WorldWideScience

Sample records for biologically inspired research

  1. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  2. Soft Robotics: Biological Inspiration, State of the Art, and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Trivedi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional robots have rigid underlying structures that limit their ability to interact with their environment. For example, conventional robot manipulators have rigid links and can manipulate objects using only their specialised end effectors. These robots often encounter difficulties operating in unstructured and highly congested environments. A variety of animals and plants exhibit complex movement with soft structures devoid of rigid components. Muscular hydrostats (e.g. octopus arms and elephant trunks are almost entirely composed of muscle and connective tissue and plant cells can change shape when pressurised by osmosis. Researchers have been inspired by biology to design and build soft robots. With a soft structure and redundant degrees of freedom, these robots can be used for delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. This paper discusses the novel capabilities of soft robots, describes examples from nature that provide biological inspiration, surveys the state of the art and outlines existing challenges in soft robot design, modelling, fabrication and control.

  3. Biologically inspired technologies in NASA's morphing project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Cox, David E.; Lazos, Barry S.; Waszak, Martin R.; Raney, David L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Pao, S. Paul

    2003-07-01

    For centuries, biology has provided fertile ground for hypothesis, discovery, and inspiration. Time-tested methods used in nature are being used as a basis for several research studies conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center as a part of Morphing Project, which develops and assesses breakthrough vehicle technologies. These studies range from low drag airfoil design guided by marine and avian morphologies to soaring techniques inspired by birds and the study of small flexible wing vehicles. Biology often suggests unconventional yet effective approaches such as non-planar wings, dynamic soaring, exploiting aeroelastic effects, collaborative control, flapping, and fibrous active materials. These approaches and other novel technologies for future flight vehicles are being studied in NASA's Morphing Project. This paper will discuss recent findings in the aeronautics-based, biologically-inspired research in the project.

  4. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    massively sponsor this DNA conference at the ICTP. The conference was generously co-sponsored by the Wellcome Trust (UK). It comprised approximately 60 talks on topically focused sessions devoted to: DNA mechanics DNA structure, interactions and aggregation Recognition of homologous genes Conformational dynamics, supercoiling and packing DNA compactization in viruses DNA-protein interaction and recognition DNA in confinement (pores and vesicles) Smart DNA (robotics, nano-architectures, switches, sensors and DNA electronics) The success of the conference was that it was not a meeting of a club of physicists interested in biology, but a meeting of physicists, carrying out important work widely published not only in physical but also biological journals, with the leading biologists who, personally, were keenly interested in learning what novelties physical methods and existing knowledge could offer them. They were equally eager to explain to physicists and mathematicians the most challenging paradigms of molecular biology research. The conference was opened by two inspiring high-impact talks, from a Director of the European Molecular Genetics Center in Trieste, Arturo Falaschi, the Editor of HFSP Journal (who sadly just passed away last month), and from a scientist of the next generation, Lynn Zechiedrich, Professor of Baylor Medical School and former co-worker of the late Nick Cozzarelly. Both showed astounding manifestations of the polymeric behavior of DNA, where physics is eagerly awaited like rain in the desert. However, at the whole conference about 40% of lectures were delivered by biologists. In this short article it is not possible to cover even the most exciting presentations, and I refer interested readers to the website [5] where further information can be found. I will outline below just a couple of issues. The conference revealed big progress in understanding the details of DNA mechanics, including its local sequence-dependent elastic properties. Progress was

  5. Arbitrary waveform generator biologically inspired

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez-Medina, R.; Jiménez-Ramírez, O.; Quiroz-Juárez, M.A.; Aragón, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A system biologically inspired that produces arbitrary analog signals is studied. • The proposed system is based in the BVAM biological model. • The system is analyzed with a discrete equivalent system defined by a Poincaré map. • The operation regimes of the system are identified changing the control parameter. • The system functionality is shown by the simulations obtained from SIMULINK™. -- Abstract: This work shows and analyzes a system that produces arbitrary waveforms, which is a simplification, based on spatial discretization, of the BVAM model proposed by Barrio et al. in 1999 [1] to model the biological pattern formation. Since the analytical treatment of non-linear terms of this system is often prohibitive, its dynamic has been analyzed using a discrete equivalent system defined by a Poincaré map. In this analysis, the bifurcation diagrams and the Lyapunov exponent are the tools used to identify the different operating regimes of the system and to provide evidence of the periodicity and randomness of the generated waveforms. Also, it is shown that the analyzed system presents the period doubling phenomenon, the values of its bifurcation points are related by the Feigenbaum constant and they converge to the onset of chaos. It is shown that, the analyzed system can be electronically implemented using operational amplifiers to produce arbitrary waveforms when varying a single control parameter. The functionality and behavior of the ideal electronic implementation of the analyzed system is shown by the simulations obtained from the MatLab–Simulink™ toolbox. Finally, some problems related to a real electronic implementation are discussed. This paper gives a brief overview of how ideas from biology can be used to design new systems that produce arbitrary waveforms

  6. Biology-inspired Architecture for Situation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng

    2006-01-01

    Situation Management is a rapidly developing science combining new techniques for data collection with advanced methods of data fusion to facilitate the process leading to correct decisions prescribing action. Current research focuses on reducing increasing amounts of diverse data to knowledge used by decision makers and on reducing time between observations, decisions and actions. No new technology is more promising for increasing the diversity and fidelity of observations than sensor networks. However, current research on sensor networks concentrates on a centralized network architecture. We believe this trend will not realize the full potential of situation management. We propose a new architecture modeled after biological ecosystems where motes are autonomous and intelligent, yet cooperate with local neighborhoods. Providing a layered approach, they sense and act independently when possible, and cooperate with neighborhoods when necessary. The combination of their local actions results in global effects. While situation management research is currently dominated by military applications, advances envisioned for industrial and business applications have similar requirements. NASA has requirements for intelligent and autonomous systems in future missions that can benefit from advances in situation management. We describe requirements for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management program where our biology-inspired architecture provides a layered approach and decisions can be made at the proper level to improve safety, reduce costs, and improve efficiency in making diagnostic and prognostic assessments of the structural integrity, aerodynamic characteristics, and operation of aircraft.

  7. Antireflective surface inspired from biology: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.W. Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical anti-reflection means the decrease of reflection as much as possible, which has been used in many fields such as solar cells, diodes, optical and optoelectronic devices, screens, sensors, anti-glare glasses and so on. Over millions of years, natural creatures have been uninterruptedly combating with extreme environmental conditions. In particular, some biology has evolved a diversity of antireflective functional surfaces gradually. More importantly, as a result of the same order of magnitude in the ingenious structures and the wavelength of visible light, these structures can interact strongly and present excellent antireflective performance. It is worth to be mentioned that these wonderful architectures lead to a perfect performance on antireflection. This review mainly covers recent progress on the bionic antireflective structures. Then, the mechanism of the structure-based antireflective properties of some biology is analyzed. Besides, some typical models and the basic theory of these bionic structures for antireflection have been reported to facilitate mechanism analysis. At last, the prospects and the challenge researchers may faced with are also addressed. It is hoped that this review could be beneficial to provide some innovative inspirations and new ideas to the researchers in the fields of engineering, and materials science.

  8. Biology-inspired AMO physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    This Topical Review presents an overview of increasingly robust interconnects that are being established between atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics and the life sciences. AMO physics, outgrowing its historical role as a facilitator—a provider of optical methodologies, for instance—now seeks to partner biology in its quest to link systems-level descriptions of biological entities to insights based on molecular processes. Of course, perspectives differ when AMO physicists and biologists consider various processes. For instance, while AMO physicists link molecular properties and dynamics to potential energy surfaces, these have to give way to energy landscapes in considerations of protein dynamics. But there are similarities also: tunnelling and non-adiabatic transitions occur both in protein dynamics and in molecular dynamics. We bring to the fore some such differences and similarities; we consider imaging techniques based on AMO concepts, like 4D fluorescence microscopy which allows access to the dynamics of cellular processes, multiphoton microscopy which offers a built-in confocality, and microscopy with femtosecond laser beams to saturate the suppression of fluorescence in spatially controlled fashion so as to circumvent the diffraction limit. Beyond imaging, AMO physics contributes with optical traps that probe the mechanical and dynamical properties of single ‘live’ cells, highlighting differences between healthy and diseased cells. Trap methodologies have also begun to probe the dynamics governing of neural stem cells adhering to each other to form neurospheres and, with squeezed light to probe sub-diffusive motion of yeast cells. Strong field science contributes not only by providing a source of energetic electrons and γ-rays via laser-plasma accelerations schemes, but also via filamentation and supercontinuum generation, enabling mainstream collision physics into play in diverse processes like DNA damage induced by low-energy collisions to

  9. Biologically inspired coupled antenna beampattern design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcakaya, Murat; Nehorai, Arye

    2010-01-01

    We propose to design a small-size transmission-coupled antenna array, and corresponding radiation pattern, having high performance inspired by the female Ormia ochracea's coupled ears. For reproduction purposes, the female Ormia is able to locate male crickets' call accurately despite the small distance between its ears compared with the incoming wavelength. This phenomenon has been explained by the mechanical coupling between the Ormia's ears, which has been modeled by a pair of differential equations. In this paper, we first solve these differential equations governing the Ormia ochracea's ear response, and convert the response to the pre-specified radio frequencies. We then apply the converted response of the biological coupling in the array factor of a uniform linear array composed of finite-length dipole antennas, and also include the undesired electromagnetic coupling due to the proximity of the elements. Moreover, we propose an algorithm to optimally choose the biologically inspired coupling for maximum array performance. In our numerical examples, we compute the radiation intensity of the designed system for binomial and uniform ordinary end-fire arrays, and demonstrate the improvement in the half-power beamwidth, sidelobe suppression and directivity of the radiation pattern due to the biologically inspired coupling.

  10. Biologically inspired coupled antenna beampattern design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcakaya, Murat; Nehorai, Arye, E-mail: makcak2@ese.wustl.ed, E-mail: nehorai@ese.wustl.ed [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We propose to design a small-size transmission-coupled antenna array, and corresponding radiation pattern, having high performance inspired by the female Ormia ochracea's coupled ears. For reproduction purposes, the female Ormia is able to locate male crickets' call accurately despite the small distance between its ears compared with the incoming wavelength. This phenomenon has been explained by the mechanical coupling between the Ormia's ears, which has been modeled by a pair of differential equations. In this paper, we first solve these differential equations governing the Ormia ochracea's ear response, and convert the response to the pre-specified radio frequencies. We then apply the converted response of the biological coupling in the array factor of a uniform linear array composed of finite-length dipole antennas, and also include the undesired electromagnetic coupling due to the proximity of the elements. Moreover, we propose an algorithm to optimally choose the biologically inspired coupling for maximum array performance. In our numerical examples, we compute the radiation intensity of the designed system for binomial and uniform ordinary end-fire arrays, and demonstrate the improvement in the half-power beamwidth, sidelobe suppression and directivity of the radiation pattern due to the biologically inspired coupling.

  11. Drawing inspiration from biological optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2009-08-01

    Bio-Mimicking/Bio-Inspiration: How can we not be inspired by Nature? Life has evolved on earth over the last 3.5 to 4 billion years. Materials formed during this time were not toxic; they were created at low temperatures and low pressures unlike many of the materials developed today. The natural materials formed are self-assembled, multifunctional, nonlinear, complex, adaptive, self-repairing and biodegradable. The designs that failed are fossils. Those that survived are the success stories. Natural materials are mostly formed from organics, inorganic crystals and amorphous phases. The materials make economic sense by optimizing the design of the structures or systems to meet multiple needs. We constantly "see" many similar strategies in approaches, between man and nature, but we seldom look at the details of natures approaches. The power of image processing, in many of natures creatures, is a detail that is often overlooked. Seldon does the engineer interact with the biologist and learn what nature has to teach us. The variety and complexity of biological materials and the optical systems formed should inspire us.

  12. Biological inspiration used for robots motion synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a biologically inspired method of gait generation. Bipedal gait pattern (for hip and knee joints) was taken into account giving the reference trajectories in a learning task. The four coupled oscillators were taught to generate the outputs similar to those in a human gait. After applying the correction functions the obtained generation method was validated using ZMP criterion. The formula suitable for real-time motion generation taking into account the positioning errors was also formulated. The small real robot prototype was tested to be able walk successfully following the elaborated motion pattern.

  13. Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscicchio Cosimo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

  14. A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Mukul

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The eye is a compound of individual lenses with their own photoreceptor arrays.  The visual system of insects allows them to fly with a limited intelligence and brain processing power. A CMOS image sensor replicating the perception of vision in insects is discussed and designed in this book for industrial (machine vision) and medical applications. The CMOS metal layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer able to sense polarization information. This polarization information is shown to be useful in applications like real time material classification and autonomous agent navigation. Further the sensor is equipped with in pixel analog and digital memories which allow variation of the dynamic range and in-pixel b...

  15. Biologically inspired robots as artificial inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-06-01

    Imagine an inspector conducting an NDE on an aircraft where you notice something is different about him - he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your first reaction would probably be to say 'it's unbelievable but he looks real' just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. This science fiction scenario could become a reality at the trend in the development of biologically inspired technologies, and terms like artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. For many years, the trend has been to automate processes in order to increase the efficiency of performing redundant tasks where various systems have been developed to deal with specific production line requirements. Realizing that some parts are too complex or delicate to handle in small quantities with a simple automatic system, robotic mechanisms were developed. Aircraft inspection has benefitted from this evolving technology where manipulators and crawlers are developed for rapid and reliable inspection. Advancement in robotics towards making them autonomous and possibly look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures that are beyond the capability of today's technology with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of these robots may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Making such robots is becoming increasingly feasible and in this paper the state of the art will be reviewed.

  16. Biologically inspired path to quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogryzko, Vasily; Ozhigov, Yuri

    2014-12-01

    We describe an approach to quantum computer inspired by the information processing at the molecular level in living cells. It is based on the separation of a small ensemble of qubits inside the living system (e.g., a bacterial cell), such that coherent quantum states of this ensemble remain practically unchanged for a long time. We use the notion of a quantum kernel to describe such an ensemble. Quantum kernel is not strictly connected with certain particles; it permanently exchanges atoms and molecules with the environment, which makes quantum kernel a virtual notion. There are many reasons to expect that the state of quantum kernel of a living system can be treated as the stationary state of some Hamiltonian. While the quantum kernel is responsible for the stability of dynamics at the time scale of cellular life, at the longer inter-generation time scale it can change, varying smoothly in the course of biological evolution. To the first level of approximation, quantum kernel can be described in the framework of qubit modification of Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model, in which the relaxation corresponds to the exchange of matter between quantum kernel and the rest of the cell and is represented as Lindblad super-operators.

  17. 7th World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Andries; Abraham, Ajith; Plessis, Mathys; Snášel, Václav; Muda, Azah

    2016-01-01

    World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC) is organized to discuss the state-of-the-art as well as to address various issues with respect to Nurturing Intelligent Computing Towards Advancement of Machine Intelligence. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Seventh World Congress (NaBIC’15) held in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa during December 01-03, 2015. The 39 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected. The Volume would be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  18. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to

  19. Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Youngseop; Kim, Ha Gon; Choi, Ki-Ju; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Park, Seongchong; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2012-01-01

    Cuticular nanostructures found in insects effectively manage light for light polarization, structural color, or optical index matching within an ultrathin natural scale. These nanostructures are mainly dedicated to manage incoming light and recently inspired many imaging and display applications. A bioluminescent organ, such as a firefly lantern, helps to out-couple light from the body in a highly efficient fashion for delivering strong optical signals in sexual communication. However, the cuticular nanostructures, except the light-producing reactions, have not been well investigated for physical principles and engineering biomimetics. Here we report a unique observation of high-transmission nanostructures on a firefly lantern and its biological inspiration for highly efficient LED illumination. Both numerical and experimental results clearly reveal high transmission through the nanostructures inspired from the lantern cuticle. The nanostructures on an LED lens surface were fabricated by using a large-area nanotemplating and reconfigurable nanomolding with heat-induced shear thinning. The biologically inspired LED lens, distinct from a smooth surface lens, substantially increases light transmission over visible ranges, comparable to conventional antireflection coating. This biological inspiration can offer new opportunities for increasing the light extraction efficiency of high-power LED packages. PMID:23112185

  20. Handwritten-word spotting using biologically inspired features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Schomaker, Lambert; Haak, Koen

    2008-01-01

    For quick access to new handwritten collections, current handwriting recognition methods are too cumbersome. They cannot deal with the lack of labeled data and would require extensive laboratory training for each individual script, style, language, and collection. We propose a biologically inspired

  1. A Project-Based Biologically-Inspired Robotics Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, R. M.; Zauner, K.-P.

    2013-01-01

    The design of any robotic system requires input from engineers from a variety of technical fields. This paper describes a project-based module, "Biologically-Inspired Robotics," that is offered to Electronics and Computer Science students at the University of Southampton, U.K. The overall objective of the module is for student groups to…

  2. Biologically inspired collision avoidance system for unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Fernando E.; Graham, Brett; Spagnoli, Kyle; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2009-05-01

    In this project, we collaborate with researchers in the neuroscience department at the University of Delaware to develop an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based embedded computer, inspired by the brains of small vertebrates (fish). The mechanisms of object detection and avoidance in fish have been extensively studied by our Delaware collaborators. The midbrain optic tectum is a biological multimodal navigation controller capable of processing input from all senses that convey spatial information, including vision, audition, touch, and lateral-line (water current sensing in fish). Unfortunately, computational complexity makes these models too slow for use in real-time applications. These simulations are run offline on state-of-the-art desktop computers, presenting a gap between the application and the target platform: a low-power embedded device. EM Photonics has expertise in developing of high-performance computers based on commodity platforms such as graphic cards (GPUs) and FPGAs. FPGAs offer (1) high computational power, low power consumption and small footprint (in line with typical autonomous vehicle constraints), and (2) the ability to implement massively-parallel computational architectures, which can be leveraged to closely emulate biological systems. Combining UD's brain modeling algorithms and the power of FPGAs, this computer enables autonomous navigation in complex environments, and further types of onboard neural processing in future applications.

  3. Biologically inspired optimization methods an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wahde, M

    2008-01-01

    The advent of rapid, reliable and cheap computing power over the last decades has transformed many, if not most, fields of science and engineering. The multidisciplinary field of optimization is no exception. First of all, with fast computers, researchers and engineers can apply classical optimization methods to problems of larger and larger size. In addition, however, researchers have developed a host of new optimization algorithms that operate in a rather different way than the classical ones, and that allow practitioners to attack optimization problems where the classical methods are either not applicable or simply too costly (in terms of time and other resources) to apply.This book is intended as a course book for introductory courses in stochastic optimization algorithms (in this book, the terms optimization method and optimization algorithm will be used interchangeably), and it has grown from a set of lectures notes used in courses, taught by the author, at the international master programme Complex Ada...

  4. Semiconductor Devices Inspired By and Integrated With Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John [University of Illinois

    2012-04-25

    Biology is curved, soft and elastic; silicon wafers are not. Semiconductor technologies that can bridge this gap in form and mechanics will create new opportunities in devices that adopt biologically inspired designs or require intimate integration with the human body. This talk describes the development of ideas for electronics that offer the performance of state-of-the-art, wafer- based systems but with the mechanical properties of a rubber band. We explain the underlying materials science and mechanics of these approaches, and illustrate their use in (1) bio- integrated, ‘tissue-like’ electronics with unique capabilities for mapping cardiac and neural electrophysiology, and (2) bio-inspired, ‘eyeball’ cameras with exceptional imaging properties enabled by curvilinear, Petzval designs.

  5. Biologically-inspired hexapod robot design and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenschied, Kenneth S.; Quinn, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    The design and construction of a biologically-inspired hexapod robot is presented. A previously developed simulation is modified to include models of the DC drive motors, the motor driver circuits and their transmissions. The application of this simulation to the design and development of the robot is discussed. The mechanisms thought to be responsible for the leg coordination of the walking stick insect were previously applied to control the straight-line locomotion of a robot. We generalized these rules for a robot walking on a plane. This biologically-inspired control strategy is used to control the robot in simulation. Numerical results show that the general body motion and performance of the simulated robot is similar to that of the robot based on our preliminary experimental results.

  6. Biologically-Inspired Control Architecture for Musical Performance Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Solis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At Waseda University, since 1990, the authors have been developing anthropomorphic musical performance robots as a means for understanding human control, introducing novel ways of interaction between musical partners and robots, and proposing applications for humanoid robots. In this paper, the design of a biologically-inspired control architecture for both an anthropomorphic flutist robot and a saxophone playing robot are described. As for the flutist robot, the authors have focused on implementing an auditory feedback system to improve the calibration procedure for the robot in order to play all the notes correctly during a performance. In particular, the proposed auditory feedback system is composed of three main modules: an Expressive Music Generator, a Feed Forward Air Pressure Control System and a Pitch Evaluation System. As for the saxophone-playing robot, a pressure-pitch controller (based on the feedback error learning to improve the sound produced by the robot during a musical performance was proposed and implemented. In both cases studied, a set of experiments are described to verify the improvements achieved while considering biologically-inspired control approaches.

  7. Comparing novelty of designs from biological-inspiration with those from brainstorming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshwani, Sonal; Lenau, Torben Anker; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to understand the significance of biological-analogies in fostering novelty by comparing biological-analogies with other design methods for idea generation. Among other design methods, brainstorming was chosen here as benchmark. Four studies were conducted to compare: (i) the l...... reasons behind the results. The results demonstrate that the design methods substantially influence the novelty of concepts generated, while indicating the need for better training in effective use of biological-analogies.......This research aims to understand the significance of biological-analogies in fostering novelty by comparing biological-analogies with other design methods for idea generation. Among other design methods, brainstorming was chosen here as benchmark. Four studies were conducted to compare: (i......) the levels of abstraction at which concepts were ideated using biological inspiration (represented using biocards) with that using traditional brainstorming; and (ii) the novelty of concepts produced by using these two design methods. Concepts produced in these studies were evaluated for levels...

  8. Platensimycin and platencin: Inspirations for chemistry, biology, enzymology, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Dong, Liao-Bin; Shen, Ben

    2017-06-01

    Natural products have served as the main source of drugs and drug leads, and natural products produced by microorganisms are one of the most prevalent sources of clinical antibiotics. Their unparalleled structural and chemical diversities provide a basis to investigate fundamental biological processes while providing access to a tremendous amount of chemical space. There is a pressing need for novel antibiotics with new mode of actions to combat the growing challenge of multidrug resistant pathogens. This review begins with the pioneering discovery and biological activities of platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN), two antibacterial natural products isolated from Streptomyces platensis. The elucidation of their unique biochemical mode of action, structure-activity relationships, and pharmacokinetics is presented to highlight key aspects of their biological activities. It then presents an overview of how microbial genomics has impacted the field of PTM and PTN and revealed paradigm-shifting discoveries in terpenoid biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and antibiotic and antidiabetic therapies. It concludes with a discussion covering the future perspectives of PTM and PTN in regard to natural products discovery, bacterial diterpenoid biosynthesis, and the pharmaceutical promise of PTM and PTN as antibiotics and for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PTM and PTN have inspired new discoveries in chemistry, biology, enzymology, and medicine and will undoubtedly continue to do so. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biologically-inspired Learning in Pulsed Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten; Woodburn, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Self-learning chips to implement many popular ANN (artificial neural network) algorithms are very difficult to design. We explain why this is so and say what lessons previous work teaches us in the design of self-learning systems. We offer a contribution to the `biologically-inspired' approach......, explaining what we mean by this term and providing an example of a robust, self-learning design that can solve simple classical-conditioning tasks. We give details of the design of individual circuits to perform component functions, which can then be combined into a network to solve the task. We argue...... that useful conclusions as to the future of on-chip learning can be drawn from this work....

  10. NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers ... interaction has always been important to me, but working with these patients in Zambia lit a fire ...

  11. Progress and Opportunities in Soft Photonics and Biologically Inspired Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Mathias; Lee, Seungwoo

    2018-01-01

    Optical components made fully or partially from reconfigurable, stimuli-responsive, soft solids or fluids-collectively referred to as soft photonics-are poised to form the platform for tunable optical devices with unprecedented functionality and performance characteristics. Currently, however, soft solid and fluid material systems still represent an underutilized class of materials in the optical engineers' toolbox. This is in part due to challenges in fabrication, integration, and structural control on the nano- and microscale associated with the application of soft components in optics. These challenges might be addressed with the help of a resourceful ally: nature. Organisms from many different phyla have evolved an impressive arsenal of light manipulation strategies that rely on the ability to generate and dynamically reconfigure hierarchically structured, complex optical material designs, often involving soft or fluid components. A comprehensive understanding of design concepts, structure formation principles, material integration, and control mechanisms employed in biological photonic systems will allow this study to challenge current paradigms in optical technology. This review provides an overview of recent developments in the fields of soft photonics and biologically inspired optics, emphasizes the ties between the two fields, and outlines future opportunities that result from advancements in soft and bioinspired photonics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A model of engineering materials inspired by biological tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holeček M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The perfect ability of living tissues to control and adapt their mechanical properties to varying external conditions may be an inspiration for designing engineering materials. An interesting example is the smooth muscle tissue since this "material" is able to change its global mechanical properties considerably by a subtle mechanism within individual muscle cells. Multi-scale continuum models may be useful in designing essentially simpler engineering materials having similar properties. As an illustration we present the model of an incompressible material whose microscopic structure is formed by flexible, soft but incompressible balls connected mutually by linear springs. This simple model, however, shows a nontrivial nonlinear behavior caused by the incompressibility of balls and is very sensitive on some microscopic parameters. It may elucidate the way by which "small" changes in biopolymer networks within individual muscular cells may control the stiffness of the biological tissue, which outlines a way of designing similar engineering materials. The 'balls and springs' material presents also prestress-induced stiffening and allows elucidating a contribution of extracellular fluids into the tissue’s viscous properties.

  13. Handwritten-word spotting using biologically inspired features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Schomaker, Lambert; Haak, Koen

    2008-11-01

    For quick access to new handwritten collections, current handwriting recognition methods are too cumbersome. They cannot deal with the lack of labeled data and would require extensive laboratory training for each individual script, style, language and collection. We propose a biologically inspired whole-word recognition method which is used to incrementally elicit word labels in a live, web-based annotation system, named Monk. Since human labor should be minimized given the massive amount of image data, it becomes important to rely on robust perceptual mechanisms in the machine. Recent computational models of the neuro-physiology of vision are applied to isolated word classification. A primate cortex-like mechanism allows to classify text-images that have a low frequency of occurrence. Typically these images are the most difficult to retrieve and often contain named entities and are regarded as the most important to people. Usually standard pattern-recognition technology cannot deal with these text-images if there are not enough labeled instances. The results of this retrieval system are compared to normalized word-image matching and appear to be very promising.

  14. Research Update on Extreme-Mass-Ratio Inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Gair, Jonathan R; Pound, Adam; Hughes, Scott A; Sopuerta, Carlos F

    2015-01-01

    The inspirals of stellar-mass mass compact objects into massive black holes in the centres of galaxies are one of the most important sources of gravitational radiation for space- based detectors like LISA or eLISA. These extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) will enable an ambitious research program with implications for astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics. This article is a summary of the talks delivered at the plenary session on EMRIs at the 10th International LISA Symposium. It contains research updates on the following topics: astrophysics of EMRIs; EMRI science potential; and EMRI modeling. (paper)

  15. Locomotion Efficiency Optimization of Biologically Inspired Snake Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Kelasidi; Mansoureh Jesmani; Kristin Y. Pettersen; Jan Tommy Gravdahl

    2018-01-01

    Snake robots constitute bio-inspired solutions that have been studied due to their ability to move in challenging environments where other types of robots, such as wheeled or legged robots, usually fail. In this paper, we consider both land-based and swimming snake robots. One of the principal concerns of the bio-inspired snake robots is to increase the motion efficiency in terms of the forward speed by improving the locomotion methods. Furthermore, energy efficiency becomes a crucial challen...

  16. Research Update: Programmable tandem repeat proteins inspired by squid ring teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Domeradzka, Natalia E.; Jung, Huihun; Barbu, Benjamin; Vural, Mert; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Allen, Benjamin D.; Demirel, Melik C.

    2018-01-01

    Cephalopods have evolved many interesting features that can serve as inspiration. Repetitive squid ring teeth (SRT) proteins from cephalopods exhibit properties such as strength, self-healing, and biocompatibility. These proteins have been engineered to design novel adhesives, self-healing textiles, and the assembly of 2d-layered materials. Compared to conventional polymers, repetitive proteins are easy to modify and can assemble in various morphologies and molecular architectures. This research update discusses the molecular biology and materials science of polypeptides inspired by SRT proteins, their properties, and perspectives for future applications.

  17. 16th International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems and the 8th World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Haqiq, Abdelkrim; Alimi, Adel; Mezzour, Ghita; Rokbani, Nizar; Muda, Azah

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest research in hybrid intelligent systems. It includes 57 carefully selected papers from the 16th International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2016) and the 8th World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC 2016), held on November 21–23, 2016 in Marrakech, Morocco. HIS - NaBIC 2016 was jointly organized by the Machine Intelligence Research Labs (MIR Labs), USA; Hassan 1st University, Settat, Morocco and University of Sfax, Tunisia. Hybridization of intelligent systems is a promising research field in modern artificial/computational intelligence and is concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. The conference’s main aim is to inspire further exploration of the intriguing potential of hybrid intelligent systems and bio-inspired computing. As such, the book is a valuable resource for practicing engineers /scientists and researchers working in the field of computational intelligence and artificial intelligence.

  18. Adaptation of sensor morphology: an integrative view of perception from biologically inspired robotics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzaman, Surya G.

    2016-01-01

    Sensor morphology, the morphology of a sensing mechanism which plays a role of shaping the desired response from physical stimuli from surroundings to generate signals usable as sensory information, is one of the key common aspects of sensing processes. This paper presents a structured review of researches on bioinspired sensor morphology implemented in robotic systems, and discusses the fundamental design principles. Based on literature review, we propose two key arguments: first, owing to its synthetic nature, biologically inspired robotics approach is a unique and powerful methodology to understand the role of sensor morphology and how it can evolve and adapt to its task and environment. Second, a consideration of an integrative view of perception by looking into multidisciplinary and overarching mechanisms of sensor morphology adaptation across biology and engineering enables us to extract relevant design principles that are important to extend our understanding of the unfinished concepts in sensing and perception. PMID:27499843

  19. Locomotion Efficiency Optimization of Biologically Inspired Snake Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kelasidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake robots constitute bio-inspired solutions that have been studied due to their ability to move in challenging environments where other types of robots, such as wheeled or legged robots, usually fail. In this paper, we consider both land-based and swimming snake robots. One of the principal concerns of the bio-inspired snake robots is to increase the motion efficiency in terms of the forward speed by improving the locomotion methods. Furthermore, energy efficiency becomes a crucial challenge for this type of robots due to the importance of long-term autonomy of these systems. In this paper, we take into account both the minimization of the power consumption and the maximization of the achieved forward velocity in order to investigate the optimal gait parameters for bio-inspired snake robots using lateral undulation and eel-like motion patterns. We furthermore consider possible negative work effects in the calculation of average power consumption of underwater snake robots. To solve the multi-objective optimization problem, we propose transforming the two objective functions into a single one using a weighted-sum method. For different set of weight factors, Particle Swarm Optimization is applied and a set of optimal points is consequently obtained. Pareto fronts or trade-off curves are illustrated for both land-based and swimming snake robots with different numbers of links. Pareto fronts represent trade-offs between the objective functions. For example, how increasing the forward velocity results in increasing power consumption. Therefore, these curves are a very useful tool for the control and design of snake robots. The trade-off curve thus constitutes a very useful tool for both the control and design of bio-inspired snake robots. In particular, the operators or designers of bio-inspired snake robots can choose a Pareto optimal point based on the trade-off curve, given the preferred number of links on the robot. The optimal gait parameters

  20. The use of inspiration as a multimedia plenary activity for improving the cognitive assimilation of Biology 12 students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Christopher

    Unit plenary activities are review activities used at the end of an educational unit. This thesis examined the effects of using Inspiration, a concept mapping computer program, as a plenary activity on summative assessment scores, compared the effectiveness of Inspiration to Review Worksheets/Discussion, explored the effects of Inspiration on Understanding, Knowledge and Higher Order Process, examined time on-task behaviours and plenary completion rates, and examined student perception of the effectiveness of Inspiration as a plenary with two classes of Biology 12 students. An action research methodology was applied to collect data from two senior classes. Quantitative data was collected using pre-/post-test results, time on-task behaviour, and assignment completion. Qualitative data was collected to identify student perception of the plenary and student study habits. The findings indicate that Inspiration statistically significantly improved summative scores, Understanding, Knowledge, time on-task behaviours, and plenary completion rates. The Inspiration and Review Worksheet/Discussion plenary activities were not statistically different in improving summative scores.

  1. Inspiring Integration in College Students Reading Multiple Biology Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firetto, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Introductory biology courses typically present topics on related biological systems across separate chapters and lectures. A complete foundational understanding requires that students understand how these biological systems are related. Unfortunately, spontaneous generation of these connections is rare for novice learners. These experiments focus…

  2. Biologically Inspired Target Recognition in Radar Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qilian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the great mysteries of the brain is cognitive control. How can the interactions between millions of neurons result in behavior that is coordinated and appears willful and voluntary? There is consensus that it depends on the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Many PFC areas receive converging inputs from at least two sensory modalities. Inspired by human's innate ability to process and integrate information from disparate, network-based sources, we apply human-inspired information integration mechanisms to target detection in cognitive radar sensor network. Humans' information integration mechanisms have been modelled using maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE or soft-max approaches. In this paper, we apply these two algorithms to cognitive radar sensor networks target detection. Discrete-cosine-transform (DCT is used to process the integrated data from MLE or soft-max. We apply fuzzy logic system (FLS to automatic target detection based on the AC power values from DCT. Simulation results show that our MLE-DCT-FLS and soft-max-DCT-FLS approaches perform very well in the radar sensor network target detection, whereas the existing 2D construction algorithm does not work in this study.

  3. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural...... learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal......Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired...

  4. Seeding-inspired chemotaxis genetic algorithm for the inference of biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinq-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Tao

    2014-09-18

    A large challenge in the post-genomic era is to obtain the quantitatively dynamic interactive information of the important constitutes of underlying systems. The S-system is a dynamic and structurally rich model that determines the net strength of interactions between genes and/or proteins. Good generation characteristics without the need for prior information have allowed S-systems to become one of the most promising canonical models. Various evolutionary computation technologies have recently been developed for the identification of system parameters and skeletal-network structures. However, the gaps between the truncated and preserved terms remain too small. Additionally, current research methods fail to identify the structures of high dimensional systems (e.g., 30 genes with 1800 connections). Optimization technologies should converge fast and have the ability to adaptively adjust the search. In this study, we propose a seeding-inspired chemotaxis genetic algorithm (SCGA) that can force evolution to adjust the population movement to identify a favorable location. The seeding-inspired training strategy is a method to achieve optimal results with limited resources. SCGA introduces seeding-inspired genetic operations to allow a population to possess competitive power (exploitation and exploration) and a winner-chemotaxis-induced population migration to force a population to repeatedly tumble away from an attractor and swim toward another attractor. SCGA was tested on several canonical biological systems. SCGA not only learned the correct structure within only one to three pruning steps but also ensures pruning safety. The values of the truncated terms were all smaller than 10 -14 , even for a thirty-gene system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGoldschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS, both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  6. Variable gearing in a biologically inspired pneumatic actuator array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental feature of pennate muscles is that muscle fibers are oriented at an angle to the line of action and rotate as they shorten, becoming more oblique throughout a contraction. This change in fiber orientation (pennation angle) can amplify the shortening velocity of a fiber and increase output velocity of the muscle. The velocity advantage resulting from dynamic changes in pennation angle can be characterized as a gear ratio (muscle velocity/fiber velocity). A recent study has shown that a pennate muscle's gear ratio varies automatically depending on the load such that a muscle operates with a high gear during rapid contractions and low gear during forceful contractions. We examined whether this variable gearing behavior can be replicated in a pennate array of artificial muscles. We used McKibben type pneumatic actuators, which shorten in tension when filled with compressed gas. Similar to muscle fibers, the actuators expand radially during shortening, a feature thought to be a critical part of the variable gearing mechanism in pennate muscles. We arranged McKibben actuators in an array oriented to mimic a pennate muscle, and quantified the system's gear ratio during contraction against a range of loads. Video was used to measure the gear ratio during each contraction. We find that similar to pennate muscles, the gear ratio decreases significantly with increasing load and that variable gearing results from load-dependent variation in the amount of actuator rotation. These results support the idea that variable gearing in pennate muscles is mediated by difference is fiber rotation and the direction of muscle bulging. The behavior of our artificial muscle array also highlights the potential benefits of bio-inspired architectures in artificial muscle arrays, including the ability to vary force and speed automatically in response to variable loading conditions.

  7. VARIABLE GEARING IN A BIOLOGICALLY-INSPIRED PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR ARRAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental feature of pennate muscles is that muscle fibers are oriented at an angle to the line of action and rotate as they shorten, becoming more oblique throughout a contraction. This change in fiber orientation (pennation angle) can amplify the shortening velocity of a fiber and increase output velocity of the muscle. The velocity advantage resulting from dynamic changes in pennation angle can be characterized as a gear ratio (muscle velocity/fiber velocity). A recent study has shown that a pennate muscle’s gear ratio varies automatically depending on the load such that a muscle operates with a high gear during rapid contractions and low gear during forceful contractions. We examined whether this variable gearing behavior can be replicated in a pennate array of artificial muscles. We used McKibben type pneumatic actuators, which shorten in tension when filled with compressed gas. Similar to muscle fibers, the actuators expand radially during shortening, a feature thought to be a critical part of the variable gearing mechanism in pennate muscles. We arranged McKibben actuators in an array oriented to mimic a pennate muscle, and quantified the system’s gear ratio during contraction against a range of loads. Video was used to measure the gear ratio during each contraction. We find that similar to pennate muscles, the gear ratio decreases significantly with increasing load and that variable gearing results from load-dependent variation in the amount of actuator rotation. These results support the idea that variable gearing in pennate muscles is mediated by difference is fiber rotation and the direction of muscle bulging. The behavior of our artificial muscle array also highlights the potential benefits of bio-inspired architectures in artificial muscle arrays, including the ability to vary force and speed automatically in response to variable loading conditions. PMID:23462288

  8. Variable gearing in a biologically inspired pneumatic actuator array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental feature of pennate muscles is that muscle fibers are oriented at an angle to the line of action and rotate as they shorten, becoming more oblique throughout a contraction. This change in fiber orientation (pennation angle) can amplify the shortening velocity of a fiber and increase output velocity of the muscle. The velocity advantage resulting from dynamic changes in pennation angle can be characterized as a gear ratio (muscle velocity/fiber velocity). A recent study has shown that a pennate muscle's gear ratio varies automatically depending on the load such that a muscle operates with a high gear during rapid contractions and low gear during forceful contractions. We examined whether this variable gearing behavior can be replicated in a pennate array of artificial muscles. We used McKibben type pneumatic actuators, which shorten in tension when filled with compressed gas. Similar to muscle fibers, the actuators expand radially during shortening, a feature thought to be a critical part of the variable gearing mechanism in pennate muscles. We arranged McKibben actuators in an array oriented to mimic a pennate muscle, and quantified the system's gear ratio during contraction against a range of loads. Video was used to measure the gear ratio during each contraction. We find that similar to pennate muscles, the gear ratio decreases significantly with increasing load and that variable gearing results from load-dependent variation in the amount of actuator rotation. These results support the idea that variable gearing in pennate muscles is mediated by difference is fiber rotation and the direction of muscle bulging. The behavior of our artificial muscle array also highlights the potential benefits of bio-inspired architectures in artificial muscle arrays, including the ability to vary force and speed automatically in response to variable loading conditions. (paper)

  9. Biologically Inspired Nanofibers for Use in Translational Bioanalytical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock-Colangelo, Lauren; Baeumner, Antje J.

    2014-06-01

    Electrospun nanofiber mats are characterized by large surface-area-to-volume ratios, high porosities, and a diverse range of chemical functionalities. Although electrospun nanofibers have been used successfully to increase the immobilization efficiency of biorecognition elements and improve the sensitivity of biosensors, the full potential of nanofiber-based biosensing has not yet been realized. Therefore, this review presents novel electrospun nanofiber chemistries developed in fields such as tissue engineering and drug delivery that have direct application within the field of biosensing. Specifically, this review focuses on fibers that directly encapsulate biological additives that serve as immobilization matrices for biological species and that are used to create biomimetic scaffolds. Biosensors that incorporate these nanofibers are presented, along with potential future biosensing applications such as the development of cell culture and in vivo sensors.

  10. Biologically inspired autonomous structural materials with controlled toughening and healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Michael E.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2010-04-01

    The field of structural health monitoring (SHM) has made significant contributions in the field of prognosis and damage detection in the past decade. The advantageous use of this technology has not been integrated into operational structures to prevent damage from propagating or to heal injured regions under real time loading conditions. Rather, current systems relay this information to a central processor or human operator, who then determines a course of action such as altering the mission or scheduling repair maintenance. Biological systems exhibit advanced sensory and healing traits that can be applied to the design of material systems. For instance, bone is the major structural component in vertebrates; however, unlike modern structural materials, bone has many properties that make it effective for arresting the propagation of cracks and subsequent healing of the fractured area. The foremost goal for the development of future adaptive structures is to mimic biological systems, similar to bone, such that the material system can detect damage and deploy defensive traits to impede damage from propagating, thus preventing catastrophic failure while in operation. After sensing and stalling the propagation of damage, the structure must then be repaired autonomously using self healing mechanisms motivated by biological systems. Here a novel autonomous system is developed using shape memory polymers (SMPs), that employs an optical fiber network as both a damage detection sensor and a network to deliver stimulus to the damage site initiating adaptation and healing. In the presence of damage the fiber optic fractures allowing a high power laser diode to deposit a controlled level of thermal energy at the fractured sight locally reducing the modulus and blunting the crack tip, which significantly slows the crack growth rate. By applying a pre-induced strain field and utilizing the shape memory recovery effect, thermal energy can be deployed to close the crack and return

  11. Melodic Similarity and Applications Using Biologically-Inspired Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Bountouridis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Music similarity is a complex concept that manifests itself in areas such as Music Information Retrieval (MIR, musicological analysis and music cognition. Modelling the similarity of two music items is key for a number of music-related applications, such as cover song detection and query-by-humming. Typically, similarity models are based on intuition, heuristics or small-scale cognitive experiments; thus, applicability to broader contexts cannot be guaranteed. We argue that data-driven tools and analysis methods, applied to songs known to be related, can potentially provide us with information regarding the fine-grained nature of music similarity. Interestingly, music and biological sequences share a number of parallel concepts; from the natural sequence-representation, to their mechanisms of generating variations, i.e., oral transmission and evolution respectively. As such, there is a great potential for applying scientific methods and tools from bioinformatics to music. Stripped-down from biological heuristics, certain bioinformatics approaches can be generalized to any type of sequence. Consequently, reliable and unbiased data-driven solutions to problems such as biological sequence similarity and conservation analysis can be applied to music similarity and stability analysis. Our paper relies on such an approach to tackle a number of tasks and more notably to model global melodic similarity.

  12. Biologically-inspired approaches for self-organization, adaptation, and collaboration of heterogeneous autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Marc

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a selective survey of theoretical and experimental progress in the development of biologicallyinspired approaches for complex surveillance and reconnaissance problems with multiple, heterogeneous autonomous systems. The focus is on approaches that may address ISR problems that can quickly become mathematically intractable or otherwise impractical to implement using traditional optimization techniques as the size and complexity of the problem is increased. These problems require dealing with complex spatiotemporal objectives and constraints at a variety of levels from motion planning to task allocation. There is also a need to ensure solutions are reliable and robust to uncertainty and communications limitations. First, the paper will provide a short introduction to the current state of relevant biological research as relates to collective animal behavior. Second, the paper will describe research on largely decentralized, reactive, or swarm approaches that have been inspired by biological phenomena such as schools of fish, flocks of birds, ant colonies, and insect swarms. Next, the paper will discuss approaches towards more complex organizational and cooperative mechanisms in team and coalition behaviors in order to provide mission coverage of large, complex areas. Relevant team behavior may be derived from recent advances in understanding of the social and cooperative behaviors used for collaboration by tens of animals with higher-level cognitive abilities such as mammals and birds. Finally, the paper will briefly discuss challenges involved in user interaction with these types of systems.

  13. Structuralist inspired research of folk religion in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Sinani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses application of structuralist methodology to the research of folk region in Serbia. I discussed possible anticipations and the beginning of application of structural methodology; period of high popularity of rites of passage theories in our ethnology/anthropology, as well as most developed forms of analysis inspired by structuralism. On the example of two specifically chosen ‘case studies’ I show the ways in which structuralism in our science helped us to see problems from a completely new angle and fostered a creation of new and original conclusions. In the paper, I claim that the beginning of applications of the ideas and methods developed in structuralism, made a breaking point with the previous research of folk religion, and at its highest points, in some ways, made a basis for the understanding of folk religion as a holistic system.

  14. Fixed-wing MAV attitude stability in atmospheric turbulence-Part 2: Investigating biologically-inspired sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A.; Watkins, S.; Clothier, R.; Abdulrahim, M.; Massey, K.; Sabatini, R.

    2014-11-01

    Challenges associated with flight control of agile fixed-wing Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) operating in complex environments is significantly different to any larger scale vehicle. The micro-scale of MAVs can make them particularly sensitive to atmospheric disturbances thus limiting their operation. As described in Part 1, current conventional reactive attitude sensing systems lack the necessary response times for attitude control in high turbulence environments. This paper reviews in greater detail novel and emerging biologically inspired sensors, which can sense the disturbances before a perturbation is induced. A number of biological mechanoreceptors used by flying animals are explored for their utility in MAVs. Man-made attempts of replicating mechanoreceptors have thus been reviewed. Bio-inspired flow and pressure-based sensors were found to be the most promising for complementing or replacing current inertial-based reactive attitude sensors. Achieving practical implementations that meet the size, weight and power constraints of MAVs remains a significant challenge. Biological systems were found to rely on multiple sensors, potentially implying a number of research opportunities in the exploration of heterogeneous bio-inspired sensing solutions.

  15. Design, modeling and control of a pneumatically actuated manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Rongjie; Branson, David T; Zheng, Tianjiang; Guglielmino, Emanuele; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2013-09-01

    Biological tentacles, such as octopus arms, have entirely flexible structures and virtually infinite degrees of freedom (DOF) that allow for elongation, shortening and bending at any point along the arm length. The amazing dexterity of biological tentacles has driven the growing implementation of continuum manipulators in robotic systems. This paper presents a pneumatic manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures in some of their key features and functions, such as continuum morphology, intrinsic compliance and stereotyped motions with hyper redundant DOF. The kinematics and dynamics of the manipulator are formulated and identified, and a hierarchical controller taking inspiration from the structure of an octopus nervous system is used to relate desired stereotyped motions to individual actuator inputs. Simulations and experiments are carried out to validate the model and prototype where good agreement was found between the two.

  16. Design, modeling and control of a pneumatically actuated manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Rongjie; Zheng Tianjiang; Guglielmino, Emanuele; Caldwell, Darwin G; Branson, David T

    2013-01-01

    Biological tentacles, such as octopus arms, have entirely flexible structures and virtually infinite degrees of freedom (DOF) that allow for elongation, shortening and bending at any point along the arm length. The amazing dexterity of biological tentacles has driven the growing implementation of continuum manipulators in robotic systems. This paper presents a pneumatic manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures in some of their key features and functions, such as continuum morphology, intrinsic compliance and stereotyped motions with hyper redundant DOF. The kinematics and dynamics of the manipulator are formulated and identified, and a hierarchical controller taking inspiration from the structure of an octopus nervous system is used to relate desired stereotyped motions to individual actuator inputs. Simulations and experiments are carried out to validate the model and prototype where good agreement was found between the two. (paper)

  17. Practices of Waldorf-Inspired Schools. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, Diane; Beckham, Kyle; Zheng, Xinhua; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    "Growing a Waldorf-Inspired Approach in a Public School District" documents the practices and outcomes of Alice Birney, a Waldorf-Inspired School in Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD). This study highlights how such a school addresses students' academic, social, emotional, physical, and creative development. The study also…

  18. Basic science through engineering? Synthetic modeling and the idea of biology-inspired engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, Tarja; Loettgers, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a sophisticated epistemic dimension, as shown by the recent practice of synthetic modeling. Synthetic models are engineered genetic networks that are implanted in a natural cell environment. Their construction is typically combined with experiments on model organisms as well as mathematical modeling and simulation. What is especially interesting about this combinational modeling practice is that, apart from greater integration between these different epistemic activities, it has also led to the questioning of some central assumptions and notions on which synthetic biology is based. As a result synthetic biology is in the process of becoming more "biology inspired." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biologically inspired control of humanoid robot arms robust and adaptive approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Spiers, Adam; Herrmann, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates a biologically inspired method of robot arm control, developed with the objective of synthesising human-like motion dynamically, using nonlinear, robust and adaptive control techniques in practical robot systems. The control method caters to a rising interest in humanoid robots and the need for appropriate control schemes to match these systems. Unlike the classic kinematic schemes used in industrial manipulators, the dynamic approaches proposed here promote human-like motion with better exploitation of the robot’s physical structure. This also benefits human-robot interaction. The control schemes proposed in this book are inspired by a wealth of human-motion literature that indicates the drivers of motion to be dynamic, model-based and optimal. Such considerations lend themselves nicely to achievement via nonlinear control techniques without the necessity for extensive and complex biological models. The operational-space method of robot control forms the basis of many of the techniqu...

  20. Agile Robust Autonomy: Inspired by Connecting Natural Flight and Biological Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    DISTRIBUTION A i AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2017-030 Agile Robust Autonomy: Inspired by Connecting Natural Flight and Biological Sensors Jennifer Talley...Air Force Eglin Air Force Base, FL 32542 DISTRIBUTION A ii NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data...included in this document for any purpose other than Government procurement does not in any way obligate the U.S. Government . The fact that the

  1. Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-04-01

    Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of their nervous systems, have made honeybees an attractive model in which to pursue general principles of sensorimotor function in a variety of contexts, many of which pertain not just to honeybees, but several other animal species, including humans. This review begins by describing the principles of visual guidance that underlie perception of the world in three dimensions, obstacle avoidance, control of flight speed, and orchestrating smooth landings. We then consider how navigation over long distances is accomplished, with particular reference to how bees use information from the celestial compass to determine their flight bearing, and information from the movement of the environment in their eyes to gauge how far they have flown. Finally, we illustrate how some of the principles gleaned from these studies are now being used to design novel, biologically inspired algorithms for the guidance of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  2. Biomimetic and bio-inspired robotics in electric fish research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveln, Izaak D; Bai, Yang; Snyder, James B; Solberg, James R; Curet, Oscar M; Lynch, Kevin M; MacIver, Malcolm A

    2013-07-01

    Weakly electric knifefish have intrigued both biologists and engineers for decades with their unique electrosensory system and agile swimming mechanics. Study of these fish has resulted in models that illuminate the principles behind their electrosensory system and unique swimming abilities. These models have uncovered the mechanisms by which knifefish generate thrust for swimming forward and backward, hovering, and heaving dorsally using a ventral elongated median fin. Engineered active electrosensory models inspired by electric fish allow for close-range sensing in turbid waters where other sensing modalities fail. Artificial electrosense is capable of aiding navigation, detection and discrimination of objects, and mapping the environment, all tasks for which the fish use electrosense extensively. While robotic ribbon fin and artificial electrosense research has been pursued separately to reduce complications that arise when they are combined, electric fish have succeeded in their ecological niche through close coupling of their sensing and mechanical systems. Future integration of electrosense and ribbon fin technology into a knifefish robot should likewise result in a vehicle capable of navigating complex 3D geometries unreachable with current underwater vehicles, as well as provide insights into how to design mobile robots that integrate high bandwidth sensing with highly responsive multidirectional movement.

  3. BiLBIQ A Biologically Inspired Robot with Walking and Rolling Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralf Simon

    2013-01-01

    The book ‘BiLBIQ: A biologically inspired Robot with walking and rolling locomotion’ deals with implementing a locomotion behavior observed in the biological archetype Cebrennus villosus to a robot prototype whose structural design needs to be developed.   The biological sample is investigated as far as possible and compared to other evolutional solutions within the framework of nature’s inventions. Current achievements in robotics are examined and evaluated for their relation and relevance to the robot prototype in question. An overview of what is state of the art in actuation ensures the choice of the hardware available and most suitable for this project. Through a constant consideration of the achievement of two fundamentally different ways of locomotion with one and the same structure, a robot design is developed and constructed taking hardware constraints into account. The development of a special leg structure that needs to resemble and replace body elements of the biological archetype is a speci...

  4. Tumor Biology and Microenvironment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI's Division of Cancer Biology's research portfolio, research in this area seeks to understand the role of tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) in driving cancer initiation, progression, maintenance and recurrence.

  5. Art-inspired Presentation of Earth Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, K.; Smith, D. K.; Smith, T.; Conover, H.; Robinson, E.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation features two posters inspired by modern and contemporary art that showcase different Earth science data at NASA's Global Hydrology Resource Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GHRC DAAC). The posters are intended for the science-interested public. They are designed to tell an interesting story and to stimulate interest in the science behind the art. "Water makes the World" is a photo mosaic of cloud water droplet and ice crystal images combined to depict the Earth in space. The individual images were captured using microphysical probes installed on research aircraft flown in the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). MC3E was one of a series of ground validation field experiments for NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission which collected ground and airborne precipitation datasets supporting the physical validation of satellite-based precipitation retrieval algorithms. "The Lightning Capital of the World" is laid out on a grid of black lines and primary colors in the style of Piet Mondrian. This neoplastic or "new plastic art" style was founded in the Netherlands and was used in art from 1917 to 1931. The poster colorfully describes the Catatumbo lightning phenomenon from a scientific, social and historical perspective. It is a still representation of a moving art project. To see this poster in action, visit the GHRC YouTube channel at http://tinyurl.com/hd6crx8 or stop by during the poster session. Both posters were created for a special Research as Art session at the 2016 Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) summer meeting in Durham, NC. This gallery-style event challenged attendees to use visual media to show how the ESIP community uses data. Both of these visually appealing posters draw the viewer in and then provide information on the science data used, as well as links for more information available. The GHRC DAAC is a joint venture of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the

  6. Fish-inspired robots: design, sensing, actuation, and autonomy--a review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Aditi; Thakur, Atul

    2016-04-13

    Underwater robot designs inspired by the behavior, physiology, and anatomy of fishes can provide enhanced maneuverability, stealth, and energy efficiency. Over the last two decades, robotics researchers have developed and reported a large variety of fish-inspired robot designs. The purpose of this review is to report different types of fish-inspired robot designs based upon their intended locomotion patterns. We present a detailed comparison of various design features like sensing, actuation, autonomy, waterproofing, and morphological structure of fish-inspired robots reported in the past decade. We believe that by studying the existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from the successful robots. The review also summarizes the open research issues that need to be taken up for the further advancement of the field and also for the deployment of fish-inspired robots in practice.

  7. Trienamine catalyzed asymmetric synthesis and biological investigation of a cytochalasin B-inspired compound collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellstedt, Magnus; Schwalfenberg, Melanie; Ziegler, Slava; Antonchick, Andrey P; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-01-07

    Due to their enhanced metabolic needs many cancers need a sufficient supply of glucose, and novel inhibitors of glucose import are in high demand. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a potent natural glucose import inhibitor which also impairs the actin cytoskeleton leading to undesired toxicity. With a view to identifying selective glucose import inhibitors we have developed an enantioselective trienamine catalyzed synthesis of a CB-inspired compound collection. Biological analysis revealed that indeed actin impairment can be distinguished from glucose import inhibition and led to the identification of the first selective glucose import inhibitor based on the basic structural architecture of cytochalasin B.

  8. Wet self-cleaning of biologically inspired elastomer mushroom shaped microfibrillar adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok; Cheung, Eugene; Sitti, Metin

    2009-07-07

    We report that hydrophilic polyurethane mushroom shaped microfiber arrays possess wet self-cleaning ability using the lotus effect as biologically inspired synthetic fibrillar adhesives. In comparison with a flat surface made of the same polyurethane, the fiber array exhibited almost 100% wet self-cleaning without any degradation of adhesive strength. We attribute this cleaning ability to the mushroom shaped tip ending geometry of the fiber array, which causes the fiber array to be apparently hydrophobic even though the fiber material is hydrophilic. These results suggest that tip ending shape is one of the significant design parameters for developing contamination-resistant polymer fibrillar adhesives.

  9. Advancing vector biology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K.; Kersey, Paul J.; Maslen, Gareth L.; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Oliva, Clelia F.; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F.X.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Levashina, Elena A.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target

  10. Research Collaboration Workshop for Women in Mathematical Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the Research Collaboration Workshop for Women in Mathematical Biology, this volume contains research and review articles that cover topics ranging from models of animal movement to the flow of blood cells in the embryonic heart. Hosted by the National Institute for Mathematics and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS), the workshop brought together women working in biology and mathematics to form four research groups that encouraged multidisciplinary collaboration and lifetime connections in the STEM field. This volume introduces many of the topics from the workshop, including the aerodynamics of spider ballooning; sleep, circadian rhythms, and pain; blood flow regulation in the kidney; and the effects of antimicrobial therapy on gut microbiota and microbiota and Clostridium difficile. Perfect for students and researchers in mathematics and biology, the papers included in this volume offer an introductory glimpse at recent research in mathematical biology. .

  11. Learning from nature: Nature-inspired algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albeanu, Grigore; Madsen, Henrik; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2016-01-01

    During last decade, the nature has inspired researchers to develop new algorithms. The largest collection of nature-inspired algorithms is biology-inspired: swarm intelligence (particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, cuckoo search, bees' algorithm, bat algorithm, firefly algorithm etc...

  12. Project INSPIRE-HBCU Undergraduate Collaborative Summer Training Program to Inspire Students in Prostate Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Nagi

    2007-01-01

    ... sciences research for promising undergraduate students enrolled at Florida A & M University (FAMU), who are at an important career-decision-making point, in a host institution such as the Moffitt Cancer Center...

  13. Project INSPIRE-HBCU Undergraduate Collaborative Summer Training Program to Inspire Students in Prostate Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Nagi

    2008-01-01

    ... sciences research for promising undergraduate students enrolled at Florida A & M University (FAMU), who are at an important career-decision-making point, in a host institution such as the Moffitt Cancer Center...

  14. Project INSPIRE-HBCU Undergraduate Collaborative Summer Training Program to Inspire Students in Prostate Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    fellow researcher. This list will be compared with a comprehensive listing of all state licensed cosmetology salons in Hillsborough County from the DPBR...sinensis plant , were tested and proven to cause apoptosis in cancer cells of the stomach, lungs, prostate, colon, leukemia, oral tumors, liver, breasts

  15. Biologically inspired control and modeling of (biorobotic systems and some applications of fractional calculus in mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Mihailo P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the applications of biologically inspired modeling and control of (biomechanical (nonredundant mechanisms are presented, as well as newly obtained results of author in mechanics which are based on using fractional calculus. First, it is proposed to use biological analog-synergy due to existence of invariant features in the execution of functional motion. Second, the model of (biomechanical system may be obtained using another biological concept called distributed positioning (DP, which is based on the inertial properties and actuation of joints of considered mechanical system. In addition, it is proposed to use other biological principles such as: principle of minimum interaction, which takes a main role in hierarchical structure of control and self-adjusting principle (introduce local positive/negative feedback on control with great amplifying, which allows efficiently realization of control based on iterative natural learning. Also, new, recently obtained results of the author in the fields of stability, electroviscoelasticity, and control theory are presented which are based on using fractional calculus (FC. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 35006

  16. A biologically inspired meta-control navigation system for the Psikharpax rat robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caluwaerts, K; Staffa, M; N’Guyen, S; Grand, C; Dollé, L; Favre-Félix, A; Girard, B; Khamassi, M

    2012-01-01

    A biologically inspired navigation system for the mobile rat-like robot named Psikharpax is presented, allowing for self-localization and autonomous navigation in an initially unknown environment. The ability of parts of the model (e.g. the strategy selection mechanism) to reproduce rat behavioral data in various maze tasks has been validated before in simulations. But the capacity of the model to work on a real robot platform had not been tested. This paper presents our work on the implementation on the Psikharpax robot of two independent navigation strategies (a place-based planning strategy and a cue-guided taxon strategy) and a strategy selection meta-controller. We show how our robot can memorize which was the optimal strategy in each situation, by means of a reinforcement learning algorithm. Moreover, a context detector enables the controller to quickly adapt to changes in the environment—recognized as new contexts—and to restore previously acquired strategy preferences when a previously experienced context is recognized. This produces adaptivity closer to rat behavioral performance and constitutes a computational proposition of the role of the rat prefrontal cortex in strategy shifting. Moreover, such a brain-inspired meta-controller may provide an advancement for learning architectures in robotics. (paper)

  17. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagi, Stefano; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia; Jager, Edwin WH

    2013-01-01

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to its particular embodiment in Paramecium caudatum), and we investigate the contribution of its main features to the swimming performance, through a three-dimensional finite-elements model, in order to develop a simplified, yet effective artificial design. We propose a bioinspired propulsion mechanism for a swimming microrobot based on a continuous cylindrical electroactive surface exhibiting perpendicular wave deformations travelling longitudinally along its main axis. The simplified propulsion mechanism is conceived specifically for microrobots that embed a micro-actuation system capable of executing the bioinspired propulsion (self-propelled microrobots). Among the available electroactive polymers, we select polypyrrole as the possible actuation material and we assess it for this particular embodiment. The results are used to appoint target performance specifications for the development of improved or new electroactive materials to attain metachronal-waves-like propulsion. (paper)

  18. Soft robotic arm inspired by the octopus: I. From biological functions to artificial requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margheri, L; Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B

    2012-01-01

    Octopuses are molluscs that belong to the group Cephalopoda. They lack joints and rigid links, and as a result, their arms possess virtually limitless freedom of movement. These flexible appendages exhibit peculiar biomechanical features such as stiffness control, compliance, and high flexibility and dexterity. Studying the capabilities of the octopus arm is a complex task that presents a challenge for both biologists and roboticists, the latter of whom draw inspiration from the octopus in designing novel technologies within soft robotics. With this idea in mind, in this study, we used new, purposively developed methods of analysing the octopus arm in vivo to create new biologically inspired design concepts. Our measurements showed that the octopus arm can elongate by 70% in tandem with a 23% diameter reduction and exhibits an average pulling force of 40 N. The arm also exhibited a 20% mean shortening at a rate of 17.1 mm s −1 and a longitudinal stiffening rate as high as 2 N (mm s) −1 . Using histology and ultrasounds, we investigated the functional morphology of the internal tissues, including the sinusoidal arrangement of the nerve cord and the local insertion points of the longitudinal and transverse muscle fibres. The resulting information was used to create novel design principles and specifications that can in turn be used in developing a new soft robotic arm. (paper)

  19. Soft robotic arm inspired by the octopus: I. From biological functions to artificial requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, L; Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B

    2012-06-01

    Octopuses are molluscs that belong to the group Cephalopoda. They lack joints and rigid links, and as a result, their arms possess virtually limitless freedom of movement. These flexible appendages exhibit peculiar biomechanical features such as stiffness control, compliance, and high flexibility and dexterity. Studying the capabilities of the octopus arm is a complex task that presents a challenge for both biologists and roboticists, the latter of whom draw inspiration from the octopus in designing novel technologies within soft robotics. With this idea in mind, in this study, we used new, purposively developed methods of analysing the octopus arm in vivo to create new biologically inspired design concepts. Our measurements showed that the octopus arm can elongate by 70% in tandem with a 23% diameter reduction and exhibits an average pulling force of 40 N. The arm also exhibited a 20% mean shortening at a rate of 17.1 mm s(-1) and a longitudinal stiffening rate as high as 2 N (mm s)(-1). Using histology and ultrasounds, we investigated the functional morphology of the internal tissues, including the sinusoidal arrangement of the nerve cord and the local insertion points of the longitudinal and transverse muscle fibres. The resulting information was used to create novel design principles and specifications that can in turn be used in developing a new soft robotic arm.

  20. Computational intelligence in multi-feature visual pattern recognition hand posture and face recognition using biologically inspired approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Pisharady, Pramod Kumar; Poh, Loh Ai

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of computational intelligence algorithms that addresses issues in visual pattern recognition such as high computational complexity, abundance of pattern features, sensitivity to size and shape variations and poor performance against complex backgrounds. The book has 3 parts. Part 1 describes various research issues in the field with a survey of the related literature. Part 2 presents computational intelligence based algorithms for feature selection and classification. The algorithms are discriminative and fast. The main application area considered is hand posture recognition. The book also discusses utility of these algorithms in other visual as well as non-visual pattern recognition tasks including face recognition, general object recognition and cancer / tumor classification. Part 3 presents biologically inspired algorithms for feature extraction. The visual cortex model based features discussed have invariance with respect to appearance and size of the hand, and provide good...

  1. Perceptron-like computation based on biologically-inspired neurons with heterosynaptic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Urdapilleta, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    Perceptrons are one of the fundamental paradigms in artificial neural networks and a key processing scheme in supervised classification tasks. However, the algorithm they provide is given in terms of unrealistically simple processing units and connections and therefore, its implementation in real neural networks is hard to be fulfilled. In this work, we present a neural circuit able to perform perceptron's computation based on realistic models of neurons and synapses. The model uses Wang-Buzsáki neurons with coupling provided by axodendritic and axoaxonic synapses (heterosynapsis). The main characteristics of the feedforward perceptron operation are conserved, which allows to combine both approaches: whereas the classical artificial system can be used to learn a particular problem, its solution can be directly implemented in this neural circuit. As a result, we propose a biologically-inspired system able to work appropriately in a wide range of frequencies and system parameters, while keeping robust to noise and error.

  2. Energy-based control for a biologically inspired hexapod robot with rolling locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Nemoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to control rolling locomotion on the level ground with a biologically inspired hexapod robot. For controlling rolling locomotion, a controller which can compensate energy loss with rolling locomotion of the hexapod robot is designed based on its dynamic model. The dynamic model describes the rolling locomotion which is limited to planar one by an assumption that the hexapod robot does not fall down while rolling and influences due to collision and contact with the ground, and it is applied for computing the mechanical energy of the hexapod robot and a plant for a numerical simulation. The numerical simulation of the rolling locomotion on the level ground verifies the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The simulation results show that the hexapod robot can perform the rolling locomotion with the proposed controller. In conclusion, it is shown that the proposed control approach is effective in achieving the rolling locomotion on the level ground.

  3. Biologically-inspired On-chip Learning in Pulsed Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten; Woodburn, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Self-learning chips to implement many popular ANN (artificial neural network) algorithms are very difficult to design. We explain why this is so and say what lessons previous work teaches us in the design of self-learning systems. We offer a contribution to the "biologically-inspired" approach......, explaining what we mean by this term and providing an example of a robust, self-learning design that can solve simple classical-conditioning tasks, We give details of the design of individual circuits to perform component functions, which can then be combined into a network to solve the task. We argue...... that useful conclusions as to the future of on-chip learning can be drawn from this work....

  4. Automated mitosis detection using texture, SIFT features and HMAX biologically inspired approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Humayun; Jalali, Sepehr; Roux, Ludovic; Racoceanu, Daniel; Hwee, Lim Joo; Naour, Gilles Le; Capron, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    According to Nottingham grading system, mitosis count in breast cancer histopathology is one of three components required for cancer grading and prognosis. Manual counting of mitosis is tedious and subject to considerable inter- and intra-reader variations. The aim is to investigate the various texture features and Hierarchical Model and X (HMAX) biologically inspired approach for mitosis detection using machine-learning techniques. We propose an approach that assists pathologists in automated mitosis detection and counting. The proposed method, which is based on the most favorable texture features combination, examines the separability between different channels of color space. Blue-ratio channel provides more discriminative information for mitosis detection in histopathological images. Co-occurrence features, run-length features, and Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features were extracted and used in the classification of mitosis. Finally, a classification is performed to put the candidate patch either in the mitosis class or in the non-mitosis class. Three different classifiers have been evaluated: Decision tree, linear kernel Support Vector Machine (SVM), and non-linear kernel SVM. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed framework using the modified biologically inspired model of HMAX and compare the results with other feature extraction methods such as dense SIFT. The proposed method has been tested on Mitosis detection in breast cancer histological images (MITOS) dataset provided for an International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) 2012 contest. The proposed framework achieved 76% recall, 75% precision and 76% F-measure. Different frameworks for classification have been evaluated for mitosis detection. In future work, instead of regions, we intend to compute features on the results of mitosis contour segmentation and use them to improve detection and classification rate.

  5. Automated mitosis detection using texture, SIFT features and HMAX biologically inspired approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayun Irshad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: According to Nottingham grading system, mitosis count in breast cancer histopathology is one of three components required for cancer grading and prognosis. Manual counting of mitosis is tedious and subject to considerable inter- and intra-reader variations. Aims: The aim is to investigate the various texture features and Hierarchical Model and X (HMAX biologically inspired approach for mitosis detection using machine-learning techniques. Materials and Methods: We propose an approach that assists pathologists in automated mitosis detection and counting. The proposed method, which is based on the most favorable texture features combination, examines the separability between different channels of color space. Blue-ratio channel provides more discriminative information for mitosis detection in histopathological images. Co-occurrence features, run-length features, and Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT features were extracted and used in the classification of mitosis. Finally, a classification is performed to put the candidate patch either in the mitosis class or in the non-mitosis class. Three different classifiers have been evaluated: Decision tree, linear kernel Support Vector Machine (SVM, and non-linear kernel SVM. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed framework using the modified biologically inspired model of HMAX and compare the results with other feature extraction methods such as dense SIFT. Results: The proposed method has been tested on Mitosis detection in breast cancer histological images (MITOS dataset provided for an International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2012 contest. The proposed framework achieved 76% recall, 75% precision and 76% F-measure. Conclusions: Different frameworks for classification have been evaluated for mitosis detection. In future work, instead of regions, we intend to compute features on the results of mitosis contour segmentation and use them to improve detection and

  6. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  7. The Potential of Deweyan-Inspired Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jody L.

    2014-01-01

    In its broadest sense, pragmatism could be said to be the philosophical orientation of all action research. Action research is characterized by research, action, and participation grounded in democratic principles and guided by the aim of social improvement. Furthermore, action research is an active process of inquiry that does not admit…

  8. Evolutionary Biology Research in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Evolutionary Biology Research in India. Information and Announcements Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 102-104. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/10/0102-0104 ...

  9. Evolutionary Biology Research in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Evolutionary Biology Research in India. Information and Announcements Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 102-104. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/10/0102-0104 ...

  10. Molecular biology approaches in bioadhesion research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular biology tools in the field of bioadhesion is still in its infancy. For new research groups who are considering taking a molecular approach, the techniques presented here are essential to unravelling the sequence of a gene, its expression and its biological function. Here we provide an outline for addressing adhesion-related genes in diverse organisms. We show how to gradually narrow down the number of candidate transcripts that are involved in adhesion by (1 generating a transcriptome and a differentially expressed cDNA list enriched for adhesion-related transcripts, (2 setting up a BLAST search facility, (3 perform an in situ hybridization screen, and (4 functional analyses of selected genes by using RNA interference knock-down. Furthermore, latest developments in genome-editing are presented as new tools to study gene function. By using this iterative multi-technologies approach, the identification, isolation, expression and function of adhesion-related genes can be studied in most organisms. These tools will improve our understanding of the diversity of molecules used for adhesion in different organisms and these findings will help to develop innovative bio-inspired adhesives.

  11. Cancer research meets evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, John W; Scott Findlay, C; Kassen, Rees; Spencer, Sabrina L; Maley, Carlo C

    2009-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection provides insights into the etiology and treatment of cancer. On a microscopic scale, neoplastic cells meet the conditions for evolution by Darwinian selection: cell reproduction with heritable variability that affects cell survival and replication. This suggests that, like other areas of biological and biomedical research, Darwinian theory can provide a general framework for understanding many aspects of cancer, including problems of great clinical importance. With the availability of raw molecular data increasing rapidly, this theory may provide guidance in translating data into understanding and progress. Several conceptual and analytical tools from evolutionary biology can be applied to cancer biology. Two clinical problems may benefit most from the application of Darwinian theory: neoplastic progression and acquired therapeutic resistance. The Darwinian theory of cancer has especially profound implications for drug development, both in terms of explaining past difficulties, and pointing the way toward new approaches. Because cancer involves complex evolutionary processes, research should incorporate both tractable (simplified) experimental systems, and also longitudinal observational studies of the evolutionary dynamics of cancer in laboratory animals and in human patients. Cancer biology will require new tools to control the evolution of neoplastic cells.

  12. Biologically Inspired Model for Visual Cognition Achieving Unsupervised Episodic and Semantic Feature Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hong; Li, Yinlin; Li, Fengfu; Xi, Xuanyang; Wu, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Recently, many biologically inspired visual computational models have been proposed. The design of these models follows the related biological mechanisms and structures, and these models provide new solutions for visual recognition tasks. In this paper, based on the recent biological evidence, we propose a framework to mimic the active and dynamic learning and recognition process of the primate visual cortex. From principle point of view, the main contributions are that the framework can achieve unsupervised learning of episodic features (including key components and their spatial relations) and semantic features (semantic descriptions of the key components), which support higher level cognition of an object. From performance point of view, the advantages of the framework are as follows: 1) learning episodic features without supervision-for a class of objects without a prior knowledge, the key components, their spatial relations and cover regions can be learned automatically through a deep neural network (DNN); 2) learning semantic features based on episodic features-within the cover regions of the key components, the semantic geometrical values of these components can be computed based on contour detection; 3) forming the general knowledge of a class of objects-the general knowledge of a class of objects can be formed, mainly including the key components, their spatial relations and average semantic values, which is a concise description of the class; and 4) achieving higher level cognition and dynamic updating-for a test image, the model can achieve classification and subclass semantic descriptions. And the test samples with high confidence are selected to dynamically update the whole model. Experiments are conducted on face images, and a good performance is achieved in each layer of the DNN and the semantic description learning process. Furthermore, the model can be generalized to recognition tasks of other objects with learning ability.

  13. Development trend of radiation biology research-systems radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation biology research has past 80 years. We have known much more about fundamentals, processes and results of biology effects induced by radiation and various factors that influence biology effects wide and deep, however many old and new scientific problems occurring in the field of radiation biology research remain to be illustrated. To explore and figure these scientific problems need systemic concept, methods and multi dimension view on the base of considerations of complexity of biology system, diversity of biology response, temporal and spatial process of biological effects during occurrence, and complex feed back network of biological regulations. (authors)

  14. Building Health System Capacity Through Implementation Research: Experience of INSPIRE-A Multi-country PMTCT Implementation Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman Owiredu, Morkor; Bellare, Nita B; Chakanyuka Musanhu, Christine C; Oyelade, Taiwo A; Thom, Ellen M; Bigirimana, Francoise; Anyaike, Chukwuma; Eliya, Michael T; Mushavi, Angela; Nyarko, Eugene A; Okello, David O; Zawaira, Felicitas R

    2017-06-01

    The INSPIRE-Integrating and Scaling Up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch-initiative was established as a model partnership of national prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) implementation research in 3 high HIV burden countries-Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. INSPIRE aimed to link local research groups with Ministries of Health (MOH), build local research capacity, and demonstrate that implementation research may contribute to improving health care delivery and respond to program challenges. We used a mixed methods approach to review capacity building activities, as experienced by health care workers, researchers, and trainers conducted in the 6 INSPIRE projects before and during study implementation. Between 2011 and 2016, over 3400 health care workers, research team members, and community members participated in INSPIRE activities. This included research prioritization exercises, proposal development, good clinical practice and research ethics training, data management and analysis workshops, and manuscript development. Health care workers in clinics and district health offices acknowledged the value of hosting implementation research projects and how the quality of services improved. Research teams acknowledged the opportunities that projects provided for personal development and the value of participating in a multicountry research network. INSPIRE provided an opportunity for African-led research in which researchers worked closely with national MOH to identify priority research questions and implement studies. Close partnerships between research teams and local implementers facilitated project responsiveness to local program issues. Consequently, processes and training needed for study implementation also improved local program management and service delivery. Additional benefits included improved data management, publications, and career development.

  15. Methodology for designing and manufacturing complex biologically inspired soft robotic fluidic actuators: prosthetic hand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Bean, E; Das, R; McDaid, A

    2016-10-31

    We present a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of complex biologically inspired soft robotic fluidic actuators. The methodology is applied to the design and manufacture of a prosthetic for the hand. Real human hands are scanned to produce a 3D model of a finger, and pneumatic networks are implemented within it to produce a biomimetic bending motion. The finger is then partitioned into material sections, and a genetic algorithm based optimization, using finite element analysis, is employed to discover the optimal material for each section. This is based on two biomimetic performance criteria. Two sets of optimizations using two material sets are performed. Promising optimized material arrangements are fabricated using two techniques to validate the optimization routine, and the fabricated and simulated results are compared. We find that the optimization is successful in producing biomimetic soft robotic fingers and that fabrication of the fingers is possible. Limitations and paths for development are discussed. This methodology can be applied for other fluidic soft robotic devices.

  16. Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-04-01

    Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

  17. Design of a biologically inspired lower limb exoskeleton for human gait rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mingxing; Chen, Weihai; Ding, Xilun; Wang, Jianhua; Bai, Shaoping; Ren, Huichao

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel bionic model of the human leg according to the theory of physiology. Based on this model, we present a biologically inspired 3-degree of freedom (DOF) lower limb exoskeleton for human gait rehabilitation, showing that the lower limb exoskeleton is fully compatible with the human knee joint. The exoskeleton has a hybrid serial-parallel kinematic structure consisting of a 1-DOF hip joint module and a 2-DOF knee joint module in the sagittal plane. A planar 2-DOF parallel mechanism is introduced in the design to fully accommodate the motion of the human knee joint, which features not only rotation but also relative sliding. Therefore, the design is consistent with the requirements of bionics. The forward and inverse kinematic analysis is studied and the workspace of the exoskeleton is analyzed. The structural parameters are optimized to obtain a larger workspace. The results using MATLAB-ADAMS co-simulation are shown in this paper to demonstrate the feasibility of our design. A prototype of the exoskeleton is also developed and an experiment performed to verify the kinematic analysis. Compared with existing lower limb exoskeletons, the designed mechanism has a large workspace, while allowing knee joint rotation and small amount of sliding.

  18. A biologically inspired controller to solve the coverage problem in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rañó, Iñaki; Santos, José A

    2017-06-05

    The coverage problem consists on computing a path or trajectory for a robot to pass over all the points in some free area and has applications ranging from floor cleaning to demining. Coverage is solved as a planning problem-providing theoretical validation of the solution-or through heuristic techniques which rely on experimental validation. Through a combination of theoretical results and simulations, this paper presents a novel solution to the coverage problem that exploits the chaotic behaviour of a simple biologically inspired motion controller, the Braitenberg vehicle 2b. Although chaos has been used for coverage, our approach has much less restrictive assumptions about the environment and can be implemented using on-board sensors. First, we prove theoretically that this vehicle-a well known model of animal tropotaxis-behaves as a charge in an electro-magnetic field. The motion equations can be reduced to a Hamiltonian system, and, therefore the vehicle follows quasi-periodic or chaotic trajectories, which pass arbitrarily close to any point in the work-space, i.e. it solves the coverage problem. Secondly, through a set of extensive simulations, we show that the trajectories cover regions of bounded workspaces, and full coverage is achieved when the perceptual range of the vehicle is short. We compare the performance of this new approach with different types of random motion controllers in the same bounded environments.

  19. A Biologically Inspired Approach to Frequency Domain Feature Extraction for EEG Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Gursel Ozmen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of electroencephalogram (EEG signal is important in mental decoding for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. We introduced a feature extraction approach based on frequency domain analysis to improve the classification performance on different mental tasks using single-channel EEG. This biologically inspired method extracts the most discriminative spectral features from power spectral densities (PSDs of the EEG signals. We applied our method on a dataset of six subjects who performed five different imagination tasks: (i resting state, (ii mental arithmetic, (iii imagination of left hand movement, (iv imagination of right hand movement, and (v imagination of letter “A.” Pairwise and multiclass classifications were performed in single EEG channel using Linear Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machines. Our method produced results (mean classification accuracy of 83.06% for binary classification and 91.85% for multiclassification that are on par with the state-of-the-art methods, using single-channel EEG with low computational cost. Among all task pairs, mental arithmetic versus letter imagination yielded the best result (mean classification accuracy of 90.29%, indicating that this task pair could be the most suitable pair for a binary class BCI. This study contributes to the development of single-channel BCI, as well as finding the best task pair for user defined applications.

  20. Biologically inspired multi-layered synthetic skin for tactile feedback in prosthetic limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Luke; Nguyen, Harrison; Betthauser, Joseph; Kaliki, Rahul; Thakor, Nitish

    2016-08-01

    The human body offers a template for many state-of-the-art prosthetic devices and sensors. In this work, we present a novel, sensorized synthetic skin that mimics the natural multi-layered nature of mechanoreceptors found in healthy glabrous skin to provide tactile information. The multi-layered sensor is made up of flexible piezoresistive textiles that act as force sensitive resistors (FSRs) to convey tactile information, which are embedded within a silicone rubber to resemble the compliant nature of human skin. The top layer of the synthetic skin is capable of detecting small loads less than 5 N whereas the bottom sensing layer responds reliably to loads over 7 N. Finite element analysis (FEA) of a simplified human fingertip and the synthetic skin was performed. Results suggest similarities in behavior during loading. A natural tactile event is simulated by loading the synthetic skin on a prosthetic limb. Results show the sensors' ability to detect applied loads as well as the ability to simulate neural spiking activity based on the derivative and temporal differences of the sensor response. During the tactile loading, the top sensing layer responded 0.24 s faster than the bottom sensing layer. A synthetic biologically-inspired skin such as this will be useful for enhancing the functionality of prosthetic limbs through tactile feedback.

  1. A Comparative Study of Biologically Inspired Walking Gaits through Waypoint Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Asif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the locomotion of a walking robot by delivering a comparative study of three different biologically inspired walking gaits, namely: tripod, ripple, and wave, in terms of ground slippage they experience while walking. The objective of this study is to identify the gait model which experiences the minimum slippage while walking on a ground with a specific coefficient of friction. To accomplish this feat, the robot is steered over a reference path using a waypoint navigation algorithm, and the divergence of the robot from the reference path is investigated in terms of slip errors. Experiments are conducted through closed-loop simulations using an open dynamics engine which emphasizes the fact that due to uneven and unsymmetrical distribution of payload in tripod and ripple gait models, the robot experiences comparatively larger drift in these gaits than when using the wave gait model in which the distribution of payload is even and symmetrical on both sides of the robot body. The paper investigates this phenomenon on the basis of force distribution of supporting legs in each gait model.

  2. Modelling of a biologically inspired robotic fish driven by compliant parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daou, Hadi El; Salumäe, Taavi; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Chambers, Lily D; Megill, William M

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by biological swimmers such as fish, a robot composed of a rigid head, a compliant body and a rigid caudal fin was built. It has the geometrical properties of a subcarangiform swimmer of the same size. The head houses a servo-motor which actuates the compliant body and the caudal fin. It achieves this by applying a concentrated moment on a point near the compliant body base. In this paper, the dynamics of the compliant body driving the robotic fish is modelled and experimentally validated. Lighthill’s elongated body theory is used to define the hydrodynamic forces on the compliant part and Rayleigh proportional damping is used to model damping. Based on the assumed modes method, an energetic approach is used to write the equations of motion of the compliant body and to compute the relationship between the applied moment and the resulting lateral deflections. Experiments on the compliant body were carried out to validate the model predictions. The results showed that a good match was achieved between the measured and predicted deformations. A discussion of the swimming motions between the real fish and the robot is presented. (paper)

  3. A biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) for enhancing DNA signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tan; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin

    2017-10-01

    Digital signal processing techniques commonly employ fixed length window filters to process the signal contents. DNA signals differ in characteristics from common digital signals since they carry nucleotides as contents. The nucleotides own genetic code context and fuzzy behaviors due to their special structure and order in DNA strand. Employing conventional fixed length window filters for DNA signal processing produce spectral leakage and hence results in signal noise. A biological context aware adaptive window filter is required to process the DNA signals. This paper introduces a biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) which computes the fuzzy membership strength of nucleotides in each slide of window and filters nucleotides based on median filtering with a combination of s-shaped and z-shaped filters. Since coding regions cause 3-base periodicity by an unbalanced nucleotides' distribution producing a relatively high bias for nucleotides' usage, such fundamental characteristic of nucleotides has been exploited in FAWMF to suppress the signal noise. Along with adaptive response of FAWMF, a strong correlation between median nucleotides and the Π shaped filter was observed which produced enhanced discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary to fixed length conventional window filters. The proposed FAWMF attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 40% to 125% as compared to other conventional window filters tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms. This study proves that conventional fixed length window filters applied to DNA signals do not achieve significant results since the nucleotides carry genetic code context. The proposed FAWMF algorithm is adaptive and outperforms significantly to process DNA signal contents. The algorithm applied to variety of DNA datasets produced noteworthy discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary

  4. An overview of Hofstede-inspired country-level culture research in international business since 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Kostova, Tatiana; Roth, Kendall

    Kirkman, Lowe, & Gibson's (2006) JIBS article summarized and critiqued international business research inspired by the most cited book in the field Hofstede's 1980 Culture's Consequences: International differences in work-related values (Hofstede [1980]2001). They identified a number of issues in

  5. Inspiring Collaboration: The Legacy of Theo Colborn's Transdisciplinary Research on Fracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Sara; Schultz, Kim; Thomas, Deborah; Kassotis, Chris; Nagel, Susan

    2016-09-13

    This article describes Dr Theo Colborn's legacy of inspiring complementary and synergistic environmental health research and advocacy. Colborn, a founder of endocrine disruption research, also stimulated study of hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In 2014, the United States led the world in oil and gas production, with fifteen million Americans living within one mile of an oil or gas well. Colborn pioneered efforts to understand and control the impacts of this sea change in energy production. In 2005, her research organization The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX) developed a database of chemicals used in natural gas extraction and their health effects. This database stimulated novel scientific and social scientific research and informed advocacy by (1) connecting communities' diverse health impacts to chemicals used in natural gas development, (2) inspiring social science research on open-source software and hardware for citizen science, and (3) posing new scientific questions about the endocrine-disrupting properties of fracking chemicals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. A biologically inspired model of bat echolocation in a cluttered environment with inputs designed from field Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncich, Kristen Teczar

    Bat echolocation strategies and neural processing of acoustic information, with a focus on cluttered environments, is investigated in this study. How a bat processes the dense field of echoes received while navigating and foraging in the dark is not well understood. While several models have been developed to describe the mechanisms behind bat echolocation, most are based in mathematics rather than biology, and focus on either peripheral or neural processing---not exploring how these two levels of processing are vitally connected. Current echolocation models also do not use habitat specific acoustic input, or account for field observations of echolocation strategies. Here, a new approach to echolocation modeling is described capturing the full picture of echolocation from signal generation to a neural picture of the acoustic scene. A biologically inspired echolocation model is developed using field research measurements of the interpulse interval timing used by a frequency modulating (FM) bat in the wild, with a whole method approach to modeling echolocation including habitat specific acoustic inputs, a biologically accurate peripheral model of sound processing by the outer, middle, and inner ear, and finally a neural model incorporating established auditory pathways and neuron types with echolocation adaptations. Field recordings analyzed underscore bat sonar design differences observed in the laboratory and wild, and suggest a correlation between interpulse interval groupings and increased clutter. The scenario model provides habitat and behavior specific echoes and is a useful tool for both modeling and behavioral studies, and the peripheral and neural model show that spike-time information and echolocation specific neuron types can produce target localization in the midbrain.

  7. Review of domestic radiation biology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Chun; Song Lingli; Ai Zihui

    2011-01-01

    Radiation biology research in China during the past ten years are reviewed. It should be noticed that radiation-biology should focus on microdosimetry, microbeam application, and radiation biological mechanism. (authors)

  8. Training mechanical engineering students to utilize biological inspiration during product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Hugh A; Gershon, Alan L; Golden, Ira; Gupta, Satyandra K; Gyger, Lawrence S; Magrab, Edward B; Spranklin, Brent W

    2007-12-01

    The use of bio-inspiration for the development of new products and devices requires new educational tools for students consisting of appropriate design and manufacturing technologies, as well as curriculum. At the University of Maryland, new educational tools have been developed that introduce bio-inspired product realization to undergraduate mechanical engineering students. These tools include the development of a bio-inspired design repository, a concurrent fabrication and assembly manufacturing technology, a series of undergraduate curriculum modules and a new senior elective in the bio-inspired robotics area. This paper first presents an overview of the two new design and manufacturing technologies that enable students to realize bio-inspired products, and describes how these technologies are integrated into the undergraduate educational experience. Then, the undergraduate curriculum modules are presented, which provide students with the fundamental design and manufacturing principles needed to support bio-inspired product and device development. Finally, an elective bio-inspired robotics project course is present, which provides undergraduates with the opportunity to demonstrate the application of the knowledge acquired through the curriculum modules in their senior year using the new design and manufacturing technologies.

  9. Novel biologically-inspired rosette nanotube PLLA scaffolds for improving human mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Allie; Castro, Nathan J; Zhang, Lijie Grace; Hemraz, Usha D; Fenniri, Hicham

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage defects are a persistent issue in orthopedic tissue engineering where acute and chronic tissue damage stemming from osteoarthritis, trauma, and sport injuries, present a common and serious clinical problem. Unlike bone, cartilage repair continues to be largely intractable due to the tissue's inherently poor regenerative capacity. Thus, the objective of this study is to design a novel tissue engineered nanostructured cartilage scaffold via biologically-inspired self-assembling rosette nanotubes (RNTs) and biocompatible non-woven poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) for enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) chondrogenic differentiation. Specifically, RNTs are a new class of biomimetic supramolecular nanomaterial obtained through the self-assembly of low-molecular-weight modified guanine/cytosine DNA base hybrids (the G∧C motif) in an aqueous environment. In this study, we synthesized a novel twin G∧C-based RNT (TB-RGDSK) functionalized with cell-favorable arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–serine–lysine (RGDSK) integrin binding peptide and a twin G∧C based RNT with an aminobutane linker molecule (TBL). hMSC adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation were evaluated in vitro in scaffold groups consisting of biocompatible PLLA with TBL, 1:9 TB-RGDSK:TBL, and TB-RGDSK, respectively. Our results show that RNTs can remarkably increase total glycosaminoglycan, collagen, and protein production when compared to PLLA controls without nanotubes. Furthermore, the TB-RGDSK with 100% well-organized RGDSK peptides achieved the highest chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The current in vitro study illustrated that RNT nanotopography and surface chemistry played an important role in enhancing hMSC chondrogenic differentiation thus making them promising for cartilage regeneration. (paper)

  10. Biological Inspired Direct Adaptive Guidance and Control for Autonomous Flight Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corban, J. E; Gilbert, Cole; Calise, Anthony J; Tannenbaum, Allen R

    2004-01-01

    ... of the target on the eye during the pursuit. The results provided a means to compare the guidance strategy of the fly with traditional proportional navigation, and to look for inspiration in the development of new guidance laws...

  11. Space Station Biological Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox

  12. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ross, A Catharine

    2015-01-01

    of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs....../Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible...... for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence...

  13. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H 2 O 2 )-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

  14. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-15

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells.

  15. Biological research for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  16. A Biologically Inspired Model of Distributed Online Communication Supporting Efficient Search and Diffusion of Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Baneerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We inhabit a world that is not only “small” but supports efficient decentralized search – an individual using local information can establish a line of communication with another completely unknown individual. Here we augment a hierarchical social network model with communication between and within communities. We argue that organization into communities would decrease overall decentralized search times. We take inspiration from the biological immune system which organizes search for pathogens in a hybrid modular strategy. Our strategy has relevance in search for rare amounts of information in online social networks and could have implications for massively distributed search challenges. Our work also has implications for design of efficient online networks that could have an impact on networks of human collaboration, scientific collaboration and networks used in targeted manhunts. Real world systems, like online social networks, have high associated delays for long-distance links, since they are built on top of physical networks. Such systems have been shown to densify i.e. the average number of neighbours that an individual has increases with time. Hence such networks will have a communication cost due to space and the requirement of building and maintaining and increasing number of connections. We have incorporated such a non-spatial cost to communication in order to introduce the realism of individuals communicating within communities, which we call participation cost. We introduce the notion of a community size that increases with the size of the system, which is shown to reduce the time to search for information in networks. Our final strategy balances search times and participation costs and is shown to decrease time to find information in decentralized search in online social networks. Our strategy also balances strong-ties (within communities and weak-ties over long distances (between communities that bring in diverse ideas and

  17. Real-Time Biologically Inspired Action Recognition from Key Poses Using a Neuromorphic Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layher, Georg; Brosch, Tobias; Neumann, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent agents, such as robots, have to serve a multitude of autonomous functions. Examples are, e.g., collision avoidance, navigation and route planning, active sensing of its environment, or the interaction and non-verbal communication with people in the extended reach space. Here, we focus on the recognition of the action of a human agent based on a biologically inspired visual architecture of analyzing articulated movements. The proposed processing architecture builds upon coarsely segregated streams of sensory processing along different pathways which separately process form and motion information (Layher et al., 2014). Action recognition is performed in an event-based scheme by identifying representations of characteristic pose configurations (key poses) in an image sequence. In line with perceptual studies, key poses are selected unsupervised utilizing a feature-driven criterion which combines extrema in the motion energy with the horizontal and the vertical extendedness of a body shape. Per class representations of key pose frames are learned using a deep convolutional neural network consisting of 15 convolutional layers. The network is trained using the energy-efficient deep neuromorphic networks ( Eedn ) framework (Esser et al., 2016), which realizes the mapping of the trained synaptic weights onto the IBM Neurosynaptic System platform (Merolla et al., 2014). After the mapping, the trained network achieves real-time capabilities for processing input streams and classify input images at about 1,000 frames per second while the computational stages only consume about 70 mW of energy (without spike transduction). Particularly regarding mobile robotic systems, a low energy profile might be crucial in a variety of application scenarios. Cross-validation results are reported for two different datasets and compared to state-of-the-art action recognition approaches. The results demonstrate, that (I) the presented approach is on par with other key pose based

  18. Structural Biology and Molecular Applications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI's Division of Cancer Biology's research portfolio, research and development in this area focuses on enabling technologies, models, and methodologies to support basic and applied cancer research.

  19. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE)12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ross, A Catharine; Meydani, Simin N; Dawson, Harry D; Stephensen, Charles B; Brabin, Bernard J; Suchdev, Parminder S; van Ommen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations. PMID:25833893

  20. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ross, A Catharine; Meydani, Simin N; Dawson, Harry D; Stephensen, Charles B; Brabin, Bernard J; Suchdev, Parminder S; van Ommen, Ben

    2015-05-01

    An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Biology-inspired Microphysiological System Approaches to Solve the Prediction Dilemma of Substance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B.; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R.; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B.; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H.; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J. A. M.; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A.; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Summary The recent advent of microphysiological systems – microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro – is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various dedicated research programs in Europe and Asia have led recently to the first cutting-edge achievements of human single-organ and multi-organ engineering based on microphysiological systems. The expectation is that test systems established on this basis would model various disease stages, and predict toxicity, immunogenicity, ADME profiles and treatment efficacy prior to clinical testing. Consequently, this technology could significantly affect the way drug substances are developed in the future. Furthermore, microphysiological system-based assays may revolutionize our current global programs of prioritization of hazard characterization for any new substances to be used, for example, in agriculture, food, ecosystems or cosmetics, thus, replacing laboratory animal models used currently. Thirty-five experts from academia, industry and regulatory bodies present here the results of an intensive workshop (held in June 2015, Berlin, Germany). They review the status quo of microphysiological systems available today against industry needs, and assess the broad variety of approaches with fit-for-purpose potential in the drug development cycle. Feasible technical solutions to reach the next levels of human biology in vitro are proposed. Furthermore, key organ-on-a-chip case studies, as well as various national and international programs are highlighted. Finally, a roadmap into the future is outlined, to allow for more predictive and regulatory-accepted substance testing on a global scale. PMID:27180100

  2. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Leist, Marcel; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J A M; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of microphysiological systems - microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro - is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various dedicated research programs in Europe and Asia have led recently to the first cutting-edge achievements of human single-organ and multi-organ engineering based on microphysiological systems. The expectation is that test systems established on this basis would model various disease stages, and predict toxicity, immunogenicity, ADME profiles and treatment efficacy prior to clinical testing. Consequently, this technology could significantly affect the way drug substances are developed in the future. Furthermore, microphysiological system-based assays may revolutionize our current global programs of prioritization of hazard characterization for any new substances to be used, for example, in agriculture, food, ecosystems or cosmetics, thus, replacing laboratory animal models used currently. Thirty-six experts from academia, industry and regulatory bodies present here the results of an intensive workshop (held in June 2015, Berlin, Germany). They review the status quo of microphysiological systems available today against industry needs, and assess the broad variety of approaches with fit-for-purpose potential in the drug development cycle. Feasible technical solutions to reach the next levels of human biology in vitro are proposed. Furthermore, key organ-on-a-chip case studies, as well as various national and international programs are highlighted. Finally, a roadmap into the future is outlined, to allow for more predictive and regulatory-accepted substance testing on a global scale.

  3. A Biologically-Inspired Power Control Algorithm for Energy-Efficient Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ho Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the energy used to operate a cellular network is consumed by a base station (BS, and reducing the transmission power of a BS can therefore afford a substantial reduction in the amount of energy used in a network. In this paper, we propose a distributed transmit power control (TPC algorithm inspired by bird flocking behavior as a means of improving the energy efficiency of a cellular network. Just as each bird in a flock attempts to match its velocity with the average velocity of adjacent birds, in the proposed algorithm, each mobile station (MS in a cell matches its rate with the average rate of the co-channel MSs in adjacent cells by controlling the transmit power of its serving BS. We verify that this bio-inspired TPC algorithm using a local rate-average process achieves an exponential convergence and maximizes the minimum rate of the MSs concerned. Simulation results show that the proposed TPC algorithm follows the same convergence properties as the flocking algorithm and also effectively reduces the power consumption at the BSs while maintaining a low outage probability as the inter-cell interference increases; in so doing, it significantly improves the energy efficiency of a cellular network.

  4. Statistics for Sleep and Biological Rhythms Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, Elizabeth B; Wang, Wei; Phillips, Andrew J K; Bianchi, Matt T

    2017-02-01

    This article is part of a Journal of Biological Rhythms series exploring analysis and statistical topics relevant to researchers in biological rhythms and sleep research. The goal is to provide an overview of the most common issues that arise in the analysis and interpretation of data in these fields. In this article, we address issues related to the collection of multiple data points from the same organism or system at different times, since such longitudinal data collection is fundamental to the assessment of biological rhythms. Rhythmic longitudinal data require additional specific statistical considerations, ranging from curve fitting to threshold definitions to accounting for correlation structure. We discuss statistical analyses of longitudinal data including issues of correlational structure and stationarity, markers of biological rhythms, demasking of biological rhythms, and determining phase, waveform, and amplitude of biological rhythms.

  5. Biological Dual-Use Research and Synthetic Biology of Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, Angela; Cenciarelli, Orlando; Malizia, Andrea; Bellecci, Carlo; Gaudio, Pasquale; Lioj, Michele; Rinaldi, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the publication of the studies on the transmissibility in mammals of the H5N1 influenza virus and synthetic genomes has triggered heated and concerned debate within the community of scientists on biological dual-use research; these papers have raised the awareness that, in some cases, fundamental research could be directed to harmful experiments, with the purpose of developing a weapon that could be used by a bioterrorist. Here is presented an overview regarding the dual-use concept and its related international agreements which underlines the work of the Australia Group (AG) Export Control Regime. It is hoped that the principles and activities of the AG, that focuses on export control of chemical and biological dual-use materials, will spread and become well known to academic researchers in different countries, as they exchange biological materials (i.e. plasmids, strains, antibodies, nucleic acids) and scientific papers. To this extent, and with the aim of drawing the attention of the scientific community that works with yeast to the so called Dual-Use Research of Concern, this article reports case studies on biological dual-use research and discusses a synthetic biology applied to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, namely the construction of the first eukaryotic synthetic chromosome of yeast and the use of yeast cells as a factory to produce opiates. Since this organism is considered harmless and is not included in any list of biological agents, yeast researchers should take simple actions in the future to avoid the sharing of strains and advanced technology with suspicious individuals.

  6. The role of mechanics in biological and bio-inspired systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Paul; Sinko, Robert; LeDuc, Philip R; Keten, Sinan

    2015-07-06

    Natural systems frequently exploit intricate multiscale and multiphasic structures to achieve functionalities beyond those of man-made systems. Although understanding the chemical make-up of these systems is essential, the passive and active mechanics within biological systems are crucial when considering the many natural systems that achieve advanced properties, such as high strength-to-weight ratios and stimuli-responsive adaptability. Discovering how and why biological systems attain these desirable mechanical functionalities often reveals principles that inform new synthetic designs based on biological systems. Such approaches have traditionally found success in medical applications, and are now informing breakthroughs in diverse frontiers of science and engineering.

  7. Radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in the various aspects of biological research. The following topics were presented: labelled compounds; conformation-function relationships of hormonal polypeptides and their spectroscopic study; neutron scattering and neutron diffraction for biological studies; high resolution autoradiography; radioimmunoassay; nuclear medicine; transfer of excitation energy in photosynthesis; radioagronomy; radiation preservation of food [fr

  8. A Biologically-Inspired Framework for Contour Detection Using Superpixel-Based Candidates and Hierarchical Visual Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Sun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contour detection has been extensively investigated as a fundamental problem in computer vision. In this study, a biologically-inspired candidate weighting framework is proposed for the challenging task of detecting meaningful contours. In contrast to previous models that detect contours from pixels, a modified superpixel generation processing is proposed to generate a contour candidate set and then weigh the candidates by extracting hierarchical visual cues. We extract the low-level visual local cues to weigh the contour intrinsic property and mid-level visual cues on the basis of Gestalt principles for weighting the contour grouping constraint. Experimental results tested on the BSDS benchmark show that the proposed framework exhibits promising performances to capture meaningful contours in complex scenes.

  9. A biologically-inspired framework for contour detection using superpixel-based candidates and hierarchical visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Shang, Ke; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Ma, Jiayi

    2015-10-20

    Contour detection has been extensively investigated as a fundamental problem in computer vision. In this study, a biologically-inspired candidate weighting framework is proposed for the challenging task of detecting meaningful contours. In contrast to previous models that detect contours from pixels, a modified superpixel generation processing is proposed to generate a contour candidate set and then weigh the candidates by extracting hierarchical visual cues. We extract the low-level visual local cues to weigh the contour intrinsic property and mid-level visual cues on the basis of Gestalt principles for weighting the contour grouping constraint. Experimental results tested on the BSDS benchmark show that the proposed framework exhibits promising performances to capture meaningful contours in complex scenes.

  10. RNA synthetic biology inspired from bacteria: construction of transcription attenuators under antisense regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawid, Alexandre; Cayrol, Bastien; Isambert, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Among all biopolymers, ribonucleic acids or RNA have unique functional versatility, which led to the early suggestion that RNA alone (or a closely related biopolymer) might have once sustained a primitive form of life based on a single type of biopolymer. This has been supported by the demonstration of processive RNA-based replication and the discovery of 'riboswitches' or RNA switches, which directly sense their metabolic environment. In this paper, we further explore the plausibility of this 'RNA world' scenario and show, through synthetic molecular design guided by advanced RNA simulations, that RNA can also perform elementary regulation tasks on its own. We demonstrate that RNA synthetic regulatory modules directly inspired from bacterial transcription attenuators can efficiently activate or repress the expression of other RNA by merely controlling their folding paths 'on the fly' during transcription through simple RNA–RNA antisense interaction. Factors, such as NTP concentration and RNA synthesis rate, affecting the efficiency of this kinetic regulation mechanism are also studied and discussed in the light of evolutionary constraints. Overall, this suggests that direct coupling among synthesis, folding and regulation of RNAs may have enabled the early emergence of autonomous RNA-based regulation networks in absence of both DNA and protein partners

  11. A biologically inspired artificial muscle based on fiber-reinforced and electropneumatic dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Chi; Luo, Meng; Chen, Xi; Li, Dichen; Chen, Hualing

    2017-08-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) have great potential for use as artificial muscles because of the following characteristics: electrical activity, fast and large deformation under stimuli, and softness as natural muscles. Inspired by the traditional McKibben actuators, in this study, we developed a cylindrical soft fiber-reinforced and electropneumatic DE artificial muscle (DEAM) by mimicking the spindle shape of natural muscles. Based on continuum mechanics and variation principle, the inhomogeneous actuation of DEAMs was theoretically modeled and calculated. Prototypes of DEAMs were prepared to validate the design concept and theoretical model. The theoretical predictions are consistent with the experimental results; they successfully predicted the evolutions of the contours of DEAMs with voltage. A pneumatically supported high prestretch in the hoop direction was achieved by our DEAM prototype without buckling the soft fibers sandwiched by the DE films. Besides, a continuously tunable prestretch in the actuation direction was achieved by varying the supporting pressure. Using the theoretical model, the failure modes, maximum actuations, and critical voltages were analyzed; they were highly dependent on the structural parameters, i.e., the cylinder aspect ratio, prestretch level, and supporting pressure. The effects of structural parameters and supporting pressure on the actuation performance were also investigated to optimize the DEAMs.

  12. Synchronization in material flow networks with biologically inspired self-organized control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, Reik; Laemmer, Stefan [TU Dresden (Germany); Helbing, Dirk [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    The efficient operation of material flows in traffic or production networks is a subject of broad economic interest. Traditional centralized as well as decentralized approaches to operating material flow networks are known to have severe disadvantages. As an alternative approach that may help to overcome these problems, we propose a simple self-organization mechanism of conflicting flows that is inspired by oscillatory phenomena of pedestrian or animal counter-flows at bottlenecks. As a result, one may observe a synchronization of the switching dynamics at different intersections in the network. For regular grid topologies, we find different synchronization regimes depending on the inertia of the switching from one service state to the next one. In order to test the robustness of our corresponding observations, we study how the detailed properties of the network as well as dynamic feedbacks between the relevant state variables affect the degree of achievable synchronization and the resulting performance of the network. Our results yield an improved understanding of the conditions that have to be present for efficiently operating material flow networks by a decentralized control, which is of paramount importance for future implementations in real-world traffic or production systems.

  13. RNA synthetic biology inspired from bacteria: construction of transcription attenuators under antisense regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Alexandre; Cayrol, Bastien; Isambert, Hervé

    2009-07-01

    Among all biopolymers, ribonucleic acids or RNA have unique functional versatility, which led to the early suggestion that RNA alone (or a closely related biopolymer) might have once sustained a primitive form of life based on a single type of biopolymer. This has been supported by the demonstration of processive RNA-based replication and the discovery of 'riboswitches' or RNA switches, which directly sense their metabolic environment. In this paper, we further explore the plausibility of this 'RNA world' scenario and show, through synthetic molecular design guided by advanced RNA simulations, that RNA can also perform elementary regulation tasks on its own. We demonstrate that RNA synthetic regulatory modules directly inspired from bacterial transcription attenuators can efficiently activate or repress the expression of other RNA by merely controlling their folding paths 'on the fly' during transcription through simple RNA-RNA antisense interaction. Factors, such as NTP concentration and RNA synthesis rate, affecting the efficiency of this kinetic regulation mechanism are also studied and discussed in the light of evolutionary constraints. Overall, this suggests that direct coupling among synthesis, folding and regulation of RNAs may have enabled the early emergence of autonomous RNA-based regulation networks in absence of both DNA and protein partners.

  14. Biological armors under impact—effect of keratin coating, and synthetic bio-inspired analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achrai, B; Wagner, H D; Bar-On, B

    2015-01-01

    A number of biological armors, such as turtle shells, consist of a strong exoskeleton covered with a thin keratin coating. The mechanical role upon impact of this keratin coating has surprisingly not been investigated thus far. Low-velocity impact tests on the turtle shell reveal a unique toughening phenomenon attributed to the thin covering keratin layer, the presence of which noticeably improves the fracture energy and shell integrity. Synthetic substrate/coating analogues were subsequently prepared and exhibit an impact behavior similar to the biological ones. The results of the present study may improve our understanding, and even future designs, of impact-tolerant structures. (paper)

  15. Design and characterization of a biologically inspired quasi-passive prosthetic ankle-foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Luke M; Lai, Cara H; Rouse, Elliott J

    2014-01-01

    By design, commonly worn energy storage and release (ESR) prosthetic feet cannot provide biologically realistic ankle joint torque and angle profiles during walking. Additionally, their anthropomorphic, cantilever architecture causes their mechanical stiffness to decrease throughout the stance phase of walking, opposing the known trend of the biological ankle. In this study, the design of a quasi-passive pneumatic ankle-foot prosthesis is detailed that is able to replicate the biological ankle's torque and angle profiles during walking. The prosthetic ankle is comprised of a pneumatic piston, bending spring and solenoid valve. The mechanical properties of the pneumatic ankle prosthesis are characterized using a materials testing machine and the properties are compared to those from a common, passive ESR prosthetic foot. The characterization spanned a range of ankle equilibrium pressures and testing locations beneath the foot, analogous to the location of center of pressure within the stance phase of walking. The pneumatic ankle prosthesis was shown to provide biologically appropriate trends and magnitudes of torque, angle and stiffness behavior, when compared to the passive ESR prosthetic foot. Future work will focus on the development of a control system for the quasi-passive device and clinical testing of the pneumatic ankle to demonstrate efficacy.

  16. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Leist, Marcel; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J A M; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of microphysiological systems - microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro - is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various

  17. Transforming Research in Oceanography through Education, Ethnography and Rapidly Evolving Technologies: An NSF-INSPIRE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Pallant, A.; Mirmalek, Z.; Jasanoff, S.; Rajan, K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will discuss a new NSF-INSPIRE project that brings together research conducted in the fields of Ocean Sciences, Education & Human Resources and Computer and Information Science & Engineering. Specifically, our objective is to investigate new methods by which telepresence can be used to conduct cutting edge research and provide authentic educational experiences to undergraduate students, remotely. We choose to conduct this research in an Oceanographic context for two reasons: first with the move toward smaller research ships in the national Oceanographic research fleet, we anticipate that access to berth space at sea will continue to be at a premium. Any component of traditional oceanographic research that can be ported to shore without loss of effectiveness would be of immediate benefit to the Ocean Sciences. Equally, however, we argue that any improvements to work place and/or education practices that we can identify while delivering research and education from the bottom of the deep ocean should be readily mappable to any other scientific or engineering activities that seek to make use of telepresence in less extreme remote environments. Work on our TREET project, to-date, has included recruitment of 6 early career scientists keen to take advantage of the research opportunity provided, together with two senior science mentors with experience using Telepresence and a cohort of undergraduate students at three of the ECS partner Universities, spanning 4 time zones across the continental US. Following a 12-week synchronous on-line seminar series taught in Spring-Summer 2014, the entire team joined together at the Inner Space Center in Sept-Oct 2014 to participate, virtually, in a cruise of research and exploration to the Kick'Em Jenny underwater volcano and adjacent cold seep sites, conducted by the Ocean Exploration Trust's ROV Hercules aboard the Exploration Vessel Nautilus. Our presentation will include preliminary results from that cruise.

  18. A high-throughput screening approach to discovering good forms of biologically inspired visual representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nicolas; Doukhan, David; DiCarlo, James J; Cox, David D

    2009-11-01

    While many models of biological object recognition share a common set of "broad-stroke" properties, the performance of any one model depends strongly on the choice of parameters in a particular instantiation of that model--e.g., the number of units per layer, the size of pooling kernels, exponents in normalization operations, etc. Since the number of such parameters (explicit or implicit) is typically large and the computational cost of evaluating one particular parameter set is high, the space of possible model instantiations goes largely unexplored. Thus, when a model fails to approach the abilities of biological visual systems, we are left uncertain whether this failure is because we are missing a fundamental idea or because the correct "parts" have not been tuned correctly, assembled at sufficient scale, or provided with enough training. Here, we present a high-throughput approach to the exploration of such parameter sets, leveraging recent advances in stream processing hardware (high-end NVIDIA graphic cards and the PlayStation 3's IBM Cell Processor). In analogy to high-throughput screening approaches in molecular biology and genetics, we explored thousands of potential network architectures and parameter instantiations, screening those that show promising object recognition performance for further analysis. We show that this approach can yield significant, reproducible gains in performance across an array of basic object recognition tasks, consistently outperforming a variety of state-of-the-art purpose-built vision systems from the literature. As the scale of available computational power continues to expand, we argue that this approach has the potential to greatly accelerate progress in both artificial vision and our understanding of the computational underpinning of biological vision.

  19. A high-throughput screening approach to discovering good forms of biologically inspired visual representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pinto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available While many models of biological object recognition share a common set of "broad-stroke" properties, the performance of any one model depends strongly on the choice of parameters in a particular instantiation of that model--e.g., the number of units per layer, the size of pooling kernels, exponents in normalization operations, etc. Since the number of such parameters (explicit or implicit is typically large and the computational cost of evaluating one particular parameter set is high, the space of possible model instantiations goes largely unexplored. Thus, when a model fails to approach the abilities of biological visual systems, we are left uncertain whether this failure is because we are missing a fundamental idea or because the correct "parts" have not been tuned correctly, assembled at sufficient scale, or provided with enough training. Here, we present a high-throughput approach to the exploration of such parameter sets, leveraging recent advances in stream processing hardware (high-end NVIDIA graphic cards and the PlayStation 3's IBM Cell Processor. In analogy to high-throughput screening approaches in molecular biology and genetics, we explored thousands of potential network architectures and parameter instantiations, screening those that show promising object recognition performance for further analysis. We show that this approach can yield significant, reproducible gains in performance across an array of basic object recognition tasks, consistently outperforming a variety of state-of-the-art purpose-built vision systems from the literature. As the scale of available computational power continues to expand, we argue that this approach has the potential to greatly accelerate progress in both artificial vision and our understanding of the computational underpinning of biological vision.

  20. Biology Education Research Trends in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a content analysis of 633 biology education research [BER] papers published by Turkish science educators in national and international journals. The findings indicate that more research has been undertaken in environment and ecology, the cell and animal form and functions. In addition learning, teaching and attitudes were in…

  1. South African antarctic biological research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available This document provides a description of the past, current and planned South African biological research activities in the sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions. Future activities will fall under one of the five components of the research programme...

  2. Biologically-inspired synthetic dry adhesives for wall-climbing robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.

    Animals such as insects, spiders, and lizards are capable of clinging to and climbing on a variety of surfaces, from rough stone to smooth silicon. Hairy microscale arrays of structures on their feet conform to surface roughness to create millions of points of contact, creating a large overall contact area. Weak intermolecular forces (van der Waals forces) between each fiber tip and the surface sum to large overall forces due to the high number of contacts. In this work we present the fabrication, characterization, and demonstration of synthetic polyurethane fibrillar adhesives inspired by these animals. Angled polymer micro-fiber arrays are fabricated and characterized. A tip modification technique is presented which enables fabrication of fibers with flat mushroom shaped tips which greatly increase the adhesion of the fibers, up to 5N/cm 2 (normal direction), and with a magnitude within the range of geckos (10 N/cm2) in the shear direction on smooth surfaces. We present a fabrication technique to create fibers with angled flat mushroom-shaped tips which replicate the directional characteristics of geckos, gripping in one direction (within the range of gecko adhesion) and releasing easily in the other. Multilevel hierarchical structures with specialized tips for roughness adaptation are also presented. Fiber hierarchies from the millimeter scale to the sub-micron scale are demonstrated, including three-level fiber fabrication with specialized tips. Hierarchical structures demonstrate up to 5 times the adhesion of an unstructured sample, and requiring up to 10 times the detachment energy. Finally, an agile, wireless, palm-sized wall climbing robot which uses the synthetic fibrillar dry adhesives to climb is presented. Waalbot , named after the van der Waals forces it uses to climb, exploits the attachment and detachment characteristics of the developed dry adhesives, capabilities include climbing smooth surfaces such as glass in any orientation on any surface slope

  3. Biologically inspired kinematic synergies enable linear balance control of a humanoid robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Helmut; Neumann, Gerhard; Ijspeert, Auke J; Maass, Wolfgang

    2011-05-01

    Despite many efforts, balance control of humanoid robots in the presence of unforeseen external or internal forces has remained an unsolved problem. The difficulty of this problem is a consequence of the high dimensionality of the action space of a humanoid robot, due to its large number of degrees of freedom (joints), and of non-linearities in its kinematic chains. Biped biological organisms face similar difficulties, but have nevertheless solved this problem. Experimental data reveal that many biological organisms reduce the high dimensionality of their action space by generating movements through linear superposition of a rather small number of stereotypical combinations of simultaneous movements of many joints, to which we refer as kinematic synergies in this paper. We show that by constructing two suitable non-linear kinematic synergies for the lower part of the body of a humanoid robot, balance control can in fact be reduced to a linear control problem, at least in the case of relatively slow movements. We demonstrate for a variety of tasks that the humanoid robot HOAP-2 acquires through this approach the capability to balance dynamically against unforeseen disturbances that may arise from external forces or from manipulating unknown loads.

  4. Want to Inspire Science Students to Consider a Research Career? Host a Scientist in Your Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Baynham, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Most biology students have limited exposure to research since this is not a public activity and the pace of science does not lend itself to television dramatization. In contrast, medicine is the subject of numerous TV shows, and students’ experience visiting doctors may lead them to think they want to become physicians. One effective way to encourage these students to consider a research career is to invite engaging scientists to speak about their career paths and lives during class. S...

  5. Improving Students' Inquiry Skills and Self-Efficacy through Research-Inspired Modules in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Baloga, Monica; Marcinkowski, Tom; Giannoulis, Christos; Anquandah, George; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research projects conducted by faculty in STEM departments served as the inspiration for a new curriculum of inquiry-based, multiweek laboratory modules in the general chemistry 1 course. The purpose of this curriculum redesign was to improve students' attitudes about chemistry as well as their self-efficacy and skills in performing inquiry…

  6. Rodriguez Recognized as Recipient of the MSSS AACC Chair’s Inspirational Award | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Henry Rodriguez, director of the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, has been recognized as the recipient of the Chair’s Inspirational Award by the Mass Spectrometry and Separation Sciences for Laboratory Medicine Division (MSSS), American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC).

  7. The effect of shape on drag: a physics exercise inspired by biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerut, Jonathan; Johnson, Nicholas; Mongeau, Eric; Habdas, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    As part of a biomechanics course aimed at upper-division biology and physics majors, but applicable to a range of student learning levels, this laboratory exercise provides an insight into the effect of shape on hydrodynamic performance, as well an introduction to computer aided design (CAD) and 3D printing. Students use hydrodynamic modeling software and simple CAD programs to design a shape with the least amount of drag based on strategies gleaned from the study of natural forms. Students then print the shapes using a 3D printer and test their shapes against their classmates in a friendly competition. From this exercise, students gain a more intuitive sense of the challenges that organisms face when moving through fluid environments, the physical phenomena involved in moving through fluids at high Reynolds numbers and observe how and why certain morphologies, such as streamlining, are common answers to the challenge of swimming at high speeds.

  8. Biologically Inspired Modular Neural Control for a Leg-Wheel Hybrid Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Wörgötter, Florentin; Laksanacharoen, Pudit

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present modular neural control for a leg-wheel hybrid robot consisting of three legs with omnidirectional wheels. This neural control has four main modules having their functional origin in biological neural systems. A minimal recurrent control (MRC) module is for sensory signal...... processing and state memorization. Its outputs drive two front wheels while the rear wheel is controlled through a velocity regulating network (VRN) module. In parallel, a neural oscillator network module serves as a central pattern generator (CPG) controls leg movements for sidestepping. Stepping directions...... are achieved by a phase switching network (PSN) module. The combination of these modules generates various locomotion patterns and a reactive obstacle avoidance behavior. The behavior is driven by sensor inputs, to which additional neural preprocessing networks are applied. The complete neural circuitry...

  9. Biologically inspired crack delocalization in a high strain-rate environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipprath, Christian; Bond, Ian P; Trask, Richard S

    2012-04-07

    Biological materials possess unique and desirable energy-absorbing mechanisms and structural characteristics worthy of consideration by engineers. For example, high levels of energy dissipation at low strain rates via triggering of crack delocalization combined with interfacial hardening by platelet interlocking are observed in brittle materials such as nacre, the iridescent material in seashells. Such behaviours find no analogy in current engineering materials. The potential to mimic such toughening mechanisms on different length scales now exists, but the question concerning their suitability under dynamic loading conditions and whether these mechanisms retain their energy-absorbing potential is unclear. This paper investigates the kinematic behaviour of an 'engineered' nacre-like structure within a high strain-rate environment. A finite-element (FE) model was developed which incorporates the pertinent biological design features. A parametric study was carried out focusing on (i) the use of an overlapping discontinuous tile arrangement for crack delocalization and (ii) application of tile waviness (interfacial hardening) for improved post-damage behaviour. With respect to the material properties, the model allows the permutation and combination of a variety of different material datasets. The advantage of such a discontinuous material shows notable improvements in sustaining high strain-rate deformation relative to an equivalent continuous morphology. In the case of the continuous material, the shockwaves propagating through the material lead to localized failure while complex shockwave patterns are observed in the discontinuous flat tile arrangement, arising from platelet interlocking. The influence of the matrix properties on impact performance is investigated by varying the dominant material parameters. The results indicate a deceleration of the impactor velocity, thus delaying back face nodal displacement. A final series of FE models considered the

  10. Thermal impact of migrating birds' wing color on their flight performance: Possibility of new generation of biologically inspired drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanalian, M; Abdelmoula, H; Ben Ayed, S; Abdelkefi, A

    2017-05-01

    The thermal impact of the birds' color on their flight performance are investigated. In most of the large migrating birds, the top of their wings is black. Considering this natural phenomenon in the migrating birds, such as albatross, a thermal analysis of the boundary layer of their wings is performed during the year depending on the solar insulation. It is shown that the temperature difference between the bright and dark colored top wing surface is around 10°C. The dark color on the top of the wing increases the temperature of the boundary layer over the wing which consequently reduces the skin drag force over the wing. This reduction in the drag force can be considered as one of the effective factors for long endurance of these migrating birds. This research should lead to improved designs of the drones by applying the inspired colors which can help drones increase their endurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Charles Georges Thibault (1919-2003): inspirational leader in French reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R H F

    2017-02-01

    The contribution of Charles Thibault in creating and developing a major international centre of animal research at Jouy-en-Josas (near Versailles) in post Second World War France is recorded in detail. Not only did he select a team of gifted young chercheurs, but he stimulated and supported their research in diverse ways. The projects covered were not only primarily of significance to animal reproduction, but they also became relevant to human infertility studies and to IVF treatments. Members of the team in Physiologie Animale gained international research reputations and seasoned overseas researchers were attracted to Jouy-en-Josas for their sabbaticals. Thibault himself was known especially for his studies on the mammalian oocyte, on fertilization both in vivo and in vitro, and for a key publication on parthenogenesis. Over and above leading the department of Physiologie Animale at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), he was Professor of Reproductive Physiology at the University of Paris VI and an influential member of national committees in Paris. His formal career reached a peak with his appointment as President of the French scientific research organisation (CNRS), and his overall contributions were celebrated both nationally and internationally, not least as Commander of the Legion d'Honneur and recipient of the Wolf Prize, the latter being presented in the Israeli Parliament, the Knessett. His influence continues to be strong, felt in France and beyond through his protégés and his publications.

  12. Biologically inspired information theory: Adaptation through construction of external reality models by living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CSBB: synthetic biology research at Newcastle University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipat, Anil; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2017-01-01

    The Centre for Synthetic Biology and the Bioeconomy (CSBB) brings together a far-reaching multidisciplinary community across all Newcastle University's faculties — Medical Sciences, Science, Agriculture and Engineering, and Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences. The CSBB focuses on many different areas of Synthetic Biology, including bioprocessing, computational design and in vivo computation, as well as improving understanding of basic molecular machinery. Such breadth is supported by major national and international research funding, a range of industrial partners in the North East of England and beyond, as well as a large number of doctoral and post-doctoral researchers. The CSBB trains the next generation of scientists through a 1-year MSc in Synthetic Biology. PMID:28620039

  14. CSBB: synthetic biology research at Newcastle University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Wipat, Anil; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2017-06-15

    The Centre for Synthetic Biology and the Bioeconomy (CSBB) brings together a far-reaching multidisciplinary community across all Newcastle University's faculties - Medical Sciences, Science, Agriculture and Engineering, and Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences. The CSBB focuses on many different areas of Synthetic Biology, including bioprocessing, computational design and in vivo computation, as well as improving understanding of basic molecular machinery. Such breadth is supported by major national and international research funding, a range of industrial partners in the North East of England and beyond, as well as a large number of doctoral and post-doctoral researchers. The CSBB trains the next generation of scientists through a 1-year MSc in Synthetic Biology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Inspired by Fieldwork: A Teacher Research Experience Energizes and Ignites a Group of Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    Through involvement in authentic research experiences teachers improve their content knowledge, deepen their understanding of the research process, and rejuvenate their interest in science. These positive results of fieldwork transfer into the classroom, directly benefiting students. The ARMADA project provided me with a three week research experience aboard the Amundsen (Canadian Coast Guard science vessel) which enriched and strengthened me professionally. Guided by master and early career scientists, I took part in specific research techniques and deep scientific discourse. My immersion in ocean science was so stimulating that I was inspired to share that excitement with my students. The fascination my students showed for basic experiments and ocean related activities fueled my interest further and I began to research more deeply which led to Climate Literacy and Polar Studies as essentials in my science curriculum. Over the following years I continued to expand and refine the workshops and activities students take part in. Three years after the research experience students still love the science explorations we embark upon together. This past year a group of students became so excited about Polar Science and Climate that they authored a 36 page non fiction book for upper elementary and middle school students entitled, "Changing Poles, Changing Planet: Climate Change vs. The Earth". Seven of the authors decided to continue their science outreach work by creating an educational video focusing on the basics of climate science and what children can do to lower carbon emissions. The book and video were distributed to educators as well as scientists at the International Polar Year Science Conference in June, 2010. In August some of these students presented their work at a Sustainability festival that was organized by M-CAN a local climate action group. Two of these students (who have left my class and started 6th grade at the middle school)recently decided to form a

  16. How can selection of biologically inspired features improve the performance of a robust object recognition model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghodrati

    Full Text Available Humans can effectively and swiftly recognize objects in complex natural scenes. This outstanding ability has motivated many computational object recognition models. Most of these models try to emulate the behavior of this remarkable system. The human visual system hierarchically recognizes objects in several processing stages. Along these stages a set of features with increasing complexity is extracted by different parts of visual system. Elementary features like bars and edges are processed in earlier levels of visual pathway and as far as one goes upper in this pathway more complex features will be spotted. It is an important interrogation in the field of visual processing to see which features of an object are selected and represented by the visual cortex. To address this issue, we extended a hierarchical model, which is motivated by biology, for different object recognition tasks. In this model, a set of object parts, named patches, extracted in the intermediate stages. These object parts are used for training procedure in the model and have an important role in object recognition. These patches are selected indiscriminately from different positions of an image and this can lead to the extraction of non-discriminating patches which eventually may reduce the performance. In the proposed model we used an evolutionary algorithm approach to select a set of informative patches. Our reported results indicate that these patches are more informative than usual random patches. We demonstrate the strength of the proposed model on a range of object recognition tasks. The proposed model outperforms the original model in diverse object recognition tasks. It can be seen from the experiments that selected features are generally particular parts of target images. Our results suggest that selected features which are parts of target objects provide an efficient set for robust object recognition.

  17. Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: An integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cih-Su; Chang, Tsung-Yuan; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2014-10-01

    Quasi-periodic structures of natural biomaterial membranes have great potentials to serve as resonance cavities to generate ecological friendly optoelectronic devices with low cost. To achieve the first attempt for the illustration of the underlying principle, the Pieris canidia butterfly wing was embedded with ZnO nanoparticles. Quite interestingly, it is found that the bio-inspired quasi-single-mode random laser can be achieved by the assistance of the skeleton of the membrane, in which ZnO nanoparticles act as emitting gain media. Such unique characteristics can be interpreted well by the Fabry-Perot resonance existing in the window-like quasi-periodic structure of butterfly wing. Due to the inherently promising flexibility of butterfly wing membrane, the laser action can still be maintained during the bending process. Our demonstrated approach not only indicates that the natural biological structures can provide effective scattering feedbacks but also pave a new avenue towards designing bio-controlled photonic devices.

  18. Dynamics Analysis of Fluid-Structure Interaction for a Biologically-Inspired Biped Robot Running on Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsen Xu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A kinematics analysis of a biologically-inspired biped robot is carried out, and the trajectory of the robot foot is understood. For calculating the pressure distribution across a robot foot before touching the surface of water, the compression flow of air and the depression motion of the water surface are considered. The pressure model after touching the water surface has been built according to the theory of rigid body planar motion. The multi-material ALE algorithm is applied to emulate the course of the foot slapping water. The simulation results indicate that the model of the bionic robot can satisfy the water-running function. The real prototype of the robot is manufactured to test its function of running on water. When the biped robot is running on water, the average force generated by the propulsion mechanism is about 1.3N. The experimental results show that the propulsion system can satisfy the requirement of biped robot running on water.

  19. A biologically inspired modular structure to control the sit-to-stand transfer of a biped robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andani, M Emadi; Bahrami, F; Maralani, P Jabedar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a biologically inspired control structure to control the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer from a chair is developed and simulated. STS movement is consisted of two main phases. First phase of the movement is before leaving the seat (seat-off moment). In this phase seat reactions forces act on the body parts which are in contact with the seat. The second phase is after seat-off, where the only external forces acting on the body are ground reaction forces. A proper control algorithm of the STS transfer needs to consider switching between these two phases, which correspond to two different dynamical structures. The control structure developed and discussed in this work is based on the MOSAIC structure, proposed first by Wolpert and Kawato [1]. Original MOSAIC structure has a modular architecture which is based on multiple pairs of forward and inverse models of the dynamical system to be controlled, and each module is trained separately to learn one part of a given task. The number of effective modules is predetermined. We have developed a new method to train all modules simultaneously. This method is based on reinforcement and cooperative competitive learning, and the number of effective modules is determined automatically. In this study, the simulation was begun with four modules. Our results showed that only two modules out of four were selected to control the STS task. Responsibility of controlling the task was switched between the two modules around the seat-off moment.

  20. Seeing by Touch: Evaluation of a Soft Biologically-Inspired Artificial Fingertip in Real-Time Active Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Assaf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective tactile sensing for artificial platforms remains an open issue in robotics. This study investigates the performance of a soft biologically-inspired artificial fingertip in active exploration tasks. The fingertip sensor replicates the mechanisms within human skin and offers a robust solution that can be used both for tactile sensing and gripping/manipulating objects. The softness of the optical sensor’s contact surface also allows safer interactions with objects. High-level tactile features such as edges are extrapolated from the sensor’s output and the information is used to generate a tactile image. The work presented in this paper aims to investigate and evaluate this artificial fingertip for 2D shape reconstruction. The sensor was mounted on a robot arm to allow autonomous exploration of different objects. The sensor and a number of human participants were then tested for their abilities to track the raised perimeters of different planar objects and compared. By observing the technique and accuracy of the human subjects, simple but effective parameters were determined in order to evaluate the artificial system’s performance. The results prove the capability of the sensor in such active exploration tasks, with a comparable performance to the human subjects despite it using tactile data alone whereas the human participants were also able to use proprioceptive cues.

  1. The RCSB PDB "Molecule of the Month": Inspiring a Molecular View of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, David S; Dutta, Shuchismita; Zardecki, Christine; Voigt, Maria; Berman, Helen M; Burley, Stephen K

    2015-05-01

    The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) Molecule of the Month series provides a curated introduction to the 3-D biomolecular structures available in the Protein Data Bank archive and the tools that are available at the RCSB website for accessing and exploring them. A variety of educational materials, such as articles, videos, posters, hands-on activities, lesson plans, and curricula, build on this series for use in a variety of educational settings as a general introduction to key topics, such as enzyme action, protein synthesis, and viruses. The series and associated educational materials are freely available at www.rcsb.org.

  2. Writing Inspired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  3. Mussel-inspired human gelatin nanocoating for creating biologically adhesive surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xi Yang,1,2 Liping Zhu,1 Seiichi Tada,1 Di Zhou,3 Takashi Kitajima,1 Takashi Isoshima,1 Yasuhiro Yoshida,1,4 Mariko Nakamura,1,5 Weiqun Yan,2 Yoshihiro Ito1,3 1Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama, Japan; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Jilin, People’s Republic of China; 3Emergent Bioengineering Materials Research Team, RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, Saitama, 4Department of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, 5Dental Hygiene Program, Kibi International College, Okayama, Japan Abstract: Recombinant human gelatin was conjugated with dopamine using carbodiimide as a surface modifier. This dopamine-coupled human gelatin (D-rhG was characterized by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, and circular dichroism. D-rhG-coated surface properties were analyzed by physicochemical methods. Additionally, cell attachment and growth on the modified surfaces was assessed using human umbilical endothelial cells. Binding of gelatin onto titanium was significantly enhanced by dopamine conjugation. The thickness of the D-rhG coating depended on the treatment pH; thicker layers were formed at higher pH values, with a maximum thickness of 30 nm. D-rhG enhanced the binding of collagen-binding vascular endothelial growth factor and cell adhesion as compared with gelatin alone, even at the same surface concentration. The D-rhG surface modifier enhanced substrate binding by creating an adhesive nanointerface that increased specific protein binding and cell attachment. Keywords: recombinant human gelatin, dopamine, natural catechols, cell adhesion, cell culture, titanium

  4. Advances in nicotine research in Addiction Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Rick E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of Addiction Biology is to advance our understanding of the action of drugs of abuse and addictive processes via the publication of high-impact clinical and pre-clinical findings resulting from behavioral, molecular, genetic, biochemical, neurobiological and pharmacological research. As of 2013, Addiction Biology is ranked number 1 in the category of Substance Abuse journals (SCI). Occasionally, Addiction Biology likes to highlight via review important findings focused on a particular topic and recently published in the journal. The current review summarizes a number of key publications from Addiction Biology that have contributed to the current knowledge of nicotine research, comprising a wide spectrum of approaches, both clinical and pre-clinical, at the cellular, molecular, systems and behavioral levels. A number of findings from human studies have identified, using imaging techniques, alterations in common brain circuits, as well as morphological and network activity changes, associated with tobacco use. Furthermore, both clinical and pre-clinical studies have characterized a number of mechanistic targets critical to understanding the effects of nicotine and tobacco addiction. Together, these findings will undoubtedly drive future studies examining the dramatic impact of tobacco use and the development of treatments to counter nicotine dependence. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Developing a web-based information resource for palliative care: an action-research inspired approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gliddon Terry

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-inspired methodology included a panel assessment of an existing palliative care website based in Victoria, Australia; a pre-development survey (n = 197 scoping potential audiences and palliative care information needs; working parties conducting a needs analysis about necessary information content for a redeveloped website targeting health professionals and caregivers/patients; an iterative evaluation process involving users and experts; as well as a final evaluation survey (n = 166. Results Involving users in the identification of content and links for a palliative care website is time-consuming and requires initial resources, strong networking skills and commitment. However, user participation provided crucial information that led to the widened the scope of the website audience and guided the development and testing of the website. The needs analysis underpinning the project suggests that palliative care peak bodies need to address three distinct audiences (clinicians, allied health professionals as well as patients and their caregivers. Conclusion Web developers should pay close attention to the content, language, and accessibility needs of these groups. Given the substantial cost associated with the maintenance of authoritative health information sites, the paper proposes a more collaborative development in which users can be engaged in the definition of content to ensure relevance and responsiveness, and to eliminate unnecessary detail. Access to

  6. Onchocerciasis control: biological research is still needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussinesq M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerca volvulus. Issues such as the Loa loa-related postivermectin serious adverse events, the uncertainties as to whether onchocerciasis can be eliminated by ivermectin treatments, and the possible emergence of ivermectin-resistant O. volvulus populations should be addressed proactively. Doxycycline, moxidectin and emodepside appear to be promising as alternative drugs against onchocerciasis but support to researches in immunology and genomics should also be increased to develop new control tools, including both vaccines and macrofilaricidal drugs.

  7. Biomimetics: biologically inspired technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    ...: 0-8493-3163-3 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-8493-3163-3 (Hardcover) Library of Congress Card Number 2005048511 This book contains information obtained from authentic and...

  8. Biologically-Inspired Spike-Based Automatic Speech Recognition of Isolated Digits Over a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel real-time dynamic framework for quantifying time-series structure in spoken words using spikes. Audio signals are converted into multi-channel spike trains using a biologically-inspired leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF spike generator. These spike trains are mapped into a function space of infinite dimension, i.e., a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS using point-process kernels, where a state-space model learns the dynamics of the multidimensional spike input using gradient descent learning. This kernelized recurrent system is very parsimonious and achieves the necessary memory depth via feedback of its internal states when trained discriminatively, utilizing the full context of the phoneme sequence. A main advantage of modeling nonlinear dynamics using state-space trajectories in the RKHS is that it imposes no restriction on the relationship between the exogenous input and its internal state. We are free to choose the input representation with an appropriate kernel, and changing the kernel does not impact the system nor the learning algorithm. Moreover, we show that this novel framework can outperform both traditional hidden Markov model (HMM speech processing as well as neuromorphic implementations based on spiking neural network (SNN, yielding accurate and ultra-low power word spotters. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate its capabilities using the benchmark TI-46 digit corpus for isolated-word automatic speech recognition (ASR or keyword spotting. Compared to HMM using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC front-end without time-derivatives, our MFCC-KAARMA offered improved performance. For spike-train front-end, spike-KAARMA also outperformed state-of-the-art SNN solutions. Furthermore, compared to MFCCs, spike trains provided enhanced noise robustness in certain low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR regime.

  9. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  10. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy

  11. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years

  12. Want to Inspire Science Students to Consider a Research Career? Host a Scientist in Your Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Baynham

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Most biology students have limited exposure to research since this is not a public activity and the pace of science does not lend itself to television dramatization. In contrast, medicine is the subject of numerous TV shows, and students’ experience visiting doctors may lead them to think they want to become physicians. One effective way to encourage these students to consider a research career is to invite engaging scientists to speak about their career paths and lives during class. Students are most likely to be influenced by people they consider to be like themselves. While this method is well-suited to a lecture format where the scientist can address a larger audience, the laboratory would also be appropriate.

  13. Applications of NMR in biological metabolic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Jiarui; Li Xiuqin; He Chunjian

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance has become a powerful means of studying biological metabolism in non-invasive and non-destructive way. Being used to study the metabolic processes of living system in normal physiological conditions as well as in molecular level, the method is better than other conventional approaches. Using important parameters such as NMR-chemical shifts, longitudinal relaxation time and transverse relaxation time, it is possible to probe the metabolic processes as well as conformation, concentration, transportation and distribution of reacting and resulting substances. The NMR spectroscopy of 1 H, 31 P and 13 C nuclei has already been widely used in metabolic researches

  14. Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo) Research in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Sylvain; González, Favio; Sarrazin, Andres F; Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Benítez, Mariana; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Rezende, Gustavo L; Maldonado, Ernesto; Schneider, Patricia Neiva; Grizante, Mariana B; Da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Suaza-Gaviria, Vanessa; Zumajo-Cardona, Cecilia; Zattara, Eduardo E; Casasa, Sofia; Suárez-Baron, Harold; Brown, Federico D

    2017-01-01

    Famous for its blind cavefish and Darwin's finches, Latin America is home to some of the richest biodiversity hotspots of our planet. The Latin American fauna and flora inspired and captivated naturalists from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including such notable pioneers such as Fritz Müller, Florentino Ameghino, and Léon Croizat who made a significant contribution to the study of embryology and evolutionary thinking. But, what are the historical and present contributions of the Latin American scientific community to Evo-Devo? Here, we provide the first comprehensive overview of the Evo-Devo laboratories based in Latin America and describe current lines of research based on endemic species, focusing on body plans and patterning, systematics, physiology, computational modeling approaches, ecology, and domestication. Literature searches reveal that Evo-Devo in Latin America is still in its early days; while showing encouraging indicators of productivity, it has not stabilized yet, because it relies on few and sparsely distributed laboratories. Coping with the rapid changes in national scientific policies and contributing to solve social and health issues specific to each region are among the main challenges faced by Latin American researchers. The 2015 inaugural meeting of the Pan-American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology played a pivotal role in bringing together Latin American researchers eager to initiate and consolidate regional and worldwide collaborative networks. Such networks will undoubtedly advance research on the extremely high genetic and phenotypic biodiversity of Latin America, bound to be an almost infinite source of amazement and fascinating findings for the Evo-Devo community. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nature-inspired computing for control systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The book presents recent advances in nature-inspired computing, giving a special emphasis to control systems applications. It reviews different techniques used for simulating physical, chemical, biological or social phenomena at the purpose of designing robust, predictive and adaptive control strategies. The book is a collection of several contributions, covering either more general approaches in control systems, or methodologies for control tuning and adaptive controllers, as well as exciting applications of nature-inspired techniques in robotics. On one side, the book is expected to motivate readers with a background in conventional control systems to try out these powerful techniques inspired by nature. On the other side, the book provides advanced readers with a deeper understanding of the field and a broad spectrum of different methods and techniques. All in all, the book is an outstanding, practice-oriented reference guide to nature-inspired computing addressing graduate students, researchers and practi...

  16. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF); Boden, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cowley, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Dattoria, Vince [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Desai, Narayan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foster, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Goldstone, Robin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregurick, Susan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological Systems Science Division; Houghton, John [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program; Izaurralde, Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Joseph, Renu [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Climate and Environmental Sciences Division; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Pritchard, Matt [British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), Oxon (United Kingdom); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Strand, Gary [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Stuart, Cory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tatusova, Tatiana [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Thomas, Brian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zurawski, Jason [Internet2, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  17. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.H.

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology

  18. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

  19. Expression, purification, and characterization of a carbohydrate-active enzyme: A research-inspired methods optimization experiment for the biochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbur, Jaime F; Vail, Justin D; Mitchell, Lindsey N; Jakeman, David L; Timmons, Shannon C

    2016-01-01

    The development and implementation of research-inspired, discovery-based experiences into science laboratory curricula is a proven strategy for increasing student engagement and ownership of experiments. In the novel laboratory module described herein, students learn to express, purify, and characterize a carbohydrate-active enzyme using modern techniques and instrumentation commonly found in a research laboratory. Unlike in a traditional cookbook-style experiment, students generate their own hypotheses regarding expression conditions and quantify the amount of protein isolated using their selected variables. Over the course of three 3-hour laboratory periods, students learn to use sterile technique to express a protein using recombinant DNA in E. coli, purify the resulting enzyme via affinity chromatography and dialysis, analyze the success of their purification scheme via SDS-PAGE, assess the activity of the enzyme via an HPLC-based assay, and quantify the amount of protein isolated via a Bradford assay. Following the completion of this experiment, students were asked to evaluate their experience via an optional survey. All students strongly agreed that this laboratory module was more interesting to them than traditional experiments because of its lack of a pre-determined outcome and desired additional opportunities to participate in the experimental design process. This experiment serves as an example of how research-inspired, discovery-based experiences can benefit both the students and instructor; students learned important skills necessary for real-world biochemistry research and a more concrete understanding of the research process, while generating new knowledge to enhance the scholarly endeavors of the instructor. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE): Enhancing Scientific Communication by Bringing STEM Research into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, D.; Radencic, S.; Funderburk, W. K.; Walker, R. M.; Jackson, B. S.; Dawkins, K. S.; Schmitz, D.; Bruce, L. M.; McNeal, K.

    2014-12-01

    INSPIRE, a five-year partnership between Mississippi State University and three local school districts, is designed to strengthen the communication skills of graduate Fellows in geosciences, physics, astronomy, chemistry, and engineering as they incorporate their research into inquiry-based lessons in 7th - 12th grade science and math classrooms. All lesson plans designed and taught by the graduate Fellows must include one or more connections to their research, and these connections must be demonstrated to the students during the lessons. International research partnerships with Australia, the Bahamas, England, and Poland provide valuable opportunities for graduate Fellows to conduct field work abroad and allow our partner teachers to have authentic research experiences that they can bring back to their classrooms. Program effectiveness has been examined using pre- and post-year attitudinal surveys, formal lesson plan documents, Fellow and teacher journals, focus group meetings with a project evaluator, and direct observation of Fellow-led classroom activities. Analyses of data gathered during the past four years of the partnership will be presented that examine the diversity in approaches taken by Fellows to communicate big ideas, changes in the ability of Fellows to find connections between their research and classroom lessons while keeping them aligned with state and national standards, and the quality of the mentorship provided to the Fellows by our partner teachers. INSPIRE is funded by the Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellowship Program of the National Science Foundation (Award No. DGE-0947419).

  1. The Learning of Biology: A Structural Basis for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews recent research studies and experiences relating the learning theories of Ausubel to biology instruction. Also some suggestions are made for future research on the learning of biology. (MR)

  2. Biological research for the radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Chan Kug; Shim, Hae Won; Jung, Il Lae; Byun, Hee Sun; Moon, Myung Sook; Cho, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sik

    2003-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H 2 O 2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H 2 O 2 )- induced apoptosis, we utilized α-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H 2 O 2 , ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H 2 O 2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H 2 O 2 (or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death

  3. Biological research for the radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Chan Kug; Shim, Hae Won; Jung, Il Lae; Byun, Hee Sun; Moon, Myung Sook; Cho, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sik

    2003-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H{sub 2}O{sub 2})- induced apoptosis, we utilized {alpha}-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death.

  4. Radiation chemistry in development and research of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    During the establishment and development of radiation biology, radiation chemistry acts like bridge which units the spatial and temporal insight coming from radiation physics with radiation biology. The theory, model, and methodology of radiation chemistry play an important role in promoting research and development of radiation biology. Following research development of radiation biology effects towards systems radiation biology the illustration and exploration both diversity of biological responses and complex process of biological effect occurring remain to need the theory, model, and methodology come from radiation chemistry. (authors)

  5. Bio-inspired networking

    CERN Document Server

    Câmara, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...

  6. 78 FR 6087 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Biological and.... Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown...

  7. 77 FR 4028 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Biological and... of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  8. Bio-inspired variable structural color materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Gu, Hongcheng; Zhu, Cun; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-04-21

    Natural structural color materials, especially those that can undergo reversible changes, are attracting increasing interest in a wide variety of research fields. Inspired by the natural creatures, many elaborately nanostructured photonic materials with variable structural colors were developed. These materials have found important applications in switches, display devices, sensors, and so on. In this critical review, we will provide up-to-date research concerning the natural and bio-inspired photonic materials with variable structural colors. After introducing the variable structural colors in natural creatures, we will focus on the studies of artificial variable structural color photonic materials, including their bio-inspired designs, fabrications and applications. The prospects for the future development of these fantastic variable structural color materials will also be presented. We believe this review will promote the communications among biology, bionics, chemistry, optical physics, and material science (196 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  9. Manufacturing and Evaluation of a Biologically Inspired Engineered MAV Wing Compared to the Manduca Sexta Wing Under Simulated Flapping Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    thorax to the wings will continue for a short period of time, preserving the integrity of these wings. This small window was considered in order to...PromasterTM Digital XR EDO Aspherical LD (IF) 17-50 mm 1:2.8 Macro φ 67. Photomodeler provides the means to calibrate a camera via subroutine within...36. 20. DeLeón, N., O’Hara, R., and Palazotto, A., “Manufacturing of Engineering Bio- logically Inspired Flapping Wings,” 25th Annual US- Japan

  10. "Inspired and Assisted", or "Berated and Destroyed"? Research Leadership, Management and Performativity in Troubled Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh, Sue; Sutherland-Smith, Wendy; Randell-Moon, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Research leadership in Australian universities takes place against a backdrop of policy reforms concerned with measurement and comparison of institutional research performance. In particular, the Excellence in Research in Australian initiative undertaken by the Australian Research Council sets out to evaluate research quality in Australian…

  11. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm; Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The "Vision and Change" report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area…

  12. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  13. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  14. Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CBER is the Center within FDA that regulates biological products for human use under applicable federal laws, including the Public Health Service Act and the Federal...

  15. Neuroscience-Inspired Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Summerfield, Christopher; Botvinick, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals. We conclude by highlighting shared themes that may be key for advancing future research in both fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Evolutionary epistemology: Reviewing and reviving with new data the research programme for distributed biological intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slijepcevic, Predrag

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies in microbiology, eukaryotic cell biology, plant biology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and philosophy of science appear to support the principles of the epistemological theory inspired by evolution, also known as "Evolutionary Epistemology", or EE. However, that none of the studies acknowledged EE suggests that its principles have not been formulated with sufficient clarity and depth to resonate with the interests of the empirical research community. In this paper I review evidence in favor of EE, and also reformulate EE principles to better inform future research. The revamped programme may be tentatively called Research Programme for Distributed Biological Intelligence. Intelligence I define as the capacity of organisms to gain information about their environment, process that information internally, and translate it into phenotypic forms. This multistage progression may be expressed through the acronym IGPT (information-gain-process-translate). The key principles of the programme may be summarized as follows. (i) Intelligence, a universal biological phenomenon promoting individual fitness, is required for effective organism-environment interactions. Given that animals represent less than 0.01% of the planetary biomass, neural intelligence is not the evolutionary norm. (ii) The basic unit of intelligence is a single cell prokaryote. All other forms of intelligence are derived. (iii) Intelligence is hierarchical. It ranges from bacteria to the biosphere or Gaia. (iv) The concept of "information" acquires a new meaning because information processing is at the heart of biological intelligence. All biological systems, from bacteria to Gaia, are intelligent, open thermodynamic systems that exchange information, matter and energy with the environment. (v) The organism-environment interaction is cybernetic. As much as the organism changes due to the influence of the environment, the organism's responses to induced changes affect the environment and

  17. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  18. Social justice and research using human biological material: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social justice in the context of research using human biological material is an important contemporary legal-ethical issue. A question at the heart of this issue is the following: Is it fair to expect a research participant (a person who participates in such research by, among others, making available biological material from his or ...

  19. Structural biology computing: Lessons for the biomedical research sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Andrew; Sliz, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    The field of structural biology, whose aim is to elucidate the molecular and atomic structures of biological macromolecules, has long been at the forefront of biomedical sciences in adopting and developing computational research methods. Operating at the intersection between biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology, structural biology's growth into a foundational framework on which many concepts and findings of molecular biology are interpreted1 has depended largely on parallel advancements in computational tools and techniques. Without these computing advances, modern structural biology would likely have remained an exclusive pursuit practiced by few, and not become the widely practiced, foundational field it is today. As other areas of biomedical research increasingly embrace research computing techniques, the successes, failures and lessons of structural biology computing can serve as a useful guide to progress in other biomedically related research fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Protecting vulnerable research participants: a Foucault-inspired analysis of ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juritzen, Truls I; Grimen, Harald; Heggen, Kristin

    2011-09-01

    History has demonstrated the necessity of protecting research participants. Research ethics are based on a concept of asymmetry of power, viewing the researcher as powerful and potentially dangerous and establishing ethics committees as external agencies in the field of research. We argue in favour of expanding this perspective on relationships of power to encompass the ethics committees as one among several actors that exert power and that act in a relational interplay with researchers and participants. We employ Michel Foucault's ideas of power as an omnipresent force which is dynamic and unstable, as well as the notion that knowledge and power are inextricably intertwined. The article discusses how research ethics committees may affect academic freedom. In addition it is pointed out that research participants could be harmed - not only by unfortunate research practices, but also by being subjected to the protective efforts of ethics monitoring bodies.

  1. The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleynick, Victoria C; Thrash, Todd M; LeFew, Michael C; Moldovan, Emil G; Kieffaber, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Inspiration is a motivational state that compels individuals to bring ideas into fruition. Creators have long argued that inspiration is important to the creative process, but until recently, scientists have not investigated this claim. In this article, we review challenges to the study of creative inspiration, as well as solutions to these challenges afforded by theoretical and empirical work on inspiration over the past decade. First, we discuss the problem of definitional ambiguity, which has been addressed through an integrative process of construct conceptualization. Second, we discuss the challenge of how to operationalize inspiration. This challenge has been overcome by the development and validation of the Inspiration Scale (IS), which may be used to assess trait or state inspiration. Third, we address ambiguity regarding how inspiration differs from related concepts (creativity, insight, positive affect) by discussing discriminant validity. Next, we discuss the preconception that inspiration is less important than "perspiration" (effort), and we review empirical evidence that inspiration and effort both play important-but different-roles in the creative process. Finally, with many challenges overcome, we argue that the foundation is now set for a new generation of research focused on neural underpinnings. We discuss potential challenges to and opportunities for the neuroscientific study of inspiration. A better understanding of the biological basis of inspiration will illuminate the process through which creative ideas "fire the soul," such that individuals are compelled to transform ideas into products and solutions that may benefit society.

  2. US-Japan Cooperative Research on Biology-Inspired Precision Maneuvering of Underwater Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kato, Naomi

    2004-01-01

    .... We constructed an underwater vehicle equipped with two pairs of mechanical pectoral fins and pectoral fin controllers to examine the swimming performance of the underwater vehicle in still water...

  3. US-Japan Cooperative Research on Biology-Inspired Precision Maneuvering of Underwater Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kato, Naomi

    2004-01-01

    .... We examined the hydrodynamic characteristics of a mechanical pectoral fin through experimental and numerical analyses and the optimal match of the fin motions to generate the maximum hydrodynamic forces...

  4. Assessing the Impact of New Research-Inspired General Chemistry Laboratory Experiments Using the Awareness of and Attitudes toward Scientific Research Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzovino, Mary Elizabeth

    This work has three main components: 1.) The development of new research-inspired general chemistry laboratory experiments, 2.) The development of a new survey instrument to assess students' awareness of and attitudes toward scientific research, 3.) The utilization of that survey to assess the impacts of the new experiments. The value of undergraduate research experiences, both within and outside a course context, has been demonstrated in the literature. However, it is simply not feasible for all undergraduate students to participate in extracurricular research. Additionally, in many cases, integration of research modules into an undergraduate course is not realistic either. It is therefore necessary to assess the impacts of less complete, but still potentially significant, integration of research into the undergraduate curriculum via content drawn from current research at the University of Wisconsin--Madison. Two such experiments have been developed, in the areas of surfactants (synthesis and analysis) and reaction kinetics. Although a vast array of survey instruments exist to assess student attitudes toward science in general and specific fields such as chemistry, none of these instruments address scientific research. The Awareness of and Attitudes toward Scientific Research Inventory (AASRI) has been designed to fill this gap in the literature. The AASRI data exhibited evidence of good validity and reliability, suggesting that it is a useful assessment. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the new research-inspired experiments in the general chemistry curriculum. The AASRI was used as a pre- and post-test for students who did and did not complete the new experiments. Although no significant differences were found between the groups, the data collected in the pre-test and post-test of both classes demonstrated evidence of good validity and reliability, and it is possible that a simple increase in the number of interventions would

  5. The University of Kentucky Center for Research on Violence Against Women: science inspired by women's stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Carol E

    2011-09-01

    Research in the violence against women area has been undertaken for more than 30 years, but individual researchers who have made these scholarly contributions have not been advantaged by adequate attention, funding, or organizational structure within the university setting. This article offers a detailed description of a model of an interdisciplinary research center designed to provide an academic architecture within which research on intimate partner violence, sexual assault, stalking, and other forms of violence against women can flourish and advance. The article describes the impetus for creation of the University of Kentucky Center for Research on Violence Against Women, its current mission, organizational structure, financial operations, and initiatives related to research, education, and public service. Practical strategies for establishing and sustaining a center of this type are offered.

  6. Postharvest biology and technology research and development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The applications of biological control agents in pre- and post-harvest operations and modified atmosphere packaging and related technology in post harvest handling of fresh fruits and vegetables, in addition to the use of hot water treatment as a non-chemical alternative in keeping quality during post harvest handling of ...

  7. Haldane's Contributions to Biological Research in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    evolutionary biology. Haldane advised that "if you want to excel in science, try to develop the habit of quantitative thinking". Partha P Majumder. After a few brief visits to India in quick succession, J B S. Haldane accepted P C Mahalanobis's invitation and moved to. India to join the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta, as a.

  8. Physicists get INSPIREd

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Particle physicists thrive on information. They first create information by performing experiments or elaborating theoretical conjectures and then they share it through publications and various web tools. The INSPIRE service, just released, will bring state of the art information retrieval to the fingertips of researchers.   Keeping track of the information shared within the particle physics community has long been the task of libraries at the larger labs, such as CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, as well as the focus of indispensible services like arXiv and those of the Particle Data Group. In 2007, many providers of information in the field came together for a summit at SLAC to see how physics information resources could be enhanced, and the INSPIRE project emerged from that meeting. The vision behind INSPIRE was built by a survey launched by the four labs to evaluate the real needs of the community. INSPIRE responds to these directives from the community by combining the most successful aspe...

  9. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  10. Biologically inspired band-edge laser action from semiconductor with dipole-forbidden band-gap transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cih-Su; Liau, Chi-Shung; Sun, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chia; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to light up band-edge stimulated emission arising from a semiconductor with dipole-forbidden band-gap transition. To illustrate our working principle, here we demonstrate the feasibility on the composite of SnO2 nanowires (NWs) and chicken albumen. SnO2 NWs, which merely emit visible defect emission, are observed to generate a strong ultraviolet fluorescence centered at 387 nm assisted by chicken albumen at room temperature. In addition, a stunning laser action is further discovered in the albumen/SnO2 NWs composite system. The underlying mechanism is interpreted in terms of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the chicken albumen protein to SnO2 NWs. More importantly, the giant oscillator strength of shallow defect states, which is served orders of magnitude larger than that of the free exciton, plays a decisive role. Our approach therefore shows that bio-materials exhibit a great potential in applications for novel light emitters, which may open up a new avenue for the development of bio-inspired optoelectronic devices. PMID:25758749

  11. How can we improve problem solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, A-M; Caballero, M D; Knight, J K

    2013-06-01

    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.

  12. Connecting biology and organic chemistry introductory laboratory courses through a collaborative research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltax, Ariana L; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S; Pontrello, Jason K

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an interdisciplinary, medically relevant, project intended to help students see connections between chemistry and biology. Second term organic chemistry laboratory students designed and synthesized potential polymer inhibitors or inducers of polyglutamine protein aggregation. The use of novel target compounds added the uncertainty of scientific research to the project. Biology laboratory students then tested the novel potential pharmaceuticals in Huntington's disease model assays, using in vitro polyglutamine peptide aggregation and in vivo lethality studies in Drosophila. Students read articles from the primary literature describing the system from both chemical and biological perspectives. Assessment revealed that students emerged from both courses with a deeper understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry and a heightened interest in basic research. The design of this collaborative project for introductory biology and organic chemistry labs demonstrated how the local interests and expertise at a university can be drawn from to create an effective way to integrate these introductory courses. Rather than simply presenting a series of experiments to be replicated, we hope that our efforts will inspire other scientists to think about how some aspect of authentic work can be brought into their own courses, and we also welcome additional collaborations to extend the scope of the scientific exploration. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Excellence in the context of use-inspired research: Perspectives of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    General survey: A web-based survey distributed to former and present grantees of IDRC and former grantees of the Global ... Innovators survey: A web-based questionnaire distributed to research grantees identified as. 'innovators' on ... spondents to the general survey chose bibliometric and citation counts. This despite the ...

  14. Dystrophin quantification: Biological and translational research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Karen; Arechavala-Gomeza, Virginia; Taylor, Laura E; Vulin, Adeline; Kaminoh, Yuuki; Torelli, Silvia; Feng, Lucy; Janghra, Narinder; Bonne, Gisèle; Beuvin, Maud; Barresi, Rita; Henderson, Matt; Laval, Steven; Lourbakos, Afrodite; Campion, Giles; Straub, Volker; Voit, Thomas; Sewry, Caroline A; Morgan, Jennifer E; Flanigan, Kevin M; Muntoni, Francesco

    2014-11-25

    We formed a multi-institution collaboration in order to compare dystrophin quantification methods, reach a consensus on the most reliable method, and report its biological significance in the context of clinical trials. Five laboratories with expertise in dystrophin quantification performed a data-driven comparative analysis of a single reference set of normal and dystrophinopathy muscle biopsies using quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We developed standardized protocols and assessed inter- and intralaboratory variability over a wide range of dystrophin expression levels. Results from the different laboratories were highly concordant with minimal inter- and intralaboratory variability, particularly with quantitative immunohistochemistry. There was a good level of agreement between data generated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, although immunohistochemistry was more sensitive. Furthermore, mean dystrophin levels determined by alternative quantitative immunohistochemistry methods were highly comparable. Considering the biological function of dystrophin at the sarcolemma, our data indicate that the combined use of quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blotting are reliable biochemical outcome measures for Duchenne muscular dystrophy clinical trials, and that standardized protocols can be comparable between competent laboratories. The methodology validated in our study will facilitate the development of experimental therapies focused on dystrophin production and their regulatory approval. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. MIAMI cells embedded within a biologically-inspired construct promote recovery in a mouse model of peripheral vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Monge, Cristina; Delcroix, Gaëtan J.-R; Bonnin-Marquez, Andrea; Valdes, Mike; Awadallah, Ead Lewis Mazen; Quevedo, Daniel F.; Armour, Maxime R.; Montero, Ramon B.; Schiller, Paul C.; Andreopoulos, Fotios M.; D’Ippolito, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral vascular disease is one of the major vascular complications in individuals suffering from diabetes and in the elderly that is associated with significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. Stem cell therapy is being tested as an attractive alternative to traditional surgery to prevent and treat this disorder. The goal of this study was to enhance the protective and reparative potential of marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells by incorporating them within a bio-inspired construct (BIC) made of 2 layers of gelatin B electrospun nanofibers. We hypothesized that the BIC would enhance MIAMI cell survival and engraftment, ultimately leading to a better functional recovery of the injured limb in our mouse model of critical limb ischemia compared to MIAMI cells used alone. Our study demonstrated that MIAMI cell-seeded BIC resulted in a wide range of positive outcomes with an almost full recovery of blood flow in the injured limb, thereby limiting the extent of ischemia and necrosis. Functional recovery was also the greatest when MIAMI cells were combined with BICs, compared to MIAMI cells alone or BICs in the absence of cells. Histology was performed 28 days after grafting the animals to explore the mechanisms at the source of these positive outcomes. We observed that our critical limb ischemia model induces an extensive loss of muscular fibers that are replaced by intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), together with a highly disorganized vascular structure. The use of MIAMI cells-seeded BIC prevented IMAT infiltration with some clear evidence of muscular fibers regeneration. PMID:28211362

  16. VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, Fernando; Masegosa, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Biological and other natural processes have always been a source of inspiration for computer science and information technology. Many emerging problem solving techniques integrate advanced evolution and cooperation strategies, encompassing a range of spatio-temporal scales for visionary conceptualization of evolutionary computation. This book is a collection of research works presented in the VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO) held in Canterbury, UK. Previous editions of NICSO were held in Granada, Spain (2006 & 2010), Acireale, Italy (2007), Tenerife, Spain (2008), and Cluj-Napoca, Romania (2011). NICSO 2013 and this book provides a place where state-of-the-art research, latest ideas and emerging areas of nature inspired cooperative strategies for problem solving are vigorously discussed and exchanged among the scientific community. The breadth and variety of articles in this book report on nature inspired methods and applications such as Swarm In...

  17. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rathore, Heena

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  18. International Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Ed

    2017-01-01

    As the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) expands its Registered Apprenticeship College Consortium (RACC) among community colleges and employer partners, those involved are looking to countries like Germany and Switzerland for inspiration. In some cases, that has meant partnering with companies from those countries, which have had more comprehensive…

  19. Inspired Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Robert; Spruch, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    It has been nearly 400 years since Harvard College was created, and since then, thousands of colleges and universities have been built across the United States. From the classically inspired lines of Thomas Jefferson's University of Virginia to the Spanish architecture at Stanford University, every campus has its own personality. It's not unusual,…

  20. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme: A Research-Inspired Methods Optimization Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbur, Jaime F.; Vail, Justin D.; Mitchell, Lindsey N.; Jakeman, David L.; Timmons, Shannon C.

    2016-01-01

    The development and implementation of research-inspired, discovery-based experiences into science laboratory curricula is a proven strategy for increasing student engagement and ownership of experiments. In the novel laboratory module described herein, students learn to express, purify, and characterize a carbohydrate-active enzyme using modern…

  1. How Alexander von Humboldt's life story can inspire innovative soil research in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan

    2017-09-01

    The pioneering vision of Alexander von Humboldt of science and society of the early 1800s is still highly relevant today. His open mind and urge to make many measurements characterizing the interconnected web of life are crucial ingredients as we now face the worldwide challenge of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Case studies in the Philippines, Vietnam, Kenya, Niger, and Costa Rica demonstrate, in Alexander's spirit, interaction with stakeholders and attention to unique local conditions, applying modern measurement and modeling methods and allowing inter- and transdisciplinary research approaches. But relations between science and society are increasingly problematic, partly as a result of the information revolution and post-truth, fact-free thinking. Overly regulated and financially restricted scientific communities in so-called developed countries may stifle intellectual creativity. Researchers in developing countries are urged to leapfrog these problems in the spirit of Alexander von Humboldt as they further develop their scientific communities. Six suggestions to the science community are made with particular attention to soil science. (The Humboldt lecture, presented by the 2017 recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt lecture, Johan Bouma, can be accessed at http://client.cntv.at/egu2017/ml1.)

  2. How Alexander von Humboldt's life story can inspire innovative soil research in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bouma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The pioneering vision of Alexander von Humboldt of science and society of the early 1800s is still highly relevant today. His open mind and urge to make many measurements characterizing the interconnected web of life are crucial ingredients as we now face the worldwide challenge of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Case studies in the Philippines, Vietnam, Kenya, Niger, and Costa Rica demonstrate, in Alexander's spirit, interaction with stakeholders and attention to unique local conditions, applying modern measurement and modeling methods and allowing inter- and transdisciplinary research approaches. But relations between science and society are increasingly problematic, partly as a result of the information revolution and post-truth, fact-free thinking. Overly regulated and financially restricted scientific communities in so-called developed countries may stifle intellectual creativity. Researchers in developing countries are urged to leapfrog these problems in the spirit of Alexander von Humboldt as they further develop their scientific communities. Six suggestions to the science community are made with particular attention to soil science. (The Humboldt lecture, presented by the 2017 recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt lecture, Johan Bouma, can be accessed at http://client.cntv.at/egu2017/ml1.

  3. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarachand, U.; Singh, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented

  4. A Reconfigurable and Biologically Inspired Paradigm for Computation Using Network-On-Chip and Spiking Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Harkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGA devices have emerged as a popular platform for the rapid prototyping of biological Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs applications, offering the key requirement of reconfigurability. However, FPGAs do not efficiently realise the biologically plausible neuron and synaptic models of SNNs, and current FPGA routing structures cannot accommodate the high levels of interneuron connectivity inherent in complex SNNs. This paper highlights and discusses the current challenges of implementing scalable SNNs on reconfigurable FPGAs. The paper proposes a novel field programmable neural network architecture (EMBRACE, incorporating low-power analogue spiking neurons, interconnected using a Network-on-Chip architecture. Results on the evaluation of the EMBRACE architecture using the XOR benchmark problem are presented, and the performance of the architecture is discussed. The paper also discusses the adaptability of the EMBRACE architecture in supporting fault tolerant computing.

  5. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1980-05-01

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  6. Contribution to researches in biophysics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccioni, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    In this accreditation to supervise research, the author indicates its curriculum and scientific works which mainly dealt with the different agents used in chemotherapy. Scientific works addressed anti-carcinogenic pharmacology, applied biophysics, and researches in oncology and radiobiology. Current research projects deal with mechanisms of cellular transformation and the implication of the anti-oxidising metabolism and of nucleotide metabolism in cell radio-sensitivity. Teaching and research supervising activities are also indicated. Several articles are proposed in appendix: Average quality factor and dose equivalent meter based on microdosimetry techniques; Activity of thymidylate synthetase, thymidine kinase and galactokinase in primary and xenografted human colorectal cancers in relation to their chromosomal patterns; Nucleotide metabolism in human gliomas, relation to the chromosomal profile; Pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in human colon carcinomas: comparison of normal tissues, primary tumors and xenografts; Modifications of the antioxidant metabolism during proliferation and differentiation of colon tumours cell lines; Modulation of the antioxidant enzymes, p21 and p53 expression during proliferation and differentiation of human melanoma cell lines; Purine metabolism in 2 human melanoma cell lines, relation with proliferation and differentiation; Radiation-induced changes in nucleotide metabolism of 2 colon cancer cell lines with different radio-sensitivities

  7. Teaching and research on Developmental Biology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsdóttir, Sólveig; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Crespo, Eduardo G

    2009-01-01

    Developmental Biology has established itself as a solid field of teaching and research in Portugal. Its history is recent, generally considered to have started with the pioneering work of Augusto Celestino da Costa at the beginning of the 20th century. However, research groups were very few and, until the early 1990s, teaching beyond morphological and comparative embryology was uncommon. In 1994, the first university course dedicated to Developmental Biology as a separate field from Embryology was created at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon and a course on Plant Differentiation and Morphogenesis was also initiated. A Masters programme in Developmental Biology followed at the Lusofona University in 1996. Subsequently, modules of Developmental Biology were included in many Embryology courses and eventually more Developmental Biology courses were created. From 1999 onwards, the number of research groups working in Developmental Biology started to increase, many of which were initiated by researchers who had had the opportunity to pursue their PhD and/or post-doc studies abroad. The Instituto Gulbenkian de Cincia (Gulbenkian Institute of Science) became the first home of most of these groups, but several later spread to other institutions. This increased activity in turn has stimulated teaching of Developmental Biology and more students have been getting interested in the field. This positive feedback loop makes it a nice time to be teaching and working in Developmental Biology in Portugal.

  8. NCI RNA Biology 2017 symposium recap | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent discovery of new classes of RNAs and the demonstration that alterations in RNA metabolism underlie numerous human cancers have resulted in enormous interest among CCR investigators in RNA biology. In order to share the latest research in this exciting field, the CCR Initiative in RNA Biology held its second international symposium April 23-24, 2017, in Natcher Auditorium. Learn more...

  9. 75 FR 53685 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 12 p.m. ADDRESSES: Hilton Hotel, 620 Perry Parkway, Gaithersburg, MD 20877... the Climate Research Roadmap Workshop, BER Grand Challenge Workshop Report, and Systems Biology...

  10. Stable isotopes: essential tools in biological and medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, P. D.; Hachey, D. L.; Kreek, M. J.; Schoeller, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of the stable isotopes, /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O, as tracers in research studies in the fields of biology, medicine, pharmacology, and agriculture are briefly reviewed. (CH)

  11. How our changing research arena can inspire innovative environmental research in developing countries (Alexander von Humboldt Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Alexander von Humboldt was a true pioneer by engagingly articulating an ecosystem-wide vision on environmental issues and research, connecting and moving beyond disciplinary boundaries. Focusing here on soil science as an important discipline within the geosciences, the work of our group has acted in the spirit of this approach by focusing on interdisciplinary systems research in different developing countries in close interaction with stakeholders, based on soil processes in a dynamic landscape context. But recent developments of internet and social media are drastically changing relations between science and society all over the world. Scientists have to continuously struggle to keep their "societal license to research". Researchers in so-called developed countries would be well advised to communicate lessons learned to scientists in developing countries allowing them to leapfrog and avoid making time- consuming mistakes adhering to yesterday's practices. Specifically, attention should be paid to: (i) more continuing interaction with stakeholders when planning and executing research. This takes time that should be allocated in research projects. ; (ii) the quality of a limited number of key papers rather than on the total number of published and cited scientific papers, when judging researchers; (iii) defining new research on the basis of proven inadequacy of existing techniques and methods, realizing that "new" is not necessarily "better" and that available research methods and procedures can solve many current environmental problems; (iv) showing the value of the scientific approach that does not articulate: "yet another opinion" but is essential to face the major environmental challenges of the 21th century. (v) demonstrate the crucial importance of interdisciplinary ecosystem research and innovation when addressing the seventeen UN Sustainable Developments Goals (SDG's) that are attractive now as a focus for the scientific effort in land-related research. (vi

  12. Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) - Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Caron, Allison

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Research in Canisters - LED (BRIC-LED) is a biological research system that is being designed to complement the capabilities of the existing BRIC-Petri Dish Fixation Unit (PDFU) for the Space Life and Physical Sciences (SLPS) Program. A diverse range of organisms can be supported, including plant seedlings, callus cultures, Caenorhabditis elegans, microbes, and others. In the event of a launch scrub, the entire assembly can be replaced with an identical back-up unit containing freshly loaded specimens.

  13. [Inspirations from natural products based drug research and development for Chinese medicine research--analysis of natural products recoded in TTD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian; Guo, Jia-Jie; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Xu, Wen-Shan; Ding, Qian; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-11-01

    Natural product is an important source of new drug research and development (R&D). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) innovation is the key step for its modernization and internationalization. However, due to the complexity of TCM, there are many difficulties and confusions in this process. Target-based drug discovery is the mainstream model and method of R&D. TTD, short for therapeutic target database, is developed by National University of Singapore. Besides a large amount of information on drug targets, the database also contains considerable information related to natural products. This paper briefly introduces the TTD, analyzes the natural products derived drugs/compounds recorded in TTD, which we think might provide some inspiration for the innovation of TCM.

  14. BioMAV : Bio-inspired intelligence for autonomous flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerke, P.K.; Langevoort, J.; Lagarde, S.; Bax, L.; Grootswagers, T.; Drenth, R.J.; Slieker, V.; Vuurpijl, L.; Haselager, P.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.; Van Otterlo, M.; De Croon, G.C.H.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to research on biologically inspired micro air vehicles in two ways: (i) it explores a novel repertoire of behavioral modules which can be controlled through ?nite state machines (FSM) and (ii) elementary movement detectors (EMD) are combined with a center/surround edge

  15. A biologically inspired two-species exclusion model: effects of RNA polymerase motor traffic on simultaneous DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumendu; Mishra, Bhavya; Patra, Shubhadeep; Schadschneider, Andreas; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a two-species exclusion model to describe the key features of the conflict between the RNA polymerase (RNAP) motor traffic, engaged in the transcription of a segment of DNA, concomitant with the progress of two DNA replication forks on the same DNA segment. One of the species of particles (P) represents RNAP motors while the other (R) represents the replication forks. Motivated by the biological phenomena that this model is intended to capture, a maximum of two R particles only are allowed to enter the lattice from two opposite ends whereas the unrestricted number of P particles constitutes a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) in a segment in the middle of the lattice. The model captures three distinct pathways for resolving the co-directional as well as head-on collision between the P and R particles. Using Monte Carlo simulations and heuristic analytical arguments that combine exact results for the TASEP with mean-field approximations, we predict the possible outcomes of the conflict between the traffic of RNAP motors (P particles engaged in transcription) and the replication forks (R particles). In principle, the model can be adapted to experimental conditions to account for the data quantitatively.

  16. Biologically Inspired Cognitive Radio Engine Model Utilizing Distributed Genetic Algorithms for Secure and Robust Wireless Communications and Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rieser, Christian James

    2004-01-01

    This research focuses on developing a cognitive radio that could operate reliably in unforeseen communications environments like those faced by the disaster and emergency response communities. Cognitive radios may also offer the potential to open up secondary or complimentary spectrum markets, effectively easing the perceived spectrum crunch while providing new competitive wireless services to the consumer. A structure and process for embedding cognition in a radio is presented, including dis...

  17. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  18. Social justice and research using human biological material: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and provide that a person from whose body human biological material is withdrawn for research purposes may only be reimbursed for reasonable expenses incurred by him or her.[1,reg11] Accordingly, our law as it currently stands upholds an altruistic paradigm for participation in research and effectively outlaws any form ...

  19. Quarterly report of Biological and Medical Research Division, April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brues, A.M.

    1955-04-01

    This report is a compilation of 48 investigator prepared summaries of recent progress in individual research programs of the Biology and Medical Division of the Argonne National Laboratory for the quarterly period ending April,1955. Individual reports are about 3-6 pages in length and often contain research data.

  20. Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series for Biological Rhythms Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leise, Tanya L

    2017-06-01

    This article is part of a Journal of Biological Rhythms series exploring analysis and statistics topics relevant to researchers in biological rhythms and sleep research. The goal is to provide an overview of the most common issues that arise in the analysis and interpretation of data in these fields. In this article on time series analysis for biological rhythms, we describe some methods for assessing the rhythmic properties of time series, including tests of whether a time series is indeed rhythmic. Because biological rhythms can exhibit significant fluctuations in their period, phase, and amplitude, their analysis may require methods appropriate for nonstationary time series, such as wavelet transforms, which can measure how these rhythmic parameters change over time. We illustrate these methods using simulated and real time series.

  1. Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A

    2012-11-01

    Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences.

  2. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  3. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  4. NASA Space Biology Plant Research for 2010-2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Tomko, D. L.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) recently published "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era" (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record id=13048), and NASA completed a Space Biology Science Plan to develop a strategy for implementing its recommendations ( http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/library/esmd documents.html). The most important recommendations of the NRC report on plant biology in space were that NASA should: (1) investigate the roles of microbial-plant systems in long-term bioregenerative life support systems, and (2) establish a robust spaceflight program of research analyzing plant growth and physiological responses to the multiple stimuli encountered in spaceflight environments. These efforts should take advantage of recently emerged analytical technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and apply modern cellular and molecular approaches in the development of a vigorous flight-based and ground-based research program. This talk will describe NASA's strategy and plans for implementing these NRC Plant Space Biology recommendations. New research capabilities for Plant Biology, optimized by providing state-of-the-art automated technology and analytical techniques to maximize scientific return, will be described. Flight experiments will use the most appropriate platform to achieve science results (e.g., ISS, free flyers, sub-orbital flights) and NASA will work closely with its international partners and other U.S. agencies to achieve its objectives. One of NASA's highest priorities in Space Biology is the development research capabilities for use on the International Space Station and other flight platforms for studying multiple generations of large plants. NASA will issue recurring NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) that include a rapid turn-around model to more fully engage the biology community in designing experiments to respond to the NRC recommendations. In doing so, NASA

  5. Activities in biological radiation research at the AGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AGF is working on a wide spectrum of biological radiation research, with the different scientific disciplines contributing different methodologies to long-term research projects. The following fields are studied: 1. Molecular and cellular modes of action of radiation. 2. Detection and characterisation of biological radiation damage, especially in humans. 3. Medical applications of radiation effects. 4. Concepts and methods of radiation protection. The studies will lead to suggestions for radiation protection and improved radiotherapy. They may also contribute to the development of environmental protection strategies. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Guard Cell and Tropomyosin Inspired Chemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn K.S. Nagel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensors are an integral part of many engineered products and systems. Biological inspiration has the potential to improve current sensor designs as well as inspire innovative ones. This paper presents the design of an innovative, biologically-inspired chemical sensor that performs “up-front” processing through mechanical means. Inspiration from the physiology (function of the guard cell coupled with the morphology (form and physiology of tropomyosin resulted in two concept variants for the chemical sensor. Applications of the sensor design include environmental monitoring of harmful gases, and a non-invasive approach to detect illnesses including diabetes, liver disease, and cancer on the breath.

  7. Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) Brining STEM Research to 7th-12th Grade Science and Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radencic, S.; McNeal, K. S.; Pierce, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) program at Mississippi State University (MSU), funded by the NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK12) program, focuses on the advancement of Earth and Space science education in K-12 classrooms. INSPIRE currently in its third year of partnering ten graduate students each year from the STEM fields of Geosciences, Engineering, Physics and Chemistry at MSU with five teachers from local, rural school districts. The five year project serves to enhance graduate student's communication skills as they create interactive lessons linking their STEM research focus to the state and national standards covered in science and math classrooms for grades 7-12 through inquiry experiences. Each graduate student is responsible for the development of two lessons each month of the school year that include an aspect of their STEM research, including the technologies that they may utilize to conduct their STEM research. The plans are then published on the INSPIRE project webpage, www.gk12.msstate.edu, where they are a free resource for any K-12 classroom teacher seeking innovative activities for their classrooms and total over 300 lesson activities to date. Many of the participating teachers and graduate students share activities developed with non-participating teachers, expanding INSPIRE's outreach of incorporating STEM research into activities for K-12 students throughout the local community. Examples of STEM research connections to classroom topics related to earth and ocean science include activities using GPS with GIS for triangulation and measurement of area in geometry; biogeochemical response to oil spills compared to organism digestive system; hydrogeology water quality monitoring and GIS images used as a determinant for habitat suitability in area water; interactions of acids and bases in the Earth's environments and surfaces; and the importance of electrical circuitry in an electrode used in

  8. BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED HARDWARE CELL ARCHITECTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a system comprising: - a reconfigurable hardware platform; - a plurality of hardware units defined as cells adapted to be programmed to provide self-organization and self-maintenance of the system by means of implementing a program expressed in a programming language defined as DNA...... language, where each cell is adapted to communicate with one or more other cells in the system, and where the system further comprises a converter program adapted to convert keywords from the DNA language to a binary DNA code; where the self-organisation comprises that the DNA code is transmitted to one...... or more of the cells, and each of the one or more cells is adapted to determine its function in the system; where if a fault occurs in a first cell and the first cell ceases to perform its function, self-maintenance is performed by that the system transmits information to the cells that the first cell has...

  9. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    forearm musculature to actively extend and retract the wing and to change both the chordwise and spanwise shape. Bats, in particular, have astounding...human input and do not overload the human operator. Moving the human input to a higher system level (e.g., from active moment-to-moment decision...which the insect coordinates its abdominal motion with the motion of its wings during a flight maneuver. Furthermore, the manner in which this

  10. Applying the community partnership approach to human biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Julia; Schell, Lawrence M; Cole, Tewentahawih'tha'

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary human biology research employs a unique skillset for biocultural analysis. This skillset is highly appropriate for the study of health disparities because disparities result from the interaction of social and biological factors over one or more generations. Health disparities research almost always involves disadvantaged communities owing to the relationship between social position and health in stratified societies. Successful research with disadvantaged communities involves a specific approach, the community partnership model, which creates a relationship beneficial for researcher and community. Paramount is the need for trust between partners. With trust established, partners share research goals, agree on research methods and produce results of interest and importance to all partners. Results are shared with the community as they are developed; community partners also provide input on analyses and interpretation of findings. This article describes a partnership-based, 20 year relationship between community members of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation and researchers at the University at Albany. As with many communities facing health disparity issues, research with Native Americans and indigenous peoples generally is inherently politicized. For Akwesasne, the contamination of their lands and waters is an environmental justice issue in which the community has faced unequal exposure to, and harm by environmental toxicants. As human biologists engage in more partnership-type research, it is important to understand the long term goals of the community and what is at stake so the research circle can be closed and 'helicopter' style research avoided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Bibliographical review on the teaching of Biology and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Luz Rodríguez Palmero

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This review complements another one done by the same author, in 1997, regarding the role of comprehending the concept of cell in the learning of Biology. In addition, some general papers on science education that provide a better understanding of research approaches used in the investigation of this topic have been included. The reviewed papers have been organized into categories according to the object of study, the relevance assigned to the cell concept, and the framework of analysis. The review shows that the concept of cell is very important in the biological conceptualization, however, it also shows the need of additional research on this matter, from theoretical frameworks that pay more attention to the psychological level, in order to provide some guidance to improve the teaching and learning processes of the biological content that presupose the comprehension of living beings.

  12. Partnering with Universities, a NASA Visitor Center, Schools, and the INSPIRE Project to Perform Research and Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M.; Smith, J. A.; Kloostra, E.; Knupp, K. R.; Taylor, K.; Anderson, S.; Baskauf, C. J.; Buckner, S.; DiMatties, J.; Fry, C. D.; Gaither, B.; Galben, C. W.; Gallagher, D. L.; Heaston, M. P.; Kraft, J.; Meisch, K.; Mills, R.; Nations, C.; Nielson, D.; Oelgoetz, J.; Rawlins, L. P.; Sudbrink, D. L.; Wright, A.

    2017-12-01

    For the August 2017 eclipse, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center partnered with the U.S. Space and Rocket Center (USSRC), Austin Peay State University (APSU) in Clarksville, Tennessee, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), the Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments (INSPIRE) Project, and the local school systems of Montgomery County, Tennessee, and Christian County, Kentucky. Multiple site visits and workshops were carried out during the first eight months of 2017 to prepare local teachers and students for the eclipse. A special curriculum was developed to prepare USSRC Space Camp and INSPIRE students to observe and participate in science measurements during the eclipse. Representatives from Christian County school system and APSU carried out observations for the Citizen Continental-America Telescopic Eclipse (CATE) Experiment in two separate locations. UAH and APSU as part of the Montana State Ballooning Project, launched balloons containing video cameras and other instruments. USSRC Space Camp students and counselors and INSPIRE students conducted science experiments that included the following: atmospheric science investigations of the atmospheric boundary layer, very-low frequency and Ham radio observations to investigate ionospheric responses to the eclipse, animal and insect observations, solar-coronal observations, eclipse shadow bands. We report on the results of all these investigations.

  13. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  14. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts. PMID:21439242

  15. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. ARM-Cortex M3-Based Two-Wheel Robot for Assessing Grid Cell Model of Medial Entorhinal Cortex: Progress towards Building Robots with Biologically Inspired Navigation-Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cuneo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the implementation and use of a two-wheel autonomous robot and its effectiveness as a tool for studying the recently discovered use of grid cells as part of mammalian’s brains space-mapping circuitry (specifically the medial entorhinal cortex. A proposed discrete-time algorithm that emulates the medial entorhinal cortex is programed into the robot. The robot freely explores a limited laboratory area in the manner of a rat or mouse and reports information to a PC, thus enabling research without the use of live individuals. Position coordinate neural maps are achieved as mathematically predicted although for a reduced number of implemented neurons (i.e., 200 neurons. However, this type of computational embedded system (robot’s microcontroller is found to be insufficient for simulating huge numbers of neurons in real time (as in the medial entorhinal cortex. It is considered that the results of this work provide an insight into achieving an enhanced embedded systems design for emulating and understanding mathematical neural network models to be used as biologically inspired navigation system for robots.

  17. Biological/paleoecological analysis for modern archaeological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of biological/geological methods besides geophysical/chemical ones for a multidisciplinary archaeological research is underlined. This is a necessity for a deeper knowledge of prehistoric society, settlement environment and the human landscape development. Dating methods are discussed and archaeological/paleoecological settlement studies are illustrated by a generalized case study. A proposed organization in Sweden of the research cooperation between archaeologists and natural science specialists is also discussed. (author)

  18. Stem Cells: A Renaissance in Human Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-16

    The understanding of human biology and how it relates to that of other species represents an ancient quest. Limited access to human material, particularly during early development, has restricted researchers to only scratching the surface of this inherently challenging subject. Recent technological innovations, such as single cell "omics" and human stem cell derivation, have now greatly accelerated our ability to gain insights into uniquely human biology. The opportunities afforded to delve molecularly into scarce material and to model human embryogenesis and pathophysiological processes are leading to new insights of human development and are changing our understanding of disease and choice of therapy options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The solar system: Importance of research to the biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harold P.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe the scope of scientific areas that comprise the current field of exobiology in the United States. From investigations of astrophysical phenomena that deal with the birth of stars and planetary systems to questions of molecular biology involving phylogenetic relationships among organisms, from attempts to simulate the synthesis of biological precursor molecules in the chemistry laboratory to making measurements of the organic constituents of Titan's atmosphere, these researches all converge toward a common objective--answering the question of how life came about in the universe.

  20. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  1. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  2. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; Loon, Jack J. W. A. van; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-01-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy

  3. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  4. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Vision and Change report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area of science. We developed a laboratory module called pClone that empowers students to use advances in molecular cloning methods to discover new promoters for use by synthetic biologists. Our educational goals are consistent with Vision and Change and emphasize core concepts and competencies. pClone is a family of three plasmids that students use to clone a new transcriptional promoter or mutate a canonical promoter and measure promoter activity in Escherichia coli. We also developed the Registry of Functional Promoters, an open-access database of student promoter research results. Using pre- and posttests, we measured significant learning gains among students using pClone in introductory biology and genetics classes. Student posttest scores were significantly better than scores of students who did not use pClone. pClone is an easy and affordable mechanism for large-enrollment labs to meet the high standards of Vision and Change. PMID:26086659

  5. Introducing INSPIRE: an implementation research collaboration between the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada and the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Pierre; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Mason, Elizabeth; Shaffer, Nathan; Lipa, Zuzanna; Baller, April; Rollins, Nigel

    2014-11-01

    The government of Canada, through the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD) has supported global efforts to reduce the impact of the HIV pandemic. In 2012, WHO and DFATD launched an implementation research initiative to increase access to interventions that were known to be effective in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and to learn how these could be successfully integrated with other essential services for mothers and children. In addition to facilitating the implementation research projects, DFATD and WHO promoted four approaches: (1) Country-specific implementation research prioritization exercises, (2) Ministry of Health involvement, (3) Country-led, innovative, high-quality research, and (4) Leveraging regional networks and learning opportunities. While no single aspect of INSPIRE is unique, the process endeavors to promote and support high-quality, rigorous, locally-led implementation research that will have a substantial impact on the health and survival of HIV-infected women and their children.

  6. Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Tőzsér

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications require their use, including production of Klenow fragments, peptide synthesis, digestion of unwanted proteins during nucleic acid purification, cell culturing and tissue dissociation, preparation of recombinant antibody fragments for research, diagnostics and therapy, exploration of the structure-function relationships by structural studies, removal of affinity tags from fusion proteins in recombinant protein techniques, peptide sequencing and proteolytic digestion of proteins in proteomics. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular biological aspects of proteolytic enzymes and summarize their applications in the life sciences.

  7. BRIC-60: Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC)-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) is an anodized-aluminum cylinder used to provide passive stowage for investigations evaluating the effects of space flight on small organisms. Specimens flown in the BRIC 60 mm petri dish (BRIC-60) hardware include Lycoperscion esculentum (tomato), Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress), Glycine max (soybean) seedlings, Physarum polycephalum (slime mold) cells, Pothetria dispar (gypsy moth) eggs and Ceratodon purpureus (moss).

  8. Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Mótyán, János András; Tóth, Ferenc; Tőzsér, József

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases) are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications ...

  9. Biological and chemical technologies research. FY 1995 annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1995 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1995 (ASR 95) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1995; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents; and awards arising from work supported by the BCTR.

  10. Towards Bio-Inspired Chromatic Behaviours in Surveillance Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar Karutaa Gnaniar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of Robotics is ever growing at the same time as posing enormous challenges. Numerous works has been done in biologically inspired robotics emulating models, systems and elements of nature for the purpose of solving traditional robotics problems. Chromatic behaviours are abundant in nature across a variety of living species to achieve camouflage, signaling, and temperature regulation. The ability of these creatures to successfully blend in with their environment and communicate by changing their colour is the fundamental inspiration for our research work. In this paper, we present dwarf chameleon inspired chromatic behaviour in the context of an autonomous surveillance robot, “PACHONDHI”. In our experiments, we successfully validated the ability of the robot to autonomously change its colour in relation to the terrain that it is traversing for maximizing detectability to friendly security agents and minimizing exposure to hostile agents, as well as to communicate with fellow cooperating robots.

  11. INSPIRE Project (IoNospheric Sounding for Pre-seismic anomalies Identification REsearch): Main Results and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulinets, S. A.; Andrzej, K.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Cherniak, I.; Zakharenkova, I.; Rothkaehl, H.; Davidenko, D.

    2017-12-01

    The INSPIRE project is dedicated to the study of physical processes and their effects in ionosphere which could be determined as earthquake precursors together with detailed description of the methodology of ionospheric pre-seismic anomalies definition. It was initiated by ESA and carried out by international consortium. The physical mechanisms of the ionospheric pre-seismic anomalies generation from ground to the ionosphere altitudes were formulated within framework of the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling (LAIMC) model (Pulinets et al., 2015). The general algorithm for the identification of the ionospheric precursors was formalized which also takes into account the external Space Weather factors able to generate the false alarms. Importance of the special stable pattern called the "precursor mask" was highlighted which is based on self-similarity of pre-seismic ionospheric variations. The role of expert decision in pre-seismic anomalies interpretation for generation of seismic warning is important as well. The algorithm performance of the LAIMC seismo-ionospheric effect detection module has been demonstrated using the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake as a case study. The results of INSPIRE project have demonstrated that the ionospheric anomalies registered before the strong earthquakes could be used as reliable precursors. The detailed classification of the pre-seismic anomalies was presented in different regions of the ionosphere and signatures of the pre-seismic anomalies as detected by ground and satellite based instruments were described what clarified methodology of the precursor's identification from ionospheric multi-instrumental measurements. Configuration for the dedicated multi-observation experiment and satellite payload was proposed for the future implementation of the INSPIRE project results. In this regard the multi-instrument set can be divided by two groups: space equipment and ground-based support, which could be used for real

  12. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies

  13. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  14. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

  15. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.H.

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group

  16. Inspiring a generation

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

  17. Perceptually-Inspired Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human sensory systems allow individuals to see, hear, touch, and interact with the surrounding physical environment. Understanding human perception and its limit enables us to better exploit the psychophysics of human perceptual systems to design more efficient, adaptive algorithms and develop perceptually-inspired computational models. In this talk, I will survey some of recent efforts on perceptually-inspired computing with applications to crowd simulation and multimodal interaction. In particular, I will present data-driven personality modeling based on the results of user studies, example-guided physics-based sound synthesis using auditory perception, as well as perceptually-inspired simplification for multimodal interaction. These perceptually guided principles can be used to accelerating multi-modal interaction and visual computing, thereby creating more natural human-computer interaction and providing more immersive experiences. I will also present their use in interactive applications for entertainment, such as video games, computer animation, and shared social experience. I will conclude by discussing possible future research directions.

  18. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The research during 1978 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Studies related to nuclear energy include responses of beagles to continuous low-level /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and development of leukemic indicators; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low-level neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma radiation; genetic effects of high LET radiations; and metabolic and therapeutic studies of heavy metals. Studies of nonnuclear energy sources deal with characterization and toxicological evaluation of effluents of fluidized bed combustion and coal gasification; electrical storage systems; electric fields associated with energy transmission; and development of population projection models and assessment of human risk. Basic research studies include fundamental structural and biophysical investigations; circadian rhythms; mutagenesis in bacteria and mammalian cells; cell killing, damage, and repair in mammalian cells; carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis; the use of liposomes as biological carriers; and studies of environmental influences on life-span, physiological performance, and circadian cycles. In the area of medical development, proteins in urine and tissues of normal and diseased humans are analyzed, and advanced analytical procedures for use of stable isotopes in clinical research and diagnosis are developed and applied. The final sections of the report cover support facilities, educational activities, the seminar program, staff talks, and staff publications.

  19. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  20. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies

  1. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The research during 1978 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Studies related to nuclear energy include responses of beagles to continuous low-level 60 Co gamma radiation, and development of leukemic indicators; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low-level neutron and 60 Co gamma radiation; genetic effects of high LET radiations; and metabolic and therapeutic studies of heavy metals. Studies of nonnuclear energy sources deal with characterization and toxicological evaluation of effluents of fluidized bed combustion and coal gasification; electrical storage systems; electric fields associated with energy transmission; and development of population projection models and assessment of human risk. Basic research studies include fundamental structural and biophysical investigations; circadian rhythms; mutagenesis in bacteria and mammalian cells; cell killing, damage, and repair in mammalian cells; carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis; the use of liposomes as biological carriers; and studies of environmental influences on life-span, physiological performance, and circadian cycles. In the area of medical development, proteins in urine and tissues of normal and diseased humans are analyzed, and advanced analytical procedures for use of stable isotopes in clinical research and diagnosis are developed and applied. The final sections of the report cover support facilities, educational activities, the seminar program, staff talks, and staff publications

  2. Common data manipulations with R in biological researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Yi; Liu, Qin; Feng, Zhe

    2017-07-01

    R is a computer language and has been widely used in science community due to the powerful capability in data analysis and visualization; and these functions are mainly provided by the developed packages. Because every package has strict format definitions on the inputted data, it is always required to appropriately manipulate the original data in advance. Unfortunately, users, especially for the beginners, are always confused by the extreme flexibility with R in data manipulation. In the present paper, we roughly categorize the common manipulations with R for biological data into four classes, including overview of data, transformation, summarization, and reshaping. Subsequently, these manipulations are exemplified in a sample data of clinical records of diabetic patients. Our main purpose is to provide a better landscape on the data manipulation with R and hence facilitate the practical applications in biological researches.

  3. Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabus Hans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP [1], the joint research project “Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy” (BioQuaRT [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 μm, and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

  4. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  5. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, D.A.; Bartholow, J.M.; Jager, H.I.; Beschta, R.L.; Cheslak, E.F.; Deas, M.L.; Ebersole, J.L.; Foott, J.S.; Johnson, S.L.; Marine, K.R.; Mesa, M.G.; Petersen, J.H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K.F.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Research progress in phytochemistry and biology of Aframomum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, Sarah Wambui; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Guanzhong

    2016-11-01

    The African genus Aframomum (Zingiberaceae) is a group of diverse tropical plants frequently collected yet largely neglected taxonomically. The current and unprecedented loss of species due to man-made habitat destruction and climate change adds a desperate urgency not only to understand the phylogenetics, chemotaxonomy and biology, but also to preserve the quickly disappearing species. The present systematic review reports on the research progress in phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Aframomum species. Scientific databases such as MedSci, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Knowledge were used to retrieve publications (from the year 1990 to 2014) related to Aframomum plants, isolated compounds and their bioactivity, phytochemistry and toxicology. The keywords combinations for the search were: Aframomum; chemotaxonomy, phylogenetics, pharmacology and bioactive metabolites and toxicology. A total of 71 research articles that report on the biological activity of extracts and chemical constituents were recovered and presented in this review. Most published data related to the potential of Aframomum melegueta, a medicinal plant from West and Central Africa. The potential of phenols and terpenoids isolated from Aframomum plants were generally much better documented than that of arylalkanoids. Aframomum genus represents an enormous resource for novel compounds with a range of medicinal properties. However, these plants are under-researched and their conservation is poor. To unravel their full potential, efforts should be strengthened throughout the continent to establish the taxonomy, preserve the genus and explore novel medicinal properties.

  7. Innovations in nature inspired optimization and learning methods

    OpenAIRE

    Corchado Rodríguez, Emilio; Abraham, Ajith P.

    2017-01-01

    The nine papers included in this special issue represent a selection of extended contributions presented at the Third World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC2011), held in Salamanca, Spain, October 19–21, 2011. Papers were selected on the basis of fundamental ideas and concepts rather than the direct usage of well-established techniques. This special issue is then aimed at practitioners, researchers and postgraduate students, who are engaged in developing and apply...

  8. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K; Kersey, Paul J; Maslen, Gareth L; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Oliva, Clelia F; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A; Wilson, Anthony J; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations.

  9. Towards a lightweight generic computational grid framework for biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Adrian J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of scientific research projects require access to large-scale computational resources. This is particularly true in the biological field, whether to facilitate the analysis of large high-throughput data sets, or to perform large numbers of complex simulations – a characteristic of the emerging field of systems biology. Results In this paper we present a lightweight generic framework for combining disparate computational resources at multiple sites (ranging from local computers and clusters to established national Grid services. A detailed guide describing how to set up the framework is available from the following URL: http://igrid-ext.cryst.bbk.ac.uk/portal_guide/. Conclusion This approach is particularly (but not exclusively appropriate for large-scale biology projects with multiple collaborators working at different national or international sites. The framework is relatively easy to set up, hides the complexity of Grid middleware from the user, and provides access to resources through a single, uniform interface. It has been developed as part of the European ImmunoGrid project.

  10. Continuing training program in radiation protection in biological research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, R.; Hidalgo, R.M.; Usera, F.; Macias, M.T.; Mirpuri, E.; Perez, J.; Sanchez, A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in biological research has many specific characteristics. A great variety of radioisotopic techniques involve unsealed radioactive sources, and their use not only carries a risk of irradiation, but also a significant risk of contamination. Moreover, a high proportion of researchers are in training and the labor mobility rate is therefore high. Furthermore, most newly incorporated personnel have little or no previous training in radiological protection, since most academic qualifications do not include training in this discipline. In a biological research center, in addition to personnel whose work is directly associated with the radioactive facility (scientific-technical personnel, operators, supervisors), there are also groups of support personnel The use of ionizing radiation in biological research has many specific characteristics. A great variety of radioisotopic techniques involve unsealed radioactive sources, and their use not only carries a risk of irradiation, but also a significant risk of contamination. Moreover, a high proportion of researchers are in training and the labor mobility rate is therefore high. Furthermore, most newly incorporated personnel have little or no previous training in radiological protection, since most academic qualifications do not include training in this discipline. In a biological research center, in addition to personnel whose work is directly associated with the radioactive facility (scientific-technical personnel, operators, supervisors), there are also groups of support personnel maintenance and instrumentation workers, cleaners, administrative personnel, etc. who are associated with the radioactive facility indirectly. These workers are affected by the work in the radioactive facility to varying degrees, and they therefore also require information and training in radiological protection tailored to their level of interaction with the installation. The aim of this study was to design a

  11. "Biology Education"--An Emerging Interdisciplinary Area of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The growing number of faculty positions in biology education, the formation of professional societies focused specifically on biology education, and the increasing number of publications in biology education over the past decade

  12. #IWD2016 Academic Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    What academics or books have inspired you in your writing and research, or helped to make sense of the world around you? In this feature essay, Ninna Meier returns to her experience of reading Hannah Arendt as she sought to understand work and how it relates to value production in capitalist...... economies. Meier recounts how Arendt’s book On Revolution (1963) forged connective threads between the ‘smallest parts’ and the ‘largest wholes’ and showed how academic work is never fully relegated to the past, but can return in new iterations across time....

  13. Explorations: A Research-Based Program Introducing Undergraduates to Diverse Biology Research Topics Taught by Grad Students and Postdocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E.; Khalfan, Waheeda; Bergmann, Dominique; Simoni, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate biology majors are often overwhelmed by and underinformed about the diversity and complexity of biological research that is conducted on research-intensive campuses. We present a program that introduces undergraduates to the diversity and scope of biological research and also provides unique teaching opportunities for graduate…

  14. BCTR: Biological and Chemical Technologies Research 1994 annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.

    1995-02-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1994 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). Although the OIT was reorganized in 1991 and AICD no longer exists, this document reports on efforts conducted under the former structure. The annual summary report for 1994 (ASR 94) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1994; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  15. Research program on the biological effects of oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.T.

    1991-12-01

    A national research program on the biological effects of oil pollution (FOBO) was initiated by the Norwegian Ministry of Environment in October 1983 in the light of the increasing oil exploration and production activity in the North Sea and northern Norwegian waters. Ambitions were high and five main fields of research were suggested: Seabirds, fish (incl. salmon), marine mammals, the littoral zone and plankton. However, due to the lack of interest on the part of other potential financers, e.g. the Ministry of Fisheries and the oil companies, to participate, the four-year programme had to be limited to the following three topics: Seabirds around bruding colonies and at sea; Higher plants along the shoreline; The littoral zone. The program ran from the autumn of 1985 to the end of 1989 and this report summarizes the main results and conclusions of each project. 95 refs., 52 figs., 9 tabs

  16. 2010 Tetrapyrroles, Chemistry & Biology of Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angela Wilks

    2010-07-30

    The objective of the Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles Gordon Conference is to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines that otherwise would not interact. By bringing biologists, chemists, engineers and clinicians with a common interest in tetrapyrroles the conference provides a forum for cross-disciplinary ideas and collaboration. The perspective provided by biologists, chemists, and clinicians working in fields such as newly discovered defects in human porphyrin metabolism, the myriad of strategies for light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms, novel tetrapyrroles that serve as auxiliary chromophores or enzyme cofactors, synthetic strategies in the design of novel tetrapyrrole scaffolds, and tetrapyrrole based cell signaling and regulatory systems, makes this conference unique in the field. Over the years the growing evidence for the role of tetrapyrroles and their reactive intermediates in cell signaling and regulation has been of increasing importance at this conference. The 2010 conference on Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles will focus on many of these new frontiers as outlined in the preliminary program listed. Speakers will emphasize unpublished results and new findings in the field. The oral sessions will be followed by the highly interactive afternoon poster sessions. The poster sessions provide all conferees with the opportunity to present their latest research and to exchange ideas in a more informal setting. As in the past, this opportunity will continue during the nightly social gathering that takes place in the poster hall following the evening lectures. All conferees are encouraged to submit and present posters. At the conference the best poster in the areas of biology, chemistry and medicine will be selected by a panel of previous conference chairs.

  17. Methods of 15N tracer research in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, K.; Faust, H.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the stable isotope 15 N is of increasing importance in different scientific disciplines, especially in medicine, agriculture, and the biosciences. The close correlation between the growing interest and improvements of analytical procedures resulted in remarkable advances in the 15 N tracer technique. On the basis of the latest results of 15 N tracer research in life sciences and agriculture methods of 15 N tracer research in biological systems are compiled. The 15 N methodology is considered under three headings: Chemical analysis with a description of methods of sample preparation (including different separation and isolation methods for N-containing substances of biological and agricultural origin) and special procedures converting ammonia to molecular nitrogen. Isotopic analysis with a review on the most important methods of isotopic analysis of nitrogen: mass spectrometry (including the GC-MS technique), emission spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, and other analytical procedures. 15 N-tracer techniques with a consideration of the role of the isotope dilution analysis as well as different labelling techniques and the mathematical interpretation of tracer data (modelling, N turnover experiments). In these chapters also sources of errors in chemical and isotopic analysis, the accuracy of the different methods and its importance on tracer experiments are discussed. Procedures for micro scale 15 N analysis and aspects of 15 N analysis on the level of natural abundance are considered. Furthermore some remarks on isotope effects in 15 N tracer experiments are made. (author)

  18. Application of the selected physical methods in biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Tlačbaba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of acoustic emission (AE, which is a part of the non-destructive methods, currently having an extensive application. This method is used for measuring the internal defects of materials. AE has a high potential in further research and development to extend the application of this method even in the field of process engineering. For that matter, it is the most elaborate acoustic emission monitoring in laboratory conditions with regard to external stimuli. The aim of the project is to apply the acoustic emission recording the activity of bees in different seasons. The mission is to apply a new perspective on the behavior of colonies by means of acoustic emission, which collects a sound propagation in the material. Vibration is one of the integral part of communication in the community. Sensing colonies with the support of this method is used for understanding of colonies biological behavior to stimuli clutches, colony development etc. Simulating conditions supported by acoustic emission monitoring system the illustrate colonies activity. Collected information will be used to represent a comprehensive view of the life cycle and behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera. Use of information about the activities of bees gives a comprehensive perspective on using of acoustic emission in the field of biological research.

  19. Unity and disunity in evolutionary sciences: process-based analogies open common research avenues for biology and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Johann-Mattis; Pathmanathan, Jananan Sylvestre; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

    2016-08-20

    For a long time biologists and linguists have been noticing surprising similarities between the evolution of life forms and languages. Most of the proposed analogies have been rejected. Some, however, have persisted, and some even turned out to be fruitful, inspiring the transfer of methods and models between biology and linguistics up to today. Most proposed analogies were based on a comparison of the research objects rather than the processes that shaped their evolution. Focusing on process-based analogies, however, has the advantage of minimizing the risk of overstating similarities, while at the same time reflecting the common strategy to use processes to explain the evolution of complexity in both fields. We compared important evolutionary processes in biology and linguistics and identified processes specific to only one of the two disciplines as well as processes which seem to be analogous, potentially reflecting core evolutionary processes. These new process-based analogies support novel methodological transfer, expanding the application range of biological methods to the field of historical linguistics. We illustrate this by showing (i) how methods dealing with incomplete lineage sorting offer an introgression-free framework to analyze highly mosaic word distributions across languages; (ii) how sequence similarity networks can be used to identify composite and borrowed words across different languages; (iii) how research on partial homology can inspire new methods and models in both fields; and (iv) how constructive neutral evolution provides an original framework for analyzing convergent evolution in languages resulting from common descent (Sapir's drift). Apart from new analogies between evolutionary processes, we also identified processes which are specific to either biology or linguistics. This shows that general evolution cannot be studied from within one discipline alone. In order to get a full picture of evolution, biologists and linguists need to

  20. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1981-08-01

    The research during 1980 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Research related to nuclear energy includes the delineation, in the beagle, of the responses to continuous low level 60 Co gamma radiation and the development of cellular indicators of preclinical phases of leukemia; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and 60 Co gamma radiation; studies of the genetic effects of high LET radiations; and studies of the gastrointestinal absorption of the actinide elements. Research related to nonuclear energy sources deals with characterization and toxicological evaluation of process streams and effluents of coal gasification; with electrical storage systems; and electric fields associated with energy transmission. Proteins in human urine and selected tissues are examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis to detect disease and pollutant related changes. Assessment of human risk associated with nuclearing collective dose commitment will result in more attention being paid to potential releases of radionuclides at relatively short times after disposal

  1. A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

    2011-02-01

    The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

  2. Advances, gaps, and future prospects in biological soil crust research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Büdel, Burkhard; Belnap, Jayne

    2017-04-01

    Research progress has led to the understanding that biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are often complete miniature ecosystems comprising a variety of photosynthesizers (cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes), decomposers like bacteria, fungi, and archaea, and heterotrophic organisms, like protozoa, nematodes, and microarthropods feeding on them. Biocrusts are one of the oldest terrestrial ecosystems, playing central roles in the structure and functioning of dryland ecosystems and presumably also influencing global biogeochemical cycles. On the other hand, biocrusts have been shown to be highly sensitive to global change, being easily destroyed by mechanical disturbance and severely threatened by minor changes in climate patterns. Despite the large increase in biocrust research, we still see major knowledge gaps which need to be tackled. Considering biodiversity studies, there are major regions of potential biocrust occurrence, where hardly any studies have been conducted. Molecular identification techniques are increasingly employed, but genetically characterized entities need to be linked with morphologically identified organisms to identify their ecological roles. Although there is a large body of research on the role of biocrusts in water and nutrient budgets, we are still far from closing the overall cycles. Results suggest that not all mechanisms have been identified, yet, leading to sometimes contradictory results between different studies. Knowledge on how to minimize impact to biocrusts during surface-disturbing activities has hardly been gained, and despite research efforts, instructions on effective biocrust restoration are still exemplary. In order to fill these research gaps, novel scientific approaches are needed. We expect that global research networks could be extremely helpful to answer scientific questions by tackling them within different regions, utilizing the same methodological techniques. Global networks could also be used for long

  3. Life lines: An art history of biological research around 1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Around 1800, the scientific "illustrator" emerged as a new artistic profession in Europe. Artists were increasingly sought after in order to picture anatomical dissections and microscopic observations and to translate drawings into artworks for books and journals. By training and technical expertise, they introduced a particular kind of knowledge into scientific perception that also shaped the common image of nature. Illustrations of scientific publications, often undervalued as a biased interpretation of facts and subordinate to logic and description, thus convey an 'art history' of science in its own right, relevant both for the understanding of biological thought around 1800 as well as for the development of the arts and their historiography. The article is based on an analysis of botanical treatises produced for the Göttingen Society of Sciences in 1803, during an early phase of microscopic cell research, in order to determine the constitutive role of artistic knowledge and the media employed for the visualization and conceptualization of biological issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth Analysis of Cancer Biology Research, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Material: The PubMed database was used for retrieving data on 'cancer biology.' Articles were downloaded from the years 2000 to 2011. The articles were classified chronologically and transferred to a spreadsheet application for analysis of the data as per the objectives of the study. Statistical Method: To investigate the nature of growth of articles via exponential, linear, and logistics tests. Result: The year wise analysis of the growth of articles output shows that for the years 2000 to 2005 and later there is a sudden increase in output, during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2011. The high productivity of articles during these years may be due to their significance in cancer biology literature, having received prominence in research. Conclusion: There is an obvious need for better compilations of statistics on numbers of publications in the years from 2000 to 2011 on various disciplines on a worldwide scale, for informed critical assessments of the amount of new knowledge contributed by these publications, and for enhancements and refinements of present Scientometric techniques (citation and publication counts, so that valid measures of knowledge growth may be obtained. Only then will Scientometrics be able to provide accurate, useful descriptions and predictions of knowledge growth.

  5. Using biological samples in epidemiological research on drugs of abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Gjerde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood, oral fluid (saliva, urine and hair are the most commonly used biological matrices for drug testing in epidemiological drug research. Other biological matrices may also be used for selected purposes. Blood reflects recent drug intake and may be used to assess impairment. Oral fluid reflects drug presence in blood and thereby also recent intake, but drug concentrations in this matrix cannot be used to accurately estimate concentrations in blood. Urine reflects drug use during the last few days and in some cases for a longer period, but does not indicate the dose size or frequency of use. Hair reflects drug use during several months, but is a poor matrix for detecting use of cannabis. If using a single drug dose, this can be detected in blood and urine if the sample is taken within the detection timeframes, in most cases also in oral fluid. Single drug use is most often insufficient for producing a positive test result in a sample of hair. For cocaine and amphetamine, weekly use may be needed, while for cannabis a positive result is not guaranteed even after daily use. Refusal rates are lowest for oral fluid and highest for blood and hair samples. The analytical costs are lowest for urine and highest for hair. Combined use of questionnaires/interviews and drug testing detects more drug use than when using only one of those methods and is therefore expected to give more accurate data.

  6. Phytochemical and biological research of Fritillaria medicine resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Gu, Xiao-Jie; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Peng, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The genus Fritillaria is a botanical source for various pharmaceutically active components, which have been commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Increasing interest in Fritillaria medicinal resources has led to additional discoveries of steroidal alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides and many other compounds in various Fritillaria species, and to investigations on their chemotaxonomy, molecular phylogeny and pharmacology. In continuation of studies on Fritillaria pharmacophylogeny, the phytochemistry, chemotaxonomy, molecular biology and phylogeny of Fritillaria and their relevance to drug efficacy is reviewed. Literature searching is used to characterize the global scientific effort in the flexible technologies being applied. The interrelationship within Chinese Bei Mu species and between Chinese species, and species distributed outside of China, is clarified by the molecular phylogenetic inferences based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. The incongruence between chemotaxonomy and molecular phylogeny is revealed and discussed. It is essential to study more species for both the sustainable utilization of Fritillaria medicinal resources and for finding novel compounds with potential clinical utility. Systems biology and omics technologies will play an increasingly important role in future pharmaceutical research involving the bioactive compounds of Fritillaria. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Accelerating cancer systems biology research through Semantic Web technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute's caBIG, so users can interact with the DMR not only through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers' intellectual property. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Social insects inspire human design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  9. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-01-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  10. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, David S.

    2008-01-01

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages

  11. Microgravity research in plant biological systems: Realizing the potential of molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1993-01-01

    The sole all-pervasive feature of the environment that has helped shape, through evolution, all life on Earth is gravity. The near weightlessness of the Space Station Freedom space environment allows gravitational effects to be essentially uncoupled, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity to manipulate, systematically dissect, study, and exploit the role of gravity in the growth and development of all life forms. New and exciting opportunities are now available to utilize molecular biological and biochemical approaches to study the effects of microgravity on living organisms. By careful experimentation, we can determine how gravity perception occurs, how the resulting signals are produced and transduced, and how or if tissue-specific differences in gene expression occur. Microgravity research can provide unique new approaches to further our basic understanding of development and metabolic processes of cells and organisms, and to further the application of this new knowledge for the betterment of humankind.

  12. Cell Science and Cell Biology Research at MSFC: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The common theme of these research programs is that they investigate regulation of gene expression in cells, and ultimately gene expression is controlled by the macromolecular interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA. The NASA Critical Path Roadmap identifies Muscle Alterations and Atrophy and Radiation Effects as Very Serious Risks and Severe Risks, respectively, in long term space flights. The specific problem addressed by Dr. Young's research ("Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Muscle Cell Signaling") is that skeletal muscle loss in space cannot be prevented by vigorous exercise. Aerobic skeletal muscles (i.e., red muscles) undergo the most extensive atrophy during long-term space flight. Of the many different potential avenues for preventing muscle atrophy, Dr. Young has chosen to study the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) pathway. The reason for this choice is that a family of compounds called betaAR agonists will preferentially cause an increase in muscle mass of aerobic muscles (i.e., red muscle) in animals, potentially providing a specific pharmacological solution to muscle loss in microgravity. In addition, muscle atrophy is a widespread medical problem in neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, lack of exercise, aging, and any disease requiring prolonged bedridden status. Skeletal muscle cells in cell culture are utilized as a model system to study this problem. Dr. Richmond's research ("Radiation & Cancer Biology of Mammary Cells in Culture") is directed toward developing a laboratory model for use in risk assessment of cancer caused by space radiation. This research is unique because a human model will be developed utilizing human mammary cells that are highly susceptible to tumor development. This approach is preferential over using animal cells because of problems in comparing radiation-induced cancers between humans and animals.

  13. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, C

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  14. Bio-inspired passive actuator simulating an abalone shell mechanism for structural control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Henry T Y; Lin, Chun-Hung; Bridges, Daniel; Randall, Connor J; Hansma, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    An energy dispersion mechanism called 'sacrificial bonds and hidden length', which is found in some biological systems, such as abalone shells and bones, is the inspiration for new strategies for structural control. Sacrificial bonds and hidden length can substantially increase the stiffness and enhance energy dissipation in the constituent molecules of abalone shells and bone. Having been inspired by the usefulness and effectiveness of such a mechanism, which has evolved over millions of years and countless cycles of evolutions, the authors employ the conceptual underpinnings of this mechanism to develop a bio-inspired passive actuator. This paper presents a fundamental method for optimally designing such bio-inspired passive actuators for structural control. To optimize the bio-inspired passive actuator, a simple method utilizing the force–displacement–velocity (FDV) plots based on LQR control is proposed. A linear regression approach is adopted in this research to find the initial values of the desired parameters for the bio-inspired passive actuator. The illustrative examples, conducted by numerical simulation with experimental validation, suggest that the bio-inspired passive actuator based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length may be comparable in performance to state-of-the-art semi-active actuators

  15. Sundew-Inspired Adhesive Hydrogels Combined with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leming; Huang, Yujian; Bian, Zehua; Petrosino, Jennifer; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Yongzhong; Park, Ki Ho; Yue, Tao; Schmidt, Michael; Galster, Scott; Ma, Jianjie; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-01-27

    The potential to harness the unique physical, chemical, and biological properties of the sundew (Drosera) plant's adhesive hydrogels has long intrigued researchers searching for novel wound-healing applications. However, the ability to collect sufficient quantities of the sundew plant's adhesive hydrogels is problematic and has eclipsed their therapeutic promise. Inspired by these natural hydrogels, we asked if sundew-inspired adhesive hydrogels could overcome the drawbacks associated with natural sundew hydrogels and be used in combination with stem-cell-based therapy to enhance wound-healing therapeutics. Using a bioinspired approach, we synthesized adhesive hydrogels comprised of sodium alginate, gum arabic, and calcium ions to mimic the properties of the natural sundew-derived adhesive hydrogels. We then characterized and showed that these sundew-inspired hydrogels promote wound healing through their superior adhesive strength, nanostructure, and resistance to shearing when compared to other hydrogels in vitro. In vivo, sundew-inspired hydrogels promoted a "suturing" effect to wound sites, which was demonstrated by enhanced wound closure following topical application of the hydrogels. In combination with mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and compared to other therapeutic biomaterials, the sundew-inspired hydrogels demonstrated superior wound-healing capabilities. Collectively, our studies show that sundew-inspired hydrogels contain ideal properties that promote wound healing and suggest that sundew-inspired-ADSCs combination therapy is an efficacious approach for treating wounds without eliciting noticeable toxicity or inflammation.

  16. The Implementation of Research-based Learning on Biology Seminar Course in Biology Education Study Program of FKIP UMRAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, T.

    2018-04-01

    Biology Seminar is a course in Biology Education Study Program of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of Maritim Raja Ali Haji (FKIP UMRAH) that requires students to have the ability to apply scientific attitudes, perform scientific writing and undertake scientific publications on a small scale. One of the learning strategies that can drive the achievement of learning outcomes in this course is Research-Based Learning. Research-Based Learning principles are considered in accordance with learning outcomes in Biology Seminar courses and generally in accordance with the purpose of higher education. On this basis, this article which is derived from a qualitative research aims at describing Research-based Learning on Biology Seminar course. Based on a case study research, it was known that Research-Based Learning on Biology Seminar courses is applied through: designing learning activities around contemporary research issues; teaching research methods, techniques and skills explicitly within program; drawing on personal research in designing and teaching courses; building small-scale research activities into undergraduate assignment; and infusing teaching with the values of researchers.

  17. In Search of Scientific Inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    In the ever-expanding sea of scientific advances, how do you find inspiration for your own study? Cell editor Jiaying Tan talked with Mark Lemmon and Joseph (Yossi) Schlessinger about the importance of fueling your research creativity with the conceptual excitement and technical advance from the broad scientific field. An excerpt of the conversation appears below. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Roles of radiation chemistry in development and research of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2009-01-01

    Radiation chemistry acts as a bridge connecting radiation physics with radiation biology in spatial and temporal insight. The theory, model, and methodology coming from radiation chemistry play an important role in the research and development of radiation biology. The chemical changes induced by ionizing radiation are involved not only in early event of biological effects caused by ionizing radiation but in function radiation biology, such as DNA damage and repair, sensitive modification, metabolism and function of active oxygen and so on. Following the research development of radiation biology, systems radiation biology, accurate quality and quantity of radiation biology effects need more methods and perfect tools from radiation chemistry. (authors)

  19. The Capabilities Questionnaire for the Community Mental Health Context (CQ-CMH): A measure inspired by the capabilities approach and constructed through consumer-researcher collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetto, Beatrice; Aguiar, Rita; Vargas-Moniz, Maria João; Jorge-Monteiro, Maria Fátima; Neves, Maria João; Cruz, Maria Adelaide; Coimbra, José António; Ornelas, José

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of people with psychiatric disabilities in research and service evaluation has traditionally been rare, especially in the construction of outcome measures. This study documents a collaborative process with consumers from 2 Portuguese community mental health services in the construction of the Capabilities Questionnaire for the Community Mental Health context (CQ-CMH). The measure is inspired by Nussbaum's capabilities approach and aims to measure consumers' capabilities when supported by the community mental health services. Focus groups with 50 consumers from 2 programs generated data about their gains from and goals for participation in the programs. A Steering Committee-comprising 3 consumers and 2 researchers-analyzed the data, generated a list of items, sorted them according to Nussbaum's list of capabilities, and developed a rating scale. To check face validity, the questionnaire was tested with 15 consumers. The collaborative process led to the transformation of traditional research roles, the promotion of empowerment to participants, the ecological validity of the results, and a cultural adaptation of Nussbaum's list to the context of the study. The resulting CQ-CMH is composed of 104 items organized by 10 capabilities, and 1 open-ended question about service improvements. The capabilities approach and the collaborative process undertaken both support the exercise of choice and control by people with psychiatric disabilities. The capabilities measure-constructed by consumers-may be used as an outcome measure in service evaluation. The questionnaire will undergo further testing of its validity and psychometric qualities. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Using biological control research in the classroom to promote scientific inquiry and literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many scientists who research biological control also teach at universities or more informally through cooperative outreach. The purpose of this paper is to review biological control activities for the classroom in four refereed journals, The American Biology Teacher, Journal of Biological Education...

  1. Growing a professional network to over 3000 members in less than 4 years: evaluation of InspireNet, British Columbia's virtual nursing health services research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Noreen; Atherton, Pat; Borycki, Elizabeth; Mickelson, Grace; Cordeiro, Jennifer; Novak Lauscher, Helen; Black, Agnes

    2014-02-21

    Use of Web 2.0 and social media technologies has become a new area of research among health professionals. Much of this work has focused on the use of technologies for health self-management and the ways technologies support communication between care providers and consumers. This paper addresses a new use of technology in providing a platform for health professionals to support professional development, increase knowledge utilization, and promote formal/informal professional communication. Specifically, we report on factors necessary to attract and sustain health professionals' use of a network designed to increase nurses' interest in and use of health services research and to support knowledge utilization activities in British Columbia, Canada. "InspireNet", a virtual professional network for health professionals, is a living laboratory permitting documentation of when and how professionals take up Web 2.0 and social media. Ongoing evaluation documents our experiences in establishing, operating, and evaluating this network. Overall evaluation methods included (1) tracking website use, (2) conducting two member surveys, and (3) soliciting member feedback through focus groups and interviews with those who participated in electronic communities of practice (eCoPs) and other stakeholders. These data have been used to learn about the types of support that seem relevant to network growth. Network growth exceeded all expectations. Members engaged with varying aspects of the network's virtual technologies, such as teams of professionals sharing a common interest, research teams conducting their work, and instructional webinars open to network members. Members used wikis, blogs, and discussion groups to support professional work, as well as a members' database with contact information and areas of interest. The database is accessed approximately 10 times per day. InspireNet public blog posts are accessed roughly 500 times each. At the time of writing, 21 research teams

  2. BRIC-100VC Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC)-100VC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E.; Levine, Howard G. (Compiler); Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) is an anodized-aluminum cylinder used to provide passive stowage for investigations of the effects of space flight on small specimens. The BRIC 100 mm petri dish vacuum containment unit (BRIC-100VC) has supported Dugesia japonica (flatworm) within spring under normal atmospheric conditions for 29 days in space and Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus L. (daylily) somatic embryo development within a 5% CO2 gaseous environment for 4.5 months in space. BRIC-100VC is a completely sealed, anodized-aluminum cylinder (Fig. 1) providing containment and structural support of the experimental specimens. The top and bottom lids of the canister include rapid disconnect valves for filling the canister with selected gases. These specialized valves allow for specific atmospheric containment within the canister, providing a gaseous environment defined by the investigator. Additionally, the top lid has been designed with a toggle latch and O-ring assembly allowing for prompt sealing and removal of the lid. The outside dimensions of the BRIC-100VC canisters are 16.0 cm (height) x 11.4 cm (outside diameter). The lower portion of the canister has been equipped with sufficient storage space for passive temperature and relative humidity data loggers. The BRIC- 100VC canister has been optimized to accommodate standard 100 mm laboratory petri dishes or 50 mL conical tubes. Depending on storage orientation, up to 6 or 9 canisters have been flown within an International Space Station (ISS) stowage locker.

  3. Gross's anatomy: textual politics in science/biology education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Giuliano

    2009-12-01

    In approaching how the grotesque is—or should be—situated within contemporary science (biology) education practices, Weinstein and Broda undertake a passionate reclaim of an education that is at the same time scientific, critical, and liberatory. However legitimate, their work offers more than they probably could have anticipated: It exemplifies how the textual structure of a research article can be such as to "tip-off" readers about how it is supposed to be understood. In this way, what one learns from reading the manuscript is grounded on the way the authors examine the data presented. That is, the findings are not intrinsic to the materials collected, but constructed within the analyses that precede/follow the account of each one of the four "specimens" reported. Therefore, the present commentary seeks to re-consider the original study from an alternative perspective, one that challenges its seemingly objective (re)construction of facts by placing emphasis on how the text contains instructions for its own interpretation and validation. Ultimately, the purpose here is to describe and discuss the interpretive and validation work that is done by this discursive mechanism of self-appraisal rather than discredit the two authors' initiative.

  4. Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

  5. The progress of molecular biology in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Kang

    1989-01-01

    The recent progress in application of molecular biology techniques in the study of radiation biology is reviewed. The three sections are as follows: (1) the study of DNA damage on molecular level, (2) the molecular mechanism of radiation cell genetics, including chromosome abberation and cell mutation, (3) the study on DNA repair gene with DNA mediated gene transfer techniques

  6. Research Update: Interfacing ultrasmall metal nanoclusters with biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Li; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    Metal nanoclusters (NCs), a new type of nanomaterial with unique physicochemical properties, show great potential in many biomedical applications. Understanding their behavior in the complex biological environment is critical not only for designing highly efficient NC-based nanomedicines but also for elucidating the biological impact (e.g., toxicity) of these emerging nanomaterials. In this review, we give an overview of recent progress in exploring interactions of metal NCs with biological systems, including protein adsorption onto NCs, NC interactions with cells, and also the in vivo behavior of NCs. We also discuss the biological responses to the interactions, key parameters defining the interactions, and current challenges in the exploration of NCs in the complex biological environment.

  7. Biology panel: coming to a clinic near you. Translational research in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, Elizabeth L.; Thames, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    The explosion of knowledge in molecular biology coupled with the rapid and continuing development of molecular techniques allow a new level of research in radiation biology aimed at understanding the processes that govern radiation damage and response in both tumors and normal tissues. The challenge to radiation biologists and radiation oncologists is to use this knowledge to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of human tumors by rapidly translating these new findings into clinical practice. This panel will focus on both sides of the therapeutic ratio coin, the manipulation of tumor control by manipulating the processes that control cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, and the reduction of normal tissue morbidity by applying the emerging information on the genetic basis of radiosensitivity. Apoptosis is a form of cell death believed to represent a minor component of the clinical effects of radiation. However, if apoptosis is regulated by anti-apoptotic mechanisms, then it may be possible to produce a pro-apoptotic phenotype in the tumor cell population by modulating the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic mechanisms by pharmacological intervention. Thus signaling-based apoptosis therapy, designed to overcome the relative resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis, may improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of human tumors. The explosion of information concerning cell cycle regulation in both normal and tumor cells has provided the opportunity for insights into the mechanism of action of chemotherapeutic agents that can act as radiosensitizers. The second talk will explore the hypothesis that the dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoints in some cancers can be exploited to improve the therapeutic index of radiation sensitizers, specifically the fluoropyrimidines which appear to act at the G1/S transition. Finally, efforts to increase tumor control will be translated into clinical practice only if such treatments do not increase the complication

  8. BrisSynBio: a BBSRC/EPSRC-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgley, Kathleen R; Race, Paul R; Woolfson, Derek N

    2016-06-15

    BrisSynBio is the Bristol-based Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)/Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre. It is one of six such Centres in the U.K. BrisSynBio's emphasis is on rational and predictive bimolecular modelling, design and engineering in the context of synthetic biology. It trains the next generation of synthetic biologists in these approaches, to facilitate translation of fundamental synthetic biology research to industry and the clinic, and to do this within an innovative and responsible research framework. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Kumar Kaushik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature’s glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs, a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review.

  10. Biological research work within the Association of the Government-Sponsored Research Institutions (AGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Six of the thirteen government-sponsored research institutions in the Federal Republic of Germany carry out research work for the protection of the population against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Their activities in this field concentrate on the following four points of main interest: analysis of radiation-induced processes resulting in biological radiation injury; description and analysis of complex radiation effects on man; medical applications of ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy; concepts and methods for radiological protection. The work reported reviews the main problems encountered in the above-mentioned subject fields and presents examples of significant results, with illustrations. The original research papers and their authors are listed separately under the four points of main interest. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Applications of neutron scattering in molecular biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierhaus, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The study of the molecular structure of biological materials by neutron scattering is described. As example the results of the study of the components of a ribosome of Escherichia coli are presented. (HSI) [de

  12. 78 FR 63170 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ....-12:15 p.m. ADDRESSES: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville... Biological and Environmental Grand Challenges Workshop Reports Science Talks New Business Public Comment...

  13. Tumor Biology and Immunology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor Biology and Immunology The Comparative Brain Tumor Consortium is collaborating with National Center for Advanced Translational Sciences to complete whole exome sequencing on canine meningioma samples. Results will be published and made publicly available.

  14. Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sokal, R.R; Rohlf, F.J

    1969-01-01

    In this introductory textbook, with its companion volume of tables, the authors provide a balanced presentation of statistical methodology for the descriptive, experimental, and analytical study of biological phenomena...

  15. The Inspiration of Hope in Substance Abuse Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Corinne; Cutcliffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a grounded theory method to explore how counselors inspire hope in clients struggling with substance abuse. Findings from 10 participants revealed that hope inspiration occurred in 3 phases and consisted of several categories of hope-inspiring processes. Implications for counseling practice, counselor education, and research are…

  16. Inspiration from britain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Danish housing policy needs a dose of renewed social concern - and could find new inspiration in Britain's housing and urban planning policies, says Bo Vagnby. Udgivelsesdato: November......Danish housing policy needs a dose of renewed social concern - and could find new inspiration in Britain's housing and urban planning policies, says Bo Vagnby. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  17. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  18. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  19. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  20. Areas of research in radiation chemistry fundamental to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Among all the environmental hazards to which man is exposed, ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated and the most responsibly monitored and controlled. Nevertheless, because of the importance of radiation in modern society from both the hazard as well as the utilitarian standpoints, much more information concerning the biological effects induced and their modification and reversal is required. Together with radiation physics, an understanding of radiation chemistry is necessary for full appreciation of biological effects of high and low energy radiations, and for the development of prophylactic, therapeutic and potentiating methods and techniques in biological organisms. The necessity of understanding the chemistry of any system, biological or not, that is to be manipulated and controlled, is so obvious as to make trivial a statement to that effect. If any natural phenomenon is to be put to our use, surely the elements of it must be studied and appreciated fully. In the preliminary statements of the various panels of this general group, the need for additional information on the basic radiation chemistry concerned in radiation-induced biological effects pervades throughout

  1. Making Research Fly in Schools: "Drosophila" as a Powerful Modern Tool for Teaching Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbottle, Jennifer; Strangward, Patrick; Alnuamaani, Catherine; Lawes, Surita; Patel, Sanjai; Prokop, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The "droso4schools" project aims to introduce the fruit fly "Drosophila" as a powerful modern teaching tool to convey curriculum-relevant specifications in biology lessons. Flies are easy and cheap to breed and have been at the forefront of biology research for a century, providing unique conceptual understanding of biology and…

  2. Personal recollections of radiation biology research at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of the Hanford biology programme over a period of nearly five decades. The programme began in the 1940s with a focus on understanding the potential health effects of radionuclides such as 131 I associated with fallout from the atomic bomb. These studies were extended in the 1950s to experiments on the toxicity and metabolism of plutonium and fission products such as 90 Sr and 137 Cs. In the 1960s, a major long term project was initiated on the inhalation toxicology and carcinogenic effects of plutonium oxide and plutonium nitrate in dogs and rodents. The project remained a major effort within the overall Hanford biology programme throughout the 1970s and 1980s, during which time a broad range of new projects on energy-related pollutants, radon health effects, and basic radiation biology were initiated. Despite the many evolutionary changes that have occurred in the Hanford biology programme, the fundamental mission of understanding the effects of radiation on human health has endured for nearly five decades. (author)

  3. Introduction to basic molecular biologic techniques for molecular imaging researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper

  4. Gross's Anatomy: Textual Politics in Science/Biology Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    In approaching how the grotesque is--or should be--situated within contemporary science (biology) education practices, Weinstein and Broda undertake a passionate reclaim of an education that is at the same time scientific, critical, and liberatory. However legitimate, their work offers more than they probably could have anticipated: It exemplifies…

  5. The Prospects For Research In Biological Psychiatry In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological psychiatry deals with abnormalities of brain and genetic functioning and how they interact with environmental factors to underlie the genesis, manifestation, and response to treatment of mental disorders. These issues have not featured significantly in the Nigerian psychiatric scene. Hence, we are witnessing a ...

  6. Microwave system for research biological effects on laboratory animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, Alexei; Kruglik, Olga; Khlebopros, Rem

    2014-01-01

    This research is concerned with development of the microwave system for research the radiophysical microwave radiation effects on laboratory animals. The frequency was 1 GHz. The results obtained demonstrate the metabolic changes in mice under the electromagnetic field influence.

  7. Inspiration, anyone? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available I have to admit that writing an editorial for this issue was a struggle. Trying to sit down and write when the sun was shining outside and most of my colleagues were on vacation was, to say the least, difficult. Add to that research projects and conferences…let’s just say that I found myself less than inspired. A pitiful plea for ideas to a colleague resulted in the reintroduction to a few recent evidence based papers and resources which inspired further searching and reading. Though I generally find myself surrounded (more like buried in research papers and EBLIP literature, somehow I had missed the great strides that have been made of late in the world of evidence based library and information practice. I realize now that I am inspired by the researchers, authors and innovators who are putting EBLIP on the proverbial map. My biggest beef with library literature in general has been the plethora of articles highlighting what we should be doing. Take a close look at the evidence based practitioners in the information professions: these are some of the people who are actively practicing what has been preached for the past few years. Take, for example, the about‐to‐be released Libraries using Evidence Toolkit by Northern Sydney Central Coast Health and The University of Newcastle, Australia (see their announcement in this issue. An impressive advisory group is responsible for maintaining the currency and relevancy of the site as well as promoting the site and acting as a steering committee for related projects. This group is certainly doing more than “talking the talk”: they took their experience at the 3rd International Evidence Based Librarianship Conference and did something with the information they obtained by implementing solutions that worked in their environment. The result? The creation of a collection of tools for all of us to use. This toolkit is just what EBLIP needs: a portal to resources aimed at supporting the information

  8. Redox Biology Course Registration Form | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Redox Biology class is open to all NIH/NCI fellows and staff and will be held Septhember 27 - November 8, 2016. The last day to register is: September 21, 2016. The first 100 registrants will be accepted for the class. Those who plan to participate by Video TeleConference should also register so that you can receive the speaker handouts in advance.

  9. Using Biology Education Research and Qualitative Inquiry to Inform Genomic Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Linda D

    Decades of research in biology education show that learning genetics is difficult and reveals specific sources of learning difficulty. Little is known about how nursing students learn in this domain, although they likely encounter similar difficulties as nonnursing students. Using qualitative approaches, this study investigated challenges to learning genetics among nursing students. Findings indicate that nursing students face learning difficulties already identified among biology students, suggesting that nurse educators might benefit from biology education research.

  10. 76 FR 71045 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...] Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... ``Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... period for the notice on its report of scientific and medical literature and information concerning the...

  11. Interdisciplinary Biomathematics: Engaging Undergraduates in Research on the Fringe of Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen; Luttman, Aaron; Mondal, Sumona

    2013-01-01

    The US National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Undergraduate Biology and Mathematics (UBM) program significantly increased undergraduate research in the biomathematical sciences. We discuss three UBM-funded student research projects at Clarkson University that lie at the intersection of not just mathematics and biology, but also other fields. The…

  12. 75 FR 6401 - Medical Devices Regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-17), Food and Drug Administration, suite 200N, 1401 Rockville Pike... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-M-0513] Medical Devices Regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; Availability of Summaries...

  13. Quantum-inspired teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. A special class of situations when such transmissions are useful is outlined. Application of such a quantum-inspired teleportation, i.e. instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances for security of communications is discussed. Similarities and differences between quantum systems and quantum-classical hybrids are emphasized.

  14. Buckling Pneumatic Linear Actuators Inspired by Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dian; Verma, Mohit Singh; So, Ju-Hee; Mosadegh, Bobak; Keplinger, Christoph; Lee, Benjamin; Khashai, Fatemeh; Lossner, Elton Garret; Suo, Zhigang; Whitesides, George McClelland

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical features of biological muscles are difficult to reproduce completely in synthetic systems. A new class of soft pneumatic structures (vacuum-actuated muscle-inspired pneumatic structures) is described that combines actuation by negative pressure (vacuum), with cooperative buckling of beams fabricated in a slab of elastomer, to achieve motion and demonstrate many features that are similar to that of mammalian muscle.

  15. MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AT FATAL CONSEQUENCES OF VIRAL MYOCARDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smelyanskaya MV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diagnosis of viral myocarditis, based on the evidence base, is still one of the key problems of the heart disease. The presence of morphological features of the inflammatory process makes it possible to confirm the diagnosis of myocarditis, but, at the same time, the absence of these features is not sufficient to remove this diagnosis. In routine postmortem study of deaths in multidisciplinary (non-infectious hospital myocarditis is stated as a cause of death in 0.2-0.4% of all the autopsies. Mortality in myocarditis depends on the severity of the underlying disease, premorbid background, age and sex composition of the patients. According to different authors, it is very different and ranges from 0.03 to 26%. The aim of the work was to carry out histological and molecular biological studies postmortem material for confirming the etiologic role of herpesviruses with fatal consequences of infectious myocarditis during the observation period 2015-2016 years. Material & methods. The material of pathological heart, vascular endothelium, nerve ganglia, kidneys, liver and pancreas were investigated. Viral antigen detection was performed by fluorescent antibody technique with specific sera labeled with FITC (Dako Corporation, Carpinteria, CA and detection of the viral genome by PCR (in SYNEVO Laboratory. Morphological studies have been conducted in the post-mortem offices of the Kharkov clinical hospitals. Detection of viral genome was performed by PCR using certified commercial kits for detection of nucleotide sequences of herpesviruses «HSV I, II-EPh», «VZV-FL», «EBV-EPh», «CMV-EPh», «HHV VI-Eph», («AmpliSens». Diagnosis was made in «real time» using modern six-channel thermocycler «Rotor Gene 6000» (Qiagen, Germany. The first group consisted of 19 people who died from infectious myocarditis (group 1. The second group (group 2 consisted of 22 dead from complications of other cardiovascular disease. Pathoanatomical

  16. Feeling Is Believing: Inspiration Encourages Belief in God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Lee, Chan Jean

    2018-04-01

    Even without direct evidence of God's existence, about half of the world's population believes in God. Although previous research has found that people arrive at such beliefs intuitively instead of analytically, relatively little research has aimed to understand what experiences encourage or legitimate theistic belief systems. Using cross-cultural correlational and experimental methods, we investigated whether the experience of inspiration encourages a belief in God. Participants who dispositionally experience more inspiration, were randomly assigned to relive or have an inspirational experience, or reported such experiences to be more inspirational all showed stronger belief in God. These effects were specific to inspiration (instead of adjacent affective experiences) and a belief in God (instead of other empirically unverifiable claims). Being inspired by someone or something (but not inspired to do something) offers a spiritually transcendent experience that elevates belief in God, in part because it makes people feel connected to something beyond themselves.

  17. Social justice and research using human biological material: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.

  18. Chemistry and the worm: Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for integrating chemical and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, S Elizabeth; Whitesides, George M

    2011-05-16

    This Review discusses the potential usefulness of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for chemists interested in studying living systems. C. elegans, a 1 mm long roundworm, is a popular model organism in almost all areas of modern biology. The worm has several features that make it attractive for biology: it is small (biology, the Review provides examples of current research with C. elegans that is chemically relevant. It also describes tools-biological, chemical, and physical-that are available to researchers studying the worm. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ships - inspiring objects in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living - is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis of

  20. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierk, I.; Israelsson, U.; Lee, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics research program, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum fluid based sensor and modeling technology.

  1. 75 FR 6651 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... 24, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 12 p.m., E.S.T. ADDRESSES: Hilton Hotel, 620 Perry Parkway, Gaithersburg, MD... on the Climate Research Roadmap, BER Grand Challenge Workshop, Complex Systems Science New Business...

  2. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  3. Dermal tumorigen PAH and complex mixtures for biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Ho, C.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen commercially available, commonly reported four-five ring dermal tumorigen PAHs, were determined in a set of complex mixtures consisting of crude and upgraded coal liquids, and petroleum crude oils and their distillate fractions. Semi-preparative scale, normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic fractionation followed by capillary column gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used for the measurements. Deuterated or carbon-14 labeled PAH served as internal standards or allowed recovery corrections. Approaches for the preparation and measurement of radiolabeled PAH were examined to provide chemical probes for biological study. Synthetic routes for production of 14 C labeled dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene and 14 C- or 3 H 10-azabenzo[a]pyrene are being studied to provide tracers for fundamental studies in tracheal transplant and skin penetration systems. (DT)

  4. Geochemical, hydrological, and biological cycling of energy residual. Research plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobber, F.J.

    1983-03-01

    Proposed research goals and specific research areas designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical, hydrological, and biophysical mechanisms that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy residuals in natural systems can be understood are described. Energy development and production have resulted in a need for advanced scientific information on the geochemical transformations, transport rates, and potential for bioaccumulation of contaminants in subsurface environments

  5. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both…

  6. The RCSB Protein Data Bank: views of structural biology for basic and applied research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Peter W; Prlić, Andreas; Bi, Chunxiao; Bluhm, Wolfgang F; Christie, Cole H; Dutta, Shuchismita; Green, Rachel Kramer; Goodsell, David S; Westbrook, John D; Woo, Jesse; Young, Jasmine; Zardecki, Christine; Berman, Helen M; Bourne, Philip E; Burley, Stephen K

    2015-01-01

    The RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB, http://www.rcsb.org) provides access to 3D structures of biological macromolecules and is one of the leading resources in biology and biomedicine worldwide. Our efforts over the past 2 years focused on enabling a deeper understanding of structural biology and providing new structural views of biology that support both basic and applied research and education. Herein, we describe recently introduced data annotations including integration with external biological resources, such as gene and drug databases, new visualization tools and improved support for the mobile web. We also describe access to data files, web services and open access software components to enable software developers to more effectively mine the PDB archive and related annotations. Our efforts are aimed at expanding the role of 3D structure in understanding biology and medicine. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. The trajectory of dispersal research in conservation biology. Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Banks, Sam C; Barton, Philip S; Ikin, Karen; Lentini, Pia; Lindenmayer, David B; Smith, Annabel L; Berry, Laurence E; Burns, Emma L; Edworthy, Amanda; Evans, Maldwyn J; Gibson, Rebecca; Heinsohn, Rob; Howland, Brett; Kay, Geoff; Munro, Nicola; Scheele, Ben C; Stirnemann, Ingrid; Stojanovic, Dejan; Sweaney, Nici; Villaseñor, Nélida R; Westgate, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal knowledge is essential for conservation management, and demand is growing. But are we accumulating dispersal knowledge at a pace that can meet the demand? To answer this question we tested for changes in dispersal data collection and use over time. Our systematic review of 655 conservation-related publications compared five topics: climate change, habitat restoration, population viability analysis, land planning (systematic conservation planning) and invasive species. We analysed temporal changes in the: (i) questions asked by dispersal-related research; (ii) methods used to study dispersal; (iii) the quality of dispersal data; (iv) extent that dispersal knowledge is lacking, and; (v) likely consequences of limited dispersal knowledge. Research questions have changed little over time; the same problems examined in the 1990s are still being addressed. The most common methods used to study dispersal were occupancy data, expert opinion and modelling, which often provided indirect, low quality information about dispersal. Although use of genetics for estimating dispersal has increased, new ecological and genetic methods for measuring dispersal are not yet widely adopted. Almost half of the papers identified knowledge gaps related to dispersal. Limited dispersal knowledge often made it impossible to discover ecological processes or compromised conservation outcomes. The quality of dispersal data used in climate change research has increased since the 1990s. In comparison, restoration ecology inadequately addresses large-scale process, whilst the gap between knowledge accumulation and growth in applications may be increasing in land planning. To overcome apparent stagnation in collection and use of dispersal knowledge, researchers need to: (i) improve the quality of available data using new approaches; (ii) understand the complementarities of different methods and; (iii) define the value of different kinds of dispersal information for supporting management

  8. The trajectory of dispersal research in conservation biology. Systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don A Driscoll

    Full Text Available Dispersal knowledge is essential for conservation management, and demand is growing. But are we accumulating dispersal knowledge at a pace that can meet the demand? To answer this question we tested for changes in dispersal data collection and use over time. Our systematic review of 655 conservation-related publications compared five topics: climate change, habitat restoration, population viability analysis, land planning (systematic conservation planning and invasive species. We analysed temporal changes in the: (i questions asked by dispersal-related research; (ii methods used to study dispersal; (iii the quality of dispersal data; (iv extent that dispersal knowledge is lacking, and; (v likely consequences of limited dispersal knowledge. Research questions have changed little over time; the same problems examined in the 1990s are still being addressed. The most common methods used to study dispersal were occupancy data, expert opinion and modelling, which often provided indirect, low quality information about dispersal. Although use of genetics for estimating dispersal has increased, new ecological and genetic methods for measuring dispersal are not yet widely adopted. Almost half of the papers identified knowledge gaps related to dispersal. Limited dispersal knowledge often made it impossible to discover ecological processes or compromised conservation outcomes. The quality of dispersal data used in climate change research has increased since the 1990s. In comparison, restoration ecology inadequately addresses large-scale process, whilst the gap between knowledge accumulation and growth in applications may be increasing in land planning. To overcome apparent stagnation in collection and use of dispersal knowledge, researchers need to: (i improve the quality of available data using new approaches; (ii understand the complementarities of different methods and; (iii define the value of different kinds of dispersal information for supporting

  9. INSPIRE from the JRC Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Cetl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises some recent developments in INSPIRE implementation from the JRC (Joint Research Centre point of view. The INSPIRE process started around 11 years ago and today, clear results and benefits can be seen. Spatial data are more accessible and shared more frequently between countries and at the European level. In addition to this, efficient, unified coordination and collaboration between different stakeholders and participants has been achieved, which is another great success. The JRC, as a scientific think-tank of the European Commission, has played a very important role in this process from the very beginning. This role is in line with its mission, which is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of European Union (EU policies. The JRC acts as the overall technical coordinator of INSPIRE, but it also carries out the activities necessary to support the coherent implementation of INSPIRE, by helping member states in the implementation process. Experiences drawn from collaboration and negotiation in each country and at the European level will be of great importance in the revision of the INSPIRE Directive, which is envisaged for 2014. Keywords: spatial data infrastructure (SDI; INSPIRE; development; Joint Research Centre (JRC

  10. Applying combinatorial chemistry and biology to food research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dominic; Robertson, George

    2004-12-01

    In the past decade combinatorial chemistry has become a major focus of research activity in the pharmaceutical industry for accelerating the development of novel therapeutic compounds. The same combinatorial strategies could be applied to a broad spectrum of areas in agricultural and food research, including food safety and nutrition, development of product ingredients, and processing and conversion of natural products. In contrast to "rational design", the combinatorial approach relies on molecular diversity and high-throughput screening. The capability of exploring the structural and functional limits of a vast population of diverse chemical and biochemical molecules makes it possible to expedite the creation and isolation of compounds of desirable and useful properties. Several studies in recent years have demonstrated the utility of combinatorial methods for food research. These include the discovery of synthetic antimicrobial, antioxidative, and aflatoxin-binding peptides, the identification and analysis of unique flavor compounds, the generation of new enzyme inhibitors, the development of therapeutic antibodies for botulinum neurotoxins, the synthesis of unnatural polyketides and carotenoids, and the modification of food enzymes with novel properties. The results of such activities could open a large area of applications with potential benefits to the food industry. This review describes the current techniques of combinatorial chemistry and their applications, with emphasis on examples in food science research.

  11. Polyhydroyalkanoates: from Basic Research and Molecular Biology to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd alFattah Amara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA, an intracellular biodegradable microbial polymer. PHAs is formed from different types of three hydroxyalkanoic acids monomers, each unit forms an ester bond with the hydroxyl group of the other one and the hydroxyl substituted carbon has R configuration. The C-3 atom in β position is branched with at least one carbon atom in the form of methyl group (C1 to thirteen carbons in the form of tridecyl (C13. This alkyl side chain is not necessarily saturated. PHAs are biosynthesized through regulated pathways by specific enzymes. PHAs are accumulated in bacterial cells from soluble to insoluble form as storage materials inside the inclusion bodies during unbalanced nutrition or to save organisms from reducing equivalents. PHAs are converted again to soluble components by PHAs depolymerases and the degraded materials enter various metabolic pathways. Until now, four classes of enzymes responsible for PHAs polymerization are known. PHAs were well studied regarding their promising applications, physical, chemical and biological properties. PHAs are biodegradable, biocompatible, have good material properties, renewable and can be used in many applications. The most limiting factor in PHAs commercialization is their high cost compared to the petroleum plastics. This review highlights the new knowledge and that established by the pioneers in this field as well as the factors, which affect PHAs commercialization.

  12. Molecular biological change in oral cancer, summary of our researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuharu Yamamoto, DDS, PhD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biological search and identification of cancer have a variety of clinical significance. Microarray, proteomics and metabolome analyses are powerful analytical methods for rapid screening of tumor markers. From the results, it was revealed that a number of genes are specifically expressed in oral cancers. From the results of CAN and LOH analyses of the entire genome, three candidate gene loci (D1S1189, D1S2151, D1S2595 were identified on 1q31.1 region. From the results obtained by using array CGH, amplification of the 11q13 regions was observed in 30% of the group with lymph node metastasis, and a numbers of genes were located in the 11q13 regions, in which increase of the copy number was observed in only the group with lymph node metastasis. From the results of proteomics analysis, three protein spots, in which expression increased in a common manner with a oral cancer cell line, as well as 27 spots, in which expression decreased in a common manner with a oral cancer cell line, were identified from these cataloged spots. Seven spots of proteins that are specifically expressed in the whole saliva of oral cancer patients before a surgery and not detected from the whole saliva after the surgery or the whole saliva of a healthy subject were selected. In the metabolome analysis, peaks of 250 of the major metabolic substances (136 cations, 114 anions were detected.

  13. Invertebrates as model organisms for research on aging biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Mahadev; Ram, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-30

    Invertebrate model systems, such as nematodes and fruit flies, have provided valuable information about the genetics and cellular biology involved in aging. However, limitations of these simple, genetically tractable organisms suggest the need for other model systems, some of them invertebrate, to facilitate further advances in the understanding of mechanisms of aging and longevity in mammals, including humans. This paper introduces 10 review articles about the use of invertebrate model systems for the study of aging by authors who participated in an 'NIA-NIH symposium on aging in invertebrate model systems' at the 2013 International Congress for Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. In contrast to the highly derived characteristics of nematodes and fruit flies as members of the superphylum Ecdysozoa, cnidarians, such as Hydra, are more 'basal' organisms that have a greater number of genetic orthologs in common with humans. Moreover, some other new model systems, such as the urochordate Botryllus schlosseri , the tunicate Ciona , and the sea urchins (Echinodermata) are members of the Deuterostomia, the same superphylum that includes all vertebrates, and thus have mechanisms that are likely to be more closely related to those occurring in humans. Additional characteristics of these new model systems, such as the recent development of new molecular and genetic tools and a more similar pattern to humans of regeneration and stem cell function suggest that these new model systems may have unique advantages for the study of mechanisms of aging and longevity.

  14. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Judith [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  15. News UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

  16. PERMITTIVITY RESEARCH OF BIOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS IN GIGAHERTZ FREQUENCY RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton S. Demin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. We present results of permittivity research in gigahertz frequency range for saline and glucose solutions used in medical practice. Experiment results are substantiated theoretically on the basis of Debye-Cole model. Method. Researches have been carried out on blood plasma of healthy donor, water, normal saline and glucose solutions with different concentration from 3 to 12 mmol/l. Experiments have been performed by an active nearfield method based on measuring the impedance of a plane air-liquid boundary with open end of coaxial waveguide in the frequency range from 1 to 12 GHz. Measurement results have been processed with the use of vector analyzer computer system from Rohde & Schwarz. Transmittance spectra have been determined by means of IR-spectrometer from TENZOR-Bruker. Main Results. Simulation results have shown good agreement between the experimental results and the model, as well as the choice of the main parameters of the Debye-Cole model in the studied frequency range for all media. It has been shown that the range of 3-6 GHz can be considered as the main one in the development of diagnostic sensors for the non-invasive analysis of the glucose concentration in the human blood. Practical Relevance. Electrodynamic models of test fluid replacing human blood give the possibility to simulate the sensor basic characteristics for qualitative and quantitative estimation of glucose concentration in human blood and can be used to create an experimental sample of a non- invasive glucometer.

  17. La notion de development de communautes responsables comme source d'inspiration pour la recherche en education relative en environnement (The Idea of Responsible Community Development as a Source of Inspiration for Research in Education Relative to the Environment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Omer; Pruneau, Diane; Boubacar, Djibo

    1999-01-01

    Explores how experiments in both community development and in community economic development that are based on cooperative education provide fertile ground for research in environmental education. (Author/CCM)

  18. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. PMID:27856556

  19. Regenerative patterning in Swarm Robots: mutual benefits of research in robotics and stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Michael; Sai, Ying; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Shen, Wei-Min

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel perspective of Robotic Stem Cells (RSCs), defined as the basic non-biological elements with stem cell like properties that can self-reorganize to repair damage to their swarming organization. Self here means that the elements can autonomously decide and execute their actions without requiring any preset triggers, commands, or help from external sources. We develop this concept for two purposes. One is to develop a new theory for self-organization and self-assembly of multi-robots systems that can detect and recover from unforeseen errors or attacks. This self-healing and self-regeneration is used to minimize the compromise of overall function for the robot team. The other is to decipher the basic algorithms of regenerative behaviors in multi-cellular animal models, so that we can understand the fundamental principles used in the regeneration of biological systems. RSCs are envisioned to be basic building elements for future systems that are capable of self-organization, self-assembly, self-healing and self-regeneration. We first discuss the essential features of biological stem cells for such a purpose, and then propose the functional requirements of robotic stem cells with properties equivalent to gene controller, program selector and executor. We show that RSCs are a novel robotic model for scalable self-organization and self-healing in computer simulations and physical implementation. As our understanding of stem cells advances, we expect that future robots will be more versatile, resilient and complex, and such new robotic systems may also demand and inspire new knowledge from stem cell biology and related fields, such as artificial intelligence and tissue engineering.

  20. Regenerative patterning in Swarm Robots: mutual benefits of research in robotics and stem cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBENSTEIN, MICHAEL; SAI, YING; CHUONG, CHENG-MING; SHEN, WEI-MIN

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel perspective of Robotic Stem Cells (RSCs), defined as the basic non-biological elements with stem cell like properties that can self-reorganize to repair damage to their swarming organization. “Self” here means that the elements can autonomously decide and execute their actions without requiring any preset triggers, commands, or help from external sources. We develop this concept for two purposes. One is to develop a new theory for self-organization and self-assembly of multi-robots systems that can detect and recover from unforeseen errors or attacks. This self-healing and self-regeneration is used to minimize the compromise of overall function for the robot team. The other is to decipher the basic algorithms of regenerative behaviors in multi-cellular animal models, so that we can understand the fundamental principles used in the regeneration of biological systems. RSCs are envisioned to be basic building elements for future systems that are capable of self-organization, self-assembly, self-healing and self-regeneration. We first discuss the essential features of biological stem cells for such a purpose, and then propose the functional requirements of robotic stem cells with properties equivalent to gene controller, program selector and executor. We show that RSCs are a novel robotic model for scalable self-organization and self-healing in computer simulations and physical implementation. As our understanding of stem cells advances, we expect that future robots will be more versatile, resilient and complex, and such new robotic systems may also demand and inspire new knowledge from stem cell biology and related fields, such as artificial intelligence and tissue engineering. PMID:19557691

  1. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  2. Models for biological research: the theory and practice of Paul Ehrlich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, the study of the living world placed considerable reliance on applied chemistry and chemical concepts. Paul Ehrlich, the subject of this paper, adopted from the mid-1870s principles of organic chemistry to devise procedures for use in histology, to suggest features of cellular structure, and to draw up cartoons that explained the nature of immunity. From a distinctly molecular basis, he devised meaningful experimental strategies and was inspired to develop speculative but effective theoretical models along the same lines that chemists had used to resolve problems of molecular structure and behavior. Thus, Ehrlich suggested that combining power and toxicity were independent properties of the antigen toxin. He succeeded to classify synthetic dyestuffs as stains, to use them for investigating molecular combustion, to adapt theories of dyeing to develop models for both combustion and immunity, and to exploit the properties of dyes in the development of chemotherapy. Ehrlich not only speculated on the behavior of synthetic chemicals toward his model of the protoplasm but also invoked biological specificity, a concept that would have a tremendous impact on immunology, drug development, and molecular biology.

  3. Nature as Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  4. In Search of Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Keeping one's self inspired in the music classroom is all about connections. Sometimes educators need to look at what they're doing from a different perspective. Luckily, there's no shortage of ways to revitalize one's classroom approach, and to help the author explores a few, he made use of some connections of his own, turning to five educators…

  5. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  6. The Auger effect in physical and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjoo, H; Emfietzoglou, D; Charlton, D E

    2008-12-01

    The paper reports on progress in physics of radiationless transitions and new Auger spectra of (125)I and (124)I. We report progress in Monte Carlo track structure simulation of low energy electrons comprising majority electrons released in decay most Auger emitters. The input data for electron capture (EC) and internal conversion(IC) were obtained from various physics data libraries. Monte Carlo technique was used for the simulation of Auger electron spectra. Similarly, electron tracks were generated using Monte Carlo track structure methods. Data are presented for the EC, IC and binding energy (BE) of radionuclides (124)I and (125)I. For each of the radionuclides (125)I and (124)I some examples of electron spectra of individual decays are given. Because most Auger electrons are low energy and short range, data and a short discussion are presented on recent Monte Carlo track structure development in condensed media and their accuracy. Accuracy of electron spectra calculated in the decay of electron shower by Auger emitting radionuclides depends on availability of accurate physics data. There are many gaps in these libraries and there is a need for detailed comparison between analytical method and Monte Carlo calculations to refine the method of calculations. On simulation of electron tracks, although improved models for sub-keV electron interaction cross sections for liquid water are now available, more experimental data are needed for benchmarking. In addition, it is desirable to make data and programs for calculations of Auger spectra available online for use by students and researchers.

  7. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  8. Biologically Inspired Algorithms for Optimal Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shao, Cheng; Hristu-Varsakelis, Dimitrios

    2004-01-01

    .... For example, mobile exploration and information gathering tasks can often be accomplished cheaply and more reliably by swarms of small autonomous robots as opposed to a single more sophisticated one...

  9. Biological Inspiration for Agile Autonomous Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evers, Johnny H

    2007-01-01

    .... Flying animals exhibit capabilities for aerial acrobatics, insensitivity to wind gusts, avoiding collision with or intercepting fixed and moving objects, landing and take off from small perches...

  10. Biologically inspired hairy surfaces for liquid repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shu-Hau

    Owing to remarkable features, such as self-cleaning, anti-biofouling and drag reduction, interest on rendering surfaces water-repellent has significantly grown within this decade. Attempts on making surfaces "superhydrophobic", where high water contact angle (θc >150°) accompanied with only few degrees of roll-off angle, have been extensively demonstrated through the mimicking of the surface chemistry and morphology of lotus leaves. This appealing phenomenon also exists on another structure from nature: surfaces comprising soft hairs. Although the role of this piliferous integument has long been recognized for providing life, arthropods in particular, waterrepellency, the synthetic superhydrophobic surfaces based on this structure are still very limited. In this study, the goal was to develop a novel liquid-repellent surface by mimicking the hairy exterior of species. The artificial hairy surfaces were prepared by means of pressurized membrane casting, in which thermoplastic sheets were forced to flow into porous membranes at elevated temperature. The G-shaped pillars on the membrane cast polypropylene substrate are particularly similar to the conformation of natural hairs. The principle of this fabrication technique is relatively accessible and is expected to be compatible with large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic interfaces. The artificial hairy surface features perfectly hydrophobic response where no contact angle hysteresis was observed from video assessment. Thus the artificial hairy surface of the current work appears to be the first report to have such extreme hydrophobicity with only structural modification from the original substrate. This ultralow adhesion to water droplet is believed to be attributed to the hydrophobic methyl groups and the mechanical response of the artificial hairs. Liquid repellency of the hairy surfaces was further enhanced by coating with fluorocarbon (CF) layers via deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The contact angle of water-methanol mixture (gamma < 35.2 mN/m) was raised from 60° to around 140°. The surface energy of coated samples, however, was still not low enough to repel non-polar liquids. Moreover, the hairy structure is not favorable for maintaining the low surface tension liquid in Cassie-Baxter state.

  11. Trusted computation through biologically inspired processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gustave W.

    2013-05-01

    Due to supply chain threats it is no longer a reasonable assumption that traditional protections alone will provide sufficient security for enterprise systems. The proposed cognitive trust model architecture extends the state-of-the-art in enterprise anti-exploitation technologies by providing collective immunity through backup and cross-checking, proactive health monitoring and adaptive/autonomic threat response, and network resource diversity.

  12. RHex: A Biologically Inspired Hexapod Runner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altendorfer, R; Moore, N; Komsuoglu, H; Buehler, M; Brown, H. B., Jr; McMordie, D; Saranli, U; Full, R; Koditschek, D. E

    2001-01-01

    .... We present empirical data establishing that RHex exhibits a dynamical ("bouncing") gait - its mass center moves in a manner well approximated by trajectories from a Spring Loaded Inverted Pendulum (SLIP...

  13. Learning from nature : Biologically-inspired sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicaksono, D.H.B.

    2008-01-01

    New emerging sensing applications demand novel sensors in micro-/nano-scale to enable integration and embedding into higher level structures or systems. Downsizing the structure will usually decrease the sensitivity of the sensors, since the sensitivity is a function of geometrical parameters, e.g.

  14. Project Summary: Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    stabilization system will appear as image blur. In the early half of the 20th century, mathematicians such as Norbert Wiener and colleagues...Interscience Publications. 3. Wiener , N., 1948, Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, MIT Press, Cambridge Mass. 4

  15. Biologically Inspired mm-size Gliding UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Daniel; Zussman, Eyal; Yarin, Alexander

    2002-11-01

    We present a first design of an unmanned aerial vehicle whose aerodynamic loads are carried by comb-like permeable surfaces. This concept was based on observation and analysis of the flight capabilities of the Thrip family of insects, whose have wings of this form and various plant seeds which use this concept to form an aerodynamic decelerator. This concept is only practical for at low Reynolds numbers, as the viscous trace of bodies moving in fluid becomes thicker as Re becomes smaller. When Reaerodynamic decelerators (parachutes) made of permeable light mats of submicron diameter nanofibers. We produced the nanofiber matrices (mats) by electrospinning of polymer solutions, obtaining fibers of 200-400 nm diameter. These fibers were then deposited on frames that serve to define the aerodynamic surfaces, thus producing the mat, with controllable density. For stability, the aerodynamic surfaces had positive dihedral ( inverted umbrella) forms with the fuselage hanging below. When dropped, the platforms fell freely through the air, apex down, reaching terminal velocity very quickly. By comparing the sink rate of the permeable structures with equivalent decelerators with continuous (Saran-wrap) surfaces we show that the permeable surfaces are equivalent to continuous surfaces, with significant weight savings, as long as the local Reynolds number is o(1).

  16. Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael Y; Cochrane, Guy R

    2009-01-01

    The current issue of Nucleic Acids Research includes descriptions of 179 databases, of which 95 are new. These databases (along with several molecular biology databases described in other journals) have been included in the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection, bringing the total number of databases in the collection to 1170. In this introductory comment, we briefly describe some of these new databases and review the principles guiding the selection of databases for inclusion in the Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection. The complete database list and summaries are available online at the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  17. Biological research on burnout-depression overlap: Long-standing limitations and on-going reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Renzo; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Laurent, Eric

    2017-12-01

    In this commentary, we discuss seldom-noticed methodological problems affecting biological research on burnout and depression and make recommendations to overcome the limitations of past studies conducted in this area. First, we suggest that identified subtypes of depression (e.g., depression with melancholic features and depression with atypical features) should be taken into account in future biological research on burnout and depression, given that different subtypes of depression have been associated with distinct autonomic and neuroendocrine profiles. Second, we underline that research on burnout-depression overlap is made difficult by the absence of a consensual conceptualization and operationalization of burnout. In order to resolve this problem, we draw researchers' attention to the urgency of establishing a commonly shared, clinically valid diagnosis for burnout. Finally, we question the possibility of identifying a biological signature for burnout in light of global research on burnout-depression overlap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural and bio-inspired underwater adhesives: Current progress and new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mengkui; Ren, Susu; Wei, Shicao; Sun, Chengjun; Zhong, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Many marine organisms harness diverse protein molecules as underwater adhesives to achieve strong and robust interfacial adhesion under dynamic and turbulent environments. Natural underwater adhesion phenomena thus provide inspiration for engineering adhesive materials that can perform in water or high-moisture settings for biomedical and industrial applications. Here we review examples of biological adhesives to show the molecular features of natural adhesives and discuss how such knowledge serves as a heuristic guideline for the rational design of biologically inspired underwater adhesives. In view of future bio-inspired research, we propose several potential opportunities, either in improving upon current L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-based and coacervates-enabled adhesives with new features or engineering conceptually new types of adhesives that recapitulate important characteristics of biological adhesives. We underline the importance of viewing natural adhesives as dynamic materials, which owe their outstanding performance to the cellular coordination of protein expression, delivery, deposition, assembly, and curing of corresponding components with spatiotemporal control. We envision that the emerging synthetic biology techniques will provide great opportunities for advancing both fundamental and application aspects of underwater adhesives.

  19. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  20. Multi-AUV Hunting Algorithm Based on Bio-inspired Neural Network in Unknown Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The multi-AUV hunting problem is one of the key issues in multi-robot system research. In order to hunt the target efficiently a new hunting algorithm based on a bio-inspired neural network has been proposed in this paper. Firstly, the AUV's working environment can be represented, based on the biological-inspired neural network model. There is one-to-one correspondence between each neuron in the neural network and the position of the grid map in the underwater environment. The activity values of biological neurons then guide the AUV's sailing path and finally the target is surrounded by AUVs. In addition, a method called negotiation is used to solve the AUV's allocation of hunting points. The simulation results show that the algorithm used in the paper can provide rapid and highly efficient path planning in the unknown environment with obstacles and non-obstacles.

  1. The application of biological motion research: biometrics, sport, and the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Kylie; Ellem, Eathan; Baxter, David

    2015-02-01

    The body of research that examines the perception of biological motion is extensive and explores the factors that are perceived from biological motion and how this information is processed. This research demonstrates that individuals are able to use relative (temporal and spatial) information from a person's movement to recognize factors, including gender, age, deception, emotion, intention, and action. The research also demonstrates that movement presents idiosyncratic properties that allow individual discrimination, thus providing the basis for significant exploration in the domain of biometrics and social signal processing. Medical forensics, safety garments, and victim selection domains also have provided a history of research on the perception of biological motion applications; however, a number of additional domains present opportunities for application that have not been explored in depth. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the current applications of biological motion-based research and to propose a number of areas where biological motion research, specific to recognition, could be applied in the future.

  2. A selected review of recent biological psychiatric research in China (translated version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y; Hu, S H; Lam, L C W

    2010-03-01

    This review highlights significant biological psychiatric research published by Chinese researchers in recent years. Chinese periodicals with full-text database (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) and English periodicals with PubMed, published from 2003 to 2009 on schizophrenia, depression, bipolar affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder and Alzheimer's disease, were reviewed. Articles studying the above-mentioned psychiatric disorders focusing in the area of molecular genetics, neuroendocrine immunology, electrophysiology and psychopharmacology applied to animal models or clinical populations were included. The findings suggest that biological psychiatric research is being developed at a rapid pace and covers a wide perspective from disease mechanisms to clinical interventions.

  3. 2012 Gordon Research Conference, Plant molecular biology, July 15-20 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, Michael R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The 2012 Gordon Conference on Plant Molecular Biology will present cutting-edge research on molecular aspects of plant growth and development, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries in molecular mechanisms involved with plant signaling systems. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics in plant molecular biology including hormone receptors and early events in hormone signaling, plant perception of and response to plant pathogen and symbionts, as well as technological and biological aspects of epigenomics particularly as it relates to signaling systems that regulate plant growth and development. Genomic approaches to plant signaling will be emphasized, including genomic profiling technologies for quantifying various biological subsystems, such as the epigenome, transcriptome, phosphorylome, and metabolome. The meeting will include an important session devoted to answering the question, "What are the biological and technological limits of plant breeding/genetics, and how can they be solved"?

  4. Highly Adaptable but Not Invulnerable: Necessary and Facilitating Conditions for Research in Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudel, Grit; Benninghoff, Martin; Lettkemann, Eric; Håkansson, Elias; Whitley, Richard; Gläser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology is a highly variable scientific innovation because researchers can adapt their involvement in the innovation to the opportunities provided by their environment. On the basis of comparative case studies in four countries, we link epistemic properties of research

  5. Team Research at the Biology-Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, John G.; Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

    2010-01-01

    The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics…

  6. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 7 - pathogenesis and molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the GFRA (Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance) conducted a gap analysis of FMD (Foot-and-Mouth Disease) research. This work has been updated and reported in a series of papers, in this article we report findings in the fields of 1) pathogenesis and 2) molecular biology. The arti...

  7. Objectives of research activities in Biology Branch, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The primary responsibility assigned to the Biology Branch within the framework of CRNL has been an active engagement in basic research related to the assessment of radiation hazards, particularly those to be expected after exposure to relatively low doses of radiation delivered at low dose-rates. The present group is characterized by a broad interest in the entire chain of events by which the initial radiation-induced changes in the living cell are translated into biological effects, with a special focus of attention on the mechanisms by which the initial damage can be largely repaired and by which the risks to man are modified under different circumstances. The basic concepts in radiation biology and risk estimates are reviewed in the light of recent literature on these topics. The current and proposed research activities of the Biology Branch are described. General and specific recommendations for future activities are given. (author)

  8. Bio-Inspired Innovation and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Assessing the Risks (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 1993). 11 Jim Monke , Agroterrorism...Six Legs,” The Boston Globe, October 21, 2007. 15 Monke . 50 Bio-inspired innovation and national security1 BioloGical WarFare: a WarFiGHtinG...Scientists and Tibetan Buddhists Examine Human Nature (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). 50 L. Tickle-Degnan and R. Rosenthal, “The Nature of

  9. Neurobiologically inspired mobile robot navigation and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Quoy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available After a short review of biologically inspired navigation architectures, mainly relying on modeling the hippocampal anatomy, or at least some of its functions, we present a navigation and planning model for mobile robots. This architecture is based on a model of the hippocampal and prefrontal interactions. In particular, the system relies on the definition of a new cell type “transition cells” that encompasses traditional “place cells”.

  10. Kinds of inspiration in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the role of sources of inspiration in interaction design. We identify four strategies for relating sources of inspiration to emerging ideas: selection; adaptation; translation; and combination. As our starting point, we argue that sources of inspiration are a form...... of knowledge crucial to creativity. Our research is based on empirical findings arising from the use of Inspiration Card Workshops, which are collaborative design events in which domain and technology insight are combined to create design concepts. In addition to the systematically introduced sources...

  11. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  12. Practicing biology: Undergraduate laboratory research, persistence in science, and the impact of self-efficacy beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Elizabeth

    As undergraduate laboratory research internships become more popular and universities devote considerable resources towards promoting them, it is important to clarify what students specifically gain through involvement in these experiences and it is important to understand their impact on the science pipeline. By examining recent findings describing the primary benefits of undergraduate research participation, along with self-efficacy theory, this study aims to provide more explanatory power to the anecdotal and descriptive accounts regarding the relationship between undergraduate research experiences and interest in continuing in science. Furthermore, this study characterizes practices that foster students' confidence in doing scientific work with detailed description and analysis of the interactions of researchers in a laboratory. Phase 1 of the study, a survey of undergraduate biology majors (n=71) at a major research university, investigates the relationships among participation in biology laboratory research internships, biology laboratory self-efficacy strength, and interest in persisting in science. Phase 2 of the study, a two-year investigation of a university biology research laboratory, investigates how scientific communities of practice develop self-efficacy beliefs. The findings suggest that participation in lab internships results in increased interest in continuing in life science/biology graduate school and careers. They also suggest that a significant proportion of that interest is related to the students' biology laboratory self-efficacy. The findings of this study point to two primary ways that undergraduate research participation might work to raise self-efficacy strength. First, university research laboratory communities can provide students with a variety of resources that scaffold them into biology laboratory mastery experiences. Second, university research laboratory communities can provide students with coping and mastery Discourse models

  13. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomimetic Designs Inspired by Seashells-Seashells Helping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 6. Biomimetic Designs Inspired by Seashells ... Kiran Akella1. Head, Computational Mechanics Center, Research and Development Establishment (Engineers), Defence Research and Development Organisation Kalas, Pune 411015, India.

  15. Philosophical Basis and Some Historical Aspects of Systems Biology: From Hegel to Noble - Applications for Bioenergetic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Valdur; Monge, Claire; Guzun, Rita

    2009-01-01

    We live in times of paradigmatic changes for the biological sciences. Reductionism, that for the last six decades has been the philosophical basis of biochemistry and molecular biology, is being displaced by Systems Biology, which favors the study of integrated systems. Historically, Systems Biology - defined as the higher level analysis of complex biological systems - was pioneered by Claude Bernard in physiology, Norbert Wiener with the development of cybernetics, and Erwin Schrödinger in his thermodynamic approach to the living. Systems Biology applies methods inspired by cybernetics, network analysis, and non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems. These developments follow very precisely the dialectical principles of development from thesis to antithesis to synthesis discovered by Hegel. Systems Biology opens new perspectives for studies of the integrated processes of energy metabolism in different cells. These integrated systems acquire new, system-level properties due to interaction of cellular components, such as metabolic compartmentation, channeling and functional coupling mechanisms, which are central for regulation of the energy fluxes. State of the art of these studies in the new area of Molecular System Bioenergetics is analyzed. PMID:19399243

  16. Philosophical basis and some historical aspects of systems biology: from Hegel to Noble - applications for bioenergetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Valdur; Monge, Claire; Guzun, Rita

    2009-03-01

    We live in times of paradigmatic changes for the biological sciences. Reductionism, that for the last six decades has been the philosophical basis of biochemistry and molecular biology, is being displaced by Systems Biology, which favors the study of integrated systems. Historically, Systems Biology - defined as the higher level analysis of complex biological systems - was pioneered by Claude Bernard in physiology, Norbert Wiener with the development of cybernetics, and Erwin Schrödinger in his thermodynamic approach to the living. Systems Biology applies methods inspired by cybernetics, network analysis, and non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems. These developments follow very precisely the dialectical principles of development from thesis to antithesis to synthesis discovered by Hegel. Systems Biology opens new perspectives for studies of the integrated processes of energy metabolism in different cells. These integrated systems acquire new, system-level properties due to interaction of cellular components, such as metabolic compartmentation, channeling and functional coupling mechanisms, which are central for regulation of the energy fluxes. State of the art of these studies in the new area of Molecular System Bioenergetics is analyzed.

  17. Philosophical Basis and Some Historical Aspects of Systems Biology: From Hegel to Noble - Applications for Bioenergetic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdur Saks

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We live in times of paradigmatic changes for the biological sciences. Reductionism, that for the last six decades has been the philosophical basis of biochemistry and molecular biology, is being displaced by Systems Biology, which favors the study of integrated systems. Historically, Systems Biology - defined as the higher level analysis of complex biological systems - was pioneered by Claude Bernard in physiology, Norbert Wiener with the development of cybernetics, and Erwin Schrödinger in his thermodynamic approach to the living. Systems Biology applies methods inspired by cybernetics, network analysis, and non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems. These developments follow very precisely the dialectical principles of development from thesis to antithesis to synthesis discovered by Hegel. Systems Biology opens new perspectives for studies of the integrated processes of energy metabolism in different cells. These integrated systems acquire new, system-level properties due to interaction of cellular components, such as metabolic compartmentation, channeling and functional coupling mechanisms, which are central for regulation of the energy fluxes. State of the art of these studies in the new area of Molecular System Bioenergetics is analyzed.

  18. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  19. Research in radiation biology, in the environment, and in radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.; Myers, D.K.; Ophel, I.L.; Cowper, G.; Newcombe, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Research in radiation biology at CRNL is concerned with: evaluation of the effects of low doses of radiation upon humans and other living organisms; the development of new methods for detecting the effects of radiation exposure in large populations; the continued development of improved methods by which radiation levels can be measured accurately and reliably; and evaluation of the effects of nuclear power use upon the environment. The present report summarizes our background knowledge of radiation hazards and describes current research activities in Biology and Health Physics Division at CRNL. (author)

  20. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Weatherwax, Sharlene [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2006-06-07

    The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 7–9, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme.

  1. SUPPORTING SME'S THROUGH ISLAMIC FINANCE INSPIRED OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bradut-Vasile BOLOS; Hesham MAGD

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to model a moudaraba inspired financing system for SME support, especially for start-ups, using public funding as high-risk investments instead of grants. The model obtained suggests such an approach may prove to be more efficient, but further research is required.

  2. Nature-inspired computation in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This timely review book summarizes the state-of-the-art developments in nature-inspired optimization algorithms and their applications in engineering. Algorithms and topics include the overview and history of nature-inspired algorithms, discrete firefly algorithm, discrete cuckoo search, plant propagation algorithm, parameter-free bat algorithm, gravitational search, biogeography-based algorithm, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and others. Applications include vehicle routing, swarming robots, discrete and combinatorial optimization, clustering of wireless sensor networks, cell formation, economic load dispatch, metamodeling, surrogated-assisted cooperative co-evolution, data fitting and reverse engineering as well as other case studies in engineering. This book will be an ideal reference for researchers, lecturers, graduates and engineers who are interested in nature-inspired computation, artificial intelligence and computational intelligence. It can also serve as a reference for relevant...

  3. From virus research to molecular biology: Tobacco mosaic virus in Germany, 1936-1956.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    In 1937, a group of researchers in Nazi Germany began investigating tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) with the hope of using the virus as a model system for understanding gene behavior in higher organisms. They soon developed a creative and interdisciplinary work style and were able to continue their research in the postwar era, when they made significant contributions to the history of molecular biology. This group is significant for two major reasons. First, it provides an example of how researchers were able to produce excellent scientific research in the midst of dictatorship and war. Coupled with the group's ongoing success in postwar Germany, the German TMV investigators provide a dramatic example of how scientific communities deal with adversity as well as rapid political and social change. Second, since the researchers focused heavily (though no exclusively) on TMV, their story allows us to analyze how an experimental system other than phage contributed to the emergence of molecular biology.

  4. A Framework for Improving the Quality of Research in the Biological Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Casadevall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to discuss problems in the biological sciences, with emphasis on identifying mechanisms to improve the quality of research. Participants from various disciplines made six recommendations: (i design rigorous and comprehensive evaluation criteria to recognize and reward high-quality scientific research; (ii require universal training in good scientific practices, appropriate statistical usage, and responsible research practices for scientists at all levels, with training content regularly updated and presented by qualified scientists; (iii establish open data at the timing of publication as the standard operating procedure throughout the scientific enterprise; (iv encourage scientific journals to publish negative data that meet methodologic standards of quality; (v agree upon common criteria among scientific journals for retraction of published papers, to provide consistency and transparency; and (vi strengthen research integrity oversight and training. These recommendations constitute an actionable framework that, in combination, could improve the quality of biological research.

  5. Team research at the biology-mathematics interface: project management perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, John G; Radunskaya, Ami E; Lee, Arthur H; de Pillis, Lisette G; Bartlett, Diana F

    2010-01-01

    The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented.

  6. A bio-inspired spatial patterning circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Yuan; Joe, Danial J; Shealy, James B; Land, Bruce R; Shen, Xiling

    2014-01-01

    Lateral Inhibition (LI) is a widely conserved patterning mechanism in biological systems across species. Distinct from better-known Turing patterns, LI depend on cell-cell contact rather than diffusion. We built an in silico genetic circuit model to analyze the dynamic properties of LI. The model revealed that LI amplifies differences between neighboring cells to push them into opposite states, hence forming stable 2-D patterns. Inspired by this insight, we designed and implemented an electronic circuit that recapitulates LI patterning dynamics. This biomimetic system serve as a physical model to elucidate the design principle of generating robust patterning through spatial feedback, regardless of the underlying devices being biological or electrical.

  7. Evolving Transport Networks With Cellular Automata Models Inspired by Slime Mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanas, Michail-Antisthenis I; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Adamatzky, Andrew I

    2015-09-01

    Man-made transport networks and their design are closely related to the shortest path problem and considered amongst the most debated problems of computational intelligence. Apart from using conventional or bio-inspired computer algorithms, many researchers tried to solve this kind of problem using biological computing substrates, gas-discharge solvers, prototypes of a mobile droplet, and hot ice computers. In this aspect, another example of biological computer is the plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum (P. polycephalum), which is a large single cell visible by an unaided eye and has been proven as a reliable living substrate for implementing biological computing devices for computational geometry, graph-theoretical problems, and optimization and imitation of transport networks. Although P. polycephalum is easy to experiment with, computing devices built with the living slime mould are extremely slow; it takes slime mould days to execute a computation. Consequently, mapping key computing mechanisms of the slime mould onto silicon would allow us to produce efficient bio-inspired computing devices to tackle with hard to solve computational intelligence problems like the aforementioned. Toward this direction, a cellular automaton (CA)-based, Physarum-inspired, network designing model is proposed. This novel CA-based model is inspired by the propagating strategy, the formation of tubular networks, and the computing abilities of the plasmodium of P. polycephalum. The results delivered by the CA model demonstrate a good match with several previously published results of experimental laboratory studies on imitation of man-made transport networks with P. polycephalum. Consequently, the proposed CA model can be used as a virtual, easy-to-access, and biomimicking laboratory emulator that will economize large time periods needed for biological experiments while producing networks almost identical to the tubular networks of the real-slime mould.

  8. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. © 2016 L. A.-R. M. Warfa. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. String-inspired cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wands, David

    2002-01-01

    I discuss cosmological models either derived from, or inspired by, string theory or M-theory. In particular, I discuss solutions in the low-energy effective theory and the role of the dilaton, moduli and antisymmetric form fields in the dimensionally reduced effective action. The pre-big-bang model is an attempt to use cosmological solutions to make observational predictions. I then discuss the effective theory of gravity found in recent braneworld models where we live on a 3-brane embedded in a five-dimensional spacetime and how the study of cosmological perturbations may enable us to test these ideas

  10. Desegregating undergraduate mathematics and biology--interdisciplinary instruction with emphasis on ongoing biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeva, Raina

    2009-01-01

    The remarkable advances in the field of biology in the last decade, specifically in the areas of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, proteomics, and systems biology, have demonstrated how critically important mathematical models and methods are in addressing questions of vital importance for these disciplines. There is little doubt that the need for utilizing and developing mathematical methods for biology research will only grow in the future. The rapidly increasing demand for scientists with appropriate interdisciplinary skills and knowledge, however, is not being reflected in the way undergraduate mathematics and biology courses are structured and taught in most colleges and universities nationwide. While a number of institutions have stepped forward and addressed this need by creating and offering interdisciplinary courses at the juncture of mathematics and biology, there are still many others at which there is little, if any, interdisciplinary interaction between the curricula. This chapter describes an interdisciplinary course and a textbook in mathematical biology developed collaboratively by faculty from Sweet Briar College and the University of Virginia School of Medicine. The course and textbook are designed to provide a bridge between the mathematical and biological sciences at the lower undergraduate level. The course is developed for and is being taught in a liberal arts setting at Sweet Briar College, Virginia, but some of the advanced modules are used in a course at the University of Virginia for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The individual modules are relatively independent and can be used as stand-alone projects in conventional mathematics and biology courses. Except for the introductory material, the course and textbook topics are based on current biomedical research.

  11. NATO Advanced Research Workshop, 19-22 May 1997: Rapid Method for Monitoring the Environment for Biological Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop met for the purpose of bringing to light rapid methods for monitoring the environment for biological hazards such as biological warfare agents, naturally occurring...

  12. Decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor: Dismantling of the biological shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Franz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the dismantling of the inactive and activated areas of the biological shield of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf. The calculation of the parameters determining the activated areas at the shield (reference nuclide, nuclide vector in the barite concrete and horizontal and vertical reduction behaviors of activity concentration and the activation profiles within the biological shield for unrestricted release, release restricted to permanent deposit and radioactive waste are presented. Considerations of located activation anomalies in the shield, e.g. in the vicinities of the beam-tubes, were made according to the reactor's operational history. Finally, an overview of the materials removed from the biological shield is given.

  13. When science inspires art

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    On Tuesday 18 January 2011, artist Pipilotti Rist came to CERN to find out how science could provide her with a source of inspiration for her art and perhaps to get ideas for future work. Pipilotti, who is an eclectic artist always on the lookout for an original source of inspiration, is almost as passionate about physics as she is about art.   Ever Is Over All, 1997, audio video installation by Pipilotti Rist.  View of the installation at the National Museum for Foreign Art, Sofia, Bulgaria. © Pipilotti Rist. Courtesy the artist and Hauser & Wirth. Photo by Angel Tzvetanov. Swiss video-maker Pipilotti Rist (her real name is Elisabeth Charlotte Rist), who is well-known in the international art world for her highly colourful videos and creations, visited CERN for the first time on Tuesday 18 January 2011.  Her visit represented a trip down memory lane, since she originally studied physics before becoming interested in pursuing a career as an artist and going on to de...

  14. Building Consensus in Science: Resources for Intertextual Dialog in Biology Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Iliana A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the way article writers bring prior texts into biology research articles. It studies the functional moves in which citations occur and their formal features, providing a better understanding of the linguistic resources that are used to construct intertextuality in science. The results show the functions of citations were…

  15. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 4: the "nutritional systems biology level"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Cavallieri, D.; Roche, H.M.; Klein, U.I.; Daniel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional systems biology may be defined as the ultimate goal of molecular nutrition research, where all relevant aspects of regulation of metabolism in health and disease states at all levels of its complexity are taken into account to describe the molecular physiology of nutritional processes.

  16. Connecting Biology and Organic Chemistry Introductory Laboratory Courses through a Collaborative Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltax, Ariana L.; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S.; Pontrello, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an…

  17. 76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... searching for articles using a PubMed and/or Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) search engine...] Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of its report of scientific and medical literature and...

  18. Infusing Bioinformatics and Research-Like Experience into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2014-01-01

    A nine-week laboratory project designed for a sophomore level molecular biology course is described. Small groups of students (3-4 per group) choose a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) or an oncogene for this project. Each group researches the role of their TSG/oncogene from primary literature articles and uses bioinformatics engines to find the gene…

  19. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    OpenAIRE

    Gorash E. Y.; Victorova E. P.; Kupin G. A.; Aleshin V. N.; Lisovoy V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose), possessing antit...

  20. Parent perspectives on privacy and governance for a pediatric repository of non-biological, research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhas, Kiran P; Page, Stacey; Dodd, Shawn X; Letourneau, Nicole; Ambrose, Aleta; Cui, Xinjie; Tough, Suzanne C

    2015-02-01

    Research data repositories (RDRs) are data storage entities where data can be submitted, stored, and subsequently accessed for purposes beyond the original intent. There is little information relating to non-biological RDRs, nor considerations regarding pediatric data storage and re-use. We examined parent perspectives on pediatric, non-biological RDRs. Qualitative, descriptive methods including both interviews and focus groups were used. Purposive sampling of adult participants in two provincial birth cohorts yielded 19 interviewees and 18 focus group participants (4 groups). Transcripts were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Parent research participants strongly supported the sharing of their own, and their child's, non-biological research data. Four themes emerged: that altruism has limits, that participants have ongoing privacy concerns, that some participants need the assurance of congruent values between themselves and researchers/research questions, and that opinions diverge for some governance issues. The establishment of RDRs is important and maximizes participants', researchers', and funders' investments. Participants as data donors have concerns relating to privacy, relationships, and governance that must be considered in RDR development. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Collaborative international research: ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to human biological materials at a South African institutional research ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Aslam; Dhai, Amaboo; van der Linde, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Human Biological Materials (HBMs) are an invaluable resource in biomedical research. To determine if researchers and a Research Ethics Committee (REC) at a South African institution addressed ethical issues pertaining to HBMs in collaborative research with developed countries. Ethically approved retrospective cross-sectional descriptive audit. Of the 1305 protocols audited, 151 (11.57%) fulfilled the study's inclusion criteria. Compared to other developed countries, a majority of sponsors (90) were from the USA (p = 0.0001). The principle investigators (PIs) in all 151 protocols informed the REC of their intent to store HBMs. Only 132 protocols informed research participants (P research participants, 116 protocols (76.8%) solicited broad consent compared to specific consent (32; 21.2%) [p research participants (67) that HBMs would be exported (p = 0.011). Export permits (EPs) and Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) were not available in 109 and 143 protocols, respectively. Researchers and the REC did not adequately address the inter-related ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to HBMs. There was a lack of congruence between the ethical guidelines of developed countries and their actions which are central to the access to HBMs in collaborative research. HBMs may be leaving South Africa without EPs and MTAs during the process of international collaborative research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Blood Clotting Inspired Polymer Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Charles Edward

    The blood clotting process is one of the human body's masterpieces in targeted molecular manipulation, as it requires the activation of the clotting cascade at a specific place and a specific time. Recent research in the biological sciences have discovered that one of the protein molecules involved in the initial stages of the clotting response, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), exhibits counterintuitive and technologically useful properties that are driven in part by the physical environment in the bloodstream at the site of a wound. In this thesis, we take inspiration from initial observations of the vWF in experiments, and aim to describe the behaviors observed in this process within the context of polymer physics. By understanding these physical principles, we hope to harness nature's ability to both direct molecules in both spatial and conformational coordinates. This thesis is presented in three complementary sections. After an initial introduction describing the systems of interest, we first describe the behavior of collapsed Lennard-Jones polymers in the presence of an infinite medium. It has been shown that simple bead-spring homopolymer models describe vWF quite well in vitro. We build upon this previous work to first describe the behavior of a collapsed homopolymer in an elongational fluid flow. Through a nucleation-protrusion mechanism, scaling relationships can be developed to provide a clear picture of a first-order globule-stretch transition and its ramifications in dilute-solution rheology. The implications of this behavior and its relation to the current literature provides qualitative explanations for the physiological process of vasoconstriction. In an effort to generalize these observations, we present an entire theory on the behavior of polymer globules under influence of any local fluid flow. Finally, we investigate the internal dynamics of these globules by probing their pulling response in an analogous fashion to force spectroscopy. We elucidate

  3. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  4. Role of nuclear analytical probe techniques in biological trace element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Pounds, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Many biomedical experiments require the qualitative and quantitative localization of trace elements with high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. The feasibility of measuring the chemical form of the elements, the time course of trace elements metabolism, and of conducting experiments in living biological systems are also important requirements for biological trace element research. Nuclear analytical techniques that employ ion or photon beams have grown in importance in the past decade and have led to several new experimental approaches. Some of the important features of these methods are reviewed here along with their role in trace element research, and examples of their use are given to illustrate potential for new research directions. It is emphasized that the effective application of these methods necessitates a closely integrated multidisciplinary scientific team. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Nanofluidics in two-dimensional layered materials: inspirations from nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Feng, Yaping; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2017-08-29

    With the advance of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, significant progress has been achieved in the design and application of synthetic nanofluidic devices and materials, mimicking the gating, rectifying, and adaptive functions of biological ion channels. Fundamental physics and chemistry behind these novel transport phenomena on the nanoscale have been explored in depth on single-pore platforms. However, toward real-world applications, one major challenge is to extrapolate these single-pore devices into macroscopic materials. Recently, inspired partially by the layered microstructure of nacre, the material design and large-scale integration of artificial nanofluidic devices have stepped into a completely new stage, termed 2D nanofluidics. Unique advantages of the 2D layered materials have been found, such as facile and scalable fabrication, high flux, efficient chemical modification, tunable channel size, etc. These features enable wide applications in, for example, biomimetic ion transport manipulation, molecular sieving, water treatment, and nanofluidic energy conversion and storage. This review highlights the recent progress, current challenges, and future perspectives in this emerging research field of "2D nanofluidics", with emphasis on the thought of bio-inspiration.

  6. The role of inspiration in scientific scholarship and discovery: Views of theistic scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Kari A.

    This qualitative research study examined the ways those who identify themselves as theistic scientists and scholars experience inspiration, as defined as divine guidance or influence, in their scientific scholarship and discovery. It also explored participants' beliefs about how scientists and scholars can seek and prepare to receive inspiration in their work. Open-ended surveys of 450 participants from the behavioral and natural sciences and from a variety of religious backgrounds were analyzed for content themes in the areas of experiences with inspiration, preparing to receive inspiration, and further thoughts on inspiration in science. The themes extracted indicated that these scientists and scholars have experienced inspiration throughout all stages of the research process. They also believe that certain practices and virtues, such as openness to inspiration and nurturing a relationship with God, can help scientists and scholars be more prepared to receive inspiration in their work.

  7. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    materials are characterized by their hierarchical and composite design, where features with sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters provide the basis for the functionality of the material. Understanding of biological materials is, while very interesting from a basic research perspective, also valuable...... as inspiration for the development of new materials for medical and technological applications. In order to successfully mimic biological materials we must first have a thorough understanding of their design. As such, the purpose of the characterization of biological materials can be defined as the establishment...... mineral and the organic matrix in biomineralized calcite. High resolution powder diffraction was used to study how calcite in chalk, coccoliths, and mollusk shell is affected by the co-existent organic matrix. The calcified attachment organ in the saddle oyster, Anomia simplex serves as a brilliant...

  8. Geo-inspired model: Agents vectors naturals inspired by the environmental management (AVNG of water tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Eduardo Millán Rojas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Management to care for the environment and the Earth (geo can be source of inspiration for developing models that allow addressing complexity issues; the objective of this research was to develop an additional aspect of the inspired models. The geoinspired model has two features, the first covering aspects related to environmental management and the behavior of natural resources, and the second has a component of spatial location associated with existing objects on the Earth's surface. Method: The approach developed in the research is descriptive and its main objective is the representation or characterization of a case study within a particular context. Results: The result was the design of a model to emulate the natural behavior of the water tributaries of the Amazon foothills, in order to extend the application of the inspired models and allow the use of elements such as geo-referencing and environmental management. The proposed geoinspired model is called “natural vectors agents inspired in environmental management”. Conclusions: The agents vectors naturals inspired by the environmental are polyform elements that can assume the behavior of environmental entities, which makes it possible to achieve progress in other fields of environmental management (use of soil, climate, flora, fauna, and link environmental issues with the structure of the proposed model.

  9. SINGLE MOLECULE APPROACHES TO BIOLOGY, 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 27-JULY 2, 2010, ITALY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor William Moerner

    2010-07-09

    The 2010 Gordon Conference on Single-Molecule Approaches to Biology focuses on cutting-edge research in single-molecule science. Tremendous technical developments have made it possible to detect, identify, track, and manipulate single biomolecules in an ambient environment or even in a live cell. Single-molecule approaches have changed the way many biological problems are addressed, and new knowledge derived from these approaches continues to emerge. The ability of single-molecule approaches to avoid ensemble averaging and to capture transient intermediates and heterogeneous behavior renders them particularly powerful in elucidating mechanisms of biomolecular machines: what they do, how they work individually, how they work together, and finally, how they work inside live cells. The burgeoning use of single-molecule methods to elucidate biological problems is a highly multidisciplinary pursuit, involving both force- and fluorescence-based methods, the most up-to-date advances in microscopy, innovative biological and chemical approaches, and nanotechnology tools. This conference seeks to bring together top experts in molecular and cell biology with innovators in the measurement and manipulation of single molecules, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and to exchange ideas with leaders in the field. A number of excellent poster presenters will be selected for short oral talks. Topics as diverse as single-molecule sequencing, DNA/RNA/protein interactions, folding machines, cellular biophysics, synthetic biology and bioengineering, force spectroscopy, new method developments, superresolution imaging in cells, and novel probes for single-molecule imaging will be on the program. Additionally, the collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings in the beauty of the Il Ciocco site in

  10. Systems Biology-Based Platforms to Accelerate Research of Emerging Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Jin; Choi, Young Ki; Shin, Ok Sarah

    2018-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a major threat to public health and security. Given the dynamic nature and significant impact of EIDs, the most effective way to prevent and protect against them is to develop vaccines in advance. Systems biology approaches provide an integrative way to understand the complex immune response to pathogens. They can lead to a greater understanding of EID pathogenesis and facilitate the evaluation of newly developed vaccine-induced immunity in a timely manner. In recent years, advances in high throughput technologies have enabled researchers to successfully apply systems biology methods to analyze immune responses to a variety of pathogens and vaccines. Despite recent advances, computational and biological challenges impede wider application of systems biology approaches. This review highlights recent advances in the fields of systems immunology and vaccinology, and presents ways that systems biology-based platforms can be applied to accelerate a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of immunity against EIDs. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  11. Research and Development Strategy in Biological Technologies: A Patent Data Analysis of Japanese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological technology allows us to invent new medical approaches, create effective food production methods and reserves and develop new materials for industrial production. There is a diversity of biological technology types, and different technologies have different priorities for invention. This study examines the factors that are important for the invention of biology-related technologies in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. As the results show, patent applications related to biochemistry and biotechnology increased until 1995 because of the expanded scale of R&D activities and the high priority assigned to biological technology. However, the number of patent applications stagnated after 1995, because the importance of biochemistry, especially waste-gas treatment technologies, decreased. Additionally, patent applications for medicines and disease-related technologies increased rapidly from 1971 to 1995. The primary determinant of rapid growth is an increase in research priority, especially among firms in the chemical industry whose technologies are related to supplemental foods and foods with health-promoting benefits. Finally, patent applications involving foodstuff- and agriculture-related technologies increased from 1971 to 1995 due to increased R&D and the increased priority of biological technology.

  12. Is systems biology a promising approach to resolve controversies in cancer research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Ana M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At the beginning of the 21st century cancer research has reached an impasse similar to that experienced in developmental biology in the first decades of the 20th century when conflicting results and interpretations co-existed for a long time until these differences were resolved and contradictions were eliminated. In cancer research, instead of this healthy "weeding-out" process, there have been attempts to reach a premature synthesis, while no hypothesis is being rejected. Systems Biology could help cancer research to overcome this stalemate by resolving contradictions and identifying spurious data. First, in silico experiments should allow cancer researchers to be bold and a priori reject sets of data and hypotheses in order to gain a deeper understanding of how each dataset and each hypothesis contributes to the overall picture. In turn, this process should generate novel hypotheses and rules, which could be explored using these in silico approaches. These activities are significantly less costly and much faster than "wet-experiments". Consequently, Systems Biology could be advantageously used both as a heuristic tool to guide "wet-experiments" and to refine hypotheses and test predictions.

  13. Bio-Inspired Principles Applied to the Guidance, Navigation and Control of UAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Strydom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review describes a number of biologically inspired principles that have been applied to the visual guidance, navigation and control of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS. The current limitations of UAS systems are outlined, such as the over-reliance on GPS, the requirement for more self-reliant systems and the need for UAS to have a greater understanding of their environment. It is evident that insects, even with their small brains and limited intelligence, have overcome many of the shortcomings of the current state of the art in autonomous aerial guidance. This has motivated research into bio-inspired systems and algorithms, specifically vision-based navigation, situational awareness and guidance.

  14. An Exploration of Design Students' Inspiration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazkir, Sibel S.; Mower, Jennifer M.; Reddy-Best, Kelly L.; Pedersen, Elaine L.

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to explore how different sources of inspiration influenced two groups of students' inspiration process and their attitudes toward their design projects. Assigned sources of inspiration and instructor's assistance in the search for inspiration varied for two groups of students completing a small culture inspired product design…

  15. Enhancing Reuse of Data and Biological Material in Medical Research: From FAIR to FAIR-Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Petr; Kohlmayer, Florian; Prasser, Fabian; Mayrhofer, Michaela Th; Schlünder, Irene; Martin, Gillian M; Casati, Sara; Koumakis, Lefteris; Wutte, Andrea; Kozera, Łukasz; Strapagiel, Dominik; Anton, Gabriele; Zanetti, Gianluigi; Sezerman, Osman Ugur; Mendy, Maimuna; Valík, Dalibor; Lavitrano, Marialuisa; Dagher, Georges; Zatloukal, Kurt; van Ommen, GertJan B; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2018-01-23

    The known challenge of underutilization of data and biological material from biorepositories as potential resources for medical research has been the focus of discussion for over a decade. Recently developed guidelines for improved data availability and reusability-entitled FAIR Principles (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability)-are likely to address only parts of the problem. In this article, we argue that biological material and data should be viewed as a unified resource. This approach would facilitate access to complete provenance information, which is a prerequisite for reproducibility and meaningful integration of the data. A unified view also allows for optimization of long-term storage strategies, as demonstrated in the case of biobanks. We propose an extension of the FAIR Principles to include the following additional components: (1) quality aspects related to research reproducibility and meaningful reuse of the data, (2) incentives to stimulate effective enrichment of data sets and biological material collections and its reuse on all levels, and (3) privacy-respecting approaches for working with the human material and data. These FAIR-Health principles should then be applied to both the biological material and data. We also propose the development of common guidelines for cloud architectures, due to the unprecedented growth of volume and breadth of medical data generation, as well as the associated need to process the data efficiently.

  16. Inspiration and the Texts of the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Buchner

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore what the inspired text of the Old Testament was as it existed for the New Testament authors, particularly for the author of the book of Hebrews. A quick look at the facts makes. it clear that there was, at the time, more than one 'inspired' text, among these were the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text 'to name but two'. The latter eventually gained ascendancy which is why it forms the basis of our translated Old Testament today. Yet we have to ask: what do we make of that other text that was the inspired Bible to the early Church, especially to the writer of the book of Hebrews, who ignored the Masoretic text? This article will take a brief look at some suggestions for a doctrine of inspiration that keeps up with the facts of Scripture. Allied to this, the article is something of a bibliographical study of recent developments in textual research following the discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls.

  17. Grand Challenges for Biological and Environmental Research: A Long-Term Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkin, A.; Baliga, N.; Braam, J.; Church, G.; Collins, J; ; Cottingham, R.; Ecker, J.; Gerstein, M.; Gilna, P.; Greenberg, J.; Handelsman, J.; Hubbard, S.; Joachimiak, A.; Liao, J.; Looger, L.; Meyerowitz, E.; Mjolness, E.; Petsko, G.; Sayler, G.; Simpson, M.; Stacey, G.; Sussman, M.; Tiedje, J.; Bader, D.; Cessi, P.; Collins, W.; Denning, S.; Dickinson, R.; Easterling, D.; Edmonds, J.; Feddema, J.; Field, C.; Fridlind, A.; Fung, I.; Held, I.; Jackson, R.; Janetos, A.; Large, W.; Leinen, M.; Leung, R.; Long, S.; Mace, G.; Masiello, C.; Meehl, G.; Ort, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Penner, J.; Prather, M.; Randall, D.; Rasch, P.; Schneider, E.; Shugart, H.; Thornton, P.; Washington, W.; Wildung, R.; Wiscombe, W.; Zak, D.; Zhang, M.; Bielicki, J.; Buford, M.; Cleland, E.; Dale, V.; Duke, C.; Ehleringer, J.; Hecht, A.; Kammen, D.; Marland, G.; Pataki, D.; Riley, M. Robertson, P.; Hubbard, S.

    2010-12-01

    The interactions and feedbacks among plants, animals, microbes, humans, and the environment ultimately form the world in which we live. This world is now facing challenges from a growing and increasingly affluent human population whose numbers and lifestyles are driving ever greater energy demand and impacting climate. These and other contributing factors will make energy and climate sustainability extremely difficult to achieve over the 20-year time horizon that is the focus of this report. Despite these severe challenges, there is optimism that deeper understanding of our environment will enable us to mitigate detrimental effects, while also harnessing biological and climate systems to ensure a sustainable energy future. This effort is advanced by scientific inquiries in the fields of atmospheric chemistry and physics, biology, ecology, and subsurface science - all made possible by computing. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science has a long history of bringing together researchers from different disciplines to address critical national needs in determining the biological and environmental impacts of energy production and use, characterizing the interplay of climate and energy, and collaborating with other agencies and DOE programs to improve the world's most powerful climate models. BER science focuses on three distinct areas: (1) What are the roles of Earth system components (atmosphere, land, oceans, sea ice, and the biosphere) in determining climate? (2) How is the information stored in a genome translated into microbial, plant, and ecosystem processes that influence biofuel production, climate feedbacks, and the natural cycling of carbon? (3) What are the biological, geochemical, and physical forces that govern the behavior of Earth's subsurface environment? Ultimately, the goal of BER science is to support experimentation and modeling that can reliably predict the

  18. [Research progress and trend analysis of biology and chemistry of Taxus medicinal resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Peng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Huo, Li

    2012-07-01

    Taxus is the source plant of anti-cancer drug paclitaxel and its biosynthetic precursor, analogs and derivatives, which has been studying for decades. There are many endemic Taxus species in China, which have been studied in the field of multiple disciplines. Based on the recent studies of the researchers, this review comments on the study of Taxus biology and chemistry. The bibliometric method is used to quantify the global scientific production of Taxus-related research, and identify patterns and tendencies of Taxus-related articles. Gaps are present in knowledge about the genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics of Taxus and their endophytic fungi. Systems biology and various omics technologies will play an increasingly important role in the coming decades.

  19. Interdisciplinary research and education at the biology-engineering-computer science interface: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Brigitta; Tidor, Bruce

    2005-09-01

    Progress in the life sciences, including genome sequencing and high-throughput experimentation, offers an opportunity for understanding biology and medicine from a systems perspective. This 'new view', which complements the more traditional component-based approach, involves the integration of biological research with approaches from engineering disciplines and computer science. The result is more than a new set of technologies. Rather, it promises a fundamental reconceptualization of the life sciences based on the development of quantitative and predictive models to describe crucial processes. To achieve this change, learning communities are being formed at the interface of the life sciences, engineering and computer science. Through these communities, research and education will be integrated across disciplines and the challenges associated with multidisciplinary team-based science will be addressed.

  20. Research Projects for Interrogations of Biological Systems: Training for the Development of Novel Radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Lever, Susan Z.; Robertson, J. David

    2016-01-01

    This grant was situated at the University of Missouri to train Ph.D. scientists in radiochemistry and synthetic chemistry in conjunction with Faculty from the Interdisciplinary Plant Group, Division of Biological Sciences, the MU Research Reactor Center, Molecular Biology and the Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute. This project was collaborative with Brookhaven National Laboratory (Richard Ferrieri, PI). Projects for the Ph.D. candidates included novel probe development for peptides, nucleosides, small molecules or radiometals, the direct use of radiometals as probes, or nuclear techniques for analysis. The projects for the postdoctoral fellow involved synthetic chemistry for the preparation of precursors for novel tracers that will be radiolabeled with 18 F or other appropriate radionuclides. The skill sets of our team members allowed us to prepare probes with positron or single photon emitters, as well as ones that are dual-labeled (fluorescent and radiolabeled). We focused our technical advances to those that will be broadly applicable to any research field.

  1. Protecting Traditional Knowledge Related to Biological Resources: Is Scientific Research Going to Become More Bureaucratized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Prashant; Lakshmikumaran, Malathi

    2015-06-22

    For the past several decades, there has been a world debate on the need for protecting traditional knowledge. A global treaty appears to be a distant reality. Of more immediate concern are the steps taken by the global community to protect access to biological resources in the name of protecting traditional knowledge. The Indian experience with implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity has created substantial legal uncertainty in collaborative scientific research between Indians and foreigners apart from bureaucratizing the entire process of scientific research, especially with regard to filing of applications for intellectual property rights. The issue therefore is whether the world needs to better balance the needs of the scientific community with the rights of those who have access to traditional knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Sleep as a biological problem: an overview of frontiers in sleep research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Takeshi; Tsujino, Natsuko; Kuramoto, Eriko; Koyama, Yoshimasa; Susaki, Etsuo A; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Funato, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a physiological process not only for the rest of the body but also for several brain functions such as mood, memory, and consciousness. Nevertheless, the nature and functions of sleep remain largely unknown due to its extremely complicated nature and lack of optimized technology for the experiments. Here we review the recent progress in the biology of the mammalian sleep, which covers a wide range of research areas: the basic knowledge about sleep, the physiology of cerebral cortex in sleeping animals, the detailed morphological features of thalamocortical networks, the mechanisms underlying fluctuating activity of autonomic nervous systems during rapid eye movement sleep, the cutting-edge technology of tissue clearing for visualization of the whole brain, the ketogenesis-mediated homeostatic regulation of sleep, and the forward genetic approach for identification of novel genes involved in sleep. We hope this multifaceted review will be helpful for researchers who are interested in the biology of sleep.

  3. Research Projects for Interrogations of Biological Systems: Training for the Development of Novel Radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Lever, Susan Z. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Robertson, J. David [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2016-10-04

    This grant was situated at the University of Missouri to train Ph.D. scientists in radiochemistry and synthetic chemistry in conjunction with Faculty from the Interdisciplinary Plant Group, Division of Biological Sciences, the MU Research Reactor Center, Molecular Biology and the Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute. This project was collaborative with Brookhaven National Laboratory (Richard Ferrieri, PI). Projects for the Ph.D. candidates included novel probe development for peptides, nucleosides, small molecules or radiometals, the direct use of radiometals as probes, or nuclear techniques for analysis. The projects for the postdoctoral fellow involved synthetic chemistry for the preparation of precursors for novel tracers that will be radiolabeled with 18F or other appropriate radionuclides. The skill sets of our team members allowed us to prepare probes with positron or single photon emitters, as well as ones that are dual-labeled (fluorescent and radiolabeled). We focused our technical advances to those that will be broadly applicable to any research field.

  4. Sex as a Biological Variable in Emergency Medicine Research and Clinical Practice: A Brief Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alyson J; Beauchamp, Gillian A; Wira, Charles R; Perman, Sarah M; Safdar, Basmah

    2017-10-01

    The National Institutes of Health recently highlighted the significant role of sex as a biological variable (SABV) in research design, outcome and reproducibility, mandating that this variable be accounted for in all its funded research studies. This move has resulted in a rapidly increasing body of literature on SABV with important implications for changing the clinical practice of emergency medicine (EM). Translation of this new knowledge to the bedside requires an understanding of how sex-based research will ultimately impact patient care. We use three case-based scenarios in acute myocardial infarction, acute ischemic stroke and important considerations in pharmacologic therapy administration to highlight available data on SABV in evidence-based research to provide the EM community with an important foundation for future integration of patient sex in the delivery of emergency care as gaps in research are filled.

  5. Spectroscopic research of interaction between pulsed laser radiation and some biological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschenov, Victor B.; Betin, A. J.; Volkova, Anna I.; Konov, Vitali I.; Kramarenko, T. A.; Silenok, Alexander S.

    1990-09-01

    This research is dedicated to spectral analysis methods of i&raction of high enerciy laser radiation with biological objects like humain vessel affected by atheroscie rosis (investigated immediately after its surgical removal) and gallstones of diffe rent kinds. In our work ie used laser sources jithA3fl8 nm (Eximer laser Xe-Cl), A532 nm andlO64 nm ( YAG:Nd3).

  6. SYNBIOCHEM Synthetic Biology Research Centre, Manchester – A UK foundry for fine and speciality chemicals production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Feuvre RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK Synthetic Biology Research Centre, SYNBIOCHEM, hosted by the Manchester Institute of Biotechnology at the University of Manchester is delivering innovative technology platforms to facilitate the predictable engineering of microbial bio-factories for fine and speciality chemicals production. We provide an overview of our foundry activities that are being applied to grand challenge projects to deliver innovation in bio-based chemicals production for industrial biotechnology.

  7. Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moller Mark S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative exclusion of minority ethnic groups. Over the past five years the problem of unequal biological access has not received much attention from politicians, bioethicists and even many researchers in the United States, in spite of the widely held belief in the country that there is an obligation to prevent and correct ethnic disparities in access to medical care. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the problem of unequal biological access and of the need to do more than is currently being done to ensure that ethnic disparities in access to human embryonic stem cell-based therapies do not arise. Specifically, this paper explains why the problem of unequal biological access will likely arise in the United States in such a way that white Americans will disproportionately receive most of the benefits of the therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. It also argues for why there is an obligation to prevent these ethnic disparities in access from happening and outlines four steps that need to be taken towards meeting this obligation.

  8. A Vital Legacy: Biological and Environmental Research in the Atomic Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This booklet presents a summary of the five decades of biological and environmental research in the atomic age. It commemorates the contributions to science and society during these decades and concludes with a view to the years ahead. The Contents includes Safety First: in the Shadow of a New Technology; A Healthy Citizenry: Gifts of the New Era; and Environmental Concerns: From Meteorology to Ecology. The conclusion is titled An Enduring Mandate: Looking to the Future.

  9. A vital legacy: Biological and environmental research in the atomic age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. [ed.

    1997-09-01

    This booklet presents a summary of the five decades of biological and environmental research in the atomic age. It commemorates the contributions to science and society during these decades and concludes with a view to the years ahead. The Contents includes `Safety First: in the Shadow of a New Technology; A Healthy Citizenry: Gifts of the New Era; and Environmental Concerns: From Meteorology to Ecology`. The conclusion is titled `An Enduring Mandate: Looking to the Future`.

  10. Using a Popular Science Nonfiction Book to Introduce Biomedical Research Ethics in a Biology Majors Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L.W. Walton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States.  Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course.  The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research.  Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research.  Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course.  This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  11. Using a popular science nonfiction book to introduce biomedical research ethics in a biology majors course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L W

    2014-12-01

    Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research. Weekly reading assignments from the book with discussion questions and a final paper were used to engage students in learning about the ethics of human subjects and human tissues research. Students were surveyed for qualitative feedback on the usefulness of including this book as part of the course. This book has been a successful platform for increasing student knowledge and interest in ethics related to biomedical and biological research.

  12. Shaping scientific attitude of biology education students through research-based teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Darmadi

    2017-08-01

    Scientific attitude is need of today's society for peaceful and meaningful living of every person in a multicultural world. A case study was conducted at the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Riau, Pekanbaru in order to describe the scientific attitude that shaped by research-based teaching (RBT). Eighteen students of English for Biology bilingual program were selected from 88 regular students as a subject of the study. RBT designed consists of 9 steps: 1) field observations, 2) developing research proposals, 3) research proposal seminar, 4) field data collecting, 5) data analyzing & ilustrating, 6) writing research papers, 7) preparing power point slides, 8) creating a scientific poster, 9) seminar & poster session. Data were collected by using check list observation instuments during 14 weeks (course sessions), then analyzed by using descriptive-quantitative method. The results showed that RBT were able to shape critical-mindedness, suspended judgement, respect for evidence, honesty, objectivity, and questioning attitude as well as tolerance of uncertainty. These attitudes which shaped were varies according to every steps of learning activities. It's seems that the preparation of scientific posters and research seminar quite good in shaping the critical-mindedness, suspended judgment, respect for evidence, honesty, objectivity, and questioning attitude, as well as tolerance of uncertainty. In conclusion, the application of research-based teaching through the English for Biology courses could shape the students scientific attitudes. However, the consistency of the appearance of a scientific attitude in every stage of Biology-based RBT learning process need more intensive and critical assessment.

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fluorescence and other Optical Properties of Biological Particles for Biological Warfare Agent Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden; Optics of Biological Particles

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  14. Space Biology Model Organism Research on the Deep Space Gateway to Pioneer Discovery and Advance Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K. Y.; Tomko, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Quincy, C. D.; Rayl, N. A.; Sowa, M. B.; Taylor, E. M.; Sun, S. C.; Kundrot, C. E.

    2018-02-01

    Model organisms are foundational for conducting physiological and systems biology research to define how life responds to the deep space environment. The organisms, areas of research, and Deep Space Gateway capabilities needed will be presented.

  15. Biological Visualization, Imaging and Simulation(Bio-VIS) at NASA Ames Research Center: Developing New Software and Technology for Astronaut Training and Biology Research in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    The Bio- Visualization, Imaging and Simulation (BioVIS) Technology Center at NASA's Ames Research Center is dedicated to developing and applying advanced visualization, computation and simulation technologies to support NASA Space Life Sciences research and the objectives of the Fundamental Biology Program. Research ranges from high resolution 3D cell imaging and structure analysis, virtual environment simulation of fine sensory-motor tasks, computational neuroscience and biophysics to biomedical/clinical applications. Computer simulation research focuses on the development of advanced computational tools for astronaut training and education. Virtual Reality (VR) and Virtual Environment (VE) simulation systems have become important training tools in many fields from flight simulation to, more recently, surgical simulation. The type and quality of training provided by these computer-based tools ranges widely, but the value of real-time VE computer simulation as a method of preparing individuals for real-world tasks is well established. Astronauts routinely use VE systems for various training tasks, including Space Shuttle landings, robot arm manipulations and extravehicular activities (space walks). Currently, there are no VE systems to train astronauts for basic and applied research experiments which are an important part of many missions. The Virtual Glovebox (VGX) is a prototype VE system for real-time physically-based simulation of the Life Sciences Glovebox where astronauts will perform many complex tasks supporting research experiments aboard the International Space Station. The VGX consists of a physical display system utilizing duel LCD projectors and circular polarization to produce a desktop-sized 3D virtual workspace. Physically-based modeling tools (Arachi Inc.) provide real-time collision detection, rigid body dynamics, physical properties and force-based controls for objects. The human-computer interface consists of two magnetic tracking devices

  16. International Trends in Biology Education Research from 1997 to 2014: A Content Analysis of Papers in Selected Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive content analysis of biology education research papers published in eight major academic journals indexed in Social Science Citation Index [SSCI] of Thomson Reuters® from 1997 to 2014. Total of 1376 biology education research [BER] papers were examined. The findings indicated that most of the papers were published…

  17. Neuro-Inspired Computing with Stochastic Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan

    2016-01-06

    The extensive scaling and integration within electronic systems have set the standards for what is addressed to as stochastic electronics. The individual components are increasingly diverting away from their reliable behavior and producing un-deterministic outputs. This stochastic operation highly mimics the biological medium within the brain. Hence, building on the inherent variability, particularly within novel non-volatile memory technologies, paves the way for unconventional neuromorphic designs. Neuro-inspired networks with brain-like structures of neurons and synapses allow for computations and levels of learning for diverse recognition tasks and applications.

  18. Holography inspired stringy hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Holography inspired stringy hadrons (HISH) is a set of models that describe hadrons: mesons, baryons and glueballs as strings in flat four dimensional space-time. The models are based on a "map" from stringy hadrons of holographic confining backgrounds. In this note we review the "derivation" of the models. We start with a brief reminder of the passage from the AdS5 ×S5 string theory to certain flavored confining holographic models. We then describe the string configurations in holographic backgrounds that correspond to a Wilson line, a meson, a baryon and a glueball. The key ingredients of the four dimensional picture of hadrons are the "string endpoint mass" and the "baryonic string vertex". We determine the classical trajectories of the HISH. We review the current understanding of the quantization of the hadronic strings. We end with a summary of the comparison of the outcome of the HISH models with the PDG data about mesons and baryons. We extract the values of the tension, masses and intercepts from best fits, write down certain predictions for higher excited hadrons and present attempts to identify glueballs.

  19. Inspired by CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Art students inspired by CERN will be returning to show their work 9 to 16 October in Building 500, outside the Auditorium. Seventeen art students from around Europe visited CERN last January for a week of introductions to particle physics and astrophysics, and discussions with CERN scientists about their projects. A CERN scientist "adopted"each artist so they could ask questions during and after the visit. Now the seeds planted during their visit have come to fruition in a show using many media and exploring varied concepts, such as how people experience the online world, the sheer scale of CERN's equipment, and the abstractness of the entities scientists are looking for. "The work is so varied, people are going to love some pieces and detest others," says Andrew Charalambous, the project coordinator from University College London who is also curating the exhibition. "It's contemporary modern art, and that's sometimes difficult to take in." For more information on this thought-provoking show, see: htt...

  20. Biological Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Examination of an Introductory Level Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoth, Kenneth Charles

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide authentic research benefits to an entire laboratory course population. CURE experiences are proposed to enhance research skills, critical thinking, productivity, and retention in science. CURE curriculum developers face numerous obstacles, such as the logistics and time commitment involved in bringing a CURE to larger student populations. In addition, an ideal CURE topic requires affordable resources, lab techniques that can be quickly mastered, time for multiple iterations within one semester, and the opportunity to generate new data. This study identifies some of the CURE activities that lead to proposed participant outcomes. Introductory Biology I CURE lab students at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville completed research related to the process of converting storage lipids in microalgae into biodiesel. Data collected from CURE and traditional lab student participants indicate increased CURE student reports of project ownership, scientific self-efficacy, identification as a scientist, and sense of belonging to a science community. Study limitations and unanticipated benefits are discussed.

  1. Current trends and new challenges of databases and web applications for systems driven biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar eSreenivasaiah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and rapidly evolving nature of systems driven research imposes special requirements on the technology, approach, design and architecture of computational infrastructure including database and web application. Several solutions have been proposed to meet the expectations and novel methods have been developed to address the persisting problems of data integration. It is important for researchers to understand different technologies and approaches. Having familiarized with the pros and cons of the existing technologies, researchers can exploit its capabilities to the maximum potential for integrating data. In this review we discuss the architecture, design and key technologies underlying some of the prominent databases (DBs and web applications. We will mention their roles in integration of biological data and investigate some of the emerging design concepts and computational technologies that are likely to have a key role in the future of systems driven biomedical research.

  2. Practicing the triad teaching-research- extension in supervised internship of licentiateship in biological sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliane Miranda Freitas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report an educational experience based on the triad teaching-research-extension occurred in the supervised internship in licentiateship in Biological Sciences. In this experiment, the students made a transposition of the scientific knowledge produced in their course conclusion work to the knowledge of basic education curriculum. We analyze in this article the impressions of undergraduates after completion of pedagogical actions. We discuss, based on the reports, how the knowledge that is constructed and reconstructed in academic research can contribute directly to the improvement of the science education quality through science literacy and also in teacher training of undergraduates, through the reflection on their own practice. Therefore, we consider that, with the practice of the inseparability of teaching-research-extension, there will be more return for academic research and also for the school community, generating significant changes in educational practices in schools

  3. ISCB Ebola Award for Important Future Research on the Computational Biology of Ebola Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Karp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed is of the essence in combating Ebola; thus, computational approaches should form a significant component of Ebola research. As for the development of any modern drug, computational biology is uniquely positioned to contribute through comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Ebola strains as well as 3-D protein modeling. Other computational approaches to Ebola may include large-scale docking studies of Ebola proteins with human proteins and with small-molecule libraries, computational modeling of the spread of the virus, computational mining of the Ebola literature, and creation of a curated Ebola database. Taken together, such computational efforts could significantly accelerate traditional scientific approaches. In recognition of the need for important and immediate solutions from the field of computational biology against Ebola, the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB announces a prize for an important computational advance in fighting the Ebola virus. ISCB will confer the ISCB Fight against Ebola Award, along with a prize of US$2,000, at its July 2016 annual meeting (ISCB Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology [ISMB] 2016, Orlando, Florida.

  4. Spider's web inspires fibres for industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, James

    2010-03-01

    Spiders may not be everybody's idea of natural beauty, but nobody can deny the artistry in the webs that they spin, especially when decorated with water baubles in the morning dew. Inspired by this spectacle, a group of researchers in China has mimicked the structural properties of the spider's web to create a fibre for industry that can manipulate water with the same skill and efficiency, writes James Dacey.

  5. Community-Based Participatory Research Integrates Behavioral and Biological Research to Achieve Health Equity for Native Hawaiians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Claire K. M.; Dillard, Adrienne; Hosoda, Kelsea K.; Maskarinec, Gregory G.; Maunakea, Alika K.; Yoshimura, Sheryl R.; Hughes, Claire; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Kehauoha, Bridget Puni; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku

    2015-01-01

    Native Hawaiians bear a disproportionate burden of type-2 diabetes and related complications compared to all other groups in Hawai‘i (e.g., Whites, Japanese, Korean). Distrust in these communities is a significant barrier to participation in epigenetic research studies seeking to better understand disease processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and research process we employed to integrate behavior and biological sciences with community health priorities. A CBPR approach was used to test a 3-month evidence-based, diabetes self-management intervention (N = 65). To investigate the molecular mechanisms linking inflammation with glucose homeostasis, a subset of participants (n = 16) provided peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Community and academic researchers collaborated on research design, assessment protocols, and participant recruitment, prioritizing participants’ convenience and education and strictly limiting the use of the data collected. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in DNA methylation at gene regions associated with inflammation and diabetes signaling pathways and significant improvements in hemoglobin A1c, self-care activities, and diabetes distress and understanding. This study integrates community, behavioral, and epigenomic expertise to better understand the outcomes of a diabetes self-management intervention. Key lessons learned suggest the studies requiring biospecimen collection in indigenous populations require community trust of the researchers, mutual benefits for the community and researchers, and for the researchers to prioritize the community’s needs. CBPR may be an important tool in providing communities the voice and protections to participate in studies requiring biospecimens. PMID:26703660

  6. Community-Based Participatory Research Integrates Behavioral and Biological Research to Achieve Health Equity for Native Hawaiians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire K. M. Townsend

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Native Hawaiians bear a disproportionate burden of type-2 diabetes and related complications compared to all other groups in Hawai‘i (e.g., Whites, Japanese, Korean. Distrust in these communities is a significant barrier to participation in epigenetic research studies seeking to better understand disease processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the community-based participatory research (CBPR approach and research process we employed to integrate behavior and biological sciences with community health priorities. A CBPR approach was used to test a 3-month evidence-based, diabetes self-management intervention (N = 65. To investigate the molecular mechanisms linking inflammation with glucose homeostasis, a subset of participants (n = 16 provided peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Community and academic researchers collaborated on research design, assessment protocols, and participant recruitment, prioritizing participants’ convenience and education and strictly limiting the use of the data collected. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in DNA methylation at gene regions associated with inflammation and diabetes signaling pathways and significant improvements in hemoglobin A1c, self-care activities, and diabetes distress and understanding. This study integrates community, behavioral, and epigenomic expertise to better understand the outcomes of a diabetes self-management intervention. Key lessons learned suggest the studies requiring biospecimen collection in indigenous populations require community trust of the researchers, mutual benefits for the community and researchers, and for the researchers to prioritize the community’s needs. CBPR may be an important tool in providing communities the voice and protections to participate in studies requiring biospecimens.

  7. Seed Biology Updates - Highlights and New Discoveries in Seed Dormancy and Germination Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of the biology of seeds has been greatly advanced in recent years. The progresses, particularly in the field of seed dormancy and germination research, have been made at a remarkable speed. Some of the possible epigenetic mechanisms, including an involvement of non-coding RNA, which were predicted for DELAY OF GERMINATION1 just a few years ago, have now been demonstrated with strong molecular and genetic evidence. Imprinting, or parent-of-origin-specific gene silencing/expression, which was characterized particularly for developing seeds, was also found in imbibed seeds and suggested for dormancy mechanisms. Hormone biology in seeds, which is the most advanced and almost a traditional area of seed research, also presents a new dimension. Upstream regulators of hormone metabolism and hormone transporters, such as abscisic acid and gibberellin influx/efflux carriers, have been identified. Characterization of the novel posttranslational modification pathways, including the N-end rule and S -nitrosylation pathways, which play a critical role in turnover of the major hormone signal transduction proteins, also expanded our knowledge about the complexity of hormone signaling in seeds. These progresses made at the molecular level are significant steps toward a better understanding of how seeds translate soil and other environmental signals into their internal hormone biology and make an important decision to stay dormant or commence with germination.

  8. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  9. 2010 CELL AND MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 13-18, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelle Momany

    2010-06-18

    The Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology Conference provides a forum for presentation of the latest advances in fungal research with an emphasis on filamentous fungi. This open-registration scientific meeting brings together the leading scientists from academia, government and industry to discuss current research results and future directions at Holderness School, an outstanding venue for scientific interaction. A key objective of the conference is to foster interaction among scientists working on model fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans and scientists working on a variety of filamentous fungi whose laboratory tractability is often inversely proportional to their medical, industrial or ecological importance. Sessions will be devoted to Systems Biology, Fungi and Cellulosic Biomass, Small RNAs, Population Genomics, Symbioses, Pathogenesis, Membrane Trafficking and Polarity, and Cytoskeleton and Motors. A session will also be devoted to hot topics picked from abstracts. The CMFB conference provides a unique opportunity to examine the breadth of fungal biology in a small meeting format that encourages in-depth discussion among the attendees.

  10. The interaction of economic and pedagogical ideals in the context of workplace learning in Germany: a framework for empirical research - inspired by business ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Röbel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As an effect of marketisation, the importance of workplace learning in Germany has increased. The article follows up on the long-standing discourse around the question of how economic and pedagogical ideals interact in this context. In order to develop a theoretical framework for empirical research, three major positions of the discipline of business ethics are introduced. Business ethics in more abstract ways deals with the very same question, namely how do ideas such as profit orientation interact with other norms and values? The new perspectives show that the discourse has been hitherto based on a specific understanding of economy. In order to derive an empirical answer to the research question, the question is re-formulated as follows: Which values are inherent in the decisions taken? Consequently, it suggests using the concept of "rationalities of justification" for empirical research. The article shows how this concept can be applied by conducting a test run.

  11. The European Research Infrastructures of the ESFRI Roadmap in Biological and Medical Sciences: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Calzolari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Since 2002, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures identified the needs for Research Infrastructures (RIs in Europe in priority fields of scientific research and drafted a strategic document, the ESFRI Roadmap, defining the specific RIs essential to foster European research and economy. The Biological and Medical Sciences RIs (BMS RIs were developed thanks to the active participation of many institutions in different European member states associated to address the emerging needs in biomedicine and, among these, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS, in virtue of its role in public health and research, has been specifically involved in the national development and implementation of three RIs: the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI, the European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine (EATRIS and the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN. AIM. This article outlines the design and development of these RIs up to the recent achievement of the ERIC status, their importance in the Horizon 2020 programme and their societal and economic potential impact, with special attention to their development and significance in Italy. CONCLUSIONS. The ISS plays a unique role in fostering a coordinated participation of excellence Italian institutes/facilities to different European biomedical RIs, thus contributing to health innovation, healthcare optimization, and healthcare cost containment.

  12. Fluorescent Probes and Fluorescence (Microscopy Techniques — Illuminating Biological and Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor P. C. Drummen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence, the absorption and re-emission of photons with longer wavelengths, is one of those amazing phenomena of Nature. Its discovery and utilization had, and still has, a major impact on biological and biomedical research, since it enables researchers not just to visualize normal physiological processes with high temporal and spatial resolution, to detect multiple signals concomitantly, to track single molecules in vivo, to replace radioactive assays when possible, but also to shed light on many pathobiological processes underpinning disease states, which would otherwise not be possible. Compounds that exhibit fluorescence are commonly called fluorochromes or fluorophores and one of these fluorescent molecules in particular has significantly enabled life science research to gain new insights in virtually all its sub-disciplines: Green Fluorescent Protein. Because fluorescent proteins are synthesized in vivo, integration of fluorescent detection methods into the biological system via genetic techniques now became feasible. Currently fluorescent proteins are available that virtually span the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Concomitantly, fluorescence imaging techniques were developed, and often progress in one field fueled innovation in the other. Impressively, the properties of fluorescence were utilized to develop new assays and imaging modalities, ranging from energy transfer to image molecular interactions to imaging beyond the diffraction limit with super-resolution microscopy. Here, an overview is provided of recent developments in both fluorescence imaging and fluorochrome engineering, which together constitute the “fluorescence toolbox” in life science research.

  13. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior.

  14. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Brink, Mark; Bristow, Abigail; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Finegold, Lawrence; Hong, Jiyoung; Janssen, Sabine A; Klaeboe, Ronny; Leroux, Tony; Liebl, Andreas; Matsui, Toshihito; Schwela, Dieter; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  15. Plant Molecular Biology 2008 Gordon Research Conference - July 13-18, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard M. Amasino

    2009-08-28

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2008 conference will continue in that tradition. There will be sessions on metabolism; new methods to study genomes, proteomes and metabolomes; plant-microbe interactions; plant hormones; epigenetics. A new topic for the conference this year will be bioenergy. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines to foster the exchange ideas and to permit the participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner.

  16. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  17. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Brink, Mark; Bristow, Abigail; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Finegold, Lawrence; Hong, Jiyoung; Janssen, Sabine A; Klaeboe, Ronny; Leroux, Tony; Liebl, Andreas; Matsui, Toshihito; Schwela, Dieter; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health. PMID:25774609

  18. Research of biological liquid albumin based on terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Liu, Shang-jian; Zuo, Jian; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2016-11-01

    There is no corresponding fingerprint characteristic spectrum detecting complex ensemble biological samples in liquid, in the paper, such urine of kidney disease patients as samples of the research, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy emphatically explores response characteristics of the urine albumin in the terahertz spectrum characteristics, and combined with stoichiometric method, we find a certain kind of relationship between terahertz spectrum data and the content of urine albumin, which offsets the defects of other spectroscopy in measuring liquid protein, and in accordance with hospital clinical data. This study established a semi-qualitative method of using terahertz spectroscopy in detecting non-purification of biological liquid sample, which provides a simple, nondestructive, cheap and fast reference method in identifying the early nephropathy for medical test.

  19. Construction of new biological research facility for internal emitter and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1979-01-01

    The construction of the new biological research facility for internal emitters is to start in 1979 in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The bodily harm of plutonium had been studied in 1965 for the first time in Japan, and mice and rats were tested as the experimental animals. The conceptual design of the biological research facility for internal emitters has been conducted from 1976 to 1978. The causes making the construction of this facility difficult are as follows: 1) the regulation concerning the handling of plutonium has no lower limit, and the animals administered with dosage of plutonium are not permitted to be kept outdoors, 2) the waste disposal of dead bodies and excrements of the animals is controlled very severely, 3) many animal breeders with the knowledge of radiation protection are needed for the special experiment, and 4) the budget is not sufficient for this experiment of handling plutonium. To resolve these problems, much efforts have been exerted on the test of breeding dogs and monkeys, the disposal of radioactive animal wastes, the treatment of urine of radioactive animals, the reduction of labor for breeding contaminated animals, and keeping of safety. The present situation of the researches on internal emitters in the USA, Germany, Britain, France and the Soviet Union is reviewed for reference. The outline of the new biological research facility for internal emitters is presented. The building has seven floors with the total area of about 13,000 m 2 , and comprises three controlled areas and no contamination laboratories. The future experiments, which are expected to be conducted after the completion of this facility, are the animal tests to evaluate the influence of fissile materials, especially plutonium, and the fundamental experiments to take out the radioactive nuclides accidentally taken into bodies. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. DNA-inspired hierarchical polymer design: electrostatics and hydrogen bonding in concert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Sean T; Long, Timothy E

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids and proteins, two of nature's biopolymers, assemble into complex structures to achieve desired biological functions and inspire the design of synthetic macromolecules containing a wide variety of noncovalent interactions including electrostatics and hydrogen bonding. Researchers have incorporated DNA nucleobases into a wide variety of synthetic monomers/polymers achieving stimuli-responsive materials, supramolecular assemblies, and well-controlled macromolecules. Recently, scientists utilized both electrostatics and complementary hydrogen bonding to orthogonally functionalize a polymer backbone through supramolecular assembly. Diverse macromolecules with noncovalent interactions will create materials with properties necessary for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.