WorldWideScience

Sample records for biologically inhibiting wastewaters

  1. Molecular biological methods (DGGE) as a tool to investigate nitrification inhibition in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzinger, N; Farnleitner, A; Wandl, G; Hornek, R; Mach, R

    2003-01-01

    Incomplete nitrification at an activated sludge plant for biological pre-treatment of rendering plant effluents led to a detailed investigation on the origin and solution of this problem. Preliminary studies revealed that an inhibition of ammonia oxidising microorganisms (AOM) by process waters of the rendering plant was responsible for the situation. We were able to show a correlation between the existence of specific AOM and nitrification capacity expressed as oxygen uptake rate for maximal nitrification (OURNmax). Only Nitrosospira sp. was found in the activated sludge of the rendering plant and another industrial wastewater treatment plant with problems in nitrification, while reference plants without nitrification problems showed Nitrosomonas spp. as the predominant ammonia oxidising bacteria. By accompanying engineering investigations and experiments (cross-feeding experiments, operation of a two-stage laboratory plant) with molecular biological methods (DGGE--Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) we were able to elaborate an applicable solution for the rendering plant. Laboratory experiments with a two-stage process layout finally provided complete nitrification overcoming the inhibiting nature of process waters from the rendering plant. DGGE analysis of the second stage activated sludge from the laboratory plant showed a shift in population structure from Nitrosospira sp. towards Nitrosomonas spp. simultaneous to the increase of nitrification capacity. Nitrification capacities comparable to full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants could be maintained for more than two months. As the design of wastewater treatment plants for nitrification is linked to the growth characteristics of Nitrosomonas spp., established criteria can be applied for the redesign of the full-scale plant.

  2. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  3. Biological treatment of winery wastewater: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ziglio, G

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater can realised using several biological processes based both on aerobic or anaerobic systems using suspended biomass or biofilms. Several systems are currently offered by technology providers and current research envisages the availability of new promising technologies for winery wastewater treatment. The present paper intends to present a brief state of the art of the existing status and advances in biological treatment of winery wastewater in the last decade, considering both lab, pilot and full-scale studies. Advantages, drawbacks, applied organic loads, removal efficiency and emerging aspects of the main biological treatments were considered and compared. Nevertheless in most treatments the COD removal efficiency was around 90-95% (remaining COD is due to the un-biodegradable soluble fraction), the applied organic loads are very different depending on the applied technology, varying for an order of magnitude. Applied organic loads are higher in biofilm systems than in suspended biomass while anaerobic biofilm processes have the smaller footprint but in general a higher level of complexity.

  4. Biological wastewater treatment; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Over the last years, many physical, chemical and biological processes for wastewater treatment have been developed. Biological wastewater treatment is the most widely used because of the less economic cost of investment and management. According to the type of wastewater contaminant, biological treatment can be classified in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of carbonaceous compounds biodegradation are described. (Author) 13 refs.

  5. Toxicity of fluoride to microorganisms in biological wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Banihani, Qais; León, Glendy; Khatri, Chandra; Field, James A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2009-07-01

    Fluoride is a common contaminant in a variety of industrial wastewaters. Available information on the potential toxicity of fluoride to microorganisms implicated in biological wastewater treatment is very limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of fluoride towards the main microbial populations responsible for the removal of organic constituents and nutrients in wastewater treatment processes. The results of short-term batch bioassays indicated that the toxicity of sodium fluoride varied widely depending on the microbial population. Anaerobic microorganisms involved in various metabolic steps of anaerobic digestion processes were found to be very sensitive to the presence of fluoride. The concentrations of fluoride causing 50% metabolic inhibition (IC(50)) of propionate- and butyrate-degrading microorganisms as well as mesophilic and thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogens ranged from 18 to 43 mg/L. Fluoride was also inhibitory to nitrification, albeit at relatively high levels (IC(50)=149 mg/L). Nitrifying bacteria appeared to adapt rapidly to fluoride, and a near complete recovery of their metabolic activity was observed after only 4d of exposure to high fluoride levels (up to 500 mg/L). All other microbial populations evaluated in this study, i.e., glucose fermenters, aerobic glucose-degrading heterotrophs, denitrifying bacteria, and H(2)-utilizing methanogens, tolerated fluoride at very high concentrations (>500 mg/L).

  6. Testing of Biologically Inhibiting Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill Madsen, Thomas; Larsen, Erup

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this course is to examine a newly developed biologically inhibiting material with regards to galvanic corrosion and electrochemical properties. More in detail, the concern was how the material would react when exposed to cleaning agents, here under CIP cleaning (Cleaning...

  7. Oxidation of pharmaceuticals by chlorine dioxide in biologically treated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, G.; Grabic, R.; Ledin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater spiked with a mixture of 56 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was treated with 0–20mg/L chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution in laboratory-scale experiments. Wastewater effluents were collected from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with extended......O2, while in high COD effluent a significant increase in API oxidation was observed after treatment with 8mg/L ClO2. This study illustrates the successful degradation of several APIs during treatment of wastewater effluents with chlorine dioxide....

  8. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  9. Municipal wastewater biological nutrient removal driven by the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang; Wu, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Carbon substrate is required by biological nutrient removal (BNR) microorganism, but it is usually insufficient in the influent of many municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study the use of ethanol-enriched fermentation liquid, which was derived from dairy wastewater, as the preferred carbon substrate of BNR was reported. First, the application of dairy wastewater and food processing wastewater and their fermentation liquid as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared in the short-term tests. The fermented wastewater showed higher BNR performance than the unfermented one, and the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater (FL-DW), which was obtained under pH 8 and fermentation time of 6 day, exhibited the highest phosphorus (95.5%) and total nitrogen (97.6%) removal efficiencies due to its high ethanol content (57.9%). Then, the long-term performance of FL-DW acting as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared with that of acetate and ethanol, and the FL-DW showed the greatest phosphorus and total nitrogen removal. Further investigation showed that the use of FL-DW caused the highest polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) synthesis in BNR microbial cells, and more PHAs were used for phosphorus uptake and denitrification rather than glycogen synthesis and microbial growth. The FL-DW can be used as a preferred carbon substrate for BNR microbes. AB: aerobic end sludge active biomass; BNR: biological nutrient removal; DW: dairy wastewater; FL-DW: fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater; FPW: food processing wastewater; FL-FPW: fermentation liquid of food processing wastewater; PHAs: polyhydroxyalkanoates; PHB: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHV: poly-3-hydroxyvalerate; PH2MV: poly-3-hydroxy-2- methylvalerate; PAOs: phosphorus accumulating organisms; SBR: sequencing batch reactor; SOP: soluble ortho-phosphorus; TN: total nitrogen; TSS: total suspended solids; VSS: volatile suspended solids; VFAs: volatile fatty acids; WWTPs: wastewater treatment plants.

  10. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  11. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Carbon footprint of aerobic biological treatment of winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, D; Bolzonella, D

    2009-01-01

    The carbon associated with wastewater and its treatment accounts for approximately 6% of the global carbon balance. Within the wastewater treatment industry, winery wastewater has a minor contribution, although it can have a major impact on wine-producing regions. Typically, winery wastewater is treated by biological processes, such as the activated sludge process. Biomass produced during treatment is usually disposed of directly, i.e. without digestion or other anaerobic processes. We applied our previously published model for carbon-footprint calculation to the areas worldwide producing yearly more than 10(6) m(3) of wine (i.e., France, Italy, Spain, California, Argentina, Australia, China, and South Africa). Datasets on wine production from the Food and Agriculture Organisation were processed and wastewater flow rates calculated with assumptions based on our previous experience. Results show that the wine production, hence the calculated wastewater flow, is reported as fairly constant in the period 2005-2007. Nevertheless, treatment process efficiency and energy-conservation may play a significant role on the overall carbon-footprint. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the efficiency of the aeration process (alphaSOTE per unit depth, or alphaSOTE/Z) in the biological treatment operations and showed significant margin for improvement. Our results show that the carbon-footprint reduction via aeration efficiency improvement is in the range of 8.1 to 12.3%.

  14. Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetko Prokopov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the operation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in the town of Hisarya which includes a biological stage with aeration basins of cyclic type (SBR-method was studied. The values of the standard indicators of input and output water from the wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Moreover, the reached effects due to the biological treatment of the wastewater in terms of the COD (95.7%, BOD5 (96.6%, total nitrogen (81.3%, total phosphorus (53.7% and suspended solids (95.7% were established. It was concluded that the indexes of the treated water were significantly below the emission limits specified in the discharge permit

  15. Review on Physicochemical, Chemical, and Biological Processes for Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchen; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Due to the needs of human life and health, pharmaceutical industry has made great progress in recent years, but it has also brought about severe environmental problems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in natural waters which might pose potential harm to the ecosystems and humans raised increasing concern worldwide. Pharmaceuticals cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) owing to the complex composition, high concentration of organic contaminants, high salinity and biological toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the development of efficient methods is needed to improve the removal effect of pharmaceuticals. This review provides an overview on three types of treatment technologies including physicochemical, chemical and biological processes and their advantages and disadvantages respectively. In addition, the future perspectives of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment are given.

  16. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  17. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 ± 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 μm pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m 2 /h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria

  18. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating biological contactors (RBC are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW. The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%. Microscopic observations illustrated that there were various active microorganisms displayed in the biofilms and their distribution changed from stage to stage. Compared with activated sludge, the biofilms in this study have higher content of dry matter and are easier to dehydrate and settle. Compared with current commercial incineration processes or advanced oxidation processes, RBC can greatly reduce the treatment cost. This research shows RBC is effective for such an inherently biorecalcitrant wastewater even at low ambient temperature.

  19. Re-use of winery wastewaters for biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L; Villaseñor, J; Buendía, I M; Fernández, F J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the re-use of the winery wastewater to enhance the biological nutrient removal (BNR) process. In batch experiments it was observed that the addition of winery wastewater mainly enhanced the nitrogen removal process because of the high denitrification potential (DNP), of about 130 mg N/g COD, of the contained substrates. This value is very similar to that obtained by using pure organic substrates such as acetate. The addition of winery wastewater did not significantly affect either phosphorus or COD removal processes. Based on the experimental results obtained, the optimum dosage to remove each mg of N-NO3 was determined, being a value of 6.7 mg COD/mg N-NO3. Because of the good properties of the winery wastewater to enhance the nitrogen removal, the viability of its continuous addition in an activated sludge pilot-scale plant for BNR was studied. Dosing the winery wastewater to the pilot plant a significant increase in the nitrogen removal was detected, from 58 to 75%. The COD removal was slightly increased, from 89 to 95%, and the phosphorus removal remained constant.

  20. Kinetic coefficients for the biological treatment of tannery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of kinetic coefficients for a particular wastewater is imperative for the rational design of biological treatment-facilities. The present study was undertaken with the objective of finding out kinetic coefficients for tannery wastewater. A bench-scale model of aerated lagoon, consisting of an aeration tank and final clarifier, was use to conduct the studies. The model was operated continuously for 96 days, by varying the detention times from 3 to 9 days. Influent for the aerated lagoon was settled tannery wastewater. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the influent and effluent and the mixed-liquor suspended solids (MLSS) of aeration tank were determined at various detention-times so as to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The kinetic coefficients k, Ks, Y and Ed were found to be 3.125 day/sup -1/, 488 mg/L, 0.64 and 0.035 day/sup -1/ respectively. Overall rate-constant of BOD, removal 'K' was also determined and was found to be 1.43 day/sup -1/. Kinetic coefficients were determined, at mean reactor-temperature of 30.2 degree C. These coefficients may be utilized for the design of biological-treatment facilities for tannery wastewater. (author)

  1. Microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Chandran, Kartik; Stensel, David

    2014-11-01

    Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality. However, substantial knowledge gaps remain concerning the overall community structure, population dynamics and metabolism of different organic carbon sources. This systematic review provides a summary of current findings pertaining to the microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes. DNA fingerprinting-based analysis has revealed a high level of microbial diversity in denitrification reactors and highlighted the impacts of carbon sources in determining overall denitrifying community composition. Stable isotope probing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarrays and meta-omics further link community structure with function by identifying the functional populations and their gene regulatory patterns at the transcriptional and translational levels. This review stresses the need to integrate microbial ecology information into conventional denitrification design and operation at full-scale. Some emerging questions, from physiological mechanisms to practical solutions, for example, eliminating nitrous oxide emissions and supplementing more sustainable carbon sources than methanol, are also discussed. A combination of high-throughput approaches is next in line for thorough assessment of wastewater denitrifying community structure and function. Though denitrification is used as an example here, this synergy between microbial ecology and process engineering is applicable to other biological wastewater treatment processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of laundry wastewater by biological and electrocoagulation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharan, Terelle; Bissessur, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes an improvement in the current electrocoagulation treatment process and focuses on a comparative study for the clean-up of laundry wastewater (LWW) after each wash and rinse cycle by biological and electrocoagulation treatment methods. For biological treatment, the wastewater was treated with a Bacillus strain of aerobic bacteria especially suited for the degradation of fats, lipids, protein, detergents and hydrocarbons. Treatment of the LWW by electrocoagulation involved the oxidation of aluminium metal upon the application of a controlled voltage which produces various aluminium hydroxy species capable of adsorbing pollutants from the wastewater. The efficiency of the clean-up of LWW using each method was assessed by determination of surfactant concentration, chemical oxygen demand and total dissolved solids. A rapid decrease in surfactant concentration was noted within 0.5 hour of electrocoagulation, whereas a notable decrease in the surfactant concentration was observed only after 12 hour of biological treatment. The rapid generation of aluminium hydroxy species in the electrocoagulation cell allowed adsorption of pollutants at a faster rate when compared to the aerobic degradation of the surfactant; hence a reduced period of time is required for treatment of LWW by electrocoagulation.

  3. International Conference on Innovative Biological Treatment of Toxic Wastewaters Held in Arlington, Virginia on June 24-26, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    el Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales," presented at the November 6-11, 1983, X Interamerican Congress of Chemical Engineering, held at Santiago, Chile ...OF SUSPENDED-GROWTH INHIBITED BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Pablo B. Siez. Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Catholic University of Chile , Casilla 6177...Santiago, Chile . INTRODUCTION The kinetic of suspended-growth biological processes used in wastewater treatment has continuously been studied during the

  4. Treatment of high strength distillery wastewater (cherry stillage) by integrated aerobic biological oxidation and ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, F J; Alvarez, P M; Rodríguez, E M; García-Araya, J F; Rivas, J

    2001-01-01

    The performance of integrated aerobic digestion and ozonation for the treatment of high strength distillery wastewater (i.e., cherry stillage) is reported. Experiments were conducted in laboratory batch systems operating in draw and fill mode. For the biological step, activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was used as inoculum, showing a high degree of activity to distillery wastewater. Thus, BOD and COD overall conversions of 95% and 82% were achieved, respectively. However, polyphenol content and absorbance at 254 nm (A(254)) could not be reduced more than 35% and 15%, respectively, by means of single biological oxidation. By considering COD as substrate, the aerobic digestion process followed a Contois' model kinetics, from which the maximum specific growth rate of microorganisms (mu(max)) and the inhibition factor, beta, were then evaluated at different conditions of temperature and pH. In the combined process, the effect of a post-ozonation stage was studied. The main goals achieved by the ozonation step were the removal of polyphenols and A(254). Therefore, ozonation was shown to be an appropriate technology to aid aerobic biological oxidation in the treatment of cherry stillage.

  5. The sustainable utilization of malting industry wastewater biological treatment sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, T. A.; Svintsov, A. V.; Chernysh, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with the research of using the sludge from malting industry wastewater’s biological treatment and the calcium carbonate slurry as organo-mineral fertilizing additives. The sludge, generated as a result of industrial wastewater biological treatment, is subject to dumping at solid domestic waste landfills, which has a negative impact on the environment, though its properties and composition allow using it as an organic fertilizer. The physical and chemical properties of both wastes have been studied; the recommendations concerning the optimum composition of soil mix, containing the above-mentioned components, have been provided. The phytotoxic effect on the germination capacity and sprouts of cress (Lepidium sativum), barley (Hordéum vulgáre) and oats (Avena sativa) in soil mixes has been determined. The heavy metals and arsenic contents in the sludge does not exceed the allowable level; it is also free of pathogenic flora and helminthes.

  6. Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Kowalchuk, M.

    1981-01-01

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO 3 - and as large as 2000 m 3 /d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO 3 - )/m 3 by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m 3 . A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m 3 and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO 3 - )/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation

  7. The chemical and biological characteristics of coke-oven wastewater by ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, E.-E.; Hsing, H.-J.; Chiang, P.-C.; Chen, M.-Y.; Shyng, J.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    A bench-scale bubble column reactor was used to investigate the biological and chemical characteristics of coke-oven wastewater after ozonation treatment through the examination of selected parameters. Color and thiocyanate could be removed almost entirely; however, organic matter and cyanide could not, due to the inadequate oxidation ability of ozone to remove ozonated byproducts under given experimental conditions. The removal of cyanide and total organic carbon were pH-dependent and were found to be efficient under neutral to alkaline conditions. The removal rate for thiocyanate was about five times that of cyanide. The ozone consumption ratio approached to about 1 at the early stage of ozonation (time TOC ) increased to 30%, indicating that easily degraded pollutants were degraded almost entirely. The effect of ozonation on the subsequent biological treatment unit (i.e., activated sludge process) was determined by observing the ratio of 5-day biological oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 /COD) and the specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR). The results indicated that the contribution of ozonation to inhibition reduction was very significant but limited to the enhancement of biodegradation. The operation for ozonation of coke-oven wastewater was feasible under neutral condition and short ozone contact time in order to achieve better performance and cost savings

  8. Degrading organic micropollutants: The next challenge in the evolution of biological wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh eSinghal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global water scarcity is driving the need for identifying new water source. Wastewater could be a potential water resource if appropriate treatment technologies could be developed. One of the barriers to obtaining high quality water from wastewater arises from the presence of organic micropollutants, which are biologically active at trace levels. Removal of these compounds from wastewater by current physico-chemical technologies is prohibitively expensive. While biological treatment processes are comparatively cheap, current systems are not capable of degrading the wide range of organic micropollutants present in wastewater. As current wastewater treatment processes were developed for treating conventional pollutants present at mg/L levels, degrading the ng/L levels of micropollutants will require a different approach to system design and operation. In this paper we discuss strategies that could be employed to develop biological wastewater treatment systems capable of degrading organic micropollutants.

  9. Decentralized wastewater treatment using passively aerated biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elela, Sohair I; Hellal, Mohamed S; Aly, Olfat H; Abo-Elenin, Salah A

    2017-10-13

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a novel pilot-scale passively aerated biological filter (PABF) as a low energy consumption system for the treatment of municipal wastewater. It consists of four similar compartments, each containing 40% of a non-woven polyester fabric as a bio-bed. The PABF was fed with primary treated wastewater under a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.5 hr and a hydraulic loading rate of 5.5 m 2 /m 3 /d. The effect of media depth, HRT, dissolved oxygen (DO) and surface area of the media on the removal efficiency of pollutants was investigated. Results indicated that increasing media depth along the axis of the reactor and consequently increasing the HRT and DO resulted in great removal of different pollutants. A significant increase in the DO levels in the final effluent up to 6.7 mg/l resulted in good nitrification processes. Statistical analysis using SPSS showed that the reactor performance has significant removal efficiency (p filter systems.

  10. Biological control and management of the detoxication wastewater treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalova Yana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Detoxication technologies require the combination of theoretical and practical knowledge of xenobiotic biodegradation, wastewater treatment technologies, and management rules. The purpose of this complicated combination is to propose specialized strategies for detoxication, based on lab- and pilot-scale modeling. These strategies include preliminary created algorithms for preventing the risk of water pollution and sediments. The technologies and algorithms are essentially important outcome, applied in the textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, woodtreating, and oiltreating industries. In this paper four rehabilitation technologies for pretreatment of water contaminated by pentachlorophenol (PCP have been developed in the frame of the European and Bulgarian National projects. Emphasize is put on the biological systems and their potential of detoxication management. The light and transmission electron microscopy of the reconstructed activated sludges the microbial, kinetic and enzymological indicators are presented and approved as critical points in the biocontrol.

  11. Treatment of slaughter wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-anaerobic biological filter and biological contact oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M.; Yu, P. F.; Fu, J. X.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, T.

    2017-08-01

    The optimal process parameters and conditions for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-AF - biological contact oxidation process were studied to solve the problem of high concentration organic wastewater treatment in the production of small and medium sized slaughter plants. The suitable water temperature and the optimum reaction time are determined by the experiment of precipitation to study the effect of filtration rate and reflux ratio on COD and SS in anaerobic biological filter and the effect of biofilm thickness and gas water ratio on NH3-N and COD in biological contact oxidation tank, and results show that the optimum temperature is 16-24°C, reaction time is 20 min in coagulating sedimentation, the optimum filtration rate is 0.6 m/h, and the optimum reflux ratio is 300% in anaerobic biological filter reactor. The most suitable biological film thickness range of 1.8-2.2 mm and the most suitable gas water ratio is 12:1-14:1 in biological contact oxidation pool. In the coupling process of continuous operation for 80 days, the average effluent’s mass concentrations of COD, TP and TN were 15.57 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 0.63 mg/L, the average removal rates were 98.93%, 86.10%, 88.95%, respectively. The coupling process has stable operation effect and good effluent quality, and is suitable for the industrial application.

  12. Detoxification of Pesticide-Containing Wastewater with FeIII, Activated Carbon and Fenton Reagent and Its Control Using Three Standardized Bacterial Inhibition Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Rott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of toxic industrial wastewaters into biological wastewater treatment plants may result in inhibition of activated sludge bacteria (ASB. In order to find an appropriate method of detoxification, the wastewater of a pesticide-processing plant in Vietnam was treated with three different methods (FeIII, powdered activated carbon (PAC, Fenton (FeII/H2O2 analyzing the detoxification effect with the nitrification inhibition test (NIT, respiration inhibition test (RIT and luminescent bacteria test (LBT. The heterotrophic ASB were much more resistant to the wastewater than the autotrophic nitrificants. The NIT turned out to be more suitable than the RIT since the NIT was less time-consuming and more reliable. In addition, the marine Aliivibrio fischeri were more sensitive than the nitrificants indicating that a lack of inhibition in the very practical and time-efficient LBT correlates with a lack of nitrification inhibition. With 95%, the Fenton method showed the highest efficiency regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. Although similar COD removal (60–65% was found for both the FeIII and the PAC method, the inhibitory effect of the wastewater was reduced much more strongly with PAC. Both the NIT and the LBT showed that the PAC and Fenton methods led to a similar reduction in the inhibitory effect.

  13. Current technologies for biological treatment of textile wastewater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayu, K; Sandhya, S

    2012-06-01

    The release of colored wastewater represents a serious environmental problem and public health concern. Color removal from textile wastewater has become a big challenge over the last decades, and up to now, there is no single and economically attractive treatment method that can effectively decolorize the wastewater. Effluents from textile manufacturing, dyeing, and finishing processes contain high concentrations of biologically difficult-to-degrade or even inert auxiliaries, chemicals like acids, waxes, fats, salts, binders, thickeners, urea, surfactants, reducing agents, etc. The various chemicals such as biocides and stain repellents used for brightening, sequestering, anticreasing, sizing, softening, and wetting of the yarn or fabric are also present in wastewater. Therefore, the textile wastewater needs environmental friendly, effective treatment process. This paper provides a critical review on the current technology available for decolorization and degradation of textile wastewater and also suggests effective and economically attractive alternatives.

  14. Biological wastewater treatment. II Nutrient elimination; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales. II Eliminacion de nutrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Most biological wastewater processes are designed for carbonaceous compounds removal. In some cases, nutrient removal is required. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of nitrogen and phosphorus removal are described. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. Kinetics of biological treatment of phenolic wastewater in a three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic wastewater was treated in a three-phase draft tube fluidized bed reactor containing biofilm. Phenol removal rate with biofilm was evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. The results indicate that biodegradation of phenolic wastewater by biofilm process could be treated as a zero order reaction.

  16. Impact of paint shop decanter effluents on biological treatability of automotive industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Didem; Hanhan, Oytun; Aksoy, Elif Ceren; Insel, Güçlü; Çokgör, Emine

    2017-05-15

    A lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was implemented to investigate biological treatability and kinetic characteristics of paint shop wastewater (PSW) together with main stream wastewater (MSW) of a bus production factory. Readily biodegradable and slowly biodegradable COD fractions of MWS were determined by respirometric analysis: 4.2% (S S ), 10.4% (S H ) and 59.3% (X S ). Carbon and nitrogen removal performance of the SBR feeding with MSW alone were obtained as 89% and 58%, respectively. When PSW was introduced to MSW, both carbon and nitrogen removal were deteriorated. Model simulation indicated that maximum heterotrophic growth rate decreased from 7.2 to 5.7day -1 , maximum hydrolysis rates were reduced from 6 to 4day -1 (k hS ) and 4 to 1day -1 (k hX ). Based on the dynamic model simulation for the evaluation of nitrogen removal, a maximum specific nitrifier growth rate was obtained as 0.45day -1 for MSW feeding alone. When PSW was introduced, nitrification was completely inhibited and following the termination of PSW addition, nitrogen removal performance was recovered in about 100 days, however with a much lower nitrifier growth rate (0.1day -1 ), possibly due to accumulation of toxic compounds in the sludge. Obviously, a longer recovery period is required to ensure an active nitrifier community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Removal of novel antiandrogens identified in biological effluents of domestic wastewater by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Environmental antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in effluents from wastewater treatment plants have the potential for negative impacts on wildlife and human health. The aim of our study was to identify chemical contaminants with likely AA activity in the biological effluents and evaluate the removal of these antiandrogens (AAs) during advanced treatment comprising adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in biological effluents and tertiary effluents was conducted using effect-directed analysis (EDA) including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, a recombinant yeast screen containing androgen receptor (YAS), in combination with mass spectrometry analyses. Analysis of a wastewater secondary effluent from a membrane bioreactor revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 14 HPLC fractions and simpler profiles of GAC effluents with only 2 to 4 moderately polar HPLC fractions depending on GAC treatment conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-nanospray mass spectrometry analyses of AA fractions in the secondary effluent resulted in detection of over 10 chemical contaminants, which showed inhibition of YAS activity and were potential AAs. The putative AAs included biocides, food additives, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and industrial contaminants. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the AA properties of N-ethyl-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WS3), cetirizine, and oxcarbazepine are reported. The EDA used in this study was proven to be a powerful tool to identify novel chemical structures with AA activity in the complex aquatic environment. The adsorption process to GAC of all the identified antiandrogens, except WS3 and triclosan, fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetics models. Adsorption to GAC could further remove most of the AAs identified in the biological effluents with high efficiencies. Copyright

  18. Fluidized-Bed Bioreactor Applications for Biological Wastewater Treatment: A Review of Research and Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is a process that is vital to protecting both the environment and human health. At present, the most cost-effective way of treating wastewater is with biological treatment processes such as the activated sludge process, despite their long operating times. However, population increases have created a demand for more efficient means of wastewater treatment. Fluidization has been demonstrated to increase the efficiency of many processes in chemical and biochemical engineering, but it has not been widely used in large-scale wastewater treatment. At the University of Western Ontario, the circulating fluidized-bed bioreactor (CFBBR was developed for treating wastewater. In this process, carrier particles develop a biofilm composed of bacteria and other microbes. The excellent mixing and mass transfer characteristics inherent to fluidization make this process very effective at treating both municipal and industrial wastewater. Studies of lab- and pilot-scale systems showed that the CFBBR can remove over 90% of the influent organic matter and 80% of the nitrogen, and produces less than one-third as much biological sludge as the activated sludge process. Due to its high efficiency, the CFBBR can also be used to treat wastewaters with high organic solid concentrations, which are more difficult to treat with conventional methods because they require longer residence times; the CFBBR can also be used to reduce the system size and footprint. In addition, it is much better at handling and recovering from dynamic loadings (i.e., varying influent volume and concentrations than current systems. Overall, the CFBBR has been shown to be a very effective means of treating wastewater, and to be capable of treating larger volumes of wastewater using a smaller reactor volume and a shorter residence time. In addition, its compact design holds potential for more geographically localized and isolated wastewater treatment systems.

  19. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  20. Innovative biological systems for anaerobic treatment of grain and food processing wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, P M

    1986-09-01

    The application of two innovative fixed film and suspended growth anaerobic biological systems to the treatment of grain and food processing wastewaters is discussed. A fluidized bed fixed film system and a suspended growth membrane system are described. The technical and economic factors dictating which system is selected for treatment of a specific industrial wastewater are discussed. Case history results from successful operation of full-scale, demonstration, and pilot-scale systems treating respectively, soy whey, cheese whey, and wheat flour processing wastewaters are presented.

  1. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater using sewage sludge based activated carbon supported manganese and ferric oxides as catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Sewage sludge of biological wastewater treatment plant was converted into sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) with ZnCl₂ as activation agent, which supported manganese and ferric oxides as catalysts (including SBAC) to improve the performance of ozonation of real biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. The results indicated catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalysts significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal and the treated wastewater was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. On the basis of positive effect of higher pH and significant inhibition of radical scavengers in catalytic ozonation, it was deduced that the enhancement of catalytic activity was responsible for generating hydroxyl radicals and the possible reaction pathway was proposed. Moreover, the prepared catalysts showed superior stability and most of toxic and refractory compounds were eliminated at successive catalytic ozonation runs. Thus, the process with economical, efficient and sustainable advantages was beneficial to engineering application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influences of mechanical pretreatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pretreatment configurations, for example, direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pretreatment, for example, microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using Aquaporin Inside™ and Hydration Technologies Inc. (HTI) membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested in parallel for the different types of pretreated feed and evaluated in terms of water flux and solute rejection, that is, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 7 ) and total and soluble phosphorus contents. The Aquaporin and HTI membranes achieved a stable water flux with rejection rates of more than 96% for BOD 7 and total and soluble phosphorus, regardless of the type of mechanical pretreated wastewater considered. This result indicates that forward osmosis membranes can tolerate exposure to municipal waste water and that the permeate can fulfil the Swedish discharge limits.

  3. Biological nitrate removal from synthetic wastewater using a fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of lignocellulosic fungi, capable of cellulase and/or xylanase production, were isolated from soil to be used for cellulose degradation and nitrate removal from nitrate-rich wastewater in simple one-stage anaerobic bioreactors containing grass cuttings as source of cellulose. The fungal consortium, consisting of six ...

  4. A Friendly-Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM for studying biological processes in wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological processes for wastewater treatments are inherently dynamic systems because of the large variations in the influent wastewater flow rate, concentration composition and the adaptive behavior of the involved microorganisms. Moreover, the sludge retention time (SRT is a critical factor to understand the bioreactor performances when changes in the influent or in the operation conditions take place. Since SRT are usually in the range of 10-30 days, the performance of biological reactors needs a long time to be monitored in a regular laboratory demonstration, limiting the knowledge that can be obtained in the experimental lab practice. In order to overcome this lack, mathematical models and computer simulations are useful tools to describe biochemical processes and predict the overall performance of bioreactors under different working operation conditions and variations of the inlet wastewater composition. The mathematical solution of the model could be difficult as numerous biochemical processes can be considered. Additionally, biological reactors description (mass balance, etc. needs models represented by partial or/and ordinary differential equations associated to algebraic expressions, that require complex computational codes to obtain the numerical solutions. Different kind of software for mathematical modeling can be used, from large degree of freedom simulators capable of free models definition (as AQUASIM, to closed predefined model structure programs (as BIOWIN. The first ones usually require long learning curves, whereas the second ones could be excessively rigid for specific wastewater treatment systems. As alternative, we present Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM, a MATLAB code for the simulation of sequencing batch reactors (SBR and rotating biological contactors (RBC as biological systems of suspended and attached biomass for wastewater treatment, respectively. This BioReSIM allows the evaluation of simple and complex

  5. Artificial intelligence models for predicting the performance of biological wastewater treatment plant in the removal of Kjeldahl Nitrogen from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu, D. S.; Thalla, Arun Kumar

    2017-11-01

    The current work demonstrates the support vector machine (SVM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) modeling to assess the removal efficiency of Kjeldahl Nitrogen of a full-scale aerobic biological wastewater treatment plant. The influent variables such as pH, chemical oxygen demand, total solids (TS), free ammonia, ammonia nitrogen and Kjeldahl Nitrogen are used as input variables during modeling. Model development focused on postulating an adaptive, functional, real-time and alternative approach for modeling the removal efficiency of Kjeldahl Nitrogen. The input variables used for modeling were daily time series data recorded at wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in Mangalore during the period June 2014-September 2014. The performance of ANFIS model developed using Gbell and trapezoidal membership functions (MFs) and SVM are assessed using different statistical indices like root mean square error, correlation coefficients (CC) and Nash Sutcliff error (NSE). The errors related to the prediction of effluent Kjeldahl Nitrogen concentration by the SVM modeling appeared to be reasonable when compared to that of ANFIS models with Gbell and trapezoidal MF. From the performance evaluation of the developed SVM model, it is observed that the approach is capable to define the inter-relationship between various wastewater quality variables and thus SVM can be potentially applied for evaluating the efficiency of aerobic biological processes in WWTP.

  6. Inhibition of Anaerobic Biological Treatment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a method for treating living and industrial wastewater by anaerobic degradation of organic compounds, which can produce biogas (carbon dioxide and methane mixture) and microbial biomass. And biogas as a renewable resource, can replace the use of ore fuel. In the process of anaerobic digestion, the problems of low methane yield and unstable reaction process are often encountered, which limits the widespread use of this technology. Various inhibitors are the main limiting factors for anaerobic digestion. In this paper, the main factors limiting anaerobic digestion are reviewed, and the latest research progress is introduced.

  7. USBF-system of biological wastewater treatment; Elsistema USBF en la depuracion biologica de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampudia Gutierrez, J.

    2003-07-01

    An advanced system of biological wastewater treatment, has been developed by the company Depuralia. This system brings up a technological innovation, which has been awarded with several international awards. The wastewater treatment, occurs in an activated sludge reactor of extended aeration with a very low mass loading, with a nitrification-denitrification process, and water separation-clarification by upflow sludge blanket-filtration. The arrangement of a compact biological reactor enables complex wastewater treatment. High efficiency of the separation through sludge filtration provides functionality of the equipment with high concentration of activated sludge, with less implementation surface and volume. The elements of the biological reactor are described, the advantages are enumerated, and the results obtained in several accomplishments are shown; in the industrial as well as in the urban water treatment plants. (Author) 9 refs.

  8. Decontamination of industrial wastewater from sugarcane crops by combining solar photo-Fenton and biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza-Marin, Claudia; Osorio, Paula [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Benitez, Norberto, E-mail: lubenite@univalle.edu.co [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia)

    2010-05-15

    The department of Valle del Cauca is the region with the largest sugarcane production in Colombia. This agricultural activity uses high quantities of herbicides, mainly Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Wastewater generated in the washing process of spray equipment and empty pesticide containers must be treated to keep natural water sources from being polluted with these pesticides when these effluents are disposed off. Conventional biological treatments are not able to remove recalcitrant substances like Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; therefore, it is essential to have alternative treatment systems. In recent years, photocatalytic processes have been proven efficient methods in treating polluted water with recalcitrant organic substances. This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of a coupled treatment constituted for a solar photo-Fenton treatment and a biological system like an immobilized biological reactor to treat industrial wastewater containing pesticides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and Diuron). The mineralization and degradation of pesticides were followed by measuring the dissolved organic carbon and pesticide concentrations. The results revealed that industrial wastewaters with high Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations can be successfully treated by a combined solar photo-Fenton-biological system, achieving mineralization of 79.8% in prepared wastewater and 82.5% in real industrial wastewater by using low Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations.

  9. Decontamination of industrial wastewater from sugarcane crops by combining solar photo-Fenton and biological treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Marin, Claudia; Osorio, Paula; Benitez, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    The department of Valle del Cauca is the region with the largest sugarcane production in Colombia. This agricultural activity uses high quantities of herbicides, mainly Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Wastewater generated in the washing process of spray equipment and empty pesticide containers must be treated to keep natural water sources from being polluted with these pesticides when these effluents are disposed off. Conventional biological treatments are not able to remove recalcitrant substances like Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; therefore, it is essential to have alternative treatment systems. In recent years, photocatalytic processes have been proven efficient methods in treating polluted water with recalcitrant organic substances. This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of a coupled treatment constituted for a solar photo-Fenton treatment and a biological system like an immobilized biological reactor to treat industrial wastewater containing pesticides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and Diuron). The mineralization and degradation of pesticides were followed by measuring the dissolved organic carbon and pesticide concentrations. The results revealed that industrial wastewaters with high Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations can be successfully treated by a combined solar photo-Fenton-biological system, achieving mineralization of 79.8% in prepared wastewater and 82.5% in real industrial wastewater by using low Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 concentrations.

  10. Chemical and biological treatment technologies for leather tannery chemicals and wastewaters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano, Giusy; Meriç, Sureyya; Zengin, Gülsüm Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2013-09-01

    Although the leather tanning industry is known to be one of the leading economic sectors in many countries, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. It has been shown that biological processes are presently known as the most environmental friendly but inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrative to biological treatment for this sense. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater. It can be elucidated that according to less extent advances in wastewater minimization as well as in leather production technology and chemicals substitution, biological and chemical treatment processes have been progressively studied. However, there has not been a full scale application yet of those emerging technologies using advanced oxidation although some of them proved good achievements to remove xenobiotics present in tannery wastewater. It can be noted that advanced oxidation technologies integrated with biological processes will remain in the agenda of the decision makers and water sector to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by internal micro-electrolysis--coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangle; Liu, Suiqing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Yiliang

    2009-12-01

    Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the combined process of internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption was studied. Internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation served as the pretreatment for the wastewater before biological treatment to reduce the contaminants' toxicity to microbes and improve the biodegradability of wastewater to guarantee the smooth operation of the biological process. Biological treatment was the main body of the whole process which took an unparalleled role in removing COD (chemical oxygen demand). Activated carbon adsorption was adopted as the post-treatment process to further remove the remaining non-biodegradable particles. Results showed that the removal rates of COD and S2- (sulphide ion) by pretreatment were 66.9% and 98.9%, respectively, and the biodegradability, as measured by the ratio of biodegradable COD to initial COD, of the wastewater was greatly improved from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.41 +/- 0.02. The overall removal rate of COD in the wastewater achieved by this combined treatment process was up to 96%, and the effluent COD met the Chinese tertiary discharge standard (GB 8978-1996).

  12. Inhibition and recovery of nitrification in treating real coal gasification wastewater with moving bed biofilm reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqiang Li; Hongjun Han; Maoan Du; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used to treat real coal gasification wastewater.Nitrification of the MBBR was inhibited almost completely during start-up period.Sudden increase of influent total NH3 concentration was the main factor inducing nitrification inhibition.Increasing DO concentration in the bulk liquid (from 2 to 3 mg/L) had little effect on nitrification recovery.Nitrification of the MBBR recovered partially by the addition of nitrifying sludge into the reactor and almost ceased within 5 days.Nitrification ratio of the MBBR achieved 65% within 12 days by increasing dilute ratio of the influent wastewater with tap water.The ratio of nitrification decreased to 25% when infiuent COD concentration increased from 650 to 1000 mg/L after nitrification recovery and recovered 70%for another 4 days.

  13. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in petroleum refinery wastewater bacteria by phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gideon C. Okpokwasili; Christian Okechukwu Nweke

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol on Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Escherichia species isolated from petroleum refinery wastewater was assessed via inhibition of dehydrogenase enzyme activity. At low concentrations, 2-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol stimulated dehydrogenase activity and at sufficient concentrations, phenolic compounds inhibi...

  14. Define of internal recirculation coefficient for biological wastewater treatment in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossinskyi, Volodymyr

    2018-02-01

    The biological wastewater treatment technologies in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors with recycle of sludge mixture are used for the effective removal of organic compounds from wastewater. The change rate of sludge mixture recirculation between bioreactors leads to a change and redistribution of concentrations of organic compounds in sludge mixture in bioreactors and change hydrodynamic regimes in bioreactors. Determination of the coefficient of internal recirculation of sludge mixture between bioreactors is important for the choice of technological parameters of biological treatment (wastewater treatment duration in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, flow capacity of recirculation pumps). Determination of the coefficient of internal recirculation of sludge mixture requires integrated consideration of hydrodynamic parameter (flow rate), kinetic parameter (rate of oxidation of organic compounds) and physical-chemical parameter of wastewater (concentration of organic compounds). The conducted numerical experiment from the proposed mathematical equations allowed to obtain analytical dependences of the coefficient of internal recirculation sludge mixture between bioreactors on the concentration of organic compounds in wastewater, the duration of wastewater treatment in bioreactors.

  15. Characteristics of microbial community functional structure of a biological coking wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds are key pollutants in coking wastewater; however, the functional potential of microbial communities for biodegradation of such contaminants during biological treatment is still elusive. Herein, a high throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) in combination with Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing was used to compare and characterize the microbial community functional structure in a long run (500days) bench scale bioreactor treating coking wastewater, with a control system treating synthetic wastewater. Despite the inhibitory toxic pollutants, GeoChip 5.0 detected almost all key functional gene (average 61,940 genes) categories in the coking wastewater sludge. With higher abundance, aromatic ring cleavage dioxygenase genes including multi ring1,2diox; one ring2,3diox; catechol represented significant functional potential for degradation of aromatic pollutants which was further confirmed by Illumina HiSeq2500 analysis results. Response ratio analysis revealed that three nitrogenous compound degrading genes- nbzA (nitro-aromatics), tdnB (aniline), and scnABC (thiocyanate) were unique for coking wastewater treatment, which might be strong cause to increase ammonia level during the aerobic process. Additionally, HiSeq2500 elucidated carbozole and isoquinoline degradation genes in the system. These findings expanded our understanding on functional potential of microbial communities to remove organic nitrogenous pollutants; hence it will be useful in optimization strategies for biological treatment of coking wastewater. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Oxidation of Mixed Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Biologically Treated Wastewater by ClO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradas, Gerly; Fick, Jerker; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater containing a mixture of 53 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)was treated with 0-20 mg/l chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution. Wastewater effluents were taken from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with (low COD) and one without (high COD) extended...... removed at 5 mg/l ClO2 dose. Removal of the same APIs from the high COD effluent was observed when the ClO2 dose was increased to 1.25 mg/l and an increase in API removal only after treatment with 8 mg/l ClO2. This illustrates that treatment of wastewater effluents with chlorine dioxide has potential...

  17. Sequential solar photo-fenton-biological system for the treatment of winery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosteo, R; Sarasa, J; Ormad, Maria P; Ovelleiro, J L

    2008-08-27

    In this study, winery wastewaters are considered for degradation using heterogeneous photo-Fenton as a preliminary step before biotreatment. The heterogeneous photo-Fenton process assisted by solar light is able to partially degrade the organic matter present in winery wastewaters. When an initial hydrogen peroxide concentration of 0.1 M is used over 24 h of treatment, a degradation yield of organic matter (measured as TOC) of around 50% is reached. The later treatment (activated sludge process) allows the elimination of 90% of the initial TOC present in pretreated winery wastewaters without producing nondesired side-effects, such as the bulking phenomenon, which is usually detected when this treatment is used alone. The final effluent contains a concentration of organic matter (measured as COD) of 128 mg O2/L. The coupled system comprising the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process and biological treatment based on activated sludge in simple stage is a real alternative for the treatment of winery wastewater.

  18. Stabilisation of Biological Phosphorus Removal from Municipal Wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich

    variations of the influent wastewater concentrations and are not yet always guaranteed. Even though the scientific knowledge and practical experience has reached a high level of understanding of the involved key-processes it is still necessary to apply chemical precipitation of phosphorus during the time...... periods, where the complete BPR can not be achieved. The understanding of the main phenomena involved into such failure of BPR and the development of operational or control strategies to overcome these deficiencies are the main areas of investigation of this thesis. Investigations of the failure of BPR...... and increased hydraulic load, with subsequent re-establishment of normal conditions. A process disturbance of this type results in an increase in the phosphate concentration level in the effluent, shortly after the wastewater returns to normal strength. During the first part of the thesis it was examined...

  19. Effect of solids retention time and wastewater characteristics on biological phosphorus removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Aspegren, H.; Jansen, J.l.C.

    2002-01-01

    with time which has importance in relation to modelling. The overall conclusion of the comparison between the two plants is that the biological phosphorus removal efficiency under practical operating conditions is affected by the SRT in the plant and the wastewater composition. Thus great care should......The paper deals with the effect of wastewater, plant design and operation in relation to biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the possibilities to model the processes. Two Bio-P pilot plants were operated for 2.5 years in parallel receiving identical wastewater. The plants had SRT of 4...... and 21 days, the latter had nitrification and denitrification. The plant with 4 days SRT had much more variable biomass characteristics, than the one with the high SRT. The internal storage compounds, PHA, were affected significantly by the concentration of fatty acids or other easily degradable organics...

  20. Recent advances and industrial viewpoint for biological treatment of wastewaters by oleaginous microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Luo, Mu-Tan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Xiong, Lian; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Xin-De

    2017-05-01

    Recently, technology of using oleaginous microorganisms for biological treatment of wastewaters has become one hot topic in biochemical and environmental engineering for its advantages such as easy for operation in basic bioreactor, having potential to produce valuable bio-products, efficient wastewaters treatment in short period, etc. To promote its industrialization, this article provides some comprehensive analysis of this technology such as its advances, issues, and outlook especially from industrial viewpoint. In detail, the types of wastewaters can be treated and the kinds of oleaginous microorganisms used for biological treatment are introduced, the potential of industrial application and issues (relatively low COD removal, low lipid yield, cost of operation, and lack of scale up application) of this technology are presented, and some critical outlook mainly on co-culture method, combination with other treatments, process controlling and adjusting are discussed systematically. By this article, some important information to develop this technology can be obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre-treatment......, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested......-sized wastewater treatment plants....

  2. Biological treatment of wastewaters from a dye manufacturing company using a trickling filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornaros, M.; Lyberatos, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effectiveness of a biological trickling filter for the treatment of wastewaters produced by a company manufacturing organic dyes and varnishes. The combined wastewater effluent was fed to a pilot-scale trickling filter in two feeding modes, continuously and as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The biodegradability of the diluted wastewaters that were subjected to physicochemical treatment, using Ca(OH) 2 and FeSO 4 , was initially studied using a continuously operated trickling filter. The system efficiency ranged up to 60-70% for a hydraulic loading of 1.1 m 3 /m 2 day and up to 80-85% for a hydraulic loading 0.6 m 3 /m 2 day. A stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 60-70% was achieved even in the case of undiluted wastewater at a hydraulic loading of 1.1 m 3 /m 2 day. The effectiveness of biological treatment of a mixture of the company's main wastewater streams was also examined. The microorganisms developed in the trickling filter were able to efficiently remove COD levels up to 36,000 mg/L, under aerobic conditions at pH values between 5.5 and 8.0. Depending on the operating conditions of the system, about 30-60% of the total COD removal was attributed to air stripping caused by the air supply at the bottom of the filter, whereas the rest of the COD was clearly removed through biological action. The proposed biological treatment process based on a trickling filter, which was operated either continuously or even better in an SBR mode, appears as a promising pretreatment step for coping with dye manufacturing wastewaters in terms of removing a significant portion of the organic content

  3. Characterization of persistent colors and decolorization of effluent from biologically treated cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2016-05-01

    The high chroma of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater poses a serious environmental concern; however, color-causing compounds are still not fully clear. The characteristics of the color compounds and decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation were investigated in this study. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Vis spectra, and ultrafiltration (UF) fractionation were used to analyze color compounds. High chroma of wastewater largely comes from humic materials, which exhibited great fluorescence proportion (67.1 %) in the biologically treated effluent. Additionally, the color compounds were mainly distributed in the molecular weight fractions with 3-10 and 10-30 kDa, which contributed 53.5 and 34.6 % of the wastewater color, respectively. Further decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation was investigated, and 98.3 % of color removal accompanied with 97.3 % reduction of humic acid-like matter was achieved after 180 min. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of a well decolorization for cellulosic ethanol production wastewater and better understanding of the biological fermentation.

  4. Benchmarking biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants: influence of mathematical model assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V.; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  5. Investigation on thiosulfate-involved organics and nitrogen removal by a sulfur cycle-based biological wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Lu, Hui; Cui, Yanxiang; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-02-01

    Thiosulfate, as an intermediate of biological sulfate/sulfite reduction, can significantly improve nitrogen removal potential in a biological sulfur cycle-based process, namely the Sulfate reduction-Autotrophic denitrification-Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process. However, the related thiosulfate bio-activities coupled with organics and nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment lacked detailed examinations and reports. In this study, S2O3(2-) transformation during biological SO4(2-)/SO3(2-) co-reduction coupled with organics removal as well as S2O3(2-) oxidation coupled with chemolithotrophic denitrification were extensively evaluated under different experimental conditions. Thiosulfate is produced from the co-reduction of sulfate and sulfite through biological pathway at an optimum pH of 7.5 for organics removal. And the produced S2O3(2-) may disproportionate to sulfide and sulfate during both biological S2O3(2-) reduction and oxidation most possibly carried out by Desulfovibrio-like species. Dosing the same amount of nitrate, pH was found to be the more direct factor influencing the denitritation activity than free nitrous acid (FNA) and the optimal pH for denitratation (7.0) and denitritation (8.0) activities were different. Spiking organics significantly improved both denitratation and denitritation activities while minimizing sulfide inhibition of NO3(-) reduction during thiosulfate-based denitrification. These findings in this study can improve the understanding of mechanisms of thiosulfate on organics and nitrogen removal in biological sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biological treatment of model dyes and textile wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Alicia; Carballo, Julia; Pérez, María José; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2017-08-01

    Previous works conducted in our laboratory, reveled that Bacillus aryabhattai DC100 produce ligninolytic enzymes such as laccases and/or peroxidases, opening new applications in different bioprocesses, including the treatment of disposal residues such as dyestuffs from textile processing industries. This work described the degradation of three commercial model dyes Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 (CBB), Indigo Carmine (IC) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) under different culture media and operational conditions. The process was optimized using a Central Composite Rotatable Design, and the desirability predicted complete decolorization of 150 mg/L CBB at 37 °C, 304.09 rpm and salt concentration of 19.204 g/L. The model was validated with concentrations up to 180 mg/L CBB and IC, not being able to remove high amount of RBBR. The procedure here developed also allowed Chemical Oxygen Demands (COD) reductions in CBB of about 42%, meanwhile tests on real effluents from a local textile industry involved COD reductions of 50% in a liquid wastewater and 14% in semi-liquid sludge. Thus, allow the authorized discharge of wastewater into the corresponding treatment plant. Decolorization efficiencies and COD reductions open on the potential application of B. aryabhattai DC100 on the bioremediation of real effluents from textile industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the biological nitrogen removal process in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Carrera, J; Lafuente, J

    2004-04-01

    The Biological Nitrogen Removal (BNR) process of some pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants has important operational problems. This study shows that, in order to solve these problems, the design of industrial BNR processes should start by analysing three key parameters: the characteristics of the wastewater load, the determination of the maximum TKN removal rate and the detection of toxic or inhibitory compounds in the wastewater. A case study of this analysis in pharmaceutical wastewater is presented here. In this case, the conventional TKN analytical method does not make an accurate characterisation of the wastewater load because it measures a concentration of 100 mg TKN l(-1) whereas the real concentration, determined with a modified TKN analytical method, is 150-500 mg TKN l(-1). Also, the TKN removal of the treatment system is insufficient in some periods because it falls below legal requirements. This problem might be a consequence of the wrong characterisation of wastewater during the design process. The maximum TKN removal at 27 degrees C (24 mg N g VSS(-1) d(-1) or 197 mg N l(-1) d(-1)) was evaluated in a pilot-scale plant. This value is six times greater than the average NLR applied in the full-scale plant. Finally, some of the components of the wastewater, such as p-phenylenediamine, might have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biological process. P-phenylenediamine causes a large decrease in the nitrification rate. This effect was determined by respirometry. This methodology shows that the effect is mainly inhibitory with a contact time of 30 min and if the contact time is longer, 14 hours, a toxic effect is observed.

  8. The assessment of the coke wastewater treatment efficacy in rotating biological contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cema, G; Żabczyński, S; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A

    2016-01-01

    Coke wastewater is known to be relatively difficult for biological treatment. Nonetheless, biofilm-based systems seem to be promising tool for such treatment. That is why a rotating biological contactor (RBC) system focused on the Anammox process was used in this study. The experiment was divided into two parts with synthetic and then real wastewater. It was proven that it is possible to treat coke wastewater with RBC but such a procedure requires a very long start-up period for the nitritation (190 days), as well as for the Anammox process, where stable nitrogen removal over 70% was achieved after 400 days of experiment. Interestingly, it was possible at a relatively low (20.2 ± 2.2 °C) temperature. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) based monitoring of the bacterial community showed that its biodiversity decreased when the real wastewater was treated and it was composed mainly of GC-rich genotypes, probably because of the modeling influence of this wastewater and the genotypes specialization.

  9. Biological reduction of nitrates in wastewaters from nuclear processing using a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, W.W.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt.% NO 3 - and as large as 2000 m 3 /day, in the nuclear fuel cycle. The biological reduction of nitrate in wastewater to gaseous nitrogen, accompanied by the oxidation of a nutrient carbon source to gaseous carbon dioxide, is an ecologically sound and cost-effective method of treating wastewaters containing nitrates. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO 3 - )/m 3 by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The denitrification bacteria are a mixed culture derived from garden soil; the major strain is Pseudomonas. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25- to 0.50-mm-diam coal fluidization particles, which are then fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m 3 . This paper describes the results of a biodenitrification R and D program based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m 3 and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 g N(NO 3 - ) per day per liter of empty bioreactor volume. 4 figures, 7 tables

  10. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  11. Inhibition effect of zinc in wastewater on the N2O emission from coastal loam soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Ou, Danyun; Chen, Shunyang; Chen, Bin; Liu, Wenhua; Bai, Renao; Chen, Guangcheng

    2017-03-15

    The effects of zinc (Zn) on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes from coastal loam soil and the abundances of soil nitrifier and denitrifier were studied in a tidal microcosm receiving livestock wastewater with different Zn levels. Soil N 2 O emission significantly increased due to discharge of wastewater rich in ammonia (NH 4 + -N) while the continuous measurements of gas flux showed a durative reduction in N 2 O flux by high Zn input (40mgL -1 ) during the low tide period. Soil inorganic nitrogen concentrations increased at the end of the experiment and even more soil NH 4 + -N was measured in the high-Zn-level treatment, indicating an inhibition of ammonia oxidation by Zn input. Quantitative PCR of soil amoA, narG and nirK genes encoding ammonia monooxygenase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, respectively, showed that the microbial abundances involved in these metabolisms were neither affected by wastewater discharge nor Zn contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-09

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological removal of phenol from wastewaters: a mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, N. V.; Anupama, S.; Navya, K.; Shalini, H. N.; Idris, M.; Hampannavar, U. S.

    2015-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives are common water pollutants and include wide variety of organic chemicals. Phenol poisoning can occur by skin absorption, inhalation, ingestion and various other methods which can result in health effects. High exposures to phenol may be fatal to human beings. Accumulation of phenol creates toxicity both for flora and fauna. Therefore, removal of phenol is crucial to perpetuate the environment and individual. Among various treatment methods available for removal of phenols, biodegradation is environmental friendly. Biological methods are gaining importance as they convert the wastes into harmless end products. The present work focuses on assessment of biological removal (biodegradation) of phenol. Various factors influence the efficiency of biodegradation of phenol such as ability of the microorganism, enzymes involved, the mechanism of degradation and influencing factors. This study describes about the sources of phenol, adverse effects on the environment, microorganisms involved in the biodegradation (aerobic and anaerobic) and enzymes that polymerize phenol.

  15. Biological treatment of fish processing wastewater: A case study from Sfax City (Southeastern Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Meryem; Karray, Fatma; Feki, Firas; Loukil, Slim; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    The present work presents a study of the biological treatment of fish processing wastewater at salt concentration of 55 g/L. Wastewater was treated by both continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) during 50 and 100 days, respectively. These biological processes involved salt-tolerant bacteria from natural hypersaline environments at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding excised DGGE bands has demonstrated that the taxonomic affiliation of the most dominant species includes Halomonadaceae and Flavobacteriaceae families of the Proteobacteria (Gamma-proteobacteria class) and the Bacteroidetes phyla, respectively. The results of MBR were better than those of CSTR in the removal of total organic carbon with efficiencies from 97.9% to 98.6%. Nevertheless, salinity with increasing OLR aggravates fouling that requires more cleaning for a membrane in MBR while leads to deterioration of sludge settleability and effluent quality in CSTR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Small wastewater treatment plants in mountain areas: combination of septic tank and biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunoir, S; Philip, H; Rambaud, A

    2007-01-01

    Research work has been carried out for more than 20 years by Eparco and the University of Montpellier (France) on the application of biological wastewater treatment processes for small communities. This research has led to a new process which is particularly suitable for remote populations, taking into account several specificities such as as the seasonal fluctuations in the population, the accessibility of the site, the absence of a power supply on site, the reduced area of land available and the low maintenance. Thus, the process, which combines a septic tank operating under anaerobic conditions and a biological aerobic filter, is a solution for wastewater treatment in mountain areas. This paper presents the process and three full-scale applications in the region of the Alps.

  17. Recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Pil-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Qureshi, T.I.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities of recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater were investigated. In order to get the highest growth of microorganism for increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system, different compositions of waste bread and skim milk with and without adding Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) were tested. Mixed waste bread compositions with added PAC showed relatively higher number of microorganisms than the compositions without added PAC. A composition of 40% mixed waste bread and 60% skim milk produced highest number of microorganisms with subsequent increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system. 'Contrast' alone showed lower contaminants' removal efficiency than mixed bread compositions. Use of waste bread in the composition of skim milk reduced cost of using foreign source of nutrients in biological treatment of wastewater and also facilitated waste bread management through recycling. (author)

  18. Combined oxidative and biological treatment of separated streams of tannery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, G.; Nieto, J. [Environmental Science Center EULA - Chile, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mansilla, H.D. [Lab. of Renewable Resources, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Bornhardt, C. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of La Frontera, Temuco (Chile)

    2003-07-01

    Leather tanning effluents are a source of severe environmental impacts. In particular, the unhairing stage, belonging to the beamhouse processes, generates an alkaline wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter, sulphides, suspended solids, and salts, which shows significant toxicity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of this industrial wastewater by combined oxidative and biological treatments. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent was used as batch pre-treatment. The relationships of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD were 9 and 4, respectively, reaching an organic matter removal of about 90%. Subsequently, the oxidised beamhouse effluent was fed to an activated sludge system, at increasing organic load rates (OLR), in the range of 0.4 to 1.6 g COD/L.d. The biological organic matter removal of the pre-treated wastewater ranged between 35% and 60% for COD, and from 60% to 70% for BOD. Therefore, sequential AOP pretreatment and biological aerobic treatment increased the overall COD removal up to 96%, compared to 60% without pretreatment. Bioassays with D. magna and D. pulex showed that this kind of treatment achieves only a partial toxicity removal of the tannery effluent. (orig.)

  19. A New Approach for Biologically-Inhibiting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.

    2007-01-01

    in nanometers. Due to the difference in potentials, the biologically-inhibiting material will act as a galvanic element in contact with an electrolyte. The electrochemical processes taking place at the metal surface seem to exhibit a catalytic oxidation character more than an oligomeric effect from the silver....

  20. Optimized biological nitrogen removal of high-strength ammonium wastewater by activated sludge modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsalam Elawwad

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater containing high ammonium concentrations is produced from various industrial activities. In this study, the author used a complex activated sludge model, improved by utilizing BioWin© (EnviroSim, Hamilton, Canada simulation software, to gain understanding of the problem of instability in biological nitrogen removal (BNR. Specifically, the study focused on BNR in an industrial wastewater treatment plant that receives high-strength ammonium wastewater. Using the data obtained from a nine-day sampling campaign and routinely measured data, the model was successfully calibrated and validated, with modifications to the sensitive stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. Subsequently, the calibrated model was employed to study various operating conditions in order to optimize the BNR. These operating conditions include alkalinity addition, sludge retention time, and the COD/N ratio. The addition of a stripping step and modifications to the configuration of the aerators are suggested by the author to increase the COD/N ratio and therefore enhance denitrification. It was found that the calibrated model could successfully represent and optimize the treatment of the high-strength ammonium wastewater.

  1. Treatment of uranium mining and milling wastewater using biological adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsezos, M.

    1983-01-01

    Selected samples of waste microbial biomass originating from various industrial fermentation processes and biological treatment plants have been screened for biosorbent properties in conjunction with uranium, thorium and radium in aqueous solutions. Biosorption isotherms were used for the evaluation of biosorptive uptake capacity of the biomass. The biomass was also compared to synthetic adsorbents such as activated carbon. Determined uranium, thorium and radium biosorption isotherms were independent of the initial solution concentrations. Solution pH affected uptake. Rhizopus arrhizus at pH 4 exhibited the highest uranium and thorium biosorptive uptake capacity in excess of 180 Mg/g. It removed about 2.5 and 3.3 times more uranium than the ion exchange resin and activated carbon tested. Penicillium chrysogenum adsorbed 50000 pCi/g radium at pH 7 and at an equilibrium radium concentration of 1000 pCi/L. The most effective biomass types studied exhibited removals in excess of 99% of the radium in solution

  2. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, I.; Malato, S.; Sanchez-Perez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.

  3. Nitrate Removal from Wastewater through Biological Denitrification with OGA 24 in a Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Rossi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates pollution of waters is a worldwide problem and its remediation is a big challenge from the technical and the scientific point of view. One of the most used and promising cleaning techniques is the biological treatment of wastewaters operated by denitrifying bacteria. In this paper we begin a thorough study of denitrifying performances of the bacterium Azospira sp. OGA 24, recently isolated from the highly polluted Sarno river in the south of Italy. Here, the kinetics of nitrates consumption operated by bacteria in a specifically devised batch bioreactor, in anoxic condition and with acetate as the organic substrate, has been characterized. Experimental data were then used in a simplified model of a real wastewater treatment plant to find that OGA 24 can clean water with efficiency up to 90%. The denitrifying performances of OGA 24 match the requirements of Italian laws and make the bacterium suitable for its employment in treatment plants.

  4. Biological and Irradiation Treatment of Mix Industrial Wastewater in Flood Mitigation Pond at Prai Industrial Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Jamaliah Sharif; Selambakkanu, S.; Ming, T.M.; Natasha Isnin; Hasnul Nizam Osman; Khasmidatul Akma Mohd Khairul Azmi

    2014-01-01

    In this work, activated sludge process and E-Beam was used to treat mixed industrial waste water from mitigation pond A. The objectives of this study to analyze the effect of mix liquor volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) concentration on the properties of wastewater and duration of time taken to achieve steady stage condition for biological treatment. Besides that, effect of electron beam energy on the characteristic of wastewater after irradiation with electron beam machine EPS 3000 was studied as well. The result shows removal percentage of COD, suspended solid and color was linearly proportional with MLVSS. Maximum reduction values recorded for COD, suspended solid and color removal was 69.4, 73.0 and 43.7 % respectively with 3500 mg/l MLVSS at 48 h HRT. In irradiation treatment, significant reduction of COD was obtained with the increase of electron beam energy but the results for suspended solid and color was not favorable. (author)

  5. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in petroleum refinery wastewater bacteria by phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon C. Okpokwasili

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol on Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Escherichia species isolated from petroleum refinery wastewater was assessed via inhibition of dehydrogenase enzyme activity. At low concentrations, 2-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol stimulated dehydrogenase activity and at sufficient concentrations, phenolic compounds inhibited dehydrogenase activities. Generally, phenol is less toxic than substituted phenols. Estimations of the degree of inhibition/stimulation of dehydrogenase activities showed significant dose-dependent responses that are describable by logistic functions. The toxicity thresholds varied significantly (P < 0.05 among the bacterial strains and phenolic compounds. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50s ranged from 4.118 ± 0.097 mg.L-1 for 4-nitrophenol against Pseudomonas sp. DAF1 to 1407.997 ± 7.091 mg.L-1 for phenol against Bacillus sp. DISK1. This study suggested that the organisms have moderate sensitivity to phenols and have the potential to be used as indicators for assessment of chemical toxicity. They could also be used as catalysts for degradation of phenols in effluents.

  6. Phenol wastewater remediation: advanced oxidation processes coupled to a biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcaba, A; Suárez-Ojeda, M E; Stüber, F; Fortuny, A; Bengoa, C; Metcalfe, I; Font, J; Carrera, J; Fabregat, A

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, there are increasingly stringent regulations requiring more and more treatment of industrial effluents to generate product waters which could be easily reused or disposed of to the environment without any harmful effects. Therefore, different advanced oxidation processes were investigated as suitable precursors for the biological treatment of industrial effluents containing phenol. Wet air oxidation and Fenton process were tested batch wise, while catalytic wet air oxidation and H2O2-promoted catalytic wet air oxidation processes were studied in a trickle bed reactor, the last two using over activated carbon as catalyst. Effluent characterisation was made by means of substrate conversion (using high liquid performance chromatography), chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon. Biodegradation parameters (i.e. maximum oxygen uptake rate and oxygen consumption) were obtained from respirometric tests using activated sludge from an urban biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The main goal was to find the proper conditions in terms of biodegradability enhancement, so that these phenolic effluents could be successfully treated in an urban biological WWTP. Results show promising research ways for the development of efficient coupled processes for the treatment of wastewater containing toxic or biologically non-degradable compounds.

  7. Effective Biological Nitrogen Removal Treatment Processes for Domestic Wastewaters with Low C/N Ratios: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Sheng-Peng; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Merkey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    with high efficiency and relative low costs. However, the removal of nitrogen from domestic wastewater with a low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio can often be limited in municipal wastewater plants (WWTPs) because organic carbon is a limiting factor for denitrification. The present work reviews innovative....... They can effectively be used for nitrogen removal from low C/N domestic wastewater without external carbon addition. In addition, conventional and alternative carbon sources for enhanced biological nitrogen removal were also reviewed. We conclude that alternative carbon sources such as wine distillery...... at large scale for nitrogen removal from low C/N domestic wastewater, (2) further method logic are explored to introduce the Anammox pathway into domestic wastewater treatment, and (3) alternative carbon sources are explored and optimized for supporting the denitrification. With these efforts, cost...

  8. Biological sludge solubilisation for reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Yao, Y; Kihara, Y

    2006-01-01

    A novel sludge disintegration system (JFE-SD system) was developed for the reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment plants. Chemical and biological treatments were applied to disintegrate excess sludge. At the first step, to enhance biological disintegration, the sludge was pretreated with alkali. At the second step, the sludge was disintegrated by biological treatment. Many kinds of sludge degrading microorganisms integrated the sludge. The efficiency of the new sludge disintegration system was confirmed in a full-scale experiment. The JFE-SD system reduced excess sludge production by approximately 50% during the experimental period. The quality of effluent was kept at quite a good level. Economic analysis revealed that this system could significantly decrease the excess sludge treatment cost.

  9. A comparison of molecular biology mechanism of Shewanella putrefaciens between fresh and terrestrial sewage wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal and industrial wastewater is often discharged into the environment without appropriate treatment, especially in developing countries. As a result, many rivers and oceans are contaminated. It is urgent to control and administer treatments to these contaminated rivers and oceans. However, most mechanisms of bacterial colonization in contaminated rivers and oceans were unknown, especially in sewage outlets. We found Shewanella putrefaciens to be the primary bacteria in the terrestrial sewage wastewater outlets around Ningbo City, China. Therefore, in this study, we applied a combination of differential proteomics, metabolomics, and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR techniques to identify bacteria intracellular metabolites. We found S. putrefaciens had 12 different proteins differentially expressed in freshwater culture than when grown in wastewater, referring to the formation of biological membranes (Omp35, OmpW, energy metabolism (SOD, deoxyribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase, fatty acid metabolism (beta-ketoacyl synthase, secondary metabolism, TCA cycle, lysine degradation (2-oxoglutarate reductase, and propionic acid metabolism (succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. The sequences of these 12 differentially expressed proteins were aligned with sequences downloaded from NCBI. There are also 27 differentially concentrated metabolites detected by NMR, including alcohols (ethanol, isopropanol, amines (dimethylamine, ethanolamine, amino acids (alanine, leucine, amine compounds (bilinerurine, nucleic acid compounds (nucleosides, inosines, organic acids (formate, acetate. Formate and ethanolamine show significant difference between the two environments and are possibly involved in energy metabolism, glycerophospholipid and ether lipids metabolism to provide energy supply and material basis for engraftment in sewage. Because understanding S. putrefaciens’s biological mechanism of colonization (protein, gene express and metabolites in

  10. Advanced oxidation process-biological system for wastewater containing a recalcitrant pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, I; Malato, S; Sánchez-Pérez, J A; Maldonado, M I; Gernjak, W; Pérez-Estrada, L A

    2007-01-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), ozonation and photo-Fenton, combined with a pilot aerobic biological reactor at field scale were employed for the treatment of industrial non-biodegradable saline wastewater (TOC around 200 mgL(-1)) containing a biorecalcitrant compound, alpha-methylphenylglycine (MPG), at a concentration of 500 mgL(-1). Ozonation experiments were performed in a 50-L reactor with constant inlet ozone of 21.9 g m(-3). Solar photo-Fenton tests were carried out in a 75-L pilot plant made up of four compound parabolic collector (CPC) units. The catalyst concentration employed in this system was 20 mgL(-1) of Fe2+ and the H2O2 concentration was kept in the range of 200-500mgL(-1). Complete degradation of MPG was attained after 1,020 min of ozone treatment, while only 195 min were required for photo-Fenton. Samples from different stages of both AOPs were taken for Zahn-Wellens biocompatibility tests. Biodegradability enhancement of the industrial saline wastewater was confirmed (>70% biodegradability). Biodegradable compounds generated during the preliminary oxidative processes were biologically mineralised in a 170-L aerobic immobilised biomass reactor (IBR). The global efficiency of both AOP/biological combined systems was 90% removal of an initial TOC of over 500 mgL(-1).

  11. Biological treatment of textile mill wastewater in the. presence of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaquat, F.; Hassan, M.; Mahboob, S.; Rehman, A.; Liaquat, S.; Khalid, Z.M.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to find out effectiveness of biological treatment for the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the textile processing industrial wastewater in the absence and presence of granular activated carbon (GAC) in shake flask experiment. To check the pollution level, physio-chemical analysis of effluent from Amtex industry (Faisalabad) was carried out. The outlet effluent contained high value of COD (1100 mg/l), BOD (309 mg/l) with pH 9.2, electrical conductivity (Ec) 3.7 mS/m, total dissolved solids (TDS) (2640 mg/l), total solids (TS) (3060 mg/l), total suspended solids (TSS) (420 19/l) and phenol (.34 mg/l). After initial period of activated sludge adaptation to wastewater, shake flask batch cultures (with and without activated carbon) were operated on lab scale. The COD and BOD were noted after very 12 hours for 3 days. The maximum reduction in COD (82%) and BOD (90%) was observed biological treatment in presence of activated carbon at retention time of 72 hours. (author)

  12. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Ni, Jinren; Wu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yongyong

    2009-03-15

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD(Cr) removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD(Cr) was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m(-3)d(-1) when the total HRT was 43.4h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD(Cr) removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp.

  13. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Li [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China); Ni Jinren [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: nijinren@iee.pku.edu.cn; Wu Yanjun; Zhang Yongyong [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD{sub Cr} removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD{sub Cr} was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1} when the total HRT was 43.4 h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD{sub Cr} removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp.

  14. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Li; Ni Jinren; Wu Yanjun; Zhang Yongyong

    2009-01-01

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD Cr removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD Cr was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m -3 d -1 when the total HRT was 43.4 h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD Cr removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp

  15. Fuzzy logic for plant-wide control of biological wastewater treatment process including greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, I; Barbu, M; Pedret, C; Vilanova, R

    2018-06-01

    The application of control strategies is increasingly used in wastewater treatment plants with the aim of improving effluent quality and reducing operating costs. Due to concerns about the progressive growth of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), these are also currently being evaluated in wastewater treatment plants. The present article proposes a fuzzy controller for plant-wide control of the biological wastewater treatment process. Its design is based on 14 inputs and 6 outputs in order to reduce GHG emissions, nutrient concentration in the effluent and operational costs. The article explains and shows the effect of each one of the inputs and outputs of the fuzzy controller, as well as the relationship between them. Benchmark Simulation Model no 2 Gas is used for testing the proposed control strategy. The results of simulation results show that the fuzzy controller is able to reduce GHG emissions while improving, at the same time, the common criteria of effluent quality and operational costs. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metagenomic insights into ultraviolet disinfection effects on antibiotic resistome in biologically treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Jia, Shuyu; Huang, Kailong; Tang, Junying; Shi, Peng; Ye, Lin; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-09-15

    High-throughput sequencing-based metagenomic approaches were used to comprehensively investigate ultraviolet effects on the microbial community structure, and diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in biologically treated wastewater. After ultraviolet radiation, some dominant genera, like Aeromonas and Halomonas, in the wastewater almost disappeared, while the relative abundance of some minor genera including Pseudomonas and Bacillus increased dozens of times. Metagenomic analysis showed that 159 ARGs within 14 types were detectable in the samples, and the radiation at 500 mJ/cm(2) obviously increased their total relative abundance from 31.68 ppm to 190.78 ppm, which was supported by quantitative real time PCR. As the dominant persistent ARGs, multidrug resistance genes carried by Pseudomonas and bacitracin resistance gene bacA carried by Bacillus mainly contributed to the ARGs abundance increase. Bacterial community shift and MGEs replication induced by the radiation might drive the resistome alteration. The findings may shed new light on the mechanism behind the ultraviolet radiation effects on antibiotic resistance in wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Feasibility of a two-stage biological aerated filter for depth processing of electroplating-wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qi; Li, Song; Yang, Shaogui; Wu, Wenfei

    2009-09-01

    A "two-stage biological aerated filter" (T-SBAF) consisting of two columns in series was developed to treat electroplating-wastewater. Due to the low BOD/CODcr values of electroplating-wastewater, "twice start-up" was employed to reduce the time for adaptation of microorganisms, a process that takes up of 20 days. Under steady-state conditions, the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N increased first and then decreased while the hydraulic loadings increased from 0.75 to 1.5 m(3) m(-2) h(-1). The air/water ratio had the same influence on the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N when increasing from 3:1 to 6:1. When the hydraulic loadings and air/water ratio were 1.20 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) and 4:1, the optimal removal of CODcr, NH(4)(+)-N and total-nitrogen (T-N) were 90.13%, 92.51% and 55.46%, respectively. The effluent steadily reached the wastewater reuse standard. Compared to the traditional BAF, the period before backwashing of the T-SBAF could be extended to 10days, and the recovery time was considerably shortened.

  18. Emerging Biodegradation of the Previously Persistent Artificial Sweetener Acesulfame in Biological Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Stefanie; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nivala, Jaime; van Afferden, Manfred; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2018-03-06

    The persistence of acesulfame (ACE) in wastewater treatment (and subsequently the aquatic environment) has led to its use as a marker substance for wastewater input into surface water and groundwater. However, ACE degradation of >85% during summer and autumn was observed in nine German wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Annual removal performance was more stable in larger plants, enhanced by low biological oxygen demand and impeded by water temperatures below 10 °C. Literature data suggest that the potential to degrade ACE emerged in WWTPs around the year 2010. This development is ongoing, as illustrated by ACE content in the German rivers Elbe and Mulde: Between 2013 and 2016 the ACE mass load decreased by 70-80%. In enrichment cultures with ACE as sole carbon source the carbonaceous fraction of ACE was removed completely, indicating catabolic biotransformation and the inorganic compound sulfamic acid formed in quantitative amounts. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggests that several species are involved in ACE degradation, with proteobacterial species affiliated to Phyllobacteriaceae, Methylophilaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Pseudomonas becoming specifically enriched. ACE appears to be the first micropollutant for which the evolution of a catabolic pathway in WWTPs has been witnessed. It can yet only be speculated whether the emergence of ACE removal in WWTPs in different regions of the world is due to independent evolution or to global spreading of genes or adapted microorganisms.

  19. Configuration of biological wastewater treatment line and influent composition as the main factors driving bacterial community structure of activated sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Jaranowska, Paulina; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment facilities is a resultant of environmental conditions created by the operational parameters of the purification process. In the research, activated sludge from nine Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated at a molecular level to determine the impact of the complexity of biological treatment line and the influent composition on the species structure and the diversity of bacterial consortia. The community fingerpri...

  20. Using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to study specific bacterial species involved in biological phosphorus removal from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel

    an enrichment of the target organisms in laboratory scale reactors under controlled conditions. We demonstrate that it is now easy and affordable to extract genomes of all the dominant organisms from reactors due to reduced micro-diversity and further use these to examine their individual gene expression...... profiles by metatranscriptomics. To demonstrate this we revisited the bacteria involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater treatment plants. The EBPR process is used all over the world, has a large body of information regarding the underlying microbiology, and is often studied...

  1. Biological phosphorus removal during high-rate, low-temperature, anaerobic digestion of wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara eKeating

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report, for the first time, extensive biologically-mediated phosphate removal from wastewater during high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD. A hybrid sludge bed/fixed-film (packed pumice stone reactor was employed for low-temperature (12°C anaerobic treatment of synthetic sewage wastewater. Successful phosphate removal from the wastewater (up to 78% of influent phosphate was observed, mediated by biofilms in the reactor. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the accumulation of elemental phosphorus (~2% within the sludge bed and fixed-film biofilms. 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining indicated phosphorus accumulation was biological in nature and mediated through the formation of intracellular inorganic polyphosphate (polyP granules within these biofilms. DAPI staining further indicated that polyP accumulation was rarely associated with free cells. Efficient and consistent chemical oxygen demand (COD removal was recorded, throughout the 732-day trial, at applied organic loading rates between 0.4-1.5 kg COD m-3 d-1 and hydraulic retention times of 8-24 hours, while phosphate removal efficiency ranged from 28-78% on average per phase. Analysis of protein hydrolysis kinetics and the methanogenic activity profiles of the biomass revealed the development, at 12˚C, of active hydrolytic and methanogenic populations. Temporal microbial changes were monitored using Illumina Miseq analysis of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences. The dominant bacterial phyla present in the biomass at the conclusion of the trial were the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the dominant archaeal genus was Methanosaeta. Trichococcus and Flavobacterium populations, previously associated with low temperature protein degradation, developed in the reactor biomass. The presence of previously characterised polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs such as Rhodocyclus, Chromatiales, Actinobacter and Acinetobacter was

  2. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.; Reyna, Silvia; Sánchez-Salas, José Luis; Lozada, J. Daniel; Quiroz, Marco A.; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the wastewater under the best working conditions (6.5 V, 0.1 M NaCl, 4 electrodes without initial pH adjustment) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal slightly higher than 80%. Aluminum release from the electrodes to the wastewater was found an important factor for the EC efficiency and closely related with several operational factors. Application of EC allowed to increase the biodegradability of the sample from 0.015, rated as non-biodegradable, up to 0.5 widely considered as biodegradable. The effluent was further treated using an aerobic biofilter inoculated with a bacterial consortium including gram positive and gram negative strains and tested for COD and TPH removal from the EC treated effluent during 30 days. Cell count showed the typical bacteria growth starting at day three and increasing up to a maximum after eight days. After day eight, cell growth showed a plateau which agreed with the highest decrease on contaminant concentration. Final TPHs concentration was found about 600 mgL-1 after 30 days whereas COD concentration after biological treatment was as low as 933 mgL-1. The coupled EC-aerobic biofilter was capable to remove up to 98% of the total TPH amount and over 95% of the COD load in the oil refinery wastewater.

  3. Resource Recovery from Wastewater by Biological Technologies: Opportunities, Challenges, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyol, Daniel; Batstone, Damien J.; Hülsen, Tim; Astals, Sergi; Peces, Miriam; Krömer, Jens O.

    2017-01-01

    Limits in resource availability are driving a change in current societal production systems, changing the focus from residues treatment, such as wastewater treatment, toward resource recovery. Biotechnological processes offer an economic and versatile way to concentrate and transform resources from waste/wastewater into valuable products, which is a prerequisite for the technological development of a cradle-to-cradle bio-based economy. This review identifies emerging technologies that enable resource recovery across the wastewater treatment cycle. As such, bioenergy in the form of biohydrogen (by photo and dark fermentation processes) and biogas (during anaerobic digestion processes) have been classic targets, whereby, direct transformation of lipidic biomass into biodiesel also gained attention. This concept is similar to previous biofuel concepts, but more sustainable, as third generation biofuels and other resources can be produced from waste biomass. The production of high value biopolymers (e.g., for bioplastics manufacturing) from organic acids, hydrogen, and methane is another option for carbon recovery. The recovery of carbon and nutrients can be achieved by organic fertilizer production, or single cell protein generation (depending on the source) which may be utilized as feed, feed additives, next generation fertilizers, or even as probiotics. Additionlly, chemical oxidation-reduction and bioelectrochemical systems can recover inorganics or synthesize organic products beyond the natural microbial metabolism. Anticipating the next generation of wastewater treatment plants driven by biological recovery technologies, this review is focused on the generation and re-synthesis of energetic resources and key resources to be recycled as raw materials in a cradle-to-cradle economy concept. PMID:28111567

  4. Population dynamics of bacteria involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in Danish wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2013-03-15

    The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is increasingly popular as a sustainable method for removal of phosphorus (P) from wastewater. This study consisted of a comprehensive three-year investigation of the identity and population dynamics of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in 28 Danish municipal wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify ten probe-defined populations of PAO and GAO that in total constituted a large fraction (30% on average) of the entire microbial community targeted by the EUBmix probes. Two PAO genera, Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera, were very abundant in all EBPR plants (average of 3.7% and 27% of all bacteria, respectively), and their abundance was relatively stable in the Danish full-scale plants without clear temporal variations. GAOs were occasionally present in some plants (Competibacter in 11 plants, Defluviicoccus in 6 plants) and were consistent in only a few plants. This shows that these were not core species in the EBPR communities. The total GAO abundance was always lower than that of Accumulibacter. In plants without EBPR design, the abundance of PAO and GAO was significantly lower. Competibacter correlated in general with high fraction of industrial wastewater. In specific plants Accumulibacter correlated with high C/P ratio of the wastewater and Tetrasphaera with high organic loading. Interestingly, the relative microbial composition of the PAO/GAO species was unique to each plant over time, which gives a characteristic plant-specific "fingerprint". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Elucidation of biotransformation of diclofenac and 4′hydroxydiclofenac during biological wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouju, Helene; Nastold, Peter; Beck, Birgit; Hollender, Juliane; Corvini, Philippe F.-X.; Wintgens, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The presence of DF specific degraders in activated sludge was confirmed. • The hydroxylation of DF to 4′OHDF is a bottleneck in diclofenac biodegradation. • Two biotransformation end products of DF and 4'OHDF were identified. • In wastewater treatment plants 4′-OHDF can be of both human and microbial origin. • A tentative biotransformation pathway for DF and 4′OHDF was proposed. - Abstract: This study aimed at gaining knowledge on the degradation pathway during biological treatment of wastewater of diclofenac and 4′-hydroxydiclofenac, its main human metabolite. For that purpose, an aerobic MBR was acclimatised to diclofenac, and the MBR biomass subsequently incubated with "1"4C-diclofenac or "1"4C-4′hydroxydiclofenac over 25 days. It was demonstrated that diclofenac degradation was much slower and limited than that of 4′-hydroxydiclofenac. Indeed, after 18 days of batch incubation, diclofenac was removed up to 40%, this rate remained stable till the end of the experiment, while 4′-hydroxydiclofenac was completely degraded within nine days. The analyses of supernatant samples have shown that diclofenac degradation led to four transformation products, more polar than the parent compound, one of them being 4′-hydroxydiclofenac. The degradation of 4′-hydroxydiclofenac led to the formation of the same metabolites than those detected during diclofenac degradation. With these results, the hydroxylation of diclofenac to 4′-hydroxydiclofenac was identified as one major bottleneck in diclofenac degradation during biological treatment of wastewater.

  6. Elucidation of biotransformation of diclofenac and 4′hydroxydiclofenac during biological wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouju, Helene; Nastold, Peter [Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Gründenstrasse 40, CH 4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Beck, Birgit; Hollender, Juliane [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Corvini, Philippe F.-X. [Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Gründenstrasse 40, CH 4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wintgens, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wintgens@fhnw.ch [Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Gründenstrasse 40, CH 4132 Muttenz (Switzerland)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The presence of DF specific degraders in activated sludge was confirmed. • The hydroxylation of DF to 4′OHDF is a bottleneck in diclofenac biodegradation. • Two biotransformation end products of DF and 4'OHDF were identified. • In wastewater treatment plants 4′-OHDF can be of both human and microbial origin. • A tentative biotransformation pathway for DF and 4′OHDF was proposed. - Abstract: This study aimed at gaining knowledge on the degradation pathway during biological treatment of wastewater of diclofenac and 4′-hydroxydiclofenac, its main human metabolite. For that purpose, an aerobic MBR was acclimatised to diclofenac, and the MBR biomass subsequently incubated with {sup 14}C-diclofenac or {sup 14}C-4′hydroxydiclofenac over 25 days. It was demonstrated that diclofenac degradation was much slower and limited than that of 4′-hydroxydiclofenac. Indeed, after 18 days of batch incubation, diclofenac was removed up to 40%, this rate remained stable till the end of the experiment, while 4′-hydroxydiclofenac was completely degraded within nine days. The analyses of supernatant samples have shown that diclofenac degradation led to four transformation products, more polar than the parent compound, one of them being 4′-hydroxydiclofenac. The degradation of 4′-hydroxydiclofenac led to the formation of the same metabolites than those detected during diclofenac degradation. With these results, the hydroxylation of diclofenac to 4′-hydroxydiclofenac was identified as one major bottleneck in diclofenac degradation during biological treatment of wastewater.

  7. Destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater using boron-doped diamond anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Wei, Junjun; Xing, Xuan; Li, Hongna

    2011-05-15

    Electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater was performed in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system. After electrolysis of 12h, the COD was decreased from 532 to 99 mg L(-1) (destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation process was carefully investigated by molecular weight distribution measurement, resin fractionation, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis, and toxicity test. As results, most organic pollutants were completely removed by electrochemical oxidation and the rest was primarily degraded to simpler compounds (e.g., carboxylic acids and short-chain alkanes) with less toxicity, which demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater with BDD anode was very effective and safe. Especially, the performance of BDD anode system in degradation of large molecular organics such as humic substances makes it very promising in practical applications as an advanced treatment of biologically-pretreated wastewaters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater using boron-doped diamond anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Wei, Junjun; Xing, Xuan; Li, Hongna

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater was performed in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system. After electrolysis of 12 h, the COD was decreased from 532 to 99 mg L -1 ( -1 , the National Discharge Standard of China). More importantly, the destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation process was carefully investigated by molecular weight distribution measurement, resin fractionation, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis, and toxicity test. As results, most organic pollutants were completely removed by electrochemical oxidation and the rest was primarily degraded to simpler compounds (e.g., carboxylic acids and short-chain alkanes) with less toxicity, which demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater with BDD anode was very effective and safe. Especially, the performance of BDD anode system in degradation of large molecular organics such as humic substances makes it very promising in practical applications as an advanced treatment of biologically-pretreated wastewaters.

  9. Occurrence of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in aqueous environment and their removal by biological and abiotic wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Česen, Marjeta; Kosjek, Tina; Laimou-Geraniou, Maria; Kompare, Boris; Širok, Brane; Lambropolou, Dimitra; Heath, Ester

    2015-09-15

    Cytostatic drug residues in the aqueous environment are of concern due to their possible adverse effects on non-target organisms. Here we report the occurrence and removal efficiency of cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) by biological and abiotic treatments including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Cyclophosphamide was detected in hospital wastewaters (14-22,000 ng L(-1)), wastewater treatment plant influents (19-27 ng L(-1)) and effluent (17 ng L(-1)), whereas IF was detected only in hospital wastewaters (48-6800 ng L(-1)). The highest removal efficiency during biological treatment (attached growth biomass in a flow through bioreactor) was 59 ± 15% and 35 ± 9.3% for CP and IF, respectively. Also reported are the removal efficiencies of both compounds from wastewater using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), ozonation (O3) and/or UV, either individually or in combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydrodynamic cavitation did not remove CP and IF to any significant degree. The highest removal efficiencies: 99 ± 0.71% for CP and 94 ± 2.4% for IF, were achieved using UV/O3/H2O2 at 5 g L(-1) for 120 min. When combined with biological treatment, removal efficiencies were >99% for both compounds. This is the first report of combined biological and AOP treatment of CP and IF from wastewater with a removal efficiency >99%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Elucidation of biotransformation of diclofenac and 4'hydroxydiclofenac during biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, Helene; Nastold, Peter; Beck, Birgit; Hollender, Juliane; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Wintgens, Thomas

    2016-01-15

    This study aimed at gaining knowledge on the degradation pathway during biological treatment of wastewater of diclofenac and 4'-hydroxydiclofenac, its main human metabolite. For that purpose, an aerobic MBR was acclimatised to diclofenac, and the MBR biomass subsequently incubated with (14)C-diclofenac or (14)C-4'hydroxydiclofenac over 25 days. It was demonstrated that diclofenac degradation was much slower and limited than that of 4'-hydroxydiclofenac. Indeed, after 18 days of batch incubation, diclofenac was removed up to 40%, this rate remained stable till the end of the experiment, while 4'-hydroxydiclofenac was completely degraded within nine days. The analyses of supernatant samples have shown that diclofenac degradation led to four transformation products, more polar than the parent compound, one of them being 4'-hydroxydiclofenac. The degradation of 4'-hydroxydiclofenac led to the formation of the same metabolites than those detected during diclofenac degradation. With these results, the hydroxylation of diclofenac to 4'-hydroxydiclofenac was identified as one major bottleneck in diclofenac degradation during biological treatment of wastewater. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Treatment of textiles industrial wastewater by electron beam and biological treatment (sbr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Zulkafli Ghazali; Ting Teo Ming

    2008-08-01

    Study of treating textiles industrial wastewater with combined of electron beam and Tower Style Biological Treatment (TSB) was investigated in Korea. In this project, textiles wastewater was also treated with electron beam, but hybrid with Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The purpose of this research is to develop combined electron beam treatment with existing biological treatment facility (SBR), of textile industries in Malaysia. The objectives of this project are to determine the effective irradiation parameter for treatment and to identify effective total retention time in SBR system. To achieve the objective, samples fill in polypropyle tray were irradiated at 1 MeV, 20 mA and 1 MeV ,5 mA at doses 11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy respectively. Raw effluent and two series of irradiated effluent at 1 MeV 20 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) and 1 MeV 5 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) were then treated in SBR system. Samples were analysed at 6, 14 and 20 hrs after aeration in the SBR. The results show that, average reduction in BOD was about 2-11% after irradiated at 5 mA, and the percentage increased to 21-73% after treatment in SBR system. At 20 mA, BOD reduced to 7-29% during irradiation and the value increased to 57-87% after treatment in SBR system. (Author)

  12. Integrated aerobic biological-chemical treatment of winery wastewater diluted with urban wastewater. LED-based photocatalysis in the presence of monoperoxysulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Rafael R; Rivas, Francisco Javier; Ferreira, Leonor C; Pirra, Antonio; Peres, José A

    2018-01-28

    The oxidation of Winery Wastewater (WW) by conventional aerobic biological treatment usually leads to inefficient results due to the presence of organic substances, which are recalcitrant or toxic in conventional procedures. This study explores the combination of biological and chemical processes in order to complete the oxidation of biodegradable and non-biodegradable compounds in two sequential steps. Thus, a biological oxidation of a diluted WW is carried out by using the activated sludge process. Activated sludge was gradually acclimated to the Diluted Winery Wastewater (DWW). Some aspects concerning the biological process were evaluated (kinetics of the oxidation and sedimentation of the sludge produced). The biological treatment of the DWW led to a 40-50% of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal in 8 h, being necessary the application of an additional process. Different chemical processes combining UVA-LEDs radiation, monoperoxysulfate (MPS) and photocatalysts were applied in order to complete the COD depletion and efficient removal of polyphenols content, poorly oxidized in the previous biological step. From the options tested, the combination of UVA, MPS and a novel LaCoO 3 -TiO 2 composite, with double route of MPS decomposition through heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis, led to the best results (95% of polyphenol degradation, and additional 60% of COD removal). Initial MPS concentration and pH effect in this process were assessed.

  13. Application of the BIOLOG system for characterization of Serratia marcescens ss marcescens isolated from onsite wastewater technology (OSWT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Joanna; Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to apply the Biolog system to identify and characterize a Serratia strain isolated from the surface of black plastic pieces which constitute the fluidized bed filter (onsite wastewater technology, OSWT). The preliminary isolation of the strain was done in the medium with tetracycline at a 16 mg/l concentration. To characterize the isolated strain, the following Biolog methods were applied: (1) EcoPlates microplates for evaluation of physiological profiling, (2) GEN III OmniLog® ID System for identification of the isolate, and (3) phenotypic microarrays (PM) technology for evaluation of sensitivity to antibiotics (PM11 and PM12). Results were recorded using the original OmniLog® software. The Serratia strain was identified as Serratia marcescens ss marcescens with similarity index 0.569. The same identification was obtained by the 16S rDNA analysis. PM analysis showed an enhancement of phenotype (resistance or growth) of this strain to 35 antibiotics. The loss of phenotype (sensitivity or non-growth) was observed only for 5 antibiotics: lomefloxacin (0.4 µg/ml), enoxacin (0.9 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (18.0 µg/ml), paromomycin (25.0 µg/ml) and novobiocin (1100 µg/ml). This study acknowledges that the methods proposed by the Biolog system allow correct and complete identification and characterization of the microbes isolated from different environments. Phenotypic microarrays could be successfully used as a new tool for identification of the multi-antibiotic resistance of bacteria and for determination of the minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC).

  14. Micropollutant removal during biological wastewater treatment and a subsequent ozonation step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaar, Heidemarie, E-mail: hschaar@iwag.tuwien.ac.a [Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Clara, Manfred; Gans, Oliver [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Lande 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kreuzinger, Norbert [Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    The design criteria for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the sludge retention time, respectively, have a significant impact on micropollutant removal. The upgrade of an Austrian municipal WWTP to nitrogen removal (best available technology, BAT) resulted in increased elimination of most of the analyzed micropollutants. Substances, such as bisphenol-A, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol and the antibiotics erythromycin and roxithromycin were only removed after the upgrade of the WWTP. Nevertheless, the BAT was not sufficient to completely eliminate these compounds. Thus, a pilot scale ozonation plant was installed for additional treatment of the effluent. The application of 0.6 g O{sub 3} g DOC{sup -1} increased the removal of most of the micropollutants, especially for compounds that were not degraded in the previous biological process, as for example carbamazepine and diclofenac. These results indicated that the ozonation of WWTP effluent is a promising technology to further decrease emissions of micropollutants from the treatment process. - SRT is an important criterion for micropollutant removal in wastewater treatment and the application of ozone is suitable for further removal of micropollutants.

  15. Removal of Furfural From Wastewater Using Integrated Catalytic Ozonation and Biological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Leili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Furfural with a chemical formula of C5H4O2 is a toxic compound which has several health problems for both humans and environment. It has a few exposure routes for entering the human body such as oral, dermal or nasal. In the present study, the efficacies of an integrated catalytic ozonation process (COP and novel cyclic biological reactor (CBR were explored for the removal of furfural from aqueous solutions. Activated carbon was purchased from Merck Company. It had a Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET specific surface area of 1100 m2/g, with an average micropore volume and size of 0.385 cm3/g and 595 µm, respectively. The results indicated that 30% pretreatment with COP could increase furfural and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiency with CBR 5.56% and 27.01%, respectively. With 70% pretreatment by COP, 98.57% furfural and 95.34% COD removal efficiencies happen in CBR. Generally, batch and continuous experiments showed that the integrated COP/CBR could be efficient in eliminating furfural from wastewater and thus may be a promising technique for treating furfural-containing wastewater.

  16. Micropollutant removal during biological wastewater treatment and a subsequent ozonation step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaar, Heidemarie; Clara, Manfred; Gans, Oliver; Kreuzinger, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The design criteria for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the sludge retention time, respectively, have a significant impact on micropollutant removal. The upgrade of an Austrian municipal WWTP to nitrogen removal (best available technology, BAT) resulted in increased elimination of most of the analyzed micropollutants. Substances, such as bisphenol-A, 17α-ethinylestradiol and the antibiotics erythromycin and roxithromycin were only removed after the upgrade of the WWTP. Nevertheless, the BAT was not sufficient to completely eliminate these compounds. Thus, a pilot scale ozonation plant was installed for additional treatment of the effluent. The application of 0.6 g O 3 g DOC -1 increased the removal of most of the micropollutants, especially for compounds that were not degraded in the previous biological process, as for example carbamazepine and diclofenac. These results indicated that the ozonation of WWTP effluent is a promising technology to further decrease emissions of micropollutants from the treatment process. - SRT is an important criterion for micropollutant removal in wastewater treatment and the application of ozone is suitable for further removal of micropollutants.

  17. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunlaja, O.O.; Parker, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD −1 d −1 for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD −1 d −1 . A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2

  18. The survey of biological absorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Wastewater stabilization pond algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nourisepehr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of aquatic habitats due to toxicity and accumulation of heavy metals leading to serious damage to organisms and their advance to the food chain. Chrome is one of these heavy metals for the three and six-valence oxides used in industry. Health risks such as carcinogenic hexavalent chromium have been For this reason, removal and reduction of environment is essential. Target of this study hexavalent chromium biosorption by waste stabilization pond algae is of the aquatic environment. Methods: This study was a fundamental applied; In this batch reactor, variables Was investigated pH(3,5,7,9,11, Contact time(30,60,120,180,240,300min, The concentration of hexavalent chromium(0.5,1,5mg And the concentration of algae(0.25, 0.5, 1, 3g. Liquid mixed municipal wastewater treatment stabilization pond was used for insemination. For the investigate the effects of variables pH, contact time, the concentration of hexavalent chromium values in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask prepared and various amounts of dried algae (0.25-0.5-1- 3 g were added to it. Then became the shakers. After mixing, the filter paper was passed. The lab temperature was centrifuged for min10-5 rpm 2700 rpm. Then it was read at a wavelength absorbed by 540 nm. . Then collected was data to Excel and SPSS software. Finally was used for hexavalent chromium adsorption isotherm model equation of Langmuir and Freundlich. Results: This study shows that PH, contact time, the concentration of hexavalent chromium and chromium concentrations of algae optimal absorption by algae concentrations, respectively, in5 mg / l, min 120, 0.5 mg / l and is 1gr. Average maximum absorption of chromium Wastewater stabilization ponds by algae 97/2%, respectively. Correlation coefficients absorption curves of these models showed that Cr (VI adsorption isotherm on wastewater stabilization pond algae follows (= R.  Conclusion: The results showed that wastewater stabilization pond algae as a

  19. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunlaja, O.O., E-mail: oogunlaj@uwaterloo.ca; Parker, W.J., E-mail: wjparker@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-05-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1} for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1}. A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2.

  20. The Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater on the Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Soils in Northwest Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Wahsha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination may influence negatively soil health, which often limits and sometimes disqualifies soil biodiversity and decreases plant growth. Soil health is the continued capacity of the soil to function as a vital living system, providing essential ecosystem services. Within soils, all bio-geo-chemical processes of the different ecosystem components are combined. These processes are able to sustain biological productivity of soil, to maintain the quality of surrounding air and water environments, as well as to promote plant, animal, and human health. A common criterion to evaluate long term sustainability of ecosystems is to assess the quality of soil. However, the increased concentration and distribution of toxic substances in soils by mismanagement of industrial activities, overuse of agrochemicals and waste disposal are causing worldwide concern. A major environmental concern in the Mediterranean countries is the production of the large quantities of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW produced during olive oil extraction process. OMW inhibits several groups of bacteria and fungal species, thus affecting soil stability. In the present study, we investigated the effect of OMW on the soil physical, chemical characteristics and the microarthropods structure. All soil samples were collected from an olive mill garden in Northwest Jordan. Biological soil quality index (QBS-ar values appeared to decrease with respect to soil pollution by OMW. All investigated parameters were significantly different depending on the levels of OMW contamination in soil. Anthropogenic activities influenced the microarthropod community, altering both quantity and quality of soil chemical and physical structure of the microhabitats. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggest that the application of QBS-ar index could be a useful tool for evaluating surface soils health status.

  1. Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by biological processes, hydrodynamic cavitation and UV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Mojca; Kosjek, Tina; Petkovšek, Martin; Dular, Matevž; Kompare, Boris; Širok, Brane; Blažeka, Željko; Heath, Ester

    2013-07-01

    To augment the removal of pharmaceuticals different conventional and alternative wastewater treatment processes and their combinations were investigated. We tested the efficiency of (1) two distinct laboratory scale biological processes: suspended activated sludge and attached-growth biomass, (2) a combined hydrodynamic cavitation-hydrogen peroxide process and (3) UV treatment. Five pharmaceuticals were chosen including ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, carbamazepine and diclofenac, and an active metabolite of the lipid regulating agent clofibric acid. Biological treatment efficiency was evaluated using lab-scale suspended activated sludge and moving bed biofilm flow-through reactors, which were operated under identical conditions in respect to hydraulic retention time, working volume, concentration of added pharmaceuticals and synthetic wastewater composition. The suspended activated sludge process showed poor and inconsistent removal of clofibric acid, carbamazepine and diclofenac, while ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen yielded over 74% removal. Moving bed biofilm reactors were filled with two different types of carriers i.e. Kaldnes K1 and Mutag BioChip™ and resulted in higher removal efficiencies for ibuprofen and diclofenac. Augmentation and consistency in the removal of diclofenac were observed in reactors using Mutag BioChip™ carriers (85%±10%) compared to reactors using Kaldnes carriers and suspended activated sludge (74%±22% and 48%±19%, respectively). To enhance the removal of pharmaceuticals hydrodynamic cavitation with hydrogen peroxide process was evaluated and optimal conditions for removal were established regarding the duration of cavitation, amount of added hydrogen peroxide and initial pressure, all of which influence the efficiency of the process. Optimal parameters resulted in removal efficiencies between 3-70%. Coupling the attached-growth biomass biological treatment, hydrodynamic cavitation/hydrogen peroxide process and UV treatment

  2. The viability of biological treatment at Ibi wastewater treatment station; Viabilidad del tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor Garcia, M.V.; Morenilla Martinez, J.J.; Ruiz Zapata, R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, we have proved the viability of biological treatment of leaving waters from Ibi Wastewater Treatment Station, where water is subject to the action of coagulant agents, following a physical and chemical process. the experience was based on wastewater treatment by using activated sludge, at experimental scale in a pilot plant. During the experiments, we controlled the main parameters which indicate treatment success; namely, Suspended Solids (SS), pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), in addition to other substances such as nutrients and toxicants, and inhibitors of bio metabolism. (Author) 6 refs.

  3. Interactions between physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic systems - impacts on receiving waters with different contents of treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzinger, N.

    2000-08-01

    Two scenarios have be chosen within this PhD Thesis to describe the integrative key-significance of interactions between most relevant physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic systems. These two case studies are used to illustrate and describe the importance of a detailed synthesis of biological, physical and chemical interactions in aquatic systems in order to provide relevant protection of water resources and to perform a sound water management. Methods are described to allow a detailed assessment of particular aspects within the complexity of the overall integration and therefore serve as a basis to determine the eventual necessity of proposed water management measures. Regarding the anthropogenic influence of treated wastewater on aquatic systems, one case study focuses on the interactions between emitted waters from a wastewater treatment plant and the resulting immission situation of its receiving water (The receiving water is quantitatively influenced by the treated wastewater by 95 %). This thesis proves that the effluent of wastewater treatment plants operated by best available technology meets the quality standards of running waters for the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, carbon-parameters, oxygen-regime and ecotoxicology. Within the second case study the focus is put on interactions between immissions and water usage. The general importance of biological phosphorus precipitation on the trophic situation of aquatic systems is described. Nevertheless, this generally known but within the field of applied limnology so far unrespected process of immobilization of phosphorus could be shown to represent a significant and major impact on phytoplannctotic development and eutrification. (author)

  4. Activating and inhibiting connections in biological network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of biochemical networks have analyzed network topology. Such work has suggested that specific types of network wiring may increase network robustness and therefore confer a selective advantage. However, knowledge of network topology does not allow one to predict network dynamical behavior – for example, whether deleting a protein from a signaling network would maintain the network's dynamical behavior, or induce oscillations or chaos. Results Here we report that the balance between activating and inhibiting connections is important in determining whether network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. We use a simple dynamical model of a network of interacting genes or proteins. Using the model, we study random networks, networks selected for robust dynamics, and examples of biological network topologies. The fraction of activating connections influences whether the network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. Conclusion The activating fraction may predispose a network to oscillate or reach steady state, and neutral evolution or selection of this parameter may affect the behavior of biological networks. This principle may unify the dynamics of a wide range of cellular networks. Reviewers Reviewed by Sergei Maslov, Eugene Koonin, and Yu (Brandon Xia (nominated by Mark Gerstein. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  5. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  6. Evaluation of toxicity to the biological treatment and removal of recalcitrant organic compounds from oil refineries wastewaters; Avaliacao da toxicidade ao tratamento biologico e remocao de compostos organicos recalcitrantes existentes em efluentes de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Junior, Laerte M.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Bezerra, Marcio S.; Pereira, Franklin M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Schmidell, Willibaldo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Oil industry waste water usually contains recalcitrant chemical compounds, like phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene and acenaphthene. The respirometry, determination of respiration rate of an active biomass, is an adequate methodology for quantification of aerobic activity biological. This study aims evaluate the inhibition effect of phenol in the oxidation capacity of an industrial sludge. This work also intends to study the phenol removal through biological and photochemical-biological processes. The respirometry was carried out with synthetic solution, using sludge from an oil processing industry. The phenol degradation experiments were carried out in an activated sludge unit and in a photochemical reactor. This work suggests the potential of photochemical-biological treatment use, in relation to the biological process with a no-acclimated sludge, in the removal of refractory organic compounds from oil industry wastewaters. The characterization of biomass using the respirometry methodology showed which is a useful tool in evaluation of phenol toxicity to biological treatment. (author)

  7. Colour and organic removal of biologically treated coffee curing wastewater by electrochemical oxidation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejankiwar, Rajesh S; Lokesh, K S; Gowda, T P Halappa

    2003-05-01

    The treatment of biologically treated wastewater of coffee-curing industry by the electrochemical oxidation using steel anode was investigated. Bench-scale experiments were conducted for activated sludge process on raw wastewater and the treated effluents were further treated by electrochemical oxidation method for its colour and organic content removal. The efficiency of the process was determined in terms of removal percentage of COD, BOD and colour during the course of reaction. Several operating parameters like time, pH and current density were examined to ascertain their effects on the treatment efficiency. Steel anode was found to be effective for the COD and colour removal with anode efficiency of 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) and energy consumption 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD at pH 9. The decrease in pH from 9 to 3 found to increase the anode efficiency from 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) to 0.144 kWh x kg(-1) of COD while decrease the energy consumption from 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD to 12.86 kWh x kg(-1) of COD. The pH of 5 was considered an ideal from the present treatment process as it avoids the addition of chemicals for neutralization of treated effluents and also economical with respect to energy consumption. An empirical relation developed for relationship between applied current density and COD removal efficiency showed strong predictive capability with coefficient of determination of 96.5%.

  8. Chemical and biological characterization of wastewater generated from hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai; Schideman, Lance; Scott, John; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-02-19

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an attractive method for converting wet biomass into petroleum-like biocrude oil that can be refined to make petroleum products. This approach is advantageous for conversion of low-lipid algae, which are promising feedstocks for sustainable large-scale biofuel production. As with natural petroleum formation, the water in contact with the produced oil contains toxic compounds. The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs) in wastewater from HTL conversion of Spirulina; (2) characterize mammalian cell cytotoxicity of specific NOCs, NOC mixture, and the complete HTL wastewater (HTL-WW) matrix; and (3) investigate mitigation measures to reduce toxicity in HTL-WW. Liquid-liquid extraction and nitrogen-phosphorus detection was used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which detected hundreds of NOCs in HTL-WW. Reference materials for nine of the most prevalent NOCs were used to identify and quantify their concentrations in HTL-WW. Mammalian cell cytotoxicity of the nine NOCs was quantified using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay, and the descending rank order for cytotoxicity was 3-dimethylamino-phenol > 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone > 2,6-dimethyl-3-pyridinol > 2-picoline > pyridine > 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone > σ-valerolactam > 2-pyrrolidinone > ε-caprolactam. The organic mixture extracted from HTL-WW expressed potent CHO cell cytotoxic activity, with a LC(50) at 7.5% of HTL-WW. Although the toxicity of HTL-WW was substantial, 30% of the toxicity was removed biologically by recycling HTL-WW back into algal cultivation. The remaining toxicity of HTL-WW was mostly eliminated by subsequent treatment with granular activated carbon.

  9. [Treatment effect of biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system on greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Kun; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Unorganized discharge of greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater has brought several negative influences on the ecological environment in the rural area of Yangtze River Delta. Biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system is a potential ecological method for greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater treatment. In order to explore the feasibility of this system and evaluate the contribution of vegetable uptake of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater, three types of vegetables, including Ipomoea aquatica, lettuce and celery were selected in this study. Results showed the combined system had a high capacity in simultaneous removal of organic matter, N and P. The removal efficiencies of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP from the wastewater reached up to 93.2%-95.6%, 97.2%-99.6%, 73.9%-93.1% and 74.9%-90.0%, respectively. System with I. aquatica had the highest efficiencies in N and P removal, followed by lettuce and celery. However, plant uptake was not the primary pathway for TN arid TP removal in the combined system. The vegetable uptake of N and P accounted for only 9.1%-25.0% of TN and TP removal from the wastewater while the effect of microorganisms would be dominant for N and P removal. In addition, the highest amounts of N and P uptake in I. aquatica were closely related with the biomass of plant. Results from the study indicated that the biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system was an effective approach to treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater in China.

  10. Development of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) for biological nitrogen removal in domestic wastewater treatment (Case study: Surabaya City, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, I. Made Wahyu; Soedjono, Eddy Setiadi; Fitriani, Nurina

    2017-11-01

    Domestic wastewater effluent is the main contributor to diverse water pollution problems. The contaminants contained in the wastewater lead the low quality of water. The presence of ammonium and nitrate along with phosphorus are potentially cause eutrophication and endanger aquatic life. Excess nutrients, mostly N and P is the main cause of eutrophication which is result in oxygen depletion, biodiversity reduction, fish kills, odor and increased toxicity. Most of the domestic wastewater in Surabaya City still contains nitrogen that exceeded the threshold. The range of ammonium and orthophosphate concentration in the domestic wastewater is between 6.29 mg/L - 38.91 mg/L and 0.44 mg/L - 1.86 mg/L, respectively. An advance biological nitrogen removal process called anammox is a sustainable and cost effective alternative to the basic method of nitrogen removal, such as nitrification and denitrification. Many research have been conducted through anammox and resulted promisingly way to remove nitrogen. In this process, ammonium will be oxidized with nitrite as an electron acceptor to produce nitrogen gas and low nitrate in anoxic condition. Anammox requires less oxygen demand, no needs external carbon source, and low operational cost. Based on its advantages, anammox is possible to apply in domestic wastewater treatment in Surabaya with many further studies.

  11. Successful startup of a full-scale acrylonitrile wastewater biological treatment plant (ACN-WWTP) by eliminating the inhibitory effects of toxic compounds on nitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuanyuan; Jin, Xibiao; Wang, Feng; Liu, Yongdi; Chen, Xiurong

    2014-01-01

    During the startup of a full-scale anoxic/aerobic (A/O) biological treatment plant for acrylonitrile wastewater, the removal efficiencies of NH(3)-N and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) were 1.29 and 0.83% on day 30, respectively. The nitrification process was almost totally inhibited, which was mainly caused by the inhibitory effects of toxic compounds. To eliminate the inhibition, cultivating the bacteria that degrade toxic compounds with patience was applied into the second startup of the biological treatment plant. After 75 days of startup, the inhibitory effects of the toxic compounds on nitrification were eliminated. The treatment plant has been operated stably for more than 3 years. During the last 100 days, the influent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH(3)-N, TKN and total cyanide (TCN) were 831-2,164, 188-516, 306-542 and 1.17-9.57 mg L(-1) respectively, and the effluent concentrations were 257 ± 30.9, 3.30 ± 1.10, 31.6 ± 4.49 and 0.40 ± 0.10 mg L(-1) (n = 100), respectively. Four strains of cyanide-degrading bacteria which were able to grow with cyanide as the sole carbon and nitrogen source were isolated from the full-scale biological treatment plant. They were short and rod-shaped under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and were identified as Brevundimonas sp., Rhizobium sp., Dietzia natronolimnaea and Microbacterium sp., respectively.

  12. Configuration of biological wastewater treatment line and influent composition as the main factors driving bacterial community structure of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaranowska, Paulina; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    The structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment facilities is a resultant of environmental conditions created by the operational parameters of the purification process. In the research, activated sludge from nine Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated at a molecular level to determine the impact of the complexity of biological treatment line and the influent composition on the species structure and the diversity of bacterial consortia. The community fingerprints and technological data were subjected to the canonical correspondence and correlation analyses. The number of separated biological processes realized in the treatment line and the presence of industrial wastewater in the influent were the key factors determining the species structure of total and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biomass. The N2O-reducers community composition depended significantly on the design of the facility; the highest species richness of denitrifiers was noted in the WWTPs with separated denitrification tanks. The contribution of industrial streams to the inflow affected the diversity of total and denitrifying bacterial consortia and diminished the diversity of ammonia oxidizers. The obtained data are valuable for engineers since they revealed the main factors, including the design of wastewater treatment plant, influencing the microbial groups critical for the stability of purification processes.

  13. Advanced biological activated carbon filter for removing pharmaceutically active compounds from treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, Luca; Comas, Joaquim; Fenu, Alessio; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Weemaes, Marjoleine

    2018-04-28

    Through their release of effluents, conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) represent a major pollution point sources for pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in water bodies. The combination of a biological activated carbon (BAC) filter coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) unit was evaluated as an advanced treatment for PhACs removal at pilot scale. The BAC-UF pilot plant was monitored for one year. The biological activity of the biofilm that developed on the granular activated carbon (GAC) particles and the contribution of this biofilm to the overall removal of PhACs were evaluated. Two different phases were observed during the long-term monitoring of PhACs removal. During the first 9200 bed volumes (BV; i.e., before GAC saturation), 89, 78, 83 and 79% of beta-blockers, psychiatric drugs, antibiotics and a mix of other therapeutic groups were removed, respectively. The second phase was characterized by deterioration of the overall performances during the period between 9200 and 13,800 BV. To quantify the respective contribution of adsorption and biodegradation, a lab-scale setup was operated for four months and highlighted the essential role played by GAC in biofiltration units. Physical adsorption was indeed the main removal mechanism. Nevertheless, a significant contribution due to biological activity was detected for some PhACs. The biofilm contributed to the removal of 22, 25, 30, 32 and 35% of ciprofloxacin, bezafibrate, ofloxacin, azithromycin and sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Winery wastewater inhibits seed germination and vegetative growth of common crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Kim P M; Patti, Antonio F; Christen, Evan W; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

    2010-08-15

    The ability to reuse winery wastewater would be of significant benefit to the wine industry, as it could potentially be a cost-effective method of wastewater management, whilst at the same time providing a valuable water resource. This study investigated the effects of different dilutions of a semi-synthetic winery wastewater on the growth and germination of four common crop species in a glasshouse study; barley (Hordeum vulgare), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), lucerne (Medicago sativa) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica). The wastewater caused a significant delay in the germination of lucerne, millet and phalaris, although overall germination percentage of all species was not affected. Vegetative growth was significantly reduced in all species, with millet being the most severely affected. The germination index of barley correlated very highly (r(2)=0.99) with barley biomass, indicating that barley seed germination bioassays are highly relevant to plant growth, and therefore may be of use as a bioassay for winery wastewater toxicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Integration of an innovative biological treatment with physical or chemical disinfection for wastewater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sanctis, Marco; Del Moro, Guido; Levantesi, Caterina; Luprano, Maria Laura; Di Iaconi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the effectiveness of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) and its integration with different disinfection strategies (UV irradiation, peracetic acid) for producing an effluent suitable for agricultural use was evaluated. The plant treated raw domestic sewage, and its performances were evaluated in terms of the removal efficiency of a wide group of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The SBBGR resulted really efficient in removing suspended solids, COD and nitrogen with an average effluent concentration of 5, 32 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Lower removal efficiency was observed for phosphorus with an average concentration in the effluent of 3 mg/L. Plant effluent was also characterized by an average electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio of 680 μS/cm and 2.9, respectively. Therefore, according to these gross parameters, the SBBGR effluent was conformed to the national standards required in Italy for agricultural reuse. Moreover, disinfection performances of the SBBGR was higher than that of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants and met the quality criteria suggested by WHO (Escherichia coli < 1000 CFU/100 mL) for agricultural reuse. In particular, the biological treatment by SBBGR removed 3.8 ± 0.4 log units of Giardia lamblia, 2.8 ± 0.8 log units of E. coli, 2.5 ± 0.7 log units of total coliforms, 2.0 ± 0.3 log units of Clostridium perfringens, 2.0 ± 0.4 log units of Cryptosporidium parvum and 1.7 ± 0.7 log units of Somatic coliphages. The investigated disinfection processes (UV and peracetic acid) resulted very effective for total coliforms, E. coli and somatic coliphages. In particular, a UV radiation and peracetic acid doses of 40 mJ/cm"2 and 1 mg/L respectively reduced E. coli content in the effluent below the limit for agricultural reuse in Italy (10 CFU/100 mL). Conversely, they were both ineffective on C.perfringens spores. - Highlights: • SBBGR system showed high

  16. Integration of an innovative biological treatment with physical or chemical disinfection for wastewater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sanctis, Marco, E-mail: marco.desanctis@ba.irsa.cnr.it [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via F. De Blasio 5, 70123 Bari (Italy); Del Moro, Guido [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via F. De Blasio 5, 70123 Bari (Italy); Levantesi, Caterina; Luprano, Maria Laura [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via Salaria Km 29.600, 00015 Monterotondo, RM (Italy); Di Iaconi, Claudio [Water Research Institute, CNR, Via F. De Blasio 5, 70123 Bari (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    In the present paper, the effectiveness of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) and its integration with different disinfection strategies (UV irradiation, peracetic acid) for producing an effluent suitable for agricultural use was evaluated. The plant treated raw domestic sewage, and its performances were evaluated in terms of the removal efficiency of a wide group of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The SBBGR resulted really efficient in removing suspended solids, COD and nitrogen with an average effluent concentration of 5, 32 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Lower removal efficiency was observed for phosphorus with an average concentration in the effluent of 3 mg/L. Plant effluent was also characterized by an average electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio of 680 μS/cm and 2.9, respectively. Therefore, according to these gross parameters, the SBBGR effluent was conformed to the national standards required in Italy for agricultural reuse. Moreover, disinfection performances of the SBBGR was higher than that of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants and met the quality criteria suggested by WHO (Escherichia coli < 1000 CFU/100 mL) for agricultural reuse. In particular, the biological treatment by SBBGR removed 3.8 ± 0.4 log units of Giardia lamblia, 2.8 ± 0.8 log units of E. coli, 2.5 ± 0.7 log units of total coliforms, 2.0 ± 0.3 log units of Clostridium perfringens, 2.0 ± 0.4 log units of Cryptosporidium parvum and 1.7 ± 0.7 log units of Somatic coliphages. The investigated disinfection processes (UV and peracetic acid) resulted very effective for total coliforms, E. coli and somatic coliphages. In particular, a UV radiation and peracetic acid doses of 40 mJ/cm{sup 2} and 1 mg/L respectively reduced E. coli content in the effluent below the limit for agricultural reuse in Italy (10 CFU/100 mL). Conversely, they were both ineffective on C.perfringens spores. - Highlights: • SBBGR system showed high

  17. Inhibition effect of phosphorus-based chemicals on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhanhui; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) could supply a viable alternative water resource for cooling water systems. Inorganic salts in the concentrated cooling water pose a great challenge to corrosion control chemicals. In this study, the inhibition effect of 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) and 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA) on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated MWW was investigated by the means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of inhibitors. The corrosion rates of carbon steel were 1.5, 0.8, 0.2 and 0.5 mm a(-1) for blank, HEDP, ATMP and PBTCA samples at 50 mg L(-1), respectively. The phosphorus-based chemicals could adsorb onto the surface of the carbon steel electrode, form a coat of protective film and then protect the carbon steel from corrosion in the test solution.

  18. Enhance wastewater biological treatment through the bacteria induced graphene oxide hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Jin, Ziheng; Wang, Dian; Wang, Yuanpeng; Lu, Yinghua

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between bacteria and graphene-family materials like pristine graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is such an elusive issue that its implication in environmental biotechnology is unclear. Herein, two kinds of self-assembled bio-rGO-hydrogels (BGHs) were prepared by cultivating specific Shewanella sp. strains with GO solution for the first time. The microscopic examination by SEM, TEM and CLSM indicated a porous 3D structure of BGHs, in which live bacteria firmly anchored and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) abundantly distributed. Spectra of XRD, FTIR, XPS and Raman further proved that GO was reduced to rGO by bacteria along with the gelation process, which suggests a potential green technique to produce graphene. Based on the characterization results, four mechanisms for the BGH formation were proposed, i.e., stacking, bridging, rolling and cross-linking of rGO sheets, through the synergistic effect of activities and EPS from special bacteria. More importantly, the BGHs obtained in this study were found able to achieve unique cleanup performance that the counterpart free bacteria could not fulfill, as exemplified in Congo red decolorization and Cr(VI) bioreduction. These findings therefore enlighten a prospective application of graphene materials for the biological treatment of wastewaters in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of emerging pollutants in urban wastewater and their removal through biological treatment followed by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Roberto; Rodríguez, Antonio; Perdigón-Melón, José Antonio; Petre, Alice; García-Calvo, Eloy; Gómez, María José; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-01-01

    This work reports a systematic survey of over seventy individual pollutants in a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) receiving urban wastewater. The compounds include mainly pharmaceuticals and personal care products, as well as some metabolites. The quantification in the ng/L range was performed by Liquid Chromatography-QTRAP-Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry. The results showed that paraxanthine, caffeine and acetaminophen were the main individual pollutants usually found in concentrations over 20 ppb. N-formyl-4-amino-antipiryne and galaxolide were also detected in the ppb level. A group of compounds including the beta-blockers atenolol, metoprolol and propanolol; the lipid regulators bezafibrate and fenofibric acid; the antibiotics erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, the antiinflammatories diclofenac, indomethacin, ketoprofen and mefenamic acid, the antiepileptic carbamazepine and the antiacid omeprazole exhibited removal efficiencies below 20% in the STP treatment. Ozonation with doses lower than 90 microM allowed the removal of many individual pollutants including some of those more refractory to biological treatment. A kinetic model allowed the determination of second order kinetic constants for the ozonation of bezafibrate, cotinine, diuron and metronidazole. The results show that the hydroxyl radical reaction was the major pathway for the oxidative transformation of these compounds. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of nitrate and sulphate from biologically treated municipal wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun Kumar; Chopra, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation observed the effect of current density ( j), electrocoagulation (EC) time, inter electrode distance, electrode area, initial pH and settling time on the removal of nitrate (NO3 -) and sulphate (SO4 2-) from biologically treated municipal wastewater (BTMW), and optimization of the operating conditions of the EC process. A glass chamber of two-liter volume was used for the experiments with DC power supply using two electrode plates of aluminum (Al-Al). The maximum removal of NO3 - (63.21 %) and SO4 2- (79.98 %) of BTMW was found with the optimum operating conditions: current density: 2.65 A/m2, EC time: 40 min, inter electrode distance: 0.5 cm, electrode area: 160 cm2, initial pH: 7.5 and settling time: 60 min. The EC brought down the concentration of NO3 - within desirable limit of the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS)/WHO for drinking water. Under optimal operating conditions, the operating cost was found to be 1.01/m3 of water in terms of the electrode consumption (23.71 × 10-5 kg Al/m3) and energy consumption (101.76 kWh/m3).

  1. Performance of Submerged Aerated Biofilters for Wastewater Treatment and Excess Biological Sludge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Baghapour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing sludge production in the treatment facility is a reasonable measure to reduce waste in sewage treatment, especially as regards excess biological sludge. In this regard, submerged aerated filters' (SAFs have recently found increasing applications in treatment facilities. Thanks to their treatment mechanism, they have greatly contributed to reduction of waste production and, thereby, to reduced treatment costs. Biomass growths of both attached and suspended types take place in these filters. However, little attention has been paid to suspended sludge production and to its relationship with the physical properties of the filter. The design and application criterion for these filters is the organic loadings on unit of area or unit of volume of the media used in these filters. In this study, four filters with different physical properties and different specific areas were loaded with synthetic wastewater made of low-fat dry milk powder for five different hydraulic retention times to evaluate excess sludge production rates in submerged aerated filters. It was shown that increasing specific area increased SCOD removal efficiency up to a maximum level in saturated growths after which point the removal efficiency remained unchanging or decreased. The results also revealed that decreased hydraulic retention times increased sludge production rates in all the study columns and that media with higher porosity levels produced less excess sludge despite lower pollutant removal efficiency.

  2. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.

  3. Removal of pharmaceuticals in biologically treated wastewater by chlorine dioxide or peracetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, G.; Ledin, Anna; La Cour Jansen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    l and clofibric acid, a metabol i te of clofibrate) were used as target substances at 40 (g/L ini tial concentration. Three di fferent wastewaters types originating from two WWTPs were used. One wastewater was col lected after extended ni trogen removal in activated sludge, one after treatment wi th...

  4. Destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater using boron-doped diamond anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiuping [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, the Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing100871 (China); Ni, Jinren, E-mail: nijinren@iee.pku.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, the Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing100871 (China); Wei, Junjun; Xing, Xuan; Li, Hongna [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, the Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing100871 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater was performed in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system. After electrolysis of 12 h, the COD was decreased from 532 to 99 mg L{sup -1} (<100 mg L{sup -1}, the National Discharge Standard of China). More importantly, the destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation process was carefully investigated by molecular weight distribution measurement, resin fractionation, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis, and toxicity test. As results, most organic pollutants were completely removed by electrochemical oxidation and the rest was primarily degraded to simpler compounds (e.g., carboxylic acids and short-chain alkanes) with less toxicity, which demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater with BDD anode was very effective and safe. Especially, the performance of BDD anode system in degradation of large molecular organics such as humic substances makes it very promising in practical applications as an advanced treatment of biologically-pretreated wastewaters.

  5. Biological nutrient removal from municipal wastewater in sequencing batch biofilm reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnz, P

    2001-07-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has only been put into practice in activated sludge systems. In recent years, the Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) has emerged as an alternative allowing EBPR to be achieved in a biofilm reactor. High efficiency of phosphate removal was demonstrated in a SBBR fed with synthetic wastewater containing acetate. The aim of this study was to investigate EBPR from municipal wastewater in semi full-scale and laboratory-scale SBBRs. The focus of the investigation in the semi full-scale reactor was on determination of achievable reaction rates and effluent concentrations under varying influent conditions throughout all seasons of a year. Interactions between nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the influence of backwashing on the reactor performance was examined. Summing up, it can be stated that the SBBR proved to be an attractive alternative to activated sludge systems. Phosphorus elimination efficiency was comparable to common systems but biomass sedimentation problems were avoided. In order to further exploit the potential of the SBBR and to achieve reactor performances superior to those of existing systems designing a special biofilm carrier material may allow to increase the phenomenon of simultaneous nitrification/denitrification while maintaining EBPR activity. (orig.) [German] Die vermehrte biologische Phosphorelimination (Bio-P) aus Abwasser wurde bisher nur in Belebtschlammsystemen praktiziert. In den letzten Jahren konnte jedoch gezeigt werden, dass sich durch die Anwendung des Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) - Verfahrens auch in Biofilmreaktoren Bio-P verwirklichen laesst. Versuche in Laboranlagen haben ergeben, dass sich eine weitgehende Phosphorelimination aufrecht erhalten laesst, wenn die Reaktoren mit einem ideal zusammengesetzten, synthetischen Abwasser beschickt werden. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, Bio-P aus kommunalem Abwasser in SBBR-Versuchsanlagen im halbtechnischen und im Labormassstab zu

  6. Identification of microorganisms involved in nitrogen removal from wastewater treatment systems by means of molecular biology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, M.; Alonso-Gutierrez, J.; Campos, J. L.; Mendez, R.; Mosquera-Corral, A.

    2010-01-01

    The identification of the main bacteria populations present in the granular biomass from a biological reactor treating wastewater has been performed by applying two different molecular biology techniques. By means of the DGGE technique five different genera of heterotrophic bacteria (Thiothrix, Thauera, Cloroflexi, Comamonas y Zoogloea) and one of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomanas) were identified. The FISH technique, based on microscopy, allowed the in situ visualization and quantification of those microorganisms. Special attention was paid to filamentous bacteria distribution (Thiothrix and Cloroflexi) which could exert a structural function in aerobic granular sludge. (Author) 26 refs.

  7. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved

  8. On the applicability of a hybrid bioreactor operated with polymeric tubing for the biological treatment of saline wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Stazi, Valentina; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Effective biological treatment of high salt content wastewater requires consideration of both salt and organic toxicity. This study treated a synthetic saline wastewater containing NaCl (100gL -1 ) and 2,4-dimethylphenol (1.2gL -1 ) with a hybrid system consisting of a biological reactor containing spiral-coiled polymeric tubing through which the mixed feed was pumped. The tubing wall was permeable to the organic contaminant, but not to the salt, which allowed transfer of the organic into the cell-containing bioreactor contents for degradation, while not exposing the cells to high salt concentrations. Different grades of DuPont Hytrel polymer were examined on the basis of organic affinity predictions and experimental partition and mass transfer tests. Hytrel G3548 tubing showed the highest permeability for 2,4-dimethylphenol while exerting an effective salt barrier, and was used to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. Very high organic removal (99% after just 5h of treatment) and effective biodegradation of the organic fraction of the wastewater (>90% at the end of the test) were observed. Complete salt separation from the microbial culture was also achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Critical operational parameters for zero sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes combined with sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2005-09-01

    Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the effect of these parameters on the performance of anoxic/oxic biological wastewater processes combined with sludge disintegrators (A/O-SD). The model equations were also applied for analyses of activated sludge processes hybrid with sludge disintegrators (AS-SD). Solubilization ratio of sludge in the sludge disintegrator, alpha, hardly affected sludge reduction efficiencies if the biomass was completely destructed to smaller particulates. On the other hand, conversion efficiency of non-biodegradable particulates to biodegradable particulates, beta, significantly affected sludge reduction efficiencies because beta was directly related to the accumulation of non-biodegradable particulates in bioreactors. When 30% of sludge in the oxic tank was disintegrated everyday and beta was 0.5, sludge reduction was expected to be 78% and 69% for the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes, respectively. Under this condition, the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is the amount of sludge disintegrated divided by the reduced sludge, was calculated to be around 4. Due to the sludge disintegration, live biomass concentration decreased while other non-biodegradable particulates concentration increased. As a consequence, the real F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M. The effluent COD was maintained almost constant for the range of sludge disintegration rate considered in this study. Nitrogen removal efficiencies of the A/O-SD process was hardly affected by the sludge disintegration until daily sludge disintegration reaches 40% of sludge in the oxic tank. Above this level of sludge disintegration, autotrophic biomass concentration decreases overly and TKN in the effluent increases abruptly in both the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes. Overall, the trends of sludge reduction and effluent quality according to operation parameters matched well with experimental results

  10. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated abattoir wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannoun, H.; Bouallagui, H.; Okbi, A.; Sayadi, S.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrolysis pretreatment of abattoir wastewaters (AW), rich in organic suspended solids (fats and protein) was studied in static and stirred batch reactors without aeration in the presence of natural microbial population acclimated in a storage tank of AW. Microbial analysis showed that the major populations which contribute to the pretreatment of AW belong to the genera Bacillus. Contrary to the static pretreatment, the stirred conditions favoured the hydrolysis and solubilization of 80% of suspended matter into soluble pollution. The pretreated AW, in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days, was fed to an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) at an HRT of 2 days. The performance of anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated AW was examined under mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. The shifting from a mesophilic to a thermophilic environment in the UAF was carried out with a short start-up of thermophilic condition. The UAF ran at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.9 to 6 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions and at OLRs from 0.9 to 9 g COD/L d in thermophilic conditions. COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% were achieved for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions, while the highest OLRs i.e. 9 g COD/L d led to efficiencies of 70-72% in thermophilic conditions. The biogas yield in thermophilic conditions was about 0.32-0.45 L biogas/g of COD removed for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d. For similar OLR, the UAF in mesophilic conditions showed lower percentage of methanization. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been shown to destroy pathogens partially, whereas the thermophilic process was more efficient in the removal of indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria at different organic loading rates.

  11. Continuous-flow photocatalytic treatment of pharmaceutical micropollutants: Activity, inhibition, and deactivation of TiO2 photocatalysts in wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Carbonaro, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts have been shown to be effective at degrading a wide range of organic micropollutants during short-term batch experiments conducted under ideal laboratory solution conditions (e.g., deionized water). However, little research has been performed regarding longer-term photocatalyst performance in more complex matrices representative of contaminated water sources (e.g., wastewater effluent, groundwater). Here, a benchtop continuous-flow reactor was developed for the purpose of studying the activity, inhibition, and deactivation of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysts during water treatment applications. As a demonstration, degradation of four pharmaceutical micropollutants (iopromide, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine) was monitored in both a pH-buffered electrolyte solution and a biologically treated wastewater effluent (WWE) to study the effects of non-target constituents enriched in the latter matrix. Reactor performance was shown to be stable over 7d when treating micropollutants in buffered electrolyte, with 7-d averaged kobs values (acetaminophen=0.97±0.10h-1; carbamazepine=0.50±0.04h-1; iopromide=0.49±0.03h-1; sulfamethoxazole=0.79±0.06h-1) agreeing closely with measurements from short-term circulating batch reactions. When reactor influent was switched to WWE, treatment efficiencies decreased to varying degrees (acetaminophen=40% decrease; carbamazepine=60%; iopromide=78%; sulfamethoxazole=54%). A large fraction of the catalyst activity was recovered upon switching back to the buffered electrolyte influent after 4d, suggesting that much of the observed decrease resulted from reversible inhibition by non-target constituents (e.g., scavenging of photocatalyst-generated OH). However, there was also a portion of the decrease in activity that was not recovered, indicating WWE constituents also contributed to photocatalyst deactivation (acetaminophen=6% deactivation; carbamazepine=24%; iopromide=16

  12. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  13. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  14. Performance of a modified multi-stage bubble column reactor for lead(II) and biological oxygen demand removal from wastewater using activated rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, J.N.; Agarwal, S.; Meikap, B.C.; Biswas, M.N.

    2009-01-01

    The excessive release of wastewater into the environment is a major concern worldwide. Adsorption is the one of the most effective technique for treatment of wastewater. In this work activated carbon prepared from rice husk has been used as an adsorbent. In the present investigation a three phase modified multi-stage bubble column reactor (MMBCR) has been designed to remove lead and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from wastewater by means of its adsorption onto the surface of activated rice husk. The multi-staging has been achieved by hydrodynamically induced continuous bubble generation, breakup and regeneration. Under optimum conditions, maximum lead and BOD reduction achieved using activated rice husk was 77.15% and 19.05%, respectively. Results showed MMBCR offered appreciated potential benefits for lead removal from wastewater and BOD removal, even this extent of removal is encouraging and the MMBCR can be used a pretreatment unit before subjecting the wastewater to biological treatment

  15. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  16. Performance of a modified multi-stage bubble column reactor for lead(II) and biological oxygen demand removal from wastewater using activated rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, J N; Agarwal, S; Meikap, B C; Biswas, M N

    2009-01-15

    The excessive release of wastewater into the environment is a major concern worldwide. Adsorption is the one of the most effective technique for treatment of wastewater. In this work activated carbon prepared from rice husk has been used as an adsorbent. In the present investigation a three phase modified multi-stage bubble column reactor (MMBCR) has been designed to remove lead and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from wastewater by means of its adsorption onto the surface of activated rice husk. The multi-staging has been achieved by hydrodynamically induced continuous bubble generation, breakup and regeneration. Under optimum conditions, maximum lead and BOD reduction achieved using activated rice husk was 77.15% and 19.05%, respectively. Results showed MMBCR offered appreciated potential benefits for lead removal from wastewater and BOD removal, even this extent of removal is encouraging and the MMBCR can be used a pretreatment unit before subjecting the wastewater to biological treatment.

  17. Inhibition of the nitrification process in municipal wastewater treatment plants by industrial discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Winther-Nielsen, M.; Jorgensen, L.

    1994-01-01

    of inhibitory substances are to be found among the industries, and that nearly all of the industries investigated exhibited some kind of inhibitory effect. Further, is was demonstrated that the toxic unit calculation might be used in the quantification of the sources, and that the observed effects could...... be explained by the chemical substances in the wastewater from the industries. Based on the above described results, a strategy for control of the inhibitory effects at the different levels of the catchment area was suggested....

  18. Monitoring the biological activity of micropollutants during advanced wastewater treatment with ozonation and activated carbon filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macova, M; Escher, B I; Reungoat, J; Carswell, S; Chue, K Lee; Keller, J; Mueller, J F

    2010-01-01

    A bioanalytical test battery was used to monitor the removal efficiency of organic micropollutants during advanced wastewater treatment in the South Caboolture Water Reclamation Plant, Queensland, Australia. This plant treats effluent from a conventional sewage treatment plant for industrial water reuse. The aqueous samples were enriched using solid-phase extraction to separate some organic micropollutants of interest from metals, nutrients and matrix components. The bioassays were chosen to provide information on groups of chemicals with a common mode of toxic action. Therefore they can be considered as sum indicators to detect certain relevant groups of chemicals, not as the most ecologically or human health relevant endpoints. The baseline toxicity was quantified with the bioluminescence inhibition test using the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The specific modes of toxic action that were targeted with five additional bioassays included aspects of estrogenicity, dioxin-like activity, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and phytotoxicity. While the accompanying publication discusses the treatment steps in more detail by drawing from the results of chemical analysis as well as the bioanalytical results, here we focus on the applicability and limitations of using bioassays for the purpose of determining the treatment efficacy of advanced water treatment and for water quality assessment in general. Results are reported in toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ), that is, the concentration of a reference compound required to elicit the same response as the unknown and unidentified mixture of micropollutants actually present. TEQ proved to be useful and easily communicable despite some limitations and uncertainties in their derivation based on the mixture toxicity theory. The results obtained were reproducible, robust and sensitive. The TEQ in the influent ranged in the same order of magnitude as typically seen in effluents of conventional sewage treatment plants. In the

  19. Sewage sludge and wastewater fertilisation of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for increased bioenergy production - Biological and economic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriou, I.; Rosenqvist, H.

    2011-01-01

    Application of municipal residues, e.g. wastewater or sewage sludge, to Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) is among the most attractive methods for attaining environmental and energy goals set for Europe. At current woodchip prices in Sweden, the gross margin for SRC cultivation is positive only if biomass production is >9 t DM/ha yr. The gross profit margin increases (by 39 and 199 EUR/GJ, respectively) if sewage sludge and wastewater are applied to SRC. Application of residues to SRC has proved to be an acceptable alternative treatment method, and the farmer's profit can be markedly increased if compensation is paid for waste treatment. If all available sludge and wastewater were applied to SRC plantations, they could be grown on large agricultural areas in Europe, and c. 6000 PJ of renewable energy could be produced annually. However, a more economical landuse strategy, e.g. the use of more P-rich residues, appears more rational, and is biologically justifiable. (author)

  20. Research on sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) for synthetic and municipal wastewater treatment in biological aerated filter (BAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Renbo; Yue, Min; Han, Shuxin; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Yu, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and clay ceramic particles (CCP) were employed in two lab-scale up-flow biological aerated filters (BAF) for wastewater treatment to investigate the availability of SFCP used as biofilm support compared with CCP. For synthetic wastewater, under the selected hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1.5, 0.75 and 0.37 h, respectively, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) in SFCP reactor were all higher than those of CCP reactor all through the media height. Moreover, better capabilities responding to loading shock and faster recovery after short intermittence were observed in the SFCP reactor compared with the CCP reactor. For municipal wastewater treatment, which was carried out under HRT of 0.75 h, air-liquid ratio of 7.5 and backwashing period of 48 h, the SFCP reactor also performed better than the CCP reactor, especially for the removal of NH(4)(+)-N.

  1. Sewage sludge and wastewater fertilisation of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for increased bioenergy production - Biological and economic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, I. [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7043, SE 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Rosenqvist, H. [Department of Agriculture-Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 17, SE-261 21 Billeberga (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    Application of municipal residues, e.g. wastewater or sewage sludge, to Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) is among the most attractive methods for attaining environmental and energy goals set for Europe. At current woodchip prices in Sweden, the gross margin for SRC cultivation is positive only if biomass production is >9 t DM/ha yr. The gross profit margin increases (by 39 and 199 EUR/GJ, respectively) if sewage sludge and wastewater are applied to SRC. Application of residues to SRC has proved to be an acceptable alternative treatment method, and the farmer's profit can be markedly increased if compensation is paid for waste treatment. If all available sludge and wastewater were applied to SRC plantations, they could be grown on large agricultural areas in Europe, and c. 6000 PJ of renewable energy could be produced annually. However, a more economical landuse strategy, e.g. the use of more P-rich residues, appears more rational, and is biologically justifiable. (author)

  2. Detection of a wide variety of human and veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Soares, Ana Dulce; Adejumo, Hollie; McDiarmid, Melissa; Squibb, Katherine; Blaney, Lee

    2015-03-15

    As annual sales of antibiotics continue to rise, the mass of these specially-designed compounds entering municipal wastewater treatment systems has also increased. Of primary concern here is that antibiotics can inhibit growth of specific microorganisms in biological processes of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or in downstream ecosystems. Growth inhibition studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that solutions containing 1-10 μg/L of fluoroquinolones can inhibit microbial growth. Wastewater samples were collected on a monthly basis from various treatment stages of a 30 million gallon per day WWTP in Maryland, USA. Samples were analyzed for the presence of 11 fluoroquinolone antibiotics. At least one fluoroquinolone was detected in every sample. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin exhibited detection frequencies of 100% and 98%, respectively, across all sampling sites. Concentrations of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater were as high as 1900 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and 600 ng/L for ofloxacin. Difloxacin, enrofloxacin, fleroxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, and orbifloxacin were also detected at appreciable concentrations of 9-170 ng/L. The total mass concentration of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater was in the range that inhibited E. coli growth, suggesting that concerns over antibiotic presence in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water are valid. The average removal efficiency of fluoroquinolones during wastewater treatment was approximately 65%; furthermore, the removal efficiency for fluoroquinolones was found to be negatively correlated to biochemical oxygen demand removal and positively correlated to phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Purification of biologically treated Tehran refinery oily wastewater using reverse osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salahi, Abdolhamid; Mohammadi, Toraj; Fini, Mahdi Nikbakht

    2012-01-01

    were found to be complex. By increasing acidic and basic nature of the feed, permeation flux was found to increase but rejection decrease. At original oily wastewater composition, high rejection of TDS (87%), COD (95%), BOD5 (95%), TOC (90%), turbidity (82%) and oil and grease content (87%) along...

  4. Operational and biological analyses of branched water-adjustment and combined treatment of wastewater from a chemical industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Cao, Jiashun; Li, Chao; Tu, Yong; Wu, Haisuo; Liu, Weijing

    2018-01-01

    The combined biological processes of branched water-adjustment, chemical precipitation, hydrolysis acidification, secondary sedimentation, Anoxic/Oxic and activated carbon treatment were used for chemical industrial wastewater treatment in the Taihu Lake Basin. Full-scale treatment resulted in effluent chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, NH 3 -N and total phosphorus of 35.1, 5.20, 3.10 and 0.15 mg/L, respectively, with a total removal efficiency of 91.1%, 67.1%, 70.5% and 89.3%, respectively. In this process, short-circuited organic carbon from brewery wastewater was beneficial for denitrification and second-sulfate reduction. The concentration of effluent fluoride was 6.22 mg/L, which also met the primary standard. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed that many types of refractory compounds were present in the inflow. Microbial community analysis performed in the summer by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and MiSeq demonstrated that certain special functional bacteria, such as denitrificans, phosphorus-accumulating bacteria, sulfate- and perhafnate-reducing bacteria, aromatic compound-degrading bacteria and organic fluoride-degrading bacteria, present in the bio-tanks were responsible for the acceptable specific biological pollutant reduction achieved.

  5. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  6. Development of biological treatment known as SBR process for supporting radiation treatment of industrial wastewater using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Siti Aishah Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali; Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Ismail Yaziz

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation of wastewater is capable of degrading stable non-biodegradable compound. However it requires high dose and in turn increase the cost of operation. A combination of irradiation and biological treatment is expected to overcome this problem. In this study, the treatment system will use a biological process known as Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The SBR will be developed in a series and each series consist of reaction tank and clarifier tank. Filling and reaction step will occur in reaction tank while settling, decanting and idling step will ensue in the clarifier tank. The process is designed as such to enable rapid and simultaneous analysis on treated sample in order to achieve reliable results. (Author)

  7. External and internal sources which inhibit the nitrification process in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinkjær, O.; Bøgebjerg, P.; Grüttner, H.

    1996-01-01

    the nitrification capacity monitored at the pilot plants has been in agreement with the design basis. The recycling of the scrubber water from the cleaning of sludge incineration flue gas was found to be an important internal source of inhibition at the Lynetten WWTP. Investigations show that it is possible...

  8. Biological treatment of nitrate bearing wastewater from a uranium production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benear, A.K.; Kneip, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) produces uranium metal products used for DOE defense programs resulting in the generation of nitrate-bearing wastewaters. To treat these wastewaters, a two-column fluidized bed biodenitrification facility (BDN) was constructed at the FMPC. The operation of the BDN resulted in substantial compliance with the design criteria limits for nitrate from July through November, 1987. Since the BDN surge lagoon (BSL) proved inadequate for providing nitrate concentration equalization, the BDN feed nitrate concentration fluctuated widely throughout this period of operation. BDN effluent caused a doubling of the hydraulic loading and a tripling of the organic loading on the FMPC sewage treatment plant (STP). Better control of the methanol feed to the BDN, coupled with reduced throughput and improved preaeration, caused a significant improvement in the operation of the STP. The overloading of the STP prompted a decision to add a stand-alone effluent treatment system to the BDN

  9. Study of the aerobic biological treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben yahmed, Nesrine

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the performance of aerobic treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by a side-stream membrane bioreactor (MBR) with semi-frontal filtration and to evaluate the sludge production generated by this system treatment. The MBR was fed with a flow rate of 5 L/d. The wastewater used in this study was collected from the WWTP Ellouhoum following pretreatment operations. They are characterized by an average total COD concentration of approximately 2 g/L. The mass load applied to the system was 0.18 g COD/gVSS.d. The results show that COD and total nitrogen removal efficiencies are respectively estimated at 90.66 pour cent and 92.86 pour cent. Treatment with MBR also allows a total elimination of TSS, fecal coliforms and pathogens. With a total biomass recycling, low sludge yield (Yobs) of 0.106 gTSS/g COD eliminated was obtained.

  10. Instability of biological nitrogen removal in a cokes wastewater treatment facility during summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Mo; Park, Donghee; Lee, Dae Sung; Park, Jong Moon

    2007-01-01

    Failure in nitrogen removal of cokes wastewater occurs occasionally during summer season (38 deg. C) due to the instability of nitrification process. The objective of this study was to examine why the nitrification process is unstable especially in summer. Various parameters such as pH, temperature, nutrients and pollutants were examined in batch experiments using activated sludge and wastewater obtained from a full-scale cokes wastewater treatment facility. Batch experiments showed that nitrification rate of the activated sludge was faster in summer (38 deg. C) than in spring or autumn (29 deg. C) and the toxic effects of cyanide, phenol and thiocyanate on nitrification were reduced with increasing temperature. Meanwhile, experiment using continuous reactor showed that the reduction rate in nitrification efficiency was higher at 38 deg. C than at 29 deg. C. In conclusion, the instability of full-scale nitrification process in summer might be mainly due to washing out of nitrifiers by fast growth of competitive microorganisms at higher temperature under increased concentrations of phenol and thiocyanate

  11. Uncertainty assessment of a model for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal: Application to a large wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Cosenza, Alida; Viviani, Gaspare

    In the last few years, the use of mathematical models in WasteWater Treatment Plant (WWTP) processes has become a common way to predict WWTP behaviour. However, mathematical models generally demand advanced input for their implementation that must be evaluated by an extensive data-gathering campaign, which cannot always be carried out. This fact, together with the intrinsic complexity of the model structure, leads to model results that may be very uncertain. Quantification of the uncertainty is imperative. However, despite the importance of uncertainty quantification, only few studies have been carried out in the wastewater treatment field, and those studies only included a few of the sources of model uncertainty. Seeking the development of the area, the paper presents the uncertainty assessment of a mathematical model simulating biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The uncertainty assessment was conducted according to the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology that has been scarcely applied in wastewater field. The model was based on activated-sludge models 1 (ASM) and 2 (ASM2). Different approaches can be used for uncertainty analysis. The GLUE methodology requires a large number of Monte Carlo simulations in which a random sampling of individual parameters drawn from probability distributions is used to determine a set of parameter values. Using this approach, model reliability was evaluated based on its capacity to globally limit the uncertainty. The method was applied to a large full-scale WWTP for which quantity and quality data was gathered. The analysis enabled to gain useful insights for WWTP modelling identifying the crucial aspects where higher uncertainty rely and where therefore, more efforts should be provided in terms of both data gathering and modelling practises.

  12. Fungal bioremediation of olive mill wastewater: using a multi-step approach to model inhibition or stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Cibelli, Francesca; Raimondo, Maria Luisa; Carlucci, Antonia; Lops, Francesco; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2017-01-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs) possess a strong environmental impact; the use of fungi as tools for bioremediation could be a promising method. Twenty-nine fungi were grown on minimal media supplemented with five different kinds of OMWWs (5-15%). Radial growth was assessed for 21 days and the data were modelled through the Dantigny-logistic like function to estimate τ, i.e. the time to attain half of the maximum diameter. Growth on potato dextrose agar and water agar (WA, minimal medium without supplementation) was used as reference. The differences in τ between PDA/WA and minimal media with OMWWs were modelled through a multi-factorial ANOVA, using the concentration of OMWW, the kind of wastes and fungi as categorical predictors. Finally, a principal component analysis was run to group and divide resistant and sensitive fungi. Some fungi experienced a positive Δτ, thus suggesting an inhibition by OMWW, whereas other isolates were enhanced. Some isolates (for example Aspergillus ochraceus) showed a promising trend and could be possible candidates for a validation on a real scale. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Biological nitrate removal from water and wastewater by solid-phase denitrification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlong; Chu, Libing

    2016-11-01

    Nitrate pollution in receiving waters has become a serious issue worldwide. Solid-phase denitrification process is an emerging technology, which has received increasing attention in recent years. It uses biodegradable polymers as both the carbon source and biofilm carrier for denitrifying microorganisms. A vast array of natural and synthetic biopolymers, including woodchips, sawdust, straw, cotton, maize cobs, seaweed, bark, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), polycaprolactone (PCL), polybutylene succinate (PBS) and polylactic acid (PLA), have been widely used for denitrification due to their good performance, low cost and large available quantities. This paper presents an overview on the application of solid-phase denitrification in nitrate removal from drinking water, groundwater, aquaculture wastewater, the secondary effluent and wastewater with low C/N ratio. The types of solid carbon source, the influencing factors, the microbial community of biofilm attached on the biodegradable carriers, the potential adverse effect, and the cost of denitrification process are introduced and evaluated. Woodchips and polycaprolactone are the popular and competitive natural plant-like and synthetic biodegradable polymers used for denitrification, respectively. Most of the denitrifiers reported in solid-phase denitrification affiliated to the family Comamonadaceae in the class Betaproteobacteria. The members of genera Diaphorobacter, Acidovorax and Simplicispira were mostly reported. In future study, more attention should be paid to the simultaneous removal of nitrate and toxic organic contaminants such as pesticide and PPCPs by solid-phase denitrification, to the elucidation of the metabolic and regulatory relationship between decomposition of solid carbon source and denitrification, and to the post-treatment of the municipal secondary effluent. Solid-phase denitrification process is a promising technology for the removal of nitrate from water and wastewater. Copyright © 2016

  14. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was

  15. Metagenomics and in situ analyses reveal Propionivibrio spp. to be abundant GAO in biological wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Albertsen, Mads; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely applied for phosphorus removal from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth. However, glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) may...... reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excess polyphosphate. “Candidatus Accumulibacter” is widely considered to be the important PAO. In this study a laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor was operated for EBPR for the enrichment of “Ca. Accumulibacter......”. Applying the PAOmix probe set, routinely applied to target the “Ca. Accumulibacter”, suggested a PAO enrichment of 70% of the biovolume by FISH. Known GAOs were detected in low abundance with FISH (PAO and GAO...

  16. Effect of foam on temperature prediction and heat recovery potential from biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbala-Robles, L; Volcke, E I P; Samijn, A; Ronsse, F; Pieters, J G

    2016-05-15

    Heat is an important resource in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which can be recovered. A prerequisite to determine the theoretical heat recovery potential is an accurate heat balance model for temperature prediction. The insulating effect of foam present on the basin surface and its influence on temperature prediction were assessed in this study. Experiments were carried out to characterize the foam layer and its insulating properties. A refined dynamic temperature prediction model, taking into account the effect of foam, was set up. Simulation studies for a WWTP treating highly concentrated (manure) wastewater revealed that the foam layer had a significant effect on temperature prediction (3.8 ± 0.7 K over the year) and thus on the theoretical heat recovery potential (30% reduction when foam is not considered). Seasonal effects on the individual heat losses and heat gains were assessed. Additionally, the effects of the critical basin temperature above which heat is recovered, foam thickness, surface evaporation rate reduction and the non-absorbed solar radiation on the theoretical heat recovery potential were evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of Chemically Modified and Unmodified Waste Biological Sorbents in Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kanayochukwu Nduka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein wastes (feathers, goat hair and cellulosic wastes (corn cob, coconut husks were collected and washed with detergent solution, thoroughly rinsed and sun dried for 2 days before drying in an oven, and then ground. One-half of ground material was carbonized at a maximum temperature of 500°C after mixing with H2SO4. The carbonized parts were pulverized; both carbonized and uncarbonized sorbents were sieved into two particle sizes of 325 and 625 μm using mechanical sieve. Sorbents of a given particle size were packed into glass column.Then, textile wastewater that had its physicochemical parameters previously determined was eluted into each glass column and a contact time of 60 and 120 mins was allowed before analysis. Results showed 48.15–99.98 percentage reduction of NO3−, EC, Cl−, BOD, COD, DO, TSS, and TDS, 34.67–99.93 percentage reduction of NO3−, EC, Cl−, BOD, COD, DO, TSS, and TDS, 52.83–97.95 percentage reduction of Pb2+, Ni2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ and 34.59–94.87 percentage reduction of Pb2+, Ni2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+. Carbonization, small particle, size and longer contact time enhanced the sorption capabilities of the sorbents. These show that protein and cellulosic wastes can be used to detoxify wastewater.

  18. Integrated biological and advanced oxidation based treatment of hexamine bearing wastewater: Effect of cow-dung as a co-substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Mandeep Kumar; Mittal, Atul K., E-mail: akmittal@civil.iitd.ac.in

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Treatment by biological process and Fenton’s reagent. • Cow dung as co-substrate. • Hydrolysis of wastewater improved treatment. - Abstract: This work examines the treatment of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) bearing effluent from N, N-dinitroso pentamethylene tetra-mine producing industrial plants in India. Chemical treatment using Fenton’s reagent and aerobic treatment using batch reactors with co-substrate were investigated. Aerobic batch reactors integrated with advanced oxidation process of Fenton’s reagent provides effective treatment of HMT effluents. Influence of Fenton’s reagent dose reaction/contact and effect of varying co-substrate with effluent initial concentration was observed. Higher dose 100 mL of Fenton’s reagent with higher reaction time 20 h resulted better degradation (34.88%) of wastewater. HMT hydrolyzes in acidic environment to ammonia and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde under normal conditions is toxic for biological treatment processes. When hydrolysis and acidification in the reactors are accompanied by low pH, aerobic batch reactors with use of co-substrates glucose, sucrose, and cow-dung extract separately in different proportion to wastewater ranging from 0.67 to 4.00, degraded wastewater effectively. Higher proportion of co-substrate to wastewater resulted better degradation. The relationships between nitrate, pH, turbidity and COD are discussed.

  19. Integrated biological and advanced oxidation based treatment of hexamine bearing wastewater: Effect of cow-dung as a co-substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mandeep Kumar; Mittal, Atul K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Treatment by biological process and Fenton’s reagent. • Cow dung as co-substrate. • Hydrolysis of wastewater improved treatment. - Abstract: This work examines the treatment of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) bearing effluent from N, N-dinitroso pentamethylene tetra-mine producing industrial plants in India. Chemical treatment using Fenton’s reagent and aerobic treatment using batch reactors with co-substrate were investigated. Aerobic batch reactors integrated with advanced oxidation process of Fenton’s reagent provides effective treatment of HMT effluents. Influence of Fenton’s reagent dose reaction/contact and effect of varying co-substrate with effluent initial concentration was observed. Higher dose 100 mL of Fenton’s reagent with higher reaction time 20 h resulted better degradation (34.88%) of wastewater. HMT hydrolyzes in acidic environment to ammonia and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde under normal conditions is toxic for biological treatment processes. When hydrolysis and acidification in the reactors are accompanied by low pH, aerobic batch reactors with use of co-substrates glucose, sucrose, and cow-dung extract separately in different proportion to wastewater ranging from 0.67 to 4.00, degraded wastewater effectively. Higher proportion of co-substrate to wastewater resulted better degradation. The relationships between nitrate, pH, turbidity and COD are discussed.

  20. Effectiveness of Biology-Based Methods for Inhibiting Orthodontic Tooth Movement. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, M; Yañez-Vico, R M; Solano-Reina, E; Palma-Fernandez, J C; Iglesias-Linares, A

    Several experimental studies in the literature have tested different biology-based methods for inhibiting or decreasing orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in humans. This systematic review investigated the effects of these interventions on the rate of tooth movement. Electronic [MedLine; SCOPUS; Cochrane Library; OpenGrey;Web of Science] and manual searches were conducted up to January 26th, 2016 in order to identify publications of clinical trials that compared the decreasing or inhibiting effects of different biology-based methods over OTM in humans. A primary outcome (rate of OTM deceleration/inhibition) and a number of secondary outcomes were examined (clinical applicability, orthodontic force used, possible side effects). Two reviewers selected the studies complying with the eligibility criteria (PICO format) and assessed risk of bias [Cochrane Collaboration's tool]. Data collection and analysis were performed following the Cochrane recommendations. From the initial electronic search, 3726 articles were retrieved and 5 studies were finally included. Two types of biology-based techniques used to reduce the rate of OTM in humans were described: pharmacological and low-level laser therapy. In the first group, human Relaxin was compared to a placebo and administered orally. It was described as having no effect on the inhibition of OTM in humans after 32 days, while the drug tenoxicam, injected locally, inhibited the rate of OTM by up to 10% in humans after 42 days. In the second group, no statistically significant differences were reported, compared to placebo, for the rate of inhibition of OTM in humans after 90 days of observation when a 860 nm continuous wave GaAlA slow-level laser was used. The currently available data do not allow us to draw definitive conclusions about the use of various pharmacological substances and biology-based therapies in humans able to inhibit or decrease the OTM rate. There is an urgent need for more sound well-designed randomized

  1. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Lauren B.; Su, Lijuan; Moline, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox...... under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3 mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them...... and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation...

  2. Biological treatment of phenolic wastewater in an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firozjaee Taghizade Tahere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (ACSTR with consortium of mixed culture was operated continuously for a period of 110 days. The experiments were performed with three different hydraulic retention times and by varying initial phenol concentrations between 100 to 1000 mg/L. A maximum phenol removal was observed at a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 4 days, with an organic loading rate (OLR of 170.86 mg/L.d. At this condition, phenol removal rate of 89% was achieved. In addition, the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal corresponds to phenol removal. Additional operating parameters such as pH, MLSS and biogas production rate of the effluents were also measured. The present study provides valuable information to design an anaerobic ACSTR reactor for the biodegradation of phenolic wastewater.

  3. Biological hydrogen production from probiotic wastewater as substrate by selectively enriched anaerobic mixed microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishna, D.; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500072, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anjaneyulu, Y. [TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, JSU, Jackson, MS 32917-0939 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Biohydrogen production from probiotic wastewater using mixed anaerobic consortia is reported in this paper. Batch tests are carried out in a 5.0 L batch reactor under constant mesophillic temperature (37 C). The maximum hydrogen yield 1.8 mol-hydrogen/mol-carbohydrate is obtained at an optimum pH of 5.5 and substrate concentration 5 g/L. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 168 ml/h. The hydrogen content in the biogas is more than 65% and no significant methane is observed throughout the study. In addition to hydrogen, acetate, propionate, butyrate and ethanol are found to be the main by-products in the metabolism of hydrogen fermentation. (author)

  4. Impact of treated wastewater on organismic biosensors at various levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topić Popović, Natalija; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Klobučar, Roberta Sauerborn; Barišić, Josip; Babić, Sanja; Jadan, Margita; Kepec, Slavko; Kazazić, Snježana P.; Matijatko, Vesna; Beer Ljubić, Blanka; Car, Ivan; Repec, Siniša; Stipaničev, Draženka

    2015-01-01

    Relating the treated wastewater quality and its impact on organismic biosensors (Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and earthworm, Eisenia fetida) was the main objective of the study. The impact on health status of fish living downstream, microbiological contamination and antimicrobial resistance, fish tissue structure, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress, genotoxic effects, as well as multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) was assessed. Treated wastewater discharged from the WWTP modified the environmental parameters and xenobiotic concentrations of the receiving surface waters. Potential bacterial pathogens from fish and respective waters were found in relatively low numbers, although they comprised aeromonads with a zoonotic potential. High resistance profiles were determined towards the tested antimicrobial compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Histopathology primarily revealed gill lamellar fusion and reduction of interlamellar spaces of effluent fish. A significant increase in plasma values of urea, total proteins, albumins and triglycerides and a significant decrease in the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase were noted in carp from the effluent-receiving canal. Micronucleus test did not reveal significant differences between the examined groups, but a higher frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities was found in fish sampled from the effluent-receiving canal. Earthworms indicated to the presence of MXR inhibitors in water and sludge samples, thus proving as a sensitive sentinel organism for environmental pollutants. The integrative approach of this study could serve as a guiding principle in conducting evaluations of the aquatic habitat health in complex bio-monitoring studies. - Highlights: • Bacteria from fish and water have a zoonotic potential and might pose a health risk • High antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined; particularly to SMX • The sediment total antibiotic concentrations decreased with distance

  5. Screening and identification of efficient strain in selenium oxyanions sorption in order to biological wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh yaghoobizadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an element with antioxidant activities that plays roles in thyroid hormone homeostasis, immunity and also fertility. Nevertheless, selenium toxicity (selenosis causes problems for humans such as abnormalities of the nervous system, gastrointestinal problems and hair loss. Thus, this study was performed with the aim of bacterial biosorbent isolation in order to remove selenium contaminant from wastewater. Materials and methods: In this research, at first using modified Luria- Bertani agar (mLBA medium with certain concentration of sodium selenate salt, isolation of bacterial isolates was done from three collected wastewater and sludge samples from Khouzestan industrial factories. After determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, the sorption capacity and the percentage of metal removal efficiency (%RE were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer using metabolically active and inactive samples belonging to an efficient isolate. Identification was performed by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. Results: Among 73 attained bacterial isolates at the first stage, 8 selenate oxyanion resistant isolates were gathered. Among these, AMS1-S8 isolate with MIC= 600­mM and MBC= 1200­mM were selected for more studies. Attained results in sorption mechanism determination stage showed that the sorption capacity in metabolically active sample is more than the inactive samples. Based on the identification results, it is revealed that this isolate belongs to the Enterobacter genus. This isolate is deposited as accession JQ965667 in the GeneBank database. Discussion and conclusion: The results showed that active biomass of selected isolate, have most sorption capacity and %RE and among the other isolates, have high partial resistance against selenate. Therefore, it can be a relatively ideal option for the bioremediation of polluted environments.

  6. Impact of treated wastewater on organismic biosensors at various levels of biological organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topić Popović, Natalija, E-mail: ntopic@irb.hr [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Klobučar, Roberta Sauerborn; Barišić, Josip; Babić, Sanja; Jadan, Margita [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Kepec, Slavko [Virkom d.o.o, Public Water Supply and Wastewater Services, Kralja Petra Krešimira IV 30, Virovitica. Croatia (Croatia); Kazazić, Snježana P. [Laboratory for Chemical Kinetics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Matijatko, Vesna; Beer Ljubić, Blanka [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, Zagreb (Croatia); Car, Ivan [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Repec, Siniša; Stipaničev, Draženka [Croatian Waters, Main Water Management Laboratory, Ul. grada Vukovara 220, Zagreb (Croatia); and others

    2015-12-15

    Relating the treated wastewater quality and its impact on organismic biosensors (Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and earthworm, Eisenia fetida) was the main objective of the study. The impact on health status of fish living downstream, microbiological contamination and antimicrobial resistance, fish tissue structure, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress, genotoxic effects, as well as multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) was assessed. Treated wastewater discharged from the WWTP modified the environmental parameters and xenobiotic concentrations of the receiving surface waters. Potential bacterial pathogens from fish and respective waters were found in relatively low numbers, although they comprised aeromonads with a zoonotic potential. High resistance profiles were determined towards the tested antimicrobial compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Histopathology primarily revealed gill lamellar fusion and reduction of interlamellar spaces of effluent fish. A significant increase in plasma values of urea, total proteins, albumins and triglycerides and a significant decrease in the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase were noted in carp from the effluent-receiving canal. Micronucleus test did not reveal significant differences between the examined groups, but a higher frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities was found in fish sampled from the effluent-receiving canal. Earthworms indicated to the presence of MXR inhibitors in water and sludge samples, thus proving as a sensitive sentinel organism for environmental pollutants. The integrative approach of this study could serve as a guiding principle in conducting evaluations of the aquatic habitat health in complex bio-monitoring studies. - Highlights: • Bacteria from fish and water have a zoonotic potential and might pose a health risk • High antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined; particularly to SMX • The sediment total antibiotic concentrations decreased with distance

  7. The Biological Behaviors of Rat Dermal Fibroblasts Can Be Inhibited by High Levels of MMP9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Neng Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To explore the effects of the high expression of MMP9 on biological behaviors of fibroblasts. Methods. High glucose and hyperhomocysteine were used to induce MMP9 expression in skin fibroblasts. Cell proliferation was detected by flow cytometry and cell viability by CCK-8. ELISA assay was used to detect collagen (hydroxyproline secretion. Scratch test was employed to evaluate horizontal migration of cells and transwell method to evaluate vertical migration of cells. Results. The mRNA and protein expressions of MMP9 and its protease activity were significantly higher in cells treated with high glucose and hyperhomocysteine than those in control group. At the same time, the S-phase cell ratio, proliferation index, cell viability, collagen (hydroxyproline secretion, horizontal migration rate, and the number of vertical migration cells decreased in high-glucose and hyperhomocysteine-treated group. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1, which inhibits the activity of MMP9, recovered the above biological behaviors. Conclusions. High expression of MMP9 in skin fibroblasts could be induced by cultureing in high glucose and hyperhomocysteine medium, which inhibited cell biological behaviors. Inhibitions could be reversed by TIMP1. The findings suggested that MMP9 deters the healing of diabetic foot ulcers by inhibiting the biological behaviors of fibroblasts.

  8. Identification of transformation products of antiviral drugs formed during biological wastewater treatment and their occurrence in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jan; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    The fate of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, emtricitabine, ganciclovir, lamivudine and zidovudine) was investigated in biological wastewater treatment. Investigations of degradation kinetics were accompanied by the elucidation of formed transformation products (TPs) using activated sludge lab experiments and subsequent LC-HRMS analysis. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.46 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (zidovudine) and 55.8 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (abacavir). Despite these differences of the degradation kinetics, the same main biotransformation reaction was observed for all five compounds: oxidation of the terminal hydroxyl-moiety to the corresponding carboxylic acid (formation of carboxy-TPs). In addition, the oxidation of thioether moieties to sulfoxides was observed for emtricitabine and lamivudine. Antiviral drugs were detected in influents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with concentrations up to 980 ng L(-1) (emtricitabine), while in WWTP effluents mainly the TPs were found with concentration levels up to 1320 ng L(-1) (carboxy-abacavir). Except of zidovudine none of the original antiviral drugs were detected in German rivers and streams, whereas the concentrations of the TPs ranged from 16 ng L(-1) for carboxy-lamivudine up to 750 ng L(-1) for carboxy-acyclovir. These concentrations indicate an appreciable portion from WWTP effluents present in rivers and streams, as well as the high environmental persistence of the carboxy-TPs. As a result three of the carboxylic TPs were detected in finished drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fate and biological effects of silver, titanium dioxide, and C60 (fullerene) nanomaterials during simulated wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yifei; Westerhoff, Paul; Hristovski, Kiril D.

    2012-01-01

    As engineered nanomaterials (NMs) become used in industry and commerce their loading to sewage will increase. In this research, sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with hydraulic (HRT) and sludge (SRT) retention times representative of full-scale biological WWTPs for several weeks. Under environmentally relevant NM loadings and biomass concentrations, NMs had negligible effects on ability of the wastewater bacteria to biodegrade organic material, as measured by chemical oxygen demand (COD). Carboxy-terminated polymer coated silver nanoparticles (fn-Ag) were removed less effectively (88% removal) than hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols; >90% removal), nano TiO 2 (>95% removal) or aqueous fullerenes (nC 60 ; >95% removal). Experiments conducted over 4 months with daily loadings of nC 60 showed that nC 60 removal from solution depends on the biomass concentration. Under conditions representative of most suspended growth biological WWTPs (e.g., activated sludge), most of the NMs will accumulate in biosolids rather than in liquid effluent discharged to surface waters. Significant fractions of fn-Ag were associated with colloidal material which suggests that efficient particle separation processes (sedimentation or filtration) could further improve removal of NM from effluent.

  10. A novel integration of three-dimensional electro-Fenton and biological activated carbon and its application in the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Jia, Shengyong; Li, Kun

    2015-11-01

    A novel integrated process with three-dimensional electro-Fenton (3D EF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) was employed in advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. SAC-Fe (sludge deserved activated carbon from sewage and iron sludge) and SAC (sludge deserved activated carbon) were used in 3D EF as catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) and in BAC as carriers respectively. Results indicated that 3D EF with SAC-Fe as CPEs represented excellent pollutants and COLOR removals as well as biodegradability improvement. The efficiency enhancement attributed to generating more H2O2 and OH. The integrated process exhibited efficient performance of COD, BOD5, total phenols, TOC, TN and COLOR removals at a much shorter retention time, with the corresponding concentrations in effluent of 31.18, 6.69, 4.29, 17.82, 13.88mg/L and <20 times, allowing discharge criteria to be met. The integrated system was efficient, cost-effective and ecological sustainable and could be a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial nitrate removal in biologically enhanced treated coal gasification wastewater of low COD to nitrate ratio by coupling biological denitrification with iron and carbon micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengwen; Han, Yuxing; Xu, Chunyan; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Zheng, Mengqi; Zhu, Hao; Ma, Weiwei

    2018-04-21

    Mixotrophic denitrification coupled biological denitrification with iron and carbon micro-electrolysis (IC-ME) is a promising emerging bioprocess for nitrate removal of biologically enhanced treated coal gasification wastewater (BECGW) with low COD to nitrate ratio. TN removal efficiency in R1 with IC-ME assisted was 16.64% higher than R2 with scrap zero valent iron addition, 23.05% higher than R3 with active carbon assisted, 30.51% higher than R4 with only active sludge addition, 80.85% higher than R5 utilizing single IC-ME as control. Fe 2+ generated from IC-ME decreased the production of N 2 O and enriched more Nitrate-reducing Fe(Ⅱ) oxidation bacteria (NRFOB) Acidovorax and Thiobacillus, which could convert nitrate to nitrogen gas. And the presence of Fe 3+ , as the Fe 2+ oxidation product, could stimulate the growth of Fe(III)-reducing strain (FRB) that indicated by redundancy analysis. Microbial network analysis demonstrated FRB Geothrix had a co-occurrence relationship with other bacteria, revealing its dominant involvement in nitrate removal of BECGW. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Separation, Characterization and Fouling Potential of Sludge Waters from Different Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Jinkai

    2011-07-01

    The major limitation, which hinders the wider application of membrane technology and increases the operating costs of membranes involved in wastewater treatment plants, is membrane fouling induced by organic matter. Extracellular polymeric products (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the two most mentioned major foulants in publications, for which the debate on precise definitions seems to be endless. Therefore, a concept of sludge water, which conceptually covers both EPS and SMP, has been developed in this research. A standard procedure of sludge water separation, which is centrifugation at 4000g for 15 min followed by 1.2μm glass fiber filter filtration, was established based on separation experiments with membrane tank sludge from the KAUST MBR wastewater treatment plant. Afterwards, sludge waters from the KAUST MBR WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and membrane tank as well as sludge waters from the Jeddah WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and secondary effluent were produced through the previously developed standard procedure. The obtained sludge water samples were thereafter characterized with TOC/COD, LC-­‐OCD and F-­‐EEM, which showed that KAUST anoxic/ aerobic /membrane tank sludge waters had similar characteristics for all investigated parameters, yet the influent naturally had a higher DOC and biopolymer concentration. Moreover, lower TOC/COD, negligible biopolymers and low levels of humics were found in KAUST effluent. Compared with the KAUST MBR WWTP, the Jeddah WWTP’s sludge waters generally had higher DOC and biopolymer concentrations. To investigate sludge water fouling potential, the KAUST membrane tank sludge water as well as the Jeddah secondary effluent were filtrated through a membrane array consisting of an ultrafiltration (UF) Millipore RC10kDa at the first step followed by a nanofiltration (NF) KOCH Acid/Base stable NF200 at the second step. It was found that cake layer and standard blocking occurred simultaneously during both

  13. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Lauren B., E-mail: lstadler@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Su, Lijuan, E-mail: lijuansu@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Moline, Christopher J., E-mail: christopher.moline@hdrinc.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ernstoff, Alexi S., E-mail: alexer@dtu.dk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Aga, Diana S., E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Love, Nancy G., E-mail: nglove@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • Pharmaceutical fate was studied in SBRs operated at different redox conditions. • Stable carbon oxidation and nitrification occurred under microaerobic conditions. • Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest under fully aerobic conditions. • Loss of sulfamethoxazole was highest under microaerobic conditions. • Deconjugation occurred during treatment to form sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine. - Abstract: We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3 mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss.

  14. A Novel Method of Biological Start-up in Arak Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Khalili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Startup is one of the most important stages in the operation of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. In this paper, a novel method is presented for the startup of Arak Activated Sludge WWTP, which is shown to contain more advantages than other common methods. In this method, a portion of the inflow is initially allowed to enter gradually into an aeration basin prior to seeding. Under these conditions, less seeding is required due to the low flow of the influent and the low volume of the aeration basin. Once MLSS in the basin reaches the desired level, the rest of the system comes into operation and the sludge developed in the system is used for further seeding. In the case of the WWPT in Arak, it took about 2 months for the total MLSS to be developed and wasting the sludge to start because of the cold weather conditions in the region. The wasted sludge was controlled by the F/M ratio at a constant sludge age. During the start-up, the MLSS increase exhibited a linear trend and the low loading allowed for the variation in influent contaminants to be controlled. The effluent contaminants were below the standard levels recommended by the Environment Protection Organization. BOD5 and COD removals increased from 40% and 60% to 90% and TSS removal increased from 70% to 96%. Lower loading levels, better process control, and lower sludge processing costs are the benefits of this system

  15. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Lauren B.; Su, Lijuan; Moline, Christopher J.; Ernstoff, Alexi S.; Aga, Diana S.; Love, Nancy G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pharmaceutical fate was studied in SBRs operated at different redox conditions. • Stable carbon oxidation and nitrification occurred under microaerobic conditions. • Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest under fully aerobic conditions. • Loss of sulfamethoxazole was highest under microaerobic conditions. • Deconjugation occurred during treatment to form sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine. - Abstract: We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3 mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss

  16. Removal of pigments from molasses wastewater by combining micro-electrolysis with biological treatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ben; Tian, Xiaofei; Yu, Lian; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-12-01

    Pigments in molasses wastewater (MWW) effluent, such as melanoidins, were considered as kinds of the most recalcitrant and hazardous colorant contaminants to the environment. In this study, de-coloring the MWW by a synergistic combination of micro-electrolysis with bio-treatment was performed. Aiming to a high de-colorization yield, levels of nutrition source supplies, MWW dilution ratio, and micro-electrolysis reaction time were optimized accordingly. For a diluted (50 %, v/v) MWW, an maximum overall de-colorization yield (97.1 ± 0.5 %, for absorbance at 475 nm) was achieved through the bio-electrolysis treatment. In electrolysis bio-treatment, the positive effect of micro-electrolysis was also revealed by a promoted growth of fungal biomass as well as activities of ligninolytic enzymes. Activities of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase were promoted by 111.2, 103.9, and 7.7 %, respectively. This study also implied that the bio-treatment and the micro-electrolysis had different efficiencies on removal of pigments with distinct polarities.

  17. Optimization of Biological Treatment of an Industrial Wastewater in an Intermittent Aeration Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Asadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the simultaneous removal of carbon and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus from Faraman’s industrial wastewater (FIW in a time-based sequencing batch reactor (SBR was investigated. The experiments were conducted based on a central composite design (CCD and analyzed using the response surface methodology (RSM. Reaction and aeration times were selected for the purposes of analyzing, modeling, and optimizing the process. Nine dependent parameters were monitored as process responses. The region of exploration for the process was taken as the area enclosed by the boundaries of reaction time (12-36 h and aeration time (40-60 min/h. Reaction time was found to be the most effective variable and showed a decreasing impact on the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD, slowly-biodegradable chemical oxygen demand (sbCOD, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP removal efficiencies. The optimum operating conditions were determined in the range of 12 to 16 h for the reaction time and 40 to 60 min/h for the aeration time.

  18. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  19. Ozonisation of model compounds as a pretreatment step for the biological wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degen, U.

    1979-11-01

    Biological degradability and toxicity of organic substances are two basic criteria determining their behaviour in natural environment and during the biological treatment of waste waters. In this work oxidation products of model compounds (p-toluenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid and aniline) generated by ozonation were tested in a two step laboratory plant with activated sludge. The organic oxidation products and the initial compounds were the sole source of carbon for the microbes of the adapted activated sludge. The progress of elimination of the compounds was studied by measuring DOC, COD, UV-spectra of the initial compounds and sulfate. Initial concentrations of the model compounds were 2-4 mmole/1 with 25-75ion of sulfonic acids. As oxidation products of p-toluenesulfonic acid the following compounds were identified and quantitatively measured: methylglyoxal, pyruvic acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid, formic acid and sulfate. With all the various solutions with different concentrations of initial compounds and oxidation products the biological activity in the two step laboratory plant could maintain. p-Toluenesulfonic acid and the oxidation products are biologically degraded. The degradation of p-toluenesulfonic acid is measured by following the increasing of the sulfate concentration after biological treatment. This shows that the elimination of p-toluenesulfonic acid is not an adsorption but a mineralization step. At high p-toluenesulfonic acid concentration and low concentration of oxidation products p-toluenesulfonic acid is eliminated with a high efficiency (4.3 mole/d m 3 = 0.34 kg p-toluenesulfonic acid/d m 3 ). However at high concentration of oxidation products p-toluenesulfonic acid is less degraded. The oxidation products are always degraded with an elimination efficiency of 70%. A high load of biologically degradable oxidation products diminished the elimination efficiency of p-toluenesulfonic acid. (orig.) [de

  20. Quantitative evaluation of the effect of parameters affecting biological and physicochemical phosphate removal from wastewaters in a Multi-Soil-Layering system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula LAMZOURI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater disposal is a serious problem in Moroccan rural area. Discharged with high levels of phosphorus and nitrogen can result in eutrophication of receiving waters. Biological processes are the most adapted alternative to the needs of these areas, such as the Multi-Soil-Layering (MSL system. The process of rural wastewater treatment by MSL, which is an innovative system used for the first time in Morocco, was studied by modelling the relationships between a set of environmental factors and total phosphorus removed, based upon 153 sampling. Three MSL pilot plants, constructed in three 36 cm × 30 cm × 65 cm plastic boxes, were continuously fed with domestic wastewater, with different hydraulic loading rate (HLR of 250, 500 and 1000 l/m2/day. This study was to investigate and quantify the effect of parameters affecting biological and physico-chemical phosphate removal from wastewaters in this system, using neural networks (NNs and multiple regression analysis (MRA. The results show the influence of the hydraulic loading rate (HLR, Hydrogen potential (pH, phosphorus load (PL, nitrite (NO2--N, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5, and the Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3–-N in the phosphorus removal with a contribution of 36, 16, 15, 12, 9, 7 and 6% respectively.

  1. Effect of Ozonation and Biological Activated Carbon Treatment of Wastewater Effluents on Formation of N-nitrosamines and Halogenated Disinfection Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yi-Hsueh; Mitch, William A

    2017-02-21

    Ozonation followed by biological activated carbon (O 3 /BAC) is being considered as a key component of reverse osmosis-free advanced treatment trains for potable wastewater reuse. Using a laboratory-scale O 3 /BAC system treating two nitrified wastewater effluents, this study characterized the effect of different ozone dosages (0-1.0 mg O 3 /mg dissolved organic carbon) and BAC empty bed contact times (EBCT; 15-60 min) on the formation after chlorination or chloramination of 35 regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), 8 N-nitrosamines, and bromate. DBP concentrations were remarkably similar between the two wastewaters across O 3 /BAC conditions. Ozonation increased bromate, TCNM, and N-nitrosodimethylamine, but ozonation was less significant for other DBPs. DBP formation generally decreased significantly with BAC treatment at 15 min EBCT, but little further reduction was observed at higher EBCT where low dissolved oxygen concentrations may have limited biological activity. The O 3 /BAC-treated wastewaters met regulatory levels for trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and bromate, although N-nitrosodimethylamine exceeded the California Notification Level in one case. Regulated THMs and HAAs dominated by mass. When DBP concentrations were weighted by measures of their toxic potencies, unregulated haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, and haloacetamides dominated. Assuming toxicity is additive, the calculated DBP-associated toxicity of the O 3 /BAC-treated chloraminated effluents were comparable or slightly higher than those calculated in a recent evaluation of Full Advanced Treatment trains incorporating reverse osmosis.

  2. Toxicity of leather tanning wastewater effluents in sea urchin early development and in marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriç, Süreyya; De Nicola, Elena; Iaccarino, Mario; Gallo, Marialuisa; Di Gennaro, Annamaria; Morrone, Gaetano; Warnau, Michel; Belgiorno, Vincenzo; Pagano, Giovanni

    2005-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the composition and the toxicity of leather tanning wastewater and conditioned sludge collected at the leather tanning wastewater treatment plant (CODISO) located in Solofra, Avellino (Southern Italy). Samples were analyzed for their conventional parameters (COD, TSS, chromium and ammonia) and for metal content. Effluent samples included raw wastewater, and samples collected following coagulation/flocculation process and biological treatment. A set of toxicity endpoints were tested using sea urchin and marine microalgal bioassays by evaluating acute embryotoxicity, developmental defects, changes in sperm fertilization success and transmissible damage from sperm to the offspring, and changes in algal growth rate. Dose-related toxicity to sea urchin embryogenesis and sperm fertilization success was exerted by effluent or sludge samples according to the following rank: conditioned sludge > coagulated effluent > or = raw influent > effluent from biological treatment. Offspring quality was not affected by sperm exposure to any wastewater or to sludge samples. Algal growth was inhibited by raw or coagulated effluent to a similar extent and, again, the effluent from the biological treatment resulted in a decreased toxicity. The results suggest that coagulated effluent and conditioned sludge result in higher toxicity than raw influent in sea urchin embryos and sperm, whereas the biological wastewater treatment of coagulated effluent, in both sea urchins and algae, cause a substantial improvement of wastewater quality. Hence a final biological wastewater treatment should be operated to minimize any environmental damage from tannery wastewater.

  3. Radiation Treatment for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater for Industrial Usage - Biological and Irradiation Treatment of Mix Industrial Wastewater in Flood Mitigation Pond at Prai Industrial Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Sharif, Jamaliah; Selambakkanu, Sarala; Ming, Ting Teo; Isnin, Natsha; Osman, Hasnul Nizam; Azmi, Khasmidatul Akma M.K; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Yahya, Nasehir khan Em [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-07-01

    In this research, activated sludge system and E-Beam was used to treat mixed industrial waste water from mitigation pond A. The objectives are to study the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) in activated sludge and effect of absorbed dose, current and energy to the characteristic of mix industrial wastewater and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) added in the wastewater. DEPH is a type of plasticizer and quantified by GC-MS. Microbe identification in activated sludge was also carried out in this study. At 48hrs HRT, percentage reduction for COD, color, suspended solid were 62.3%, 36.7% and 67.1% respectively. While at 24hrs HRT, COD, color and suspended solid were reduce by 26.0%, 14.9% and 61.3% respectively. Microbial analysis showed six bacteria present in the activated sludge based on 16SrRNA gene sequences. Mixed industrial wastewater was irradiated using electron beam at 1Mev, 5mA and 10mA in a batch system with 3, 6, 8,10 and 12kGy doses. COD, color and suspended solid reduced with the increasing of absorbed dose. Mixed industrial wastewater added with DEPH in the second batch was irradiated with dose up to 300kGy. Concentration of DEHP also reduced with increasing of dose and more effectively decreased in acidic and aerated condition. (author)

  4. Radiation Treatment for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater for Industrial Usage - Biological and Irradiation Treatment of Mix Industrial Wastewater in Flood Mitigation Pond at Prai Industrial Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Sharif, Jamaliah; Selambakkanu, Sarala; Ming, Ting Teo; Isnin, Natsha; Osman, Hasnul Nizam; Azmi, Khasmidatul Akma M.K; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Yahya, Nasehir khan Em

    2012-01-01

    In this research, activated sludge system and E-Beam was used to treat mixed industrial waste water from mitigation pond A. The objectives are to study the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) in activated sludge and effect of absorbed dose, current and energy to the characteristic of mix industrial wastewater and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) added in the wastewater. DEPH is a type of plasticizer and quantified by GC-MS. Microbe identification in activated sludge was also carried out in this study. At 48hrs HRT, percentage reduction for COD, color, suspended solid were 62.3%, 36.7% and 67.1% respectively. While at 24hrs HRT, COD, color and suspended solid were reduce by 26.0%, 14.9% and 61.3% respectively. Microbial analysis showed six bacteria present in the activated sludge based on 16SrRNA gene sequences. Mixed industrial wastewater was irradiated using electron beam at 1Mev, 5mA and 10mA in a batch system with 3, 6, 8,10 and 12kGy doses. COD, color and suspended solid reduced with the increasing of absorbed dose. Mixed industrial wastewater added with DEPH in the second batch was irradiated with dose up to 300kGy. Concentration of DEHP also reduced with increasing of dose and more effectively decreased in acidic and aerated condition. (author)

  5. Integration of an innovative biological treatment with physical or chemical disinfection for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Marco; Del Moro, Guido; Levantesi, Caterina; Luprano, Maria Laura; Di Iaconi, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    In the present paper, the effectiveness of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) and its integration with different disinfection strategies (UV irradiation, peracetic acid) for producing an effluent suitable for agricultural use was evaluated. The plant treated raw domestic sewage, and its performances were evaluated in terms of the removal efficiency of a wide group of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The SBBGR resulted really efficient in removing suspended solids, COD and nitrogen with an average effluent concentration of 5, 32 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Lower removal efficiency was observed for phosphorus with an average concentration in the effluent of 3 mg/L. Plant effluent was also characterized by an average electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio of 680 μS/cm and 2.9, respectively. Therefore, according to these gross parameters, the SBBGR effluent was conformed to the national standards required in Italy for agricultural reuse. Moreover, disinfection performances of the SBBGR was higher than that of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants and met the quality criteria suggested by WHO (Escherichia colidisinfection processes (UV and peracetic acid) resulted very effective for total coliforms, E. coli and somatic coliphages. In particular, a UV radiation and peracetic acid doses of 40 mJ/cm(2) and 1 mg/L respectively reduced E. coli content in the effluent below the limit for agricultural reuse in Italy (10 CFU/100 mL). Conversely, they were both ineffective on C.perfringens spores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of biologically-active chemical mixtures on fish in a wastewater-impacted urban stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Nettesheim, Todd G.; Murphy, Elizabeth W.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2011-01-01

    Stream flow in urban aquatic ecosystems often is maintained by water-reclamation plant (WRP) effluents that contain mixtures of natural and anthropogenic chemicals that persist through the treatment processes. In effluent-impactedstreams, aquatic organisms such as fish are continuously exposed to biologically-activechemicals throughout their life cycles. The North Shore Channel of the Chicago River (Chicago, Illinois) is part of an urban ecosystem in which > 80% of the annual flow consists of effluent from the North Side WRP. In this study, multiple samplings of the effluent and stream water were conducted and fish (largemouth bass and carp) were collected on 2 occasions from the North Shore Channel. Fish also were collected once from the Outer Chicago Harbor in Lake Michigan, a reference site not impacted by WRP discharges. Over 100 organic chemicals with differing behaviors and biological effects were measured, and 23 compounds were detected in all of the water samples analyzed. The most frequently detected and highest concentration (> 100 μg/L) compounds were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxycarboxylic acids. Other biologically-activechemicals including bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates, 4-tert-octylphenol, and 4-tert-octylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates were detected at lower concentrations (cis-androsterone were detected at even lower concentrations (the North Side WRP effluent and the North Shore Channel, indicating minimal in-stream attenuation. Fish populations are continuously exposed to mixtures of biologically-activechemicals because of the relative persistency of the chemicals with respect to stream hydraulic residence time, and the lack of a fresh water source for dilution. The majority of male fish exhibited vitellogenin induction, a physiological response consistent with exposure to estrogenic compounds. Tissue-level signs of reproductive disruption, such as ovatestis, were not

  7. Integration of coagulation and adsorption for removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors from biologically treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaomiao; Meng, Yingjie; Ma, Defang; Wang, Yan; Li, Fengli; Xu, Xing; Xia, Chufan; Gao, Baoyu

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential of various dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions in biologically treated municipal wastewater by UF fractionation, XAD-8 resin adsorption isolation, and excitation and emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Removal of various NDMA precursor fractions was also analyzed to evaluate the efficiency of traditional water treatment processes (coagulation, adsorption, and coagulation-adsorption). Results showed that NDMA were mainly formed by low molecular weight (MW) fractions (NDMA formation potential (57%), followed by isolated adsorption treatment (50%) and isolated coagulation treatment (28%). The powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption process could reduce the high MW precursors (>30 kDa) by 48%, which was higher than other treatments. In contrast, the highest uptake (66%) of low MW precursors (<30 kDa) was achieved by the coagulation-adsorption process. All treatments preferentially removed the hydrophobic acids (HoA) fraction compared to other fractions. Coagulation could remove more fulvic acid-like substances and adsorption could remove more microbial by-products and aromatic proteins.

  8. Combination of ozonation, activated carbon, and biological aerated filter for advanced treatment of dyeing wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were performed to investigate and evaluate the performance and removal characteristics of organics, color, and genotoxicity by an integrated process including ozonation, activated carbon (AC), and biological aerated filter (BAF) for recycling biotreated dyeing wastewater (BTDW) collected from a cotton textile factory. Influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the range of 156 - 252 mg/L, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 13.5 - 21.7 mg/L, and color of 58 - 76° were observed during the 20-day continuous operation. Outflows with average COD of 43 mg/L, BOD5 of 6.6 mg/L, and color of 5.6° were obtained after being decontaminated by the hybrid system with ozone dosage of 0.25 mg O3applied/mg COD0, 40 min ozonation contact time, 30 min hydraulic retention time (HRT) for AC treatment, and 2.5 h HRT for BAF treatment. More than 82 % of the genotoxicity of BTDW was eliminated in the ozonation unit. The genotoxicity of the BAF effluent was less than 1.33 μg 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide/L. Ozonation could change the organics molecular structures, destroy chromophores, increase the biodegradability, and obviously reduce the genotoxicity of BTDW. Results showed that the combined process could guarantee water reuse with high quality.

  9. Low acetate concentrations favor polyphosphate-accumulating organisms over glycogen-accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yunjie; Schuler, Andrew J

    2013-04-16

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) are thought to compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. A laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for one year to test the hypothesis that PAOs have a competitive advantage at low acetate concentrations, with a focus on low pH conditions previously shown to favor GAOs. PAOs dominated the system under conventional SBR operation with rapid acetate addition (producing high in-reactor concentrations) and pH values of 7.4-8.4. GAOs dominated when the pH was decreased (6.4-7.0). Decreasing the acetate addition rate led to very low reactor acetate concentrations, and PAOs recovered, supporting the study hypothesis. When the acetate feed rate was increased, EBPR failed again. Dominant PAOs and GAOs were Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus Cluster 2, respectively, according to fluorescent in situ hybridization and 454 pyrosequencing. Surprisingly, GAOs were not the immediate causes of PAO failures, based on functional and population measurements. Pyrosequencing results suggested Dechloromonas and Tetrasphaera spp. may have also been PAOs, and additional potential GAOs were also identified. Full-scale systems typically have lower in-reactor acetate concentrations than laboratory SBRs, and so, previous laboratory studies may have overestimated the practical importance of GAOs as causes of EBPR failure.

  10. Cost minimization in a full-scale conventional wastewater treatment plant: associated costs of biological energy consumption versus sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid, S; Volant, A; Lesage, G; Heran, M

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption and sludge production minimization represent rising challenges for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The goal of this study is to investigate how energy is consumed throughout the whole plant and how operating conditions affect this energy demand. A WWTP based on the activated sludge process was selected as a case study. Simulations were performed using a pre-compiled model implemented in GPS-X simulation software. Model validation was carried out by comparing experimental and modeling data of the dynamic behavior of the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration and nitrogen compounds concentration, energy consumption for aeration, mixing and sludge treatment and annual sludge production over a three year exercise. In this plant, the energy required for bioreactor aeration was calculated at approximately 44% of the total energy demand. A cost optimization strategy was applied by varying the MLSS concentrations (from 1 to 8 gTSS/L) while recording energy consumption, sludge production and effluent quality. An increase of MLSS led to an increase of the oxygen requirement for biomass aeration, but it also reduced total sludge production. Results permit identification of a key MLSS concentration allowing identification of the best compromise between levels of treatment required, biological energy demand and sludge production while minimizing the overall costs.

  11. A novel aerated surface flow constructed wetland using exhaust gas from biological wastewater treatment: Performance and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinwen; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Fan, Jinlin; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zeng, Chujun; Wu, Yiwen; Wang, Siyuan

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a novel aerated surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) using exhaust gas from biological wastewater treatment was investigated. Compared with un-aerated SFCW, the introduction of exhaust gas into SFCW significantly improved NH 4 + -N, TN and COD removal efficiencies by 68.30 ± 2.06%, 24.92 ± 1.13% and 73.92 ± 2.36%, respectively. The pollutants removal mechanism was related to the microbial abundance and the highest microbial abundance was observed in the SFCW with exhaust gas because of the introduction of exhaust gas from sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and thereby optimizing nitrogen transformation processes. Moreover, SFCW would significantly mitigate the risk of exhaust gas pollution. SFCW removed 20.00 ± 1.23%, 34.78 ± 1.39%, and 59.50 ± 2.33% of H 2 S, NH 3 and N 2 O in the exhaust gas, respectively. And 31.32 ± 2.23% and 32.02 ± 2.86% of bacterial and fungal aerosols in exhaust gas were also removed through passing SFCW, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Tertiary treatment of textile wastewater with combined media biological aerated filter (CMBAF) at different hydraulic loadings and dissolved oxygen concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fang; Zhao Chaocheng; Zhao Dongfeng; Liu Guohua

    2008-01-01

    An up-flow biological aerated filter packed with two layers media was employed for tertiary treatment of textile wastewater secondary effluent. Under steady state conditions, good performance of the reactor was achieved and the average COD, NH 4 + -N and total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent were 31, 2 and 8 mg/L, respectively. For a fixed dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, an increase of hydraulic loading resulted in a decrease in substrate removal. With the increase of hydraulic loadings from 0.13 to 0.78 m 3 /(m 2 h), the removal efficiencies of COD, NH 4 + -N and TN all decreased, which dropped from 52 to 38%, from 90 to 68% and from 45 to 33%, respectively. In addition, the results also confirmed that the increase of COD and NH 4 + -N removal efficiencies resulted from the increase of DO concentrations, but this variation trend was not observed for TN removal. With the increase of DO concentrations from 2.4 to 6.1 mg/L, the removal efficiencies of COD and NH 4 + -N were 39-53% and 64-88%, whenas TN removal efficiencies increased from 39 to 42% and then dropped to 35%

  13. Assessment of temporal and spatial evolution of bacterial communities in a biological sand filter mesocosm treating winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramond, J-B; Welz, P J; Tuffin, M I; Burton, S G; Cowan, D A

    2013-07-01

    To assess the impact of winery wastewater (WW) on biological sand filter (BSF) bacterial community structures, and to evaluate whether BSFs can constitute alternative and valuable treatment- processes to remediate WW. During 112 days, WW was used to contaminate a BSF mesocosm (length 173 cm/width 106 cm/depth 30 cm). The effect of WW on bacterial communities of four BSF microenvironments (surface/deep, inlet/outlet) was investigated using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). BSF achieved high Na (95·1%), complete Cl and almost complete chemical oxygen demand (COD) (98·0%) and phenolic (99·2%) removals. T-RFLP analysis combined with anosim revealed that WW significantly modified the surface and deep BSF bacterial communities. BSF provided high COD, phenolic and salt removals throughout the experiment. WW-selected bacterial communities were thus able to tolerate and/or degrade WW, suggesting that community composition does not alter BSF performances. However, biomass increased significantly in the WW-impacted surface sediments, which could later lead to system clogging and should thus be monitored. BSFs constitute alternatives to constructed wetlands to treat agri effluents such as WW. To our knowledge, this study is the first unravelling the responses of BSF bacterial communities to contamination and suggests that WW-selected BSF communities maintained high removal performances. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  15. Effects of seasonal olive mill wastewater applications on hydrological and biological soil properties in an olive orchard in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Kurtz, Markus; Peikert, Benjamin; Zipori, Isaac; Dag, Arnon; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    During olive oil production in Mediterranean countries, large amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) are generated within a short period of time. OMW has a high nutrient content and could serve as fertilizer when applied on land. However, its fatty and phenolic constituents have adverse effects on hydrological and biological soil properties. It is still unknown how seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation influence the fate and effect of OMW components on soil in a long-term perspective. An appropriate application season could mitigate negative consequences of OMW while preserving its beneficial effects. In order to investigate this, 14 L OMW m-2 were applied to different plots of an olive orchard in Gilat, Israel, in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Hydrological soil properties (water drop penetration time, hydraulic conductivity, dynamic contact angle), physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, soluble ions, phenolic compounds, organic matter), and biological degradation (bait-lamina test) were measured to assess the soil state after OMW application. After one rainy season following OMW application, the soil quality of summer treatments significantly decreased compared to the control. This was particularly apparent in a ten-fold higher soil water repellency, a three-times lower biodegradation performance, and a four-fold higher content of phenolic compounds. 1.5 years after the last OMW application, the soil properties of winter treatments were comparable to the control, which suggests a certain recovery potential of the soil. Spring treatments resulted in an intermediate response compared to summer and winter treatments, but without any precipitation following OMW application. Strongest OMW effects were found in the top soil layers. Further research is needed to quantify the effect of spring treatments as well as to gain further insight into leaching effects, the composition of organic OMW constituents, and the kinetics of their degradation in

  16. Potential of Rhodobacter capsulatus Grown in Anaerobic-Light or Aerobic-Dark Conditions as Bioremediation Agent for Biological Wastewater Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Costa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms to clean up wastewater provides a cheaper alternative to the conventional treatment plant. The efficiency of this method can be improved by the choice of microorganism with the potential of removing contaminants. One such group is photosynthetic bacteria. Rhodobacter capsulatus is a purple non-sulfur bacterium (PNSB found to be capable of different metabolic activities depending on the environmental conditions. Cell growth in different media and conditions was tested, obtaining a concentration of about 108 CFU/mL under aerobic-dark and 109 CFU/mL under anaerobic-light conditions. The biomass was then used as a bioremediation agent for denitrification and nitrification of municipal wastewater to evaluate the potential to be employed as an additive in biological wastewater treatment. Inoculating a sample of mixed liquor withdrawn from the municipal wastewater treatment plant with R. capsulatus grown in aerobic-dark and anaerobic-light conditions caused a significant decrease of N-NO3 (>95%, N-NH3 (70% and SCOD (soluble chemical oxygen demand (>69%, independent of the growth conditions. A preliminary evaluation of costs indicated that R. capsulatus grown in aerobic-dark conditions could be more convenient for industrial application.

  17. Food web in biological wastewater treatment processes. Who eats whom?; La cadena trofica en los sistemas de depuracion biologicos Quien se come a quien?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas Aceves, M.

    2007-07-01

    The organic matter coming to the biological system is assimilated by bacteria and protozoa (flagellated and gymnamoebae mainly). The majority of ciliates, flagellates or gymnamoebae protozoa are bacteria predators (whether disperse, floc-forming or filamentous bacteria) and some of those protozoa are able to feed on other protozoa. Therefore, and due to the great variability of food target in protozoa communities, a wide variety of food strategies can be described. so, gain knowledge on protozoa feeding strategies allows a better understanding of food transference efficiency from one trophic stage to another, and therefore, increasing the knowledge of biological wastewater treatment systems. (Author) 32 refs.

  18. Evaluation of Nitrification Inhibition Using Sequencing Batch Reactors and BioWin Modeling, and the Effect of Aqueous Film Forming Foam on Biological Nutrient Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Hingley, Daniel McCabe

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate continuous and sporadic nitrification inhibition at the HRSD Nansemond Wastewater Treatment Plant, which has a history of nitrification upsets, continuous sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to simulate the full-scale plant. Four reactors were operated in this study. One reactor was fed with raw influent (RWI) from the Nansemond Wastewater Treatment Plant (NP). Another was fed with NP primary clarifier influent (PCI), which includes the raw influent, as well as plant re...

  19. Application of contact stabilization activated sludge for enhancing biological phosphorus removal (EBPR in domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M. Rashed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment has been performed in order to investigate the effect of using contact stabilization activated sludge as an application of enhancing biological phosphorous removal (EBPR by using contact tank as a phosphorus uptake zone and using thickening tank as a phosphorus release zone. The study involved the construction of a pilot plant which was setup in Quhafa waste water treatment plant (WWTP that included contact, final sedimentation, stabilization and thickening tanks, respectively with two returns sludge in this system one of them to contact tank and another to stabilization tank. Then observation of the uptake and release of total phosphorus by achievement through two batch test using sludge samples from thickener and final sedimentations. Results showed the removal efficiencies of COD, BOD and TP for this pilot plant with the range of 94%, 85.44% and 80.54%, respectively. On the other hand the results of batch tests showed that the reason of high ability of phosphorus removal for this pilot plant related to the high performance of microorganisms for phosphorus accumulating. Finally the mechanism of this pilot plant depends on the removal of the phosphorus from the domestic waste water as a concentrated TP solution from the supernatant above the thickening zone not through waste sludge like traditional systems.

  20. Biological treatment and toxicity of low concentrations of oily wastewater (bilgewater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamper, D.M. [NAVSEA Carderrock Div., West Bethesda, MD (United States). Biological Sciences Group; Montgomery, M.T. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States). Marine Biochemistry Section

    2008-08-15

    Oily waste water from ships occurs when materials leak, spill, or are washed off the decks and drain into the bilge compartments of ships. The wastes include diesel fuel, coolants, and engine, transmission, and hydraulic oils. Treatments for oily waste water in the United States Navy are based on a combination of density separation and ceramic membrane ultrafiltration techniques, which may not meet planned regulations that will require lower levels of oil pollutants. This study tested the biodegradability and toxicity of low concentrations of oily waste water in order to establish the feasibility of using a combined shipboard oily and sanitary waste water treatment system. The toxic effects of diesel fuel and other components of the waste water were also tested. The study showed that diluting the oily effluent with the sanitary waste stream resulted in waste water with low enough oil content to meet the anticipated changes in waste water regulations. The study also showed that the low concentrations of waste water were catabolized in the presence of the sanitary waste stream. A modified PolyTox assay was used to test the waste water samples. Results of the study showed that heterotrophic bacterial production rates did not show any toxic effects. The addition of detergent in the samples had no impact on toxicity levels. It was concluded that combining oil and sanitary waste water in a single biological treatment system is a feasible option for ensuring the future regulations are met. 37 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Effects of reduced return activated sludge flows and volume on anaerobic zone performance for a septic wastewater biological phosphorus removal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Daniel; Elias, Steven L; Randall, Andrew Amis

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorous removal (EBPR) performance was found to be adequate with reduced return-activated sludge (RAS) flows (50% of available RAS) to the anaerobic tank and smaller-than-typical anaerobic zone volume (1.08 hours hydraulic retention time [HRT]). Three identical parallel biological nutrient removal pilot plants were fed with strong, highly fermented (160 mg/L volatile fatty acids [VFAs]), domestic and industrial wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment facility. The pilot plants were operated at 100, 50, 40, and 25% RAS (percent of available RAS) flows to the anaerobic tank, with the remaining RAS to the anoxic tank. In addition, varying anaerobic HRT (1.08 and 1.5 hours) and increased hydraulic loading (35% increase) were examined. The study was divided into four phases, and the effect of these process variations on EBPR were studied by having one different variable between two identical systems. The most significant conclusion was that returning part of the RAS to the anaerobic zone did not decrease EBPR performance; instead, it changed the location of phosphorous release and uptake. Bringing less RAS to the anaerobic and more to the anoxic tank decreased anaerobic phosphorus release and increased anoxic phosphorus release (or decreased anoxic phosphorus uptake). Equally important is that, with VFA-rich influent wastewater, excessive anaerobic volume was shown to hurt overall phosphorus removal, even when it resulted in increased anaerobic phosphorus release.

  2. Functionally relevant microorganisms to enhanced biological phosphorus removal performance at full-scale wastewater treatment plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, April Z; Saunders, A; Neethling, J B; Stensel, H D; Blackall, L L

    2008-08-01

    The abundance and relevance ofAccumulibacter phosphatis (presumed to be polyphosphate-accumulating organisms [PAOs]), Competibacter phosphatis (presumed to be glycogen-accumulating organisms [GAOs]), and tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) to phosphorus removal performance at six full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment plants were investigated. Coexistence of various levels of candidate PAOs and GAOs were found at these facilities. Accumulibacter were found to be 5 to 20% of the total bacterial population, and Competibacter were 0 to 20% of the total bacteria population. The TFO abundance varied from nondetectable to dominant. Anaerobic phosphorus (P) release to acetate uptake ratios (P(rel)/HAc(up)) obtained from bench tests were correlated positively with the abundance ratio of Accumulibacter/(Competibacter +TFOs) and negatively with the abundance of (Competibacter +TFOs) for all plants except one, suggesting the relevance of these candidate organisms to EBPR processes. However, effluent phosphorus concentration, amount of phosphorus removed, and process stability in an EBPR system were not directly related to high PAO abundance or mutually exclusive with a high GAO fraction. The plant that had the lowest average effluent phosphorus and highest stability rating had the lowest P(rel)/HAc(up) and the most TFOs. Evaluation of full-scale EBPR performance data indicated that low effluent phosphorus concentration and high process stability are positively correlated with the influent readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand-to-phosphorus ratio. A system-level carbon-distribution-based conceptual model is proposed for capturing the dynamic competition between PAOs and GAOs and their effect on an EBPR process, and the results from this study seem to support the model hypothesis.

  3. Research on the power consumption of the biological stages of wastewater treatment plant; Untersuchung ueber den Stromverbrauch biologischer Reinigungsverfahren auf Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempf, S.; Sigel, O.

    2006-07-01

    The largest electricity consumption in municipal sewage treatment plants occurs during biological treatment. This fact has been the motivation for a closer look at the electricity consumption of three biological treatment processes that will be applied more frequently in the future. The wastewater treatment plants in Lyss (Fixed Bed Biological Reactor), Wohlen (Moving Bed Biological Reactor), and Waedenswil (Membrane Biological Reactor submerged in an activated sludge process) provided the basis for this analysis, which was done both in absolute terms as well as in relation to each plant's loading. The specific energy consumption of the Fixed Bed Reactor, averaging 20 - 25 kWh/p.e. per annum (p.e. = person equivalent), is comparable to the one of a conventional activated sludge process (benchmark/standard value = 23 kWh/p.e. per annum; optimal value 18 kWh/p.e. per annum). The Moving Bed Reactor uses less than 30 kWh/p.e per annum when working at or close to full capacity, and more than 40 kWh/p.e. per annum at low fill. The Membrane Biological Reactor submerged in an activated sludge process shows the highest specific energy consumption values (> 40 kWh/p.e. per annum). In order to be able to run the biological treatment at optimal electricity consumption levels, the plants should be designed in such a way as to automatically run on partial or intermittent mode in times of low waste load. Further implementation of these new biological purification processes will lead to an increase in electricity consumption unless the significant energy savings potential wastewater treatment plants still offer is tapped. In order to be able to exploit this potential, electricity consumption has to be considered as of equal relevance as treated effluent quality. (author)

  4. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological

  5. Inhibition of survivin influences the biological activities of canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yamazaki

    Full Text Available Canine histiocytic sarcoma (CHS is an aggressive malignant neoplasm that originates from histiocytic lineage cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages, and is characterized by progressive local infiltration and a very high metastatic potential. Survivin is as an apoptotic inhibitory factor that has major functions in cell proliferation, including inhibition of apoptosis and regulation of cell division, and is expressed in most types of human and canine malignant neoplasms, including melanoma and osteosarcoma. To investigate whether survivin was expressed at high levels in CHS and whether its expression was correlated with the aggressive biological behavior of CHS, we assessed relation between survivin expression and CHS progression, as well as the effects of survivin inhibition on the biological activities of CHS cells. We comparatively analyzed the expression of 6 selected anti-apoptotic genes, including survivin, in specimens from 30 dogs with histiocytic sarcoma and performed annexin V staining to evaluate apoptosis, methylthiazole tetrazolium assays to assess cell viability and chemosensitivity, and latex bead assays to measure changes in phagocytic activities in 4 CHS cell lines and normal canine fibroblasts transfected with survivin siRNA. Survivin gene expression levels in 30 specimens were significantly higher than those of the other 6 genes. After transfection with survivin siRNA, apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, enhanced chemosensitivity, and weakened phagocytic activities were observed in all CHS cell lines. In contrast, normal canine fibroblasts were not significantly affected by survivin knockdown. These results suggested that survivin expression may mediate the aggressive biological activities of CHS and that survivin may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of CHS.

  6. Effect of biological and chemical oxidation on the removal of estrogenic compounds (NP and BPA) from wastewater: an integrated assessment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Dal Grande, Mario; Papa, Matteo; Zambarda, Valerio; Montani, Claudia; Steimberg, Nathalie; Mazzoleni, Giovanna; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2011-04-01

    A major source of the wide presence of EDCs (Endocrine Disrupting Compounds) in water bodies is represented by direct/indirect discharge of sewage. Recent scientific literature reports data about their trace concentration in water, sediments and aquatic organisms, as well as removal efficiencies of different wastewater treatment schemes. Despite the availability of a huge amount of data, some doubts still persist due to the difficulty in evaluating synergistic effects of trace pollutants in complex matrices. In this paper, an integrated assessment procedure was used, based on chemical and biological analyses, in order to compare the performance of two full scale biological wastewater treatment plants (either equipped with conventional settling tanks or with an ultrafiltration membrane unit) and tertiary ozonation (pilot scale). Nonylphenol and bisphenol A were chosen as model EDCs, together with the parent compounds mono- and di-ethoxylated nonylphenol (quantified by means of GC-MS). Water estrogenic activity was evaluated by applying the human breast cancer MCF-7 based reporter gene assay. Process parameters (e.g., sludge age, temperature) and conventional pollutants (e.g., COD, suspended solids) were also measured during monitoring campaigns. Conventional activated sludge achieved satisfactory removal of both analytes and estrogenicity. A further reduction of biological activity was exerted by MBR (Membrane Biological Reactor) as well as ozonation; the latter contributed also to decrease EDC concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic mitigation strategies to tackle agricultural GHG emissions: The case for biological nitrification inhibition technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Arango, J; Masahiro, K; Hooper, A M; Yoshihashi, T; Ando, Y; Nakahara, K; Deshpande, S; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Ishitani, M; Peters, M; Chirinda, N; Wollenberg, L; Lata, J C; Gerard, B; Tobita, S; Rao, I M; Braun, H J; Kommerell, V; Tohme, J; Iwanaga, M

    2017-09-01

    Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment. This will reinforce the adaptation or mitigation impact of other climate-smart agriculture technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Realizing high-rate sulfur reduction under sulfate-rich conditions in a biological sulfide production system to treat metal-laden wastewater deficient in organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rongrong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zefeng; Chen, Guang-Hao; Jiang, Feng

    2017-12-22

    Biological sulfur reduction can theoretically produce sufficient sulfide to effectively remove and recover heavy metals in the treatment of organics-deficient sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater such as acid mine drainage and metallurgic wastewater, using 75% less organics than biological sulfate reduction. However, it is still unknown whether sulfur reduction can indeed compete with sulfate reduction, particularly under high-strength sulfate conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term feasibility of biological sulfur reduction under high sulfate conditions in a lab-scale sulfur-reducing biological sulfide production (BSP) system with sublimed sulfur added. In the 169-day trial, an average sulfide production rate (SPR) as high as 47 ± 9 mg S/L-h was achieved in the absence of sulfate, and the average SPR under sulfate-rich conditions was similar (53 ± 10 mg S/L-h) when 1300 mg S/L sulfate were fed with the influent. Interestingly, sulfate was barely reduced even at such a high strength and contributed to only 1.5% of total sulfide production. Desulfomicrobium was identified as the predominant sulfidogenic bacterium in the bioreactor. Batch tests further revealed that this sulfidogenic bacteria used elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor instead of the highly bioavailable sulfate, during which polysulfide acted as an intermediate, leading to an even higher bioavailability of sulfur than sulfate. The pathway of sulfur to sulfide conversion via polysulfide in the presence of both sulfur and sulfate was discussed. Collectively, when conditions favor polysulfide formation, sulfur reduction can be a promising and attractive technology to realize a high-rate and low-cost BSP process for treating sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    mechanical, chemical and biological agents. Mechanical methods are based on the effect of physical forces. Chemical agents are based on chemical processes. Biological measures are based on natural laws and activities of living beings. Water saving and its rational use are some of the most effective ways of saving water from pollution. Water treatment Water treatment is done in two ways: by sedimentation and filtration. Dirt falling on the bottom is called deposition. The passage of clean water through the material is called filtering. Water containing dissolved substances is purified by distillation. To improve the taste of distilled water, aeration should be performed. The sun’s ultraviolet rays destroy biological pollutants. Mechanical, biological and chemical methods are used for water purification. Mechanical methods Mechanical methods are based on the removal of physical impurities from water and the action of natural forces. For this purpose we use: grids and sieves, sedimentation, flotation, filtration, centrifugation, sand sedimentation tanks, grease traps, primary sedimentation tanks and flow equalization tanks. Wastewater aeration equipment is also used within these facilities. Grids and Sieves Larger, insoluble and floating substances in wastewater are removed with grids and sieves. Sedimentation The application of grids and sieves as well as sand sedimentation tanks and grease traps can be viewed as a process of deposition using certain infrastructure facilities intended for this type of separation of impurities. Infrastructure facilities are sedimentation tanks. There are vertical, horizontal and radial flow sedimentation tanks. Flotation Particle resurfacing with bubbles of air is called flotation. The best effect is achieved by aeration of bubbles of smaller diameters in a larger area. Filtration Filtration is a process used in water conditioning to remove insoluble substances. During filtration, water passes through a layer of granular material placed on a

  10. Characterisation of winery wastewater from continuous flow settling basins and waste stabilisation ponds over the course of 1 year: implications for biological wastewater treatment and land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, P J; Holtman, G; Haldenwang, R; le Roes-Hill, M

    2016-11-01

    Wineries generate 0.2 to 4 L of wastewater per litre of wine produced. Many cellars make use of irrigation as a means of disposal, either directly or after storage. In order to consider the potential downstream impacts of storage/no storage, this study critically compared the seasonal organic and inorganic composition of fresh winery effluent with effluent that had been stored in waste stabilisation ponds. Ethanol and short chain volatile fatty acids were the main contributors to chemical oxygen demand (COD), with average concentrations of 2,086 and 882 mgCOD/L, respectively. Total phenolics were typically present in concentrations winery effluent should be stored in ponds prior to treatment.

  11. Inhibition of biological activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) by apple juice and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-05-12

    The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and toxic shock) syndromes. Changes of the native structural integrity may inactivate the toxin by preventing molecular interaction with cell membrane receptor sites of their host cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of one commercial and two freshly prepared apple juices and a commercial apple polyphenol preparation (Apple Poly) to inhibit the biological activity of SEA. Dilutions of freshly prepared apple juices and Apple Poly inhibited the biological activity of SEA without any significant cytotoxic effect on the spleen cells. Additional studies with antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that SEA added to apple juice appears to be largely irreversibly bound to the juice constituents. The results suggest that food-compatible and safe anti-toxin phenolic compounds can be used to inactivate SEA in vitro and possibly also in vivo, even after induction of T-cell proliferation by long-term exposure to SEA. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health is discussed.

  12. Degradation and COD removal of catechol in wastewater using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the cyclic rotating-bed biological reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghapour, Ali Ahmad; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2015-07-01

    The effect of ozonation catalyzed with MgO/granular activated carbon (MgO/GAC) composite as a pretreatment process on the performance of cyclic rotating-bed biological reactor (CRBR) for the catechol removal from wastewater has been investigated. CRBR with acclimated biomasses could efficiently remove catechol and its related COD from wastewater at organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.82 kg COD/m(3).d (HRT of 9 h). Then, OLR increased to 15.64 kg COD/m(3).d (HRT of 4.5 h) and CRBR failed. Catalytic ozonation process (COP) used as a pre-treatment and could improve the performance of the failed CRBR. The overall removal efficiency of the combined process attained respective steady states of 91% and 79% for degradation and COD removal of catechol. Therefore, the combined process is more effective in degradation and COD removal of catechol; it is also a viable alternative for upgrading industrial wastewater treatment plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater using oil degrading bacteria and phototrophic microorganisms in rotating biological contactor: Effect of N:P ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, Anal; Mukherji, Suparna

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater in bioreactors using heterotrophic microorganisms is often associated with various operational problems. In this study, a consortium of phototrophic microorganisms and a bacterium is developed on the discs of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for treatment of wastewater containing diesel oil. The reactor was fed with oil degrading bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia and oil tolerant phototrophic microorganisms. After biofilm formation and acclimatization to 0.6% (v/v) diesel, continuous-mode operation was initiated at 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Residual diesel in the effluent was 0.003%. Advantages of this system include good total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal, no soluble carbon source requirement and good settleability of biosolids. Biofilm observations revealed the predominance of B. cepacia and cyanobacteria (Phormidium, Oscillatoria and Chroococcus). The N:P ratio affected the relative dominance of the phototrophic microorganisms and bacterial culture. This ratio was a critical factor in determining the performance efficiency of the reactor. At 21 h HRT and organic loading of 27.33 g TPH/m 2 d, the N:P ratio 28.5:1 and 38:1 both yielded high and almost comparable TPH and COD removal efficiencies. This study presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries

  14. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  15. Application of molybdenum and phosphate modified kaolin in electrochemical treatment of paper mill wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Wang Bo; Wang Ying

    2007-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill wastewater is characterized by very high chemical oxygen demand (COD) values that inhibit the activity of microorganisms during biological oxidations. The electrochemical degradation of pulp and paper mill wastewater catalyzed by molybdenum and phosphate (Mo-P) modified kaolin with graphite as anode and cathode was investigated. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS and SEM spectra and the effects of pH, metal ion and introduction of NaCl on the efficiency of the electrochemical degradation process were also studied. It was found out that the modified kaolin loaded with Fe 3+ had higher electrochemical catalytic activity in the electrochemical degradation of paper mill wastewater at pH 4. A 96% COD removal efficiency was obtained in 40 min of electrochemical treatment of the wastewater at current density 30 mA cm -2 . A possible mechanism for degradation of the mill wastewater constituents was also proposed

  16. Elimination of micropollutants and transformation products from a wastewater treatment plant effluent through pilot scale ozonation followed by various activated carbon and biological filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Gregor; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Cornel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants are ineffective in removing a broad range of micropollutants, resulting in the release of these compounds into the aquatic environment, including natural drinking water resources. Ozonation is a suitable treatment process for micropollutant removal, although, currently, little is known about the formation, behavior, and removal of transformation products (TP) formed during ozonation. We investigated the elimination of 30 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, industrial chemicals, and TP) by biological treatment coupled with ozonation and, subsequently, in parallel with two biological filters (BF) or granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. The selected micropollutants were removed to very different extents during the conventional biological wastewater treatment process. Ozonation (specific ozone consumption: 0.87 ± 0.29 gO3 gDOC(-1), hydraulic retention time: 17 ± 3 min) eliminated a large number of the investigated micropollutants. Although 11 micropollutants could still be detected after ozonation, most of these were eliminated in subsequent GAC filtration at bed volumes (BV) of approximately 25,000 m(3) m(-3). In contrast, no additional removal of micropollutants was achieved in the BF. Ozonation of the analgesic tramadol led to the formation of tramadol-N-oxide that is effectively eliminated by GAC filters, but not by BF. For the antiviral drug acyclovir, the formation of carboxy-acyclovir was observed during activated sludge treatment, with an average concentration of 3.4 ± 1.4 μg L(-1) detected in effluent samples. Subsequent ozonation resulted in the complete elimination of carboxy-acyclovir and led to the formation of N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxo imidazolidin)-formamido-N-methoxyacetetic acid (COFA; average concentration: 2.6 ± 1.0 μg L(-1)). Neither the BF nor the GAC filters were able to remove COFA. These results highlight the importance of considering TP in the

  17. Effect of chemically and biologically synthesized Ag nanoparticles on the algae growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Mražiková; Oksana, Velgosová; Jana, Kavuličová

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few years green methods for preparation of silver nanoparticles has become necessary due to its friendly influence on ecosystem. In the present work antimicrobial properties of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Bio-AgNPs) using green algae extract and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Chem-AgNPs) using sodium citrate against algae Parachlorella kessleri is investigated. Both used Bio-AgNPs and Chem-AgNPs exhibit long-term stability as demonstrated by UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. The results revealed stronger toxic effects of Bio-AgNPs on agar plates what was confirmed clear inhibition zone around wells impregnated with Bio-AgNPs. On the other hand Bio-AgNPs were confirmed to be less toxic in aquatic environments for the growths of green algae P. kessleri comparing to Chem-AgNPs.

  18. Review of the inhibition of biological activities of food-related selected toxins by natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Rasooly, Reuven

    2013-04-23

    There is a need to develop food-compatible conditions to alter the structures of fungal, bacterial, and plant toxins, thus transforming toxins to nontoxic molecules. The term 'chemical genetics' has been used to describe this approach. This overview attempts to survey and consolidate the widely scattered literature on the inhibition by natural compounds and plant extracts of the biological (toxicological) activity of the following food-related toxins: aflatoxin B1, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A produced by fungi; cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae bacteria; Shiga toxins produced by E. coli bacteria; staphylococcal enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; ricin produced by seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis; and the glycoalkaloid α-chaconine synthesized in potato tubers and leaves. The reduction of biological activity has been achieved by one or more of the following approaches: inhibition of the release of the toxin into the environment, especially food; an alteration of the structural integrity of the toxin molecules; changes in the optimum microenvironment, especially pH, for toxin activity; and protection against adverse effects of the toxins in cells, animals, and humans (chemoprevention). The results show that food-compatible and safe compounds with anti-toxin properties can be used to reduce the toxic potential of these toxins. Practical applications and research needs are suggested that may further facilitate reducing the toxic burden of the diet. Researchers are challenged to (a) apply the available methods without adversely affecting the nutritional quality, safety, and sensory attributes of animal feed and human food and (b) educate food producers and processors and the public about available approaches to mitigating the undesirable effects of natural toxins that may present in the diet.

  19. A systems biology framework for modeling metabolic enzyme inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifman Jaques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because metabolism is fundamental in sustaining microbial life, drugs that target pathogen-specific metabolic enzymes and pathways can be very effective. In particular, the metabolic challenges faced by intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, residing in the infected host provide novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Results We developed a mathematical framework to simulate the effects on the growth of a pathogen when enzymes in its metabolic pathways are inhibited. Combining detailed models of enzyme kinetics, a complete metabolic network description as modeled by flux balance analysis, and a dynamic cell population growth model, we quantitatively modeled and predicted the dose-response of the 3-nitropropionate inhibitor on the growth of M. tuberculosis in a medium whose carbon source was restricted to fatty acids, and that of the 5'-O-(N-salicylsulfamoyl adenosine inhibitor in a medium with low-iron concentration. Conclusion The predicted results quantitatively reproduced the experimentally measured dose-response curves, ranging over three orders of magnitude in inhibitor concentration. Thus, by allowing for detailed specifications of the underlying enzymatic kinetics, metabolic reactions/constraints, and growth media, our model captured the essential chemical and biological factors that determine the effects of drug inhibition on in vitro growth of M. tuberculosis cells.

  20. Biological treatment of chemical industry wastewater having toxic components; Degradazione per via biologica di reflui a componenti tossiche prodotti da una industria farmaceutica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbricino, M.; Pepe, G. [Naples Univ. Federico 2., Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Idraulica ed Ambientale Girolamo Ippolito; Scevola, D. [Novartis Farma SpA, Torre Annunziata, NA (Italy); Fiorillo, S. [Impianto di depurazione di Cuma, Napoli Ovest, Licola di Pozzuoli, NA (Italy)

    2001-09-01

    In order to understand the capacity of an existing biomass to front the variations of wastewater influent characteristics and to evaluate the possibility of toxic components removal using biological processes, it is single out the intervention required to obtain the envisage efficiency of the activated sludge phase, following the arrival of toxic components. Together with experimental results on pilot scale, the performance of the industrial treatment plant is presented too, showing the effectiveness of activated carbon dosage in the biological phase to preserve the efficiency of the process despite of influent wastewater toxicity. [Italian] Il lavoro presenta l'indagine sperimentale condotta per rilevare la capacita' di adattamento della biomassa dell'impianto di depurazione di una industria farmaceutica a seguito della variazione delle caratteristiche del liquame influente, e la possibilita' di degradazione, per via biologica, delle componenti tossiche presenti nel refluo. Attraverso prove in scala pilota vengono evidenziati gli effetti causati dall'arrivo di tali componenti su di un impianto di ossidazione a fanghi attivi a regime, e vengono individuati gli interventi da apportare per garantire il raggiungimento degli standard richiesti nell'effluente. I risultati ottenuti vengono estesi all'impianto a scala reale di cui vengono illustrati i rendimenti depurativi in termini di abbattimento del carico inquinante.

  1. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen

  2. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from alkaline fermentation liquid of waste activated sludge and application of the fermentation liquid to promote biological municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Chen, Yinguang

    2009-07-01

    In previous publications we reported that by controlling the pH at 10.0 the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) during waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation was remarkably improved [Yuan, H., Chen, Y., Zhang, H., Jiang, S., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2006. Improved bioproduction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from excess sludge under alkaline conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 2025-2029], but significant ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and soluble ortho-phosphorus (SOP) were released [Chen, Y., Jiang, S., Yuan, H., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2007. Hydrolysis and acidification of waste activated sludge at different pHs. Water Res. 41, 683-689]. This paper investigated the simultaneous recovery of NH(4)-N and SOP from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid and the application of the fermentation liquid as an additional carbon source for municipal wastewater biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The central composite design (CCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize and model the simultaneous NH(4)-N and SOP recovery from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted and experimental recovery efficiency was respectively 73.4 and 75.7% with NH(4)-N, and 82.0 and 83.2% with SOP, which suggested that the developed models described the experiments well. After NH(4)-N and SOP recovery, the alkaline fermentation liquid was added to municipal wastewater, and the influence of volume ratio of fermentation liquid to municipal wastewater (FL/MW) on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal was investigated. The addition of fermentation liquid didn't significantly affect nitrification. Both SOP and total nitrogen (TN) removal were increased with fermentation liquid, but there was no significant increase at FL/MW greater than 1/35. Compared to the blank test, the removal efficiency of SOP and TN at FL/MW=1/35 was improved from 44.0 to 92.9%, and 63.3 to 83.2%, respectively. The enhancement of phosphorus and nitrogen

  3. Framework for Construction of Multi-scale Models for Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes - Case Study: Autotrophic Nitrogen Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    In wastewater treatment technologies, employing biofilms or granular biomass, processes might occur at very different spatial and temporal scales. Model development for such systems is typically a tedious, complicated, and time consuming task, which involves selecting appropriate model equations...... for the different scales, making appropriate and simplifying assumptions, connecting them through a defined linking scheme, analyzing and solving the model equations numerically, and performing parameter estimations if necessary. In this study, a structured framework for modeling such systems is developed. It aims...... to support the user at the various steps and to reduce the time it takes to generate a model ready for application. An implementation of the framework is illustrated using a simple case study, which considers treatment of a nitrogen-rich wastewater via nitritation....

  4. Factors affecting reuse of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraszti, L

    1981-01-01

    Changing the quality of circulating water, raising the effectiveness of sedimentation, examples of biological treatment of wastewater are presented. The necessity of continuing the studies on biological treatment of wastewater is demonstrated. It is considered useful to define the importance of KhPK and BP5 in each case. During biological treatment in ponds, to define the relation BPK5:N:P, research on conditions for nutrient removal must be done. To do this, as well as decrease the significance of KhPK, a mathematical model for defining the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater and consequently their reuse must be developed.

  5. Diversity and importance of filamentous bacteria in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment plants – a worldwide survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Ziegler, Anja Sloth

    Filamentous bacteria are present in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) worldwide where they play an important role by providing structural backbone for activated sludge (AS) flocs and thus ensuring good settling properties. However, their excessive growth may lead to inter-floc bridging, which i...... demonstrated limited diversity of abundant filamentous bacteria in AS community around the globe presenting a hope for solution of sludge settling problems if we can couple the knowledge of filaments identity and their physiology....

  6. pH-adjustment strategy for volatile fatty acid production from high-strength wastewater for biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Liu, Hui; Chen, Yin-Guang; Zhou, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from three types of high-strength organic wastewater (cassava thin stillage, starch wastewater and yellow-wine processing wastewater) were compared. The results showed that cassava thin stillage was the most suitable substrate, based on its high specific VFA production (0.68 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/g initial soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) and yield (0.72 g COD/g SCOD) as well as low nutrient content in the substrate and fermented liquid. The acid fermented cassava thin stillage was evaluated and compared with sodium acetate in a sequencing batch reactor system. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was higher with fermented cassava thin stillage than with the sodium acetate. The effects of pH and a pH-adjustment strategy on VFA production and composition were determined using cassava thin stillage. At an initial pH range of 7-11, a relatively high VFA concentration of about 9 g COD/L was obtained. The specific VFA production (g COD/g initial SCOD) increased from 0.27 to 0.47 to 0.67 at pH 8 and from 0.26 to 0.68 to 0.81 at pH 9 (initial pH, interval pH, and constant pH adjustment, respectively). The dominant VFA species changed significantly with the increasing frequency of the pH adjustment. Further studies will examine the metabolic pathways responsible for VFA composition.

  7. Evaluation of the simultaneous removal of recalcitrant drugs (bezafibrate, gemfibrozil, indomethacin and sulfamethoxazole) and biodegradable organic matter from synthetic wastewater by electro-oxidation coupled with a biological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Nava, Odín; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo; Loera, Octavio; González, Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    Pharmaceutical degradation in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represents a challenge since municipal wastewater and hospital effluents contain pharmaceuticals in low concentrations (recalcitrant and persistent in WWTP) and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) is the main pollutant. This work shows the feasibility of coupling electro-oxidation with a biological system for the simultaneous removal of recalcitrant drugs (bezafibrate, gemfibrozil, indomethacin and sulfamethoxazole (BGIS)) and BOM from wastewater. High removal efficiencies were attained without affecting the performance of activated sludge. BGIS degradation was performed by advanced electrochemical oxidation and the activated sludge process for BOM degradation in a continuous reactor. The selected electrochemical parameters from microelectrolysis tests (1.2 L s(-1) and 1.56 mA cm(-2)) were maintained to operate a filter press laboratory reactor FM01-LC using boron-doped diamond as the anode. The low current density was chosen in order to remove drugs without decreasing BOM and chlorine concentration control, so as to avoid bulking formation in the biological process. The wastewater previously treated by FM01-LC was fed directly (without chemical modification) to the activated sludge reactor to remove 100% of BGIS and 83% of BOM; conversely, the BGIS contained in wastewater without electrochemical pre-treatment were persistent in the biological process and promoted bulking formation.

  8. Biological effects and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in high-back crucian carp exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingliang; Wang Renmin; Huang Bin; Lin Chan; Zhou Jiali; Pan Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents have been shown to cause adverse effects, but the uptake of EDCs from effluents (measured in fish muscle) are not known. In this study, the biological effects and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic EDCs were assessed in high-back crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to WWTP effluents for 141 days. Compared with fish controls caged in Dianchi Lake, a significant reduction in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in hepatosomatic index (HSI) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels were observed in effluent-exposed fish. The concentrations of steroids and phenols in effluent-exposed fish showed time-dependent increase during the exposure. In addition, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for steroids and phenols were between 17 and 59 on day 141. The results confirm that steroids and phenols bioconcentrate in fish muscle and this accumulation may account for the biological effects associated with exposures to WWTP effluents. - Highlights: ► We assess the potential risk of WWTP effluents to fish. ► We investigate the biological responses of EDCs in fish exposed to effluents. ► We estimate the uptake of EDCs originating from WWTP effluents in fish. ► The bioaccumulation of EDCs may account for the biological effects of effluents. - Bioaccumulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals in WWTP effluent-exposed fish.

  9. Investigations into the biodegradation of microcystin-LR in wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Lionel; Hoefel, Daniel; Palazot, Sebastien; Sawade, Emma; Newcombe, Gayle; Saint, Christopher P.; Brookes, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    Microcystins are potent hepatotoxins that can be produced by cyanobacteria. These organisms can proliferate in wastewaters due to a number of factors including high concentrations of nutrients for growth. As treated wastewaters are now being considered as supplementary drinking water sources, in addition to their frequent use for irrigated agriculture, it is imperative that these wastewaters are free of toxins such as microcystins. This study investigated the potential for biodegradation of microcystin-LR (MCLR) in wastewaters through a biological sand filtration experiment and in static batch reactor experiments. MCLR was effectively removed at a range of concentrations and at various temperatures, with degradation attributed to the action of microorganisms indigenous to the wastewaters. No hepatotoxic by-products were detected following the degradation of MCLR as determined by a protein phosphatase inhibition assay. Using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction, the first gene involved in bacterial degradation of MCLR (mlrA) was detected and the responsible bacteria shown to increase with the amount of MCLR being degraded. This finding suggested that the degradation of MCLR was dependent upon the abundance of MCLR-degrading organisms present within the wastewater, and that MCLR may provide bacteria with a significant carbon source for proliferation; in turn increasing MCLR removal.

  10. Influence of co-substrate on textile wastewater treatment and microbial community changes in the anaerobic biological sulfate reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasool, Kashif; Mahmoud, Khaled A. [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, PO BOX 5825, Doha (Qatar); Lee, Dae Sung, E-mail: daesung@knu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Textile wastewater treatment performance was investigated with different co-substrates. • Dye biodegradation and biotransformation enhanced with lactate as co-substrate. • Sulfate removal significantly decreased under limited co-substrate concentration. • Changes in microbial community structure were studied using bar-coded pyrosequencing. • Lactate as co-substrate showed the highest relative abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria. - Abstract: This study investigated the anaerobic treatment of sulfate-rich synthetic textile wastewater in three sulfidogenic sequential batch reactors (SBRs). The experimental protocol was designed to examine the effect of three different co-substrates (lactate, glucose, and ethanol) and their concentrations on wastewater treatment performance. Sulfate reduction and dye degradation were improved when lactate and ethanol were used as electron donors, as compared with glucose. Moreover, under co-substrate limited concentrations, color, sulfate, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were declined. By reducing co-substrate COD gradually from 3000 to 500 mg/L, color removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.23% to 78.46%, 63.37%, and 69.10%, whereas, sulfate removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.42%, 82.35%, and 87.0%, to 30.27%, 21.50%, and 10.13%, for lactate, glucose, and ethanol fed reactors, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and total aromatic amine analysis revealed lactate to be a potential co-substrate for further biodegradation of intermediate metabolites formed after dye degradation. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that microbial community structure was significantly affected by the co-substrate. The reactor with lactate as co-substrate showed the highest relative abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRBs), followed by ethanol, whereas the glucose-fed reactor showed the lowest relative abundance of SRB.

  11. Influence of co-substrate on textile wastewater treatment and microbial community changes in the anaerobic biological sulfate reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, Kashif; Mahmoud, Khaled A.; Lee, Dae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Textile wastewater treatment performance was investigated with different co-substrates. • Dye biodegradation and biotransformation enhanced with lactate as co-substrate. • Sulfate removal significantly decreased under limited co-substrate concentration. • Changes in microbial community structure were studied using bar-coded pyrosequencing. • Lactate as co-substrate showed the highest relative abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria. - Abstract: This study investigated the anaerobic treatment of sulfate-rich synthetic textile wastewater in three sulfidogenic sequential batch reactors (SBRs). The experimental protocol was designed to examine the effect of three different co-substrates (lactate, glucose, and ethanol) and their concentrations on wastewater treatment performance. Sulfate reduction and dye degradation were improved when lactate and ethanol were used as electron donors, as compared with glucose. Moreover, under co-substrate limited concentrations, color, sulfate, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were declined. By reducing co-substrate COD gradually from 3000 to 500 mg/L, color removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.23% to 78.46%, 63.37%, and 69.10%, whereas, sulfate removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.42%, 82.35%, and 87.0%, to 30.27%, 21.50%, and 10.13%, for lactate, glucose, and ethanol fed reactors, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and total aromatic amine analysis revealed lactate to be a potential co-substrate for further biodegradation of intermediate metabolites formed after dye degradation. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that microbial community structure was significantly affected by the co-substrate. The reactor with lactate as co-substrate showed the highest relative abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRBs), followed by ethanol, whereas the glucose-fed reactor showed the lowest relative abundance of SRB.

  12. Comparative assessment of phthalate removal and risk in biological wastewater treatment systems of developing countries and small communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil, E-mail: khalidmzml@gmail.com; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad, E-mail: absarakazmi@yahoo.com

    2016-11-01

    Phthalates are widely used in plastic and personnel care products. Being non-steroid endocrine disrupting compounds, their exposure have toxic effects on aquatic life and human health. The aim of this study was a comparative assessment of their fate and risk in full scale wastewater treatment along with influence of seasonal variations. Four priority phthalates, Diethylphthalate (DEP), Dibutylphthalate (DBP), Benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were chosen for this study and wastewater treatment plants investigated were designed as nutrient removal based sequencing batch reactor (SBR), conventional activated sludge process (ASP) and up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) with polishing pond. Results showed that the main removal mechanism of phthalates was biotransformation with removal contribution of 74% in SBR, 65% in conventional ASP and 37% in UASB. Overall removal of phthalates was maximum in the treatment combination of UASB and pond (83%) followed by SBR (80%) and conventional ASP (74%). Seasonal influences on occurrence, removal and risk of these phthalates were also studied. The concentration of DEP, DBP and DEHP in untreated wastewater increased by 2, 7 and 2 μg/L, respectively in summer. However in sludge, only large molecular weight phthalates BBP and DEHP increased in winter by 3 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg, respectively. Seasonal variations in removal of phthalates were discrepant in each process with better removal during summer. Risk assessment of phthalates to aquatic life showed that there is no potential risk of DEP, DBP and BBP from effluents of treatment plants however risk quotient of DEHP was in the range of 27–73 in both seasons which indicate probable risk to aquatic organisms. Phthalate risk to human beings estimated by daily intake of phthalates was in the range of 0.3 ± 0.1 to 20 ± 0.7 ng/kg/d and far below their respective reference dosages, demonstrating the potential of these treatment plants to reduce the risk

  13. Comparative assessment of phthalate removal and risk in biological wastewater treatment systems of developing countries and small communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used in plastic and personnel care products. Being non-steroid endocrine disrupting compounds, their exposure have toxic effects on aquatic life and human health. The aim of this study was a comparative assessment of their fate and risk in full scale wastewater treatment along with influence of seasonal variations. Four priority phthalates, Diethylphthalate (DEP), Dibutylphthalate (DBP), Benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were chosen for this study and wastewater treatment plants investigated were designed as nutrient removal based sequencing batch reactor (SBR), conventional activated sludge process (ASP) and up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) with polishing pond. Results showed that the main removal mechanism of phthalates was biotransformation with removal contribution of 74% in SBR, 65% in conventional ASP and 37% in UASB. Overall removal of phthalates was maximum in the treatment combination of UASB and pond (83%) followed by SBR (80%) and conventional ASP (74%). Seasonal influences on occurrence, removal and risk of these phthalates were also studied. The concentration of DEP, DBP and DEHP in untreated wastewater increased by 2, 7 and 2 μg/L, respectively in summer. However in sludge, only large molecular weight phthalates BBP and DEHP increased in winter by 3 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg, respectively. Seasonal variations in removal of phthalates were discrepant in each process with better removal during summer. Risk assessment of phthalates to aquatic life showed that there is no potential risk of DEP, DBP and BBP from effluents of treatment plants however risk quotient of DEHP was in the range of 27–73 in both seasons which indicate probable risk to aquatic organisms. Phthalate risk to human beings estimated by daily intake of phthalates was in the range of 0.3 ± 0.1 to 20 ± 0.7 ng/kg/d and far below their respective reference dosages, demonstrating the potential of these treatment plants to reduce the risk

  14. Biological treatment of potato processing wastewater for red pigment production by immobilized cells of UV-irradiated monascus sp. in repeated batch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Potato processing wastewater (PPW) was collected and analyzed for biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and starch content. A fungal strain isolated from PPW identified as Monascus sp. PPW was evaluated for its ability to grow and produce red pigment, biomass and reduce the starch content of the ,PPW. Active UV-irradiated isolate of the above strain was obtained by exposing the parent strain to UV-radiation and coded Monascus. sp. PPW-UV7 and used as immobilized cell system for PPW treatment process in repeated batch fermentation. The immobilized cells (in sponge cubes) were able to reduce COD by about 85.7 %, with biomass production of 9.22 gl+ l and over productivity of red pigment of 2.6 gl+ 1 after 8 days fermentation (2 batches). The immobilized cells showed stability and viability for 8 batches (32 days) during the process treatment

  15. Removal of Antibiotics in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems—A Critical Assessment Using the Activated Sludge Modeling Framework for Xenobiotics (ASM-X)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Many scientific studies present removal efficiencies for pharmaceuticals in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale wastewater treatment plants, based on observations that may be impacted by theoretical and methodological approaches used. In this Critical Review, we evaluated factors influencing...... observed removal efficiencies of three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline) in pilot- and full-scale biological treatment systems. Factors assessed include (i) retransformation to parent pharmaceuticals from e.g., conjugated metabolites and analogues, (ii) solid retention time (SRT......), (iii) fractions sorbed onto solids, and (iv) dynamics in influent and effluent loading. A recently developed methodology was used, relying on the comparison of removal efficiency predictions (obtained with the Activated Sludge Model for Xenobiotics (ASM-X)) with representative measured data from...

  16. Removal of nutrients in denitrification system using coconut coir fibre for the biological treatment of aquaculture wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, Valsa Remony; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2012-03-01

    Ideal bacterial support medium for fixed film denitrification processes/bioreactors must be inexpensive, durable and possess large surface area with sufficient porosity. The present study has been focussed on removing nitrate nitrogen at two different nitrate nitrogen loading rates (60 (NLR I) and 120 (NLR II) mg l(-1)) from simulated aquaculture wastewater. Coconut coir fibre and a commercially available synthetic reticulated plastic media (Fujino Spirals) were used as packing medium in two independent upflow anaerobic packed bed column reactors. Removal of nitrate nitrogen was studied in correlation with other nutrients (COD, TKN, dissolved orthophosphate). Maximum removal of 97% at NLR-I and 99% at NLR - II of nitrate nitrogen was observed in with either media. Greater consistency in the case of COD removal of upto 81% was observed at NLR II where coconut coir was used as support medium compared to 72% COD removal by Fujino Spirals. The results observed indicate that the organic support medium is just as efficient in nitrate nitrogen removal as conventionally used synthetic support medium. The study is important as it specifically focuses on denitrification of aquaculture wastewater using cheaper organic support medium in anoxic bioreactors for the removal of nitrate nitrogen; which is seldom addressed as a significant problem.

  17. Biological nutrient removal and molecular biological characteristics in an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Dong, Wenyi; Wang, Hongjie; Jiang, Shilong

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to present an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater. The average COD, NH 4 + -N, TN, and TP removal efficiency were 91.81%, 96.26%, 83.73% and 94.49%, respectively. Temperature plunge and C/N decrease have a certain impact on the modified process. Characteristics of microbial community, function microorganism, and correlation of microbial community with environmental variables in five compartments were carried out by Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The differences of microbial community were observed and Blastocatella, Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were the dominant genus. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira occupied a dominant position in AOB and NOB, respectively. Rhodospirillaceae and Rhodocyclaceae owned a considerable proportion in phosphorus removal bacteria. DO and COD played significant roles on affecting the microbial components. The A-MAO process in this study demonstrated a high potential for nutrient removal from municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated real-time control strategy in multi-tank A2O process for biological nutrient removal treating real domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Abualhail

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An integrated real-time anaerobic–anoxic/oxic (A2O operated with multi-tank called IMT–A2O process was designed and operated with fluctuating influent loads for biological nutrient removal for treating real domestic wastewater. IMT–A2O process, a “phased isolation tank” technology, varies both aeration pattern and flow path in a continuous flow multi-tank system to force fluctuation of organic and nutrient concentrations in process reactors. Using an eight-phase cycle, desired biochemical transformations, are accomplished at different times in the same tank. On-line sensors (pH, ORP, and DO were used as real-time control parameters to adjust the duration of each operational phase in the IMT–A2O process. The control system is an algorithm that automatically adjusts the cycle length to the influent wastewater characteristics according to the end points. It was found that on-line sensor values of pH, ORP, and DO were somehow related with the dynamic behaviors of nutrient concentrations in IMT–A2O. The algorithm acts in the reaction phases of the IMT–A2O cycle using ORP and pH break points of tank one to distinguish the end of denitrification and the beginning of phosphorus release, pH break point of tank two to control the end of denitrification and beginning of phosphorus release and a sudden increase in DO pattern, pH break point and ORP to control phosphorus uptake and the end of the nitrification process. Although the fluctuations in raw wastewater concentration are extreme; an influent with a low C/N ratio is deficient in organic carbon, and a low carbon source level can limit the overall biological denitrification process, the average removal efficiencies achieved for COD, ammonia–nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were not less than 76.11%, 87.78%, 76.45% and 83.75%, respectively, using the integrated real-time control strategy. The integrated IMT–A2O exhibited a better performance in nutrient removal than the

  19. Enhanced treatment of secondary municipal wastewater effluent: comparing (biological) filtration and ozonation in view of micropollutant removal, unselective effluent toxicity, and the potential for real-time control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chys, Michael; Demeestere, Kristof; Ingabire, Ange Sabine; Dries, Jan; Van Langenhove, Herman; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2017-07-01

    Ozonation and three (biological) filtration techniques (trickling filtration (TF), slow sand filtration (SSF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration) have been evaluated in different combinations as tertiary treatment for municipal wastewater effluent. The removal of 18 multi-class pharmaceuticals, as model trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), has been studied. (Biological) activated carbon filtration could reduce the amount of TrOCs significantly (>99%) but is cost-intensive for full-scale applications. Filtration techniques mainly depending on biodegradation mechanisms (TF and SSF) are found to be inefficient for TrOCs removal as a stand alone technique. Ozonation resulted in 90% removal of the total amount of quantified TrOCs, but a post-ozonation step is needed to cope with an increased unselective toxicity. SSF following ozonation showed to be the only technique able to reduce the unselective toxicity to the same level as before ozonation. In view of process control, innovative correlation models developed for the monitoring and control of TrOC removal during ozonation, are verified for their applicability during ozonation in combination with TF, SSF or BAC. Particularly for the poorly ozone reactive TrOCs, statistically significant models were obtained that correlate TrOC removal and reduction in UVA 254 as an online measured surrogate parameter.

  20. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  1. Evaluation of process conditions triggering emissions of green-house gases from a biological wastewater treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, A.; Aymerich, I. [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit Street, 101, H_2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain); Poch, M. [Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (LEQUIA-UdG), Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi s/n, E-17071 Girona (Spain); Pijuan, M., E-mail: mpijuan@icra.cat [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit Street, 101, H_2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    In this study, methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emission dynamics of a plug–flow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10 weeks. In general, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 2–3 days in each of these sites. This sampling strategy also allowed the identification of different process perturbations leading to CH{sub 4} or N{sub 2}O peak emissions. CH{sub 4} emissions mainly occurred in the first aerated site, and were mostly related with the influent and reject wastewater flows entering the bioreactor. On the other hand, N{sub 2}O emissions were given along all the aerated parts of the bioreactor and were strongly dependant on the occurrence of process disturbances such as periods of no aeration or nitrification instability. Dissolved CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O concentrations were monitored in the bioreactor and in other parts of the plant, as a contribution for the better understanding of the transport of these greenhouse gases across the different stages of the treatment system. - Highlights: • Monitoring of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a full-scale activated sludge bioreactor • Process perturbations leading to CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O peak emissions were identified. • Peak emissions increased severely the overall emission account of the bioreactor. • CH{sub 4} emissions were related with the inflow of influent and reject wastewater. • N{sub 2}O was generated as consequence of nitrification imbalances.

  2. Wastewater resource recovery via the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal and Recovery (EBP2R) process coupled with green microalgae cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja

    compatible to interface with ASM-2d. Therefore, the third part of the PhD project focusses on the development of a process model for micro-algal growth and substrate storage kinetics (referred to as ASM-A). To facilitate the integration in already well-stablished simulation platforms for wastewater treatment......, e.g., the Benchmark Simulation Models 1 and 2, ASM-A was implemented as an extension to the ASM-2d. A set of experiments at different laboratory-scales (microbatch, 1-litre and 24-litre SBR) was designed to generate data for model identification. Furthermore, an independent data set was used...... for model evaluation. The ASM-A can effectively predict the algal biomass growth, as well as the ammonium and phosphorus concentrations in the bulk liquid and the microbial stored phosphorus. Conversely, our results suggest that the maximum uptake rate parameter for nitrate can be significantly affected...

  3. A paradigm shift towards low-nitrifying production systems: the role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Sahrawat, K L; Nakahara, K; Rao, I M; Ishitani, M; Hash, C T; Kishii, M; Bonnett, D G; Berry, W L; Lata, J C

    2013-07-01

    Agriculture is the single largest geo-engineering initiative that humans have initiated on planet Earth, largely through the introduction of unprecedented amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) into ecosystems. A major portion of this reactive N applied as fertilizer leaks into the environment in massive amounts, with cascading negative effects on ecosystem health and function. Natural ecosystems utilize many of the multiple pathways in the N cycle to regulate N flow. In contrast, the massive amounts of N currently applied to agricultural systems cycle primarily through the nitrification pathway, a single inefficient route that channels much of this reactive N into the environment. This is largely due to the rapid nitrifying soil environment of present-day agricultural systems. In this Viewpoint paper, the importance of regulating nitrification as a strategy to minimize N leakage and to improve N-use efficiency (NUE) in agricultural systems is highlighted. The ability to suppress soil nitrification by the release of nitrification inhibitors from plant roots is termed 'biological nitrification inhibition' (BNI), an active plant-mediated natural function that can limit the amount of N cycling via the nitrification pathway. The development of a bioassay using luminescent Nitrosomonas to quantify nitrification inhibitory activity from roots has facilitated the characterization of BNI function. Release of BNIs from roots is a tightly regulated physiological process, with extensive genetic variability found in selected crops and pasture grasses. Here, the current status of understanding of the BNI function is reviewed using Brachiaria forage grasses, wheat and sorghum to illustrate how BNI function can be utilized for achieving low-nitrifying agricultural systems. A fundamental shift towards ammonium (NH4(+))-dominated agricultural systems could be achieved by using crops and pastures with high BNI capacities. When viewed from an agricultural and environmental perspective, the

  4. Characterization and biological treatment of colored textile wastewaters from the typical Tunisian hat Chechia dyeing using newly isolated Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajer Barouni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize and investigate, for the first time, the treatment of real colored wastewaters from the artisanal dyeing of the typical Tunisian hat Chechia, using a newly isolated fungal strain. This textile effluent was a mixture called Mix of colored wastewaters from the three main types of Chechia. The major pollutant of the Mix was the toxic Azo dye Amaranth Acid or Acid Red 27. The fungal strain that made the cleanup was discovered in a Chechia dyeing wastewater’s container and identified by ITS rDNA gene sequencing. This isolated Aspergillus niger showed interesting performances on the demonstration of Chechia wastewater’s biodegradation in batch cultures. In order to understand the effect of agitation, Mix dilution and inoculum size on decolourisation and pollution removal, a full factorial experimental design 23 was set up. At the optimal conditions which were 20% inoculum size, 25% Chechia Mix dilution and an agitation of 100 rpm, Aspergillus niger was able to remove color as high as 70.18±2.84% at an initial dye concentration of 1346.6±0.01 mg/L, and to reduce COD to 74.17±14.52% at an initial COD of 4157±422 mg/L. FT-IR spectra analysis confirmed the decolourisation by biodegradation and transformation of the dyes. The treatment by the isolated Aspergillus niger could be successfully applied as a sustainable method to solve one of handicraft dyeing plants environmental management issues.

  5. Optimization of three FISH procedures for in situ detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlekovic, Marko; Schmid, Markus C; Schmider-Poignee, Nadja; Spring, Stefan; Pilhofer, Martin; Gaul, Tobias; Fiandaca, Mark; Löffler, Frank E; Jetten, Mike; Schleifer, K-H; Lee, Natuschka M

    2009-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using fluorochrome-labeled DNA oligonucleotide probes has been successfully applied for in situ detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. However, application of the standard FISH protocols to visualize anammox bacteria in biofilms from a laboratory-scale wastewater reactor produced only weak signals. Increased signal intensity was achieved either by modifying the standard FISH protocol, using peptide nucleic acid probes (PNA FISH), or applying horse radish peroxidase- (HRP-) labeled probes and subsequent catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH). A comparative analysis using anammox biofilm samples and suspended anammox biomass from different laboratory wastewater bioreactors revealed that the modified standard FISH protocol and the PNA FISH probes produced equally strong fluorescence signals on suspended biomass, but only weak signals were obtained with the biofilm samples. The probe signal intensities in the biofilm samples could be enhanced by enzymatic pre-treatment of fixed cells, and by increasing the hybridization time of the PNA FISH protocol. CARD-FISH always produced up to four-fold stronger fluorescent signals but unspecific fluorescence signals, likely caused by endogenous peroxidases as reported in several previous studies, compromised the results. Interference of the development of fluorescence intensity with endogenous peroxidases was also observed in cells of aerobic ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas europea, and sulfate-reducers like Desulfobacter postgatei. Interestingly, no interference was observed with other peroxidase-positive microorganisms, suggesting that CARD-FISH is not only compromised by the mere presence of peroxidases. Pre-treatment of cells to inactivate peroxidase with HCl or autoclavation/pasteurization failed to inactive peroxidases, but H(2)O(2) significantly reduced endogenous peroxidase activity. However, for optimal inactivation, different H(2)O(2

  6. Research on the enhancement of biological nitrogen removal at low temperatures from ammonium-rich wastewater by the bio-electrocoagulation technology in lab-scale systems, pilot-scale systems and a full-scale industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Qian, Guangsheng; Ye, Linlin; Hu, Xiaomin; Yu, Xin; Lyu, Weijian

    2018-04-17

    In cold areas, nitrogen removal performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) declines greatly in winter. This paper systematically describes the enhancement effect of a periodic reverse electrocoagulation technology on biological nitrogen removal at low temperatures. The study showed that in the lab-scale systems, the electrocoagulation technology improved the biomass amount, enzyme activity and the amount of nitrogen removal bacteria (Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Paracoccus, Thauera and Enterobacter). This enhanced nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge at low temperatures. In the pilot-scale systems, the electrocoagulation technology increased the relative abundance of cold-adapted microorganisms (Luteimonas and Trueperaceae) at low temperatures. In a full-scale industrial WWTP, comparison of data from winter 2015 and winter 2016 showed that effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH 4 + -N, and NO 3 - -N reduced by 10.37, 3.84, and 136.43 t, respectively, throughout the winter, after installation of electrocoagulation devices. These results suggest that the electrocoagulation technology is able to improve the performance of activated sludge under low-temperature conditions. This technology provides a new way for upgrading of the performance of WWTPs in cold areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch ...

  8. An Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Biological Responses to Municipal Wastewater Effluent in Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) Collected along an Urban Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Leslie M.; Tetreault, Gerald R.; Bahamonde, Paulina A.; Tanna, Rajiv N.; Bennett, Charles J.; McMaster, Mark E.; Servos, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE) and its constituents, such as chemicals of emerging concern, pose a potential threat to the sustainability of fish populations by disrupting key endocrine functions in aquatic organisms. While studies have demonstrated changes in biological markers of exposure of aquatic organisms to groups of chemicals of emerging concern, the variability of these markers over time has not been sufficiently described in wild fish species. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of biological markers in response to MWWE exposure and to test the consistency of these responses between seasons and among years. Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) were collected in spring and fall seasons over a 5-year period in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. In addition to surface water chemistry (nutrients and selected pharmaceuticals), measures were taken across levels of biological organization in rainbow darter. The measurements of hormone production, gonad development, and intersex severity were temporally consistent and suggested impaired reproduction in male fish collected downstream of MWWE outfalls. In contrast, ovarian development and hormone production in females appeared to be influenced more by urbanization than MWWE. Measures of gene expression and somatic indices were highly variable between sites and years, respectively, and were inconclusive in terms of the impacts of MWWE overall. Robust biomonitoring programs must consider these factors in both the design and interpretation of results, especially when spatial and temporal sampling of biological endpoints is limited. Assessing the effects of contaminants and other stressors on fish in watersheds would be greatly enhanced by an approach that considers natural variability in the endpoints being measured. PMID:27776151

  9. An Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Biological Responses to Municipal Wastewater Effluent in Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum Collected along an Urban Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan L M Fuzzen

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE and its constituents, such as chemicals of emerging concern, pose a potential threat to the sustainability of fish populations by disrupting key endocrine functions in aquatic organisms. While studies have demonstrated changes in biological markers of exposure of aquatic organisms to groups of chemicals of emerging concern, the variability of these markers over time has not been sufficiently described in wild fish species. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of biological markers in response to MWWE exposure and to test the consistency of these responses between seasons and among years. Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum were collected in spring and fall seasons over a 5-year period in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. In addition to surface water chemistry (nutrients and selected pharmaceuticals, measures were taken across levels of biological organization in rainbow darter. The measurements of hormone production, gonad development, and intersex severity were temporally consistent and suggested impaired reproduction in male fish collected downstream of MWWE outfalls. In contrast, ovarian development and hormone production in females appeared to be influenced more by urbanization than MWWE. Measures of gene expression and somatic indices were highly variable between sites and years, respectively, and were inconclusive in terms of the impacts of MWWE overall. Robust biomonitoring programs must consider these factors in both the design and interpretation of results, especially when spatial and temporal sampling of biological endpoints is limited. Assessing the effects of contaminants and other stressors on fish in watersheds would be greatly enhanced by an approach that considers natural variability in the endpoints being measured.

  10. Pilot test of biological removal of 1,4-dioxane from a chemical factory wastewater by gel carrier entrapping Afipia sp. strain D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Kazuichi, E-mail: kazuichi.isaka.mp@hitachi.com [Matsudo Research Center, Infrastructure System Company, Hitachi, Ltd., 537 Kami-hongo, Matsudo, Chiba 271-0064 (Japan); Udagawa, Makiko [Matsudo Research Center, Infrastructure System Company, Hitachi, Ltd., 537 Kami-hongo, Matsudo, Chiba 271-0064 (Japan); Sei, Kazunari, E-mail: ksei@kitasato-u.ac.jp [Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Health Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara-Minami, Kanagawa 252-0373 (Japan); Ike, Michihiko, E-mail: ike@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Two pilot-scale biological 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) treatment systems were operated. • Gel cubes entrapping Afipia sp. strain D1 were used for real wastewater treatment. • The maximum 1,4-dioxane removal rates of 0.72 kg m{sup −3} day{sup −1} was observed. • Monod model describes 1,4-D degradation, showing half saturation constant is 28 mg L{sup −1}. - Abstract: A pilot-scale (120 L) bioreactor system using a gel carrier-entrapped pure bacterial strain, Afipia sp. strain D1, capable of degrading 1,4-dioxane as a sole carbon and energy source was constructed and applied to treat real industrial wastewater containing 1,4-dioxane from a chemical factory. Although the wastewater not only contained high concentrations of 1,4-dioxane but also considerable amounts of other organic compounds (73 mg-TOC L{sup −1} on average), the bioreactor could efficiently remove 1,4-dioxane without significant inhibitory effects. The reactor startup could be completed within approximately 1 month by increasing the 1,4-dioxane loading rate (0.09–0.47 kg-dioxane m{sup −3} d{sup −1}) in a stepwise manner. Effective 1,4-dioxane removal was stably maintained for 3 months with an influent 1,4-dioxane of 570–730 mg L{sup −1}, giving an average effluent concentration and removal rate of 3.4 mg L{sup −1} and 0.46 kg-dioxane m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, respectively. A 1,4-dioxane loading fluctuation between 0.14 and 0.72 kg-dioxane m{sup −3} d{sup −1} did not significantly affect its removal, and more than 99% removal efficiency was constantly maintained. The Monod model could well describe the relationship between the effluent 1,4-dioxane concentration and 1,4-dioxane removal rates of the bioreactors, showing that the half-saturation constant (Ks) was 28 mg L{sup −1}.

  11. Pilot test of biological removal of 1,4-dioxane from a chemical factory wastewater by gel carrier entrapping Afipia sp. strain D1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Kazuichi; Udagawa, Makiko; Sei, Kazunari; Ike, Michihiko

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two pilot-scale biological 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) treatment systems were operated. • Gel cubes entrapping Afipia sp. strain D1 were used for real wastewater treatment. • The maximum 1,4-dioxane removal rates of 0.72 kg m"−"3 day"−"1 was observed. • Monod model describes 1,4-D degradation, showing half saturation constant is 28 mg L"−"1. - Abstract: A pilot-scale (120 L) bioreactor system using a gel carrier-entrapped pure bacterial strain, Afipia sp. strain D1, capable of degrading 1,4-dioxane as a sole carbon and energy source was constructed and applied to treat real industrial wastewater containing 1,4-dioxane from a chemical factory. Although the wastewater not only contained high concentrations of 1,4-dioxane but also considerable amounts of other organic compounds (73 mg-TOC L"−"1 on average), the bioreactor could efficiently remove 1,4-dioxane without significant inhibitory effects. The reactor startup could be completed within approximately 1 month by increasing the 1,4-dioxane loading rate (0.09–0.47 kg-dioxane m"−"3 d"−"1) in a stepwise manner. Effective 1,4-dioxane removal was stably maintained for 3 months with an influent 1,4-dioxane of 570–730 mg L"−"1, giving an average effluent concentration and removal rate of 3.4 mg L"−"1 and 0.46 kg-dioxane m"−"3 d"−"1, respectively. A 1,4-dioxane loading fluctuation between 0.14 and 0.72 kg-dioxane m"−"3 d"−"1 did not significantly affect its removal, and more than 99% removal efficiency was constantly maintained. The Monod model could well describe the relationship between the effluent 1,4-dioxane concentration and 1,4-dioxane removal rates of the bioreactors, showing that the half-saturation constant (Ks) was 28 mg L"−"1.

  12. Treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater by integration of biological and advanced oxidation processes: Modeling, optimization, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2016-11-01

    Biological and advanced oxidation processes are combined to treat an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) by a sequence of an anaerobic baffled reactor, an aerobic activated sludge reactor, and a UV/H2O2 photoreactor with recycle in continuous mode at laboratory scale. In the first part of this study, quadratic modeling along with response surface methodology are used for the statistical analysis and optimization of the combined process. The effects of the influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, the flow rate, the pH, the inlet H2O2 concentration, and their interaction on the overall treatment efficiency, CH4 yield, and H2O2 residual in the effluent of the photoreactor are investigated. The models are validated at different operating conditions using experimental data. Maximum TOC and total nitrogen (TN) removals of 91.29 and 86.05%, respectively, maximum CH4 yield of 55.72%, and minimum H2O2 residual of 1.45% in the photoreactor effluent were found at optimal operating conditions. In the second part of this study, continuous distribution kinetics is applied to establish a mathematical model for the degradation of SWW as a function of time. The agreement between model predictions and experimental values indicates that the proposed model could describe the performance of the combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of SWW. In the final part of the study, the optimized combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes with recycle were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness analysis to minimize the retention time, the electrical energy consumption, and the overall incurred treatment costs required for the efficient treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of full-scale biological nutrient removal systems upgraded with physico-chemical processes for the removal of emerging pollutants present in wastewaters from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson Baltazar; Cortés-Muñoz, Juana Enriqueta; González-Herrera, Arturo; Calderón-Mólgora, César Guillermo; de Lourdes Rivera-Huerta, Ma; Ramírez-Camperos, Esperanza; Montellano-Palacios, Leticia; Gelover-Santiago, Silvia Lucila; Pérez-Castrejón, Sara; Cardoso-Vigueros, Lina; Martín-Domínguez, Alejandra; García-Sánchez, Liliana

    2016-11-15

    Two full-scale biological nutrient removal systems upgraded with three physico-chemical processes (coagulation, chemical precipitation, and neutral Fenton) were evaluated in order to determine the removal of emerging pollutants (EPs) present in municipal wastewater from Mexico. Between 41 and 55 EPs were detected in the influents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), including personal care products (PPCPs), antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics, antihypertensives, antiseptics, stimulants, and hormones. Emerging pollutants were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.69ng/L to 94,600ng/L. High concentrations of emerging pollutants were found during dry season. WWTP 1, integrated by oxidation ditches and UV light lamps, showed removal efficiencies of EPs between 20% and 22%. On the other hand, WWTP 2 consisted of anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic tanks coupled with two disinfection processes; chlorine dioxide and UV light lamps, for which the removal of EPs was significant (up to 80%). The concentrations of emerging pollutants in WWTP 1 effluent was found within a rangeemerging pollutants in the effluent were below 210ng/L. WWTP 2 showed high emerging pollutant removals, compared to those of WWTP 1, due to a greater activity of the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification processes, hydraulic retention time, and solids retention time. The compounds that were more persistent with removals below 50% in both effluents were: carbamazepine, dehydronifedipine, meprobamate, sertraline, propranolol, propoxyphene, norverapamil, diazepam, alprazolam, sulfamethoxazole, metoprolol, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, fluoxetine, erythromycin-H2O, diphenhydramine, dehydronifedipine, clarithromycin, hydrochlorothiazide, and albuterol. The application of neutral Fenton reaction as post-treatment for the two effluents from the WWTPs is promising for the removal of emerging pollutants (up to 100%) and for assuring high quality of treated water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  14. Enhanced degradation of phenolic compounds in coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of micro-electrolysis with biological reactor (MEBR) under the micro-oxygen condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Han, Yuxing; Xu, Chunyan; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Wencheng; Zhu, Hao; Li, Kun; Wang, Dexin

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study an integration of micro-electrolysis with biological reactor (MEBR) for strengthening removal of phenolic compounds in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated MEBR achieved high efficiencies in removal of COD and phenolic compounds as well as improvement of biodegradability of CGW under the micro-oxygen condition. The integrated MEBR process was more favorable to improvement of the structural stability of activated sludge and biodiversity of specific functional microbial communities. Especially, Shewanella and Pseudomonas were enriched to accelerate the extracellular electron transfer, finally facilitating the degradation of phenolic compounds. Moreover, MEBR process effectively relieved passivation of Fe-C filler surface and prolonged lifespan of Fe-C filler. Accordingly, the synergetic effect between iron-carbon micro-electrolysis (ICME) and biological action played a significant role in performance of the integrated process. Therefore, the integrated MEBR was a promising practical process for enhancing CGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a calibration protocol and identification of the most sensitive parameters for the particulate biofilm models used in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldyasti, Ahmed; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2012-05-01

    Biofilm models are valuable tools for process engineers to simulate biological wastewater treatment. In order to enhance the use of biofilm models implemented in contemporary simulation software, model calibration is both necessary and helpful. The aim of this work was to develop a calibration protocol of the particulate biofilm model with a help of the sensitivity analysis of the most important parameters in the biofilm model implemented in BioWin® and verify the predictability of the calibration protocol. A case study of a circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBBR) system used for biological nutrient removal (BNR) with a fluidized bed respirometric study of the biofilm stoichiometry and kinetics was used to verify and validate the proposed calibration protocol. Applying the five stages of the biofilm calibration procedures enhanced the applicability of BioWin®, which was capable of predicting most of the performance parameters with an average percentage error (APE) of 0-20%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the

  17. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: A comparative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C., E-mail: christian.koehler@tudor.lu [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor/Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies, 66 rue de Luxembourg, BP 144, L-4002 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Venditti, S.; Igos, E.; Klepiszewski, K.; Benetto, E.; Cornelissen, A. [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor/Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies, 66 rue de Luxembourg, BP 144, L-4002 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2012-11-15

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as AOP. The 'conventional' cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process.

  18. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: A comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, C.; Venditti, S.; Igos, E.; Klepiszewski, K.; Benetto, E.; Cornelissen, A.

    2012-01-01

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H 2 O 2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H 2 O 2 as AOP. The “conventional” cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process.

  19. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: a comparative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, C; Venditti, S; Igos, E; Klepiszewski, K; Benetto, E; Cornelissen, A

    2012-11-15

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H2O2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H2O2 as AOP. The "conventional" cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological wastewater treatment technology with application of multihole glasses. Takoshitsu glass wo riyoshita biseibutsu ni yoru haisui shoriho no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, S; Murayama, Y; Tanaka, H; Yazawa, T; Eguchi, K [Government Industrial Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    1991-11-25

    This paper describes efficiency improvement in wastewater treatment to separate SS component using anaerobic fermentation with fixable microorganisms and multihole glass separation films. Measurement of microorganism deposition on microporous PVF resin in a fermentation tank revealed that hydrophilic resins with smooth surface have better deposition, and the suitable carrier hole diameters were from 300[mu]m to 500[mu]m. Adding slightly-soluble carbonate when bacteria are fixed collectively is effective in preserving the entire methane fermentation reaction system and stabilizing the carriers. A composite film comprising SiO2-ZrO2-based porous glass made by using a sol-gel process and porous ceramics had the maximum desalination rate reaching 90%. The permeation rate at a film thickness of 2[mu]m was 46 times as much of that for 500-[mu]m single-layer porous glass. As a result of reforming the pore surface by introducing -Si(CH3)3, the film has turned affinitive to non-polar solvent, repelling water to permeate. In an experiment for fermentation liquid permeation of separation film composite bioreactor using digestive sludge, the higher the SS particle concentration, the more the initial clogging was difficult to occur. The film permeating flow velocity showed a maximum value at hole diameters of about 0.2[mu]m. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Use of maize wastewater for the cultivation of the Pleurotus spp. mushroom and optimization of its biological efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Edenes; Royer, Andrea Rafaela; Barreto-Rodrigues, Marcio; Barana, Ana Claudia

    2009-07-30

    This study evaluated the Pleurotus spp. mushroom production process using an effluent from the maize agroindustrial process as a carbon and nitrogen source and as a wetting agent. A complete experimental design based on factorial planning was used to optimize the biological efficiency and evaluate the effect of the concentration of effluent, pH and species of Pleurotus. The results indicated that the effluent affects the biological efficiency for the production of both species of mushrooms at all pH values studied. The maximum biological efficiency predicted by the model (81.36%) corresponded to the point defined by the effluent contents (X(1)=1), pH (X(2)=-1) and fungus species (X(3)=1), specifically 50%, 5.0 and P. floridae, respectively. The results demonstrated that the effluent is a good alternative for the production of Pleurotus mushrooms.

  2. Valoración de las aguas residuales mediante procedimientos analíticos y biológicos Wastewater evaluation by analytical and biological procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de la Torre

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Ciertos procedimientos, basados en aproximaciones analíticas y biológicas, están demostrando ser útiles en la valoración del riesgo de las aguas residuales urbanas procedentes de las Plantas de Tratamiento. Estos efluentes, considerados “mezclas complejas”, compuestos por sustancias de muy diferente naturaleza, origen y características toxicológicas y medio ambientales, requieren una valoración realista. Con el fin de colaborar al conocimiento de una parte de la realidad de nuestro país, presentamos un estudio sobre once depuradoras urbanas en las que se ha realizado un perfil de compuestos orgánicos y una valoración toxicológica mediante tests de toxicidad agudos, crónicos, de estrogenicidad, mutagenicidad y teratogenia. Los resultados muestran que 7 efluentes presentan toxicidad aguda, 3 toxicidad crónica y 4 estrogenicidad. Destacamos el hecho de que los 4 efluentes que presentan estrogenicidad, poseen al menos 3 de las sustancias estrogénicas detectadas mediante el perfil cromatográfico. Este tipo de consideraciones nos hace reflexionar sobre la necesidad de incorporar este tipo de metodologías para disponer de un conocimiento más realista de estas situaciones.Some procedures, based on analytical and biological methods, are useful tools for risk assessment of treatment plant wastewater. In fact, urban effluents, called “complex mixtures” due to their nature, origin and toxicologic and environmental variability, need a more realistic evaluation. In this study, 11 municipal wastewater effluents were studied. Chemical analysis (GC/MS and biological methods (acute and chronic toxicity bioassays and estrogenicity, mutagenity and teratogeny tests were carried out to identify the most frequent organic compounds and toxic effluents. Results showed 7 effluents with acute toxicity, 3 with chronic toxicity and 4, with estrogenic effects. When toxicity and analytical results were compared, it was observed that in effluents with

  3. Biological risk associated to bio-treatments: monitoring and modeling bacterial dispersion into the atmosphere in a soil bioremediation plant and in a wastewater treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasiuk, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater is a mixture of domestic, municipal and industrial waste dissolved in water. The biggest fraction of wastewater is sanitary sewer water. Before its release in rivers or sea, water must be cleaned and all harmful bacteria must be killed. Biosolids are nutrient-rich organic waste obtained following wastewater treatment and used beneficially as fertilizer. Routinely, biosolids are deposited in agricultural areas or incinerated. For this reason the level of microbial pathogens in the b...

  4. Lack of Evolution Acceptance Inhibits Students' Negotiation of Biology-Based Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, S. R.; Zeidler, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. The Socioscientific Issues Questionnaire (SSI-Q) was developed to measure depth of evolutionary…

  5. Pythium species and isolate diversity influence inhibition by the biological control agent Streptomyces lydicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease control of soilborne pathogens by biological control agents has often been inconsistent under field conditions. One factor that may contribute to this inconsistency is the variability in response among pathogen populations and/or communities to the selected biological control agent. One hund...

  6. Use of potassium permanganate integrated chemical-biological treatment schemes of wastewaters from agricultural industry; Aplicacion de permanganato potasico en sistemas de tratamiento integrado quimico-biologico en las aguas residuales de la industria agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medialdea, J. M.; Arnaiz, M. C.; Isac, L.; Ruiz, C.; Valentin, R.; Martinez, M. F.; Garcia, S.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Cuenca, I.

    2000-07-01

    Present study assesses the applicability of a treatment scheme based on the combination of anaerobic biological digestion and chemical oxidation by potassium permanganate, in the purification of winery wastewaters. Biological digestion, performed using an experimental 1-liter reactor that operated discontinuously with completely mixed input and a mesophilic regime (35 degree centigree), removed 65% and 78% of water COD and BOD, and contributed 82,27% to the system global efficiency. Further chemical oxidation of effluent by Aquox -potassium permanganate eliminated 40% of residual COD, although contributed only 17,73% to global purification efficiency. However, effluent chemical oxidation at a dosage of 35 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L significantly increased effluent biodegradability. Results demonstrated the feasibility of analyzed working scheme and provide a positive valuation on the use of KMnO{sub 4} in the treatment of winery wastewaters. (Author) 24 refs.

  7. Azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and inhibits retinoic acid-mediated biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K

    2011-02-11

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies.

  8. Azadirachtin Interacts with Retinoic Acid Receptors and Inhibits Retinoic Acid-mediated Biological Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B.; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies. PMID:21127062

  9. Full-scale production of VFAs from sewage sludge by anaerobic alkaline fermentation to improve biological nutrients removal in domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Han, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Zhou, Guangjie; Fu, Bo; Zheng, Zhiyong

    2018-07-01

    A full-scale project of thermal-alkaline pretreatment and alkaline fermentation of sewage sludge was built to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) which was then used as external carbon source for improving biological nitrogen and phosphorus removals (BNPR) in wastewater plant. Results showed this project had efficient and stable performances in VFA production, sludge reduce and BNPR. Hydrolysis rate in pretreatment, VFAs yield in fermentation and total VS reduction reached 68.7%, 261.32 mg COD/g VSS and 54.19%, respectively. Moreover, fermentation liquid with VFA presented similar efficiency as acetic acid in enhancing BNPR, obtaining removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus up to 72.39% and 89.65%, respectively. Finally, the project also presented greater economic advantage than traditional processes, and the net profits for VFAs and biogas productions are 9.12 and 3.71 USD/m 3 sludge, respectively. Long-term operation indicated that anaerobic alkaline fermentation for VFAs production is technically and economically feasible for sludge carbon recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of Antibiotics in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems-A Critical Assessment Using the Activated Sludge Modeling Framework for Xenobiotics (ASM-X).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesel, Fabio; Andersen, Henrik R; Trapp, Stefan; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2016-10-04

    Many scientific studies present removal efficiencies for pharmaceuticals in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale wastewater treatment plants, based on observations that may be impacted by theoretical and methodological approaches used. In this Critical Review, we evaluated factors influencing observed removal efficiencies of three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline) in pilot- and full-scale biological treatment systems. Factors assessed include (i) retransformation to parent pharmaceuticals from e.g., conjugated metabolites and analogues, (ii) solid retention time (SRT), (iii) fractions sorbed onto solids, and (iv) dynamics in influent and effluent loading. A recently developed methodology was used, relying on the comparison of removal efficiency predictions (obtained with the Activated Sludge Model for Xenobiotics (ASM-X)) with representative measured data from literature. By applying this methodology, we demonstrated that (a) the elimination of sulfamethoxazole may be significantly underestimated when not considering retransformation from conjugated metabolites, depending on the type (urban or hospital) and size of upstream catchments; (b) operation at extended SRT may enhance antibiotic removal, as shown for sulfamethoxazole; (c) not accounting for fractions sorbed in influent and effluent solids may cause slight underestimation of ciprofloxacin removal efficiency. Using tetracycline as example substance, we ultimately evaluated implications of effluent dynamics and retransformation on environmental exposure and risk prediction.

  11. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater using the catalytic ozonation process combined with a gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong; Ding, Yi; Yao, Jie; Jin, Chao

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigated the performance of the combined system of catalytic ozonation and the gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor for the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater (CCIW). The results indicated that with ozonation alone for 60min, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 34%. The introduction of activated carbon, pumice, γ-Al 2 O 3 carriers improved the removal performance of COD, and the removal efficiency was increased by 8.6%, 4.2%, 2%, respectively. Supported with Mn, the catalytic performance of activated carbon and γ-Al 2 O 3 were improved significantly with COD removal efficiencies of 46.5% and 41.3%, respectively; however, the promotion effect of pumice supported with Mn was insignificant. Activated carbon supported with Mn had the best catalytic performance. The catalytic ozonation combined system of MnO X /activated carbon could keep ozone concentration at a lower level in the liquid phase, and promote the transfer of ozone from the gas phase to the liquid phase to improve ozonation efficiency.

  12. Biological systems coupled for treating wastewater from processing coffee cherries: I – Removal of organic matter - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13627

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Fia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three treatment systems consisting of upflow anaerobic filters followed by constructed wetlands (CW were evaluated in the treatment of wastewater from processing coffee cherries (WCP. The filters (F were made up of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m diameter filled with gravel # 2 and SACs were made of wood boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide sealed with HDPE geomembranes and filled with gravel ‘zero’. WCP had the pH adjusted with lime to values close to 7.0 and the nutrient concentration changed to obtain a BOD/N/P ratio equal to 100/5/1. As a result, the values of influent and effluent pH remained within the range appropriate to the biological degradation of organic material. The system could not bear the shock of the organic load, which reduced the organic matter removal efficiency. Based on the analysis of performance and operating conditions employed, only the system that received the lowest organic load (F1+CW1 on the third phase, was effective in removing organic matter.  

  13. Removal of selected nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds in biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei

    2017-12-01

    Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R 1 ), ozonated (R 2 ) and catalytic ozonated (R 3 ) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH 3 -N and TN in R 3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process. Moreover, COP could alter sludge properties and reshape microbial community structure, thus delaying the occurrence of membrane fouling. Finally, the total cost for this integrated process was estimated to be lower than that of single MBR. The results of this study suggest that COP is a good option to enhance pollutants removal and alleviate membrane fouling in the MBR for BPCGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with chemical precipitation for treatment and toxicity reduction of industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohaprapanona, Sawanya; Marquesa, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) and the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), formaldehyde (FA) and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCI2 .6H20 + Na2HPO4. By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2.5 to 3.7 and 5 days, the reduction rates of FA, DOC and CODs of nearly 100%, 90% and 83%, respectively, were achieved. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from 1:1:1 to 1.3:1:1.3 at pH 8, the NH4+ removal rate increased from 80% to 98%. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content. Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.

  15. Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Bahgat, Magdy M; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Misned, Fahad; Mortuza, Golam; Shafik, Hesham

    2014-07-01

    Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries (Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions) has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics (GBH) as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages. The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates (23 species) and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification. Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water.

  16. Identification of microorganisms involved in nitrogen removal from wastewater treatment systems by means of molecular biology techniques; Identificacion de microorganismos implicados en la eliminacion de nitrogeno en sistemas de tratamiento de aguas residuales mediante tecnicas de biologia molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.; Alonso-Gutierrez, J.; Campos, J. L.; Mendez, R.; Mosquera-Corral, A.

    2010-07-01

    The identification of the main bacteria populations present in the granular biomass from a biological reactor treating wastewater has been performed by applying two different molecular biology techniques. By means of the DGGE technique five different genera of heterotrophic bacteria (Thiothrix, Thauera, Cloroflexi, Comamanas y Zoogloea) and one of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomanas) were identified. The FISH technique, based on microscopy, allowed the in situ visualization and quantification of those microorganisms. Special attention was paid to filamentous bacteria distribution (Thiothrix and Cloroflexi) which could exert a structural function in aerobic granular sludge. (Author) 26 refs.

  17. A compact process for the treatment of olive mill wastewater by combining wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation and biological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azabou, Samia; Najjar, Wahiba; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Abdelhamid; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-01-01

    A system based on combined actions of catalytic wet oxidation and microbial technologies for the treatment of highly polluted OMW containing polyphenols was studied. The wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process has been investigated in the semi-batch mode at atmospheric pressure, using aluminium-iron-pillared inter layer clay ((Al-Fe)PILC), under two different catalytic processes: ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 /ultraviolet radiations) at 25 deg. C and ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ) at 50 deg. C. The results show that raw OMW was resistant to the photocatalytic process. However ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ), system operating at 50 deg. C reduced considerably the COD, colour and total phenolic contents, and thus decreased the inhibition of the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri luminescence by 70%. This study also examined the feasibility of coupling WHPCO and anaerobic digestion treatment. Biomethanisation experiments performed with raw OMW or pre-treated OMW proved that pre-treatments with ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ) system, for more than 2 h, resulted in higher methane production. Both untreated OMW as well as 2-h pre-treated OMW revealed as toxic to anaerobic bacteria.

  18. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. A Critical Assessment of the Microorganisms Proposed to be Important to Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; McIlroy, Simon J; Nierychlo, Marta; Karst, Søren M; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per H

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the microbiology of phosphorus (P) removal is considered essential to knowledge-based optimization of enhanced biological P removal (EBPR) systems. Biological P removal is achieved in these systems by promoting the growth of organisms collectively known as the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Also considered important to EBPR are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), which are theorized to compete with the PAOs for resources at the expense of P removal efficiency. Numerous studies have sought to identify the PAOs and their GAOs competitors, with several candidates proposed for each over the last few decades. The current study collectively assessed the abundance and diversity of all proposed PAOs and GAOs in 18 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with well-working biological nutrient removal over a period of 9 years using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The microbial community structure in all plants was relatively stable over time. Evidence for the role of the proposed PAOs and GAOs in EBPR varies and is critically assessed, in light of their calculated amplicon abundances, to indicate which of these are important in full-scale systems. Bacteria from the genus Tetrasphaera were the most abundant of the PAOs. The " Candidatus Accumulibacter" PAOs were in much lower abundance and appear to be biased by the amplicon-based method applied. The genera Dechloromonas, Microlunatus , and Tessaracoccus were identified as abundant putative PAO that require further research attention. Interestingly, the actinobacterial Micropruina and sbr-gs28 phylotypes were among the most abundant of the putative GAOs. Members of the genera Defluviicoccus, Propionivibrio , the family Competibacteraceae, and the spb280 group were also relatively abundant in some plants. Despite observed high abundances of GAOs (periodically exceeding 20% of the amplicon reads), P removal performance was maintained, indicating that these organisms were not

  20. A Critical Assessment of the Microorganisms Proposed to be Important to Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per H. Nielsen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the microbiology of phosphorus (P removal is considered essential to knowledge-based optimization of enhanced biological P removal (EBPR systems. Biological P removal is achieved in these systems by promoting the growth of organisms collectively known as the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs. Also considered important to EBPR are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs, which are theorized to compete with the PAOs for resources at the expense of P removal efficiency. Numerous studies have sought to identify the PAOs and their GAOs competitors, with several candidates proposed for each over the last few decades. The current study collectively assessed the abundance and diversity of all proposed PAOs and GAOs in 18 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with well-working biological nutrient removal over a period of 9 years using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The microbial community structure in all plants was relatively stable over time. Evidence for the role of the proposed PAOs and GAOs in EBPR varies and is critically assessed, in light of their calculated amplicon abundances, to indicate which of these are important in full-scale systems. Bacteria from the genus Tetrasphaera were the most abundant of the PAOs. The “Candidatus Accumulibacter” PAOs were in much lower abundance and appear to be biased by the amplicon-based method applied. The genera Dechloromonas, Microlunatus, and Tessaracoccus were identified as abundant putative PAO that require further research attention. Interestingly, the actinobacterial Micropruina and sbr-gs28 phylotypes were among the most abundant of the putative GAOs. Members of the genera Defluviicoccus, Propionivibrio, the family Competibacteraceae, and the spb280 group were also relatively abundant in some plants. Despite observed high abundances of GAOs (periodically exceeding 20% of the amplicon reads, P removal performance was maintained, indicating that these organisms

  1. Poxvirus-encoded TNF decoy receptors inhibit the biological activity of transmembrane TNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontejo, Sergio M; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Poxviruses encode up to four different soluble TNF receptors, named cytokine response modifier B (CrmB), CrmC, CrmD and CrmE. These proteins mimic the extracellular domain of the cellular TNF receptors to bind and inhibit the activity of TNF and, in some cases, other TNF superfamily ligands. Most of these ligands are released after the enzymic cleavage of a membrane precursor. However, transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) is not only a precursor of soluble TNF but also exerts specific pro-inflammatory and immunological activities. Here, we report that viral TNF receptors bound and inhibited tmTNF and describe some interesting differences in their activity against the soluble cytokine. Thus, CrmE, which does not inhibit mouse soluble TNF, could block murine tmTNF-induced cytotoxicity. We propose that this anti-tmTNF effect should be taken into consideration when assessing the role of viral TNF decoy receptors in the pathogenesis of poxvirus.

  2. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  3. Cytogenotoxicity screening of untreated hospital wastewaters using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical parameters of the wastewaters were determined in accordance with standard methods. Onions root growth inhibition test was used to assess the toxic status of the wastewaters, while cytogenotoxicity was measured by microscopic investigation of the chromosomal aberrations. Onion bulbs were exposed ...

  4. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  5. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  6. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...... of ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations, which are measured in the aeration tanks of the biological nutrient removal system. The alternatign operation modes of the BIO-DENITRO and BIO-DENIPHO processes are of particular interest. Time series models of the hydraulic and biological processes are very......-known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...

  7. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles in the oxygen uptake during aerobic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-Avilés, Pabel; Brito, Elcia M. S. [University of Guanajuato, Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering & Environmental Engineering (Mexico); Duran, Robert [Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Equipe Environment et Microbiologie (France); Martínez, Arodí Bernal; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán, E-mail: german28@ugto.mx [University of Guanajuato, Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering & Environmental Engineering (Mexico)

    2016-07-15

    The increased use of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in everyday products indicates the importance of studying NPs release to the wastewater and its possible effect on biological process for wastewater treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effect of the presence of ZnO NPs in aerobic wastewater treatment. The results indicated that the oxygen uptake rate of microorganisms is inhibited for concentrations higher than 473 mg L{sup −1} of ZnO NPs. The diversity of microorganisms involved in wastewater treatment was reduced in presence of ZnO NPs. Related to morphological interaction between ZnO NPs and suspended biomass, physical damage in flocs structure were observed in presence of ZnO NPs. However, the internalization of Zn compounds in microorganisms not presented mechanical damage in the membrane cell. These findings suggest that inhibition in oxygen uptake was caused for negative effect that ZnO NPs induces in aerobic microorganisms involved in wastewater treatment.

  8. Wastewater reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Milan R. Radosavljević; Vanja M. Šušteršič

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food s...

  9. MicroRNA-223 Targeting STIM1 Inhibits the Biological Behavior of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the cellular effects and clinical significance of microRNA-223 (miR-223 in breast cancer by targeting stromal interaction molecule1 (STIM1. Methods: Breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, SKB-R3, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 and a normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A were prepared for this study. MiR-223 mimics, anti-miR-223 and pcDNA 3.1-STIM1 were transiently transfected into cancer cells independently or together, and then RT-qPCR was performed to detect the expressions of miR-223 and STIM1 mRNA, dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to examine the effects of miR-223 on STIM1, Western blotting was used to measure the expressions of the STIM1 proteins, MTT and Trans-well assays were performed to detect cell proliferation and invasion. Finally, the correlation of miR-223 and STIM1 was investigated by detecting with ISH and IHC in breast cancer specimens or the corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Results: Compared with normal cells and tissues, breast cancer tissues and cells exhibited significantly lower expression of miR-223, but higher expression of STIM1. MiR-223 could inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells by negatively regulating the expressions of STIM1. Reimplantation with STIM1 partially rescued the miRNA-223-induced inhibition of breast cancer cells. Clinical data revealed that high expression of STIM1 and miR-223 was respectively detrimental and beneficial factor impacting patient’s disease-free survival (DFS rather than overall survival (OS. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis also confirmed that STIM1 was inversely correlated with miR-223. Conclusion: MiR-223 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer by targeting STIM1. The miR-223/STIM1 axis could possibly be a potential therapeutic target for treating breast cancer patients.

  10. Self-inhibition can limit biologically enhanced TCE dissolution from a TCE DNAPL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haest, P J; Springael, D; Seuntjens, P; Smolders, E

    2012-11-01

    Biodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE) near a Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) can enhance the dissolution rate of the DNAPL by increasing the concentration gradient at the DNAPL-water interface. Two-dimensional flow-through sand boxes containing a TCE DNAPL and inoculated with a TCE dechlorinating consortium were set up to measure this bio-enhanced dissolution under anaerobic conditions. The total mass of TCE and daughter products in the effluent of the biotic boxes was 3-6 fold larger than in the effluent of the abiotic box. However, the mass of daughter products only accounted for 19-55% of the total mass of chlorinated compounds in the effluent, suggesting that bio-enhanced dissolution factors were maximally 1.3-2.2. The enhanced dissolution most likely primarily resulted from variable DNAPL distribution rather than biodegradation. Specific dechlorination rates previously determined in a stirred liquid medium were used in a reactive transport model to identify the rate limiting factors. The model adequately simulated the overall TCE degradation when predicted resident microbial numbers approached observed values and indicated an enhancement factor for TCE dissolution of 1.01. The model shows that dechlorination of TCE in the 2D box was limited due to the short residence time and the self-inhibition of the TCE degradation. A parameter sensitivity analysis predicts that the bio-enhanced dissolution factor for this TCE source zone can only exceed a value of 2 if the TCE self-inhibition is drastically reduced (when a TCE tolerant dehalogenating community is present) or if the DNAPL is located in a low-permeable layer with a small Darcy velocity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding Mechanism of Photocatalytic Microbial Decontamination of Environmental Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabilal Regmi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Several photocatalytic nanoparticles are synthesized and studied for potential application for the degradation of organic and biological wastes. Although these materials degrade organic compounds by advance oxidation process, the exact mechanisms of microbial decontamination remains partially known. Understanding the real mechanisms of these materials for microbial cell death and growth inhibition helps to fabricate more efficient semiconductor photocatalyst for large-scale decontamination of environmental wastewater or industries and hospitals/biomedical labs generating highly pathogenic bacteria and toxic molecules containing liquid waste by designing a reactor. Recent studies on microbial decontamination by photocatalytic nanoparticles and their possible mechanisms of action is highlighted with examples in this mini review.

  12. Evaluating brewery wastewater toxicity using a methanogenic activity inhibition test Evaluación de la toxicidad de un efluente cervecero mediante ensayos de inhibición de la actividad metanogénica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Báez María Consuelo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic technology has been used for more than twenty years in wastewater treatment in Colombia. However, operating these systems has been complex and problems associated with operation and reactor-design have been reported. It is currently considered that the anaerobic process' stability depends on balance amongst those populations forming the anaerobic consortia and whose equilibrium could be disturbed by many factors such as toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to establish the potential toxic effect of a synthetic lubricant on methanogenic acetodastic activity by using a brewery's anaerobic sludge. A methanogenic activity inhibition test was adapted and validated to compare lubricant, penthachlorophenol and wastewater toxicity from a brewery. The concentration-response ratio, average CI50 concentration inhibition and non-observed effect concentration were established.The test showed a high level of reproducibility, the lubricant and penthachlorophenol exerted a strong inhibition of methanogenesis and a low toxic effect was observed in most wastewater samples.La tecnología anaerobia, como opción de tratamiento para las aguas residuales en Colombia, se inició a mediados de los años ochenta. Sin embargo, el manejo y operación de estos sistemas fue complejo y ha tenido un gran número de problemas, especialmente relacionados con el diseño, la puesta en marcha y la operación de los reacto­res. En la actualidad se considera que la estabilidad de un proceso anaerobio depende del balance entre las pobla­ciones que conforman el consorcio microbiano, cuyo equilibrio puede perturbarse por muchos factores, entre ellos las sustancias tóxicas. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el potencial tóxico de un lubricante sobre la actividad de las arqueas metanogénicas presentes en un lodo anaerobio. La toxicidad se determinó mediante la inhibición de la actividad metanogénica. Se estudió el efecto tóxico del pentaclorofenol (PCP, un

  13. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physicalchemical processes, hydraulics and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2D/3D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  14. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physical–chemical processes, hydraulics, and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2-D/3-D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  15. An integrated chemical biology approach identifies specific vulnerability of Ewing's sarcoma to combined inhibition of Aurora kinases A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Georg E; Rix, Uwe; Lissat, Andrej; Stukalov, Alexey; Müllner, Markus K; Bennett, Keiryn L; Colinge, Jacques; Nijman, Sebastian M; Kubicek, Stefan; Kovar, Heinrich; Kontny, Udo; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2011-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a pediatric cancer of the bone that is characterized by the expression of the chimeric transcription factor EWS-FLI1 that confers a highly malignant phenotype and results from the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12). Poor overall survival and pronounced long-term side effects associated with traditional chemotherapy necessitate the development of novel, targeted, therapeutic strategies. We therefore conducted a focused viability screen with 200 small molecule kinase inhibitors in 2 different Ewing's sarcoma cell lines. This resulted in the identification of several potential molecular intervention points. Most notably, tozasertib (VX-680, MK-0457) displayed unique nanomolar efficacy, which extended to other cell lines, but was specific for Ewing's sarcoma. Furthermore, tozasertib showed strong synergies with the chemotherapeutic drugs etoposide and doxorubicin, the current standard agents for Ewing's sarcoma. To identify the relevant targets underlying the specific vulnerability toward tozasertib, we determined its cellular target profile by chemical proteomics. We identified 20 known and unknown serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase targets. Additional target deconvolution and functional validation by RNAi showed simultaneous inhibition of Aurora kinases A and B to be responsible for the observed tozasertib sensitivity, thereby revealing a new mechanism for targeting Ewing's sarcoma. We further corroborated our cellular observations with xenograft mouse models. In summary, the multilayered chemical biology approach presented here identified a specific vulnerability of Ewing's sarcoma to concomitant inhibition of Aurora kinases A and B by tozasertib and danusertib, which has the potential to become a new therapeutic option.

  16. Development of a biocidal treatment regime to inhibit biological growths on cultural heritage: BIODAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. E.; Alakomi, H.-L.; Fortune, I.; Gorbushina, A. A.; Krumbein, W. E.; Maxwell, I.; McCullagh, C.; Robertson, P.; Saarela, M.; Valero, J.; Vendrell, M.

    2008-12-01

    Existing chemical treatments to prevent biological damage to monuments often involve considerable amounts of potentially dangerous and even poisonous biocides. The scientific approach described in this paper aims at a drastic reduction in the concentration of biocide applications by a polyphasic approach of biocides combined with cell permeabilisers, polysaccharide and pigment inhibitors and a photodynamic treatment. A variety of potential agents were screened to determine the most effective combination. Promising compounds were tested under laboratory conditions with cultures of rock deteriorating bacteria, algae, cyanobacteria and fungi. A subsequent field trial involved two sandstone types with natural biofilms. These were treated with multiple combinations of chemicals and exposed to three different climatic conditions. Although treatments proved successful in the laboratory, field trials were inconclusive and further testing will be required to determine the most effective treatment regime. While the most effective combination of chemicals and their application methodology is still being optimised, results to date indicate that this is a promising and effective treatment for the control of a wide variety of potentially damaging organisms colonising stone substrates.

  17. Biological selenium removal from wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, microbial conversion of water-soluble, highly toxic forms of selenium (selenate, selenite) to less bioavailable elemental selenium was investigated. By the exploitation of different groups of microorganisms (selenium-respiring, nitrate-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria,

  18. Designing deoxidation inhibiting encapsulation of metal oxide nanostructures for fluidic and biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Moumita, E-mail: ghoshiisc@gmail.com [Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); IV. Institute of Physics, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ghosh, Siddharth [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Seibt, Michael [IV. Institute of Physics, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Schaap, Iwan A.T. [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Christoph F. [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Mohan Rao, G. [Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: To retain atomic structure and morphology of ZnO nanostructures (caused by deoxidation of ZnO) in water/bio-fluids, we propose and demonstrate a robust and inexpensive encapsulation technique using bio-compatible non-ionic surfactant. - Highlights: • Aqueous solutions of ZnO nanorods with and without surfactant are prepared. • With time ZnO nanorods show structural deterioration in different aqueous solutions. • Crystallinity of ZnO nanorods in absence of aqueous solution remain unaffected. • Encapsulation of bio-compatible surfactant in alchohol avoid ZnO deoxidation. • Crystallinity and structure of ZnO nanorods after encapsulation remain unaffected. - Abstract: Due to their photoluminescence, metal oxide nanostructures such as ZnO nanostructures are promising candidates in biomedical imaging, drug delivery and bio-sensing. To apply them as label for bio-imaging, it is important to study their structural stability in a bio-fluidic environment. We have explored the effect of water, the main constituent of biological solutions, on ZnO nanostructures with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) studies which show ZnO nanorod degeneration in water. In addition, we propose and investigate a robust and inexpensive method to encapsulate these nanostructures (without structural degradation) using bio-compatible non-ionic surfactant in non-aqueous medium, which was not reported earlier. This new finding is an immediate interest to the broad audience of researchers working in biophysics, sensing and actuation, drug delivery, food and cosmetics technology, etc.

  19. A paradigm shift towards low-nitrifying production systems: the role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Sahrawat, K. L.; Nakahara, K.; Rao, I. M.; Ishitani, M.; Hash, C. T.; Kishii, M.; Bonnett, D. G.; Berry, W. L.; Lata, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Agriculture is the single largest geo-engineering initiative that humans have initiated on planet Earth, largely through the introduction of unprecedented amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) into ecosystems. A major portion of this reactive N applied as fertilizer leaks into the environment in massive amounts, with cascading negative effects on ecosystem health and function. Natural ecosystems utilize many of the multiple pathways in the N cycle to regulate N flow. In contrast, the massive amounts of N currently applied to agricultural systems cycle primarily through the nitrification pathway, a single inefficient route that channels much of this reactive N into the environment. This is largely due to the rapid nitrifying soil environment of present-day agricultural systems. Scope In this Viewpoint paper, the importance of regulating nitrification as a strategy to minimize N leakage and to improve N-use efficiency (NUE) in agricultural systems is highlighted. The ability to suppress soil nitrification by the release of nitrification inhibitors from plant roots is termed ‘biological nitrification inhibition’ (BNI), an active plant-mediated natural function that can limit the amount of N cycling via the nitrification pathway. The development of a bioassay using luminescent Nitrosomonas to quantify nitrification inhibitory activity from roots has facilitated the characterization of BNI function. Release of BNIs from roots is a tightly regulated physiological process, with extensive genetic variability found in selected crops and pasture grasses. Here, the current status of understanding of the BNI function is reviewed using Brachiaria forage grasses, wheat and sorghum to illustrate how BNI function can be utilized for achieving low-nitrifying agricultural systems. A fundamental shift towards ammonium (NH4+)-dominated agricultural systems could be achieved by using crops and pastures with high BNI capacities. When viewed from an agricultural and

  20. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  1. Alternatives for the optimization of the biological treatment of tannery wastewaters; Alternativas para la optimizacion del tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales de curtidurias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artiga Acuna, P.; Garrido Fernandez, J. M.; Mendez Pampin, R. M.

    2003-07-01

    The aim of the research was the optimization of the operational conditions of a wastewater treatment plant of a tannery in which both organic and nitrogen matter are removed. The strategy of operation which was evaluated was based in the succession of anoxic and aerobic periods with time in order to achieve denitrification. Two lab-scale activated sludge reactors of 2L were used, feeding the systems with the influent to the industrial scale reactor, by applying nitrogen and organic loading rates comprehended between 0,04 and 0.2 kg N-NH{sub 4}+/m''3.d and 0.1 and 0.7 kg COD/m''3.d respectively. The use of the industrial wastewater limited denitrification to only 10%. Thus, different external carbon sources were tested in order to increase the efficiency of the system by feeding them during the anoxic periods. The addition of Methanol or beam house wastewater stream with and without sulfide were assayed by using a COD{sub A}/N{sub t} ratio comprehended between 1 and 7.75% nitrogen efficiency was attained either with methanol or the beamhouse stream wastewater without sulfide at a COD{sub A}/N{sub t} ratio of 5 g/g. The concentration of nitrogen ions in the effluent 5-20 mg NO{sub 3}-N/L and 10 mg NH{sub 4}+-N/L, fulfilled legal requirements. (Author) 20 refs.

  2. Coupling of acrylic dyeing wastewater treatment by heterogeneous Fenton oxidation in a continuous stirred tank reactor with biological degradation in a sequential batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Bruno M; Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Boaventura, Rui A R; Maldonado-Hódar, F J; Madeira, Luís M

    2016-01-15

    This work deals with the treatment of a recalcitrant effluent, from the dyeing stage of acrylic fibres, by combination of the heterogeneous Fenton's process in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biological degradation in a sequential batch reactor (SBR). Three different catalysts (a commercial Fe/ZSM-5 zeolite and two distinct Fe-containing activated carbons - ACs - prepared by wet impregnation of iron acetate and iron nitrate) were employed on the Fenton's process, and afterwards a parametric study was carried out to determine the effect of the main operating conditions, namely the hydrogen peroxide feed concentration, temperature and contact time. Under the best operating conditions found, using the activated carbon impregnated with iron nitrate, 62.7% of discolouration and 39.9% of total organic carbon (TOC) reduction were achieved, at steady-state. Furthermore, a considerable increase in the effluent's biodegradability was attained (BOD5:COD ratio increased from <0.001 to 0.27 and SOUR - specific oxygen uptake rate - from <0.2 to 11.1 mg O2/(gVSS·h)), alongside a major decrease in its toxicity (from 92.1 to 94.0% of Vibrio fischeri inhibition down to 6.9-9.9%). This allowed the application of the subsequent biological degradation stage. The combination of the two processes provided a treated effluent that clearly complies with the legislated discharge limits. It was also found that the iron leaching from the three catalysts tested was very small in all runs, a crucial factor for the stability and long-term use of such materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    For industrial wastewater with low impurity levels such as contaminated ground water, cleaning water and etc., purification only with electron beam is possible, but it should be managed carefully with reducing required irradiation doses as low as possible. Also for industrial wastewater with high impurity levels such as dyeing wastewater, leachate and etc., purification only with electron beam requires high amount of doses and far beyond economies. Electron beam treatment combined with conventional purification methods such as coagulation, biological treatment, etc. is suitable for reduction of non-biodegradable impurities in wastewater and will extend the application area of electron beam. A pilot plant with electron beam for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from dyeing industries has constructed and operated continuously since Oct 1998. Electron beam irradiation instead of chemical treatment shows much improvement in removing impurities and increases the efficiency of biological treatment. Actual plant is under consideration based upon the experimental results. (author)

  4. Continuous-flow photocatalytic treatment of pharmaceutical micropollutants: Activity, inhibition, and deactivation of TiO2 photocatalysts in wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Carbonaro, Sean; Sugihara, Matthew N.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    for the purpose of studying the activity, inhibition, and deactivation of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysts during water treatment applications. As a demonstration, degradation of four pharmaceutical micropollutants (iopromide, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole

  5. Fate and behaviour of ZnO engineered nanoparticles in a simulated domestic wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chaúquea, EFC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employ activated sludge processes to treat domestic wastewater using a consortium of bacteria essentially to degrade organic matter. However, bacteria activity is inhibited by toxic substances; thus, potentially...

  6. Potential for biological nitrification inhibition to reduce nitrification and N2O emissions in pasture crop-livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Rao, I M; Nakahara, K; Sahrawat, K L; Ando, Y; Kawashima, T

    2013-06-01

    Agriculture and livestock production systems are two major emitters of greenhouse gases. Methane with a GWP (global warming potential) of 21, and nitrous oxide (N2O) with a GWP of 300, are largely emitted from animal production agriculture, where livestock production is based on pasture and feed grains. The principal biological processes involved in N2O emissions are nitrification and denitrification. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the natural ability of certain plant species to release nitrification inhibitors from their roots that suppress nitrifier activity, thus reducing soil nitrification and N2O emission. Recent methodological developments (e.g. bioluminescence assay to detect BNIs in plant root systems) have led to significant advances in our ability to quantify and characterize the BNI function. Synthesis and release of BNIs from plants is a highly regulated process triggered by the presence of NH4 + in the rhizosphere, which results in the inhibitor being released precisely where the majority of the soil-nitrifier population resides. Among the tropical pasture grasses, the BNI function is strongest (i.e. BNI capacity) in Brachiaria sp. Some feed-grain crops such as sorghum also have significant BNI capacity present in their root systems. The chemical identity of some of these BNIs has now been established, and their mode of inhibitory action on Nitrosomonas has been characterized. The ability of the BNI function in Brachiaria pastures to suppress N2O emissions and soil nitrification potential has been demonstrated; however, its potential role in controlling N2O emissions in agro-pastoral systems is under investigation. Here we present the current status of our understanding on how the BNI functions in Brachiaria pastures and feed-grain crops such as sorghum can be exploited both genetically and, from a production system's perspective, to develop low-nitrifying and low N2O-emitting production systems that would be economically profitable and

  7. Design in Domestic Wastewater Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, F.P.; Raschid-Sally, L.

    2005-01-01

    When looking at the domestic wastewater streams, from freshwater source to destination in an agricultural field, we are confronted with a complexity of issues that need careful attention. Social and economic realities arise, along with technical, biological and institutional issues. Local realities

  8. On the role of proteasomes in cell biology and proteasome inhibition as a novel frontier in the development of immunosuppressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangping

    2002-11-01

    The proteasome, a large protease complex in cells, is the major machinery for protein degradation. It was previously considered a humble garbage collector, performing housekeeping duties to remove misfolded or spent proteins. Until recently, the interests of immunologists in proteasomes were focused largely on its role in antigen processing. Its real importance in cell biology has only been revealed contemporarily due to the availability of relatively specific inhibitors. It has now become increasingly clear that many aspects of immune responses highly depend on proper proteasome activity. Recently, a proteasome inhibitor has been successfully used to prevent acute as well as ongoing heart allograft rejection in mice. Such inhibitors are also efficacious in treating several autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis, psoriasis, and probably type I diabetes, in animal models. Phase II and III clinical trials of proteasome inhibitors in treating various tumors have shown promising results, and the side-effects of these drugs are tolerable. Therefore, proteasome inhibition represents a new and promising frontier in immunosuppressant development.

  9. Azadirachtin Interacts with the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Binding Domain of Its Receptors and Inhibits TNF-induced Biological Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Kumar, Pankaj; Nagarajaram, Hampathalu A.; Manna, Sunil K.

    2010-01-01

    The role of azadirachtin, an active component of a medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), on TNF-induced cell signaling in human cell lines was investigated. Azadirachtin blocks TNF-induced activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and also expression of NF-κB-dependent genes such as adhesion molecules and cyclooxygenase 2. Azadirachtin inhibits the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (IκBα) phosphorylation and thereby its degradation and RelA (p65) nuclear translocation. It blocks IκBα kinase (IKK) activity ex vivo, but not in vitro. Surprisingly, azadirachtin blocks NF-κB DNA binding activity in transfected cells with TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)2, TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD), IKK, or p65, but not with TNFR, suggesting its effect is at the TNFR level. Azadirachtin blocks binding of TNF, but not IL-1, IL-4, IL-8, or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) with its respective receptors. Anti-TNFR antibody or TNF protects azadirachtin-mediated down-regulation of TNFRs. Further, in silico data suggest that azadirachtin strongly binds in the TNF binding site of TNFR. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin modulates cell surface TNFRs thereby decreasing TNF-induced biological responses. Thus, azadirachtin exerts an anti-inflammatory response by a novel pathway, which may be beneficial for anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:20018848

  10. Azadirachtin interacts with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding domain of its receptors and inhibits TNF-induced biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Kumar, Pankaj; Nagarajaram, Hampathalu A; Manna, Sunil K

    2010-02-19

    The role of azadirachtin, an active component of a medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), on TNF-induced cell signaling in human cell lines was investigated. Azadirachtin blocks TNF-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and also expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes such as adhesion molecules and cyclooxygenase 2. Azadirachtin inhibits the inhibitory subunit of NF-kappaB (IkappaB alpha) phosphorylation and thereby its degradation and RelA (p65) nuclear translocation. It blocks IkappaB alpha kinase (IKK) activity ex vivo, but not in vitro. Surprisingly, azadirachtin blocks NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in transfected cells with TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)2, TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD), IKK, or p65, but not with TNFR, suggesting its effect is at the TNFR level. Azadirachtin blocks binding of TNF, but not IL-1, IL-4, IL-8, or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) with its respective receptors. Anti-TNFR antibody or TNF protects azadirachtin-mediated down-regulation of TNFRs. Further, in silico data suggest that azadirachtin strongly binds in the TNF binding site of TNFR. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin modulates cell surface TNFRs thereby decreasing TNF-induced biological responses. Thus, azadirachtin exerts an anti-inflammatory response by a novel pathway, which may be beneficial for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  11. Pulsed corona discharge for improving treatability of coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Preis, Sergei; Kornev, Iakov; Hu, Yun; Wei, Chao-Hai

    2018-02-01

    Coking wastewater (CW) contains toxic and macromolecular substances that inhibit biological treatment. The refractory compounds remaining in biologically treated coking wastewater (BTCW) provide chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color levels that make it unacceptable for reuse or disposal. Gas-phase pulsed corona discharge (PCD) utilizing mostly hydroxyl radicals and ozone as oxidants was applied to both raw coking wastewater (RCW) and BTCW wastewater as a supplemental treatment. The energy efficiency of COD, phenol, thiocyanate and cyanide degradation by PCD was the subject of the research. The cost-effective removal of intermediate oxidation products with addition of lime was also studied. The energy efficiency of oxidation was inversely proportional to the pulse repetition frequency: lower frequency allows more effective utilization of ozone at longer treatment times. Oxidative treatment of RCW showed the removal of phenol and thiocyanate at 800 pulses per second from 611 to 227mg/L and from 348 to 86mg/L, respectively, at 42kWh/m 3 delivered energy, with substantial improvement in the BOD 5 /COD ratio (from 0.14 to 0.43). The COD and color of BTCW were removed by 30% and 93%, respectively, at 20kWh/m 3 , showing energy efficiency for the PCD treatment exceeding that of conventional ozonation by a factor of 3-4. Application of lime appeared to be an effective supplement to the PCD treatment of RCW, degrading COD by about 28% at an energy input of 28kWh/m 3 and the lime dose of 3.0kg/m 3 . The improvement of RCW treatability is attributed to the degradation of toxic substances and fragmentation of macromolecular compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Potential of Rhodobacter capsulatus Grown in Anaerobic-Light or Aerobic-Dark Conditions as Bioremediation Agent for Biological Wastewater Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Costa; Saverio Ganzerli; Irene Rugiero; Simone Pellizzari; Paola Pedrini; Elena Tamburini

    2017-01-01

    The use of microorganisms to clean up wastewater provides a cheaper alternative to the conventional treatment plant. The efficiency of this method can be improved by the choice of microorganism with the potential of removing contaminants. One such group is photosynthetic bacteria. Rhodobacter capsulatus is a purple non-sulfur bacterium (PNSB) found to be capable of different metabolic activities depending on the environmental conditions. Cell growth in different media and conditions was teste...

  13. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  15. RECENT ADVANCES IN LEATHER TANNERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOFRANO Giusy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tannery industry is one of the most important economic sectors in many countries, representing an important economic field also in developing countries. Leather tannery industry is water intensive and originates highly polluted wastewater that contain various micropollutants raising environmental and health concerns. Tannery wastewater is difficult to treat biologically because of complex characteristics like high salinity e high content of xenobiotics compounds. After conventional treatment (i.e., chromium precipitation–primary sedimentation–biological oxidation–secondary sedimentation, effluents still do not meet the required limits, at least for some parameters such as BOD, COD, salinity, ammonia and surfactants. The leather industry is being pressured to search cleaner, economically as well as environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technologies alternative or integrative to the conventional treatment in order to face the challenge of sustainability. The most spread approach to manage tannery wastewater is the steam segregation before conveying wastewaters to in treatment plants that typically include pre-treatment, mechanical and physico-chemical treatment, biological treatment, and treatment of the generated sludge. Thus proper treatment technologies are needed to handle tannery wastewater to remove effectively the environmental benign pollutants. However among various processes applied or proposed the sustainable technologies are emerging concern. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater.

  16. A BMP7 Variant Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Direct Modulation of Endothelial Cell Biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M Tate

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, members of the TGF-β superfamily, have numerous biological activities including control of growth, differentiation, and vascular development. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, we investigated the role of a BMP7 variant (BMP7v in VEGF, bFGF, and tumor-driven angiogenesis. BMP7v treatment led to disruption of neo-endothelial cord formation and regression of existing VEGF and bFGF cords in vitro. Using a series of tumor cell models capable of driving angiogenesis in vitro, BMP7v treatment completely blocked cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with BMP7v significantly reduced their cord forming ability, indicating a direct effect on endothelial cell function. BMP7v activated the canonical SMAD signaling pathway in endothelial cells but targeted gene knockdown using shRNA directed against SMAD4 suggests this pathway is not required to mediate the anti-angiogenic effect. In contrast to SMAD activation, BMP7v selectively decreased ERK and AKT activation, significantly decreased endothelial cell migration and down-regulated expression of critical RTKs involved in VEGF and FGF angiogenic signaling, VEGFR2 and FGFR1 respectively. Importantly, in an in vivo angiogenic plug assay that serves as a measurement of angiogenesis, BMP7v significantly decreased hemoglobin content indicating inhibition of neoangiogenesis. In addition, BMP7v significantly decreased angiogenesis in glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSLC Matrigel plugs and significantly impaired in vivo growth of a GSLC xenograft with a concomitant reduction in microvessel density. These data support BMP7v as a potent anti-angiogenic molecule that is effective in the context of tumor angiogenesis.

  17. A BMP7 Variant Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Direct Modulation of Endothelial Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Courtney M; Mc Entire, Jacquelyn; Pallini, Roberto; Vakana, Eliza; Wyss, Lisa; Blosser, Wayne; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; D'Alessandris, Quintino Giorgio; Morgante, Liliana; Giannetti, Stefano; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Todaro, Matilde; Benfante, Antonina; Colorito, Maria Luisa; Stassi, Giorgio; De Maria, Ruggero; Rowlinson, Scott; Stancato, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the TGF-β superfamily, have numerous biological activities including control of growth, differentiation, and vascular development. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, we investigated the role of a BMP7 variant (BMP7v) in VEGF, bFGF, and tumor-driven angiogenesis. BMP7v treatment led to disruption of neo-endothelial cord formation and regression of existing VEGF and bFGF cords in vitro. Using a series of tumor cell models capable of driving angiogenesis in vitro, BMP7v treatment completely blocked cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with BMP7v significantly reduced their cord forming ability, indicating a direct effect on endothelial cell function. BMP7v activated the canonical SMAD signaling pathway in endothelial cells but targeted gene knockdown using shRNA directed against SMAD4 suggests this pathway is not required to mediate the anti-angiogenic effect. In contrast to SMAD activation, BMP7v selectively decreased ERK and AKT activation, significantly decreased endothelial cell migration and down-regulated expression of critical RTKs involved in VEGF and FGF angiogenic signaling, VEGFR2 and FGFR1 respectively. Importantly, in an in vivo angiogenic plug assay that serves as a measurement of angiogenesis, BMP7v significantly decreased hemoglobin content indicating inhibition of neoangiogenesis. In addition, BMP7v significantly decreased angiogenesis in glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSLC) Matrigel plugs and significantly impaired in vivo growth of a GSLC xenograft with a concomitant reduction in microvessel density. These data support BMP7v as a potent anti-angiogenic molecule that is effective in the context of tumor angiogenesis.

  18. Automatic Regulation of Wastewater Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolea Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater plants, mainly with secondary treatments, discharge polluted water to environment that cannot be used in any human activity. When those dumps are in the sea it is expected that most of the biological pollutants die or almost disappear before water reaches human range. This natural withdrawal of bacteria, viruses and other pathogens is due to some conditions such as the salt water of the sea and the sun effect, and the dumps areas are calculated taking into account these conditions. However, under certain meteorological phenomena water arrives to the coast without the full disappearance of pollutant elements. In Mediterranean Sea there are some periods of adverse climatic conditions that pollute the coast near the wastewater dumping. In this paper, authors present an automatic control that prevents such pollution episodes using two mathematical models, one for the pollutant transportation and the other for the pollutant removal in wastewater spills.

  19. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  20. Removal of oxytetracycline (OTC) in a synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater by a sequential anaerobic multichamber bed reactor (AMCBR)/completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system: biodegradation and inhibition kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Çelebi, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic multichamber bed reactor (AMCBR) was effective in removing both molasses-chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC). The maximum COD and OTC removals were 99% in sequential AMCBR/completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at an OTC concentration of 300 mg L(-1). 51%, 29% and 9% of the total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) was composed of acetic, propionic acid and butyric acids, respectively. The OTC loading rates at between 22.22 and 133.33 g OTC m(-3) d(-1) improved the hydrolysis of molasses-COD (k), the maximum specific utilization of molasses-COD (k(mh)) and the maximum specific utilization rate of TVFA (k(TVFA)). The direct effect of high OTC loadings (155.56 and -177.78 g OTC m(-3) d(-1)) on acidogens and methanogens were evaluated with Haldane inhibition kinetic. A significant decrease of the Haldane inhibition constant was indicative of increases in toxicity at increasing loading rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  2. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka, Joanna; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions) pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  3. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  4. Nitrification of an industrial wastewater in a moving-bed biofilm reactor: effect of salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramel, Simone; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification of wastewaters from chemical industries can pose some challenges due to the presence of inhibitory compounds. Some wastewaters, besides their organic complexity present variable levels of salt concentration. In order to investigate the effect of salt (NaCl) content on the nitrification of a conventional biologically treated industrial wastewater, a bench scale moving-bed biofilm reactor was operated on a sequencing batch mode. The wastewater presenting a chloride content of 0.05 g l(-1) was supplemented with NaCl up to 12 g Cl(-) l(-1). The reactor operation cycle was: filling (5 min), aeration (12 or 24h), settling (5 min) and drawing (5 min). Each experimental run was conducted for 3 to 6 months to address problems related to the inherent wastewater variability and process stabilization. A PLC system assured automatic operation and control of the pertinent process variables. Data obtained from selected batch experiments were adjusted by a kinetic model, which considered ammonia, nitrite and nitrate variations. The average performance results indicated that nitrification efficiency was not influenced by chloride content in the range of 0.05 to 6 g Cl(-) l(-1) and remained around 90%. When the chloride content was 12 g Cl(-) l(-1), a significant drop in the nitrification efficiency was observed, even operating with a reaction period of 24 h. Also, a negative effect of the wastewater organic matter content on nitrification efficiency was observed, which was probably caused by growth of heterotrophs in detriment of autotrophs and nitrification inhibition by residual chemicals.

  5. Detrimental effects of commercial zinc oxide and silver nanomaterials on bacterial populations and performance of wastewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboyi, Anza-vhudziki; Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, MaggyN. B.

    2017-08-01

    The widespread use of commercial nanomaterials (NMs) in consumer products has raised environmental concerns as they can enter and affect the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study the effect of various concentrations of zinc oxide NMs (nZnO) and silver NMs (nAg) on the selected wastewater bacterial species (Bacillus licheniformis, Brevibacillus laterosporus and Pseudomonas putida) was ascertained at different pH levels (pH 2, 7 and 10). Lethal concentrations (LC) of NMs and parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were taken into consideration to assess the performance of a wastewater batch reactor. Bacterial isolates were susceptible to varying concentrations of both nZnO and nAg at pH 2, 7 and 10. It was found that a change in pH did not significantly affect the toxicity of test NMs towards target bacterial isolates. All bacterial species were significantly inhibited (p 0.05) in COD removal in the presence of increasing concentrations of NMs, which resulted in increasing releases of COD. Noticeably, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the decrease in DO uptake in the presence of increasing NM concentrations for all bacterial isolates. The toxic effects of the target NMs on bacterial populations in wastewater may negatively impact the performance of biological treatment processes and may thus affect the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants in producing effluent of high quality.

  6. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  7. Treatment of Rural Wastewater Using a Spiral Fiber Based Salinity-Persistent Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Xin Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Differing from municipal wastewater, rural wastewater in salinization areas is characterized with arbitrary discharge and high concentration of salt, COD, nitrogen and phosphorus, which would cause severe deterioration of rivers and lakes. To overcome the limits of traditional biological processes, a spiral fiber based salinity-persistent Sequencing Biofilm Batch Reactor (SBBR was developed and investigated with synthetic rural wastewater (COD = 500 mg/L, NH4+-N = 50 mg/L, TP = 6 mg/L under different salinity (0.0–10.0 g/L of NaCl. Results indicated that a quick start-up could be achieved in 15 days, along with sufficient biomass up to 7275 mg/L. During operating period, the removal of COD, NH4+-N, TN was almost not disturbed by salt varying from 0.0 to 10.0 g/L with stable efficiency reaching 92%, 82% and 80%, respectively. Although TP could be removed at high efficiency of 90% in low salinity conditions (from 0.0 to 5.0 g/L of NaCl, it was seriously inhibited due to nitrite accumulation and reduction of Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms (PAOs after addition of 10.0 g/L of salt. The behavior proposed in this study will provide theoretical foundation and guidance for application of SBBR in saline rural wastewater treatment.

  8. Cork boiling wastewater treatment and reuse through combination of advanced oxidation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Robles, L; Miralles-Cuevas, S; Oller, I; Agüera, A; Trinidad-Lozano, M J; Yuste, F J; Malato, S

    2017-03-01

    Industrial preparation of cork consists of its immersion for approximately 1 hour in boiling water. The use of herbicides and pesticides in oak tree forests leads to absorption of these compounds by cork; thus, after boiling process, they are present in wastewater. Cork boiling wastewater shows low biodegradability and high acute toxicity involving partial inhibition of their biodegradation when conventional biological treatment is applied. In this work, a treatment line strategy based on the combination of advanced physicochemical technologies is proposed. The final objective is the reuse of wastewater in the cork boiling process; thus, reducing consumption of fresh water in the industrial process itself. Coagulation pre-treatment with 0.5 g/L of FeCl 3 attained the highest turbidity elimination (86 %) and 29 % of DOC elimination. Similar DOC removal was attained when using 1 g/L of ECOTAN BIO (selected for ozonation tests), accompanied of 64 % of turbidity removal. Ozonation treatments showed less efficiency in the complete oxidation of cork boiling wastewater, compared to solar photo-Fenton process, under the studied conditions. Nanofiltration system was successfully employed as a final purification step with the aim of obtaining a high-quality reusable permeate stream. Monitoring of unknown compounds by LC-QTOF-MS allowed the qualitative evaluation of the whole process. Acute and chronic toxicity as well as biodegradability assays were performed throughout the whole proposed treatment line.

  9. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, L. [Inst. of Knitting Technology and Techniques, Lodz (Poland); Perkowski, J. [Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ledakowicz, S. [Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  10. Sonochemical disinfection of municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Apostolos; Poulios, Ioannis; Nikolakaki, Eleni; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2007-01-01

    The application of high intensity, low frequency ultrasound for the disinfection of simulated and septic tank wastewaters is evaluated in this work. Laboratory scale experiments were conducted at 24 and 80 kHz ultrasound frequency with horn-type sonicators capable of operating in continuous and pulsed irradiation modes at nominal ultrasound intensities up to 450 W. For the experiments with simulated wastewaters, Escherichia coli were used as biological indicator of disinfection efficiency, while for the experiments with septic tank wastewaters, the total microbiological load was used. Complete elimination of E. coli could be achieved within 20-30 min of irradiation at 24 kHz and 450 W with the efficiency decreasing with decreasing intensity and frequency. Moreover, continuous irradiation was more effective than intermittent treatment based on a common energy input. Irradiation of the septic tank effluent prior to biological treatment at 24 kHz and 450 W for 30 min resulted in a three-log total microbiological load reduction, and this was nearly equal to the reduction that could be achieved during biological treatment. Bacterial cell elimination upon irradiation was irreversible as no reappearance of the microorganisms occurred after 24 h

  11. A review on the use of membrane technology and fouling control for olive mill wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Javier Miguel Ochando

    2016-09-01

    Olive mill effluents (OME) by-produced have significantly increased in the last decades as a result of the boost of the olive oil agro-industrial sector and due to the conversion into continuous operation centrifugation technologies. In these effluents, the presence of phytotoxic recalcitrant pollutants makes them resistant to biological degradation and thus inhibits the efficiency of biological and conventional processes. Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for OME have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory and cost-effective results. Olive oil industries in its current status, typically small mills dispersed, cannot afford such high treatment costs. Furthermore, conventional treatments are not able to abate the significant dissolved monovalent and divalent ions concentration present in OME. Within this framework, membrane technology offers high efficiency and moderate investment and maintenance expenses. Wastewater treatment by membrane technologies is growing in the recent years. This trend is owed to the fact of the availability of new membrane materials, membrane designs, membrane module concepts and general know-how, which have promoted credibility among investors. However, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time and leads to premature substitution of the membrane modules, and this is a problem of cost efficiency since wastewater treatment must imply low operating costs. Appropriate fouling inhibition methods should assure this result, thus making membrane processes for wastewater stream treatment both technically and economically feasible. In this paper, the treatment of the effluents by-produced in olive mills, generally called olive mill wastewaters, will be addressed. Within this context, the state of the art of the different pretreatments and integral membrane processes proposed up to today will be gathered and discussed, with an insight in the problem of fouling. Copyright © 2015

  12. Environmental pollution and health hazards from distillery wastewater and treatment approaches to combat the environmental threats: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Pankaj; Raj, Abhay; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    2018-03-01

    Distillery industries are the key contributor to the world's economy, but these are also one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to the discharge of a huge volume of dark colored wastewater. This dark colored wastewater contains very high biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, sulfate, phosphate, phenolics and various toxic metals. Distillery wastewater also contains a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants such as melanoidins, di-n-octyl phthalate, di-butyl phthalate, benzenepropanoic acid and 2-hydroxysocaproic acid and toxic metals, which are well reported as genotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and endocrine disrupting in nature. In aquatic resources, it causes serious environmental problems by reducing the penetration power of sunlight, photosynthetic activities and dissolved oxygen content. On other hand, in agricultural land, it causes inhibition of seed germination and depletion of vegetation by reducing the soil alkalinity and manganese availability, if discharged without adequate treatment. Thus, this review article provides a comprehensive knowledge on the distillery wastewater pollutants, various techniques used for their analysis as well as its toxicological effects on environments, human and animal health. In addition, various physico-chemicals, biological as well as emerging treatment methods have been also discussed for the protection of environment, human and animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement of biological nitrogen removal with nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation bacterium Aquabacterium parvum B6 in an up-flow bioreactor for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Li, Ang; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Ma, Fang

    2016-11-01

    Aquabacterium parvum strain B6 exhibited efficient nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation ability using nitrate as an electron acceptor. A continuous up-flow bioreactor that included an aerobic and an anoxic section was constructed, and strain B6 was added to the bioreactor as inocula to explore the application of microbial nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidizing (NDFO) efficiency in wastewater treatment. The maximum NRE (anoxic section) and TNRE of 46.9% and 79.7%, respectively, could be obtained at a C/N ratio of 5.3:1 in the influent with HRT of 17. Meanwhile, the taxonomy composition of the reactor was assessed, as well. The NDFO metabolism of strain B6 could be expected because of its relatively dominant position in the anoxic section, whereas potential heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification developed into the prevailing status in the aerobic section after 50days of continuous operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantum leap for treating wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: For many Australian food manufacturers there is increasing pressure from government agencies to reach higher standards of wastewater treatment for environmental discharge. In fact, throughout the western wolrd industrual water users are facing a similar challenge. One of the big problems is ageing pipe networks, particularly sewage pipes. Also, industrial wastewaters with high sugar-nutrient loads can cause serious damage to pipelines. This is because fermentation occurs within the wastewater, eroding and degrading the pipes, causing numerous cracks and fractures. This in turn leads to water ingress, which puts a strain on treatment plants because of the higher volume of water, especially in wet weather. Food manufacturing produces large volumes of mostly biodegradable liquid and solid waste. Wastewaters released from food manufacturing can be 'muddy', with high concentrations of suspended solids, fats, oils and grease (FOGs), and, usually, nutrients such as nitrogen. The issue for many food manufacturers is that existing wastewater treatment systems are unable to reduce the nutrient load in the biological treatment stage to a level allowing acceptable discharge. In addition, most rely on large tanks housing bacteria that are submerged in water and aerated. Aeration is energy-hungry and can create a 'sludge-cake' on top of the water, which is difficult to treat. Most existing technologies also use filters, but they foul easily and require ongoing maintenance. According to BioGill chief executive John West, the BioGill technology is groundbreaking and radically different from conventional bioreactors because the 'gills' are not submerged. Instead, the gills, composed of Nano-Ceramic Membrane sheets arranged vertically in pairs, are suspended in the air, above ground, with wastewater travelling down between them. “Fungi and bacteria, known as biomass, grow on the membranes in direct contact with the air, eating nutrients much faster than other systems

  15. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, A. [Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  16. Nitrate dosage system in a reclaimed wastewater pipeline for the inhibition of sulfide build-up; Sistema de dosificacion de nitrato en una conduccion de transporte de agua depurada para evitar la generacion de sulfuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteagudo Perez-Machado, T.; Rodriguez Gomez, L. E.; Alvarez Diaz, M.

    2007-07-01

    During reclaimed wastewater transportation under anaerobic conditions sulfide generation may take place, which should be avoided due to the numerous problems related to it. This is the case of the reclaimed wastewater reuse scheme of Tenerife, one of whose elements is a completely filled 61 km long gravity pipeline, 0,60 m in diameter. In order to avoid the appearance of anaerobic conditions a controlled nitrate dosage system has been designed to be installed at the pipeline inlet, with nitrate dosage to be controlled by the organic matter content of the reclaimed wastewater, using turbidity as an indicator of it. (Author) 26 refs.

  17. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Docking Studies of Novel Bisquaternary Aldoxime Reactivators on Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibited by Paraoxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kuca

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nerve agents and oxon forms of organophosphorus pesticides act as strong irreversible inhibitors of two cholinesterases in the human body: acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7 and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8, and are therefore highly toxic compounds. For the recovery of inhibited AChE, antidotes from the group of pyridinium or bispyridinium aldoxime reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 are used in combination with anticholinergics and anticonvulsives. Therapeutic efficacy of reactivators (called “oximes” depends on their chemical structure and also the type of organophosphorus inhibitor. Three novel oximes (K131, K142, K153 with an oxime group in position four of the pyridinium ring were designed and then tested for their potency to reactivate human (Homo sapiens sapiens AChE (HssACHE and BChE (HssBChE inhibited by the pesticide paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate. According to the obtained results, none of the prepared oximes were able to satisfactorily reactivate paraoxon-inhibited cholinesterases. On the contrary, extraordinary activity of obidoxime in the case of paraoxon-inhibited HssAChE reactivation was confirmed. Additional docking studies pointed to possible explanations for these results.

  18. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  19. Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater sludge medium to study anaerobic biological treatment of acid mine drainage in the laboratory. ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2016) > ... Domestic wastewater sludge is however highly variable in its composition, making laboratory experimentation difficult.

  20. Effects of high salinity wastewater on methanogenic sludge bed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.; Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.; Jeison, D.A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The attainable loading potentials of anaerobic sludge bed systems are strongly dependent on the growth of granular biomass with a particular wastewater. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of high salinity wastewater on the biological and physical properties of methanogenic sludge.

  1. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  2. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of complex or toxicant wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills Betancur, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    As a first approximation to wastewater classification in susceptibility terms to treatment by anaerobic biological system, anaerobic biodegradability trials are accomplished to leached of sanitary landfill, to wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and to wastewater of fumaric acid recuperation plant. In the last Plant, anaerobic toxicity trials and lethal toxicity on the Daphnia pulex micro-crustacean are made too. Anaerobic biological trials are made continuing the Wageningen University (Holland) Methodology (1.987). Lethal toxicity biological trials are made following the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(18th edition, 1992). In development of this investigation project is found that fumaric acid recuperation plant leached it has a low anaerobic biodegradability, a high anaerobic toxicity and a high lethal toxicity over Daphnia pulex, for such reasons this leached is cataloged as complex and toxic wastewater. The other hand, wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and wastewater of sanitary landfill they are both highly biodegradability and not-toxic, for such reasons these wastewaters are cataloged as susceptible to treatment by anaerobic biological system

  3. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  4. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  5. The Impact of Microbial Ecology and Chemical Profile on the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR Process: A Case Study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilunga Kamika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variable region V1-3. Results showed soluble COD concentrations from settled sewage for Unit-3 at 192.8 mg COD/L and for Unit-5 at 214.6 mg COD/L, which increased to 301.8 mg COD/L and 411.6 mg COD/L in the overflow from elutriation tanks and decreased to 170.9 mg COD/L and 256.3 mg COD/L at the division boxes, respectively. Both long-chain volatile fatty acids (heptanoic acid, isobutyric acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 4-methylpentanoic acid, methylheptanoic acid and short-chain volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid were present within concentration ranges of 17.19 mg/L to 54.98 mg/L and 13.64 mg/L to 87.6 mg/L for Unit 3 and 38.61 mg/L to58.85 mg/L and 21.63 mg/L to 92.39 mg/L for Unit 5, respectively. In the secondary settling tanks, the phosphate-removal efficiency in Unit-5 appeared to be slightly higher (0.08 mg P/L compared to that of Unit-3 (0.11 mg P/L. The average DO concentrations (2.1 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L as well as the pH values (pH 7 to pH 7.5 were found to be slightly higher in Unit-5 in the aerobic zones. The high presence of PAOs in the bioreactors (Unit-5: Dechloromonas (14.96%, Acinetobacter (6.3%, Zoogloea (4.72% in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (22.37 % in the aerobic zone; Unit-3: Dechloromonas (37.25% in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (23.97% in the aerobic zone confirmed the phosphate-removal efficiencies of both units. Negligible GAOs were found in the aerobic zones (Defluviicoccus spp.: 0

  6. The impact of microbial ecology and chemical profile on the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process: a case study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamika, Ilunga; Coetzee, Martie; Mamba, Bhekie Brilliance; Msagati, Titus; Momba, Maggy N B

    2014-03-10

    The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks) and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank) of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variable region V1-3. Results showed soluble COD concentrations from settled sewage for Unit-3 at 192.8 mg COD/L and for Unit-5 at 214.6 mg COD/L, which increased to 301.8 mg COD/L and 411.6 mg COD/L in the overflow from elutriation tanks and decreased to 170.9 mg COD/L and 256.3 mg COD/L at the division boxes, respectively. Both long-chain volatile fatty acids (heptanoic acid, isobutyric acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 4-methylpentanoic acid, methylheptanoic acid) and short-chain volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid) were present within concentration ranges of 17.19 mg/L to 54.98 mg/L and 13.64 mg/L to 87.6 mg/L for Unit 3 and 38.61 mg/L to58.85 mg/L and 21.63 mg/L to 92.39 mg/L for Unit 5, respectively. In the secondary settling tanks, the phosphate-removal efficiency in Unit-5 appeared to be slightly higher (0.08 mg P/L) compared to that of Unit-3 (0.11 mg P/L). The average DO concentrations (2.1 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L) as well as the pH values (pH 7 to pH 7.5) were found to be slightly higher in Unit-5 in the aerobic zones. The high presence of PAOs in the bioreactors (Unit-5: Dechloromonas (14.96%), Acinetobacter (6.3%), Zoogloea (4.72%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (22.37 %) in the aerobic zone; Unit-3: Dechloromonas (37.25%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (23.97%) in the aerobic zone) confirmed the phosphate-removal efficiencies of both units. Negligible GAOs were found in the aerobic zones (Defluviicoccus spp.: 0.33% for

  7. Occurrence and fate of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causanilles, A.; Ruepert, C.; Ibáñez, M.; Emke, E.; Hernández, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of raw wastewater in order to assess the presence of biological markers entering a wastewater treatment plant can provide objective information about the health and lifestyle of the population connected to the sewer system. This work was performed in a tropical country of Central

  8. Characterisation of wastewater for modelling of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bio-process modelling is increasingly used in design, modification and troubleshooting of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Characterisation of the influent wastewater to a WWTP is an important part of developing such a model. The characterisation required for modelling is more detailed than that routinely employed ...

  9. Fungal treatment: a prospective process for eco-friendly bioremediation of wastewater sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, A. H.; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.

    2009-01-01

    None of the conventional techniques is safe and environmental friendly for wastewaters/sludge disposal. A sustainable, safe and environmental friendly biological technique is a great apprehension to the relevant scientists. Since the fungal treatment was exercised to evaluate its potentially for sustainable bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater. Bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater sludge by fungal inoculation implied the decreasing of bio solids, total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of wastewater. (Author)

  10. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipović, Josip; Grčić, Ivana; Bermanec, Vladimir; Kniewald, Goran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  11. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipović, Josip [Town Office for Physical Planning and Environmental Protection, Velika Gorica County, Trg kralja Tomislava 34, 10410 Velika Gorica (Croatia); Grčić, Ivana, E-mail: igrcic@fkit.hr [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb Marulićev trg 19, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bermanec, Vladimir [Institute of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kniewald, Goran [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  12. Changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality of wastewater from a ... different points of a treatment plant and bacterial isolates were obtained from them. ... The biological oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, turbidity, ...

  13. Anaerobic columnar denitrification of high nitrate wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Malone, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    Anaerobic columns were used to test the effectiveness of biological denitrification of nitrate solutions ranging in concentration from 1 to 10 kg NO 3 /m 3 . Several sources of nitrate (Ca(CNO 3 ) 2 , NaNO 3 , NH 4 NO 3 , and actual nitrate wastes from a UO 2 fuel fabrication plant) were evaluated as well as two packing media. The packing media were anthracite coal particles, whose effective diameter size ranged between 2 and 3 mm, and polypropylene Raschig rings 1.6 x 1.6 diameter. The anthracite coal proved to be the better packing media as excessive hydraulic short circuiting occurred in a 120 x 15 cm diameter glass column packed with the polypropylene rings after 40 days operation. With anthracite coal, floatation of the bed occurred at flow rates greater than 0.80 cm 3 /s. Tapered columns packed with anthracite coal eliminated the floatation problem, even at flow rates as high as 5 cm 3 /s. Under optimum operating conditions the anthracite coal behaved as a fluidized bed. Maximum denitrification rates were 1.0--1.4 g NO 3 /m 3 /s based on initial bed volume. Denitrification kinetics indicated that rates of denitrification became substrate inhibited at nitrate concentrations greater than 6.5 kg NO 3 /m 3 Anaerobic columns packed with anthracite coal appear to be an effective method of nitrate disposal for nitrate rich wastewater generated at UO 2 fuel fabrication plants and fuel reprocessing facilities. (U.S.)

  14. Azadirachtin interacts with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding domain of its receptors and inhibits TNF-induced biological responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Thoh, Maikho; Kumar, Pankaj; Nagarajaram, Hampathalu A.; Manna, Sunil K.

    2013-01-01

    The role of azadirachtin, an active component of a medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), on TNF-induced cell signaling in human cell lines was investigated. Azadirachtin blocks TNF-induced activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and also expression of NF-κB-dependent genes such as adhesion molecules and cyclooxygenase 2. Azadirachtin inhibits the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (IκBα) phosphorylation and thereby its degradation and RelA (p65) nuclear translocation. It blocks IκBα kinase (IKK...

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Iordache; Nicolae Petrescu; Cornel Ianache

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Moreni city (Romania). In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process li...

  16. Understanding the fouling of UF/MF hollow fibres of biologically treated wastewaters using advanced EfOM characterization and statistical tools

    KAUST Repository

    Filloux, Emmanuelle

    2012-08-01

    Five secondary effluents and a river water source were characterized using size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCD-UVD-OND) and emission-excitation matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in order to identify the major effluent organic matter (EfOM) fractions responsible for membrane fouling. This study showed the feasibility of coupling fluorescence EEM and LC-OCD-UVD-OND to investigate the fouling potential as well as a means to differentiate natural organic matter (NOM) from EfOM. The secondary effluents and river water showed a significant difference in organic matter characteristics and fouling potential, highlighting the importance of biological processes and the feed water source on EfOM characteristics and fouling potential. On the basis of statistical analysis, protein-like substances were found to be highly correlated to the fouling potential of secondary effluents. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Understanding the fouling of UF/MF hollow fibres of biologically treated wastewaters using advanced EfOM characterization and statistical tools

    KAUST Repository

    Filloux, Emmanuelle; Labanowski, Jé rô me; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Five secondary effluents and a river water source were characterized using size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCD-UVD-OND) and emission-excitation matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in order to identify the major effluent organic matter (EfOM) fractions responsible for membrane fouling. This study showed the feasibility of coupling fluorescence EEM and LC-OCD-UVD-OND to investigate the fouling potential as well as a means to differentiate natural organic matter (NOM) from EfOM. The secondary effluents and river water showed a significant difference in organic matter characteristics and fouling potential, highlighting the importance of biological processes and the feed water source on EfOM characteristics and fouling potential. On the basis of statistical analysis, protein-like substances were found to be highly correlated to the fouling potential of secondary effluents. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibition enhances photic responses and synchronization of the biological circadian clock in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago A Plano

    Full Text Available The master circadian clock in mammals is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN and is synchronized by several environmental stimuli, mainly the light-dark (LD cycle. Light pulses in the late subjective night induce phase advances in locomotor circadian rhythms and the expression of clock genes (such as Per1-2. The mechanism responsible for light-induced phase advances involves the activation of guanylyl cyclase (GC, cGMP and its related protein kinase (PKG. Pharmacological manipulation of cGMP by phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibition (e.g., sildenafil increases low-intensity light-induced circadian responses, which could reflect the ability of the cGMP-dependent pathway to directly affect the photic sensitivity of the master circadian clock within the SCN. Indeed, sildenafil is also able to increase the phase-shifting effect of saturating (1200 lux light pulses leading to phase advances of about 9 hours, as well as in C57 a mouse strain that shows reduced phase advances. In addition, sildenafil was effective in both male and female hamsters, as well as after oral administration. Other PDE inhibitors (such as vardenafil and tadalafil also increased light-induced phase advances of locomotor activity rhythms and accelerated reentrainment after a phase advance in the LD cycle. Pharmacological inhibition of the main downstream target of cGMP, PKG, blocked light-induced expression of Per1. Our results indicate that the cGMP-dependent pathway can directly modulate the light-induced expression of clock-genes within the SCN and the magnitude of light-induced phase advances of overt rhythms, and provide promising tools to design treatments for human circadian disruptions.

  19. A chemical biology approach reveals period shortening of the mammalian circadian clock by specific inhibition of GSK-3beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Lewis, Warren G; Liu, Andrew C; Lee, Jae Wook; Schultz, Peter G; Kay, Steve A

    2008-12-30

    The circadian clock controls daily oscillations of gene expression at the cellular level. We report the development of a high-throughput circadian functional assay system that consists of luminescent reporter cells, screening automation, and a data analysis pipeline. We applied this system to further dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the mammalian circadian clock using a chemical biology approach. We analyzed the effect of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds with diverse structures on the circadian period length that is indicative of the core clock mechanism. Our screening paradigm identified many compounds previously known to change the circadian period or phase, demonstrating the validity of the assay system. Furthermore, we found that small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) consistently caused a strong short period phenotype in contrast to the well-known period lengthening by lithium, another presumed GSK-3 inhibitor. siRNA-mediated knockdown of GSK-3beta also caused a short period, confirming the phenotype obtained with the small molecule inhibitors. These results clarify the role of GSK-3beta in the period regulation of the mammalian clockworks and highlight the effectiveness of chemical biology in exploring unidentified mechanisms of the circadian clock.

  20. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A. M. E.

    2010-03-01

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  1. Nitrogen management in grasslands and forage-based production systems – Role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Subbarao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N, the most critical and essential nutrient for plant growth, largely determines the productivity in both extensive and intensive grassland systems. Nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil are the primary drivers of generating reactive N (NO3-, N2O and NO, largely responsible for N loss and degradation of grasslands. Suppressing nitrification can thus facilitate retention of soil N to sustain long-term productivity of grasslands and forage-based production systems. Certain plants can suppress soil nitrification by releasing inhibitors from roots, a phenomenon termed ‘biological nitrification inhibition’ (BNI. Recent methodological developments [e.g. bioluminescence assay to detect biological nitrification inhibitors (BNIs from plant-root systems] led to significant advances in our ability to quantify and characterize BNI function in pasture grasses. Among grass pastures, BNI capacity is strongest in low-N environment grasses such as Brachiaria humidicola and weakest in high-N environment grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne and B. brizantha. The chemical identity of some of the BNIs produced in plant tissues and released from roots has now been established and their mode of inhibitory action determined on nitrifying Nitrosomonas bacteria. Synthesis and release of BNIs is a highly regulated and localized process, triggered by the presence of NH4+ in the rhizosphere, which facilitates release of BNIs close to soil-nitrifier sites. Substantial genotypic variation is found for BNI capacity in B. humidicola, which opens the way for its genetic manipulation. Field studies suggest that Brachiaria grasses suppress nitrification and N2O emissions from soil. The potential for exploiting BNI function (from a genetic improvement and a system perspective to develop production systems, that are low-nitrifying, low N2O-emitting, economically efficient and ecologically sustainable, is discussed.

  2. Bacterial Peptide Deformylase Inhibition of Tetrazole-Substituted Biaryl Acid Analogs: Synthesis, Biological Evaluations, and Molecular Docking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Firoz A Kalam; Patil, Rajendra H; Patil, Manjiri; Arote, Rohidas; Shinde, Devanand B; Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis and screening of tetrazole-substituted biaryl acid analogs 7a-l as bacterial peptide deformylase (PDF) enzyme inhibitors is reported. The compounds 7e (IC 50 value = 5.50 μM) and 7g (IC 50 value = 7.25 μM) showed good PDF inhibition activity. The compounds 7e (MIC range = 10.75-11.66 μg/mL) and 7g (MIC range = 8.91-12.83 μg/mL) also showed potent antibacterial activity when compared with the standard ciprofloxacin (MIC range = 25-50 μg/mL). Thus, the active derivatives were not only potent PDF enzyme inhibitors but also efficient antibacterial agents. In order to gain more insight into the binding mode of the compounds with the PDF enzyme, the most active compounds 7e and 7g, the moderately active compound 7k, and the least active compound 7h were docked against the PDF enzyme of Escherichia coli. The docking study of the most active compounds 7e and 7g against the PDF enzyme exhibited good binding properties. Hence, we believe our synthesized compounds 7a-l could serve as reservoir for bacterial PDF inhibitor development. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  4. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  5. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  6. Biological nanoparticles carrying the Hmda-7 gene are effective in inhibiting pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Zhu

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the digestive system, and remains a clinical challenge. This study aimed to assess the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA nanoparticles carrying the hMDA-7 gene (BSA-NP-hMDA-7 in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.BSA-NP-hMDA-7 was generated by nanotechnology and gene recombination technology. A total of 5 BXPC-3 or PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell groups were examined, including Control, BSA-NPs, Empty vector, hMDA-7 plasmid, and hMDA-7 BSA-NPs groups, respectively. Proliferation and apoptosis of cultured cells were assessed by the MTT method and flow-cytometry, respectively. In addition, pancreatic cancer models were established with both cell lines in nude mice, and the expression profiles of hMDA-7 and VEGF in cancer tissues were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.BSA-NP-hMDA-7 nanoparticles were successfully generated, and significantly inhibited the proliferation of BXPC-3 and PANC-1 cells; in addition, apoptosis rates were higher in both cell lines after treatment with BSA-NP-hMDA-7 (P<0.05. Nude mouse xenograft studies indicated that treatment with BSA-NP-hMDA-7 nanoparticles resulted in decreased tumor size. Moreover, the hMDA-7 protein was found in tumor tissues after hMDA-7 gene transfection, while BSA-NP-hMDA-7 significantly suppressed VEGF expression in tumor tissues. Similar results were obtained for both BXPC-3 and PANC-1 xenograft models.BSA nanoparticles carrying the hMDA-7 gene effectively transfected BXPC-3 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells, causing reduced cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in vitro. In mouse xenografts, BSA-NP-hMDA-7 treatment decreased tumor size and reduced VEGF expression. These findings indicated that BSA-NP-hMDA-7 might exert anticancer effects via VEGF suppression.

  7. Regulatory inhibition of biological tissue mineralization by calcium phosphate through post-nucleation shielding by fetuin-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joshua C., E-mail: joshchang@ucla.edu [Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA and Mathematical Biosciences Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Miura, Robert M., E-mail: miura@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are usually present at high concentrations throughout bodily fluids—at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. In this manuscript, we extend mean-field continuum classical nucleation theory of the growth of clusters to encompass surface shielding. We use this formulation to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues through the mechanism of post-nuclear shielding of nascent mineral particles by binding proteins. We develop a mathematical description of this phenomenon using a countable system of hyperbolic partial differential equations. A critical concentration of regulatory protein is identified as a function of the physical parameters that describe the system.

  8. A full-scale biological aerated filtration system application in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treated wastewater characteristics are in compliance with the Egyptian law which regulates the discharge of industrial wastewater to the sewerage system. The results from each treatment process proved to be efficient for the treatment of such wastewater. Keywords: Paints wastewater treatment, Biological aerated filter ...

  9. Treatment of coffee wastewater by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution

  10. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  11. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...

  12. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Water on Earth is a precious and finite resource, which is endlessly recycled in the water cycle. Water, whose physical, chemical, or biological properties have been altered due to the addition of contaminants such as organic/inorganic materials, pathogens, heavy metals or other toxins making it unsafe for the ecosystem, can be termed as wastewater. Various schemes have been adopted by industries across the world to treat wastewater prior to its release to the ecosystem, and several new concepts and technologies are fast replacing the traditional methods. This article briefly reviews the recent advances and application of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials typically have high reactivity and a high degree of functionalization, large specific surface area, size-dependent properties etc., which makes them suitable for applications in wastewater treatment and for water purification. In this article, the application of various nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolite, filtration membranes, etc., in the field of wastewater treatment is discussed.

  13. Kinetic rates and mass balance of COD, TKN, and TP using SBR treating domestic and industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warodomrungsimun, Chaowalit; Fongsatitkul, Prayoon

    2009-12-01

    To assess the performance of SBR to treat three different types of wastewater from domestic, hospital, slaughterhouse and investigate the kinetic rates of active biomass. Mass balance calculation of COD, TKN and TP was further performed to explain the mechanisms of the biological nutrient removals processed in the SBR system. The measured kinetic rates were in turn used to evaluate the process performances under different types of wastewater. Experimental research involving 3 similar SBR lab-scales were installed and operated at the Sanitary Engineering Laboratory. The reactors were seeded with sludge biomass obtained from the Sri-Phraya Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in Bangkok. The slaughterhouse, hospital and domestic wastewaters were treated by SBR system for biological organic carbon (COD), nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorus removals. Biological methods for kinetic rates evaluation were conducted in five replicated batch tests. The removal efficiencies of COD and TKN were greater than 90% for all three types of wastewater while the biological phosphorus removal for domestic and hospital wastewaters were less than 60% and phosphorus removal for slaughterhouse exceeded 95%. The kinetic rates of nitrification and denitrification of hospital wastewater was lower than those the domestic and slaughterhouse wastewaters. Phosphorus release and uptake rates of slaughterhouse wastewater were high but domestic and hospital wastewaters were very low. The result of system removal efficiency and batch test for kinetic rates confirmed that the domestic and hospital wastewaters were in deficiency of organic carbon with respect to its ability to support successful biological phosphorus removal.

  14. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  15. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  16. High power accelerators and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.; Makaov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant water pollution. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the municipal and industrial wastewater containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co.. Electron beam treatment of wastewater is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis (hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom). However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW∼1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for wastewater treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with ozonation, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment for the wastewater purification. (author)

  17. Exploiting the MDM2-CK1α Protein-Protein Interface to Develop Novel Biologics That Induce UBL-Kinase-Modification and Inhibit Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huart, Anne-Sophie; MacLaine, Nicola J.; Narayan, Vikram; Hupp, Ted R.

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions forming dominant signalling events are providing ever-growing platforms for the development of novel Biologic tools for controlling cell growth. Casein Kinase 1 α (CK1α) forms a genetic and physical interaction with the murine double minute chromosome 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein resulting in degradation of the p53 tumour suppressor. Pharmacological inhibition of CK1 increases p53 protein level and induces cell death, whilst small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of CK1α stabilizes p53 and induces growth arrest. We mapped the dominant protein-protein interface that stabilizes the MDM2 and CK1α complex in order to determine whether a peptide derived from the core CK1α-MDM2 interface form novel Biologics that can be used to probe the contribution of the CK1-MDM2 protein-protein interaction to p53 activation and cell viability. Overlapping peptides derived from CK1α were screened for dominant MDM2 binding sites using (i) ELISA with recombinant MDM2; (ii) cell lysate pull-down towards endogenous MDM2; (iii) MDM2-CK1α complex-based competition ELISA; and (iv) MDM2-mediated ubiquitination. One dominant peptide, peptide 35 was bioactive in all four assays and its transfection induced cell death/growth arrest in a p53-independent manner. Ectopic expression of flag-tagged peptide 35 induced a novel ubiquitin and NEDD8 modification of CK1α, providing one of the first examples whereby NEDDylation of a protein kinase can be induced. These data identify an MDM2 binding motif in CK1α which when isolated as a small peptide can (i) function as a dominant negative inhibitor of the CK1α-MDM2 interface, (ii) be used as a tool to study NEDDylation of CK1α, and (iii) reduce cell growth. Further, this approach provides a technological blueprint, complementing siRNA and chemical biology approaches, by exploiting protein-protein interactions in order to develop Biologics to manipulate novel types of signalling pathways such as cross-talk between

  18. Exploiting the MDM2-CK1α protein-protein interface to develop novel biologics that induce UBL-kinase-modification and inhibit cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Huart

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions forming dominant signalling events are providing ever-growing platforms for the development of novel Biologic tools for controlling cell growth. Casein Kinase 1 α (CK1α forms a genetic and physical interaction with the murine double minute chromosome 2 (MDM2 oncoprotein resulting in degradation of the p53 tumour suppressor. Pharmacological inhibition of CK1 increases p53 protein level and induces cell death, whilst small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of CK1α stabilizes p53 and induces growth arrest. We mapped the dominant protein-protein interface that stabilizes the MDM2 and CK1α complex in order to determine whether a peptide derived from the core CK1α-MDM2 interface form novel Biologics that can be used to probe the contribution of the CK1-MDM2 protein-protein interaction to p53 activation and cell viability. Overlapping peptides derived from CK1α were screened for dominant MDM2 binding sites using (i ELISA with recombinant MDM2; (ii cell lysate pull-down towards endogenous MDM2; (iii MDM2-CK1α complex-based competition ELISA; and (iv MDM2-mediated ubiquitination. One dominant peptide, peptide 35 was bioactive in all four assays and its transfection induced cell death/growth arrest in a p53-independent manner. Ectopic expression of flag-tagged peptide 35 induced a novel ubiquitin and NEDD8 modification of CK1α, providing one of the first examples whereby NEDDylation of a protein kinase can be induced. These data identify an MDM2 binding motif in CK1α which when isolated as a small peptide can (i function as a dominant negative inhibitor of the CK1α-MDM2 interface, (ii be used as a tool to study NEDDylation of CK1α, and (iii reduce cell growth. Further, this approach provides a technological blueprint, complementing siRNA and chemical biology approaches, by exploiting protein-protein interactions in order to develop Biologics to manipulate novel types of signalling pathways such as cross

  19. Analysis of Treated Wastewater Produced from Al-Lajoun Wastewater Treatment Plant, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Manasreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of treated wastewater produced from Al-Lajoun collection tanks of the wastewater treatment plant in Karak province was carried out in term of physical properties, its major ionic composition, heavy metals and general organic content, for both wastewater influent and effluent. Sampling was done in two periods during (2005-2006 summer season and during winter season to detect the impact of climate on treated wastewater quality. Soil samples were collected from Al-Lajoun valley where the treated wastewater drained, to determine the heavy metal and total organic carbon concentrations at same time. The study showed that the treated wastewater was low in its heavy metals contents during both winter and summer seasons, which was attributed to high pH value enhancing their precipitations. Some of the major ions such as Cl-, Na+, HCO33-, Mg2+ in addition to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were higher than the recommended Jordanian guidelines for drained water in valleys. The treated wastewater contained some organic compounds of toxic type such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results showed that the soil was low in its heavy metal contents and total organic carbon with distance from the discharging pond, which attributed to the adsorption of heavy metals, total organic carbon and sedimentation of suspended particulates. From this study it was concluded that the treated wastewater must be used in situ for production of animal fodder and prohibit its contact with the surface and groundwater resources of the area specially Al-Mujeb dam where it is collected.

  20. FY 1994 report on the cooperative research on the biological use mine wastewater treatment technology; 1994 nendo bio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    In this project, a pilot plant for mine wastewater treatment facilities using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was installed at the Wushan mine in China to study the operation using the bacteria habitable in this mine. The project aims at establishing the mine wastewater treatment technology using the method of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in China. The field survey and study in Japan were carried out. In the field survey, the technical guidance was given for incubation method, neutralization experiment method and analysis method of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. In the study in Japan, one kind of bacteria to be used was selected in the 'selection test for the optimum kind of bacteria,' and a study was made which was titled 'Study of mine wastewater treatment using the method of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which is suitable for the mine site.' In 'Study of the optimum removal of heavy metal in mine wastewater,' a table test of sulfide precipitation method was conducted on copper removal/recovery to make formation conditions of copper sulfide clear. The conditions obtained were reflected in 'Study of mine wastewater treatment by the method of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which is suitable for the mine site,' and various conditions for bacteria oxidation process were studied. The paper surveyed characteristics of heavy metal and temperature of Chinese strains. Further, the basic data were acquired which contribute to the production of inorganic flocculants. (NEDO)

  1. Treatability study of pesticide-based industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kinnari; Chauhan, L I; Galgale, A D

    2012-10-01

    This paper finds out appropriate treatment methods for wastewater of an Organophosphorus viz, chloropyrifos pesticide manufacturing industry. The characterization of wastewater generated during trial production of chloropyrifos was carried out. Based on the characterization of wastewater, various treatability studies were conducted. The most desirable results were obtained with treatment scheme employing acidification, chlorination with NaOCl, suspended growth biological treatment, chemical precipitation for phosphorous removal and activated carbon treatment. Acidification of wastewater helps in by-product recovery as well as reduction in COD upto 36.26%. Chlorination followed by biological treatment was found to be effective to reduce the COD level by 62.06%. To comply with permissible limits prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, further treatment in the form of chemical precipitation (for phosphorous removal) and granular activated carbon is suggested.

  2. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  3. Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Myun-Joo

    2007-01-01

    Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process

  4. Inhibitory effects of ZnO nanoparticles on aerobic wastewater biofilms from oxygen concentration profiles determined by microelectrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Jun; Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Qian, Jin; Dai, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Temporal and spatial inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on biofilms were investigated. • 50 mg/L nano-ZnO inhibited the microbial activities only in biofilm outer layer. • Adsorbed ZnO NPs had no adverse effects on the cell membrane integrity of biofilms. • Dissolution of ZnO NPs to toxic zinc ions was the main mechanism of toxicity. - Abstract: The presence of ZnO NPs in waste streams can negatively affect the efficiency of biological nutrient removal from wastewater. However, details of the toxic effects of ZnO NPs on microbial activities of wastewater biofilms have not yet been reported. In this study, the temporal and spatial inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on the O 2 respiration activities of aerobic wastewater biofilms were investigated using an O 2 microelectrode. The resulting time–course microelectrode measurements demonstrated that ZnO NPs inhibited O 2 respiration within 2 h. The spatial distributions of net specific O 2 respiration were determined in biofilms with and without treatment of 5 or 50 mg/L ZnO NPs. The results showed that 50 mg/L of nano-ZnO inhibited the microbial activities only in the outer layer (∼200 μm) of the biofilms, and bacteria present in the deeper parts of the biofilms became even more active. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the ZnO NPs were adsorbed onto the biofilm, but these NPs had no adverse effects on the cell membrane integrity of the biofilms. It was found that the inhibition of O 2 respiration induced by higher concentrations of ZnO NPs (50 mg/L) was mainly due to the release of zinc ions by dissolution of the ZnO NPs

  5. Inhibitory effects of ZnO nanoparticles on aerobic wastewater biofilms from oxygen concentration profiles determined by microelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Jun [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Miao, Lingzhan, E-mail: mlz1988@126.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Wang, Chao, E-mail: hhuhjy973@126.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Qian, Jin; Dai, Shanshan [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporal and spatial inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on biofilms were investigated. • 50 mg/L nano-ZnO inhibited the microbial activities only in biofilm outer layer. • Adsorbed ZnO NPs had no adverse effects on the cell membrane integrity of biofilms. • Dissolution of ZnO NPs to toxic zinc ions was the main mechanism of toxicity. - Abstract: The presence of ZnO NPs in waste streams can negatively affect the efficiency of biological nutrient removal from wastewater. However, details of the toxic effects of ZnO NPs on microbial activities of wastewater biofilms have not yet been reported. In this study, the temporal and spatial inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on the O{sub 2} respiration activities of aerobic wastewater biofilms were investigated using an O{sub 2} microelectrode. The resulting time–course microelectrode measurements demonstrated that ZnO NPs inhibited O{sub 2} respiration within 2 h. The spatial distributions of net specific O{sub 2} respiration were determined in biofilms with and without treatment of 5 or 50 mg/L ZnO NPs. The results showed that 50 mg/L of nano-ZnO inhibited the microbial activities only in the outer layer (∼200 μm) of the biofilms, and bacteria present in the deeper parts of the biofilms became even more active. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the ZnO NPs were adsorbed onto the biofilm, but these NPs had no adverse effects on the cell membrane integrity of the biofilms. It was found that the inhibition of O{sub 2} respiration induced by higher concentrations of ZnO NPs (50 mg/L) was mainly due to the release of zinc ions by dissolution of the ZnO NPs.

  6. Anaerobic degradation of the various fractions of slaughterhouse wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, S.; Zanden, J. van der; Wijffels, R.; Lettinga, G.

    1988-01-01

    The main objectives of the present investigations were to determine the maximum extent of anaerobic biological degradation of the soluble, colloidal and Coarse Suspended Solids fractions of slaughterhouse wastewater, in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the removal of these organic pollutant fractions and to determine the rate-limiting steps in the degradation of each fraction of the wastewater, and to assess the effects of the fractions on the methanogenic activity of the sludge.

  7. REUSE IN EXHAUST DYEING PROCESSES OF TEXTILE WASTEWATERS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Monllor; J.F. Sanz; R. Vicente; M. Bonet

    2013-01-01

    Textile dyeing and wet finishing wastewaters are considered a major concern because of the necessity of removing colour and pollutants before their discharge into the environment. Their chemical composition is diverse depending mainly on fashion, material and process. After the homogenization of all the wastewaters coming from the different textile processes, the generally used multi-stage technology for their treatment and purification combines physico-chemical and biological processes. Howe...

  8. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the...

  9. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in...

  10. Biological wastewater treatment of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1988-09-01

    EPA Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, undertook a study to determine the fate of specific water soluble azo dye compounds in the activated sludge process (ASP). The study was approached by dosing the feed to the pilot ASP systems with various water soluble azo dyes and by monitoring each dye compound through the system, analyzing both liquid and sludge samples. The fate of the parent dye compound was assessed via mass balance calculations. These data could determine if the compound was removed by adsorption, apparent biodegradation, or not removed at all. The paper presents results for 18 dye compounds tested from June 1985 through August 1987. The study was conducted at EPAs Test and Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. The objective of this study was to determine the partitioning of water soluble azo dyes in the ASP.

  11. The role of tannins in conventional and membrane treatment of tannery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, G; De Angelis, D; Gori, R; Mori, G; Casarci, M; Lubello, C

    2009-05-30

    The role that tannins play in tannery wastewater treatment has been evaluated employing a pilot Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) plant and a full scale Conventional Activated Sludge Process (CASP) plant conducted in parallel. The proposed methodology has established the preliminary use of respirometry to examine the biodegradability of a selection of commercial products (synthetic and natural tannins); the subsequent analysis, by means of spectrophotometric reading and RP-IPC (Reverse-Phase Ion-Pair) liquid chromatography, estimates the concentrations of natural tannins and naphthalenesulfonic tanning agents in the influent and effluent samples. The results show that a consistent percentage of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the effluent of the biological phase of the plants is attributable to the presence of natural and synthetic (Sulfonated Naphthalene-Formaldehyde Condensates, SNFC) tannins (17% and 14% respectively). The titrimetric tests that were aimed at evaluating the levels of inhibition on the nitrifying biomass samples did not allow a direct inhibiting effect to be associated with the concentration levels of the tannin in the effluent. Nonetheless, the reduced specific growth rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidising bacteria imply that a strong environmental pressure is present, if not necessarily due to the concentration of tannins, due to the wastewater as a whole. The differences that have emerged by comparing the two technologies (CASP and MBR), in regards to the role that tannins play in terms of biodegradability, did not appear to be significant.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis S3-1, a potential biological pesticide with plant pathogen inhibiting and plant promoting capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qing; Jiang, Qiuyue; Zhao, Lei; Su, Cuizhu; Li, Songshuo; Si, Fangyi; Li, Shanshan; Zhou, Chenhao; Mu, Yonglin; Xiao, Ming

    2017-10-10

    Antagonistic soil microorganisms, which are non-toxic, harmless non-pollutants, can effectively reduce the density of pathogenic species by some ways. Bacillus velezensis strain S3-1 was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of cucumber, and was shown to inhibit plant pathogens, promote plant growth and efficiently colonize rhizosphere soils. The strain produced 13 kinds of lipopeptide antibiotics, belonging to the surfactin, iturin and fengycin families. Here, we presented the complete genome sequence of S3-1. The genome consists of one chromosome without plasmids and also contains the biosynthetic gene cluster that encodes difficidin, macrolactin, surfactin and fengycin. The genome contains 86 tRNA genes, 27 rRNA genes and 57 antibiotic-related genes. The complete genome sequence of B. velezensis S3-1 provides useful information to further detect the molecular mechanisms behind antifungal actions, and will facilitate its potential as a biological pesticide in the agricultural industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater and effects on constructed wetland plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calheirosa, C.S.C.; Silva, G.; Quitério, P.V.B.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater produced after an activated sludge secondary treatment on the germination and seedling growth of Trifolium pratense, a species used as indicator in toxicity tests, was evaluated. Growth was inhibited by wastewater concentrations >25% and undiluted ...

  14. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Ivanov, Ivan; Pisciotta, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao

    2013-05-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  17. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  18. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...... reserves. Wastewater represents the largest urban flow of P in waste. Hence, knowledge about plant P availability of products from the wastewater treatment system, and also comparison to other waste P sources and mineral P is essential to obtain an efficient recycling and to prioritise between different P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...

  19. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  20. Application of radiation for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bumsoo; Kim Jinkyu; Kim Yuri

    2006-01-01

    achieve predominant type of transformation-reduction, oxidation, addition or removal of functional groups, aggregation, disintegration etc. However, in general, pollutant transformation involves the chain oxidation, formation of insoluble compounds, coagulation of colloids, and Enhancement of pollutant biodegradability. Due to the great variety of wastewaters generated by different industries, a universal treatment process is currently not available for industrial wastewater. The focus of radiation processing is to convert non-biodegradable pollutants into biodegradable species. Extensive studies have been carried out on the purification of industrial wastewater by radiation processing, although generally on the laboratory and, to a lesser extent, the pilot plant scale. Full-scale application is combined electron beam (1 MeV, 40 kW) and biological treatment in Daegu, Korea. Operation of pilot plant (1000m 3 /d) from 1998 showed the electron beam treatment of textile dyeing wastewater to be a prospective means for its purification. The improvements result in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities with low doses (1-2 kGy). Convinced of feasibility via a pilot plant, an industrial plant for treating 10,000 m 3 /d of textile dyeing wastewater with electron beam (1 MeV, 400 kW) has been constructed and operated continuously since 2005. This plant demonstrated a reduction of chemical reagent consumption and the reduction in retention time with the increase in efficiency of removal of COD Cr and BOD 5 up to 30-40%. Increase in removal efficiency after radiation treatment is due to radiolytical transformation of biodegradable compounds to more readily digestible forms. (authors)

  1. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  2. Assessment of wastewater and recycled water quality: a comparison of lines of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusch, Frederic D L; Khan, Stuart J; Gagnon, M Monique; Quayle, Pam; Trinh, Trang; Coleman, Heather; Rawson, Christopher; Chapman, Heather F; Blair, Palenque; Nice, Helen; Reitsema, Tarren

    2014-03-01

    We investigated water quality at an advanced water reclamation plant and three conventional wastewater treatment plants using an "ecotoxicity toolbox" consisting of three complementary analyses (chemical analysis, in vitro bioanalysis and in situ biological monitoring), with a focus on endocrine disruption. The in vitro bioassays were chosen to provide an appropriately wide coverage of biological effects relevant to managed aquifer recharge and environmental discharge of treated wastewater, and included bioassays for bacterial toxicity (Microtox), genotoxicity (umuC), photosynthesis inhibition (Max-I-PAM) and endocrine effects (E-SCREEN and AR-CALUX). Chemical analysis of hormones and pesticides using LCMSMS was performed in parallel to correlate standard analytical methods with the in vitro assessment. For two plants with surface water discharge into open drains, further field work was carried out to examine in situ effects using mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) as a bioindicator species for possible endocrine effects. The results show considerable cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity, estrogenicity and androgenicity in raw sewage, all of which were significantly reduced by conventional wastewater treatment. No biological response was detected to RO water, suggesting that reverse osmosis is a significant barrier to biologically active compounds. Chemical analysis and in situ monitoring revealed trends consistent with the in vitro results: chemical analysis confirmed the removal trends observed by the bioanalytical tools, and in situ sampling did not reveal any evidence of endocrine disruption specifically due to discharge of treated wastewater (although other sources may be present). Biomarkers of exposure (in vitro) and effect (in vivo or in situ) are complementary and together provide information with a high level of ecological relevance. This study illustrates the utility of combining multiple lines of evidence in the assessment of water quality. Copyright

  3. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  4. Phycoremediation of industrial wastewater containing azo compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Parin D. Shah; Dipti Galani; M S. Rao

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art biological wastewater treatment technique that uses eukaryotic microalgae as well as several prokaryotic photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Micro algae are known to remove dyes by bioadsorption (sorption of dye molecules over the surface of algal cells), biodegradation and bioconversion (diffusion of dye molecules into the algal cells and subsequent conversion). This paper mainly focuses on biodegradation abilities of microalgae for t...

  5. Biological and Pharmacological properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Biological and Pharmacological properties. NOEA inhibits Ceramidase. Anandamide inhibits gap junction conductance and reduces sperm fertilizing capacity. Endogenous ligands for Cannabinoid receptors (anandamide and NPEA). Antibacterial and antiviral ...

  6. Thermochemical Wastewater Valorization via Enhanced Microbial Toxicity Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thelhawadigedara, Lahiru Niroshan Jayakody [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Christopher W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pleitner, Brenna P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cleveland, Nicholas S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitham, Jason M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Giannone, Richard J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Klingeman, Dawn M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State University; Brown, Steven D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; LanzaTech, Inc.; Hettich, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Guss, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-04-17

    Thermochemical (TC) biomass conversion processes such as pyrolysis and liquefaction generate considerable amounts of wastewater, which often contains highly toxic compounds that are incredibly challenging to convert via standard wastewater treatment approaches such as anaerobic digestion. These streams represent a cost for TC biorefineries, and a potential valorization opportunity, if effective conversion methods are developed. The primary challenge hindering microbial conversion of TC wastewater is toxicity. In this study, we employ a robust bacterium, Pseudomonas putida, with TC wastewater streams to demonstrate that aldehydes are the most inhibitory compounds in these streams. Proteomics, transcriptomics, and fluorescence-based immunoassays of P. putida grown in a representative wastewater stream indicate that stress results from protein damage, which we hypothesize is a primary toxicity mechanism. Constitutive overexpression of the chaperone genes, groEL, groES, and clpB, in a genome-reduced P. putida strain improves the tolerance towards multiple TC wastewater samples up to 200-fold. Moreover, the concentration ranges of TC wastewater are industrially relevant for further bioprocess development for all wastewater streams examined here, representing different TC process configurations. Furthermore, we demonstrate proof-of-concept polyhydroxyalkanoate production from the usable carbon in an exemplary TC wastewater stream. Overall, this study demonstrates that protein quality control machinery and repair mechanisms can enable substantial gains in microbial tolerance to highly toxic substrates, including heterogeneous waste streams. When coupled to other metabolic engineering advances such as expanded substrate utilization and enhanced product accumulation, this study generally enables new strategies for biological conversion of highly-toxic, organic-rich wastewater via engineered aerobic monocultures or designer consortia.

  7. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from human decidua inhibits the binding and biological action of IGF-I in cultured choriocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritvos, O.; Ranta, T.; Jalkanen, J.; Suikkari, A.M.; Voutilainen, R.; Bohn, H.; Rutanen, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The placenta expresses genes for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and possesses IGF-receptors, suggesting that placental growth is regulated by IGFs in an autocrine manner. We have previously shown that human decidua, but not placenta, synthesizes and secretes a 34 K IGF-binding protein (34 K IGF-BP) called placental protein 12. We now used human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cell monolayer cultures and recombinant (Thr59)IGF-I as a model to study whether the decidual 34 K IGF-BP is able to modulate the receptor binding and biological activity of IGFs in trophoblasts. JEG-3 cells, which possess type I IGF receptors, were unable to produce IGF-BPs. Purified 34 K IGF-BP specifically bound [125I]iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I. Multiplication-stimulating activity had 2.5% the potency of (Thr59)IGF-I, and insulin had no effect on the binding of [125I] iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I. 34 K IGF-BP inhibited the binding of [125I] iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I to JEG-3 monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner by forming with the tracer a soluble complex that could not bind to the cell surface as demonstrated by competitive binding and cross-linking experiments. After incubating the cell monolayers with [125I]iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I in the presence of purified binding protein, followed by cross-linking, no affinity labeled bands were seen on autoradiography. In contrast, an intensely labeled band at 40 K was detected when the incubation medium was analyzed, suggesting that (Thr59)IGF-I and 34 K IGF-BP formed a complex in a 1:1 molar ratio. Also, 34 K IGF-BP inhibited both basal and IGF-I-stimulated uptake of alpha-[3H]aminoisobutyric acid in JEG-3 cells. RNA analysis revealed that IGF-II is expressed in JEG-3 cells

  8. Impacts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on nutrient removal from wastewater and bacterial community structure in activated sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reti Hai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs will inevitably lead to the exposure of wastewater treatment facilities. However, knowledge of the impacts of MWCNTs on wastewater nutrient removal and bacterial community structure in the activated sludge process is sparse. AIMS: To investigate the effects of MWCNTs on wastewater nutrient removal, and bacterial community structure in activated sludge. METHODS: Three triplicate sequencing batch reactors (SBR were exposed to wastewater which contained 0, 1, and 20 mg/L MWCNTs. MiSeq sequencing was used to investigate the bacterial community structures in activated sludge samples which were exposed to different concentrations of MWCNTs. RESULTS: Exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs had no acute (1 day impact on nutrient removal from wastewater. After long-term (180 days exposure to 1 mg/L MWCNTs, the average total nitrogen (TN removal efficiency was not significantly affected. TN removal efficiency decreased from 84.0% to 71.9% after long-term effects of 20 mg/L MWCNTs. After long-term exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs, the total phosphorus removal efficiencies decreased from 96.8% to 52.3% and from 98.2% to 34.0% respectively. Further study revealed that long-term exposure to 20 mg/L MWCNTs inhibited activities of ammonia monooxygenase and nitrite oxidoreductase. Long-term exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs both inhibited activities of exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate kinase. MiSeq sequencing data indicated that 20 mg/L MWCNTs significantly decreased the diversity of bacterial community in activated sludge. Long-term exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs differentially decreased the abundance of nitrifying bacteria, especially ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The abundance of PAOs was decreased after long-term exposure to 20 mg/L MWCNTs. The abundance of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs was increased after long-term exposure to 1 mg/L MWCNTs. CONCLUSION: MWCNTs have adverse effects on

  9. CO₂-neutral wastewater treatment plants or robust, climate-friendly wastewater management? A systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tove A

    2015-12-15

    CO2-neutral wastewater treatment plants can be obtained by improving the recovery of internal wastewater energy resources (COD, nutrients, energy) and reducing energy demand as well as direct emissions of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4. Climate-friendly wastewater management also includes the management of the heat resource, which is most efficiently recovered at the household level, and robust wastewater management must be able to cope with a possible resulting temperature decrease. At the treatment plant there is a substantial energy optimization potential, both from improving electromechanical devices and sludge treatment as well as through the implementation of more energy-efficient processes like the mainstream anammox process or nutrient recovery from urine. Whether CO2 neutrality can be achieved depends not only on the actual net electricity production, but also on the type of electricity replaced: the cleaner the marginal electricity the more difficult to compensate for the direct emissions, which can be substantial, depending on the stability of the biological processes. It is possible to combine heat recovery at the household scale and nutrient recovery from urine, which both have a large potential to improve the climate friendliness of wastewater management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  11. Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Algal Metabolites Using Bioluminescence Inhibition Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa Jeswani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are reported to degrade hazardous compounds. However, algae, especially cyanobacteria are known to produce secondary metabolites which may be toxic to flora, fauna and human beings. The aim of this study was selection of an appropriate algal culture for biological treatment of biomass gasification wastewater based on acute toxicity considerations. The three algae that were selected were Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium. Acute toxicity of the metabolites produced by these algal cultures was tested at the end of log phase using the standard bioluminescence inhibition assay based on Vibrio fischeri NRRLB 11174. Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium dominated by cyanobacteria such as Phormidium, Chroococcus and Oscillatoria did not release much toxic metabolites at the end of log phase and caused only about 20% inhibition in bioluminescence. In comparison, Spirulina sp. released toxic metabolites and caused 50% bioluminescence inhibition at 3/5 times dilution of the culture supernatant (EC50.

  12. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Zommer, N.

    2012-01-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  13. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R. [EB TECH Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zommer, N. [Pele Inc., Milpitas Californaa (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  14. Determination of aromatic and PAH content of oily wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyj, I. (Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA); Russell, E.C.

    1978-08-01

    A method for analysis of oil and grease in water is described. The method is used to provide data on total, dissolved, and suspended organic content of wastewater sample and the concentration of hydrocarbons. Additionally, volatile and water soluble fractions which contain many organic compounds critical to the environment are characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively. A number of real-life treated and untreated bilge waste samples were collected at the U.S. Army Fort Eustis facility and analyzed using this method. It was found that untreated bilge wastewater contained both suspended and dissolved organic matter. The suspended organics ranged between 10 and 300 ppM, while the dissolved organics were in the 10 to 150 ppM range. Treated bilge wastewater usually contained no suspended organics but did contain rather high levels of dissolved organic matter 700 to 200 ppM). Up to 70% of the dissolved organics in untreated bilge wastewater were chloroform extractable, while less than 10% of the dissolved organis in treated bilge wastewater were extractable into chloroform. It is believed that the bulk of organic matter in treated bilge wastewater were extractable into chloroform. It is believed that the bulk of organic matter in treated bilge wastewater is biologically derived from the degradation of petroleum, while smaller portions consist of refractory, petroleum derived, water-soluble organic compounds.

  15. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  16. Effects of Cr(III) and CR(VI) on nitrification inhibition as determined by SOUR, function-specific gene expression and 16S rRNA sequence analysis of wastewater nitrifying enrichments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data generated to test nitrification inhibition of chromium. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Kapoor, V., M. Elk, X. Li, C. Impellitteri ,...

  17. Determination of the Fate of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in the Three Wastewater Treatment Plants, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedyan, Mohammed; Al Harahsheh, Ahmed; Qnaisb, Esam

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the composition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) species, particularly dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), over the traditional wastewater treatment operations in three biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. It had been found that the DON percentage was up to 30% of TDN within…

  18. Crossflow ultrafiltration of raw municipal wastewater : Investigations using PVDF tubular membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravazzini, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the usual wastewater treatment schemes the application of membranes follows a biological process. However, ultrafiltration of untreated wastewater produces permeate free of particles and bacteria in one single step and could represent the starting point for new water-reuse concepts. This thesis

  19. Wastewater treatment processes for the removal of emerging organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Rubio Clemente

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging organic pollutants form a very heterogeneous group of substances that have negative effects on aquatic organisms, so they should be removed from the environment. Unfortunately, conventional processes in wastewater treatment plants, especially biological ones, are inefficient in the degradation of these substances. It is therefore necessary to evaluate and optimize the effectiveness of the treatments, including advanced oxidation and membrane filtration processes. However, both techniques have drawbacks that may limit their stand-alone application, so it is proposed that the best solution may be to combine these technologies with biological processes to treat wastewater contaminated with emerging organic pollutants.

  20. Applications of Natural Coagulants to Treat Wastewater − A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vicky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural water falls from the mountain is merging into the oceans. This water is preserved by humans that are consumed for agriculture, industrial, and municipal use. This water become wastewater after different usage, and finally, completes the hydrological cycle. The water becomes wastewater due to population growth, urbanization, industrialization, sewage from household, institutions, hospitals, industries and etc. Wastewater can be destructive for the public because it contains a variety of organic and inorganic substances, biological substances, toxic inorganic compounds and the presence of toxic materials. The coagulant chemicals and its associated products are resourceful but these may change the characteristics of water in terms of physical and chemical characteristics, this make matters worse in the disposal of sludge. An option of natural polymer can be used in water and wastewater in this review. The natural polymers are most efficient that provide several benefits such as; prolific, exempt from physical and chemical changes from the treated water.

  1. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-02

    The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved.

  3. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  4. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved. PMID:27551860

  5. Cultivation of microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis from biological treatment of swine wastewater Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis a partir de tratamento biológico de efluente suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from swine wastewater is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by wastewater discharge into water sources. The biomass can be added to fish feed, which can be used in the formulation of meat products. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis in swine wastewater and the study of the best dilution of the wastewater for maximum biomass production and for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, ammonia and phosphorous to the microalgae. The cultivation of Spirulina platensis, strain Paracas presented maximum cellular concentrations and maximum specific growth rates in the wastewater concentration of 5.0 and 8.5%. The highest COD removals occurred with 26.5 and 30.0% of wastewater in the medium. The maximum removal of total phosphorous (41.6%, was with 8.5% of wastewater, which is related to the microalgae growth. The results of Spirulina culture in the swine wastewater demonstrated the possibility of using these microalgae for the COD and phosphorous removal and for biomass production.A produção de biomassa de microalgas a partir de efluente suíno consiste em uma possível solução para o impacto ambiental gerado pela descarga de efluentes em fontes naturais. A biomassa produzida pode ser adicionada a rações de peixes, os quais podem ser utilizados na formulação de produtos cárneos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a adaptação da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis em efluente suíno e o estudo da diluição ideal de efluente para obter a máxima produção de biomassa e remoção de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, amônia e fósforo do efluente pela microalga. O cultivo da Spirulina platensis, cepa Paracas apresentou máxima concentração celular e máxima taxa específica de crescimento em concentrações de efluente de 5,0 e 8,5%. As maiores remoções de DQO ocorreram com 26,5 e 30,0% de efluente no meio. A

  6. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  7. Problems with textile wastewater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantala, Pentti

    1987-01-01

    The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

  8. Kinetics of aerobic oxidation of volatile sulfur compounds in wastewater and biofilm from sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudelle, Elise Alice; Vollertsen, Jes; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of aerobic chemical and biological oxidation of selected odorous volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by wastewater and biofilm from sewers. The VSCs included methyl mercaptan (MeSH), ethyl mercaptan (EtSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS......-spot downstream of a force main and the other was a gravity sewer transporting young aerobic wastewater. The kinetics of VSC oxidation for both wastewater and suspended biofilm samples followed a first-order rate equation. The average values of the reaction rate constants demonstrated the following order...... in the aerobic wastewater....

  9. Use of ClO2 for removal of estrogenic substances in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention pertains to wastewater treatment. More particularly, the invention concerns inactivation of biologically active compounds, such as estrogenic compounds, present in wastewater comprising sewage by the use of an oxidant, such as CIO2. A method is disclosed for inactivating one...... or more estrogenic substance(s) in wastewater, such as in a wastewater treatment plant, said method comprising a step of adding a dose of CIO2 to the water to be discharged, and said CIO2-dose being less than the CIO2- demand of the water to be discharged....

  10. Wastewater treatment by adsorption onto micro-particles of dried Withania frutescens Plant as new adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiban, M.; Soudani, A.; Sinan, F.; Persin, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several industrial wastewater streams may contain heavy metals such as Cd(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), etc. including the waste liquids generated by metal finishing or the mineral processing industries. The toxic metals must be effectively treated/removed from the wastewaters. If the wastewaters were discharged directly into natural waters, it will constitute a great risk for the aquatic ecosystem, whilst the direct discharge into the sewerage system may affect negatively the subsequent biological wastewater treatment. (Author)

  11. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact......The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...

  12. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  13. (Case Study: Wastewater Pump Station of Khoramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Taheriyoun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of a Biofilter System for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide Gas (Case Study: Wastewater Pump Station of Khorramabad Abstract The biofilter system is one of the methods commonly used for the removal of hydrogen sulfide as the main source of odors emitted from wastewater facilities. The system is based on using the contaminant material as bedding to feed microorganisms. To achieve the desirable removal efficiency, it is, therefore, essential to create the proper conditions for the bacteria to grow on the bedding. In this study, a pilot-scale biofilter made of compost and woodchip (with a compost/woodchip ratio of 5:1 was used as the bedding material at Khorrmabad wastewater pumping station to investigate the performance of the system under real conditions. The experiment was carried out over 75 days during which time the input and output H2S concentrations were measured on a regular basis. Moisture was adjusted between 40% and 60% throughout the experiment to provide optimal conditions for bacterial growth. The results showed that the concentration of H2S emitted from the pumping station during 24 hours varied greatly between 0 and 48 PPM. The maximum adsorption capacity of the biological bedding was recorded at 2.874 g/m3.hr and the mean efficiency of H2S removal including the startup time was 89%. The mean performance efficiency during the biological activity after the startup was recorded at 98%.

  14. Chimeric design, synthesis, and biological assays of a new nonpeptide insulin-mimetic vanadium compound to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Thomas; Guevara-García, José Antonio; Melendez, F J; Abdallah, Hassan H; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe

    2010-09-24

    Prior to its total synthesis, a new vanadium coordination compound, called TSAG0101, was computationally designed to inhibit the enzyme protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). The PTP1B acts as a negative regulator of insulin signaling by blocking the active site where phosphate hydrolysis of the insulin receptor takes place. TSAG001, [V(V)O(2)(OH)(picolinamide)], was characterized by infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; IR: ν/cm(-1) 3,570 (NH), 1,627 (C=O, coordinated), 1,417 (C-N), 970/842 (O=V=O), 727 δ̣ (pyridine ring); (13)C NMR: 5 bands between 122 and 151 ppm and carbonyl C shifted to 180 ppm; and (1)H NMR: 4 broad bands from 7.6 to 8.2 ppm and NH(2) shifted to 8.8 ppm. In aqueous solution, in presence or absence of sodium citrate as a biologically relevant and ubiquitous chelator, TSAG0101 undergoes neither ligand exchange nor reduction of its central vanadium atom during 24 hours. TSAG0101 shows blood glucose lowering effects in rats but it produced no alteration of basal- or glucose-induced insulin secretion on β cells during in vitro tests, all of which excludes a direct mechanism evidencing the extrapancreatic nature of its activity. The lethal dose (LD(50)) of TSAG0101 was determined in Wistar mice yielding a value of 412 mg/kg. This value is one of the highest among vanadium compounds and classifies it as a mild toxicity agent when compared with literature data. Due to its nonsubstituted, small-sized scaffold design, its remarkable complex stability, and low toxicity; TSAG0101 should be considered as an innovative insulin-mimetic principle with promising properties and, therefore, could become a new lead compound for potential nonpeptide PTP1B inhibitors in antidiabetic drug research. In view of the present work, the inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) and extended solution stability will be tested.

  15. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Skalak, Katherine; Kent, D.B.; Engle, Mark A.; Benthem, Adam J.; Mumford, Adam; Haase, Karl B.; Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David; Nagel, S. C.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Orem, William H.; Akob, Denise M.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.; Galloway, Joel M.; Kohler, Matthias; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Jolly, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4 M L (million liters) of wastewater (300 g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030 mg/L) and bromide (7.8 mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11 mg/L and < 0.4 mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25 mg/L), boron (1.75 mg/L) and strontium (7.1 mg/L) were present downstream at 5–10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1 km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that

  16. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I M; Skalak, K J; Kent, D B; Engle, M A; Benthem, A; Mumford, A C; Haase, K; Farag, A; Harper, D; Nagel, S C; Iwanowicz, L R; Orem, W H; Akob, D M; Jaeschke, J B; Galloway, J; Kohler, M; Stoliker, D L; Jolly, G D

    2017-02-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4ML (million liters) of wastewater (300g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030mg/L) and bromide (7.8mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11mg/L and <0.4mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25mg/L), boron (1.75mg/L) and strontium (7.1mg/L) were present downstream at 5-10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that environmental signatures

  17. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal : Metabolic Insights and Salinity Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welles, L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a biological process for efficient phosphate removal from wastewaters through intracellular storage of polyphosphate by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and subsequent removal of PAO from the system through wastage of sludge. In comparison

  18. Kinetics of aerobically activated sludge on terylene artificial silk printing and dyeing wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bao-hong; Wu, Zhong-biao; Xu, Gen-liang

    2004-04-01

    Aerobically activated sludge processing was carried out to treat terylene artificial silk printing and dyeing wastewater (TPD wastewater) in a lab-scale experiment, focusing on the kinetics of the COD removal. The kinetics parameters determined from experiment were applied to evaluate the biological treatability of wastewater. Experiments showed that COD removal could be divided into two stages, in which the ratio BOD/COD (B/C) was the key factor for stage division. At the rapid-removal stage with B/C>0.1, COD removal could be described by a zero order reaction. At the moderate-removal stage with B/Ckinetic parameters, the biological treatability of TPD wastewater was superior to that of traditional textile wastewater. But COD removal from TPD-wastewater was much more difficult than that from domestic and industrial wastewater, such as papermaking, beer, phenol wastewater, etc. The expected effluent quality strongly related to un-biodegradable COD and kinetics rather than total COD. The results provide useful basis for further scaling up and efficient operation of TPD wastewater treatment.

  19. Wastewater recycling technology for fermentation in polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Zhang, Huidan; Cui, Qiu

    2017-07-01

    To reduce fermentation-associated wastewater discharge and the cost of wastewater treatment, which further reduces the total cost of DHA and ARA production, this study first analyzed the composition of wastewater from Aurantiochytrium (DHA) and Mortierella alpina (ARA) fermentation, after which wastewater recycling technology for these fermentation processes was developed. No negative effects of DHA and ARA production were observed when the two fermentation wastewater methods were cross-recycled. DHA and ARA yields were significantly inhibited when the wastewater from the fermentation process was directly reused. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation experiments, using this cross-recycle technology, the DHA and ARA yields were 30.4 and 5.13gL -1 , respectively, with no significant changes (P>0.05) compared to the control group, and the water consumption was reduced by half compared to the traditional process. Therefore, this technology has great potential in industrial fermentation for polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wastewater treatment by nanofiltration membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanti, R.; Susanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Lower energy consumption compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and higher rejection compared to ultrafiltration make nanofiltration (NF) membrane get more and more attention for wastewater treatment. NF has become a promising technology not only for treating wastewater but also for reusing water from wastewater. This paper presents various application of NF for wastewater treatments. The factors affecting the performance of NF membranes including operating conditions, feed characteristics and membrane characteristics were discussed. In addition, fouling as a severe problem during NF application is also presented. Further, future prospects and challenges of NF for wastewater treatments are explained.

  1. Electron beam processing of wastewater in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali; Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Ting Teo Ming; Khomsaton A. Bakar

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing technology started in Malaysia in 1991 when two accelerators were installed through JICA cooperation to perform medical product sterilization project. Since then several private companies have installed electron accelerators to develop in removing volatile organic materials and to demonstrate flue gas treatment. In this country report, effort on electron beam processing of wastewater or contaminated groundwater is presented: After de-coloration tests using gamma rays as function of radiation doses, electron beam treatment of textile industry wastewater as function of beam energy and current intensity as well as with combined treatment such as aeration or biological treatment to examine the effectiveness in color and BOD or COD change has been carried out and the main results are reported. Furthermore, the present technique was examined to apply in river water treatment for use as drinking water. Techno-economic feasibility study for recycling of industrial waste water using electron beam technology is now underway. (S. Ohno)

  2. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m 3 , (or 0.087 kWh/m 3 , if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  3. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the right concept and a prototype for a particular processing plant, plastic processing plant. It is possible to determine the parameters that will increase the efficiency of sewage treatment while minimizing the financial effort on the part of the Company. Selection methods of wastewater treatment is also associated with the environmental strategy of the country at the enterprise level specified in the Environmental Policy. This is an additional argument for the use of biological methods in the treatment of industrial waste water.

  4. Paper 1: Wastewater characterisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    1998). Research is directed on quantifying the C, N and P fractions in the secondary ... and prefermented wastewater, applicable for a basic in-line APT and other prefermenter ... representative composite samples, and from these samples the ... Constituents in true solution (dissolved) (particle size < 1 nm);. • not visible by ...

  5. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    organisms: These are small plants as well as animals and they are some of the most difficult ... It is measured by the oxygen consumption of a pre-inoculated sample at 20-250C in .... Organic wastewater components may be oxidised all the way to CO2.

  6. Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

    2009-06-30

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown

  7. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes involved in nitrification. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous reactor with a 24 h hydraulic retention time. The samples were exposed in batch vessels to cyanide for a period of 12 h. The concentrations of CN- used in the batch assays were 0.03, 0.06, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There was considerable decrease in SOUR with increasing dosages of CN-. A decrease of more than 50% in nitrification activity was observed at 0.1 mg/L CN-. Based on the RT-qPCR data, there was notable reduction in the transcript levels of amoA and hao for increasing CN- dosage, which corresponded well with the ammonia oxidation activity measured via SOUR. The inhibitory effect of cyanide may be attributed to the affinity of cyanide to bind ferric heme proteins, which disrupt protein structure and function. The correspondence between the relative expression of functional genes and SOUR shown in this study demonstrates the efficacy of RNA based function-specific assays for better understanding of the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. Nitrification is the first step of nitrogen removal is wastewater, and it is susceptible to inhibition by many industrial chemical. We looked at

  9. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward.

  10. Disposal of olive mill wastewater with DC arc plasma method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimoglu, Beycan; Yilmazoglu, M Zeki

    2018-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater is an industrial waste, generated as a byproduct of olive oil production process and generally contains components such as organic matter, suspended solids, oil, and grease. Although various methods have been developed to achieve the disposal of this industrial wastewater, due to the low cost, the most common disposal application is the passive storage in the lagoons. The main objective of this study is to reduce pollution parameters in olive mill wastewater and draw water to discharge limits by using plasma technology. Plasma-assisted disposal of olive mill wastewater method could be an alternative disposal technique when considering potential utilization of treated water in agricultural areas and economic value of flammable plasma gas which is the byproduct of disposal process. According to the experimental results, the rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of olive mill wastewater are decreased by 94.42% and 95.37%, respectively. The dissolved oxygen amount is increased from 0.36 to 6.97 mg/l. In addition, plasma gas with high H 2 content and treated water that can be used in agricultural areas for irrigation are obtained from non-dischargeable wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement of biodegradability of real textile and dyeing wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Shijun; Sun, Weihua; Wang, Jianlong; Chen, Lvjun; Zhang, Youxue; Yu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    A textile and dyeing wastewater treatment plant is going to be upgraded due to the stringent discharge standards in Jiangsu province, China, and electron beam irradiation is considering to be used. In order to determine the suitable location of the electron accelerator in the process of wastewater treatment plant, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the biodegradability of various real wastewater samples collecting from the different stages of the wastewater treatment plant, the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), and the ratio of BOD 5 and COD (BOD 5 /COD), were compared before and after EB irradiation. During EB irradiation process, color indices and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV 254 ) of wastewater were also determined. The results showed that EB irradiation pre-treatment cannot improve the biodegradability of raw textile and dyeing wastewater, which contains a large amount of biodegradable organic matters. In contrast, as to the final effluent of biological treatment process, EB irradiation can enhance the biodegradability to 224%. Therefore, the promising way is to apply EB irradiation as a post-treatment of the conventional biological process. - Highlights: • Irradiation pre-treatment did not improve the raw textile wastewater biodegradability. • Irradiation can highly enhance the biodegradability of biological treated effluent. • EB irradiation can be used as a post-treatment after biological process.

  12. Evaluation on ecological stability and biodegradation of dyeing wastewater pre-treated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Park, C.K.; Yoo, D.H.; Lee, J.K.; Lee, B.J.; Han, B.S.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.

    2005-01-01

    Biological treatment of dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam has been performed in order to evaluate the biodegradation and ecological stability of effluent. In the process of electron-beam treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. Partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages like as biological processing. Dyeing wastewater contains many kind of pollutants which are difficult to be decomposed completely by microorganisms. In this study, biodegradation with dyeing wastewater pre-treated by electron beams was observed. On the other hand, consideration on public acceptance in terms of ecological stability of biological effluent pre-treated by electron beams was given in this study. The results of laboratory investigations on biodegradation and ecological stability of effluent showed that biodegradation of dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam was enhanced compared to unirradiated one. In the initial stage of biological oxidation regardless of different HRT, dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam could be oxidized easily compare to without treated one. More number of survived daphnia magna could be observed in the biological effluent pre-treated by electron beam. This means that biological effluent pre-treated by electron beam can be said 'it is safe on the ecological system'

  13. Removal of nitrogen from anaerobically digested swine wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result indicates that the sulfur-packed biofilter would be used as an efficient option for denitrification by autotrophic denitrifiers during swine wastewater treatment. Key words: Biological nitrogen removal, nitrification, denitrification, chemical oxygen demand (COD), intermittent aeration, sulfur-packed bed reactor, swine ...

  14. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, Arie; van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can

  15. Application of aerobic porous fixed packed towers for biological treatment of canned food industrial wastewater; Utilizacion de la arcilla expandida como relleno en lechos sumergidos aireados para el tratamiento de aguas residuales procedentes de la industria conservera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido Escudero, A.; Torres Rojo, J. C.; Tejera de Torres, M.; Hontaria, E.; Osorio Robles, F.; Sabater Redondo, C.

    2005-07-01

    The main objective is to check the performance of aerobic porous fixed packed towers technology heavy COD duty in canned food industrial wastewater among the Murcia Region (South East Spain). The porous media used was an expanded clay manufactured by Optiroc-Filtralite with grain sizes form 2-5 mm and 3-7 mm. Waste water used for experiments was a COD content of 4.300 mg/l. A pilot plants was built to treat wastewater flows from 101/h to 80 l/h. The volumetric loads checked were from 7 to 140 COD kg/m''3/day. Different tower configurations were tested. Process was designed with different steps (up to 8 different). The results obtained in the phase with better yields shows to a mean performance of 83.05% for COD elimination. The obtained results indicated clearly the feasibility of the treatment for the application of aerobic porous fixed packet with expanded clay media for these heavy duty waste water. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

    2010-08-01

    This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanja, Anshuman; Minde, Gauri; Magdum, Sandip; Kalyanraman, V.

    2014-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification). The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reduction...

  18. A sensitive inhibition chemiluminescence method for the determination of 6-mercaptopurine in tablet and biological fluid using the reaction of luminol-Ag(III) complex in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hanwen, E-mail: hanwen@hbu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Ting; Liu, Xuyang; Chen, Peiyun [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2013-02-15

    A sensitive inhibition chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is developed. The mechanism of the CL reaction between Ag(III) complex {l_brace}[Ag(HIO{sub 6}){sub 2}]{sup 5-}{r_brace} and luminol in alkaline solution was proposed, along with the inhibition mechanism of 6-MP on the CL emission. The inhibition degree of CL emission was proportional to the logarithm of 6-MP concentration. The effects of the reaction conditions on CL emission and inhibition were examined. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit (s/n=3) was 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} g ml{sup -1}. The recoveries of 6-MP were in the range of 97.7-105% with the RSD of 2.1-3.4% (n=5) for tablet samples, 103-106% with the RSDs of 1.1-2.1% for spiked serum sample, and 97.2-101% with the RSD of 2.0-4.5% for spiked urine sample. The accuracy of this method for the tablet analysis was examined by comparing with the pharmacopoeia method. The proposed method was used for the determination of 6-MP at clinically relevant concentrations in real urine and serum samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sensitive inhibition chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 6-MP is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inhibition mechanism of 6-MP on the CL emission was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detection limit was 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} g ml{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The accuracy was examined by comparing with the pharmacopoeia method.

  19. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  20. Biodenitrification of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Helfrich, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), a US Department of Energy facility at Fernald, Ohio, is constructing a fluidized-bed biodenitrification plant based on pilot work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This plant is designed to treat approximately 600 to 800 L/min of wastewater having a nitrate concentration as high as 10 g/L. The effluent is to contain less than 0.1 g/L of nitrate. Since this new facility is an extrapolation of the ORNL work to significantly larger scale equipment and to actual rather than synthetic wastewater, design verification studies have been performed to reduce uncertainties in the scaleup. The results of these studies are summarized in this report. 7 refs., 1 fig

  1. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.