning to create data analysis and visualization tools in the context of science, engineering, economics, or social science, then this book is for you. With this book, you will become a visualization expert, in a short time, using Mathematica.

  16. Visual Word Ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Veenman, C.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies automatic image classification by modeling soft assignment in the popular codebook model. The codebook model describes an image as a bag of discrete visual words selected from a vocabulary, where the frequency distributions of visual words in an image allow classification. One

  17. Complicating Visual Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiello, Vicki; Hathaway, Kevin; Rhoades, Mindi; Walker, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    Arguing for complicating the study of visual culture, as advocated by James Elkins, this article explicates and explores Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and pedagogy in view of its implications for art education practice. Subjectivity, a concept of import for addressing student identity and the visual, steers the discussion informed by pedagogical…

  18. Visual experience and blindsight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Blindsight is classically defined as residual visual capacity, e.g., to detect and identify visual stimuli, in the total absence of perceptual awareness following lesions to V1. However, whereas most experiments have investigated what blindsight patients can and cannot do, the literature contains...

  19. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...

  20. Exploring the Visual Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Van Lammeren, R.; Van der Hoeven, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the Visual Landscape is about the combination of landscape research and planning, visual perception and Geographic Information Science. It showcases possible ways of getting a grip on themes like: landscape openness, cluttering of the rural landscape, high-rise buildings in relation to

  1. Sizing up visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the literature is clear on the benefits of large displays and visualizations, little is known about their combination, that is, how display size affect the usability of visualizations. We describe a controlled experiment where 19 participants used focus+context, overview+detail, and zoomi...

  2. The visual information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlyn J. Paulson

    1979-01-01

    This paper outlines a project level process (V.I.S.) which utilizes very accurate and flexible computer algorithms in combination with contemporary site analysis and design techniques for visual evaluation, design and management. The process provides logical direction and connecting bridges through problem identification, information collection and verification, visual...

  3. Visualizing Qualitative Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

  4. Normalized medical information visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  5. Network Visualization Project (NVP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Visualization Project (NVP) by Terry Wen American Society of Engineering Education, Washington, DC Lisa M Marvel Computational and Information Sciences...front-end presentation and construction of the application itself. 15. SUBJECT TERMS computer network traffic, computer network security, computer ...network visualization, network traffic analysis, network forensics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF

  6. Music Alters Visual Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the

  7. Visual thinking and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U M

    2008-01-01

    After a consideration of visual thinking in science the role of such thinking in neuroscience is discussed. Three instances are examined - cortical column, retina, impulse - and it is argued that visual thinking is employed, though in different ways, in each. It lies at the core of neurobiological thought.

  8. Visualizing the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgman, William T.; Shirah, Greg W.; Mitchell, Horace G.

    2008-01-01

    Today, scientific data and models can combine with modern animation tools to produce compelling visualizations to inform and educate. The Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center merges these techniques from the very different worlds of entertainment and science to enable scientists and the general public to 'see the unseeable' in new ways.

  9. Interactive Visualization of Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

  10. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings, comparati...

  11. Plausible Reasoning in Tactical Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    applicability relation is learned like any other relation. This relation does not act as a "selection restriction" assumed by some linguists . Its...Linda is to be a feminist bank teller (Tversky and lKahneman. 1980, Smith & Osherson, this volume) requires only a mapping across the properties of...account, you consider the properties of salary, education. and politics in the mapping process, comparing Linda and feminist bank tellers with

  12. Plausibility Arguments and Universal Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ricardo F. F.; Tort, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Newton's law of universal gravitation underpins our understanding of the dynamics of the Solar System and of a good portion of the observable universe. Generally, in the classroom or in textbooks, the law is presented initially in a qualitative way and at some point during the exposition its mathematical formulation is written on the blackboard…

  13. Visualizing chemical functionality in plant cell walls

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Yining; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2017-01-01

    Understanding plant cell wall cross-linking chemistry and polymeric architecture is key to the efficient utilization of biomass in all prospects from rational genetic modification to downstream chemical and biological conversion to produce fuels and value chemicals. In fact, the bulk properties of cell wall recalcitrance are collectively determined by its chemical features over a wide range of length scales from tissue, cellular to polymeric architectures. Microscopic visualization of cell wa...

  14. Visualization of JPEG Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Mohamad, Kamaruddin; Deris, Mustafa Mat

    There are a lot of information embedded in JPEG image than just graphics. Visualization of its metadata would benefit digital forensic investigator to view embedded data including corrupted image where no graphics can be displayed in order to assist in evidence collection for cases such as child pornography or steganography. There are already available tools such as metadata readers, editors and extraction tools but mostly focusing on visualizing attribute information of JPEG Exif. However, none have been done to visualize metadata by consolidating markers summary, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in a single program. In this paper, metadata visualization is done by developing a program that able to summarize all existing markers, header structure, Huffman table and quantization table in JPEG. The result shows that visualization of metadata helps viewing the hidden information within JPEG more easily.

  15. Visualization and mathematics III

    CERN Document Server

    Polthier, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    This research book on Mathematical Visualization contains state of the art presentations on visualization problems in mathematics, on fundamental mathematical research in computer graphics, and on software frameworks for the application of visualization to real-world problems. All contributions were written by leading experts in the field and peer-refereed by an international editorial team. The book grew out of the third international workshop "Visualization and Mathematics", which was held from May 22-25, 2002 in Berlin. The themes of the book cover important recent developments on - Geometry and Combinatorics of Meshes - Discrete Vector Fields and Topology - Geometric Modelling - Image Based Visualization - Software Environments and Applications - Education and Communication The variety of topics makes the book a suitable resource for researchers, lecturers, and practitioners; http://www-sfb288.math.tu-berlin.de/vismath/

  16. Houdini for Astrophysical Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.; Borkiewicz, Kalina; Christensen, A. J.

    2017-05-01

    The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large data sets. Here, we discuss some newly developed tools used to import and manipulate astrophysical data into the three-dimensional visual effects software, Houdini. This software is widely used by visual effects artists, but a recently implemented Python API now allows astronomers to more easily use Houdini as a visualization tool. This paper includes a description of features, workflow, and various example visualizations. The project website, www.ytini.com, is aimed at a scientific audience and contains Houdini tutorials and links to the Python script Bitbucket repository to simplify the process of importing and rendering astrophysical data.

  17. NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Horace G.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1988, the Scientific Visualization Studio(SVS) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has produced scientific visualizations of NASA s scientific research and remote sensing data for public outreach. These visualizations take the form of images, animations, and end-to-end systems and have been used in many venues: from the network news to science programs such as NOVA, from museum exhibits at the Smithsonian to White House briefings. This presentation will give an overview of the major activities and accomplishments of the SVS, and some of the most interesting projects and systems developed at the SVS will be described. Particular emphasis will be given to the practices and procedures by which the SVS creates visualizations, from the hardware and software used to the structures and collaborations by which products are designed, developed, and delivered to customers. The web-based archival and delivery system for SVS visualizations at svs.gsfc.nasa.gov will also be described.

  18. Vitamin E in neural and visual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, S M; Muller, D P R

    2004-12-01

    A rat model of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) deficiency with similar "clinical," electrophysiological, and neuropathological abnormalities to those seen in man was used to investigate the effects of various amounts and forms of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alphaTA) on neural and visual function. Electrophysiological techniques provide an objective, non-invasive measure of neural and visual function. These techniques were used in the animal model to determine the minimum dietary requirement of vitamin E necessary to prevent neural and visual abnormalities. They were also used to compare the biological activities of the natural (RRR-) and synthetic (all-rac-) forms of alpha-tocopherol in neural tissues. The results were as follows: (1) Significant differences in neural and visual function were observed between deficient and control rats after approximately 8 months. (2) An intake of 1.0 mg/kg all-rac- or 0.75 mg/kg RRR-alphaTA was observed to marginally protect nerves from vitamin E deficiency. (3) The biological activity of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol in neural tissues was approximately 75% of RRR-alpha-tocopherol. (4) The concentration of free malondialdehyde (an indicator of lipid peroxidation) was significantly increased in tissues from the deficient compared to the control animals. These results are consistent with a deficiency of alpha-tocopherol causing increased lipid peroxidation leading to abnormal neural electrophysiology. They could also be explained by more specific but as yet undefined function(s) of alpha-tocopherol in neural tissues.

  19. Volume visualization of biological tissue specimens using confocal microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Martin; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Smrčka, P.; Hána, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2006), s. 240-244 ISSN 0301-5491. [Biomedical Engineering Conference of Young Biomedical Engineers and Researchers /2./. Kladno, 19.07.2006-21.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500200510; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 3D reconstruction * confocal microscopy Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  20. Visual Interpretation of Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Bette P.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how visual literacy (the ability to interpret the visual images of advertisements, illustrations, television, and other visual media) can promote creative and analytic thinking. Provides several instructional strategies to teach visual literacy through book illustrations. Notes that visual literacy is essential in a world increasingly…

  1. Designing Visual Earth: Multimedia Geographic Visualization for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Harold

    1998-01-01

    Provides information on computer software using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and visualization technologies and Visual Earth, a series of integrated classroom solutions for a variety of science topics. Describes some uses of GIS and Visual Earth in science classrooms. (ASK)

  2. Master VISUALLY Excel 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The complete visual reference on Excel basics. Aimed at visual learners who are seeking an all-in-one reference that provides in-depth coveage of Excel from a visual viewpoint, this resource delves into all the newest features of Excel 2010. You'll explore Excel with helpful step-by-step instructions that show you, rather than tell you, how to navigate Excel, work with PivotTables and PivotCharts, use macros to streamline work, and collaborate with other users in one document.: This two-color guide features screen shots with specific, numbered instructions so you can learn the actions you need

  3. VRML metabolic network visualizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdestvenski, Igor

    2003-03-01

    A successful date collection visualization should satisfy a set of many requirements: unification of diverse data formats, support for serendipity research, support of hierarchical structures, algorithmizability, vast information density, Internet-readiness, and other. Recently, virtual reality has made significant progress in engineering, architectural design, entertainment and communication. We experiment with the possibility of using the immersive abstract three-dimensional visualizations of the metabolic networks. We present the trial Metabolic Network Visualizer software, which produces graphical representation of a metabolic network as a VRML world from a formal description written in a simple SGML-type scripting language.

  4. Analysing Biological Rhythms in Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, M; Sarp, Ü; Gül, A I; Tanik, N; Yetisgin, A; Arik, H O; Nas, O; Yılmaz, Y K

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated biological rhythm disorders in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The study enrolled 82 patients with FMS and 82 controls. Pain intensity was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The psychological conditions of the patients were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN) was used to assess disturbances in biological rhythms (ie sleep, activity, social and eating patterns). There was no difference between the two groups at baseline (all p > 0.05). The BDI, BRIAN total, sleep, activity, social, and eating scores were higher in patients with FMS than in the controls (all p biological rhythms and BDI scores (p biological rhythm disturbances in FMS. There is an important relationship between rhythm disorders and FMS. The disturbances in sleep, functional activities, social participation, and disordered rhythms like eating patterns show the need for a multidisciplinary approach to treating patients with FMS.

  5. Effects of Auditory Information on Self-Motion Perception during Simultaneous Presentation of Visual Shearing Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehito eTanahashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have found that self-motion perception induced by simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion is facilitated when the directions of visual and auditory motion stimuli are identical. They did not, however, examine possible contributions of auditory motion information for determining direction of self-motion perception. To examine this, a visual stimulus projected on a hemisphere screen and an auditory stimulus presented through headphones were presented separately or simultaneously, depending on experimental conditions. The participant continuously indicated the direction and strength of self-motion during the 130-s experimental trial. When the visual stimulus with a horizontal shearing rotation and the auditory stimulus with a horizontal one-directional rotation were presented simultaneously, the duration and strength of self-motion perceived in the opposite direction of the auditory rotation stimulus were significantly longer and stronger than those perceived in the same direction of the auditory rotation stimulus. However, the auditory stimulus alone could not sufficiently induce self-motion perception, and if it did, its direction was not consistent within each experimental trial. We concluded that auditory motion information can determine perceived direction of self-motion during simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion information, at least when visual stimuli moved in opposing directions (around the yaw-axis. We speculate that the contribution of auditory information depends on the plausibility and information balance of visual and auditory information.

  6. Effects of auditory information on self-motion perception during simultaneous presentation of visual shearing motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Shigehito; Ashihara, Kaoru; Ujike, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that self-motion perception induced by simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion is facilitated when the directions of visual and auditory motion stimuli are identical. They did not, however, examine possible contributions of auditory motion information for determining direction of self-motion perception. To examine this, a visual stimulus projected on a hemisphere screen and an auditory stimulus presented through headphones were presented separately or simultaneously, depending on experimental conditions. The participant continuously indicated the direction and strength of self-motion during the 130-s experimental trial. When the visual stimulus with a horizontal shearing rotation and the auditory stimulus with a horizontal one-directional rotation were presented simultaneously, the duration and strength of self-motion perceived in the opposite direction of the auditory rotation stimulus were significantly longer and stronger than those perceived in the same direction of the auditory rotation stimulus. However, the auditory stimulus alone could not sufficiently induce self-motion perception, and if it did, its direction was not consistent within each experimental trial. We concluded that auditory motion information can determine perceived direction of self-motion during simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion information, at least when visual stimuli moved in opposing directions (around the yaw-axis). We speculate that the contribution of auditory information depends on the plausibility and information balance of visual and auditory information. PMID:26113828

  7. Enabling dynamic network analysis through visualization in TVNViewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Ross E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many biological processes are context-dependent or temporally specific. As a result, relationships between molecular constituents evolve across time and environments. While cutting-edge machine learning techniques can recover these networks, exploring and interpreting the rewiring behavior is challenging. Information visualization shines in this type of exploratory analysis, motivating the development ofTVNViewer (http://sailing.cs.cmu.edu/tvnviewer, a visualization tool for dynamic network analysis. Results In this paper, we demonstrate visualization techniques for dynamic network analysis by using TVNViewer to analyze yeast cell cycle and breast cancer progression datasets. Conclusions TVNViewer is a powerful new visualization tool for the analysis of biological networks that change across time or space.

  8. Enabling dynamic network analysis through visualization in TVNViewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many biological processes are context-dependent or temporally specific. As a result, relationships between molecular constituents evolve across time and environments. While cutting-edge machine learning techniques can recover these networks, exploring and interpreting the rewiring behavior is challenging. Information visualization shines in this type of exploratory analysis, motivating the development ofTVNViewer (http://sailing.cs.cmu.edu/tvnviewer), a visualization tool for dynamic network analysis. Results In this paper, we demonstrate visualization techniques for dynamic network analysis by using TVNViewer to analyze yeast cell cycle and breast cancer progression datasets. Conclusions TVNViewer is a powerful new visualization tool for the analysis of biological networks that change across time or space. PMID:22897913

  9. Tsunami simulations for plausible mega-thrust events originating along the Hellenic Arc and Cyprian Arc in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, B. L.; Kalligeris, N.; Okal, E.; Findikakis, A. N.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunamis have been reported at rates of one to two per year in the Mediterranean Sea, on average, over the past 2000 years. The Eastern Mediterranean region is an outstanding natural laboratory as tectonic motions are varied and have a relatively well-documented history as compared with other zones of similar seismicity (Ambraseys and Synolakis, 2010). While a variety of source materials are available, quantification of the tsunami hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean region remains vexing, as large events are infrequent. We performed tsunami simulations for a series of seismic events originating along the Hellenic Arc and Western Cyprian Arc. The locations and characteristics of the sources represent plausible mega-thrust events (>M8) similar to the 365 AD and 1303 AD events along the Hellenic Arc and potential future events along the Western Cyprian Arc. In our hydrodynamic simulations, we used a series of codes known as the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) (Titov and Synolakis, 1998). Here, we report results for wave propagation in the Eastern Mediterranean and tsunami inundation along neighboring coastlines. References: Ambraseys, N. and C.E. Synolakis (2010), 'Tsunami Catalogs for the Eastern Mediterranean, Revisited,' Journal of Earthquake Engineering 14(3): 309-330; and Titov V.V. and C.E. Synolakis (1998), 'Numerical modeling of tidal wave runup,' J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4): 157-171.

  10. Non-canonical 3′-5′ Extension of RNA with Prebiotically Plausible Ribonucleoside 2′,3′-Cyclic Phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleoside 2′,3′-cyclic phosphates (N>p’s) are generated by multiple prebiotically plausible processes and are credible building blocks for the assembly of early RNA oligomers. While N>p’s can be polymerized into short RNAs by non-enzymatic processes with variable efficiency and regioselectivity, no enzymatic route for RNA synthesis had been described. Here we report such a non-canonical 3′-5′ nucleotidyl transferase activity. We engineered a variant of the hairpin ribozyme to catalyze addition of all four N>p’s (2′,3′-cyclic A-, G-, U-, and CMP) to the 5′-hydroxyl termini of RNA strands with 5′ nucleotide addition enhanced in all cases by eutectic ice phase formation at −7 °C. We also observed 5′ addition of 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate-activated β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD>p) and ACA>p RNA trinucleotide, and multiple additions of GUCCA>p RNA pentamers. Our results establish a new mode of RNA 3′-5′ extension with implications for RNA oligomer synthesis from prebiotic nucleotide pools. PMID:24660752

  11. Observational evidence for the plausible linkage of Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ electric field variations with the post sunset F-region electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sreeja

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a detailed observational study of the Equatorial Spread F (ESF events on geomagnetically quiet (Ap≤20 days of the solar maximum (2001, moderate (2004 and minimum (2006 years using the ionograms and magnetograms from the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip lat ~0.5° N in India. The study brings out some interesting aspects of the daytime Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ related electric field variations and the post sunset F-region electrodynamics governing the nature of seasonal characteristics of the ESF phenomena during these years. The observed results seem to indicate a plausible linkage of daytime EEJ related electric field variations with pre-reversal enhancement which in turn is related to the occurrence of ESF. These electric field variations are shown to be better represented through a parameter, termed as "E", in the context of possible coupling between the E- and F-regions of the ionosphere. The observed similarities in the gross features of the variations in the parameter "E" and the F-region vertical drift (Vz point towards the potential usage of the EEJ related parameter "E" as an useful index for the assessment of Vz prior to the occurrence of ESF.

  12. Effect of central metal ions of analogous metal-organic frameworks on adsorption of organoarsenic compounds from water: plausible mechanism of adsorption and water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jong Won; Tong, Minman; Jung, Beom K; Hasan, Zubair; Zhong, Chongli; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-02

    The adsorptive removal of organoarsenic compounds such as p-arsanilic acid (ASA) and roxarsone (ROX) from water using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been investigated for the first time. A MOF, iron benzenetricarboxylate (also called MIL-100-Fe) exhibits a much higher adsorption capacity for ASA and ROX than activated carbon, zeolite (HY), goethite, and other MOFs. The adsorption of ASA and ROX over MIL-100-Fe is also much more rapid than that over activated carbon. Moreover, the used MIL-100-Fe can be recycled by simply washing with acidic ethanol. Therefore, it is determined that a MOF such as MIL-100-Fe can be used to remove organoarsenic compounds from contaminated water because of its high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption, and ready regeneration. Moreover, only one of three analogous MIL-100 species (MIL-100-Fe, rather than MIL-100-Al or MIL-100-Cr) can effectively remove the organoarsenic compounds. This selective and high adsorption over MIL-100-Fe, different from other analogous MIL-100 species, can be explained (through calculations) by the facile desorption of water from MIL-100-Fe as well as the large (absolute value) replacement energy (difference between the adsorption energies of the organoarsenic compounds and water) exhibited by MIL-100-Fe. A plausible adsorption/desorption mechanism is proposed based on the surface charge of the MOFs, FTIR results, calculations, and the reactivation results with respect to the solvents used in the experiments. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Pathfinder: Visual Analysis of Paths in Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partl, C.; Gratzl, S.; Streit, M.; Wassermann, A. M.; Pfister, H.; Schmalstieg, D.; Lex, A.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of paths in graphs is highly relevant in many domains. Typically, path-related tasks are performed in node-link layouts. Unfortunately, graph layouts often do not scale to the size of many real world networks. Also, many networks are multivariate, i.e., contain rich attribute sets associated with the nodes and edges. These attributes are often critical in judging paths, but directly visualizing attributes in a graph layout exacerbates the scalability problem. In this paper, we present visual analysis solutions dedicated to path-related tasks in large and highly multivariate graphs. We show that by focusing on paths, we can address the scalability problem of multivariate graph visualization, equipping analysts with a powerful tool to explore large graphs. We introduce Pathfinder (Figure 1), a technique that provides visual methods to query paths, while considering various constraints. The resulting set of paths is visualized in both a ranked list and as a node-link diagram. For the paths in the list, we display rich attribute data associated with nodes and edges, and the node-link diagram provides topological context. The paths can be ranked based on topological properties, such as path length or average node degree, and scores derived from attribute data. Pathfinder is designed to scale to graphs with tens of thousands of nodes and edges by employing strategies such as incremental query results. We demonstrate Pathfinder's fitness for use in scenarios with data from a coauthor network and biological pathways. PMID:27942090

  14. Pathfinder: Visual Analysis of Paths in Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partl, C; Gratzl, S; Streit, M; Wassermann, A M; Pfister, H; Schmalstieg, D; Lex, A

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of paths in graphs is highly relevant in many domains. Typically, path-related tasks are performed in node-link layouts. Unfortunately, graph layouts often do not scale to the size of many real world networks. Also, many networks are multivariate, i.e., contain rich attribute sets associated with the nodes and edges. These attributes are often critical in judging paths, but directly visualizing attributes in a graph layout exacerbates the scalability problem. In this paper, we present visual analysis solutions dedicated to path-related tasks in large and highly multivariate graphs. We show that by focusing on paths, we can address the scalability problem of multivariate graph visualization, equipping analysts with a powerful tool to explore large graphs. We introduce Pathfinder (Figure 1), a technique that provides visual methods to query paths, while considering various constraints. The resulting set of paths is visualized in both a ranked list and as a node-link diagram. For the paths in the list, we display rich attribute data associated with nodes and edges, and the node-link diagram provides topological context. The paths can be ranked based on topological properties, such as path length or average node degree, and scores derived from attribute data. Pathfinder is designed to scale to graphs with tens of thousands of nodes and edges by employing strategies such as incremental query results. We demonstrate Pathfinder's fitness for use in scenarios with data from a coauthor network and biological pathways.

  15. Lightness computation by the human visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Michael E.

    2017-05-01

    A model of achromatic color computation by the human visual system is presented, which is shown to account in an exact quantitative way for a large body of appearance matching data collected with simple visual displays. The model equations are closely related to those of the original Retinex model of Land and McCann. However, the present model differs in important ways from Land and McCann's theory in that it invokes additional biological and perceptual mechanisms, including contrast gain control, different inherent neural gains for incremental, and decremental luminance steps, and two types of top-down influence on the perceptual weights applied to local luminance steps in the display: edge classification and spatial integration attentional windowing. Arguments are presented to support the claim that these various visual processes must be instantiated by a particular underlying neural architecture. By pointing to correspondences between the architecture of the model and findings from visual neurophysiology, this paper suggests that edge classification involves a top-down gating of neural edge responses in early visual cortex (cortical areas V1 and/or V2) while spatial integration windowing occurs in cortical area V4 or beyond.

  16. Integrating Visualizations into Modeling NEST Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowke, Christian; Zielasko, Daniel; Weyers, Benjamin; Peyser, Alexander; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten W

    2015-01-01

    Modeling large-scale spiking neural networks showing realistic biological behavior in their dynamics is a complex and tedious task. Since these networks consist of millions of interconnected neurons, their simulation produces an immense amount of data. In recent years it has become possible to simulate even larger networks. However, solutions to assist researchers in understanding the simulation's complex emergent behavior by means of visualization are still lacking. While developing tools to partially fill this gap, we encountered the challenge to integrate these tools easily into the neuroscientists' daily workflow. To understand what makes this so challenging, we looked into the workflows of our collaborators and analyzed how they use the visualizations to solve their daily problems. We identified two major issues: first, the analysis process can rapidly change focus which requires to switch the visualization tool that assists in the current problem domain. Second, because of the heterogeneous data that results from simulations, researchers want to relate data to investigate these effectively. Since a monolithic application model, processing and visualizing all data modalities and reflecting all combinations of possible workflows in a holistic way, is most likely impossible to develop and to maintain, a software architecture that offers specialized visualization tools that run simultaneously and can be linked together to reflect the current workflow, is a more feasible approach. To this end, we have developed a software architecture that allows neuroscientists to integrate visualization tools more closely into the modeling tasks. In addition, it forms the basis for semantic linking of different visualizations to reflect the current workflow. In this paper, we present this architecture and substantiate the usefulness of our approach by common use cases we encountered in our collaborative work.

  17. Integrating Visualizations into Modeling NEST Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eNowke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling large-scale spiking neural networks showing realistic biological behavior in their dynamics is a complex and tedious task. Since these networks consist of millions of interconnected neurons, their simulation produces an immense amount of data. In recent years it has become possible to simulate even larger networks. However, solutions to assist researchers in understanding the simulation's complex emergent behavior by means of visualization are still lacking. While developing tools to partially fill this gap, we encountered the challenge to integrate these tools easily into the neuroscientists' daily workflow. To understand what makes this so challenging, we looked into the workflows of our collaborators and analyzed how they use the visualizations to solve their daily problems. We identified two major issues: first, the analysis process can rapidly change focus which requires to switch the visualization tool that assists in the current problem domain. Second, because of the heterogeneous data that results from simulations, researchers want to relate data to investigate these effectively. Since a monolithic application model, processing and visualizing all data modalities and reflecting all combinations of possible workflows in a holistic way, is most likely impossible to develop and to maintain, a software architecture that offers specialized visualization tools that run simultaneously and can be linked together to reflect the current workflow, is a more feasible approach. To this end, we have developed a software architecture that allows neuroscientists to integrate visualization tools more closely into the modeling tasks. In addition, it forms the basis for semantic linking of different visualizations to reflect the current workflow. In this paper, we present this architecture and substantiate the usefulness of our approach by common use cases we encountered in our collaborative work.

  18. Integrating Visualizations into Modeling NEST Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowke, Christian; Zielasko, Daniel; Weyers, Benjamin; Peyser, Alexander; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten W.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling large-scale spiking neural networks showing realistic biological behavior in their dynamics is a complex and tedious task. Since these networks consist of millions of interconnected neurons, their simulation produces an immense amount of data. In recent years it has become possible to simulate even larger networks. However, solutions to assist researchers in understanding the simulation's complex emergent behavior by means of visualization are still lacking. While developing tools to partially fill this gap, we encountered the challenge to integrate these tools easily into the neuroscientists' daily workflow. To understand what makes this so challenging, we looked into the workflows of our collaborators and analyzed how they use the visualizations to solve their daily problems. We identified two major issues: first, the analysis process can rapidly change focus which requires to switch the visualization tool that assists in the current problem domain. Second, because of the heterogeneous data that results from simulations, researchers want to relate data to investigate these effectively. Since a monolithic application model, processing and visualizing all data modalities and reflecting all combinations of possible workflows in a holistic way, is most likely impossible to develop and to maintain, a software architecture that offers specialized visualization tools that run simultaneously and can be linked together to reflect the current workflow, is a more feasible approach. To this end, we have developed a software architecture that allows neuroscientists to integrate visualization tools more closely into the modeling tasks. In addition, it forms the basis for semantic linking of different visualizations to reflect the current workflow. In this paper, we present this architecture and substantiate the usefulness of our approach by common use cases we encountered in our collaborative work. PMID:26733860

  19. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More ...

  20. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  1. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, ... and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI Division ...

  2. Parallel Planes Information Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-26

    This software presents a user-provided multivariate dataset as an interactive three dimensional visualization so that the user can explore the correlation between variables in the observations and the distribution of observations among the variables.

  3. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? Watch this video to learn how you’re ... maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website ...

  4. [Intraoperative multidimensional visualization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, J; Kauffels, A; Grade, M; Alves, F; Kühn, P; Ghadimi, B M

    2016-12-01

    Modern intraoperative techniques of visualization are increasingly being applied in general and visceral surgery. The combination of diverse techniques provides the possibility of multidimensional intraoperative visualization of specific anatomical structures. Thus, it is possible to differentiate between normal tissue and tumor tissue and therefore exactly define tumor margins. The aim of intraoperative visualization of tissue that is to be resected and tissue that should be spared is to lead to a rational balance between oncological and functional results. Moreover, these techniques help to analyze the physiology and integrity of tissues. Using these methods surgeons are able to analyze tissue perfusion and oxygenation. However, to date it is not clear to what extent these imaging techniques are relevant in the clinical routine. The present manuscript reviews the relevant modern visualization techniques focusing on intraoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as well as augmented reality, fluorescence imaging and optoacoustic imaging.

  5. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips ... website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  6. The Visual System

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    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> The Visual System Listen All ... up to 28,800 times a day! NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  7. The Visual System

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    Full Text Available ... Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding ... job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> The Visual System Listen All About Vision About ...

  8. The Visual System

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    Full Text Available ... Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student ... All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your ...

  9. The Visual System

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    Full Text Available ... History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ... The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? Watch this video to learn how you’re ...

  10. The Visual System

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    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> The Visual System Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  11. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  12. Visual Guided Navigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, Martin

    1999-01-01

    .... Similarly, the problem of visual navigation is the recovery of an observer's self-motion with respect to the environment from the moving pattern of light reaching the eyes and the complex of extra...

  13. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention...... research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...

  14. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  15. Visualization in scientific computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielson, Gregory M; Shriver, Bruce D; Rosenblum, Lawrence J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide a reference source to scientists, engineers, and students who are new to scientific visualization or who are interested in expanding their knowledge in this subject...

  16. Visualization Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  17. Visualizing guided tours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe Herbers; Fjord-Larsen, Mads; Hansen, Frank Allan

    This paper identifies several problems with navigating and visualizing guided tours in traditional hypermedia systems. We discuss solutions to these problems, including the representation of guided tours as 3D metro maps with content preview. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation...

  18. The Visual System

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    Full Text Available ... of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National ... All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ ...

  19. Disposable Visual Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amidon, Charles P

    2005-01-01

    A disposable visual sensor includes a body defining an enclosed chamber, a power source mounted in the camber, an on-off switch mounted on the body and accessible from outside the body, a processor...

  20. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  1. Visualization of Personalization Information

    OpenAIRE

    Almerfors, Mattias

    2005-01-01

    There has been an increasing use of Internet as an information source and also as a new channel for business-to-business and business-to-consumer communication. This has lead to an increasing need for understanding web traffic and especially a growing need for analyzing this traffic, which demands new analysis tools. The objective for this study was to create an application framework for visualizing XML-formatted data representing web traffic reports. Visualization in two dimensions is create...

  2. Understanding Visual Novel As Artwork of Visual Communication Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dendi Pratama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual Novel is a kind of audiovisual game that offers visual strength through the narrative and visual characters. The developer community of Visual Novel (VN Project Indonesia indicated a limited local game developer that produces Visual Novel of Indonesia. In addition, Indonesian Visual Novel production was also more influenced by the style of anime or manga from Japan. Actually, Visual Novel is part of the potential of  creative industries products. The study is to formulate the problem, how to understand Visual Novel as artwork of visual communication design, especially among students? This research is a case study conducted on visual communication design student at the University Indraprasta PGRI Jakarta. The results showed low levels of knowledge, understanding, and experience of  the Visual Novel game, which is below 50%. Qualitative and quantitative methods combined with structural semiotic approach is used to describe the elements of the design and the signs structure at the Visual Novel. This research can be a scientific reference for further introduce and encourage an understanding of Visual Novel as artwork of Visual Communication Design. In addition, the results may add to the knowledge of  society, and encourage the development of Visual Novel artwork that  reflect the culture of Indonesia. Visual Novel adalah sejenis permainan audiovisual yang menawarkan kekuatan visual melalui narasi dan karakter visual. Data dari komunitas pengembang Visual Novel (VN Project Indonesia menunjukkan masih terbatasnya pengembang game lokal yang memproduksi Visual Novel Indonesia. Selain itu, produksi Visual Novel Indonesia juga lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh gaya anime dan manga dari Jepang. Padahal Visual Novel adalah bagian dari produk industri kreatif yang potensial. Studi ini merumuskan masalah, bagaimana memahami Visual Novel sebagai karya seni desain komunikasi visual, khususnya di kalangan mahasiswa? Penelitian ini merupakan studi kasus

  3. Presenting and exploring biological pathways with PathVisio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanspers Kristina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological pathways are a useful abstraction of biological concepts, and software tools to deal with pathway diagrams can help biological research. PathVisio is a new visualization tool for biological pathways that mimics the popular GenMAPP tool with a completely new Java implementation that allows better integration with other open source projects. The GenMAPP MAPP file format is replaced by GPML, a new XML file format that provides seamless exchange of graphical pathway information among multiple programs. Results PathVisio can be combined with other bioinformatics tools to open up three possible uses: visual compilation of biological knowledge, interpretation of high-throughput expression datasets, and computational augmentation of pathways with interaction information. PathVisio is open source software and available at http://www.pathvisio.org. Conclusion PathVisio is a graphical editor for biological pathways, with flexibility and ease of use as primary goals.

  4. Visualization of multidimensional database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung

    2008-01-01

    The concept of multidimensional databases has been extensively researched and wildly used in actual database application. It plays an important role in contemporary information technology, but due to the complexity of its inner structure, the database design is a complicated process and users are having a hard time fully understanding and using the database. An effective visualization tool for higher dimensional information system helps database designers and users alike. Most visualization techniques focus on displaying dimensional data using spreadsheets and charts. This may be sufficient for the databases having three or fewer dimensions but for higher dimensions, various combinations of projection operations are needed and a full grasp of total database architecture is very difficult. This study reviews existing visualization techniques for multidimensional database and then proposes an alternate approach to visualize a database of any dimension by adopting the tool proposed by Kiviat for software engineering processes. In this diagramming method, each dimension is represented by one branch of concentric spikes. This paper documents a C++ based visualization tool with extensive use of OpenGL graphics library and GUI functions. Detailed examples of actual databases demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness in visualizing multidimensional databases.

  5. Cosmography and Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarède, Daniel; Courtois, Hélène M.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Tully, R. Brent

    2017-05-01

    Cosmography, the study and making of maps of the universe or cosmos, is a field where visual representation benefits from modern three-dimensional visualization techniques and media. At the extragalactic distance scales, visualization is contributing to our understanding of the complex structure of the local universe in terms of spatial distribution and flows of galaxies and dark matter. In this paper, we report advances in the field of extragalactic cosmography obtained using the SDvision visualization software in the context of the Cosmicflows Project. Here, multiple visualization techniques are applied to a variety of data products: catalogs of galaxy positions and galaxy peculiar velocities, reconstructed velocity field, density field, gravitational potential field, velocity shear tensor viewed in terms of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors, envelope surfaces enclosing basins of attraction. These visualizations, implemented as high-resolution images, videos, and interactive viewers, have contributed to a number of studies: the cosmography of the local part of the universe, the nature of the Great Attractor, the discovery of the boundaries of our home supercluster of galaxies Laniakea, the mapping of the cosmic web, and the study of attractors and repellers.

  6. Quantized Visual Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alexander Escobar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom.

  7. Quantized visual awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion, and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia) are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom. PMID:24319436

  8. Visual electrophysiology in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Brecelj

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrophysiological assessment of vision in children helps to recognise abnormal development of the visual system when it is still susceptible to medication and eventual correction. Visual electrophysiology provides information about the function of the retina (retinal pigment epithelium, cone and rod receptors, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells, optic nerve, chiasmal and postchiasmal visual pathway, and visual cortex.Methods: Electroretinograms (ERG and visual evoked potentials (VEP are recorded non-invasively; in infants are recorded simultaneously ERG with skin electrodes, while in older children separately ERG with HK loop electrode in accordance with ISCEV (International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision recommendations.Results: Clinical and electrophysiological changes in children with nystagmus, Leber’s congenital amaurosis, achromatopsia, congenital stationary night blindness, progressive retinal dystrophies, optic nerve hypoplasia, albinism, achiasmia, optic neuritis and visual pathway tumours are presented.Conclusions: Electrophysiological tests can help to indicate the nature and the location of dysfunction in unclear ophthalmological and/or neurological cases.

  9. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  10. The CommonGround Visual Paradigm for Biosurveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livnat, Yarden; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Gestland, Per

    2013-06-14

    Biosurveillance is a critical area in the intelligence community for real-time detection of disease outbreaks. Identifying epidemics enables analysts to detect and monitor disease outbreaks that might be spread from natural causes or from possible biological warfare attacks. Containing these events and disseminating alerts requires the ability to rapidly find, classify and track harmful biological signatures. In this paper, we describe a novel visual paradigm to conduct biosurveillance using an Infectious Disease Weather Map. Our system provides a visual common ground in which users can view, explore and discover emerging concepts and correlations such as symptoms, syndromes, pathogens, and geographic locations.

  11. Computational Modeling of Biological Systems From Molecules to Pathways

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Computational modeling is emerging as a powerful new approach for studying and manipulating biological systems. Many diverse methods have been developed to model, visualize, and rationally alter these systems at various length scales, from atomic resolution to the level of cellular pathways. Processes taking place at larger time and length scales, such as molecular evolution, have also greatly benefited from new breeds of computational approaches. Computational Modeling of Biological Systems: From Molecules to Pathways provides an overview of established computational methods for the modeling of biologically and medically relevant systems. It is suitable for researchers and professionals working in the fields of biophysics, computational biology, systems biology, and molecular medicine.

  12. Visualization of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P. W.; Strelitz, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The output of a simulation is best comprehended through the agency and methods of visualization, but a vital component of good science is knowledge of uncertainty. While great strides have been made in the quantification of uncertainty, especially in simulation, there is still a notable gap: there is no widely accepted means of simultaneously viewing the data and the associated uncertainty in one pane. Visualization saturates the screen, using the full range of color, shadow, opacity and tricks of perspective to display even a single variable. There is no room in the visualization expert's repertoire left for uncertainty. We present a method of visualizing uncertainty without sacrificing the clarity and power of the underlying visualization that works as well in 3-D and time-varying visualizations as it does in 2-D. At its heart, it relies on a principal tenet of continuum mechanics, replacing the notion of value at a point with a more diffuse notion of density as a measure of content in a region. First, the uncertainties calculated or tabulated at each point are transformed into a piecewise continuous field of uncertainty density . We next compute a weighted Voronoi tessellation of a user specified N convex polygonal/polyhedral cells such that each cell contains the same amount of uncertainty as defined by . The problem thus devolves into minimizing . Computation of such a spatial decomposition is O(N*N ), and can be computed iteratively making it possible to update easily over time as well as faster. The polygonal mesh does not interfere with the visualization of the data and can be easily toggled on or off. In this representation, a small cell implies a great concentration of uncertainty, and conversely. The content weighted polygons are identical to the cartogram familiar to the information visualization community in the depiction of things voting results per stat. Furthermore, one can dispense with the mesh or edges entirely to be replaced by symbols or glyphs

  13. Differential effect of visual motion adaption upon visual cortical excitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, Astrid J.A.; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Ahmad, Hena; Bos, Jelte E.; Wuyts, Floris L.; Bronstein, Adolfo M.; Arshad, Qadeer

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to probe the effects of visual motion adaptation on early visual and V5/MT cortical excitability and 2) to investigate whether changes in cortical excitability following visual motion adaptation are related to the degree of visual dependency, i.e., an

  14. Differential effect of visual motion adaptation upon visual cortical excitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, A.J.A.; Ombergen, A. van; Ahmad, H.; Bos, J.E.; Wuyts, F.L.; Bronstein, A.; Arshad, Q.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to probe the effects of visual motion adaptation on early visual and V5/MT cortical excitability and 2) to investigate whether changes in cortical excitability following visual motion adaptation are related to the degree of visual dependency, i.e., an

  15. Interactive analysis of systems biology molecular expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar Sunil; Salt David E; Kane Michael D; Stephenson Alan; Ouyang Qi; Zhang Mingwu; Burgner John; Buck Charles; Zhang Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Systems biology aims to understand biological systems on a comprehensive scale, such that the components that make up the whole are connected to one another and work through dependent interactions. Molecular correlations and comparative studies of molecular expression are crucial to establishing interdependent connections in systems biology. The existing software packages provide limited data mining capability. The user must first generate visualization data with a preferr...

  16. A standard-enabled workflow for synthetic biology

    KAUST Repository

    Myers, Chris J.

    2017-06-15

    A synthetic biology workflow is composed of data repositories that provide information about genetic parts, sequence-level design tools to compose these parts into circuits, visualization tools to depict these designs, genetic design tools to select parts to create systems, and modeling and simulation tools to evaluate alternative design choices. Data standards enable the ready exchange of information within such a workflow, allowing repositories and tools to be connected from a diversity of sources. The present paper describes one such workflow that utilizes, among others, the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) to describe genetic designs, the Systems Biology Markup Language to model these designs, and SBOL Visual to visualize these designs. We describe how a standard-enabled workflow can be used to produce types of design information, including multiple repositories and software tools exchanging information using a variety of data standards. Recently, the ACS Synthetic Biology journal has recommended the use of SBOL in their publications.

  17. Visual intelligence Microsoft tools and techniques for visualizing data

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Mark; Jorgensen, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Go beyond design concepts and learn to build state-of-the-art visualizations The visualization experts at Microsoft's Pragmatic Works have created a full-color, step-by-step guide to building specific types of visualizations. The book thoroughly covers the Microsoft toolset for data analysis and visualization, including Excel, and explores best practices for choosing a data visualization design, selecting tools from the Microsoft stack, and building a dynamic data visualization from start to finish. You'll examine different types of visualizations, their strengths and weaknesses, a

  18. In situ bioremediation of naphthenic acids contaminated tailing pond waters in the athabasca oil sands region--demonstrated field studies and plausible options: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagraine, E K; Peterson, H G; Headley, J V

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there are three industrial plants that recover oil from the lower Athabasca oil sands area, and there are plans in the future for several additional mines. The extraction procedures produce large volumes of slurry wastes contaminated with naphthenic acids (NAs). Because of a "zero discharge" policy the oil sands companies do not release any extraction wastes from their leases. The process-affected waters and fluid tailings contaminated with NAs are contained on-site primarily in large settling ponds. These fluid wastes from the tailing ponds can be acutely and chronically toxic to aquatic organisms, and NAs have been associated with this toxicity. The huge tailings containment area must ultimately be reclaimed, and this is of major concern to the oil sands industry. Some reclamation options have been investigated by both pioneering industries (Syncrude Energy Inc. and Suncor Inc.) with mixed results. The bioremediation techniques have limited success to date in biodegrading NAs to levels below 19 mg/L. Some tailing pond waters have been stored for more than 10 years, and it appears that the remaining high molecular weight NAs are refractory to the natural biodegradation process in the ponds. Some plausible options to further degrade the NAs in the tailings pond water include: bioaugmentation with bacteria selected to degrade the more refractory classes of NAs; the use of attachment materials such as clays to concentrate both the NA and the NA-degrading bacteria in their surfaces and/or pores; synergistic association between algae and bacteria consortia to promote efficient aerobic degradation; and biostimulation with nutrients to promote the growth and activity of the microorganisms.

  19. Follicular-fluid anti-Mullerian hormone (FF AMH) is a plausible biochemical indicator of functional viability of oocyte in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bindu N; Chimote, Meena N; Chimote, Nishad N; Nath, Nirmalendu M; Chimote, Natachandra M

    2013-04-01

    Oocyte quality may be a governing factor in influencing in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. However, morphological evaluation of oocyte quality is difficult in conventional IVF cycles. Follicular-fluid (FF), the site for oocyte growth and development, has not yet been sufficiently explored to obtain a marker indicative of oocyte quality. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is produced by granulosa cells of preantral and early-antral follicles and is released in FF. To investigate AMH as a biochemical indicator of functional viability/quality of oocyte produced in the FF micro-environmental milieu. Prospective study involving 132 cycles of conventional IVF-embryo transfer (ET) in infertile women. AMH concentration was estimated in pooled FF on day of oocyte pickup. Cycles were sorted into low and high groups according to median (50 (th) centile) values of measurement. Main outcome measure was oocyte viability, which included morphological assessment of oocyte quality, fertilization rate, clinical pregnancy, and implantation rates. Graph-pad Prism 5 statistical package. Low FF AMH group shows significantly higher percentage of top-quality oocytes (65.08 ± 24.88 vs. 50.18 ± 25.01%, P =0.0126), fertilization (83.65 ± 18.38 vs. 75.78 ± 21.02%, P =0.0171), clinical pregnancy (57.57 vs. 16.67%, P >0.0001), and embryo implantation rates (29.79 vs. 7.69%, P >0.0001) compared to high FF AMH group. FF AMH shares an inverse correlation with FF E2 (Pearson r = -0.43, r(2) = 0.18) and clinical pregnancy (Pearson r = -0.46, r(2) = 0.21). Threshold value of FF AMH for pregnancy is >1.750 ng/mg protein. FF AMH is a plausible biochemical indicator of functional viability of oocyte in conventional IVF cycles.

  20. Neural computation of visual imaging based on Kronecker product in the primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Yao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What kind of neural computation is actually performed by the primary visual cortex and how is this represented mathematically at the system level? It is an important problem in the visual information processing, but has not been well answered. In this paper, according to our understanding of retinal organization and parallel multi-channel topographical mapping between retina and primary visual cortex V1, we divide an image into orthogonal and orderly array of image primitives (or patches, in which each patch will evoke activities of simple cells in V1. From viewpoint of information processing, this activated process, essentially, involves optimal detection and optimal matching of receptive fields of simple cells with features contained in image patches. For the reconstruction of the visual image in the visual cortex V1 based on the principle of minimum mean squares error, it is natural to use the inner product expression in neural computation, which then is transformed into matrix form. Results The inner product is carried out by using Kronecker product between patches and function architecture (or functional column in localized and oriented neural computing. Compared with Fourier Transform, the mathematical description of Kronecker product is simple and intuitive, so is the algorithm more suitable for neural computation of visual cortex V1. Results of computer simulation based on two-dimensional Gabor pyramid wavelets show that the theoretical analysis and the proposed model are reasonable. Conclusions Our results are: 1. The neural computation of the retinal image in cortex V1 can be expressed to Kronecker product operation and its matrix form, this algorithm is implemented by the inner operation between retinal image primitives and primary visual cortex's column. It has simple, efficient and robust features, which is, therefore, such a neural algorithm, which can be completed by biological vision. 2. It is more suitable

  1. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2011-02-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment.

  2. Is There a Visual Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, P. G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses studies of visual dyslexia, the nature of visual processes involved in word recognition, and the contribution of visual memory to word recognition. The paper concludes that, though defects in the physiological aspects of visual processing can lead to reading difficulties, evidence does not indicate the existence of visual…

  3. A cultura visual antes da cultura visual = Visual culture before visual culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa, Anna Mae Tavares Bastos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as diferentes linhas de cultural visual que operam no ensino da arte no Brasil classificando-as como cultura visual excludente, cultura visual includente e contracultura visual. Discorre sobre teorias e abordagens aos estudos culturais e culturas visuais praticadas no Brasil desde a década de 30 citando com precursores Gilberto Freyre, Cecília Meireles, Aloísio Magalhães, Alcides da Rocha Miranda, a Escolinha de Arte de São Paulo, o Festival de Inverno de Campos do Jordão de 1983, a inter-relação da comunicação e da arte/educação na Escola de Comunicações e Artes da Universidade de São Paulo e a programação de exposições sobre a cultura visual do povo no MAC-USP nas décadas de 80 e 90

  4. Learning Science Through Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj

    2005-01-01

    In the context of an introductory physical science course for non-science majors, I have been trying to understand how scientific visualizations of natural phenomena can constructively impact student learning. I have also necessarily been concerned with the instructional and assessment approaches that need to be considered when focusing on learning science through visually rich information sources. The overall project can be broken down into three distinct segments : (i) comparing students' abilities to demonstrate proportional reasoning competency on visual and verbal tasks (ii) decoding and deconstructing visualizations of an object falling under gravity (iii) the role of directed instruction to elicit alternate, valid scientific visualizations of the structure of the solar system. Evidence of student learning was collected in multiple forms for this project - quantitative analysis of student performance on written, graded assessments (tests and quizzes); qualitative analysis of videos of student 'think aloud' sessions. The results indicate that there are significant barriers for non-science majors to succeed in mastering the content of science courses, but with informed approaches to instruction and assessment, these barriers can be overcome.

  5. The metaphysical lessons of synthetic biology and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I examine some important metaphysical lessons that are often presented as derived from two new scientific disciplines: synthetic biology and neuroscience. I analyse four of them: the nature of life, the existence of a soul (the mind-body problem), personhood, and free will. Many caveats are in order, and each 'advance' or each case should be assessed for itself. I conclude that a main lesson can nevertheless be learned: in conjunction with modern science, neuroscience and synthetic biology allow us to enrich old metaphysical debates, to deepen and even renew them. In particular, it becomes less and less plausible to consider life, mind, person, and agency as non-natural or non-physical entities. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, V; Rao, E Upender; P, Srinivas

    2012-07-01

    Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird's eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation.

  7. Architecture for Teraflop Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, A.R.; Haynes, R.A.

    1999-04-09

    Sandia Laboratories' computational scientists are addressing a very important question: How do we get insight from the human combined with the computer-generated information? The answer inevitably leads to using scientific visualization. Going one technology leap further is teraflop visualization, where the computing model and interactive graphics are an integral whole to provide computing for insight. In order to implement our teraflop visualization architecture, all hardware installed or software coded will be based on open modules and dynamic extensibility principles. We will illustrate these concepts with examples in our three main research areas: (1) authoring content (the computer), (2) enhancing precision and resolution (the human), and (3) adding behaviors (the physics).

  8. Visual identity and rebranding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wrona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to highlight the essence of visual identification and rebranding, as well as to discuss elements of corporate identity, which are subject to revitalization in the process of refreshing the image of a brand. In the first part the article the analysis of the term visual identification is conducted. In the analysis special attention is drawn to the role of visual identification in creating a coherent identity of an organization. In the subsequent chapters further components of corporate identity are presented in detail – starting with logotype, through business forms, advertisements, accompanying materials and Internet websites to signs on buildings. Moreover, corporate identity book as a collection of standards and guidelines for application of corporate identity rules is discussed. The deliberations are based on the study of literature. The last chapter presented the transformation of the brand of Institute of Aviation.

  9. Visualizations as Projection Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell

    schedule for the hospital construction project. The study reveals how the visualizations are dynamically developed and linked to each other and their role in facilitating both control and innovation in project work and clinical work at the hospital. The paper contributes to our understanding of the active......The aim of this paper is to inquire into the role of project visualizations in shaping healthcare spaces and practices. The study draws upon an ethnographic field study from a large on-going hospital construction project in Denmark, and focuses on the early phases of on-boarding the design team...... into the project organization. During the on-boarding visualizations multiplies in form, content and purpose, ranging from paper and digitally based projections of clinical work spaces and practices for the future hospital building in use, to paper and digitally based projections of the cost budget and time...

  10. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  11. An introduction to information visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. D. do Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Information Visualization is an emerging scientific field that studies ways of presenting abstract data visually, so that information about that data can be better understood or even discovered. This paper discusses several aspects regarding the visual presentation of data and introduces well known and effective techniques for information visualization. The techniques presented here have applications in many scientific fields. The paper also discusses some of the modern challenges in the Information Visualization area.

  12. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention res....... The book explains the TVA model and shows how it accounts for attentional effects observed across all the research areas described. Principles of Visual Attention offers a uniquely integrated view on a central topic in cognitive neuroscience....

  13. Teach yourself visually laptops

    CERN Document Server

    Gunter, Sherry Kinkoph

    2012-01-01

    The fast and easy way to learn about buying, maintaining, and troubleshooting, a laptop How do I find the right laptop for me? Now that I have a laptop, how do I set it up and maintain it? What are some tips for getting the most out of software systems? How do I begin to troubleshoot my laptop? If you are a visual learner and have ever asked yourself any of those questions, then this is just the book you need. Visual, step-by-step guidance walks you through finding the right laptop to meet your needs, getting comfortable with the latest versions of Windows and the Microsoft Office Suite, and u

  14. Visualization of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasing number of wind energy installations the visual impact of single wind turbines or wind parks is a growing problem for landscape preservation, leading to resistance of local authorities and nearby residents against wind energy projects. To increase acceptance and to form a basis for planning considerations, it is necessary to develop instruments for the visualization of planned wind parks, showing their integration in the landscape. Photorealistic montages and computer animation including video sequences may be helpful in 'getting the picture'. (orig.)

  15. CMS tracker visualization tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennea, M.S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking

  16. CMS tracker visualization tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, G; Osborne, I; Regano, A

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  17. USGS Scientific Visualization Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Scientific Visualization Laboratory at the National Center in Reston, Va., provides a central facility where USGS employees can use state-of-the-art equipment for projects ranging from presentation graphics preparation to complex visual representations of scientific data. Equipment including color printers, black-and-white and color scanners, film recorders, video equipment, and DOS, Apple Macintosh, and UNIX platforms with software are available for both technical and nontechnical users. The laboratory staff provides assistance and demonstrations in the use of the hardware and software products.

  18. Neutron visual sensing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureta, Masatoshi; Segawa, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    The neutron visual sensing technique is a technology to extract physical quantities from the information on inner structures of complex materials or machineries which have been visualized and recorded by using neutron beams. Research and utilization of this technique is now under worldwide development since it can provide the information that is not possible by X-ray radiography. We show how to use stationary neutron sources (Research reactors) in chapter 2, and how to utilize pulsed neutron source (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex, J-PARC). Also the production of micro-element analyzer by an enterprise using the knowledge on radiological equipment is described as an example. (author)

  19. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  20. CMS tracker visualization tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennea, M.S. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Osborne, I. [Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Regano, A. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Zito, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: giuseppe.zito@ba.infn.it

    2005-08-21

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  1. Social Set Visualizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the art visual analytics dash-board, Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi), of approximately 90 million Facebook actions from 11 different companies that have been mentioned in the traditional media in relation to garment factory accidents in Bangladesh. The enterprise...... application domain for the dashboard is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the targeted end-users are CSR researchers and practitioners. The design of the dashboard was based on the "social set analytics" approach to computational social science. The development of the dash-board involved cutting...

  2. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  3. Interactive analysis of systems biology molecular expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Sunil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology aims to understand biological systems on a comprehensive scale, such that the components that make up the whole are connected to one another and work through dependent interactions. Molecular correlations and comparative studies of molecular expression are crucial to establishing interdependent connections in systems biology. The existing software packages provide limited data mining capability. The user must first generate visualization data with a preferred data mining algorithm and then upload the resulting data into the visualization package for graphic visualization of molecular relations. Results Presented is a novel interactive visual data mining application, SysNet that provides an interactive environment for the analysis of high data volume molecular expression information of most any type from biological systems. It integrates interactive graphic visualization and statistical data mining into a single package. SysNet interactively presents intermolecular correlation information with circular and heatmap layouts. It is also applicable to comparative analysis of molecular expression data, such as time course data. Conclusion The SysNet program has been utilized to analyze elemental profile changes in response to an increasing concentration of iron (Fe in growth media (an ionomics dataset. This study case demonstrates that the SysNet software is an effective platform for interactive analysis of molecular expression information in systems biology.

  4. A Visual Language for Protein Design

    KAUST Repository

    Cox, Robert Sidney

    2017-02-08

    As protein engineering becomes more sophisticated, practitioners increasingly need to share diagrams for communicating protein designs. To this end, we present a draft visual language, Protein Language, that describes the high-level architecture of an engineered protein with easy-to draw glyphs, intended to be compatible with other biological diagram languages such as SBOL Visual and SBGN. Protein Language consists of glyphs for representing important features (e.g., globular domains, recognition and localization sequences, sites of covalent modification, cleavage and catalysis), rules for composing these glyphs to represent complex architectures, and rules constraining the scaling and styling of diagrams. To support Protein Language we have implemented an extensible web-based software diagram tool, Protein Designer, that uses Protein Language in a

  5. Plausibility of a subglacial lake under Amundsenisen Icefield (Svalbard): spatially variable water content and sensitivity to thermal effect of snow and firn layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mansutti, Daniela; Navarro, Francisco J.; Otero, Jaime; Glowacki, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    Within our study of the plausibility of a subglacial lake under the Amundsenisen Icefield in Southern Spitzbergen (Svalbard achipelago) (Glowacki et al., 2007), here we focus on the sensitivity of the system to the thermal effect of the firn and snow layers. Rough heat balance analysis shows that the firn layer plays an important role by driving the heat release to the atmosphere, so that its influence on the ice-water phase transition cannot be neglected (Bucchignani et al., 2012). We support our investigation with simulation via an in-house numerical code based on a thermomechanical transient model with dynamics given by a full Stokes system for the icefield and Large Eddy Simulation formulation for the water basin. Ice rheology is represented by Glen's law (n=3) with flow rate factor depending both on water content and temperature according to Breuer et al. (2006), for similar environments, and water content obtained from water mass balance (Greve & Blatter, 2009). Firn and snow thermal profiles are assumed to be steady. Their numerical values are partly (firn) available from Zagorodnov et al. (1985) and completed by matching the annual average air temperature at the surface. The ice-water phase interface is defined via the Stephan equation and the momentum and heat exchange between ice and water are regulated by corresponding interface jump conditions. We compare simulations performed with and without firn and snow layers. REFERENCES: P. Glowacki, A. Glazovsky, Y. Macheret, E. Vasilenko, J. Moore, J. O. Hagen, D. Puczko, M. Grabiec, J. Jania, F. Navarro, Dynamics and mass budget of Amundsenisen, Svalbard: interpretation of surface elevation and radar data, IUGG-2007, Perugia, 2007. E. Bucchignani, D. Mansutti, F.J. Navarro, J. Otero, P. Glowacki, Arguments from modelling about the existence of a subglacial lake at Amundsenisen Icefield (Svalbard), IGS-NB Meeting, 25-27 October, Stockholm, 2012. B. Breuer, M.A. Lange, N. Blindow, Sensitivity studies on model

  6. Dyneins: structure, biology and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    .... From bench to bedside, Dynein: Structure, Biology and Disease offers research on fundamental cellular processes to researchers and clinicians across developmental biology, cell biology, molecular biology, biophysics, biomedicine...

  7. Learning Biology by Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Fred; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2010-01-01

    According to a century-old tradition in biological thinking, organisms can be considered as being optimally designed. In modern biology this idea still has great heuristic value. In evolutionary biology a so-called design heuristic has been formulated which provides guidance to researchers in the generation of knowledge about biological systems.…

  8. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  9. [Biogeography: geography or biology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafanov, A I

    2009-01-01

    General biogeography is an interdisciplinary science, which combines geographic and biological aspects constituting two distinct research fields: biological geography and geographic biology. These fields differ in the nature of their objects of study, employ different methods and represent Earth sciences and biological sciences, respectively. It is suggested therefore that the classification codes for research fields and the state professional education standard should be revised.

  10. Multichannel EEG Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caat, Michael ten

    2008-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) measures electrical brain activity by electrodes attached to the scalp. Multichannel EEG refers to a measurement with a large number of electrodes. EEG has clinical as well as scientific applications, including neurology, psychology, pharmacy, linguistics, and biology.

  11. Flow visualization using bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    Soap bubbles were used for visualizing flows. The tests effected allowed some characteristics of flows around models in blow tunnels to be precised at mean velocities V 0 5 . The velocity of a bubble is measured by chronophotography, the bulk envelope of the trajectories is also registered [fr

  12. Laboratorio virtual visual

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Medina, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Presentación del Laboratorio Virtual Visual destinado a la simulación de algoritmos de visión artificial y procesamiento de imágenes desarrollado en el Grupo de Automática, Robótica y Visión Artificial de la Universidad de Alicante.

  13. Visual processing in migraine

    OpenAIRE

    OHare, Louise; Hibbard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Migraine is a common neurological condition that often involves differences in visual processing. These sensory processing differences provide important information about the underlying causes of the condition, and for the development of treatments. Review of Psychophysical Literature Psychophysical experiments have shown consistent impairments in contrast sensitivity, orientation acuity, and the perception of global form and motion. They have also established ...

  14. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables The Visual System Ever wonder how your eyes work? Watch this ... Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information NEI ... | USA.gov NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  15. Curriculum: Managed Visual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueulette, David G.

    This essay examines the relationships between teaching and visual media over the last several hundred years, particularly the concept of illusion. The teacher as magician or shaman is explored and compared to contemporary theories of instruction and the use of media such as television, films, and slides. The teacher as artist and alchemist is also…

  16. Visualizing Dispersion Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Elinor; Venkataraman, Bhawani

    2014-01-01

    An animation and accompanying activity has been developed to help students visualize how dispersion interactions arise. The animation uses the gecko's ability to walk on vertical surfaces to illustrate how dispersion interactions play a role in macroscale outcomes. Assessment of student learning reveals that students were able to develop…

  17. Understanding the visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd L. Newby

    1971-01-01

    Understanding our visual resources involves a complex interweaving of motivation and cognitive recesses; but, more important, it requires that we understand and can identify those characteristics of a landscape that influence the image formation process. From research conducted in Florida, three major variables were identified that appear to have significant effect...

  18. The Visual System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... minute. That’s up to 28,800 times a day! NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map ...

  19. Visually observing comets

    CERN Document Server

    Seargent, David A J

    2017-01-01

    In these days of computers and CCD cameras, visual comet observers can still contribute scientifically useful data with the help of this handy reference for use in the field. Comets are one of the principal areas for productive pro-amateur collaboration in astronomy, but finding comets requires a different approach than the observing of more predictable targets. Principally directed toward amateur astronomers who prefer visual observing or who are interested in discovering a new comet or visually monitoring the behavior of known comets, it includes all the advice needed to thrive as a comet observer. After presenting a brief overview of the nature of comets and how we came to the modern understanding of comets, this book details the various types of observations that can usefully be carried out at the eyepiece of a telescope. Subjects range from how to search for new comets to visually estimating the brightness of comets and the length and orientation of tails, in addition to what to look for in comet heads a...

  20. Staging Visual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg, Ingelise

    2009-01-01

    A visual methodological approach of exploring postures and movemenets in young childrens communication with art. How do we translate bodily postures and movements into methodological categories to access data of the interactive processes? These issues will be discussed through video matrials...