WorldWideScience

Sample records for biologically induced mineralization

  1. Authigenic minerals: Biologically influenced and induced organomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupraz, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Organominerals are minerals precipitated by interactions with organic matter without enzymatic control. Organomineralization of authigenic carbonate minerals depends on two key components: (1) the "carbonate alkalinity engine" impacting the calcium carbonate saturation index and (2) the organic matrix comprised of extracellular organic matter (EOM), which provides a template for carbonate nucleation. The alkalinity engine can be "intrinsic" when microbial metabolisms increase supersaturation or lower the kinetic barrier of precipitation, or "extrinsic" when the physicochemical environment creates the conditions for mineral formation. The organic matrix produced by various communities within the microbial mats is known to influence nucleation, morphology and mineralogy of minerals through binding of cations. By playing with these two key components, three types of authigenic minerals can be formed: (1) a purely physicochemical precipitation on an abiotic substrate, (2) a precipitation "influenced" by the presence of an organic matrix but resulting from a physicochemical forcing (environmentally driven), or (3) a "microbially-induced" precipitation, in which both supersaturation and organic matrix are resulting from microbial activity. In this keynote, we will review important processes involved in the precipitation of authigenic carbonate minerals in modern microbial mats and open the discussion on the potential use of authigenic carbonate minerals as biosignatures in the fossil record.

  2. Biologically induced mineralization of dypingite by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipple Gregory M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study provides experimental evidence for biologically induced precipitation of magnesium carbonates, specifically dypingite (Mg5(CO34(OH2·5H2O, by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia. This wetland is part of a larger hydromagnesite (Mg5(CO34(OH2·4H2O playa. Abiotic and biotic processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment are compared. Results Field observations show that evaporation of wetland water produces carbonate films of nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O on the water surface and crusts on exposed surfaces. In contrast, benthic microbial mats possessing filamentous cyanobacteria (Lyngbya sp. contain platy dypingite (Mg5(CO34(OH2·5H2O and aragonite. Bulk carbonates in the benthic mats (δ13C avg. = 6.7%, δ18O avg. = 17.2% were isotopically distinguishable from abiotically formed nesquehonite (δ13C avg. = 9.3%, δ18O avg. = 24.9%. Field and laboratory experiments, which emulated natural conditions, were conducted to provide insight into the processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment. Field microcosm experiments included an abiotic control and two microbial systems, one containing ambient wetland water and one amended with nutrients to simulate eutrophic conditions. The abiotic control developed an extensive crust of nesquehonite on its bottom surface during which [Mg2+] decreased by 16.7% relative to the starting concentration. In the microbial systems, precipitation occurred within the mats and was not simply due to the capturing of mineral grains settling out of the water column. Magnesium concentrations decreased by 22.2% and 38.7% in the microbial systems, respectively. Laboratory experiments using natural waters from the Atlin site produced rosettes and flakey globular aggregates of dypingite precipitated in association with filamentous cyanobacteria dominated biofilms cultured from the site, whereas the abiotic control again precipitated

  3. Biological degradation of heavy mineral soaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glombitza, F.; Iske, U.; Bullmann, M.

    1988-11-01

    The possibility of biological degradation is exemplified by a chemically highly resistant Zircon mineral of the heavy mineral soaps of the Baltic Sea, with the aid of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acetobacter spec. strains. The total matrix of the mineral is dissolved and all trace elements contained are solubilized. The different mechanisms of the leaching reaction give different distributions of the dissolved compounds in the phases of the leaching system. Concerning the REE a selectivity based on their physical characteristics is observed. There is a preferential solution of the light REE as compared to the heavy REE. The conditions of use are discussed.

  4. Characterization of biological mineralization in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, L.F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Mineralization is an essential requirement for normal skeletal development, which is generally accomplished through the function of two cell types, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Soft tissues do not mineralize under normal conditions, but under certain pathological conditions some tissues like articu

  5. Biologically controlled minerals as potential indicators of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E.

    1991-01-01

    Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal formation. Biologically-produced mineral crystals are grown or reworked under the control of their host organism and reflect an environment different from the abiotic environment. In addition, minerals of either biologic or abiotic origin have great longevities. For these reasons, biologically produced minerals have been proposed as biomarkers. Biomarkers are key morphological, chemical, and isotopic signatures of living systems that can be used to determine if life processes have occurred. Studies of biologically controlled minerals produced by the protist, Paramecium tetraurelia, were initiated since techniques have already been developed to culture them and isolate their crystalline material, and methods are already in place to analyze this material. Two direct crystalline phases were identified. One phase, whose chemical composition is high in Mg, was identified as struvite. The second phase, whose chemical composition is high in Ca, has not been previously found occurring naturally and may be considered a newly discovered material. Analyses are underway to determine the characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of minerals formed abiotically, but with the same chemical composition.

  6. Integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor for accelerated phenol mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Lei; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2010-05-01

    An integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor (IPBR) was developed for accelerated phenol degradation and mineralization. In the IPBR, photodegradation and biodegradation occurred simultaneously, but in two separated zones: a piece of mat-glass plate coated with TiO(2) film and illuminated by UV light was connected by internal circulation to a honeycomb ceramic that was the biofilm carrier for biodegradation. This arrangement was designed to give intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation. Phenol degradation was investigated by following three protocols: photocatlysis with TiO(2) film under ultraviolet light, but no biofilm (photodegradation); biofilm biodegradation with no UV light (biodegradation); and simultaneous photodegradation and biodegradation (intimately coupled photobiodegradation). Photodegradation alone could partly degrade phenol, but was not able to achieve significant mineralization, even with an HRT of 10 h. Biodegradation alone could completely degrade phenol, but it did not mineralize the COD by more than 74%. Photobiodegradation allowed continuous rapid degradation of phenol, but it also led to more complete mineralization of phenol (up to 92%) than the other protocols. The results demonstrate that intimate coupling was achieved by protecting the biofilm from UV and free-radical inhibition. With phenol as the target compound, the main advantage of intimate coupling in the IPBR was increased mineralization, presumably because photocatalysis made soluble microbial products more rapidly biodegradable.

  7. Angiogenic effect induced by mineral fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → In this study we described the angiogenetic effect of some mineral fibres. → Wollastonite fibres induce blood vessel formation. → The size and shape of the fibres were important factors for the cell signalling. → Wollastonite induce ROS-NFκB activation and EGFR signalling. → Involvement of wollastonite exposure in the development of pathological conditions. -- Abstract: Due to the toxic effect of asbestos, other materials with similar chemical-physical characteristics have been introduced to substitute it. We evaluate the angiogenic effect of certain asbestos substitute fibres such as glass fibres (GFs), ceramic fibres (CFs) and wollastonite fibres (WFs) and then compare angiogenic responses to those induced by crocidolite asbestos fibres (AFs). An in vitro model using human endothelial cells in small islands within a culture matrix of fibroblasts (Angio-Kit) was used to evaluate vessel formation. The release of IL-6, sIL-R6, IL-8, VEGF-A and their soluble receptors, sVEGFR-1, sVEGFR-2, was determined in the conditioning medium of Angio-Kit system after fibre treatment. ROS formation and cell viability were evaluated in cultured endothelial cells (HUVEC). To evaluate the involvement of intracellular mechanisms, EGFR signalling, ROS formation and nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) pathway were then inhibited by incubating HUVEC cells with AG1478, NAC and PDTC respectively, and the cytokine and growth factor release was analyzed in the culture medium after 7 days of fibre incubation. Among the mineral fibres tested, WFs markedly induced blood vessel formation which was associated with release of IL-6 and IL-8, VEGF-A and their soluble receptors. ROS production was observed in HUVEC after WFs treatment which was associated with cell cytotoxicity. The EGFR-induced ERK phosphorylation and ROS-mediated NFκB activation were involved in the cytokine and angiogenic factor release. However, only the EGFR activation was able to induce angiogenesis. The WFs

  8. The immersion freezing behavior of mineral dust particles mixed with biological substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Wex, H.; Denjean, C.; Hartmann, S.; Schneider, J.; Schmidt, S.; Ebert, M.; Stratmann, F.

    2015-10-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INM). It has been suggested that these INM maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INM in e.g., soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INM. If particles from such soils which contain biological INM are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above -20 up to almost 0 °C. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a measurement campaign within the research unit INUIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX) with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). To characterize the mixing state of the generated aerosol we used different methods which will also be discussed. We found that internally mixed particles, containing ice active biological material, follow the ice nucleation behavior observed for the purely biological particles, i.e. freezing occurs at temperatures at which mineral dusts themselves are not yet ice active. It can be concluded that INM located on a mineral dust particle determine the freezing behavior of that particle.

  9. The immersion freezing behavior of mineral dust particles mixed with biological substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Augustin-Bauditz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INM. It has been suggested that these INM maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INM in e.g., soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INM. If particles from such soils which contain biological INM are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above −20 up to almost 0 °C. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a measurement campaign within the research unit INUIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS. To characterize the mixing state of the generated aerosol we used different methods which will also be discussed. We found that internally mixed particles, containing ice active biological material, follow the ice nucleation behavior observed for the purely biological particles, i.e. freezing occurs at temperatures at which mineral dusts themselves are not yet ice active. It can be concluded that INM located on a mineral dust particle determine the freezing behavior of that particle.

  10. Dehydration-induced luminescence in clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, L. M.; Lahav, N.; Lawless, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reports of triboluminescent phenomena in organic crystalline materials prompted a search for related processes in clay minerals. The reported extensive mechanical distortion produced on freezing and drying of montmorillonite was particularly interesting because of studies of condensation reactions in a wet/dry cycled reaction sequence. The discovery of an unusual luminescent process in several clay minerals is reported and its characteristics are described.

  11. Mineral and Protein-Bound Water and Latching Action Control Mechanical Behavior at Protein-Mineral Interfaces in Biological Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijush Ghosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The nacre structure consists of laminated interlocked mineral platelets separated by nanoscale organic layers. Here, the role of close proximity of mineral to the proteins on mechanical behavior of the protein is investigated through steered molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations indicate that energy required for unfolding protein in the proximity of mineral aragonite is several times higher than that for isolated protein in the absence of the mineral. Here, we present details of specific mechanisms which result in higher energy for protein unfolding in the proximity of mineral. At the early stage of pulling, peaks in the load-displacement (LD plot at mineral proximity are quantitatively correlated to the interaction energy between atoms involved in the latching phenomenon of amino acid side chain to aragonite surface. Water plays an important role during mineral and protein interaction and water molecules closer to the mineral surface are highly oriented and remain rigidly attached as the protein strand is pulled. Also, the high magnitude of load for a given displacement originates from attractive interactions between the protein, protein-bound water, and mineral. This study provides an insight into mineral-protein interactions that are predominant in biological nanocomposites and also provides guidelines towards design of biomimetic nanocomposites.

  12. Impact-Induced Clay Mineral Formation and Distribution on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Craig, P. I.

    2015-01-01

    Clay minerals have been identified in the central peaks and ejecta blankets of impact craters on Mars. Several studies have suggested these clay minerals formed as a result of impact induced hydrothermalism either during Mars' Noachian era or more recently by the melting of subsurface ice. Examples of post-impact clay formation is found in several locations on Earth such as the Mjolnir and Woodleigh Impact Structures. Additionally, a recent study has suggested the clay minerals observed on Ceres are the result of impact-induced hydrothermal processes. Such processes may have occurred on Mars, possibly during the Noachian. Distinguishing between clay minerals formed preor post-impact can be accomplished by studying their IR spectra. In fact, showed that the IR spectra of clay minerals is greatly affected at longer wavelengths (i.e. mid-IR, 5-25 micron) by impact-induced shock deformation while the near-IR spectra (1.0-2.5 micron) remains relatively unchanged. This explains the discrepancy between NIR and MIR observations of clay minerals in martian impact craters noted. Thus, it allows us to determine whether a clay mineral formed from impact-induced hydrothermalism or were pre-existing and were altered by the impact. Here we study the role of impacts on the formation and distribution of clay minerals on Mars via a fully 3-D Monte Carlo cratering model, including impact- melt production using results from modern hydrocode simulations. We identify regions that are conducive to clay formation and the location of clay minerals post-bombardment.

  13. [Biological effects of mineral fibers on lymphocytes in vitro. Comparative studies of asbestos and glass fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Y

    1983-09-01

    The biological effects of asbestos and glass fibers on lymphocytes in vitro were investigated. Blastoid transformation and beta 2 microglobulin production of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) induced by phytohemagglutinin were inhibited by Canadian chrysotile B (Standard sample of the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer; UICC standard sample) but it was not the case for crocidolite (UICC standard sample) and small and large glass fibers (John Manville, Canada). Cytotoxic activities of natural killer and killer cells of PBL were investigated using K562 cells and Chang liver cells as target cells respectively. Chrysotile inhibited the both activities but crocidolite and two kind of glass fibers not. In regard to release of lactic dehydrogenase and beta-glucuronidase from mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to mineral fibers, chrysotile showed more effective reaction compared to crocidolite and amosite (UICC standard sample), on the other hand large glass fiber showed the similar reaction to chrysotile but small glass fiber and milled amosite did not induce any more enzymatic release than the control. In addition to chemical compositions of mineral fibers, the morphological characteristics were also discussed in relation to their biological effects.

  14. Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas

    OpenAIRE

    Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions, What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? and What is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements—ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A-particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo ...

  15. Mineral trioxide aggregate induces osteoblastogenesis via Atf6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyonobu Maeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA has been recommended for various uses in endodontics. To understand the effects of MTA on alveolar bone, we examined whether MTA induces osteoblastic differentiation using MC3T3-E1 cells. MTA enhanced mineralization concomitant with alkaline phosphatase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MTA increased production of collagens (Type I and Type III and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-13, suggesting that MTA affects bone matrix remodeling. MTA also induced Bglap (osteocalcin but not Bmp2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2 mRNA expression. We observed induction of Atf6 (activating transcription factor 6, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response transcription factor mRNA expression and activation of Atf6 by MTA treatment. Forced expression of p50Atf6 (active form of Atf6 markedly enhanced Bglap mRNA expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to investigate the increase in p50Atf6 binding to the Bglap promoter region by MTA treatment. Furthermore, knockdown of Atf6 gene expression by introduction of Tet-on Atf6 shRNA expression vector abrogated MTA-induced mineralization. These results suggest that MTA induces in vitro osteoblastogenesis through the Atf6–osteocalcin axis as ER stress signaling. Therefore, MTA in endodontic treatment may affect alveolar bone healing in the resorbed region caused by pulpal infection.

  16. Nano-FTIR chemical mapping of minerals in biological materials

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    Sergiu Amarie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods for imaging of nanocomposites based on X-ray, electron, tunneling or force microscopy provide information about the shapes of nanoparticles; however, all of these methods fail on chemical recognition. Neither do they allow local identification of mineral type. We demonstrate that infrared near-field microscopy solves these requirements at 20 nm spatial resolution, highlighting, in its first application to natural nanostructures, the mineral particles in shell and bone. "Nano-FTIR" spectral images result from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy combined with scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM. On polished sections of Mytilus edulis shells we observe a reproducible vibrational (phonon resonance within all biocalcite microcrystals, and distinctly different spectra on bioaragonite. Surprisingly, we discover sparse, previously unknown, 20 nm thin nanoparticles with distinctly different spectra that are characteristic of crystalline phosphate. Multicomponent phosphate bands are observed on human tooth sections. These spectra vary characteristically near tubuli in dentin, proving a chemical or structural variation of the apatite nanocrystals. The infrared band strength correlates with the mineral density determined by electron microscopy. Since nano-FTIR sensitively responds to structural disorder it is well suited for the study of biomineral formation and aging. Generally, nano-FTIR is suitable for the analysis and identification of composite materials in any discipline, from testing during nanofabrication to even the clinical investigation of osteopathies.

  17. CO2-induced changes in mineral stoichiometry of wheat grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Malin; Pleijel, Håkan; Högy, Petra

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive review of experiments with elevated CO2 (eCO2) presenting data on grain mineral concentration in wheat grain was made. Data were collected both from FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) and OTC (Open-Top Chamber) experiments. Analysis was made i) by deriving response functions for the relative effect on yield and mineral concentration in relation to CO2 concentration, ii) meta-analysis to test the magnitude and significance of observed effects and iii) comparison of the CO2 effect on the accumulation of different minerals in relation to accumulation of biomass and accumulation of N. Data were obtained for the following minerals: N, Zn, Mn, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, S, Cr, Cu, Cd and Na. In addition, data for starch, the dominating carbohydrate of wheat grain, were extracted. The responses ranged from near zero effects to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration. The order of effect size was the following (from largest to smallest effect) for the different elements: Fe, Ca, S, Zn, Cd, N, Mg, Mn, P, Cu, Cr, K and Na. Particularly strong negative impacts of eCO2 were found in the essential mineral elements Fe, S, Ca, Zn and Mg. Especially Fe, Zn and Mg are nutrients for which deficiency in humans is a problem in todaýs world. The rather large differences in response of different elements indicated that the CO2-induced responses cannot be explained by a simple growth dilution model. Rather, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered in greater detail, as well as the link of different elements with the uptake of nitrogen, the quantitatively dominating mineral nutrient, to explain the observed pattern. No effect of eCO2 on starch concentration could be demonstrated. This substantiates the rejection of a simple dilution model, since one would expect starch concentrations to be elevated in order to explain reduced mineral concentrations by carbohydrate dilution. The concentrations of toxic Cd was negatively affected, in principle a

  18. The immersion freezing behavior of mixtures of mineral dust and biological substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Stefanie; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susan; Niedermeier, Dennis; Ebert, Martin; Voigtländer, Jens; Rösch, Michael; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike

    2014-05-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria or pollen are known to be efficient ice nuclei. It is also known that ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, i.e. protein complexes in the case of bacteria (e.g. Wolber et al., 1986), and most likely polysaccharides in the case of pollen (Pummer et al., 2012) are responsible for the freezing. Very recently it was suggested that these INA macromolecules maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers (Hartmann et al., 2013; Augustin et al., 2013). This opens the possibility of accumulation of such INA macromolecules in e.g. soils and the resulting particles could be an internal mixture of mineral dust and INA macromolecules. If such biological IN containing soil particles are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to e.g. wind erosion or agricultural processes they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures higher than -20°C. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a measurement campaign within the research unit INUIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INA macromolecules. Specifically, we mixed pure mineral dust (illite) with INA biological material (SNOMAX and birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). To characterize the mixing state of the produced aerosol we used single mass spectrometry as well as electron microscopy. We found that internally mixed particles which containing ice active biological material show the same ice nucleation behavior as the purely biological particles. That shows that INA macromolecules which are located on a mineral dust particle dominate the freezing process. Acknowledgement: Part of this work was done within the framework of the DFG funded Ice Nucleation research UnIT (INUIT, FOR 1525) under WE 4722/1-1. Augustin, S., Hartmann, S., Pummer, B., Grothe, H

  19. GoMiner: a resource for biological interpretation of genomic and proteomic data

    OpenAIRE

    Barry R Zeeberg; Feng, Weimin; Wang, Geoffrey; Wang, May D.; Fojo, Anthony T; Sunshine, Margot; Narasimhan, Sudarshan; Kane, David W; Reinhold, William C.; Lababidi, Samir; Bussey, Kimberly J.; Riss, Joseph; Barrett, J Carl; John N Weinstein

    2003-01-01

    We have developed GoMiner, a program package that organizes lists of 'interesting' genes (for example, under- and overexpressed genes from a microarray experiment) for biological interpretation in the context of the Gene Ontology. GoMiner provides quantitative and statistical output files and two useful visualizations. The first is a tree-like structure analogous to that in the AmiGO browser and the second is a compact, dynamically interactive 'directed acyclic graph'. Genes displayed in GoMi...

  20. Oriented hydroxyapatite in turkey tendon mineralized via the polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, S.S.; DiMasi, E.; Kasinath, R.K.; Kim, Y.Y.; Gower, L.

    2010-12-03

    Bone is a hierarchically structured composite which imparts it with unique mechanical properties and bioresorptive potential. These properties are primarily influenced by the underlying nanostructure of bone, which consists of nanocrystals of hydroxyapatite embedded and uniaxially aligned within collagen fibrils. There is also a small fraction of non-collagenous proteins in bone, and these are thought to play an important role in bone's formation. In our in vitro model system of bone formation, polyanionic peptides are used to mimic the role of the non-collagenous proteins. In our prior studies, we have shown that intrafibrillar mineralization can be achieved in synthetic reconstituted collagen sponges using a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) mineralization process. This led to a nanostructured arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals within the individual fibrils which closely mimics that of bone. This report demonstrates that biogenic collagen scaffolds obtained from turkey tendon, which consist of densely packed and oriented collagen fibrils, can also be mineralized by the PILP process. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies show that the mineralization process leads to a high degree of crystallographic orientation at the macroscale, thus emulating that found in the biological system of naturally mineralizing turkey tendon.

  1. Radiation-induced defects in clay minerals: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Th., E-mail: thierry.allard@impmc.upmc.fr [IMPMC, UMR CNRS 7590, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Denis Diderot, IRD, IPGP, Case 115, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Balan, E.; Calas, G.; Fourdrin, C.; Morichon, E.; Sorieul, S. [IMPMC, UMR CNRS 7590, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Denis Diderot, IRD, IPGP, Case 115, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2012-04-15

    Extensive information has been collected on radiation effects on clay minerals over the last 35 years, providing a wealth of information on environmental and geological processes. The fields of applications include the reconstruction of past radioelement migrations, the dating of clay minerals or the evolution of the physico-chemical properties under irradiation. The investigation of several clay minerals, namely kaolinite, dickite, montmorillonite, illite and sudoite, by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy has shown the presence of defects produced by natural or artificial radiations. These defects consist mostly of electron holes located on oxygen atoms of the structure. The various radiation-induced defects are differentiated through their nature and their thermal stability. Most of them are associated with a {pi} orbital on a Si-O bond. The most abundant defect in clay minerals is oriented perpendicular to the silicate layer. Thermal annealing indicates this defect in kaolinite (A-center) to be stable over geological periods at ambient temperature. Besides, electron or heavy ion irradiation easily leads to an amorphization in smectites, depending on the type of interlayer cation. The amorphization dose exhibits a bell-shaped variation as a function of temperature, with a decreasing part that indicates the influence of thermal dehydroxylation. Two main applications of the knowledge of radiation-induced defects in clay minerals are derived: (i) The use of defects as tracers of past radioactivity. In geological systems where the age of the clay can be constrained, ancient migrations of radioelements can be reconstructed in natural analogues of high level nuclear waste repositories. When the dose rate may be assumed constant over time, the paleodose is used to date clay populations, an approach applied to fault gouges or laterites of the Amazon basin. (ii) The influence of irradiation over physico-chemical properties of clay minerals. An environmental

  2. Silicon Nitride: A Synthetic Mineral for Vertebrate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; McEntire, Bryan J.; Bock, Ryan; Boffelli, Marco; Zhu, Wenliang; Vitale, Eleonora; Puppulin, Leonardo; Adachi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kanamura, Narisato; Bal, B. Sonny

    2016-08-01

    The remarkable stoichiometric flexibility of hydroxyapatite (HAp) enables the formation of a variety of charged structural sites at the material’s surface which facilitates bone remodeling due to binding of biomolecule moieties in zwitterionic fashion. In this paper, we report for the first time that an optimized biomedical grade silicon nitride (Si3N4) demonstrated cell adhesion and improved osteoconductivity comparable to highly defective, non-stoichiometric natural hydroxyapatite. Si3N4’s zwitterionic-like behavior is a function of the dualism between positive and negative charged off-stoichiometric sites (i.e., N-vacancies versus silanols groups, respectively). Lattice defects at the biomaterial’s surface greatly promote interaction with positively- and negatively-charged functional groups in biomolecules, and result in the biologically effective characteristics of silicon nitride. These findings are anticipated to be a starting point for further discoveries of therapeutic bone-graft substitute materials.

  3. Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes Induce Calcium Mineral Formation and Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium crystals are present in the synovial fluid of 65%–100% patients with osteoarthritis (OA and 20%–39% patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. This study sought to investigate the role of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs in calcium mineral formation. We found that numerous genes classified in the biomineral formation process, including bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla protein/osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, ankylosis progressive homolog, and parathyroid hormone-like hormone, were differentially expressed in the OA and RA FLSs. Calcium deposits were detected in FLSs cultured in regular medium in the presence of ATP and FLSs cultured in chondrogenesis medium in the absence of ATP. More calcium minerals were deposited in the cultures of OA FLSs than in the cultures of RA FLSs. Examination of the micromass stained with nonaqueous alcoholic eosin indicated the presence of birefringent crystals. Phosphocitrate inhibited the OA FLSs-mediated calcium mineral deposition. These findings together suggest that OA FLSs are not passive bystanders but are active players in the pathological calcification process occurring in OA and that potential calcification stimuli for OA FLSs-mediated calcium deposition include ATP and certain unidentified differentiation-inducing factor(s. The OA FLSs-mediated pathological calcification process is a valid target for the development of disease-modifying drug for OA therapy.

  4. KeyPathwayMiner: Detecting Case-Specific Biological Pathways Using Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz, Nicolas; Kücük, Hande; Weile, Jochen; Wipat, Anil; Baumbach, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in systems biology have provided us with massive amounts of pathway data that describe the interplay of genes and their products. The resulting biological networks can be modeled as graphs. By means of "omics" technologies, such as microarrays, the activity of genes and proteins can be measured. Here, data from microarray experiments is integrated with the network data to gain deeper insights into gene expression. We introduce KeyPathwayMiner, a method that enab...

  5. Inducing mineral precipitation in groundwater by addition of phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace elements from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. The success of engineered precipitation schemes depends on the particular phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for phosphate mineral precipitation rely on stimulation of native microbial populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 mL-1 added to the precipitation medium. In addition, we tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM. Results The general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the study conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium phosphate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxylapatite (HAP within one week. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of the experiments the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as Rietveld structure refinement using x-ray diffraction data indicated that the presence of organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in an increasing a and decreasing c lattice parameter, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the solids was decreased in the treatments with cells and organic acids, compared to the control. Conclusions Our results suggest that the minerals formed initially during an engineered precipitation application for trace element sequestration may not be the ones that control long-term immobilization of the contaminants. In

  6. Cold-induced thermoregulation and biological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez-Duquet, M; McDonald, R B

    1998-04-01

    Aging is associated with diminished cold-induced thermoregulation (CIT). The mechanisms accounting for this phenomenon have yet to be clearly elucidated but most likely reflect a combination of increased heat loss and decreased metabolic heat production. The inability of the aged subject to reduce heat loss during cold exposure is associated with diminished reactive tone of the cutaneous vasculature and, to a lesser degree, alterations in the insulative properties of body fat. Cold-induced metabolic heat production via skeletal muscle shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue nonshivering thermogenesis appears to decline with age. Few investigations have directly linked diminished skeletal muscle shivering thermogenesis with the age-related reduction in cold-induced thermoregulatory capacity. Rather, age-related declines in skeletal muscle mass and metabolic activity are cited as evidence for decreased heat production via shivering. Reduced mass, GDP binding to brown fat mitochondria, and uncoupling protein (UCP) levels are cited as evidence for attenuated brown adipose tissue cold-induced nonshivering thermogenic capacity during aging. The age-related reduction in brown fat nonshivering thermogenic capacity most likely reflects altered cellular signal transduction rather than changes in neural and hormonal signaling. The discussion in this review focuses on how alterations in CIT during the life span may offer insight into possible mechanisms of biological aging. Although the preponderance of evidence presented here demonstrates that CIT declines with chronological time, the mechanism reflecting this attenuated function remains to be elucidated. The inability to draw definitive conclusions regarding biological aging and CIT reflects the lack of a clear definition of aging. It is unlikely that the mechanisms accounting for the decline in cold-induced thermoregulation during aging will be determined until biological aging is more precisely defined.

  7. Contact nucleation of ice induced by biological aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Alexei; Hoffmann, Nadine; Schaefer, Manfred; Duft, Denis; Leisner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The contact freezing of supercooled water droplets is one of the potentially important and the least understood heterogeneous mechanism of ice formation in tropospheric clouds. On the time scales of cloud lifetime the freezing of supercooled water droplets via contact mechanism may occur at higher temperature compared to the same IN immersed in the droplet. Recently we have developed an experimental method allowing for quantification of the freezing probability on a single droplet-particle collision event [1]. In the previous experimental studies with mineral dust (kaolinite, illite, feldspar, and hematite) we have been able to show that the rate of freezing at a given temperature is governed by the rate of droplet - particle collisions, and by the properties of the contact ice nuclei: its size, morphology and composition [1, 2]. In this contribution, we focus on the contact freezing efficiency of biological ice nuclei. We demonstrate that the contact freezing efficiency of Snomax (freeze-dried fragments of Pseudomonas syringae bacteria) follows very similar pattern observed in immersion freezing experiments, indicating that the INA-protein identified as the ice nucleation agent in the immersion freezing mode is also responsible for initiation of contact freezing. The same similarity is observed for contact freezing induced by semi-dry residual particles of birch pollen washing water, providing an evidence for the importance of organic macromolecules of biological origin for nucleation of atmospheric ice. Finally, our experiments show that mixing the birch pollen washing water with mineral dust (illite) significantly increases the IN efficiency of mineral dust and extends the temperature range of its IN activity. These findings suggest a possible route of multiplication of the effect of biological IN beyond observed atmospheric concentrations of pollen grains. [1] - Hoffmann, N., Kiselev, A., Rzesanke, D., Duft, D., and Leisner, T.: Experimental quantification of

  8. Mineralization of 2-chlorophenol by sequential electrochemical reductive dechlorination and biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-González, Miguel Ángel; González, Ignacio; Texier, Anne-Claire

    2016-08-15

    In this work, a novel approach was applied to obtain the mineralization of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an electrochemical-biological combined system where an electrocatalytic dehydrogenation process (reductive dechlorination) was coupled to a biological denitrification process. Reductive dechlorination of 2-CP was conducted in an ECCOCEL-type reactor on a Pd-Ni/Ti electrode at a potential of -0.40V vs Ag/AgCl(s)/KCl(sat), achieving 100 percent transformation of 2-CP into phenol. The electrochemically pretreated effluent was fed to a rotating cylinder denitrifying bioreactor where the totality of phenol was mineralized by denitrification, obtaining CO2 and N2 as the end products. The total time required for 2-CP mineralization in the combined electrochemical-biological process was 7.5h. This value is close to those previously reported for electrochemical and advanced oxidation processes but in this case, an efficient process was obtained without accumulation of by-products or generation of excessive energy costs due to the selective electrochemical pretreatment. This study showed that the use of electrochemical reductive pretreatment combined with biological processes could be a promising technology for the removal of recalcitrant molecules, such as chlorophenols, from wastewaters by more efficient, rapid, and environmentally friendly processes. PMID:27131458

  9. Mineralization of 2-chlorophenol by sequential electrochemical reductive dechlorination and biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-González, Miguel Ángel; González, Ignacio; Texier, Anne-Claire

    2016-08-15

    In this work, a novel approach was applied to obtain the mineralization of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an electrochemical-biological combined system where an electrocatalytic dehydrogenation process (reductive dechlorination) was coupled to a biological denitrification process. Reductive dechlorination of 2-CP was conducted in an ECCOCEL-type reactor on a Pd-Ni/Ti electrode at a potential of -0.40V vs Ag/AgCl(s)/KCl(sat), achieving 100 percent transformation of 2-CP into phenol. The electrochemically pretreated effluent was fed to a rotating cylinder denitrifying bioreactor where the totality of phenol was mineralized by denitrification, obtaining CO2 and N2 as the end products. The total time required for 2-CP mineralization in the combined electrochemical-biological process was 7.5h. This value is close to those previously reported for electrochemical and advanced oxidation processes but in this case, an efficient process was obtained without accumulation of by-products or generation of excessive energy costs due to the selective electrochemical pretreatment. This study showed that the use of electrochemical reductive pretreatment combined with biological processes could be a promising technology for the removal of recalcitrant molecules, such as chlorophenols, from wastewaters by more efficient, rapid, and environmentally friendly processes.

  10. The influence of biological soil crusts on mineral uptake by associated vascular plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.T.; Belnap, Jayne

    2001-01-01

    Soil surfaces dominated by cyanobacteria and cyanolichens (such as Collema sp.) are widespread in deserts of the world. The influence of these biological soil crusts on the uptake of bioessential elements is reported for the first time for six seed plants of the deserts of Utah. This sample almost doubles the number of species for which the influence of biological soil crusts on mineral uptake of associated vascular plants is known. These new case studies, and others previously published, demonstrate that cyanobacterial or cyanobacteria- Collema crusts significantly alter uptake by plants of many bioessential elements. In studies now available, these crusts always increase the N content of associated seed plants. Uptake of Cu, K, Mg, and Zn is usually (>70% of reported cases) increased in the presence of the biological soil crusts. Soil crusts are generally negatively associated with Fe and P levels in associated seed plant tissue, while plant tissue levels of Ca, Mn, and Na are positively as often as negatively associated with the presence of soil crusts. Increases in bioessential elements in vascular plant tissue from biologically-crusted areas are greatest for short-lived herbs that are rooted primarily within the surface soil, the horizon most influenced by crustal organisms. The mineral content of a deeply rooted shrub (Coleogyne ramosissima) was less influenced by co-occurrence of biological soil crusts.

  11. Integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor for accelerated 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Sun, Xia; Chen, Lujun; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2012-02-01

    An integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor (IPBR) was used for accelerated degradation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) through simultaneous, intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation in one reactor. Intimate coupling was realized by circulating the IPBR's liquid contents between a TiO(2) film on mat glass illuminated by UV light and honeycomb ceramics as biofilm carriers. Three protocols-photocatalysis alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and integrated photocatalysis and biodegradation (photobiodegradation, P&B)-were used for degradation of different initial TCP concentrations. Intimately coupled P&B also was compared with sequential P and B. TCP removal by intimately coupled P&B was faster than that by P and B alone or sequentially coupled P and B. Because photocatalysis relieved TCP inhibition to biodegradation by decreasing its concentration, TCP biodegradation could become more important over the full batch P&B experiments. When phenol, an easy biodegradable compounds, was added to TCP in order to promote TCP mineralization by means of secondary utilization, P&B was superior to P and B in terms of mineralization of TCP, giving 95% removal of chemical oxygen demand. Cl(-) was only partially released during P experiments (24%), and this corresponded to its poor mineralization in P experiments (32%). Thus, intimately coupled P&B in the IPBR made it possible obtain the best features of each: rapid photocatalytic transformation in parallel with mineralization of photocatalytic products.

  12. Modeling of induced seismicity during mineral carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarushina, V.; Bercovici, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Rapidly developing carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are a promising way of reducing the climate impact of greenhouse gases. These technologies involve injecting large amounts of CO2-bearing fluids underground, which potentially leads to high pore pressure and the conditions for seismic activity in the proximity of the injection site. Previously, we developed a simple conceptual model to estimate the seismic risk of mineral or mafic CCS operations (Yarushina & Bercovici, GRL vol.40, doi:10.1002/grl.50196, 2013). In this model, the storage reservoir is treated as a porous rock with grains that evolve during carbonation reactions. Seismic triggering occurs when local stresses at grain-grain contacts reach the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. We showed that injection of CO2 into reactive mafic or ultramafic rocks potentially reduces seismic risk since carbonation reactions increase the contact area between the rock grains and reduce the local stresses. Here we further develop this model and consider the effect of fluid injection flux and pressure gradients along grain boundaries on induced seismicity. Grain evolution not only changes the stress support but also alters the matrix permeability, which in turn affects the driving pressure gradients and the associated deviatoric stresses. The resulting coupled porous flow, chemical reactive grain-growth and failure model is an important step in understanding the seismic risks of carbon sequestration.

  13. Radiation-induced defects in clay minerals : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Allard, T.; Balan, Etienne; Calas, G.; Fourdrin, C.; Morichon, E.; Sorieul, S.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive information has been collected on radiation effects on clay minerals over the last 35 years, providing a wealth of information on environmental and geological processes. The fields of applications include the reconstruction of past radioelement migrations, the dating of clay minerals or the evolution of the physico-chemical properties under irradiation. The investigation of several clay minerals, namely kaolinite, dickite, montmorillonite, illite and sudoite, by Electron Paramagneti...

  14. Laboratory-generated mixtures of mineral dust particles with biological substances: characterization of the particle mixing state and immersion freezing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Wex, Heike; Denjean, Cyrielle; Hartmann, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susann; Ebert, Martin; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INMs). It has been suggested that these INMs maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INMs in soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INMs. If particles from such soils which contain biological INMs are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above -20 up to almost 0 °C, while they might be characterized as mineral dust particles due to a possibly low content of biological material. We conducted a study within the research unit INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX) with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). A very important topic concerning the investigations presented here as well as for atmospheric application is the characterization of the mixing state of aerosol particles. In the present study we used different methods like single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (VH-TDMA) to investigate the mixing state of our generated aerosol. Not all applied methods performed similarly well in detecting small amounts of biological material on the mineral dust particles. Measuring the hygroscopicity/volatility of the mixed particles with the VH-TDMA was the most

  15. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  16. Characterization and in vitro biological evaluation of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide nanocomposites synthesized biomimetically on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong [Bio-X Center, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhang, Sheng-Min [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lee, In-Seop, E-mail: inseop@yonsei.ac.kr [Bio-X Center, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Institute of Natural Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mineral/OGP nanocomposite layers were synthesized biomimetically on Ti substrates. • Incorporated OGP affected the morphology and ultimate structure of mineral. • Incorporated OGP improved the MSCs adhesion, proliferation, and ALP activity. - Abstract: Nanocomposite layers of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were synthesized on calcium phosphate coated titanium substrates by immersing in calcium-phosphate buffer solution containing OGP. Peptide incorporated mineral was characterized by determining quantity loaded, effects on mineral morphology and structure. Also, the biological activity was investigated by cell adhesion, proliferation assay, and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay revealed that OGP was successfully incorporated with mineral and the amount was increased with immersion time. Incorporated OGP changed the mineral morphology from sharp plate-like shape to more rounded one, and the octacalcium phosphate structure of the mineral was gradually transformed into apatite. With confocal microscopy to examine the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptide, OGP was evenly distributed throughout mineral layers. Mineral/OGP nanocomposites promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, and also increased ALP activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results presented here indicated that the mineral/OGP nanocomposites formed on titanium substrates had the potential for applications in dental implants.

  17. Potential of the PIGE method in the analysis of biological and mineral materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible application of the PIGE method for the analysis of the biological and mineral samples has been tested using a 3.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The limits of detection of 4 mg/kg for fluorine, 10 mg/kg for aluminium and 200 mg/kg for phosphorus were achieved with a 3.15 MeV proton beam (8 mm in diameter, 20 nA current and 1000 s irradiation time). The PIGE method was found to be a suitable method for the determination of fluorine in the samples analyzed. With this technique, total fluorine in the sample can be quantitated without any chemical treatment. In the analysis of the phosphorus in thick biological samples, PIGE can compete with PIXE and is probably less sensitive to matrix effects and spectra fitting, which may bring about a higher accuracy of the results

  18. Use of biologically reclaimed minerals for continuous hydroponic potato production in a CELSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C L; Wheeler, R M; Stutte, G W; Yorio, N C; Sager, J C

    1997-01-01

    Plant-derived nutrients were successfully recycled in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) using biological methods. The majority of the essential nutrients were recovered by microbiologically treating the plant biomass in an aerobic bioreactor. Liquid effluent containing the nutrients was then returned to the biomass production component via a recirculating hydroponic system. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were grown on those nutrients in either a batch production mode (same age plants on a nutrient solution) or a staggered production mode (4 different ages of plants on a nutrient solution). The study continued over a period of 418 days, within NASA Breadboard Project's Biomass Production Chamber at the Kennedy Space Center. During this period, four consecutive batch cycles (104-day harvests) and 13 consecutive staggered cycles (26-day harvests) were completed using reclaimed minerals and compared to plants grown with standard nutrient solutions. All nutrient solutions were continually recirculated during the entire 418 day study. In general, tuber yields with reclaimed minerals were within 10% of control solutions. Contaminants, such as sodium and recalcitrant organics tended to increase over time in solutions containing reclaimed minerals, however tuber composition was comparable to tubers grown in the control solutions. PMID:11542555

  19. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study.

  20. Mineral changes in cement-sandstone matrices induced by biocementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verba, C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Thurber, A. R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences; Alleau, Y. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences; Koley, D. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Science; Colwell, F. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences; Torres, M. E. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences

    2016-04-01

    Prevention of wellbore CO2 leakage is a critical component of any successful carbon capture, utilization, and storage program. Sporosarcina pasteurii is a bacterium that has demonstrated the potential ability to seal a compromised wellbore through the enzymatic precipitation of CaCO3. In this paper, we investigate the growth of S. pasteurii in a synthetic brine that mimics the Illinois Basin and on Mt. Simon sandstone encased in Class H Portland cement under high pressure and supercritical CO2 (PCO2) conditions. The bacterium grew optimum at 30 °C compared to 40 °C under ambient and high pressure (10 MPa) conditions; and growth was comparable in experiments at high PCO2. Sporosarcina pasteurii actively induced the biomineralization of CaCO3 polymorphs and MgCa(CO3)2 in both ambient and high pressure conditions as observed in electron microscopy. In contrast, abiotic (non-biological) samples exposed to CO2 resulted in the formation of surficial vaterite and calcite. Finally, the ability of S. pasteurii to grow under subsurface conditions may be a promising mechanism to enhance wellbore integrity.

  1. Rearing Technique, Biology and Sterilization of the Coffee Leaf Miner, Leucoptera Coffeella Guer. (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For two years the authors studied the feasibility of controlling the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella Guer. by the radiation sterilization technique. During this period a technique for raising large numbers of tills insect on potted coffee plants in the laboratory was devised. The optimal range for the development of egg, larval and pupal stages of the coffee leaf miner was between 20 and 30° C. The pupal stage of female insects was slightly shorter than that of the male. The laying of fertile eggs began during the first night following emergence. During an oviposition period of 16 days the average fecundity was 68 eggs. The maximum oviposition by a single female was 131 eggs over the life span while as many as 34 eggs were laid during a single day of oviposition. To investigate the best stage to induce radiation sterilization, pupal and adult insects were irradiated with 60CO gamma rays. Seven-day pupae (close to emergence) showed 88% lethality in males when given 60 krad; the survivors retained some fertility. Adult females receiving 70 krad were 100% sterile while males given 90 krad showed 0.02% fertility. Doses as high as 90 krad given to newly emerged adults did not reduce longevity. Studies are continuing to determine if sterilizing doses impair sexual vigour and mating competitiveness of the treated males. (author)

  2. Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. Part 1. Kinetics of biological organic matter mineralization and chemical sulfur oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Gool, M.P.M. van; Dorleijn, A.S.; Joziasse, J.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    After dredged sediments have settled in a temporary upland disposal site, ripening starts, which turns waterlogged sediment into aerated soil. Aerobic biological mineralization of organic matter (OM) and chemical oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds are the major biochemical ripening processes. Qua

  3. Surface restoration induced by lubricant additive of natural minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Gu, Jialin; Kang, Feiyu; Kong, Xianqing; Mo, Wei

    2007-07-01

    The effect of a new-fashioned lubricant additive is studied. The additive is prepared out of natural minerals containing flaky silicate, schungite and some other catalyzers. Applications of the additive obviously improve the surface mechanics properties of steel-steel friction pairs, and the nanohardness and the modulus of the friction surface are increased by 67 and 90%, respectively. The friction surface is especially examined with the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and an amorphous restoration film mostly made up of C with some Si or Si-O amorphous structure doped was found. Considering all research results about the restoration film, this study suggests the film is a sort of diamond-like carbon film (DLC film).

  4. Regulatory inhibition of biological tissue mineralization through post-nucleation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joshua; Miura, Robert

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are present at high concentrations throughout body fluids - at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. We adapted mean-field classical nucleation theory to the case of surface-shielding in order to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues. Mathematical Biosciences Institute, NSF DMS-1021818, National Institutes of Health, Rehab Medicine.

  5. The Composition and Biologic Actions of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toptancı İR et al.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA is widely used in clinical application such as pulp capping, perforation repair, root-end sealing, canal filling at internal and external root resorption and pulpotomies in primary and permanent teeth. In endodontic field when using a material such as MTA the interaction between material and periapical tissue is so important for healing and life time of endodontic therapy. Although it is sealing ability, the interaction with cells or tissues and their replay to this material play major role for endodontic success. Methods: Literature review was performed using electronic and hand-searching methods for the clinical applications, experimental studies and cellular studies of MTA between 2000 and 2010. Results: MTA is a bioactive material when using vital pulpotomies, apical barrier formation for necrotic pulps and open apices. Numerous study and case reports show MTA is more effective material than other materials in these cases. Many studies have shown the effects of MTA on cementoblasts and odontoblasts. Conclusion: This review shows its composition, biologic action when used different endodontic procedure and interaction between cell and tissues.

  6. The biological factors influence on the conversion of mineral components of Extremely Arid Desert Soils (Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutovaya, Olga; Vasilenko, Elena; Lebedeva, Marina; Tkhakakhova, Azida

    2013-04-01

    Extremely arid soils of stony deserts (hamadas) along the southern periphery of the Ili Depression are considered to be analogous to extremely arid soils of Mongolia, also named as "ultra-arid primitive gray-brown soils." In general, the morphology of extremely arid soils of hamadas in the Ili Depression is similar to that of the soils of stony deserts in other parts of the world, including the Gobi, Atacama, and Tarim deserts. The diagnostics of the active communities of microorganisms were performed according to the method of Rybalkina-Kononenko. The exact identification of the living forms of microorganisms to the species level is not always possible with the use of this method. However, it allows us to study the physiological role of the microorganisms and their ecological functions, including the relationships with the soil matrix and other organisms. In particular, it is possible to estimate the contribution of the microorganisms to the transformation of mineral soil components. The obtained materials allow us to conclude that the extremely arid desert soils are characterized by the very high biological activity during short periods of the increased soil moistening after rare and strong rains. The diversity of living forms is very considerable; both prokaryotes (cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, and iron bacteria) and protists (green algae, diatoms, and dinoflagellates) are developed in the soil. Thus, during a short period after the rains, these microorganisms pass from the stage of anabiosis to the stage of active growth and reproduction. Then, upon drying of the soil, the biotic activity of the soil slows down and, finally, terminates. The organisms remain in the state of anabiosis until the next rain. During the period of active growth, the microorganisms compose a specific consortium of different species and exert a profound impact on the soil properties. They participate in the transformation of the soil minerals with the formation of amorphous substances

  7. HMGB1 Induces Secretion of Matrix Vesicles by Macrophages to Enhance Ectopic Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Bei, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chuan; Feng, Shi-Bin; Zhao, Wei-Bo; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Du, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Hou-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical conditions have been linked to ectopic mineralization (EM). This process of pathological biomineralization is complex and not fully elucidated, but thought to be started within matrix vesicles (MVs). We hypothesized that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a cytokine associated with biomineralizing process under physiological and pathological conditions, induces EM via promoting MVs secretion from macrophages. In this study, we found that HMGB1 significantly promoted secretion of MVs from macrophages and subsequently led to mineral deposition in elevated Ca/Pi medium in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy of calcifying MVs showed formation of hydroxyapatite crystals in the vesicle interior. Subcutaneous injection into mice with MVs derived from HMGB1-treated cells showed a greater potential to initiate regional mineralization. Mechanistic experiments revealed that HMGB1 activated neutral sphingomyelinase2 (nSMase2) that involved the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and p38 MAPK (upstream of nSMase2). Inhibition of nSMase2 with GW4869 or p38 MAPK with SB-239063 prevented MVs secretion and mineral deposition. Collectively, HMGB1 induces MVs secretion from macrophages at least in part, via the RAGE/p38 MAPK/nSMase2 signaling pathway. Our findings thus reveal a novel mechanism by which HMGB1 induces ectopic mineralization. PMID:27243975

  8. Studies of matrix vesicle-induced mineralization in a gelatin gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, A. L.; Boyan, B. D.; Doty, S. B.; Feliciano, A.; Greer, K.; Weiland, D.; Swain, L. D.; Schwartz, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Matrix vesicles isolated from fourth-passage cultures of chondrocytes were tested for their ability to induce hydroxyapatite formation in a gelatin gel in order to gain insight into the function of matrix vesicles in in situ mineralization. These matrix vesicles did not appear to be hydroxyapatite nucleators per se since the extent of mineral accumulation in the gel diffusion system was not altered by the presence of matrix vesicles alone, and in the vesicle containing gels, mineral crystals were formed whether associated with vesicles or not. In gels with these matrix vesicles and beta-glycerophosphate, despite the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, there was no increase in mineral deposition. This suggested that in the gel system these culture-derived vesicles did not increase local phosphate concentrations. However, when known inhibitors of mineral crystal formation and growth (proteoglycan aggregates [4 mg/ml], or ATP [1 mM], or both proteoglycan and ATP) were included in the gel, more mineral was deposited in gels with the vesicles than in comparable gels without vesicles, indicating that enzymes within these vesicles were functioning to remove the inhibition. These data support the suggestion that one function of the extracellular matrix vesicles is to transport enzymes for matrix modification.

  9. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates activin A production to fine-tune osteoblast-induced mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeckel, V J; van der Eerden, B C J; Schreuders-Koedam, M; Eijken, M; Van Leeuwen, J P T M

    2013-11-01

    In healthy bones, mineralization has to be tightly controlled to avoid pathological phenotypes. In this study, we investigated interactions between 1α,25(OH)2 D3 (1,25D3) and activin A in the regulation of osteoblast induced mineralization. In human osteoblast cultures, we demonstrated that besides stimulation of mineralization, 1,25D3 also induced activin A, a strong inhibitor of mineralization. Simultaneously, follistatin (FST), the natural antagonist of activin A, was down-regulated by1,25D3. This resulted in an increase in activin A activity during 1,25D3 treatment. We also showed that in 1,25D3-treated osteoblasts, mineralization can be further increased when activin A activity was abrogated by adding exogenous FST. This observation implies that, besides stimulation of mineralization, 1,25D3 also controls activin A-mediated inhibition of mineralization. Besides activin A, 1,25D3 also induces osteocalcin (BGLAP), another inhibitor of mineralization. Warfarin, which has been shown to inactivate osteocalcin, increased 1,25D3-induced mineralization. Interaction between these two systems became evident from the synergistic increase in BGLAP expression upon blocking activin activity in 1,25D3-treated cultures. In conclusion, we demonstrate that 1,25D3 stimulation of mineralization by human osteoblasts is suppressed by concomitant induction of inhibitors of mineralization. Mineralization induction by 1,25D3 may actually be controlled via interplay with activin A and osteocalcin. Finally, this complex regulation of mineralization substantiates the significance of tight control of mineralization to prevent excessive mineralization and consequently reduction in bone quality and strength.

  10. Catalytic effect of transition metals on microwave-induced degradation of atrazine in mineral micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Erdan; Cheng, Hefa

    2014-06-15

    With their high catalytic activity for redox reactions, transition metal ions (Cu(2+) and Fe(3+)) were exchanged into the micropores of dealuminated Y zeolites to prepare effective microporous mineral sorbents for sorption and microwave-induced degradation of atrazine. Due to its ability to complex with atrazine, loading of copper greatly increased the sorption of atrazine. Atrazine sorption on iron-exchanged zeolites was also significantly enhanced, which was attributed to the hydrolysis of Fe(3+) polycations in mineral micropores and electrostatic interactions of protonated atrazine molecules with the negatively charged pore wall surface. Copper and iron species in the micropores also significantly accelerated degradation of the sorbed atrazine (and its degradation intermediates) under microwave irradiation. The catalytic effect was attributed to the easy reducibility and high oxidation activity of Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) species stabilized in the micropores of the zeolites. It was postulated that the surface species of transition metals (monomeric Cu(2+), Cu(2+)-O-Cu(2+) complexes, FeO(+), and dinuclear Fe-O-Fe-like species) in the mineral micropores were thermally activated under microwave irradiation, and subsequently formed highly reactive sites catalyzing oxidative degradation of atrazine. The transition metal-exchanged zeolites, particularly the iron-exchanged ones, were relatively stable when leached under acidic conditions, which suggests that they are reusable in sorption and microwave-induced degradation. These findings offer valuable insights on designing of effective mineral sorbents that can selectively uptake atrazine from aqueous solutions and catalyze its degradation under microwave irradiation.

  11. Assessing the Soil Physiological Potential Using Pedo-Biological Diagnosis Under Minimum-Tillage System and Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Bireescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of sustainable agriculture is the protection of environment and natural vegetal and soil resources. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources. Our research was conducted on haplic chernozem from Experimental Station of UASVM of Iasi, Romania, during the seasonal dynamic, to the soybean crop, on unfertilized and fertilized agrofond, using moderate mineral doses (N80P80 as average of 2009–2010 period, under minimum tillage (2x disk, paraplow, chisel compared to conventional (plugging at 20 cm and 30 cm. In the case of soil works with chisel and paraplow without return of furrow, the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis highlights an increase of soil physiological potential, in the both variants (unfertilized and fertilized, unlike the method of alternating the depth of plugging that proved to be ineffective.

  12. Modeling drug- and chemical- induced hepatotoxicity with systems biology approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudin eBhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of computational systems biology approaches as applied to the study of chemical- and drug-induced toxicity. The concept of ‘toxicity pathways’ is described in the context of the 2007 US National Academies of Science report, Toxicity testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy. Pathway mapping and modeling based on network biology concepts are a key component of the vision laid out in this report for a more biologically-based analysis of dose-response behavior and the safety of chemicals and drugs. We focus on toxicity of the liver (hepatotoxicity – a complex phenotypic response with contributions from a number of different cell types and biological processes. We describe three case studies of complementary multi-scale computational modeling approaches to understand perturbation of toxicity pathways in the human liver as a result of exposure to environmental contaminants and specific drugs. One approach involves development of a spatial, multicellular virtual tissue model of the liver lobule that combines molecular circuits in individual hepatocytes with cell-cell interactions and blood-mediated transport of toxicants through hepatic sinusoids, to enable quantitative, mechanistic prediction of hepatic dose-response for activation of the AhR toxicity pathway. Simultaneously, methods are being developing to extract quantitative maps of intracellular signaling and transcriptional regulatory networks perturbed by environmental contaminants, using a combination of gene expression and genome-wide protein-DNA interaction data. A predictive physiological model (DILIsymTM to understand drug-induced liver injury (DILI, the most common adverse event leading to termination of clinical development programs and regulatory actions on drugs, is also described. The model initially focuses on reactive metabolite-induced DILI in response to administration of acetaminophen, and spans multiple biological scales.

  13. Coupling Physics, Biology and Terrestrial Runoff to Ocean Acidification and Carbonate Mineral Suppression in the Pacific-Arctic Region (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, J. T.; Cross, J. N.; Shake, K. L.

    2010-12-01

    Rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere and ocean have lead to an anthropogenically induced acidification phenomenon in high latitude seas. These areas are projected to become persistently undersaturated with respect to important carbonate minerals as early as mid-century and seasonal aragonite undersaturations have already been observed in surface and shallow subsurface waters over of the continental shelf seas surrounding Alaska. Some calcifying marine organisms, including pteropods, foraminifers, mollusks, and coralline algae that could be susceptible to reduced calcification rates under increasing ocean acidity are keystone species in the Pacific-Arctic region. Recent observations along the only long term time-series in the northern Gulf of Alaska found that the high seasonal and spatial variability of the carbonate parameters are largely controlled by physical circulation and glacial discharge. In general, surface DIC and TA concentrations decreased between May and September due to primary production and dilution from the region’s numerous glacial sources. Conversely, concentrations of DIC and TA increased in the bottom waters of the inner shelf between May and September likely due to a combination of remineralization of exported organic matter and seasonally induced upwelling. Analysis of the calcite and aragonite saturation states (Ω) showed an increase in the surface layer from May to September. However, in the bottom waters over the inner shelf the Ω of calcite and aragonite was suppressed and aragonite undersaturations were observed within 50 m of the surface. In the Bering Sea, prior to sea ice retreat in 2008, calcite and aragonite Ω ranged from 1.3 to 3.2 and 0.8 to 2.0 respectively in the upper 30 m over the shelf. Two inshore stations likely impacted by the outflows of the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers showed aragonite undersaturation (0.91 - 0.84) from the surface to the bottom. In summer, DIC concentrations in the upper 30 m were drawn down by

  14. Improving mining technology and organization of labor in the light of medical-biological aspects of physical health of miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, P.V.; Nirenburg, K.G.; Davydova, N.N.; Dyatlova, L.A. (Kuzbasskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1991-12-01

    Transfer to a contract-bonus system in mines of the Severokuzbassugol' and Leninskugol' associations (USSR) increased coal mining productivity by 42.2-54.4%, but, at the same time, problems concerning miners' health were noted. Presents data on the productivity and labor conditions of contract teams working at coal mining and in development faces. The influence of noise and vibration induced stresses on organisms of underground workers is analyzed. Investigations showed that 3 stages of exhaustion are likely to develop and that the most vulnerable are the cardiovascular system and the respiratory tract. The 3 stages of exhaustion and ability to recover were studied on mining machine operators and drivers of heading machines. Data showed that during the 1985-89 period, 972 miners received disability certificates; the rate of disability was 2.6 miners per 1 Mt of coal; 40.5% of miners over 40 years working on labor-intensive jobs had three or more chronic diseases which could cause permanent disability. In the structure of disability, cardio-vascular system cases accounted for 25%, osseous-muscular system cases for 20% and pulmonary diseases for 13%. Stresses the need for every mine to maintain its own medical center equipped with inhalation therapy, psychological relief, acupuncture and physiotherapy facilities.

  15. KeyPathwayMiner - De-novo network enrichment by combining multiple OMICS data and biological networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Pauling, Josch K.;

    We tackle the problem of de-novo pathway extraction. Given a biological network and a set of case-control studies, KeyPathwayMiner efficiently extracts and visualizes all maximal connected sub-networks that contain mainly genes that are dysregulated, e.g., differentially expressed, in most cases...... problems and designed a set of algorithms to tackle the combinatorial explosion of the search space. During the presentation we will demonstrate how to: Import and process the data, set the parameters for the two models, compute and visualize the key pathways, judge and statistically evaluate the results...

  16. Organics and mineral fertilizers and biological control on the incidence of stalk rot and corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Blume

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of area under maize (Zea mays L. and the use of no tillage have favored the incidence of stalk rot on this crop. The study aimed to evaluate the organic fertilizers and the treatment of corn seeds with Trichoderma spp. on the production of dry matter (DM of shoot, incidence of stalk rot and corn yield. The experiment consisted in a factorial with split-plot in strips, on the randomized block design with four replicates, and the fertilization treatments (pig slurry; swine deep bedding; cattle slurry; mineral fertilizer; control treatment were applied to the plots and the seeds treatment (with and without Trichoderma spp. in the subplots. At the flowering stage, three corn plants per subplot were collected for the assessment of DM production. At physiological maturity stage, the incidence of stalk rot was assessed, and the ears of corn harvested for productivity assessment. The organic and mineral fertilizers increased the production of DM and productivity of corn. Trichoderma spp. increased the production of DM of corn, but had no reflection on productivity. The incidence of stalk rot in corn was higher in treatments with organic and mineral fertilization. Organic fertilizers increase dry matter production of shoot and corn yield, and Trichoderma spp. provides an increase in dry matter production of shoot.

  17. Pathology and biology of radiation-induced cardiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    2016-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading global cause of death. The risk for this disease is significantly increased in populations exposed to ionizing radiation, but the mechanisms are not fully elucidated yet. This review aims to gather and discuss the latest data about pathological and biological consequences in the radiation-exposed heart in a comprehensive manner. A better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying radiation-induced damage in heart tissue and cardiac vasculature will provide novel targets for therapeutic interventions. These may be valuable for individuals clinically or occupationally exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. PMID:27422929

  18. Comparative assessment of different treatment modalities in miners with vibration- and noise-induced disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velskaya, M.L.; Nekhorosheva, M.A.; Konovalova, S.I.; Kukhtina, G.V.; Gonchar, I.G.; Terentyeva, D.P.; Grishchenko, L.A.; Soboleva, N.P.; Kharitonov, S.A.; Priklonskiy, I.V.

    1985-02-01

    A group of 71 miners with vibration sickness and noise-induced pathology were managed either by standard methods, or in combination with acupuncture and/or hyperbaric oxygenation for a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of the different therapeutic approaches. Analysis of subjective factors as well as standard physiological parameters (EKG, rheoencephalography, peripheral rheography, EEG, neuropsychological tests) demonstrate that both acupuncture and hyperbaric oxygenation are effective modalities in the majority of the subjects. Nevertheless, the lack of improvement in certain criteria, or even what could be regarded as adverse sequelae, suggest that the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the management of such disorders be approached with considerable care.

  19. Flush of CO2 as a biologically based tool to predict nitrogen mineralization from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biologically based tool to improve nitrogen (N) management in cereal crops is currently lacking from soil testing programs, but very much needed to optimize N fertilizer inputs to be able apply enough N fertilizer to achieve high production and avoid excess application that is damaging to the envi...

  20. Changes in the biological diversity and concentration of total DNA under the influence of mineral fertilizers in agrochernozemic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkhakakhova, Azida; Kutovaya, Olga; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Pavlyuchenko, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Chernozems represent the most valuable soil resource for Russian agriculture. Their sustainable use in intensive farming systems with preservation of the biological diversity and biological activity of these soils is of crucial importance for the agri-environmental security of Russia. We studied the influence of different rates of mineral fertilizers on the biological activity of chernozems on experimental fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast). Soil samples were taken at the end of April 2013 from the plow horizon on trials with different rates of fertilization: NPK-0, NPK-60, and NPK-120 (kg/ha); a long-term fallow plot was used as an absolute control. The biological activity was analyzed by routine inoculation methods and by the molecular biology techniques based on DNA isolation from the soil samples. Quantitative parameters of the isolated and purified DNA were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the DNA preparations with added intercalating dyes; GelDoc XR system and Image Lab and TotalLab Quant. software were used. Microbiological studies showed the high biological activity of the chernozems soil in all the trials. No significant differences were found between the trials for the microbiological processes of the carbon cycle. There was a weakly expressed tendency for an increase in the activity of actinomycetes from the soil with zero fertilization (5.11 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum (NPK-120) fertilization (5.69 log10CFU/g) and the fallow soil (5.73 log10CFU/g); the number of cultivated micromycetes decreased from the soil with zero fertilization (4.76 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum fertilization (4.14 log10CFU/g) and to the fallow soil (4.1 log10CFU/g). A less equilibrium state is typical of the microorganisms participating in the nitrogen cycle. The number of cultivated aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria somewhat increased in the fertilized trials (NPK-60, NPK-120

  1. Experimental study of radiation induced electromotive force effects on mineral insulated cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhove, R.; Vermeeren, L.

    2003-11-01

    Measurements of radiation induced electromotive force (RIEMF) effects on mineral insulated cables in a pure gamma field and in a combined neutron and gamma field are presented and compared to model calculations. The effect of materials in the immediate surroundings of the cable, as predicted by the model calculations, is clearly demonstrated. In a fission reactor environment, delayed current contributions due to the neutron activation and subsequent beta emission in base materials as well as in impurities such as Mn are clearly observed and are well reproduced by model calculations. The prediction of the gamma induced current component was severely complicated by its strong sensitivity to the detailed geometry and the spectrum and the directivity of the gamma field. Although the RIEMF effect on MI cables can therefore in general not be completely eliminated, some guidelines are provided to minimize them.

  2. AffyMiner: mining differentially expressed genes and biological knowledge in GeneChip microarray data

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yuannan; Nguyen The V; Lu Guoqing; Fromm Michael

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background DNA microarrays are a powerful tool for monitoring the expression of tens of thousands of genes simultaneously. With the advance of microarray technology, the challenge issue becomes how to analyze a large amount of microarray data and make biological sense of them. Affymetrix GeneChips are widely used microarrays, where a variety of statistical algorithms have been explored and used for detecting significant genes in the experiment. These methods rely solely on the quanti...

  3. Regulatory inhibition of biological tissue mineralization by calcium phosphate through post-nucleation shielding by fetuin-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joshua C.; Miura, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are usually present at high concentrations throughout bodily fluids—at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. In this manuscript, we extend mean-field continuum classical nucleation theory of the growth of clusters to encompass surface shielding. We use this formulation to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues through the mechanism of post-nuclear shielding of nascent mineral particles by binding proteins. We develop a mathematical description of this phenomenon using a countable system of hyperbolic partial differential equations. A critical concentration of regulatory protein is identified as a function of the physical parameters that describe the system.

  4. Regulatory inhibition of biological tissue mineralization by calcium phosphate through post-nucleation shielding by fetuin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joshua C; Miura, Robert M

    2016-04-21

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are usually present at high concentrations throughout bodily fluids-at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. In this manuscript, we extend mean-field continuum classical nucleationtheory of the growth of clusters to encompass surface shielding. We use this formulation to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues through the mechanism of post-nuclear shielding of nascent mineral particles by binding proteins. We develop a mathematical description of this phenomenon using a countable system of hyperbolic partial differential equations. A critical concentration of regulatory protein is identified as a function of the physical parameters that describe the system. PMID:27389239

  5. Interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems: A study of bio-mineralized nanoparticles and nanoparticle antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Jennifer Chappell

    Nature is continually able to out-perform laboratory syntheses of nanomaterials with control of specific properties under ambient temperatures, pressures and pH. The investigation of existing biomolecule-mediated nanoparticle synthesis provides insight and knowledge necessary for duplicating these processes. In this way, peptides or proteins with nanomaterial mediation capabilities can be: 1) explored to further understand the ways in which biomolecules create specific nanoparticles then 2) used to create genetically encodable tags for use in electron tomography. The goal of designing such a tag was to assist in closing the resolution gap that exists in current imaging techniques between approximately 5 nm and 100 nm. Presented in this thesis are examples of peptides and proteins that form iron oxide, silver or gold nanoparticles under discrete circumstances. Three iron oxide-related bacterial proteins -- bacterioferritin, Dps and Mms6 -- were investigated for potential use. Similarly, a silver mineralizing peptide, Ge8, was studied upon attachment to the filamentous protein, FtsZ, and a gold mineralizing peptide, A3, was examined to characterize the way in which it mediates the formation of both Au0 nanoclusters and nanoparticles. Given the established interactions that occur between nanoparticles and biomolecules, it may not be surprising that gold nanoparticles displaying specific ratios of functional groups are able to interact with bacteria, in some cases inhibiting growth or causing cell death as antibiotics. A previously developed small molecule variable ligand display (SMVLD) method was expanded to identify a nanoparticle conjugate with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC99.9) of 6 muM for Mycobacterium smegmatis, a common laboratory model for M. tuberculosis and the first example of SMVLD applied to mycobacteria. Nanoparticle structure-activity relationships, modes of action and approximations of mammalian cell toxicities were also explored to expand

  6. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides and induced biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi Keizo; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Relationship between irradiation effect of polysaccharides and induced biological activity for plants has been investigated. Sodium alginate was irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). Measurement of molecular weight and analysis of UV spectra of irradiated sodium alginate have been carried out. The molecular weight was decreased by irradiation in both conditions. New absorbance peak derived from double bond or/and carbonyl group was appeared at close to 267 nm by irradiation in UV spectra. It was found that alginate having molecular weight about 10,000 is most suitable to used as growth promoter in plants. To obtain the molecular weight of 10,000 by irradiation, the necessary doses are 100 kGy in liquid state and 500 kGy in solid state, respectively. (author)

  7. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Regenerative Medicine and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Duanqing; Xu, Jianyong; Zhuang, Qiang; Tse, Hung-Fat; Esteban, Miguel A.

    The potential of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for regenerative medicine is unquestionable, but practical and ethical considerations have hampered clinical application and research. In an attempt to overcome these issues, the conversion of somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells similar to ESCs, commonly termed nuclear reprogramming, has been a top objective of contemporary biology. More than 40 years ago, King, Briggs, and Gurdon pioneered somatic cell nuclear reprogramming in frogs, and in 1981 Evans successfully isolated mouse ESCs. In 1997 Wilmut and collaborators produced the first cloned mammal using nuclear transfer, and then Thomson obtained human ESCs from in vitro fertilized blastocysts in 1998. Over the last 2 decades we have also seen remarkable findings regarding how ESC behavior is controlled, the importance of which should not be underestimated. This knowledge allowed the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka to overcome brilliantly conceptual and technical barriers in 2006 and generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse fibroblasts by overexpressing defined combinations of ESC-enriched transcription factors. Here, we discuss some important implications of human iPSCs for biology and medicine and also point to possible future directions.

  8. [New data on pumice's structure and biological effects among miners and millers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatari, G; Barbaro, M; Pira, E; Rossi, F; Massiccio, M; Romano, C

    2011-01-01

    Pleural plaques among pumice workers on Lipari Island have been described and the Authors have suggested the hypothesis that such biological effect could be related to the particles' morphology characterized by the presence of elements similar to fibers. Analysis on compact bulk materials and on dust samples from different sites of the Island have been performed to obtain information on the chemical composition of such materials. The Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses confirm the presence of fibrous particles with a chemical structure similar to the Refractory Ceramic Fibers (RCF) composition. These results could explain the presence of plural plaques among the workers and new clinical and epidemiological evaluations of the potential effects associated to this exposure are needed. PMID:23393860

  9. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles: Histomorphometry and mineral content of the rib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Hurst, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Miller, S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Radiobiology Div.; Sacco-Gibson, N. [Proctor and Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized (OV) or sham-operated (SO) dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) just prior to each postoperative biopsy to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential biopsies provided a means to follow the response to ovariectomy over time and compare each animal against its own baseline. Examination of sequential biopsies indicated that cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. Ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at one month after surgery, but substantial differences were observed at later times. Ovariectomy stimulated a transient increase in bone formation and was increased six-fold over that of SO dogs at four months. Ribs were also analyzed for mineral content at necropsy. The rib was heterogeneous along its length for calcium content and concentration. In the midrib where biopsies for histomorphometric analysis were taken, ovariectomy induced a decrease in mass and mineral content; total calcium was decreased by approximately 31%. These data demonstrate that the rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in female dogs.

  10. Detection and evaluation of uranium in different minerals by gamma spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergani, F.M.; Khedr, M.A.; Harith, M.A. [National Inst. of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo Univ. (Egypt); El Mongy, S.A. [National Center for Nuclear Safety, Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Analysis, detection and evaluation of source nuclear materials (e.g. uranium) in different minerals by sensitive techniques are a vital objective for uranium exploration, nuclear materials extraction, processing and verification. In this work, uranium in different geological formations was determined using gamma spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The investigated samples were collected from different regions distributed all over Egypt. The samples were then prepared for non-destructive analysis. A hyper pure germanium detector was used to measure the emitted gamma rays of uranium and its daughters in the samples. The concentrations of uranium in ppm ({mu}g/g) in the investigated samples are given and discussed in this work. The highest uranium concentration (4354.9 ppm) was found in uranophane samples of Gattar rocks. In Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique, plasma was formed by irradiating the rock surface with focused Q-switched Nd:Yag laser pulses of 7 ns pulse duration at the fundamental wavelength (1064 nm). Atoms and ions originating from the rock surface are excited and ionized in the laser produced hot plasma ({proportional_to}10 000 K). The plasma emission spectral line is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma and allows identification of the uranium in the uranophane mineral. The strong atomic line at 424.2 nm is used for the qualitative identification of uranium. It can be mentioned that the elevated levels of uranium in some of the investigated uranophane samples are of great economic feasibility to be extracted. (orig.)

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in situ qualitative and quantitative analysis of mineral ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for discrimination and analysis of geological materials was examined. The research was focused on classification of mineral ores using their LIBS spectra prior to quantitative determination of copper. Quantitative analysis is not a trivial task in LIBS measurement because intensities of emission lines in laser-induced plasmas (LIP) are strongly affected by the sample matrix (matrix effect). To circumvent this effect, typically matrix-matched standards are used to obtain matrix-dependent calibration curves. If the sample set consists of a mixture of different matrices, even in this approach, the corresponding matrix has to be known prior to the downstream data analysis. For this categorization, the multielemental character of LIBS spectra can be of help. In this contribution, a principal component analysis (PCA) was employed on the measured data set to discriminate individual rocks as individual matrices against each other according to their overall elemental composition. Twenty-seven igneous rock samples were analyzed in the form of fine dust, classified and subsequently quantitatively analyzed. Two different LIBS setups in two laboratories were used to prove the reproducibility of classification and quantification. A superposition of partial calibration plots constructed from the individual clustered data displayed a large improvement in precision and accuracy compared to the calibration plot constructed from all ore samples. The classification of mineral samples with complex matrices can thus be recommended prior to LIBS system calibration and quantitative analysis. - Highlights: • Twenty seven igneous rocks were measured on different LIBS systems. • Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed for classification. • The necessity of the classification of the rock (ore) samples prior to the quantification analysis is stressed. • Classification based on the whole LIP spectra and

  12. Microorganism-induced weathering of clay minerals in a hydromorphic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hanlie; Fang, Qian; Cheng, Liuling; Wang, Chaowen; Churchman, Gordon Jock

    2016-07-01

    pedogenesis process, as ferrihydrite is usually formed with the assistance of biota. Redoximorphic processes will chemically affect phyllosilicates by changing their charge, and Fe(III) in illite may serve as electron acceptor for Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms. This leads to an increase in negative charge in the illite structure which could be neutralized by electrostatic displacement of interlayer cations and adsorption of protons, thereby promoting transformation of illite to mixed-layer illite-smectite and dissolution of the pre-existing illite mineral. Our results suggest that microorganisms brought about iron leaching and dominated the alteration of clay minerals by redox processes, and different mineral volumes formed in the net-like B horizon of the hydromorphic soil were attributed to the microorganism-induced weathering process.

  13. Improving the biological control of leaf-miners (Diptera: Agromyzidae) using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is a worldwide pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. The most promising nonchemical approach for controlling Liriomiza leafminers in greenhouses is regular releases of the parasitoid Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). In the current study, we examine the hypothesis that the use of D. isaea for biological control of leafminers in greenhouse crops may be more practical and efficient when supplemented with additional control strategies, such as the sterile insect technique (SIT). In small cages, our SIT experiments suggest that releases of sterile L. trifolii males in three sterile-to-fertile male ratios (3:1, 5:1, and 10:1) can significantly reduce the number of the pest offspring. In large cage experiments, when both parasitoids and sterile males were released weekly, the combined methods significantly reduced mine production and the adult leafminer population size. Moreover, a synergistic interaction between these two methods was found, and a model based on our observed data predicts that because of this effect, only the use of both methods can eradicate the pest population. Our study indicates that an integrated pest management approach that combines the augmentative release of the parasitoid D. isaea together with sterile leafminer males is more efficient than the use of either method alone. In addition, our results validate previous theoretical models and demonstrate synergistic control with releases of parasitoids and sterile insects. (author)

  14. Biological Cycles of Mineral Elements in a Young Mixed Stand in Abandoned Mining Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Lun Tian; Wen-Hua Xiang; Wen-De Yan; Wen-Xing Kang; Xiang-Wen Deng; Zhu Fan

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation as a sustainable and inexpensive technology based on the removal of pollutants from the environment by plants is becoming an increasingly important objective in plant research. In this study, biological cycles of five nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) and eight heavy metal elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Co) were examined in young paniculed goldraintree (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm) and common elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpus decipens) mixed stands in an abandoned mining area. We found that after vegetation restoration in abandoned mining areas, the organic matter and concentrations of nutrient elements were significantly increased and the heavy metal elements were significantly decreased, the annual retention, uptake and return were 75.0, 115.4, and 40.3 kg/hm2 for nutrient elements, and 1 878.0,3 231.0 and 1 353.0 g/hm2 for heavy metal elements, respectively, with the utilization coefficient, cycling coefficient and turnover rate of 0.92, 0.35 and 0.32 for nutrient elements, and 1.24, 0.42 and 1.92 for heavy metal elements, respectively.Our results suggested that the vegetation restoration in abandoned mining areas had significant effects in improving environmental conditions, enhancing soil available nutrients, and ensuring human health.

  15. Experimental elaboration of faulting induced by fluid-releasing mineral reactions in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H.; Zhang, J.; Jung, H.; Dobrzinetskaya, L.

    2003-04-01

    Dehydration embrittlement has been cited repeatedly as a potential mechanism for triggering earthquakes at depths where unassisted brittle failure is impossible due to the normal-stress-dependence of friction. We are investigating two different aspects of this problem in the laboratory: (i) dehydration of antigorite under stress where the ΔV of reaction varies from strongly positive to distinctly negative; (ii) deformation of eclogite in which the nominally anhydrous minerals contain small amounts of dissolved H_2O that can lead to faulting induced by very small amounts of melting stimulated by exsolution of H_2O. (i) Antigorite has the largest stability field of the serpentines and is often cited as potentially being the source of most or all mantle earthquakes to a depth of over 200 km. However, like other low-pressure hydrous phases, the net volume change accompanying antigorite dehydration varies from strongly positive at low P to negative at P > ˜2-2.5 GPa. Fracture mechanics theory predicts that dehydration should not induce shear failure if ΔV<0. To test the effect of ΔV on faulting, we have deformed an extensively-serpentinized peridotite at P = 1-6 GPa. We conducted constant strain rate experiments in a Griggs-type apparatus at P = 1.0 - 3.4 GPa and rapid-pumping experiments in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus, culminating in pressures as high as 6 GPa. Independent of the sign of ΔV, specimens subjected to stress during dehydration yielded extremely thin zones of reaction products with shear offset across them. Some were clearly faults whereas others could be precursors to faulting. Fluid released at grain boundaries between antigorite and relict olivine locally produced Mode I cracks &fluid inclusions. (ii) Deformation of "wet" eclogite at 3 GPa and temperatures between the wet and dry solidi induced exsolution of H_2O and formation of very small amounts (<1%) of melt, leading to faulting. At lower temperature the rock was extremely strong but

  16. Induced polarization imaging applied to exploration for low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposits, Seongsan mineralized district, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Man-Ho; Shin, Seung Wook; Park, Samgyu; Cho, Seong-Jun; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2016-10-01

    The determination of mineralization boundaries during mineral exploration for undiscovered low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposits is a significant challenge because of the extensive survey areas required. Induced polarization (IP) imaging is an effective geophysical technique for the detection of sulfides or clay. Thus, this method is considered useful to determine the boundaries of subsurface mineralization and hydrothermal alteration associated with epithermal deposits. We used 2D and 3D IP imaging to define the silicification and mineralization boundaries of the Moisan deposit in the Seongsan mineralized district, which is geologically well-known. The boundaries of the silicification zone were defined by high resistivity values of 600 Ω-m, and those of the mineralization zone were defined by high global chargeability values of 3 mV V-1. The continuity of the high resistivity anomaly corresponded well to the silicification (quartz veins) exposed in outcrop. In addition, it is geologically reasonable that the chargeability anomaly, ⩾3 mV V-1, associated with the mineralization/hydrothermal alteration zone was concentrated at near-surface depths, and extensively surrounding the resistivity anomaly, ⩾600 Ω-m, associated with the silicification zone.

  17. Pore-scale study of dissolution-induced changes in hydrologic properties of rocks with binary minerals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li; Viswanathan, Hari S; Tao, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    A pore-scale numerical model for reactive transport processes based on the Lattice Boltzmann method is used to study the dissolution-induced changes in hydrologic properties of a fractured medium and a porous medium. The solid phase of both media consists of two minerals, and a structure reconstruction method called quartet structure generation set is employed to generate the distributions of both minerals. Emphasis is put on the effects of undissolved minerals on the changes of permeability and porosity under different Peclet and Damkohler numbers. The simulation results show porous layers formed by the undissolved mineral remain behind the dissolution reaction front. Due to the large flow resistance in these porous layers, the permeability increases very slowly or even remains at a small value although the porosity increases by a large amount. Besides, due to the heterogeneous characteristic of the dissolution, the chemical, mechanical and hydraulic apertures are very different from each other. Further, sim...

  18. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  19. The human mineral dust-induced gene, mdig, is a cell growth regulating gene associated with lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.D.; Lu, Y.J.; Yuan, B.Z.; Castranova, V.; Shi, X.L.; Stauffer, J.L.; Demers, L.M.; Chen, F. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (US). Health Effects Laboratory Division

    2005-07-21

    Environmental or occupational exposure to mineral dusts, mainly silica and asbestos, is associated with an increased incidence of lung inflammation, fibrosis, and/or cancer. To better understand the molecular events associated with these pulmonary diseases, we attempted to identify genes that are regulated by mineral dusts. Using a differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique and mRNAs of alveolar macrophages from both normal individuals and coal miners, we identified a novel mineral dust-induced gene named mdig, which had not been fully characterized. The expression of mdig mRNA was detected in alveolar macrophages from coal miners but not from normal subjects. The inducible expression of mdig could be observed in A549 cells exposed to silica particles in a time-dependent manner. The full-length mdig mRNA was expressed in human lung cancer tissues but was barely detectable in the adjacent normal tissues. In addition, a number of lung cancer cell lines constitutively express mdig. Alternative spliced transcripts of mdig were detected in some lung cancer cell lines. Silencing mdig mRNA expression in A549 lung cancer cells by siRNA-mediated RNA interference inhibits cell proliferation and sensitizes the cells to silica-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the mdig gene may be involved in the regulation of cell growth and possibly the development of cancer.

  20. TEM observation of bacteria-induced plagioclase dissolution and secondary mineral formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T.; Kyono, A.; Nishimiya, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Silicate minerals are the most common minerals in the earth's crust. Bacteria are also distributed throughout the earth's surface environment. The silicate minerals are known to be dissolved by organic acids and polysaccharides known as bacteria metabolites. The metabolic activity of bacteria therefore plays an important role in the interaction between dissolution of the silicate minerals and formation of secondary minerals. However, little is known about the secondary mineral formation process associated with the bacterial metabolism. To clarify the bacterial effect on the mineral dissolution and the secondary mineral formation, we closely investigated the effect of bacterial activity on surface texture modification and chemical composition changes of plagioclase which is the most abundant silicate mineral in the earth's crust. The bacteria were isolated from soil and then added in a suitable medium with several plagioclase fragments (Ab100% and An100%). It was incubated for 10 days. Al and Si concentrations in the medium were measured by ICP-AES to monitor the dissolution of the plagioclase. Secondary mineral formation during the incubation was observed by TEM, EDS and SAED methods. The authors will give the experiment results and discuss the effect of bacterial activity on the plagioclase dissolution and the secondary mineral formation in detail.

  1. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Jill R. Scott

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  2. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  3. Comparison of Tooth Discoloration Induced by Calcium-Enriched Mixture and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Armita; Akbari, Majid; Farhadi-faz, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the tooth discoloration induced by calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methods and Materials: Forty five endodontically treated human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into three groups (n=15) after removing the coronal 3 mm of the obturating materials. In the MTA group, white MTA plug was placed in pulp chamber and coronal zone of the root canal. In CEM cement group, CEM plug was placed in the tooth in the same manner. In both groups, a wet cotton pellet was placed in the access cavity and the teeth were temporarily sealed. After 24 h the teeth were restored with resin composite. In the negative control group the teeth were also restored with resin composite. The color change in the cervical third of teeth was measured with a colorimeter and was repeated 3 times for each specimen. The teeth were kept in artificial saliva for 6 months. After this period, the color change was measured again. Data were collected by Commission International de I'Eclairage's L*a*b color values, and corresponding ΔE values were calculated. The results were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test with the significance level defined as 0.05. Results: There was no significant differences between CEM group and control group in mean discoloration. The mean tooth discoloration in MTA group was significantly greater than CEM and control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: According to the result of the present study CEM cement did not induce tooth discoloration after six months. Therefore it can be used in vital pulp therapy of esthetically sensitive teeth. PMID:27471526

  4. Impacts of Polar Changes on the UV-induced Mineralization of Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzberger, Barbara; Arey, J Samuel

    2016-07-01

    Local climates in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere are influenced by Arctic Amplification and by interactions of the Antarctic ozone hole with climate change, respectively. Polar changes may affect hydroclimatic conditions in temperate regions, for example, by increasing the length and intensity of precipitation events at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. Additionally, global warming has led to the thawing of ancient permafrost soils, particularly in Arctic regions, due to Arctic Amplification. Both heavy precipitation events and thawing of permafrost are increasing the net transfer of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land to surface waters. In aquatic ecosystems, UV-induced oxidation of terrigenous DOM (tDOM) produces atmospheric CO2 and this process is one of several mechanisms by which natural organic matter in aquatic and soil environments may play an important role in climate feedbacks. The Arctic is particularly affected by these processes: for example, melting of Arctic sea ice allows solar UV radiation to penetrate into the ice-free Arctic Ocean and to cause photochemical reactions that result in bleaching and mineralization of tDOM. Open questions, in addition to those shown in the Graphical Abstract, remain regarding the resulting contributions of tDOM photomineralization to CO2 production and global warming. PMID:27110903

  5. 一株碳酸钙矿化菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of a Bacterial Strain Inducing Mineralization of Calcium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振远; 李广悦; 丁德馨; 王永东; 胡南

    2014-01-01

    基于微生物诱导碳酸钙沉积的岩土工程加固技术是一种环境友好的新技术。碳酸钙矿化菌是该技术应用的前提。为获得具有诱导碳酸钙沉积能力的菌株,采用选择性富集培养、平板分离方法从土壤中分离得到了一株具有尿素分解能力的菌株,细菌诱导产生的沉积物检测结果表明该菌株具有诱导碳酸钙沉积能力。通过形态学、革兰氏染色和16 S rDNA序列同源性分析鉴定该菌株为巴斯德芽孢杆菌。%Biocementation through microbial calcium carbonate precipitation is an innova-tive and environmentally friendly rock and soil reinforcement technique in geotechnical en-gineering. The bacteria inducing mineralization of calcium carbonate is a prerequisite to im-plement the biological treatment process. In order to obtain the strain with ability to induce CaCO3 precipitation,a ureolytic strain was isolated from soil using selective enrichment cul-ture and plate screening techniques. The precipites induced by this stain were examined, and the results showed it was capable of inducing calcium carbonate mineralization. The strain was identified as Sporosarcina pasteurii based on morphology,Gram stain and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  6. Quantifying Microbe-Mineral Interactions Leading to Remotely Detectable Induced Polarization Signals (Final Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moysey, Stephen [Clemson University; Dean, Delphine [Clemson University; Dimitrios, Ntarlagiannis [Rutgers University

    2013-11-13

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column-scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain-scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high-quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process-based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for

  7. Quantifying microbe-mineral interactions leading to remotely detectable induced polarization signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Moysey, Stephen; Dean, Delphine

    2013-11-14

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column-scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain-scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high-quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process-based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for

  8. Oxygen-induced transcriptional dynamics in human osteoblasts are most prominent at the onset of mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaije, Claudia; van de Peppel, Jeroen; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M

    2013-09-01

    Oxygen tension plays an important role in the regulation of cellular processes. During hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) differentiation, HSCs migrate from one stem cell niche to the next, each with a different oxygen tension that determines which signaling pathways are on and off, determining the differentiation stage of the cell. Oxygen tension influences osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Low oxygen levels inhibit matrix formation and mineralization. We were interested in the regulatory mechanisms that underlie this inhibition and wondered whether a switch in oxygen tension could have varying effects depending on the differentiation phase of the osteoblasts. We performed an oxygen tension switch phase study in which we switched osteoblasts from high to low oxygen tension during their 3 week differentiation and mineralization process. We performed microarray expression profiling on samples collected during this 3 week period and analyzed biochemical and histo-chemical endpoint parameters to determine the effect of a switch in oxygen levels on mineralization. We found that low oxygen tension has the most profound impact on mineralization when administered during the period of matrix maturation. Additionally, a large set of genes was regulated by oxygen, independent of the differentiation phase. These genes were involved in cell metabolisms and matrix formation. Our study demonstrates that variation in oxygen tension strongly affects gene expression in differentiating osteoblasts. The magnitude of this change for either expression levels or the number of regulated probes, depends on the osteoblast differentiation stage, with the phase prior to the onset of mineralization being most sensitive.

  9. Quantifying microbe-mineral interactions leading to remotely detectable induced polarization signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Moysey, Stephen; Dean, Delphine

    2013-11-14

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column-scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain-scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high-quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process-based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for

  10. Quantifying Microbe-Mineral Interactions Leading to Remotely Detectable Induced Polarization Signals (Final Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moysey, Stephen [Clemson University; Dean, Delphine [Clemson University; Dimitrios, Ntarlagiannis [Rutgers University

    2013-11-13

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column-scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain-scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high-quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process-based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for

  11. TECHNIQUES FOR MAKING BIOLOGICS AND MINERAL NITROGEN AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE YIELD OF THE MIXED CROPS IN THE CONDITIONS OF GREY FOREST SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkotova O. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of grey forest soils in the Bryansk region among the fodder crops widespread mixed legume-cereal crops. The results showed that the photosynthetic activity of cereals and leguminous crops and their yields in mixed crops depended on made of biological and mineral nitrogen fertilizers. It is established that the nitrogen in the form of ammonium nitrate has a positive impact on the formation of assimilating leaf surface, photosynthetic potential and net productivity and yield of grain mixture in lupine-barley and soybean -barley cropping and pea-barley crops the use of nitrogen in the form of potassium nitrate was more favorable. It was found that in lupine-barley crops the active symbiotic potential has increased by 25,5% and the yield increased by 21,3% , in soybean-barley crops 28,5% and 19,2% respectively, due to the joint use of a mixture of symbiotic and associative rhizobacteria and mineral nitrogen in the form of ammonium nitrate in the dose of N60. In pea-barley agrocenosis it has improved the efficiency of cultivation of joint application of mixed inoculant symbiotic and associative rhizobacteria on the background of the application of mineral nitrogen in the form of potassium nitrate in the dose of N60, where there was an increase of the active symbiotic potential by 34,7% and grain yield by 24,7% compared to the option when adding the mixture of biological products

  12. Bone-inducing Activity of Biological Piezoelectric Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To simulate the piezoelectric effect of nature bone, two kinds of biological piezoelectric composite ceramics consisted of hydroxyapatite ( HA ) and lithium sodium potassium riobate (LNK) ceramic of which the ratio of HA/ LNK was 1: 10 and 5:5( wt/ wt ) were prepared. Their piezoelectric property and growth of apatite crystal in the ceramics surface were investigated. With the increase of LNK amount, piezoelectric activity increased correspondingly. By immersing the poled piezoelectric ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 36.5 ℃ for 7,14, and 21 days, apatite crystal was formed on negatively charged surfaces. After 21 days immersion in SBF,the thickest apatite crystal on the negatively charged surfaces increased to 3.337μm. The novel biological piezoelectric ceramics show an excellent piezoelectric property and superior potential bioactivity.

  13. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors induced differentiation and accelerated mineralization of pulp-derived cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, Henry F

    2012-03-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) alter the homeostatic balance between 2 groups of cellular enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs), increasing transcription and influencing cell behavior. This study investigated the potential of 2 HDACis, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA), to promote reparative processes in pulp cells as assayed by viability, cell cycle, and mineralization analyses.

  15. Minocycline-induced clinical and biological lupus-like disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournigand, C; Généreau, T; Prudent, M; Diemert, M C; Herson, S; Chosidow, O

    1999-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl developed maculopapular rash, myalgias, arthralgias and myocarditis with elevated anti-nuclear and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies. She was taking minocycline for acne and all symptoms resolved when this treatment was stopped. The patient has no evidence of disease one year after onset of symptoms. Clinicians should be aware of minocycline's responsibility in inducing lupus-like disease.

  16. Pressure pulse induced-damage in live biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin S.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing a cellular and molecular understanding of the nature of traumatic and post-traumatic effects of blast on live biological samples is critical for improving clinical outcomes. To analyze the effects of blast waves upon the cellular structures and the underlying physiological and biochemical changes, we have constructed an experimental platform capable of delivering compression waves, of amplitudes relevant to blast, to cell suspensions in a contained environment. Initial characterization of the system shows that cell cultures can be subjected to high-intensity compression waves up to 15 MPa in pressure and duration of 80 ± 10μs. Studies of mouse mesenchymal stem cells subjected to two different pressure impulses were analysed by cell counting, cell viability assays and microscopic evaluation: the experiments present evidence suggestive of increased levels of damage and loss of cellular integrity compared to uncompressed cell cultures.

  17. Is Gastrectomy-Induced High Turnover of Bone with Hyperosteoidosis and Increase of Mineralization a Typical Osteomalacia?

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Ueyama; Yuta Yamamoto; Kazuki Ueda; Aiji Yajima; Yoshimasa Maeda; Yasunobu Yamashita; Takao Ito; Yoshihiro Tsuruo; Masao Ichinose

    2013-01-01

    Gastrectomy (GX) is thought to result in osteomalacia due to deficiencies in Vitamin D and Ca. Using a GX rat model, we showed that GX induced high turnover of bone with hyperosteoidosis, prominent increase of mineralization and increased mRNA expression of both osteoclast-derived tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and osteocalcin. The increased 1, 25(OH)2D3 level and unchanged PTH and calcitonin levels suggested that conventional bone and Ca metabolic pathways were not involved or change...

  18. Hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in mouse incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Pishan

    2016-10-01

    Dyslipidemia has become a serious health problem in children and adolescents worldwide for its high prevalence. Since hard tissues of permanent teeth form mainly during this period and lipids are actively involved in tooth development, the effects of hyperlipidemia on dental tissue formation and mineralization need to be illustrated. In this study, hyperlipidemia model was established in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Micro-CT and histomorphological analyses were performed on the mandibular bones to assess the morphological changes of the mandibular incisor and first molar. After 4 weeks of HFD feeding, mice had significantly elevated serum lipid levels compared with mice fed with control diet. After 8 weeks, the mandibular incisor presented significantly increased dentin thickness and decreased diameter of pulp cavity in HFD-fed mice compared with control diet-fed mice, while its gross morphology and enamel thickness were not altered. In the mandibular first molar, dentin thickness of root did not show difference between the two groups. Histological section showed that mandibular incisor of HFD-fed mice manifested a wider predentin region and a lower mineral apposition rate compared with that of the control mice. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia induced by HFD feeding enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in the developing mouse incisor.

  19. Acute phase serum amyloid A induces proinflammatory cytokines and mineralization via toll-like receptor 4 in mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ebert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of serum amyloid A (SAA proteins, which are ligands for toll-like receptors, was analyzed in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs and their osteogenic offspring with a focus on senescence, differentiation and mineralization. In vitro aged hMSC developed a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP, resulting in enhanced SAA1/2, TLR2/4 and proinflammatory cytokine (IL6, IL8, IL1β, CXCL1, CXCL2 expression before entering replicative senescence. Recombinant human SAA1 (rhSAA1 induced SASP-related genes and proteins in MSC, which could be abolished by cotreatment with the TLR4-inhibitor CLI-095. The same pattern of SASP-resembling genes was stimulated upon induction of osteogenic differentiation, which is accompanied by autocrine SAA1/2 expression. In this context additional rhSAA1 enhanced the SASP-like phenotype, accelerated the proinflammatory phase of osteogenic differentiation and enhanced mineralization. Autocrine/paracrine and rhSAA1 via TLR4 stimulate a proinflammatory phenotype that is both part of the early phase of osteogenic differentiation and the development of senescence. This signaling cascade is tightly involved in bone formation and mineralization, but may also propagate pathological extraosseous calcification conditions such as calcifying inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  20. Acute phase serum amyloid A induces proinflammatory cytokines and mineralization via toll-like receptor 4 in mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Regina; Benisch, Peggy; Krug, Melanie; Zeck, Sabine; Meißner-Weigl, Jutta; Steinert, Andre; Rauner, Martina; Hofbauer, Lorenz; Jakob, Franz

    2015-07-01

    The role of serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins, which are ligands for toll-like receptors, was analyzed in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and their osteogenic offspring with a focus on senescence, differentiation and mineralization. In vitro aged hMSC developed a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), resulting in enhanced SAA1/2, TLR2/4 and proinflammatory cytokine (IL6, IL8, IL1β, CXCL1, CXCL2) expression before entering replicative senescence. Recombinant human SAA1 (rhSAA1) induced SASP-related genes and proteins in MSC, which could be abolished by cotreatment with the TLR4-inhibitor CLI-095. The same pattern of SASP-resembling genes was stimulated upon induction of osteogenic differentiation, which is accompanied by autocrine SAA1/2 expression. In this context additional rhSAA1 enhanced the SASP-like phenotype, accelerated the proinflammatory phase of osteogenic differentiation and enhanced mineralization. Autocrine/paracrine and rhSAA1 via TLR4 stimulate a proinflammatory phenotype that is both part of the early phase of osteogenic differentiation and the development of senescence. This signaling cascade is tightly involved in bone formation and mineralization, but may also propagate pathological extraosseous calcification conditions such as calcifying inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  1. Mineralized collagen scaffolds induce hMSC osteogenesis and matrix remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Weisgerber, D.W.; Caliari, S.R.; Harley, B.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering must be able to instruct cell behavior in the presence of the complex biophysical and biomolecular environments encountered in vivo. While soluble supplementation strategies have been identified to enhance osteogenesis, they are subject to significant diffusive loss in vivo or the need for frequent re-addition in vitro. This investigation therefore explored whether biophysical and biochemical properties of a mineralized collagen-GAG scaffold were suffi...

  2. Toxic myopathy induced by industrial minerals oils: clinical and histopathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, B; Siciliano, G; Giraldi, C; Angelini, C; Marchetti, A; Paggiaro, P L

    1986-12-01

    We report a case of subacute myopathy in a 47 years old man engaged on boiler maintenance at an oil-fired thermoelectric power station. The occupational history highlighted heavy exposure to inhalation of ash derived from mineral oil combustion and containing several elements, metals and metalloids, including vanadium and nickel. The presenting symptoms, clinical course and muscle histopathology suggest that exposure to toxic agents probably played an important part in the causation of the myopathy. PMID:3804712

  3. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: influence of reduced bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Christiansen, Erik;

    2005-01-01

    a DEXA scanner. The RSF subjects showed significantly lower L2-L4 BMD: RSF: 1.22+/-0.05 g cm(-2) (mean+/-SEM) (median 1.19 g cm(-2), range 1.02-1.37 g cm(-2)) compared to C: 140+/-0.04 g cm(-2) (median 1.41 g cm(-2), range 1.27-1.57 g cm(-2)) (P=0.028). The present results suggest that low bone mineral...

  4. Depth-Dependent Mineral Soil CO2 Production Processes: Sensitivity to Harvesting-Induced Changes in Soil Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Lisa; Myette, Amy; Beltrami, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Forest harvesting induces a step change in the climatic variables (temperature and moisture), that control carbon dioxide (CO2) production arising from soil organic matter decomposition within soils. Efforts to examine these vertically complex relationships in situ within soil profiles are lacking. In this study we examined how the climatic controls on CO2 production change within vertically distinct layers of the soil profile in intact and clearcut forest soils of a humid temperate forest system of Atlantic Canada. We measured mineral soil temperature (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 cm depth) and moisture (0-15 cm and 30-60 cm depth), along with CO2 surface efflux and subsurface concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 35, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth) in 1 m deep soil pits at 4 sites represented by two forest-clearcut pairs over a complete annual cycle. We examined relationships between surface efflux at each site, and soil heat, moisture, and mineral soil CO2 production. Following clearcut harvesting we observed increases in temperature through depth (1-2°C annually; often in excess of 4°C in summer and spring), alongside increases in soil moisture (30%). We observed a systematic breakdown in the expected exponential relationship between CO2 production and heat with mineral soil depth, consistent with an increase in the role moisture plays in constraining CO2 production. These findings should be considered in efforts to model and characterize mineral soil organic matter decomposition in harvested forest soils. PMID:26263510

  5. Depth-Dependent Mineral Soil CO2 Production Processes: Sensitivity to Harvesting-Induced Changes in Soil Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kellman

    Full Text Available Forest harvesting induces a step change in the climatic variables (temperature and moisture, that control carbon dioxide (CO2 production arising from soil organic matter decomposition within soils. Efforts to examine these vertically complex relationships in situ within soil profiles are lacking. In this study we examined how the climatic controls on CO2 production change within vertically distinct layers of the soil profile in intact and clearcut forest soils of a humid temperate forest system of Atlantic Canada. We measured mineral soil temperature (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 cm depth and moisture (0-15 cm and 30-60 cm depth, along with CO2 surface efflux and subsurface concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 35, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth in 1 m deep soil pits at 4 sites represented by two forest-clearcut pairs over a complete annual cycle. We examined relationships between surface efflux at each site, and soil heat, moisture, and mineral soil CO2 production. Following clearcut harvesting we observed increases in temperature through depth (1-2°C annually; often in excess of 4°C in summer and spring, alongside increases in soil moisture (30%. We observed a systematic breakdown in the expected exponential relationship between CO2 production and heat with mineral soil depth, consistent with an increase in the role moisture plays in constraining CO2 production. These findings should be considered in efforts to model and characterize mineral soil organic matter decomposition in harvested forest soils.

  6. Optimization of the mineralization of a mixture of phenolic pollutants under a ferrioxalate-induced solar photo-Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteagudo, J.M., E-mail: josemaria.monteagudo@uclm.es [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Grupo IMAES, Department of Chemical Engineering, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela, 1, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Duran, A.; Aguirre, M.; San Martin, I. [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Grupo IMAES, Department of Chemical Engineering, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela, 1, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    The mineralization of solutions containing a mixture of three phenolic compounds, gallic, p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids, in a ferrioxalate-induced solar photo-Fenton process was investigated. The reactions were carried out in a pilot plant consisting of a compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar reactor. An optimization study was performed combining a multivariate experimental design and neuronal networks that included the following variables: pH, temperature, solar power, air flow and initial concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Fe(II) and oxalic acid. Under optimal conditions, total elimination of the original compounds and 94% TOC removal of the mixture were achieved in 5 and 194 min, respectively. pH and initial concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe(II) were the most significant factors affecting the mixture mineralization. The molar correlation between consumed hydrogen peroxide and removed TOC was always between 1 and 3. A detailed analysis of the reaction was presented. The values of the pseudo-first-order mineralization kinetic rate constant, k{sub TOC}, increased as initial Fe(II) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations and temperature increased. The optimum pH value also slightly increased with greater Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide concentrations but decreased when temperature increased. {center_dot}OH and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} radicals were the main oxidative intermediate species in the process, although singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) also played a role in the mineralization reaction.

  7. Confined Nystatin Polyenes in Nanopore Induce Biologic Ionic Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Boukari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal polyenes such as nystatin (or amphotericin B molecules play an important role in regulating ions permeability through membrane cell. The creation of self-assembled nanopores into the fungal lipid membranes permits the leakage and the selectivity of ions (i.e., blockage of divalent cations that cause the cell death. These abilities are thus of first interest to promote new biomimetic membranes with improved ionic properties. In the present work, we will use molecular dynamic simulations to interpret recent experimental data that showed the transfer of the nystatin action inside artificial nanopore in terms of ion permeability and selectivity. We will demonstrate that nystatin polyenes can be stabilized in a hydrophobic carbon nanotube, even at high concentration. The high potential interaction between the polyenes and the hydrophobic pore wall ensures the apparition of a hole inside the biomimetic nanopore that changes its intrinsic properties. The probability ratios of cation versus anion show interesting reproducibility of experimental measurements and, to a certain extent, opened the way for transferring biological properties in synthetic membranes.

  8. Assessing the Soil Physiological Potential Using Pedo-Biological Diagnosis Under Minimum-Tillage System and Mineral Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar Bireescu; Geanina Bireescu; Michele Vincenzo Sellitto

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of sustainable agriculture is the protection of environment and natural vegetal and soil resources. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources. Our research was conducted on haplic chernozem from Experimental Station of UASVM of Iasi, Romania, during the seasonal dynamic, to the soybean crop, on unfertilized and fertilized ...

  9. Biomineralization: mineral formation by organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2014-09-01

    Organisms form many different types of minerals, with diverse shapes and sizes. These minerals fulfill a variety of functions. Inspired by the late H A Lowenstam, Steve Weiner and Lia Addadi have addressed many questions that relate to the mechanisms by which biological organisms produce these mineral phases and how their structures relate to their functions. Addadi and Weiner have explored the manner in which macromolecules extracted from mineralized tissues can interact with some crystal planes and not others, how these macromolecules can be occluded inside the forming crystals residing preferentially on specific crystal planes, and how they can induce one polymorph of calcium carbonate and not another to nucleate. Addadi and Weiner have also identified a novel strategy used by the sea urchin to form its smooth and convoluted mineralized skeletal elements. The strategy involves the initial production by cells of a highly disordered mineral precursor phase in vesicles, and then the export of this so-called amorphous phase to the site of skeletal formation, where it crystallizes. This strategy is now known to be used by many different invertebrate phyla, as well as by vertebrates to build bones and teeth. One of the major current research aims of the Weiner--Addadi group is to understand the biomineralization pathways whereby ions are extracted from the environment, are transported and deposited inside cells within vesicles, how these disordered phases are then transferred to the site of skeletal formation, and finally how the so-called amorphous phase crystallizes. Biology has clearly evolved unique strategies for forming crystalline minerals. Despite more than 300 years of research in this field, many challenging questions still remain unanswered.

  10. Biological determinants of aldosterone-induced cardiac fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, V; Silvestre, J S; Charlemagne, D; Sabri, A; Trouvé, P; Wassef, M; Swynghedauw, B; Delcayre, C

    1995-12-01

    To determine the events leading to cardiac fibrosis in aldosterone-salt hypertensive rats, we studied protein and mRNA accumulation of procollagens I and III for 60 days. After 3 and 7 days of treatment systolic pressure was normal, and no histological or biochemical changes were seen in rat hearts. At day 15 arterial pressure was raised (+40%) and left ventricular hypertrophy was +15%. Cardiac examination after hemalun-eosin staining and immunolabeling with anticollagen I and III antibodies showed no structural alterations, but an 83% increase in right ventricular type III procollagen mRNA levels was found. At 30 and 60 days we found progressive cardiac fibrosis, with inflammatory cells, myocyte necrosis, and elevation of both types I and III procollagen mRNA levels in both ventricles. To determine whether aldosterone had effects on Na,K-ATPase that might lead to ionic disturbances and induce myocyte necrosis, we studied the major cardiac Na,K-ATPase isoform genes. Although Na,K-ATPase alpha 1- and beta 1-subunit mRNA levels were elevated in kidney at day 1, neither of these cardiac transcripts nor the specific alpha 2 isoform was altered between 1 and 15 days. These results show that accumulation of procollagen mRNAs occurs before collagen deposition. Cardiac alterations are late and not preceded by changes in Na,K-ATPase cardiac gene expression, precluding a direct modulation of cardiac collagen synthesis and Na,K-ATPase by aldosterone. PMID:7490157

  11. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  12. Remediation of Pb contaminated soils by phytoextraction and amendment induced immobilization : biological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    GEEBELEN, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the biological aspects related to alternative remediation strategies for Pb contaminated soils: EDTA induced Pb phytoextraction and amendment induced immobilization of soil Pb by means of inorganic soil amendments. The physiological effects of Pb-EDTA and EDTA were studied on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Limburgse vroege), grown under strictly controlled conditions on a Hoagland nutrient solution. Addition of Pb-EDTA to the growth medium increased the capacity of enz...

  13. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  14. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritu; DiMenna, Lauren J; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Evans, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  15. Azanitrile Cathepsin K Inhibitors: Effects on Cell Toxicity, Osteoblast-Induced Mineralization and Osteoclast-Mediated Bone Resorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Yuan Ren

    Full Text Available The cysteine protease cathepsin K (CatK, abundantly expressed in osteoclasts, is responsible for the degradation of bone matrix proteins, including collagen type 1. Thus, CatK is an attractive target for new anti-resorptive osteoporosis therapies, but the wider effects of CatK inhibitors on bone cells also need to be evaluated to assess their effects on bone. Therefore, we selected, among a series of synthetized isothiosemicarbazides, two molecules which are highly selective CatK inhibitors (CKIs to test their effects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts.Cell viability upon treatment of CKIs were was assayed on human osteoblast-like Saos-2, mouse monocyte cell line RAW 264.7 and mature mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow. Osteoblast-induced mineralization in Saos-2 cells and in mouse primary osteoblasts from calvaria, with or without CKIs,; were was monitored by Alizarin Red staining and alkaline phosphatase activity, while osteoclast-induced bone resorption was performed on bovine slices.Treatments with two CKIs, CKI-8 and CKI-13 in human osteoblast-like Saos-2, murine RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with RANKL and mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow stimulated with RANKL and MCSF were found not to be toxic at doses of up to 100 nM. As probed by Alizarin Red staining, CKI-8 did not inhibit osteoblast-induced mineralization in mouse primary osteoblasts as well as in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. However, CKI-13 led to a reduction in mineralization of around 40% at 10-100 nM concentrations in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells while it did not in primary cells. After a 48-hour incubation, both CKI-8 and CKI-13 decreased bone resorption on bovine bone slices. CKI-13 was more efficient than the commercial inhibitor E-64 in inhibiting bone resorption induced by osteoclasts on bovine bone slices. Both CKI-8 and CKI-13 created smaller bone resorption pits on bovine bone slices, suggesting that the mobility of osteoclasts was slowed

  16. Beyond the obvious limits of ore deposits: The use of mineralogical, geochemical, and biological features for the remote detection of mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D.L.; Kelley, K.D.; Coker, W.B.; Caughlin, B.; Doherty, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Far field features of ore deposits include mineralogical, geochemical, or biological attributes that can be recognized beyond the obvious limits of the deposits. They can be primary, if formed in association with mineralization or alteration processes, or secondary, if formed from the interaction of ore deposits with the hydrosphere and biosphere. This paper examines a variety of far field features of different ore deposit types and considers novel applications to exploration and discovery. Primary far field features include mineral and rock chemistry, isotopic or element halos, fluid pathways and thermal anomalies in host-rock sequences. Examples include the use of apatite chemistry to distinguish intrusive rocks permissive for iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) and porphyry deposits; resistate mineral (e.g., rutile, tourmaline) chemistry in exploration for volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS), orogenic gold, and porphyry deposits; and pyrite chemistry to vector toward sedimentary exhalative (sedex) deposits. Distinctive whole-rock geochemical signatures also can be recognized as a far field feature of porphyry deposits. For example, unique Sr/Y ratios in whole-rock samples, used to distinguish barren versus fertile magmas for Cu mineralization, result from the differentiation of oxidized hydrous melts. Anomalous concentrations of halogen elements (Cl, Br, and I) have been found for distances of up to 200 m away from some mineralized centers. Variations in isotopic composition between ore-bearing and barren intrusions and/or systematic vertical and lateral zonation in sulfur, carbon, or oxygen isotope values have been documented for some deposit types. Owing to the thermal aureole that extends beyond the area of mineralization for some deposits, detection of paleothermal effects through methods such as conodont alteration indices, vitrinite or bitumen reflectance, illite crystallinity, and apatite or zircon thermochronology studies also can be valuable, particularly for

  17. Biological variation in tPA-induced plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Talens (Simone); J.J.M.C. Malfliet (Joyce); G. Rudež (Goran); H.M.H. Spronk (Henri); N.A.H. Janssen (N. A H); P. Meijer (Piet); C. Kluft (Cornelius); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHypofibrinolysis is a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis, and can be assessed by using a turbidimetric tPA-induced clot lysis time (CLT) assay. Biological variation in clot lysis time may affect the interpretation and usefulness of CLT as a risk factor for thrombosis. Suffici

  18. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, H. Henry [PI, The George Washington University; Xu, Huifang [Co-PI, University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2013-07-17

    We have approached the long-standing geochemical question why anhydrous high-Mg carbonate minerals (i.e., magnesite and dolomite) cannot be formed at ambient conditions from a new perspective by exploring the formation of MgCO{sub 3} and Mg{sub x}Ca{sub (1-x)}CO{sub 3} in non-aqueous solutions. Data collected from our experiments in this funding period suggest that a fundamental barrier, other than cation hydration, exists that prevents Mg{sup 2+} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions from forming long-range ordered structures. We propose that this barrier mainly stems from the lattice limitation on the spatial configuration of CO{sub 3} groups in magnesite crystals. On the other hand, the measured higher distribution coefficients of Mg between magnesian calcites formed in the absence and presence of water give us a first direct proof to support and quantify the cation hydration effect.

  19. Impact of organic and mineral inputs onto soil biological and metabolic activities under a long-term rice-wheat cropping system in sub-tropical Indian Inceptisols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Nirmalendu; Datta, Ashim; Mitran, Tarik; Mandal, Biswapati; Mani, P K

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of organic and mineral inputs has an overriding impact on soil biological and metabolic activities and crop management. Farm yard manure (FYM), paddy straw (PS) and green manure (GM, Sesbania sesban L.) were used for 24- years old rice (Oyza sativa L.) -wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system in sub-tropical India to predict whether the screened soil biological and metabolic activities are correlated with system yield. The integrated approaches viz., NPK + FYM, NPK + PS and NPK + GM significantly increased both rice and wheat yield together by 67.5, 44.4 and 55.4%, respectively over control. However, for a few exceptions both soil microbial activity and metabolic activity were remarkably enhanced under integrated treatment NPK + FYM followed by NPK + PS, and NPK + GM, respectively. Among the studied attributes fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase activity (β-glu) and microbial biomass C (C(mic)) were screened through principal component (PCA) and discriminate analysis (DA) that explained nearly 89% of total variations of the entire data set. Among the four identified attributes, only β-glu assay value could predict system yield (R2 = 0.65). Further, estimation of β-glu activity in soil can predict other soil biological properties (R2 = 0.96).

  20. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  1. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  2. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF ARSENIC TRIOXIDE-INDUCED BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND DEGRADATIONOF PML PROTEINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To understand whether arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-induced biological effects are associated with degradation of PML proteins. Methods Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line NB4, acute T-lymphocytic leukemia cell line Jurkat, acute myeloid leukemia cell line U937, and chronic myelocytic leukemia blast crisis cell line K562 were used as in vitro models. In different cell lines, the As2O3-induced bio- logical effects were determined by cell growth, cell viability, cell morphology, and flow cytometry assay on sub- G1 cell content. The alteration of PML proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Results In terms of growth inhibition and apoptosis induction, 1.0μmol/L As2O3 had different effects on different cell lines. However, degradation of PML proteins occurred in all the cell lines with As2O3 treatment. Conclusion As2O3-induced biological effects may be independent of PML protein degradation.

  3. Is gastrectomy-induced high turnover of bone with hyperosteoidosis and increase of mineralization a typical osteomalacia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ueyama

    Full Text Available Gastrectomy (GX is thought to result in osteomalacia due to deficiencies in Vitamin D and Ca. Using a GX rat model, we showed that GX induced high turnover of bone with hyperosteoidosis, prominent increase of mineralization and increased mRNA expression of both osteoclast-derived tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and osteocalcin. The increased 1, 25(OH2D3 level and unchanged PTH and calcitonin levels suggested that conventional bone and Ca metabolic pathways were not involved or changed in compensation. Thus, GX-induced bone pathology was different from a typical osteomalacia. Gene expression profiles through microarray analysis and data mining using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that 612 genes were up-regulated and 1,097 genes were down-regulated in the GX bone. These genes were related functionally to connective tissue development, skeletal and muscular system development and function, Ca signaling and the role of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes. Network analysis indicated 9 genes (Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1; Aquaporin 9; Interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein; Very low density lipoprotein receptor; Periostin, osteoblast specific factor; Aggrecan; Gremlin 1; Angiopoietin-like 4; Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10B were hubs connected with tissue development and immunological diseases. These results suggest that chronic systemic inflammation might underlie the GX-induced pathological changes in bone.

  4. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  5. Tooth discoloration induced by a novel mineral trioxide aggregate-based root canal sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Sung; Lim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Yoorina; Rosa, Vinicius; Hong, Chan-Ui; Min, Kyung-San

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth discoloration caused by contact with a novel injectable mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based root canal sealer (Endoseal; Maruchi, Wonju, Korea) compared with a widely used resin-based root canal sealer (AHplus; Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany) and conventional MTA (ProRoot; Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA). Materials and Methods: Forty standardized bovine tooth samples were instrumented and divided into three experimental groups and one control group (n = 10/group). Each material was inserted into the cavity, and all specimens were sealed with a self-adhesive resin. Based on CIE Lab system, brightness change (ΔL) and total color change (ΔE) of each specimen between baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks were obtained. Results: At all time points, Endoseal showed no significant difference in ΔL and ΔE compared to AHplus and control group (P > 0.05), whereas the ProRoot group showed significantly higher ΔL and ΔE values than the Endoseal group at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (P MTA and a similar color change to AHplus. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, our data indicate that the MTA-based sealer produces a similar amount of tooth discoloration as AHplus which is considered to be acceptable. PMID:27403062

  6. Determination of uranium in seawater, biological samples and sediments using laser induced fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium has been determined in seawater, biological samples and sediments using laser induced fluorescence spectrometry (LIFS). The biological samples and sediments are digested with a mixture of HNO3, HClO4 and HF. The conductivity of the seawater should be below 5.0 mS and the pH of the sample should be in the range 6.5-9.0. The volume of the reagent used to enhance the fluorescence intensity was 0.5 ml. Comparison with other methods was favorable, LIFS being rapid, simple and sensitive, and well suited to environmental monitoring. (author)

  7. Uranium bioaccumulation and biological disorders induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a depleted uranium waterborne exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.f [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.f [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Palluel, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.palluel@ineris.f [Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Unit, INERIS (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc technologique ALATA, 60 550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Porcher, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.porcher@ineris.f [Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Unit, INERIS (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc technologique ALATA, 60 550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.f [Universite de Lyon, INRA, EFPA-SA, Environmental Science Laboratory (LSE), ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    Because of its toxicity and its ubiquity within aquatic compartments, uranium (U) represents a significant hazard to aquatic species such as fish. In a previous study, we investigated some biological responses in zebrafish either exposed to depleted or to enriched U (i.e., to different radiological activities). However, results required further experiments to better understand biological responses. Moreover, we failed to clearly demonstrate a significant relationship between biological effects and U radiological activity. We therefore chose to herein examine U bioaccumulation and induced effects in zebrafish according to a chemical dose-response approach. Results showed that U is highly bioconcentrated in fish, according to a time- and concentration-dependent model. Additionally, hepatic antioxidant defenses, red blood cells DNA integrity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were found to be significantly altered. Generally, the higher the U concentration, the sooner and/or the greater the effect, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and effect. - Research highlights: Depleted U bioconcentration factor is of about 1000 in zebrafish exposed to 20 {mu}g/L. Hepatic antioxidant disorders are noticed as soon as the first hours of exposure. DNA damage is induced in red blood cells after 20 d of exposure to 500 {mu}g DU/L. The brain cholinergic system (AChE activity) is impacted. - This study demonstrates that U is highly bioaccumulated in fish, resulting in biological disorders such as hepatic oxidative stress as well as genotoxic and neurotoxic events.

  8. Uranium bioaccumulation and biological disorders induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a depleted uranium waterborne exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its toxicity and its ubiquity within aquatic compartments, uranium (U) represents a significant hazard to aquatic species such as fish. In a previous study, we investigated some biological responses in zebrafish either exposed to depleted or to enriched U (i.e., to different radiological activities). However, results required further experiments to better understand biological responses. Moreover, we failed to clearly demonstrate a significant relationship between biological effects and U radiological activity. We therefore chose to herein examine U bioaccumulation and induced effects in zebrafish according to a chemical dose-response approach. Results showed that U is highly bioconcentrated in fish, according to a time- and concentration-dependent model. Additionally, hepatic antioxidant defenses, red blood cells DNA integrity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were found to be significantly altered. Generally, the higher the U concentration, the sooner and/or the greater the effect, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and effect. - Research highlights: → Depleted U bioconcentration factor is of about 1000 in zebrafish exposed to 20 μg/L. → Hepatic antioxidant disorders are noticed as soon as the first hours of exposure. → DNA damage is induced in red blood cells after 20 d of exposure to 500 μg DU/L. → The brain cholinergic system (AChE activity) is impacted. - This study demonstrates that U is highly bioaccumulated in fish, resulting in biological disorders such as hepatic oxidative stress as well as genotoxic and neurotoxic events.

  9. The impact on atmospheric CO2 of iron fertilization induced changes in the ocean's biological pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. McWilliams

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Using numerical simulations, we quantify the impact of changes in the ocean's biological pump on the air-sea balance of CO2 by fertilizing a small surface patch in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region of the eastern tropical Pacific with iron. Decade-long fertilization experiments are conducted in a basin-scale, eddy-permitting coupled physical biogeochemical ecological model. In contrast to previous studies, we find that most of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC removed from the euphotic zone by the enhanced biological export is replaced by uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere. Atmospheric uptake efficiencies, the ratio of the perturbation in air-sea CO2 flux to the perturbation in export flux across 100 m, are 0.75 to 0.93 in our patch size-scale experiments. The atmospheric uptake efficiency is insensitive to the duration of the experiment. The primary factor controlling the atmospheric uptake efficiency is the vertical distribution of the enhanced biological production. Iron fertilization at the surface tends to induce production anomalies primarily near the surface, leading to high efficiencies. In contrast, mechanisms that induce deep production anomalies (e.g. altered light availability tend to have a low uptake efficiency, since most of the removed DIC is replaced by lateral and vertical transport and mixing. Despite high atmospheric uptake efficiencies, patch-scale iron fertilization of the ocean's biological pump tends to remove little CO2 from the atmosphere over the decadal timescale considered here.

  10. Continuous-flow precipitation as a route to prepare highly controlled nanohydroxyapatite: in vitro mineralization and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Filipa; Ribeiro, Viviana P.; Ferreira, António; Oliveira, Ana L.; Reis, Rui L.; Teixeira, José A.; Rocha, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    This work reports the biological evaluation of nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAp) previously synthesized by continuous-flow precipitation in a scaled-up meso oscillatory flow reactor (meso-OFR). Physico-chemical characterization of the synthesized HAp suggests high surface reactivity namely because of its high specific surface area and low crystallinity. On the other hand, in vitro biomineralization assays demonstrated the apatite-forming activity of the prepared HAp and their higher surface reactivity when compared to a commercial HAp. Furthermore, human osteoblastic-like (Saos-2) cells culture evidenced that the synthesized HAp stimulated cell proliferation, especially when applied at lower concentrations (30 and 50 μg ml-1), although its cellular uptake behavior. Therefore, the prepared HAp shows immense potential as biomedical material, as well as drug and gene delivery vehicle. The results are also very promising regarding further scaling up of the process, as the designed methodology allow for the preparation in a continuous mode of nanosized HAp with controlled physico-chemical properties.

  11. The protective effect of clay minerals against damage to adsorbed DNA induced by cadmium and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yakun; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Nengwu

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of Salmon Sperm DNA on three kinds of raw clay (rectorite, montmorillonite and sericite) was investigated as a function of pH, ionic strength and the concentrations of DNA and phosphate ions in solution. The DNA adsorption was reduced in the following order: rectorite>montmorillonite>sericite. Based on these findings, there is a strong evidence that the mechanisms for DNA adsorption on clay involve electrostatic forces, cation bridging and ligand exchange. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to compare the properties of unbound DNA and the absorbed DNA on rectorite, both in the absence and presence of Cd(2+) and Hg(2+) inaqueous solutions. The interaction of heavy metals with the unbound DNA was evidenced by the disappearance of reduction peaks in CV, a small bathochromic shift in UV-vis spectroscopy and an incomplete quenching in the emission spectra. Such changes were not observed in the DNA-rectorite hybrids, which is evidence that adsorption on the clay can reduce the extent of the DNA damage caused by heavy metals. Therefore, in these experience the rectorite played an important role in protecting DNA against Cd(2+) and Hg(2+) induced damage.

  12. Pressure-induced phase transformations in mineral chalcocite, Cu{sub 2}S, under hydrostatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaria-Perez, D., E-mail: dsantamaria@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Earth Sciences Department, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Garbarino, G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Chulia-Jordan, R. [Departamento de QuimicaFisica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Dobrowolski, M.A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Mühle, C.; Jansen, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Three previously unknown phase transitions have been found in Cu{sub 2}S. • The initial monoclinic phase transforms into two different monoclinic structures. • The compressibility of the low- and high-pressure phases has been determined. • Our results differ from those recently reported for Cu{sub 2}S nanowires. - Abstract: High-pressure room-temperature angle-dispersive powder X-ray diffraction measurements on Cu{sub 2}S chalcocite were performed up to 30 GPa using a diamond-anvil cell, He as pressure transmitting medium and synchrotron radiation. Two first-order phase transitions were found at 3.2 and 7.4 GPa. The indexation of the powder diffraction patterns suggests three different monoclinic cells for the low-pressure chalcocite and the two high-pressure phases. Subtle changes in the X-ray diffraction patterns suggest a third pressure-induced transition above 26 GPa. Structural parameters and compressibility are discussed and compared to those reported in a previous study on Cu{sub 2}S nanowires.

  13. Improving Control of Microbially-Induced Mineral Precipitation in Flow Systems - Experiments and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, R.; Phillips, A. J.; Lauchnor, E.; Ebigbo, A.; Connolly, J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Helmig, R.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

    2012-12-01

    Batch and flow experiments at atmospheric and geologic CO2 storage-relevant pressures in our laboratories have demonstrated the ability of microbial biofilms and biofilm produced calcium carbonate precipitates to decrease the permeability of natural and artificial porous media as well as improve the stability of unconsolidated porous media. Two overarching challenges in effectively implementing microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) are controlling (1) the spatial and temporal distribution of the formed precipitates and (2) the inactivation of microbes during the calcium carbonate precipitation process. Failure to control either one of those could result in injection well plugging or the necessity to implement costly cell-reinjection or -resuscitation strategies. Our recent work has focused on optimizing strategies for MICP in small (capillaries and micromodels), small columns (1 to 2.5 cm diameter, up to 5 cm in length), meso- (2 ft columns and 4 cm x 8 cm 2-d reactors) and large-scale (75 cm diameter, 38 cm high sandstone radial flow) systems. Results of these experiments have been modelled using two different approaches. (1) a microscale phase-field approach and (2) a large scale volume averaging approach. Close interaction between experimenters and modellers have resulted in improved injection strategies and the models are currently being used as experimental design tools. This presentation will focus on our recent efforts that combined 2 ft column experimentation with Darcy-scale modelling to calibrate and validate a model before utilizing the model for the optimization of biomineralization strategies in radial flow demonstrations in meso-scale sand stone cores at ambient and high pressures. Schematic pore-scale representation of MICP model

  14. A comprehensive analysis of the dynamic biological networks in HCV induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing He

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a primary malignancy of the liver, which is closely related to hepatitis C and cirrhosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by HCV infection remain clarified from a standpoint of systems biology. By integrating data from protein-protein interactions, transcriptional regulation, and disease related microarray analysis, we carried out a dynamic biological network analysis on the progression of HCV induced hepatocarcinogenesis, and systematically explored the potentially disease-related mechanisms through a network view. The dysfunctional interactions among proteins and deregulatory relationships between transcription factors and their target genes could be causes for the occurrence and progression of this disease. The six pathologically defined disease stages in the development and progression of HCC after HCV infection were included in this study. We constructed disease-related biological networks for each disease stage, and identified progression-related sub-networks that potentially play roles in the developmental stage of the corresponding disease and participate in the later stage of cancer progression. In addition, we identified novel risk factors related to HCC based on the analysis of the progression-related sub-networks. The dynamic characteristics of the network reflect important features of the disease development and progression, which provide important information for us to further explore underlying mechanisms of the disease.

  15. Recent advances in particle-induced X-ray emission analysis applied to biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers reporting the application of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis to biological samples continue to appear regularly in the literature. The majority of these papers deal with blood, hair, and other common body organs while a few deal with biological samples from the environnment. A variety of sample preparation methods have been demonstrated, a number of which are improvements, refinements and extensions of the thick- and thin-sample preparation methods reported in the early development of PIXE. While many papers describe the development of PIXE techniques some papers are now describing applications of the methods to serious biological problems. The following two factors may help to stimulate more consistant use of the PIXE method. First, each PIXE facility should be organized to give rapid sample processing and should have available several sample preparation and handling methods. Second, those with the skill to use PIXE methods need to become closely associated with researches knowledge able in medical and biological sciences and they also need to become more involved in project planning and sample handling. (orig.)

  16. Effect of biologically active fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gi-Sang Bae; Min-Sun Kim; Kyoung-Chel Park; Bon Soon Koo; Il-Joo Jo; Sun Bok Choi; Dong-Sung Lee

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO determine if the fraction of Nardostachysjatamansi (NJ) has the potential to ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS:Mice were administered the biologically active fraction of NJ,i.e.,the 4th fraction (NJ4),intraperitoneally,and then injected with the stable cholecystokinin analogue cerulein hourly for 6 h.Six hours after the last cerulein injection,the pancreas,lung,and blood were harvested for morphological examination,measurement of cytokine expression,and examination of neutrophil infiltration.RESULTS:NJ4 administration attenuated the severity of AP and lung injury associated with AP.It also reduced cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration and resulted in the in vivo up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1).Furthermore,NJ4 and its biologically active fraction,N J4-2 inhibited the cerulein-induced death of acinar cells by inducing HO-1 in isolated pancreatic acinar cells.CONCLUSION:These results suggest that NJ4 may be a candidate fraction offering protection in AP and NJ4 might ameliorate the severity of pancreatitis by inducing HO-1 expression.

  17. Effects of carotenoids on damage of biological lipids induced by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Noriko

    2014-05-01

    Carotenoids are considered to be involved in the radioresistant mechanisms of radioresistant bacteria. In these bacterial cells, carotenoids are present in biological lipids, and therefore may be related to the radiation-induced damage of lipids. However, only limited data are available for the role of carotenoids in such damage. In this study, we irradiated an α-linolenic acid-benzene solution with gamma rays and analyzed the resulting oxidative degradation and peroxidation damage in the presence or absence of two typical carotenoids: β-carotene and astaxanthin. The analyses revealed that oxidative degradation and peroxidation of α-linolenic acid, as evaluated by the amount of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene formed, respectively, increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, 8.5×10-3 M β-carotene inhibited gamma radiation-induced oxidative degradation of α-linolenic acid, whereas 5.0×10-5 and 5.0×10-6 M β-carotene, and 5.0×10-7 and 5.0×10-8 M astaxanthin promoted degradation. In contrast, neither β-carotene nor astaxanthin affected peroxidation of α-linolenic acid. These results suggest that an optimum concentration of carotenoids in radioresistant bacteria protects biological lipid structures from radiation-induced damage.

  18. Advances in dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Guan, Hui; Dong, Yuanli; Xing, Ligang; Li, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the research progress about the dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis. Methods We performed a systematic literature review addressing radiation esophagitis in the treatment of lung cancer published between January 2009 and May 2015 in the PubMed full-text database index systems. Results Twenty-eight eligible documents were included in the final analysis. Many clinical factors were related to the risk of radiation esophagitis, such as elder patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the intense radiotherapy regimen (hyperfractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy). The parameters including Dmax, Dmean, V20, V30, V50, and V55 may be valuable in predicting the occurrence of radiation esophagitis in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are also associated with radiation-induced toxicity. Conclusion Dosimetry and biological factors of radiation-induced esophagitis provide clinical information to decrease its occurrence and grade during radiotherapy. More prospective studies are warranted to confirm their prediction efficacy. PMID:26869804

  19. Advances in dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yang Yu,1 Hui Guan,1 Yuanli Dong,1 Ligang Xing,2 Xiaolin Li2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, University of Jinan, Jinan, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: To summarize the research progress about the dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis.Methods: We performed a systematic literature review addressing radiation esophagitis in the treatment of lung cancer published between January 2009 and May 2015 in the PubMed full-text database index systems.Results: Twenty-eight eligible documents were included in the final analysis. Many clinical factors were related to the risk of radiation esophagitis, such as elder patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the intense radiotherapy regimen (hyperfractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy. The parameters including Dmax, Dmean, V20, V30, V50, and V55 may be valuable in predicting the occurrence of radiation esophagitis in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are also associated with radiation-induced toxicity.Conclusion: Dosimetry and biological factors of radiation-induced esophagitis provide clinical information to decrease its occurrence and grade during radiotherapy. More prospective studies are warranted to confirm their prediction efficacy. Keywords: lung cancer, esophagitis, radiation injuries, predictors

  20. Biological dosimetry: the potential use of radiation-induced apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assay for biological dosimetry based on the induction of apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes is described. Radiation-induced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric identification of cells displaying apoptosis-associated DNA condensation. CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes were analysed. They were recognized on the basis of their cell-surface antigens. Four parameters were measured for both cell types: cell size, granularity, antigen immunofluorescence and DNA content. Apoptosis was quantified as the fraction of CD4-, or CD8-positive cells with a characteristic reduction of cell size and DNA content. At doses below 1 Gy, levels of radiation-induced apoptosis increased for up to 5 days after irradiation. Optimal dose discrimination was observed 4 days after irradiation, at which time the dose-response curves were linear, with a slope of 8% ± 0.5% per 0.1 Gy. In controlled, dose-response experiments the lowest dose level at which the radiation-induced apoptosis frequency was still significantly above control was 0.05 Gy. After 5 days post-irradiation incubation, intra- and interdonor variations were measured and found to be similar; thus, apoptotic levels depend more on the dose than on the donor. The results demonstrate the potential of this assay as a biological dosimeter. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of toxicity reduction, mineralization, and treatability of phenolic wastewater treated with combined system of catalytic ozonation process / biological reactor (SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Dadban Shahamat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Phenol is one of the industrial pollutants in wastewaters, which due to its toxicity for biological systems various pretreatment processes have been used for its detoxification. In this study, the combination of catalytic ozonation process (COP and sequencing batch reactor (SBR were used for detoxification of these types of wastewaters. Materials and Methodology: In this study, the effect of COP on phenol degradation, COD removal, and detoxification of wastewater was investigated. To determine the acute toxicity of effluents and identification of intermediate compounds produced in COP, bioassay using Daphnia Magna and GC / MS were used, respectively. Then, phenol and COD removal of pretreated wastewater was investigated in SBR. Results: It was found that under optimal conditions in COP (time = 60 min, the concentrations of phenol and COD reduced from 500 and 1162 to 7.5 and 351 mg/L respectively and pretreated effluent toxicity (TU = 36, after rising in the initial stage of reaction, effectively reduced at the end of process (TU=2.3. the integration of this process with SBR could decreased the COD and phenol concentration less than the detectable range by HPLC.  Conclusion: Results showed that COP has a high effect on biodegradability, detoxification, and mineralization of phenol and combination of COP with SBR process can effectively treat wastewaters containing phenol.

  2. Bioconductive 3D nano-composite constructs with tunable elasticity to initiate stem cell growth and induce bone mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Nitin; Khanna, Kunal; Sardesai, Varda S; Singh, Atul K; Temgire, Mayur; Kalita, Mridula Phukan; Kadam, Sachin S; Soni, Vivek P; Bhartiya, Deepa; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-12-01

    Bioactive 3D composites play an important role in advanced biomaterial design to provide molecular coupling and improve integrity with the cellular environment of the native bone. In the present study, a hybrid lyophilized polymer composite blend of anionic charged sodium salt of carboxymethyl chitin and gelatin (CMChNa-GEL) reinforced with nano-rod agglomerated hydroxyapatite (nHA) has been developed with enhanced biocompatibility and tunable elasticity. The scaffolds have an open, uniform and interconnected porous structure with an average pore diameter of 157±30μm and 89.47+0.03% with four dimensional X-ray. The aspect ratio of ellipsoidal pores decrease from 4.4 to 1.2 with increase in gelatin concentration; and from 2.14 to 1.93 with decrease in gelling temperature. The samples were resilient with elastic stain at 1.2MPa of stress also decreased from 0.33 to 0.23 with increase in gelatin concentration. The crosslinker HMDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate) yielded more resilient samples at 1.2MPa in comparison to glutaraldehyde. Increased crosslinking time from 2 to 4h in continuous compression cycle show no improvement in maximum elastic stain of 1.2MPa stress. This surface elasticity of the scaffold enables the capacity of these materials for adherent self renewal and cultivation of the NTERA-2 cL.D1 (NT2/D1), pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cell with biomechanical surface, as is shown here. Proliferation with MG-63, ALP activity and Alizarin red mineralization assay on optimized scaffold demonstrated ***psize defect. Therefore, this nHA-CMChNa-GEL scaffold composite exhibits inherent and efficient physicochemical, mechanical and biological characteristics based on gel concentrations, gelatin mixing and gelling temperature thus points to creating bioactive 3D scaffolds with tunable elasticity for orthopedic applications. PMID:27612764

  3. Reduction theories elucidate the origins of complex biological rhythms generated by interacting delay-induced oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuhiro Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Time delay is known to induce sustained oscillations in many biological systems such as electroencephalogram (EEG activities and gene regulations. Furthermore, interactions among delay-induced oscillations can generate complex collective rhythms, which play important functional roles. However, due to their intrinsic infinite dimensionality, theoretical analysis of interacting delay-induced oscillations has been limited. Here, we show that the two primary methods for finite-dimensional limit cycles, namely, the center manifold reduction in the vicinity of the Hopf bifurcation and the phase reduction for weak interactions, can successfully be applied to interacting infinite-dimensional delay-induced oscillations. We systematically derive the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and the phase equation without delay for general interaction networks. Based on the reduced low-dimensional equations, we demonstrate that diffusive (linearly attractive coupling between a pair of delay-induced oscillations can exhibit nontrivial amplitude death and multimodal phase locking. Our analysis provides unique insights into experimentally observed EEG activities such as sudden transitions among different phase-locked states and occurrence of epileptic seizures.

  4. The impact on atmospheric CO2 of iron fertilization induced changes in the ocean's biological pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. McWilliams

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using numerical simulations, we quantify the impact of changes in the ocean's biological pump on the air-sea balance of CO2 by fertilizing a small surface patch in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region of the eastern tropical Pacific with iron. Decade-long fertilization experiments are conducted in a basin-scale, eddy-permitting coupled physical/biogeochemical/ecological model. In contrast to previous studies, we find that most of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC removed from the euphotic zone by the enhanced biological export is replaced by uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere. Atmospheric uptake efficiencies, the ratio of the perturbation in air-sea CO2 flux to the perturbation in export flux across 100 m, integrated over 10 years, are 0.75 to 0.93 in our patch size-scale experiments. The atmospheric uptake efficiency is insensitive to the duration of the experiment. The primary factor controlling the atmospheric uptake efficiency is the vertical distribution of the enhanced biological production and export. Iron fertilization at the surface tends to induce production anomalies primarily near the surface, leading to high efficiencies. In contrast, mechanisms that induce deep production anomalies (e.g. altered light availability tend to have a low uptake efficiency, since most of the removed DIC is replaced by lateral and vertical transport and mixing. Despite high atmospheric uptake efficiencies, patch-scale iron fertilization of the ocean's biological pump tends to remove little CO2 from the atmosphere over the decadal timescale considered here.

  5. Cyanobacteria as Biocatalysts for Carbonate Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Jansson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial carbonate mineralization is widespread in nature and among microorganisms, and of vast ecological and geological importance. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that trigger and control processes such as calcification, i.e., mineralization of CO2 to calcium carbonate (CaCO3, is limited and literature on cyanobacterial calcification is oftentimes bewildering and occasionally controversial. In cyanobacteria, calcification may be intimately associated with the carbon dioxide-(CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM, a biochemical system that allows the cells to raise the concentration of CO2 at the site of the carboxylating enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco up to 1000-fold over that in the surrounding medium. A comprehensive understanding of biologically induced carbonate mineralization is important for our ability to assess its role in past, present, and future carbon cycling, interpret paleontological data, and for evaluating the process as a means for biological carbon capture and storage (CCS. In this review we summarize and discuss the metabolic, physiological and structural features of cyanobacteria that may be involved in the reactions leading to mineral formation and precipitation, present a conceptual model of cyanobacterial calcification, and, finally, suggest practical applications for cyanobacterial carbonate mineralization.

  6. Improvement on bacteria-induced calcium mineralization ability of Bacillus pseudofirmus by an integrated high-throughput screening strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.L.; Deng, X.; Feng, X.; Han, N.X.; Jonkers, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The CaCO3-mineralizing bacteria from different taxonomic groups have shown potential in restoration of construction material such as concretes, cements and stony materials. However, these strains are far from the demand of practical application due to some shortages, including the low mineralizing c

  7. Crystallo-optic diagnostics method of the soft laser-induced effects in biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopinov, S. A.; Yakovleva, S. V.

    1991-05-01

    Presently, it is well known that individual cells"2 and higher organisms3'4 exhibit a marked response to soft laser irradiation in certain parts of the visible and near infrared spectral ranges. Broad clinical applications of laser therapy and slow progress in understanding of the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms of this phenomenon make the task to search new methods of objectivisation of laser-induces bioeffects very insistent. In this paper we give a short review of the methods of structural-optical diagnostics of the soft laser-induced effects in biofluids (blood and its fractions, saliva, juices, mucuses, exudations, etc.) and suggest their applications in experimental and clinical studies of the soft laser bioeffects.

  8. Computer simulation of induced electric currents and fields in biological bodies by 60 Hz magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible health effects of human exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields are a subject of increasing concern. An understanding of the coupling of electromagnetic fields to human body tissues is essential for assessment of their biological effects. A method is presented for the computerized simulation of induced electric currents and fields in bodies of men and rodents from power-line frequency magnetic fields. In the impedance method, the body is represented by a 3 dimensional impedance network. The computational model consists of several tens of thousands of cubic numerical cells and thus represented a realistic shape. The modelling for humans is performed with two models, a heterogeneous model based on cross-section anatomy and a homogeneous one using an average tissue conductivity. A summary of computed results of induced electric currents and fields is presented. It is confirmed that induced currents are lower than endangerous current levels for most environmental exposures. However, the induced current density varies greatly, with the maximum being at least 10 times larger than the average. This difference is likely to be greater when more detailed anatomy and morphology are considered. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Radiation-induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes: Potential as a biological dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have tested the possibility of using apoptosis (programmed cell death) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes as a short-term biological dosimeter. Lymphocytes isolated from whole blood were irradiated in culture with 250 kVp x-rays or 60Co gamma rays. Two assays were used to measure apoptosis in lymphocytes after irradiation: in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase assay and fluorescence analysis of DNA unwinding assay. Similar qualitative and quantitative results were produced by the assays, supporting the notion that the fluorescence analysis of DNA unwinding assay measured DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis in lymphocytes irradiated in vitro was proportional to dose and could be detected following exposures as low as 0.05 Gy. Lymphocytes irradiated in vitro was proportional to dose and could be detected following exposures as low as 0.05 Gy. Lymphocytes from individual donors had reproducible dose responses. There was, however, variation between donors. X-ray and gamma-ray exposures induced similar levels of apoptosis at similar doses. The induction kinetics of apoptosis in vitro indicate a maximum is reached about 72 h after irradiation. In conclusion, the in vitro experimental evidence indicates that radiation-induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes has the kinetics, sensitivity, and reproductibility to be a potential biological dosimeter. 29 refs., 5 figs

  10. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles to enhance biological control in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaflor, M F G V; Bento, J M S

    2013-08-01

    Plants under herbivore attack synthetize defensive organic compounds that directly or indirectly affect herbivore performance and mediate other interactions with the community. The so-called herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) consist of odors released by attacked plants that serve as important cues for parasitoids and predators to locate their host/prey. The understanding that has been gained on the ecological role and mechanisms of HIPV emission opens up paths for developing novel strategies integrated with biological control programs with the aim of enhancing the efficacy of natural enemies in suppressing pest populations in crops. Tactics using synthetic HIPVs or chemically/genetically manipulating plant defenses have been suggested in order to recruit natural enemies to plantations or help guiding them to their host more quickly, working as a "synergistic" agent of biological control. This review discusses strategies using HIPVs to enhance biological control that have been proposed in the literature and were categorized here as: (a) exogenous application of elicitors on plants, (b) use of plant varieties that emit attractive HIPVs to natural enemies, (c) release of synthetic HIPVs, and (d) genetic manipulation targeting genes that optimize HIPV emission. We discuss the feasibility, benefits, and downsides of each strategy by considering not only field studies but also comprehensive laboratory assays that present an applied approach for HIPVs or show the potential of employing them in the field.

  11. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namratha Pai Kotebagilu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80% and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton’s reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and β-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals.

  12. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates-RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and β-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

  13. Magnetic properties of iron minerals produced by natural iron- and manganese-reducing groundwater bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Kondratyeva, Lubov M.; Golubeva, Evgeniya M.; Kodama, Kazuto; Hori, Rie S.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the contribution of biogenic magnetic particles into sedimentary assemblages is a current challenge in palaeomagnetism. It has been demonstrated recently that magnetic particles produced through biologically controlled mineralization processes, such as magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria, contribute to the recording of natural remanent magnetization in marine and lacustrian sediments. Contributions from other, biologically induced, mineralization types, which are known from multiple laboratory experiments to include magnetic minerals, remain largely unknown. Here, we report magnetic properties of iron minerals formed by a community of iron- and manganese-reducing bacteria isolated from a natural groundwater deposit during a 2 yr long incubation experiment. The main iron phases of the biomineralized mass are lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite, each of which has environmental significance. Unlike the majority of the previous studies that reported superparamagnetic grain size, and thus no remanence carrying capacity of biologically induced magnetite, hysteresis and first-order reversal curves measurements in our study have not detected significant superparamagnetic contribution. The biomineralized mass, instead, contains a mixture of single-domain to pseudo-single-domain and multidomain magnetite particles that are capable of carrying a stable chemical remanent magnetization. Isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition parameters and first-order reversal curves signatures of the biomineralized samples deviate from previously proposed criteria for the distinction of extracellular (biologically induced) magnetic particles in mixtures. Given its potential significance as a carrier of natural remanent magnetization, environmental requirements, distribution in nature and the efficiency in the geomagnetic field recording by biologically induced mineralization need comprehensive investigation.

  14. Magnetic properties of iron minerals produced by natural iron- and manganese-reducing groundwater bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Kondratyeva, Lubov M.; Golubeva, Evgeniya M.; Kodama, Kazuto; Hori, Rie S.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the contribution of biogenic magnetic particles into sedimentary assemblages is a current challenge in paleomagnetism. It has been demonstrated recently that magnetic particles produced through biologically controlled mineralization processes, such as magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria, contribute to the recording of natural remanent magnetization in marine and lacustrian sediments. Contributions from other, biologically induced, mineralization types, which are known from multiple laboratory experiments to include magnetic minerals, remain largely unknown. Here, we report magnetic properties of iron minerals formed by a community of iron- and manganese-reducing bacteria isolated from a natural groundwater deposit during a two year long incubation experiment. The main iron phases of the biomineralized mass are lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite, each of which has environmental significance. Unlike the majority of the previous studies that reported superparamagnetic grain size, and thus no remanence carrying capacity of biologically induced magnetite, hysteresis and first order reversal curves measurements in our study have not detected significant superparamagnetic contribution. The biomineralized mass, instead, contains a mixture of single-domain to pseudo-single-domain and multi-domain magnetite particles that are capable of carrying a stable chemical remanent magnetization. Isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition parameters and first order reversal curves signatures of the biomineralized samples deviate from previously proposed criteria for the distinction of extracellular (biologically induced) magnetic particles in mixtures. Given its potential significance as a carrier of natural remanent magnetization, environmental requirements, distribution in nature and the efficiency in the geomagnetic field recording by biologically induced mineralization need comprehensive investigation.

  15. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  16. Biological Effects of Medicinal Plants on Induced Periodontitis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moara e Silva Conceição; di Lenardo, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the advances in the study of medicinal plants and their biologic effects on periodontitis in animal models. Study Design. A systematic search was conducted by three independent researchers, who screened articles published up to March/2016, to identify the studies that contained sufficient and clear information on the association of the medicinal plants and periodontitis in murine models. The searches were performed using PubMed, Cochrane, and Science Direct databases. Results. After a critical analysis of titles and abstracts, 30 studies were finally eligible for analysis. The studies presented a great diversity of the experiment designed regarding the methods of induced periodontitis and the evaluation of the medicinal plants efficacy. None of the studies described the possible toxic effects associated with the administration of the plant material to animals and whether they could prevent damage to organs caused by systemic effect of induced periodontitis. Gel-based formulations containing plant substances are seen as an interesting strategy to treat periodontitis. Conclusions. In this systematic review, the state-of-the-art knowledge on the medicinal plants and the induced periodontitis was critically evaluated and discussed from the experiment designed to the possible clinical application. PMID:27738432

  17. Distorted wave calculations for electron loss process induced by bare ion impact on biological targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distorted wave models are employed to investigate the electron loss process induced by bare ions on biological targets. The two main reactions which contribute to this process, namely, the single electron ionization as well as the single electron capture are here studied. In order to further assess the validity of the theoretical descriptions used, the influence of particular mechanisms are studied, like dynamic screening for the case of electron ionization and energy deposition on the target by the impacting projectile for the electron capture one. Results are compared with existing experimental data. - Highlights: ► Distorted wave models are used to investigate ion-molecule collisions. ► Differential and total cross-sections for capture and ionization are evaluated. ► The influence of dynamic screening is determined. ► Capture reaction dominates the mean energy deposited by the projectile on the target

  18. Molecular dynamics study of accelerated ion-induced shock waves in biological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, Pablo; Mason, Nigel J.; Currell, Fred J.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2016-09-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the effects of carbon- and iron-ion induced shock waves in DNA duplexes in liquid water. We use the CHARMM force field implemented within the MBN Explorer simulation package to optimize and equilibrate DNA duplexes in liquid water boxes of different sizes and shapes. The translational and vibrational degrees of freedom of water molecules are excited according to the energy deposited by the ions and the subsequent shock waves in liquid water are simulated. The pressure waves generated are studied and compared with an analytical hydrodynamics model which serves as a benchmark for evaluating the suitability of the simulation boxes. The energy deposition in the DNA backbone bonds is also monitored as an estimation of biological damage, something which is not possible with the analytical model. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey V. Solov'yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.

  19. 3D Imaging of Nanoparticle Distribution in Biological Tissue by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Y.; Busser, B.; Trichard, F.; Kulesza, A.; Laurent, J. M.; Zaun, V.; Lux, F.; Benoit, J. M.; Panczer, G.; Dugourd, P.; Tillement, O.; Pelascini, F.; Sancey, L.; Motto-Ros, V.

    2016-07-01

    Nanomaterials represent a rapidly expanding area of research with huge potential for future medical applications. Nanotechnology indeed promises to revolutionize diagnostics, drug delivery, gene therapy, and many other areas of research. For any biological investigation involving nanomaterials, it is crucial to study the behavior of such nano-objects within tissues to evaluate both their efficacy and their toxicity. Here, we provide the first account of 3D label-free nanoparticle imaging at the entire-organ scale. The technology used is known as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and possesses several advantages such as speed of operation, ease of use and full compatibility with optical microscopy. We then used two different but complementary approaches to achieve 3D elemental imaging with LIBS: a volume reconstruction of a sliced organ and in-depth analysis. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the quantitative imaging of both endogenous and exogenous elements within entire organs and paves the way for innumerable applications.

  20. Universal laws in the force-induced unraveling of biological bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Yuriy V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2007-01-01

    Universal laws in the force-induced unbinding of receptor-ligand complexes are established for a general functional dependence of the dissociation rate constant on the applied force and are detailed with the two-pathway model that describes the recently discovered biological catch bond. The relationships link the data obtained with constant and time-dependent forces in different regimes, provide common representation for the previously unrelated data sets, and, thereby, greatly facilitate analysis and interpretation of experiments. The universal laws are demonstrated with the monomeric and dimeric catch-slip bonds between P-selectins and P-selectin glycoprotein ligands-1, and the slip bond between E-selectin and sialyl Lewisx antigen.

  1. Molecular dynamics study of accelerated ion-induced shock waves in biological media

    CERN Document Server

    de Vera, Pablo; Currell, Fred J; Solov'yov, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the effects of carbon- and iron-ion induced shock waves in DNA duplexes in liquid water. We use the CHARMM force field implemented within the MBN Explorer simulation package to optimize and equilibrate DNA duplexes in liquid water boxes of different sizes and shapes. The translational and vibrational degrees of freedom of water molecules are excited according to the energy deposited by the ions and the subsequent shock waves in liquid water are simulated. The pressure waves generated are studied and compared with an analytical hydrodynamics model which serves as a benchmark for evaluating the suitability of the simulation boxes. The energy deposition in the DNA backbone bonds is also monitored as an estimation of biological damage, something which lies beyond the possibilities of the analytical model.

  2. Carbon Heavy-ion Radiation Induced Biological effects on Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Xishan; Gong, Ning; Meng, Qingmei; Liu, Jiawei; Wang, Ting

    2016-07-01

    Large number of researches on rice after spaceflights indicated that rice was a favorable model organism to study biological effects induced by space radiation. The stimulative effect could often be found on rice seedlings after irradiation by low-dose energetic heavy-ion radiation. Spaceflight also could induce stimulative effect on kinds of seeds. To further understand the mechanism of low-dose radiation biological effects and the dose range, the germinated rice seeds which were irradiated by different doses of carbon heavy-ion (0, 0.02, 0.1, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20Gy, LET=27.3keV/µm) were used as materials to study. By investigating the variation of rice phenotype under different doses, we found that 2Gy radiation dose was a dividing point of the phenotypic variation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the variation of mitochondria, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome and nucleus in mesophyll cell of rice apical meristem at 24 hours after radiation with different doses. The cells were not apparently physiologically damaged when the dose of radiation was less than 2Gy. The number of chloroplast did not change significantly, but the number of mitochondria was significantly increased, and gathered around in the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum; the obvious lesion of chloroplast and mitochondria were found at the mesophyll cells when radiation dose was higher than 2Gy. The mitochondria were swelling and appearing blurred crest. The chloroplast and mitochondrial mutation rate increased significantly (pplant. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation; Low dose; Stimulation effect; Inhibition effect; Rice.

  3. Lithium mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological surveys showed that Romania basement contains a variety of balneary resources located within on the surface crust. Mineral waters are spread over more than 20% of the country at different depths, with a wide range of physical, chemical and therapeutic properties depending on their genesis.Balneary resources are represented mainly by therapeutic minerals that the physicochemical properties answer the needs of medical and prophylactic maintenance, enhancement and restoration of health, work capacity and physical and mental comfort of the individual.The surface waters arising from a natural source or updated by drilling and whose physical and chemical characteristics that may exert dynamic pharmaco-therapeutic are considered therapeutic mineral waters. Mineral waters are waters that have a variable content of salts, gas, minerals, radioactive elements, which gives them therapeutic properties. In the past, name of mineral water was attributed to all shallow or groundwater mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes. In recent years, mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes have been given the name of curative water.Lithium arouses a great scientific interest because, although his structure is so simple, easy to analyze, with chemical and physical properties well established the myriad of the effects on biological systems by influencing many cellular processes and molecular and the mechanism of action are still unclear generates a mystery that modern science attempting to decipher.

  4. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L. D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-06-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  5. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-06-15

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  6. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  7. Supramolecular Assembly of Biobased Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Controls the Morphology of and Induces Mineralization on Poly(ε-caprolactone) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Salman; Adolfsson, Karin H; Wu, Duo; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2016-01-11

    Biobased 2D graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) were synthesized from waste paper via carbon nanosphere intermediates and evaluated as property-enhancing additives for poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The morphology of PCL films was controlled by supramolecular assembly of the small, 2D GOQDs in the polymer matrix. Phase behavior studies of PCL-GOQD in the solid state indicated concentration-dependent self-association of GOQD sheets, which was confirmed by SEM observations. Depending on the GOQD concentration, the formation of, e.g., spheres and stacked sheets was observed. GOQDs also induced mineralization on the surface of the films. A calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization test revealed that the density of growing CaP crystals was controlled by the type of GOQD aggregates formed. Thus, utilization of the aggregation behavior of small GOQD sheets in polymeric matrices paves the way for tuning the morphology and properties of nanocomposites. PMID:26650535

  8. A shallow marine storm-induced heavy-mineral deposit in the Witteberg group near Willomore, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two heavy-mineral-bearing sandstone beds were discovered within the Weltevrede Formation of the Witteberg Group during a routine investigation of an aerial radiometric survey. Maximum concentrations of 142 ppm U and 434 ppm Th were determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis. The sandstone beds that were investigated closely resemble amalgamated storm deposits, each unit representing the product of an individual storm. A radiometric survey indicated that the highest concentration of heavy-minerals are limited to the upper 20 cm of the main bed and the indicated resources are as follows: rutile - 2700 tons, zircon - 850 tons, ilmenite - 650 tons, magnetite - 550 tons, monozite - 200 tons, and uranium - 5 tons

  9. Current Status of Application and Development of Biological and Mineral-based Pesticides in China%我国生物源及矿物源农药应用发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王以燕; 袁善奎; 吴厚斌; 郑尊涛; 姜辉

    2012-01-01

    生物源及矿物源农药均属于低风险的天然源农药,毒性较低,对环境相对友好.简要介绍了国内外关于生物源农药的定义和范畴以及国内生物源及矿物源农药的登记情况、使用情况、质量标准化建设情况等,并探讨了我国生物源农药产业发展过程中应关注的相关问题.%Biological and mineral-based pesticides were belong to the low risk and natural pesticides, these pesticides were low toxic and relative friendly to the environment In this paper, the definition of biological pesticides both in home and abroad, and the status of registration, application, and quality standardization of biological and mineral-based pesticides in China were introduced, as well as some problems related to the development of biological pesticide in our country were discussed.

  10. Secretion of biologically active interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10 by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saucedo-Cardenas Odila

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that regulate and direct migration of leukocytes, activate inflammatory responses, and are involved in many other functions including regulation of tumor development. Interferon-gamma inducible-protein-10 (IP-10 is a member of the C-X-C subfamily of the chemokine family of cytokines. IP-10 specifically chemoattracts activated T lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. IP-10 has been described also as a modulator of other antitumor cytokines. These properties make IP-10 a novel therapeutic molecule for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases. Currently there are no suitable live biological systems to produce and secrete IP-10. Lactococcus lactis has been well-characterized over the years as a safe microorganism to produce heterologous proteins and to be used as a safe, live vaccine to deliver antigens and cytokines of interest. Here we report a recombinant strain of L. lactis genetically modified to produce and secrete biologically active IP-10. Results The IP-10 coding region was isolated from human cDNA and cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid under the regulation of the pNis promoter. By fusion to the usp45 secretion signal, IP-10 was addressed out of the cell. Western blot analysis demonstrated that recombinant strains of L. lactis secrete IP-10 into the culture medium. Neither degradation nor incomplete forms of IP-10 were detected in the cell or supernatant fractions of L. lactis. In addition, we demonstrated that the NICE (nisin-controlled gene expression system was able to express IP-10 "de novo" even two hours after nisin removal. This human IP-10 protein secreted by L. lactis was biological active as demonstrated by Chemotaxis assay over human CD3+T lymphocytes. Conclusion Expression and secretion of mature IP-10 was efficiently achieved by L. lactis forming an effective system to produce IP-10. This recombinant IP-10 is biologically active as

  11. X-ray-induced photo-chemistry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biological samples

    OpenAIRE

    George, Graham N.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pushie, M. Jake; Nienaber, Kurt; Hackett, Mark J.; Ascone, Isabella; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Aitken, Jade B.; Levina, Aviva; Glover, Christopher; Lay, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray-induced photo-chemistry of metal sites within biological molecules is a concern for X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and other techniques in which samples are illuminated with X-rays. The effects of X-ray-induced photo-chemistry are reviewed and the methods used to mitigate these in X-ray absorption spectroscopy are outlined.

  12. Methanogenesis-induced pH–Eh shifts drives aqueous metal(loid) mobility in sulfide mineral systems under CO2 enriched conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2016-01-15

    Accounting for microbially-mediated CO2 transformation is pivotal to assessing geochemical implications for elevated CO2 in subsurface environments. A series of batch-reactor experiments were conducted to decipher links between autotrophic methanogenesis, CO2 dynamics and aqueous Fe, As and Pb concentrations in the presence of sulfide minerals. Microbially-mediated solubility-trapping followed by pseudo-first order reduction of HCO3- to CH4 (k’ = 0.28-0.59 d-1) accounted for 95% of the CO2 loss from methanogenic experiments. Bicarbonate-to-methane reduction was pivotal in the mitigation of CO2-induced acidity (~1 pH unit) and enhancement of reducing conditions (Eh change from -0.215 to -0.332V ). Methanogenesis-associated shifts in pH-Eh values showed no significant effect on aqueous Pb but favored, 1) increased aqueous As as a result of microbially-mediated dissolution of arsenopyrite and 2) decreased aqueous Fe due to mineral-trapping of CO2-mobilized Fe as Fe-carbonate. Its order of occurrence (and magnitude), relative to solubility- and mineral-trapping, highlighted the potential for autotrophic methanogenesis to modulate both carbon sequestration and contaminant mobility in CO2-impacted subsurface environments.

  13. Biologically Induced Hydrogen Production Drives High Rate/High Efficiency Microbial Electrosynthesis of Acetate from Carbon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Lu, Yang; Flexer, Victoria; Keller, Jurg; Freguia, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Electron-transfer pathways occurring in biocathodes are still unknown. We demonstrate here that high rates of acetate production by microbial electrosynthesis are mainly driven by an electron flux from the electrode to carbon dioxide, occurring via biologically induced hydrogen, with (99±1)% elec

  14. Electrical pulse induced biological effects using dielectric spectroscopy and mathematical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Allen Lawrence

    This dissertation studies the effects of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) on biological cells by measuring the changes in the electrical properties of the pulsed cells and mathematically modeling avascular tumor growth, cell population dynamics, and Ohmic heating. These issues are critical because of the recent use of intense ultrashort PEFs for various biological and medical applications. Recent research using PEFs for tumor treatment motivated an investigation of a simple model for the growth of an avascular tumor. We modeled tumor growth before and after necrotic core formation by incorporating spatial dependence into a one dimensional scaling law. This model emphasized the importance of cell metabolic rate in determining the final steady state size of the tumor. Experimental results showing changes in cell survival and cell cycle due to PEFs led to an investigation of a simple mathematical model for cell population dynamics that considered the cells to be proliferating (dividing) or quiescent (resting). Although some cell populations apparently reached steady state quickly, the proliferating cell population fell below one, meaning that the overall cell population would eventually decay away. This result, which was unaltered by including a transition from the quiescent to proliferating state, emphasized the importance of targeting proliferating cells for successful cancer treatments. Time domain dielectric spectroscopy was used to measure the electrical properties of a biological cell suspension over a wide frequency range with a single pulse following multiple PEFs. Fitting the dielectric properties of a cancer cell (Jurkat) suspension to a double shell model yielded the dielectric parameters of the cell membrane, cytoplasm, nuclear envelope, and nucleoplasm. Decreased cytoplasm and nucleoplasm conductivity and increased suspension conductivity suggestion transport from the cell interior to the exterior consistent with electroporation. Reduced cell membrane

  15. Biological stress responses induced by alpha radiation exposure in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, A.; Horemans, N.; Van Hees, M.; Nauts, R. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Knapen, D.; Blust, R. [University of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    experiments Steinberg medium was selected for further dose-response experiments to analyse additional end-points like DNA-damage and enzymes involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Finally, these results enable comparison of alpha radiation-induced effects at different levels of biological complexity from metabolic pathways to morphological growth effects. This research was supported by the Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen, G.A040.11N) Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. STUDY ON INDUCING MINERALIZATION OF POLYLACTIDE CONTAINING PHOSPHORYLCHOLINE%含磷脂酰胆碱的聚乳酸的诱导矿化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱永兵; 仇植; 陈元维; 罗祥林

    2012-01-01

    Polylactide containing phosphorylcholine (PLA-PC) and polylactide (PLA) were synthesized with lactide (LA) as monomer,glycerophosphorylcholine and 1,4-butanediol as ring-opening initiators respectively. The comparison investigation of inducing mineralization on PLA-PC and PLA films was conducted. The result demonstrated that mineralized products could form on the film of PLA-PC as well as on the film of PLA in the simulated body fluid (SBF) of pH 6. 8. Moreover, formation of the mineralized products was easier on the film of PLA-PC than on the film of PLA. The reason for that is phosphorylcholines can migrate to the surfaces of polymers when PLA-PC contacts with water, and PLA-PC can combine with more Ca + than PLA because phosphoryl in PLA-PC can combine with Ca2+ owing to the interaction between negative charge and positive charge. Fourier-transform infrared ( FTIR) , X-ray diffraction ( XRD ) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the mineralized products formed on the surface of PLA-PC films. The results showed that the mineral crystal was hydroxylapatite (HAP) and the crystal had a laminated structure. PLA-PC films are good for nucleation and development of crystals. The crystalline grains and crystalline thickness grew with increasing mineralization time. Therefore, PLA-PC is a promising biodegradable scaffolds material for bone tissue engineering.%分别以甘油磷脂酰胆碱和1,4-丁二醇为引发剂开环丙交酯,制备了含磷脂酰胆碱的聚乳酸(PLAPC)和聚乳酸(PLA),比较了两者在诱导矿化中的差异.用傅立叶红外光谱仪(FTIR)、X-射线衍射仪(XRD)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对PLA-PC膜表面形成的矿化物进行了表征,结果表明,形成的矿化物为羟基磷灰石(HAP),PLA-PC膜有利于成核和生长,晶体呈片状,并随矿化时间延长,HAP晶粒逐渐增大,晶片厚度也逐渐变大.

  17. Induced Resistance as a Mechanism of Biological Control by Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic-Ekici, Ozlem; Yuen, Gary Y

    2003-09-01

    ABSTRACT Induced resistance was found to be a mechanism for biological control of leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) using the bacterium Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3. Resistance elicited by C3 suppressed germination of B. sorokiniana conidia on the phylloplane in addition to reducing the severity of leaf spot. The pathogen-inhibitory effect could be separated from antibiosis by using heat-inactivated cells of C3 that retained no antifungal activity. Application of live or heat-killed cells to tall fescue leaves resulted only in localized resistance confined to the treated leaf, whereas treatment of roots resulted in systemic resistance expressed in the foliage. The effects of foliar and root applications of C3 were long lasting, as evidenced by suppression of conidial germination and leaf spot development even when pathogen inoculation was delayed 15 days after bacterial treatment. When C3 population levels and germination of pathogen conidia was examined on leaf segments, germination percentage was reduced on all segments from C3-treated leaves compared with segments from non-treated leaves, but no dose-response relationship typical of antagonism was found. Induced resistance by C3 was not host or pathogen specific; foliar application of heat-killed C3 cells controlled B. sorokiniana on wheat and also was effective in reducing the severity of brown patch, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, on tall fescue. Treatments of tall fescue foliage or roots with C3 resulted in significantly elevated peroxidase activity compared with the control.

  18. Extraction of mineral elements from inedible wastes of biological components of a life-support system and their utilization for plant nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gladchenko, I. A.; Zinenko, G. K.

    Two methods of extracting mineral elements from otherwise deadlock products of a life-support system are presented. We describe first optimum conditions for recovering elements by water extraction from dry wastes of plants, biomass ash, and solid human wastes after passing them through the catalytic furnace; and, second, we describe acid extracts of biogenous elements by 1N and 2N HNO_3 from these products. Ways to use the extracts of elements in plant nutrition are considered in order to increase the extent to which the mineral loop of a life-support system can be closed.

  19. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VITAMIN D3 IN METHYLPREDNISOLONE ACETATE (MPA INDUCED LOSS OF BONE METABOLISM MARKERS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN THE LUMBAR SPINE OF RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ragerdi-Kashani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although some vitamins have been shown to prevent glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis in short time, the magnitude of this effect remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effect of vitamin D3 on methylprednisolone acetate (MPA induced osteoporosis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group A (n = 6, was a base line control or normal animals. Group B (n = 6, was treated only normal saline, group C (n = 6, was treated MPA (0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks (3 times per a week and finally group D (n = 6 were administered MPA resemble to group C and treated by Vitamin D3 (0.1 µg/kg dissolved in ethanol daily. Level of calcium, osteocalcin and acid phosphatase in serum were measured before and after treatment. Also, bone mineral density (BMD of lumber vertebrae was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The results showed that the serum calcium level unaffected by MPA in all groups before and after treatment, but the serum osteocalcin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in group C compared with groups A and B. In group D serum osteocalcin level increased again significantly (P < 0.05 but increasing of BMD and bone mineral content were not significant. The findings indicate that by using of vitamin D3 in MPA treated rats could increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption.

  20. Integrated Genomic Analysis of Diverse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Salomonis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rigorous characterization of distinct induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC derived from multiple reprogramming technologies, somatic sources, and donors is required to understand potential sources of variability and downstream potential. To achieve this goal, the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium performed comprehensive experimental and genomic analyses of 58 iPSC from ten laboratories generated using a variety of reprogramming genes, vectors, and cells. Associated global molecular characterization studies identified functionally informative correlations in gene expression, DNA methylation, and/or copy-number variation among key developmental and oncogenic regulators as a result of donor, sex, line stability, reprogramming technology, and cell of origin. Furthermore, X-chromosome inactivation in PSC produced highly correlated differences in teratoma-lineage staining and regulator expression upon differentiation. All experimental results, and raw, processed, and metadata from these analyses, including powerful tools, are interactively accessible from a new online portal at https://www.synapse.org to serve as a reusable resource for the stem cell community.

  1. Integrated Genomic Analysis of Diverse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonis, Nathan; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Omberg, Larsson; Schroll, Robin; Bush, Stacy; Huo, Jeffrey; Schriml, Lynn; Ho Sui, Shannan; Keddache, Mehdi; Mayhew, Christopher; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Wells, James; Daily, Kenneth; Hubler, Shane; Wang, Yuliang; Zambidis, Elias; Margolin, Adam; Hide, Winston; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K; Malik, Punam; Cancelas, Jose A; Aronow, Bruce J; Lutzko, Carolyn

    2016-07-12

    The rigorous characterization of distinct induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from multiple reprogramming technologies, somatic sources, and donors is required to understand potential sources of variability and downstream potential. To achieve this goal, the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium performed comprehensive experimental and genomic analyses of 58 iPSC from ten laboratories generated using a variety of reprogramming genes, vectors, and cells. Associated global molecular characterization studies identified functionally informative correlations in gene expression, DNA methylation, and/or copy-number variation among key developmental and oncogenic regulators as a result of donor, sex, line stability, reprogramming technology, and cell of origin. Furthermore, X-chromosome inactivation in PSC produced highly correlated differences in teratoma-lineage staining and regulator expression upon differentiation. All experimental results, and raw, processed, and metadata from these analyses, including powerful tools, are interactively accessible from a new online portal at https://www.synapse.org to serve as a reusable resource for the stem cell community.

  2. Biological and physical induced oxygen dynamics in melting sea ice of the Fram Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie; Rysgaard, Søren; Turner, Gavin;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the production, consumption, and exchange of O2 in melting sea ice to assess the biological- and physical-induced O2 turnover. The underside of the ice was covered with 5–20 cm3 large, buoyant algal aggregates. Their gross primary production amounted to 0.49 mmol C m−2 d−1, which...... that the aggregates were formed from agglutinated algae released from the melting ice. At the prevailing light conditions, the sea ice–encrusted communities were almost at metabolic balance, while the aggregates were net heterotrophic. Together, the two communities were responsible for an overall O2 consumption of 0.......32 mmol m−2 d−1. The sea ice–associated communities thereby represent a southward-drifting carbon source that is being exhausted by sea ice–affiliated food webs. The sea ice volume decreased rapidly, releasing meltwater at a rate 25 L m−2 d−1, but no surface melt ponds were formed. Aquatic eddy...

  3. Assessment of biological changes in wheat seedlings induced by 12C6+-ion irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Luwei; ZHANG Hong; ZHANG Xiaofu; ZHU Jianlan

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of 12C6+ ion beam (10~80 Gy) on biological changes of wheat seedlings. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related biomarkers and the quantification of plant survival and growth were examined at 10 day after carbon ions irradiation (LET: 30.8keV/μm). The results showed that heavy ions obviously enhanced ROSs reflected by the production of O2 and H2O2 as well as TBARS, and treatment with 20 Gy achieved the peak value, suggesting that higher mutagenic potential may occur at 20 Gy. Simultaneously, increase of SOD activity was induced by heavy ions to counteract ROS accumulation. On the other hand, higher doses at 40 and 80 Gy inhibited wheat growth and survival in comparison with the control, and reversely lower doses at 10 or 20 Gy stimulated wheat growth and survival. In conclusion, the above observations imply that a dose range of 20~40 Gy is likely promised for wheat mutation breeding.

  4. Integrated Genomic Analysis of Diverse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonis, Nathan; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Omberg, Larsson; Schroll, Robin; Bush, Stacy; Huo, Jeffrey; Schriml, Lynn; Ho Sui, Shannan; Keddache, Mehdi; Mayhew, Christopher; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Wells, James; Daily, Kenneth; Hubler, Shane; Wang, Yuliang; Zambidis, Elias; Margolin, Adam; Hide, Winston; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K; Malik, Punam; Cancelas, Jose A; Aronow, Bruce J; Lutzko, Carolyn

    2016-07-12

    The rigorous characterization of distinct induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from multiple reprogramming technologies, somatic sources, and donors is required to understand potential sources of variability and downstream potential. To achieve this goal, the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium performed comprehensive experimental and genomic analyses of 58 iPSC from ten laboratories generated using a variety of reprogramming genes, vectors, and cells. Associated global molecular characterization studies identified functionally informative correlations in gene expression, DNA methylation, and/or copy-number variation among key developmental and oncogenic regulators as a result of donor, sex, line stability, reprogramming technology, and cell of origin. Furthermore, X-chromosome inactivation in PSC produced highly correlated differences in teratoma-lineage staining and regulator expression upon differentiation. All experimental results, and raw, processed, and metadata from these analyses, including powerful tools, are interactively accessible from a new online portal at https://www.synapse.org to serve as a reusable resource for the stem cell community. PMID:27293150

  5. BIOLOGICALLY INDUCED SELF HEALING CONCRETE: A FUTURISTIC SOLUTION FOR CRACK REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Gupta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a mixture of cement, water, sand and other aggregates in adequate proportions. Its high tensile strength and ability to withstand a vast range of environmental changes makes it the first choice for construction material. One of the major problems associated with concrete is its permeability because penetration of gases and/or liquids from the surrounding environment into the concrete, followed by physical and/or chemical reactions within its internal structure/s leads to irreversible damages. Although cement has autonomous capacity to heal, however cracks <0.2mm width can only self-heal. Biomineralization is one of the best ecofriendly techniques to tackle the problem of cracks in concrete structures. Biologically induced self-healing is beneficial in addressing all the drawbacks of concrete matrix. The most promising technology for producing crack resistant/highly self healing concrete in near future seems to be “BacillaFilla”: genetically modified version of Bacillus subtilis, is a “custom –designed” bacteria to embed deep into the cracks in concrete where they produce a mix of calcium carbonate and a special bacteria glue that hardens to the same strength as of the surrounding concrete.

  6. 3D Imaging of Nanoparticle Distribution in Biological Tissue by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Y.; Busser, B.; Trichard, F.; Kulesza, A.; Laurent, J. M.; Zaun, V.; Lux, F.; Benoit, J. M.; Panczer, G.; Dugourd, P.; Tillement, O.; Pelascini, F.; Sancey, L.; Motto-Ros, V.

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials represent a rapidly expanding area of research with huge potential for future medical applications. Nanotechnology indeed promises to revolutionize diagnostics, drug delivery, gene therapy, and many other areas of research. For any biological investigation involving nanomaterials, it is crucial to study the behavior of such nano-objects within tissues to evaluate both their efficacy and their toxicity. Here, we provide the first account of 3D label-free nanoparticle imaging at the entire-organ scale. The technology used is known as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and possesses several advantages such as speed of operation, ease of use and full compatibility with optical microscopy. We then used two different but complementary approaches to achieve 3D elemental imaging with LIBS: a volume reconstruction of a sliced organ and in-depth analysis. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the quantitative imaging of both endogenous and exogenous elements within entire organs and paves the way for innumerable applications. PMID:27435424

  7. Biological N2-FIXATION and Mineral N-Fertilization Effects on Soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.) Yield Under Temperate Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Summary In a nitrogen fertilization experiment set up on slightly calcareous Ramann sandy- loam brown forest soil studies were made on the effect of nitrogen (N) x Rhizobium japonicum inoculation (I) x variety (V) interactions on soybean yield in Hungary. The agrochemical parameters of the ploughed layer of soil were as follows: humus 1.3%, CaCO3 2.1%, silty clay 27%, pH (H2O) 7.2, pH (KCl) 7.0. The experiment involved 4N x 3I x 3V = combinations in 4 replications, giving a total of 144 plots. The most important results can be summarized as follows: (a.) 0, (b.) 100, (c.) 150 and (d.) 200 kg ha-1 year-1 of nitrogen application (a.) inoculation effect was maximum at 1 kg t-1 Nitrofix, (b.) yields were linearly and inversely related to the rate of Nitrofix, (c.) presence of any amount of Nitrofix has been a negative effect on yield and (d.) Nitrofix 1 kg t-1 was showed the best results. Both biological N2 fixation (BNF) and nitrate (NO3-) utilization by mineral nitrogen fertilizer (MNF) input were essential for maximum soybean yield. Introduction Nitrogen is the most frequently deficient nutrient in crop production therefore, most cropping system require N- inputs (Johnston 2000, Márton 2000, 2001). Many soursces are available for use in supplying N to crops (Kováts et al. 1985). In addition to from N2 fixation by leguminous crops can supply sufficient N for optimum crop production (Wilcox 1987, Kádár & Márton 1999, Márton & Kádár 1998, László & Jose 2001, László et al. 2001). Understanding the behaviour of N in the soil is essential for maximizing agricultural productivity and profitability while reducing the impacts of N fertilization on the environment. Managing the delicate balance in the soil N- supply in order to meet this goals. Nowadays there is an essential need to use nitrogen to achieve both economic yields and to produce enough food. Because the only way for agriculture to keep pace with population (world's population now exceeds 6 billion and

  8. Exercise-induced trace mineral element concentration in regional versus whole-body wash-down sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Stofan, John R; Lukaski, Henry C; Horswill, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Simultaneous whole-body wash-down (WBW) and regional skin surface sweat collections were completed to compare regional patch and WBW sweat calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Athletes (4 men, 4 women) cycled in a plastic open-air chamber for 90 min in the heat. Before exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer (covered in plastic) were washed with deionized water. After the onset of sweating, sterile patches were attached to the forearm, back, chest, forehead, and thigh and removed on saturation. After exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer were washed with 5 L of 15-mM ammonium sulfate solution to collect all sweat minerals and determine the volume of unevaporated sweat. Control trials were performed to measure mineral contamination in regional and WBW methods. Because background contamination in the collection system was high for WBW Mn, Fe, and Zn, method comparisons were not made for these minerals. After correction for minimal background contamination, WBW sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 44.6 ± 20.0, 9.8 ± 4.8, and 0.125 ± 0.069 mg/L, respectively, and 5-site regional (weighted for local sweat rate and body surface area) sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 59.0 ± 15.9, 14.5 ± 4.8, and 0.166 ± 0.031 mg/L, respectively. Five-site regional [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] overestimated WBW by 32%, 48%, and 33%, respectively. No individual regional patch site or 5-site regional was significantly correlated with WBW sweat [Ca] (r = -.21, p = .65), [Mg] (r = .49, p = .33), or [Cu] (r = .17, p = .74). In conclusion, regional sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] are not accurate surrogates for or significantly correlated with WBW sweat composition. PMID:21719904

  9. Thiazide diuretics directly induce osteoblast differentiation and mineralized nodule formation by targeting a NaCl cotransporter in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Melita M; De Joussineau, Cyrille; Carter, D Howard; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A; Gamba, Gerardo; Kemp, Paul J; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Thiazide diuretics are used, worldwide, as the first-choice drug for patients with uncomplicated hypertension. In addition to their anti-hypertensive actions, they increase bone mineral density and reduce the prevalence of fractures, indicating that thiazides may have a role in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Traditionally, the bone-protective effects of thiazides have been attributed to an increase in renal calcium reabsorption, secondary to the inhibition of the sodium chloride cotransporter, NCC, expressed in the kidney distal tubule. Whether thiazides exert a direct osteoanabolic effect independently of their renal action is controversial. Here we demonstrate that freshly frozen sections of human and rat bone express NCC, principally in bone-forming cells, the osteoblasts. In primary and established culture models of osteoblasts, fetal rat calvarial (FRC) and human MG63 cells, NCC protein is virtually absent in proliferating cells while its expression is dramatically increased during differentiation. Thiazides directly stimulate the production of osteoblast markers, runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2) and osteopontin, in the absence of a proliferative effect. Using overexpression/knockdown studies in FRC cells, we show that thiazides, but not loop diuretics, increase mineralized nodule formation acting on NCC. Overall, our study demonstrates that thiazides stimulate osteoblast differentiation and bone mineral formation independently of their renal actions. In addition to their use as part of a therapeutic treatment plan for elderly, hypertensive individuals, our discovery opens up the possibility that bone-specific drug targeting by thiazides may be developed for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in the patient population as a whole. PMID:17656470

  10. Effects of swimming training and free mobilization on bone mineral densities of rats with the immobilization-induced osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the possible effects of regular swimming exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) compared with free activity after cast immobilization of rats. We carried out the study from April 2005 to June 2005 at the Department of Sports Medicine, Medical School of Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey. The study included a total of 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were randomized to control (n = 6), swimming training (ST) n = 9, and free mobilization (FM) n = 9 groups. We measured Bone mineral densities of femur and vertebra of all rats with a total body scanner using software specifically designed for small animals, before study started and at weeks 3 and 7. Timepoints corresponded to basal, after cast removal (ACIM), and after 3 weeks of free mobilization (AFM) or swimming training (AST). We immobilized the right hindlimb of each ST and FM animal with a cast while the left hindlimbs were kept free. After 3 weeks, the casts were removed. Then we allowed the rats to move freely in their cage for one week, after which the animals in ST group started to swim for 5 days a week for 3 weeks for 30 minutes per day. The group FM rats moved freely in the cage. Bone mineral density of the femur and vertebra after cast immobilization was significantly decreased compared with both their basal and age-matched control group. After mobilization, significant increases occurred in both groups according to ACIM. Similar but milder changes were observed in free limbs femur BMD of rats. Interestingly, vertebra BMD of swimming group was also higher than its age-matched control group (p<0.05). Our study showed that swimming exercise had a significant rehabilitative effect on BMD loss associated with immobilization. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of swimming on other bone properties. (author)

  11. Mineral resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved

  12. Lathyrism-induced alterations in collagen cross-links influence the mechanical properties of bone material without affecting the mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, E.P.; Tatakis, D.N.; Robins, S.; Fratzl, P.; Manjubala, I.; Zoehrer, R.; Gamsjaeger, S.; Buchinger, B.; Roschger, A.; Phipps, R.; Boskey, A.L.; Dall'Ara, E.; Varga, P.; Zysset, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Roschger, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study a rat animal model of lathyrism was employed to decipher whether anatomically confined alterations in collagen cross-links are sufficient to influence the mechanical properties of whole bone. Animal experiments were performed under an ethics committee approved protocol. Sixty-four female (47 day old) rats of equivalent weights were divided into four groups (16 per group): Controls were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.6% calcium and 0.6% phosphorus for 2 or 4 weeks and β-APN treated animals were fed additionally with β-aminopropionitrile (0.1% dry weight). At the end of this period the rats in the four groups were sacrificed, and L2–L6 vertebra were collected. Collagen cross-links were determined by both biochemical and spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI)) analyses. Mineral content and distribution (BMDD) were determined by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), and mineral maturity/crystallinity by FTIRI techniques. Micro-CT was used to describe the architectural properties. Mechanical performance of whole bone as well as of bone matrix material was tested by vertebral compression tests and by nano-indentation, respectively. The data of the present study indicate that β-APN treatment changed whole vertebra properties compared to non-treated rats, including collagen cross-links pattern, trabecular bone volume to tissue ratio and trabecular thickness, which were all decreased (p < 0.05). Further, compression tests revealed a significant negative impact of β-APN treatment on maximal force to failure and energy to failure, while stiffness was not influenced. Bone mineral density distribution (BMDD) was not altered either. At the material level, β-APN treated rats exhibited increased Pyd/Divalent cross-link ratios in areas confined to a newly formed bone. Moreover, nano-indentation experiments showed that the E-modulus and hardness were reduced only in newly formed bone areas under the influence

  13. A biological method of including mineralized human liquid and solid wastes into the mass exchange of bio-technical life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Litovka, Yu. A.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2012-10-01

    The main obstacle to using mineralized human solid and liquid wastes as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivated in bio-technical life support systems (BLSS) is that they contain NaCl. The purpose of this study is to determine whether mineralized human wastes can be used to prepare the nutrient solution for long-duration conveyor cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. plant community. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the method of "wet incineration" developed by Yu. Kudenko. They served as a basis for preparing the solutions that were used for conveyor-type cultivation of wheat community represented by 5 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated hydroponically on expanded clay particles. To reduce salt content of the nutrient solution, every two weeks, after wheat was harvested, 12 L of solution was removed from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation in water culture in a conveyor mode. The Salicornia community was represented by 2 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. As some portion of the nutrient solution used for wheat cultivation was regularly removed, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/L, and mineral elements contained in the removed portion were used for Salicornia cultivation. The experiment lasted 4 months. The total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g · m-2 · day-1, and the harvest index amounted to 36.8%. The average productivity of Salicornia edible biomass on a dry weight basis was 39.3 g · m-2 · day-1, and its aboveground mass contained at least 20% of NaCl. Thus, the proposed technology of cultivation of wheat and halophyte plant community enables using mineralized human wastes as a basis for preparing nutrient solutions and including NaCl in the mass exchange of the BLSS; moreover, humans are supplied with additional amounts of leafy vegetables.

  14. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  15. Tantalum coating on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes induces superior rate of matrix mineralization and osteofunctionality in human osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Christine J.; Brammer, Karla S. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Noh, Kunbae [Corporate Research Institute, Cheil Industries, Inc., Gocheon-Dong, Uiwang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 437-711 (Korea, Republic of); Johnston, Gary [Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Jin, Sungho, E-mail: jin@ucsd.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructured surface geometries have been the focus of a multitude of recent biomaterial research, and exciting findings have been published. However, only a few publications have directly compared nanostructures of various surface chemistries. The work herein directly compares the response of human osteoblast cells to surfaces of identical nanotube geometries with two well-known orthopedic biomaterials: titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and tantalum (Ta). The results reveal that the Ta surface chemistry on the nanotube architecture enhances alkaline phosphatase activity, and promotes a ∼ 30% faster rate of matrix mineralization and bone-nodule formation when compared to results on bare TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. This study implies that unique combinations of surface chemistry and nanostructure may influence cell behavior due to distinctive physico-chemical properties. These findings are of paramount importance to the orthopedics field for understanding cell behavior in response to subtle alterations in nanostructure and surface chemistry, and will enable further insight into the complex manipulation of biomaterial surfaces. With increased focus in the field of orthopedic materials research on nanostructured surfaces, this study emphasizes the need for careful and systematic review of variations in surface chemistry in concurrence with nanotopographical changes. - Highlights: • A TiO{sub 2} nanotube surface structure was coated with tantalum. • Osteoblast cell response was compared between the tantalum coated and as-formed TiO{sub 2} nanotube surface. • We observed superior rates of bone matrix mineralization and osteoblast maturation on the tantalum coated nanotube surface.

  16. In vitro studies of calcium mixed minerals growth in different growth faces and semiconductor laser induced suppression of nuclei strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Kanchana; P Sundaramoorthi

    2008-12-01

    Kidney stone consists of various organic, inorganic and semi organic compounds. Mineral oxalate monohydrate and di-hydrate are the main organic constituents of kidney stones. However, mechanisms leading to the formation of mineral oxalate kidney stones are not clearly understood. The effect of some urinary stone constituents such as ammonium oxalate, calcium citrate, proteins and trace elements were reported by us. The calcium magnesium hydrogen phosphate (CaMHP) crystals were grown in SMS gel medium which provides the necessary kidney stimuli growth medium. The growth processes were done by single diffusion method for different physical and chemical parameters. The pH range in which HPO$^{2-}_{4}$ ions dominates were considered which in turn is necessary for the growth of CaMHP crystals. In the present study, calcium magnesium hydrogen phosphate (CaMHP) crystals are grown in three different growth faces to attain the total nucleation reduction. As an extension of this research, many characterization studies have been carried out like XRD, FTIR, TGA, SEM and etching and the results are reported.

  17. Analysis of mineral elements in hair samples for pregnancy-induced hypertension patients%人发中矿质元素与妊高征关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平; 赵莹; 赵永光; 吴萍

    2008-01-01

    采用等离子体质谱法、等离子体光谱法和原子荧光光谱法测定头发微量元素的含量,对20~25岁妊娠30周的妊娠高血压患者和正常妊娠者头发中微量元素的含量和元素问的相关关系进行分析比较.数据表明:妊娠高血压患者的K和Na元素偏高尤为突出,而se和Mn元素含量低于正常妊娠者;且妊娠高血脏患行Ca-Se、Cu-K之间的相关关系极为密切.为妊娠高血压的预防与治疗提供了科学依据.%In this paper,the contents of mineral element in hair samples for pregnancy-induced hypertension patients with 30 weeks gestation were measured by ICP-MS,ICP-OES and AFS method and controlled by healthy pregnancy persons with different age from 20 to 25.The correlation of mineral elements and pregnancyinduced hypertension preliminarily studied.It was shown that the contents of K and Na for pregnancy-induced hypertension patients were higher than healthy pregnancy persons.While the contents of Mn and Se are lower than healthy pregnancy persons.The highly relation between Ca-Se,Cu-K were also found.The paper provides guide for prevention and clinical treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  18. Space radiation-induced bystander effect: kinetics of biologic responses, mechanisms, and significance of secondary radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    more cells than expected based on the fraction of cells traversed through the nucleus by an iron or silicon ion. The effect was expressed as early as 15 min after exposure, peaked at 1 h and decreased by 24 h. A similar tendency occurred after exposure to a mean absorbed dose of 0.2 cGy of 3.7 MeV a particles, but not after 0.2 cGy of 290 MeV/u carbon ions.Analyses in dishes that incorporate a CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector bottom identified the cells irradiated with iron or silicon ions and further supported the participation of bystander cells in the stress response. Mechanistic studies indicated that gap junction intercellular communication, DNA repair, and oxidative metabolism participate in the propagation of the induced effects. We also considered the possible contribution of secondary particles produced along the primary particle tracks to the biological responses. Simulations with the FLUKA multi-particle transport code revealed that fragmentation products, other than electrons, in cells cultures exposed to HZE particles comprise ≤1 % of the absorbed dose. Further, the radial spread of dose due to secondary heavy ion fragments is confined to approximately 10-20 μm. Thus, the latter are unlikely to significantly contribute to the stressful effects in cells not targeted by primary HZE particles. (author)

  19. Biological effects induced by BSA-stabilized silica nanoparticles in mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldbjerg, Rasmus; Wang, Jing; Beer, Christiane; Thorsen, Kasper; Sutherland, Duncan S; Autrup, Herman

    2013-06-25

    Much of the concerns regarding engineered nanoparticle (NP) toxicity are based on knowledge from previous studies on particles in ambient air or occupational situations. E.g., the effects of exposure to silica dust particles have been studied intensely due to the carcinogenicity of crystalline silica. However, the increasing usage of engineered amorphous silica NPs has emphasized the need for further mechanistic insight to predict the consequences of exposure to the amorphous type of silica NPs. The present study focused on the in vitro biological effects following exposure to well-dispersed, BSA-stabilized, amorphous silica NPs whereas unmodified silica NPs where included for reasons of comparison. The cytotoxicity of the silica NPs was investigated in six different cell lines (A549, THP-1, CaCo-2, ASB-XIV, J-774A.1, and Colon-26) selected to explore the significance of organ and species sensitivity in vitro. Viability data demonstrated that macrophages were most sensitive to silica NP and interestingly, murine cell lines were generally found to be more sensitive than comparable human cell lines. Further studies were conducted in the human epithelial lung cell line, A549, to explore the molecular mechanism of silica toxicity. Generation of reactive oxygen species, one of the proposed toxicological mechanisms of NPs, was investigated in A549 cells by the dichlorofluorescin (DCF) assay to be significantly induced at NP concentrations above 113 μg/mL. However, induction of oxidative stress related pathways was not found after silica NP exposure for 24 h in gene array studies conducted in A549 cells at a relatively low NP concentration (EC20). Up-regulated genes (more than 2-fold) were primarily related to lipid metabolism and biosynthesis whereas down-regulated genes included several processes such as transcription, cell junction, extra cellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and others. Thus, gene expression data proposes that several cellular processes other

  20. Towards the differentiation of non-treated and treated corundum minerals by ion-beam-induced luminescence and other complementary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo del Castillo, H; Deprez, N; Dupuis, T; Mathis, F; Deneckere, A; Vandenabeele, P; Calderón, T; Strivay, D

    2009-06-01

    Differentiation of treated and non-treated gemstones is a chief concern for major jewellery import companies. Low-quality corundum specimens coming from Asia appear to be often treated with heat, BeO or flux in order to enhance their properties as precious minerals. A set of corundum samples, rubies and sapphires from different origins, both treated and non-treated has been analysed at the Centre Européen d'Archéométrie, with ion-beam-induced luminescence (IBIL) and other complementary techniques such as Raman, proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE). IBIL, also known as ionoluminescence, has been used before to detect impurities or defects inside synthetic materials and natural minerals; its use for the discrimination of gemstone simulants or synthetic analogues has been elsewhere discussed (Cavenago-Bignami Moneta, Gemología, Tomo I Piedras preciosas, perlas, corales, marfil. Ediciones Omega, Barcelona, 1991). PIXE has been frequently applied in the archaeometric field for material characterisation and provenance studies of minerals (Hughes, Ruby & sapphire. RWH Publishing, Fallbrook, 1997; Calvo del Castillo et al., Anal Bioanal Chem 387:869-878, 2007; Calligaro et al., NIM-B 189:320-327, 2002) and PIGE complements the elemental analysis by detecting light elements in these materials such as-and lighter than-sodium that cannot be identified with the PIXE technique (Sanchez et al., NIM-B 130:682-686, 1997; Emmett et al., Gems Gemology 39:84-135, 2003). The micro-Raman technique has also been used complementarily to ion beam analysis techniques for mineral characterisation (Novak et al., Appl Surf Sci 231-232:917-920, 2004). The aim of this study is to provide new means for systematic analysis of corundum gemstone-quality mineral, alternative to the traditional gemmologic methods; for this purpose, a Spanish jewellery import company supplied us with a number of natural corundum samples coming from different places

  1. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  2. Mineral Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  3. Tantalum coating on TiO2 nanotubes induces superior rate of matrix mineralization and osteofunctionality in human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Christine J; Brammer, Karla S; Noh, Kunbae; Johnston, Gary; Jin, Sungho

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructured surface geometries have been the focus of a multitude of recent biomaterial research, and exciting findings have been published. However, only a few publications have directly compared nanostructures of various surface chemistries. The work herein directly compares the response of human osteoblast cells to surfaces of identical nanotube geometries with two well-known orthopedic biomaterials: titanium oxide (TiO2) and tantalum (Ta). The results reveal that the Ta surface chemistry on the nanotube architecture enhances alkaline phosphatase activity, and promotes a ~30% faster rate of matrix mineralization and bone-nodule formation when compared to results on bare TiO2 nanotubes. This study implies that unique combinations of surface chemistry and nanostructure may influence cell behavior due to distinctive physico-chemical properties. These findings are of paramount importance to the orthopedics field for understanding cell behavior in response to subtle alterations in nanostructure and surface chemistry, and will enable further insight into the complex manipulation of biomaterial surfaces. With increased focus in the field of orthopedic materials research on nanostructured surfaces, this study emphasizes the need for careful and systematic review of variations in surface chemistry in concurrence with nanotopographical changes. PMID:24582257

  4. Depth-Dependent Mineral Soil CO 2 Production Processes: Sensitivity to Harvesting-Induced Changes in Soil Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Kellman; Amy Myette; Hugo Beltrami

    2015-01-01

    Forest harvesting induces a step change in the climatic variables (temperature and moisture), that control carbon dioxide (CO 2) production arising from soil organic matter decomposition within soils. Efforts to examine these vertically complex relationships in situ within soil profiles are lacking. In this study we examined how the climatic controls on CO 2 production change within vertically distinct layers of the soil profile in intact and clearcut forest soils of a humid temperate forest ...

  5. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidativ...

  6. Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan’s natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. I.11). Jordan’s mineral industry has a long history: flint was used in prehistoric times and early copper mining started in Wadi Faynan during the Chalcolithic Period. The following is a brief presentation of Jordan’s resources. Mining and investments will be studied in Part 3. Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources. NRA 2012 Phosphates The Jordanian Natur...

  7. Evaluation of toxicity reduction, mineralization, and treatability of phenolic wastewater treated with combined system of catalytic ozonation process / biological reactor (SBR)

    OpenAIRE

    Y Dadban Shahamat; M. Farzadkia; S Nasseri; A.H Mahvi; Gholami, M.; A Esrafily

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Phenol is one of the industrial pollutants in wastewaters, which due to its toxicity for biological systems various pretreatment processes have been used for its detoxification. In this study, the combination of catalytic ozonation process (COP) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were used for detoxification of these types of wastewaters. Materials and Methodology: In this study, the effect of COP on phenol degradation, COD removal, and detoxification of wastewa...

  8. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  9. 骨髓脂肪的生物学功能及其与骨密度的关系研究进展%Research progress on biological function of bone marrow adipose and its relationship with bone mineral density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛佳智; 弓腊梅; 胡敏

    2014-01-01

    近年来研究表明骨髓脂肪在不同的年龄段、不同的营养状况呈现不同的功能,其与骨密度的关系也呈现不一致性,且不同人群其含量变化趋势有差异。本文就骨髓脂肪与骨密度的关系及其潜在的生物学功能进行综述。%Recent studies showed that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) displayed different functions with various ages and nutritional status, and it had diverse relationships with bone mineral density (BMD). Mean-while, the content of BMAT was various in different groups. In this paper, the potential biological function of BMAT and its relationship with BMD was reviewed.

  10. Characterization of reactive flow-induced evolution of carbonate rocks using digital core analysis- part 1: Assessment of pore-scale mineral dissolution and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qajar, Jafar; Arns, Christoph H.

    2016-09-01

    The application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) for quantitatively characterizing reactive-flow induced pore structure evolution including local particle detachment, displacement and deposition in carbonate rocks is investigated. In the studies conducted in this field of research, the experimental procedure has involved alternating steps of imaging and ex-situ core sample alteration. Practically, it is impossible to return the sample, with micron precision, to the same position and orientation. Furthermore, successive images of a sample in pre- and post-alteration states are usually taken at different conditions such as different scales, resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios. These conditions accompanying with subresolution features in the images make voxel-by-voxel comparisons of successive images problematic. In this paper, we first address the respective challenges in voxel-wise interpretation of successive images of carbonate rocks subject to reactive flow. Reactive coreflood in two carbonate cores with different rock types are considered. For the first rock, we used the experimental and imaging results published by Qajar et al. (2013) which showed a quasi-uniform dissolution regime. A similar reactive core flood was conducted in the second rock which resulted in wormhole-like dissolution regime. We particularly examine the major image processing operations such as transformation of images to the same grey-scale, noise filtering and segmentation thresholding and propose quantitative methods to evaluate the effectiveness of these operations in voxel-wise analysis of successive images of a sample. In the second part, we generalize the methodology based on the three-phase segmentation of normalized images, microporosity assignment and 2D histogram of image intensities to estimate grey-scale changes of individual image voxels for a general case where the greyscale images are segmented into arbitrary number of phases. The results show that local (voxel

  11. Characterization of reactive flow-induced evolution of carbonate rocks using digital core analysis- part 1: Assessment of pore-scale mineral dissolution and deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qajar, Jafar; Arns, Christoph H

    2016-09-01

    The application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) for quantitatively characterizing reactive-flow induced pore structure evolution including local particle detachment, displacement and deposition in carbonate rocks is investigated. In the studies conducted in this field of research, the experimental procedure has involved alternating steps of imaging and ex-situ core sample alteration. Practically, it is impossible to return the sample, with micron precision, to the same position and orientation. Furthermore, successive images of a sample in pre- and post-alteration states are usually taken at different conditions such as different scales, resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios. These conditions accompanying with subresolution features in the images make voxel-by-voxel comparisons of successive images problematic. In this paper, we first address the respective challenges in voxel-wise interpretation of successive images of carbonate rocks subject to reactive flow. Reactive coreflood in two carbonate cores with different rock types are considered. For the first rock, we used the experimental and imaging results published by Qajar et al. (2013) which showed a quasi-uniform dissolution regime. A similar reactive core flood was conducted in the second rock which resulted in wormhole-like dissolution regime. We particularly examine the major image processing operations such as transformation of images to the same grey-scale, noise filtering and segmentation thresholding and propose quantitative methods to evaluate the effectiveness of these operations in voxel-wise analysis of successive images of a sample. In the second part, we generalize the methodology based on the three-phase segmentation of normalized images, microporosity assignment and 2D histogram of image intensities to estimate grey-scale changes of individual image voxels for a general case where the greyscale images are segmented into arbitrary number of phases. The results show that local (voxel

  12. Chemotherapy-induced enterocutaneous fistula after perineal hernia repair using a biological mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mh; Bulut, O

    2014-01-01

    abdominoperineal resection. Nine months after the perineal hernia operation, the patient had multiple metastases in both lungs and liver. The patient underwent chemotherapy, including bevacizumab, irinotecan, calcium folinate, and fluorouracil. Six weeks into chemotherapy, the patient developed signs of sepsis....... It seems that hernia repairs with biological meshes have lower erosion and infection rates compared with synthetic meshes, and so far, evidence suggests that biological grafts are safe and effective in the treatment of pelvic floor reconstruction. There have been no reports of enteric fistulas after pelvic...... reconstruction with biological meshes. However, the development of intestinal fistulas after chemotherapy with bevacizumab has been described in the literature. Our case report supports this association between bevacizumab and fistula formation among rectal cancer patients, as symptoms of a fistula started only...

  13. Photocatalytic Reactive Oxygen Species Formation by Semiconductor-Metal Hybrid Nanoparticles. Toward Light-Induced Modulation of Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiskopf, Nir; Ben-Shahar, Yuval; Galchenko, Michael; Carmel, Inbal; Moshitzky, Gilli; Soreq, Hermona; Banin, Uri

    2016-07-13

    Semiconductor-metal hybrid nanoparticles manifest efficient light-induced spatial charge separation at the semiconductor-metal interface, as demonstrated by their use for hydrogen generation via water splitting. Here, we pioneer a study of their functionality as efficient photocatalysts for the formation of reactive oxygen species. We observed enhanced photocatalytic activity forming hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals upon light excitation, which was significantly larger than that of the semiconductor nanocrystals, attributed to the charge separation and the catalytic function of the metal tip. We used this photocatalytic functionality for modulating the enzymatic activity of horseradish peroxidase as a model system, demonstrating the potential use of hybrid nanoparticles as active agents for controlling biological processes through illumination. The capability to produce reactive oxygen species by illumination on-demand enhances the available peroxidase-based tools for research and opens the path for studying biological processes at high spatiotemporal resolution, laying the foundation for developing novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27224678

  14. Construction of biological control strain of Trichoderma viride and study of their ability to induce plant disease resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-wang; GUO Ze-jian

    2004-01-01

    @@ Plant diseases heavily affct plant growth and crop yield even in modern agriculture. Control its difficult because pathogens mutate frequently, and this leads in frequent breaking of disease resistance in commercial cultivars. The excessive application of chemical pesticides is not only producing pesticideresistant pathogens, but it is harming the environment threatening the health of human beings.Therefore, the use of biological control agents (BCA) may provide an environmental friendly alternative to chemicals for plant disease control. Hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are the typical expressions of plant defense reactions. Once SAR is established,, the plants exhibits a broad-spectrum of disease resistance against pathogen attack. Researchers have identified elicitor proteins, such as elicitins and harpins, which activate plant defense reactions. It would be useful to explore the possibility of using biological control agents to induce a status of SAR in crop plants.

  15. Study on the radiation-induced biological responses based on the analysis of metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Haeran; Roh, Changhyun; Shin, Heejune; Ryu, Dongkyoung

    2013-01-15

    1. Objectives □ Establishment of basis of biological radiation response study by metabolite analysis 2. Project results □ Establishment of analytical basis of radiation-responsive metabolites in biological samples - Large scale collection of tissue samples from irradiated animal for radiation metabolomics research - Establishment of mass spectromety (GC MS, LC MS-MS) analysis methods of biological samples - 3 Standard Operation Protocols (SOP) for ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS, Q-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites from biological samples - Establishment of database for radiation metabolites □ Basic research on radiation-responsive metabolites and the interpretation of their functions - Validation of spermidine as a candidate biomarker of acute radiation response in mouse blood - Verification of 5 radiation-responsive steroid hormones and alteration of their metabolic enzyme activities in mouse blood - Verification of 13 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain -Verification of 10 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain - Verification of 74 radiation-responsive metabolites in whole rat brain by ultra high resolution FT-ICR MS and Q-TOF MS analysis 3. Expected benefits and plan of application □ Establishment of research basis of radiation metabolomics in Korea □ Provision of core technology in radiation bioscience and safety field by application of radiation metabolomics results to the technology development in radiation biodosimetry, and radiation response evaluation and modulation.

  16. The effect of green tea on radiation-induced late biological effect in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine the effect of Green tea on the late biological effect of mice irradiated with 3 Gy of gamma-radiation. There were various findings including hematopoietic and lymphoid tumor, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and cancer of other lesions. Further studies are needed to characterize better the protective nature of active compounds

  17. Biologics-induced autoimmune renal disorders in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases: systematic literature review and analysis of a monocentric cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piga, Matteo; Chessa, Elisabetta; Ibba, Valentina; Mura, Valentina; Floris, Alberto; Cauli, Alberto; Mathieu, Alessandro

    2014-08-01

    The use of biologic drugs has been linked with the paradoxical development of systemic and organ specific autoimmune processes. The aim of this study was to describe the features of biologics-induced autoimmune renal disorders (AIRD) through a systematic review and a cohort study of 707 adult patients affected with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Ankylosing Spondylitis (SA) and Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA). The literature search identified 2687 articles of which 21 were considered relevant for the present study, accounting for 26 case reports. The cohort analysis retrieved 3 cases. According to clinical manifestations and kidney histology the identified AIRD cases were classified as: a) glomerulonephritis associated with systemic vasculitis (GNSV), b) glomerulonephritis in lupus-like syndrome (GNLS), c) isolated autoimmune renal disorders (IARD). Twenty-two out of 29 cases with AIRD were reported in patients affected by RA, 5 in AS and 2 in PsA. The biologic drug most frequently associated with development of AIRD was Etanercept (15 cases, 51.7%), followed by Adalimumab (9 cases, 31.0%) and Infliximab (3 cases, 10.3%) while Tocilizumab and Abatacept were reported in 1 case (3.4%) for each. Thirteen out of 29 (44.8%) cases were classified as affected by IARD, 12 (41.3%) as GNSV and 4 (13.9%) as GNLS. Worse prognosis was associated with GNSV and lack of biologic withdrawal. Although rare, AIRD may be life-threatening and may lead to renal failure and death. If AIRD occurs, biologic drugs must be stopped and patient should be treated according to clinical manifestations and kidney biopsy findings.

  18. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  19. Milk protein suspensions enriched with three essential minerals: Physicochemical characterization and aggregation induced by a novel enzymatic pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Julia; Spelzini, Darío; Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Brandelli, Adriano; Risso, Patricia; Boeris, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    Structural changes of casein micelles and their aggregation induced by a novel enzymatic pool isolated from Bacillus spp. in the presence of calcium, magnesium or zinc were investigated. The effect of cations on milk protein structure was studied using fluorescence and dynamic light scattering. In the presence of cations, milk protein structure rearrangements and larger casein micelle size were observed. The interaction of milk proteins with zinc appears to be of a different nature than that with calcium or magnesium. Under the experimental conditions assayed, the affinity of each cation for some groups present in milk proteins seems to play an important role, besides electrostatic interaction. On the other hand, the lowest aggregation times were achieved at the highest calcium and zinc concentrations (15 mM and 0.25 mM, respectively). The study found that the faster the aggregation of casein micelles, the less compact the gel matrix obtained. Cation concentrations affected milk protein aggregation kinetics and the structure of the aggregates formed. PMID:26803666

  20. Milk protein suspensions enriched with three essential minerals: Physicochemical characterization and aggregation induced by a novel enzymatic pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Julia; Spelzini, Darío; Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Brandelli, Adriano; Risso, Patricia; Boeris, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    Structural changes of casein micelles and their aggregation induced by a novel enzymatic pool isolated from Bacillus spp. in the presence of calcium, magnesium or zinc were investigated. The effect of cations on milk protein structure was studied using fluorescence and dynamic light scattering. In the presence of cations, milk protein structure rearrangements and larger casein micelle size were observed. The interaction of milk proteins with zinc appears to be of a different nature than that with calcium or magnesium. Under the experimental conditions assayed, the affinity of each cation for some groups present in milk proteins seems to play an important role, besides electrostatic interaction. On the other hand, the lowest aggregation times were achieved at the highest calcium and zinc concentrations (15 mM and 0.25 mM, respectively). The study found that the faster the aggregation of casein micelles, the less compact the gel matrix obtained. Cation concentrations affected milk protein aggregation kinetics and the structure of the aggregates formed.

  1. Experimental proposal for testing the Emergence of Environment Induced (EIN) Classical Selection rules with Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Durt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    According to the so-called Quantum Darwinist approach, the emergence of "classical islands" from a quantum background is assumed to obey a (selection) principle of maximal information. We illustrate this idea by considering the coupling of two oscillators (modes). As our approach suggests that the classical limit could have emerged throughout a long and progressive Evolution mechanism, it is likely that primitive living organisms behave in a "more quantum", "less classical" way than more evolved ones. This brings us to seriously consider the possibility to measure departures from classicality exhibited by biological systems. We describe an experimental proposal the aimed at revealing the presence of entanglement in the biophotonic radiation emitted by biological sources.

  2. The reduction of biological production induced by mesoscale mixing: a modelling study in the Benguela upwelling

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Carrasco, Ismael; Hernández-García, Emilio; Garçon, Veronique; López, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies, both based on remote sensed data and coupled models, showed a reduction of biological productivity due to vigorous horizontal mixing in upwelling systems. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we have considered a system of oceanic flow in the Benguela area coupled with a simple biogeochemical model of Nutrient-Phyto-Zooplankton (NPZ) type. For the flow three different surface velocity fields are considered: one derived from satellite altimetry data, and the other two from a regional numerical model at two different spatial resolutions. We computed horizontal particle dispersion in terms of Lyapunov Exponents, and analyzed their correlations with phytoplankton concentrations. Our modelling approach confirms that in the south Benguela, there is a reduction of biological activity when stirring is increased. Two-dimensional offshore advection seems to be the dominant process involved. In the northern area, other factors not taken into account in our simulation are influencing the ecosyst...

  3. The impact of climate-induced distributional changes on the validity of biological water quality metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, Christopher; Thompson, David J; Harvey, Ian F

    2010-01-01

    We present data on the distributional changes within an order of macroinvertebrates used in biological water quality monitoring. The British Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) have been shown to be expanding their range northwards and this could potentially affect the use of water quality metrics. The results show that the families of Odonata that are used in monitoring are shifting their ranges poleward and that species richness is increasing through time at most UK latitudes. These past distributional shifts have had negligible effects on water quality indicators. However, variation in Odonata species richness (particularly in species-poor regions) has a significant effect on water quality metrics. We conclude with a brief review of current and predicted responses of aquatic macroinvertebrates to environmental warming and maintain that caution is warranted in the use of such dynamic biological indicators. PMID:19101810

  4. Identification of the biologically active liquid chemistry induced by a nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Kristian; Williams, Paul; Dalluge, Joe; Gaens, Wouter Van; Aboubakr, Hamada; Bischof, John; von Woedtke, Thomas; Goyal, Sagar M; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Bogaerts, Annemie; Masur, Kai; Bruggeman, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of interaction of cold nonequilibrium plasma jets with mammalian cells in physiologic liquid is reported. The major biological active species produced by an argon RF plasma jet responsible for cell viability reduction are analyzed by experimental results obtained through physical, biological, and chemical diagnostics. This is complemented with chemical kinetics modeling of the plasma source to assess the dominant reactive gas phase species. Different plasma chemistries are obtained by changing the feed gas composition of the cold argon based RF plasma jet from argon, humidified argon (0.27%), to argon/oxygen (1%) and argon/air (1%) at constant power. A minimal consensus physiologic liquid was used, providing isotonic and isohydric conditions and nutrients but is devoid of scavengers or serum constituents. While argon and humidified argon plasma led to the creation of hydrogen peroxide dominated action on the mammalian cells, argon-oxygen and argon-air plasma created a very different biological action and was characterized by trace amounts of hydrogen peroxide only. In particular, for the argon-oxygen (1%), the authors observed a strong negative effect on mammalian cell proliferation and metabolism. This effect was distance dependent and showed a half life time of 30 min in a scavenger free physiologic buffer. Neither catalase and mannitol nor superoxide dismutase could rescue the cell proliferation rate. The strong distance dependency of the effect as well as the low water solubility rules out a major role for ozone and singlet oxygen but suggests a dominant role of atomic oxygen. Experimental results suggest that O reacts with chloride, yielding Cl2(-) or ClO(-). These chlorine species have a limited lifetime under physiologic conditions and therefore show a strong time dependent biological activity. The outcomes are compared with an argon MHz plasma jet (kinpen) to assess the differences between these (at least seemingly) similar plasma sources

  5. Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Mineralized Alginate Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhrin, Marita; Xie, Minli; Olderøy, Magnus Ø.; Sikorski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Mineralized biomaterials are promising for use in bone tissue engineering. Culturing osteogenic cells in such materials will potentially generate biological bone grafts that may even further augment bone healing. Here, we studied osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an alginate hydrogel system where the cells were co-immobilized with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for gradual mineralization of the microenvironment. MSC were embedded in unmodified alginate beads and alginate beads mineralized with ALP to generate a polymer/hydroxyapatite scaffold mimicking the composition of bone. The initial scaffold mineralization induced further mineralization of the beads with nanosized particles, and scanning electron micrographs demonstrated presence of collagen in the mineralized and unmineralized alginate beads cultured in osteogenic medium. Cells in both types of beads sustained high viability and metabolic activity for the duration of the study (21 days) as evaluated by live/dead staining and alamar blue assay. MSC in beads induced to differentiate in osteogenic direction expressed higher mRNA levels of osteoblast-specific genes (RUNX2, COL1AI, SP7, BGLAP) than MSC in traditional cell cultures. Furthermore, cells differentiated in beads expressed both sclerostin (SOST) and dental matrix protein-1 (DMP1), markers for late osteoblasts/osteocytes. In conclusion, Both ALP-modified and unmodified alginate beads provide an environment that enhance osteogenic differentiation compared with traditional 2D culture. Also, the ALP-modified alginate beads showed profound mineralization and thus have the potential to serve as a bone substitute in tissue engineering. PMID:25769043

  6. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in mineralized alginate matrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Westhrin

    Full Text Available Mineralized biomaterials are promising for use in bone tissue engineering. Culturing osteogenic cells in such materials will potentially generate biological bone grafts that may even further augment bone healing. Here, we studied osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in an alginate hydrogel system where the cells were co-immobilized with alkaline phosphatase (ALP for gradual mineralization of the microenvironment. MSC were embedded in unmodified alginate beads and alginate beads mineralized with ALP to generate a polymer/hydroxyapatite scaffold mimicking the composition of bone. The initial scaffold mineralization induced further mineralization of the beads with nanosized particles, and scanning electron micrographs demonstrated presence of collagen in the mineralized and unmineralized alginate beads cultured in osteogenic medium. Cells in both types of beads sustained high viability and metabolic activity for the duration of the study (21 days as evaluated by live/dead staining and alamar blue assay. MSC in beads induced to differentiate in osteogenic direction expressed higher mRNA levels of osteoblast-specific genes (RUNX2, COL1AI, SP7, BGLAP than MSC in traditional cell cultures. Furthermore, cells differentiated in beads expressed both sclerostin (SOST and dental matrix protein-1 (DMP1, markers for late osteoblasts/osteocytes. In conclusion, Both ALP-modified and unmodified alginate beads provide an environment that enhance osteogenic differentiation compared with traditional 2D culture. Also, the ALP-modified alginate beads showed profound mineralization and thus have the potential to serve as a bone substitute in tissue engineering.

  7. Virulent and avirulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii which differ in their glycosylphosphatidylinositol content induce similar biological functions in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Niehus

    Full Text Available Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs from several protozoan parasites are thought to elicit a detrimental stimulation of the host innate immune system aside their main function to anchor surface proteins. Here we analyzed the GPI biosynthesis of an avirulent Toxoplasma gondii type 2 strain (PTG by metabolic radioactive labeling. We determined the biological function of individual GPI species in the PTG strain in comparison with previously characterized GPI-anchors of a virulent strain (RH. The GPI intermediates of both strains were structurally similar, however the abundance of two of six GPI intermediates was significantly reduced in the PTG strain. The side-by-side comparison of GPI-anchor content revealed that the PTG strain had only ∼ 34% of the protein-free GPIs as well as ∼ 70% of the GPI-anchored proteins with significantly lower rates of protein N-glycosylation compared to the RH strain. All mature GPIs from both strains induced comparable secretion levels of TNF-α and IL-12p40, and initiated TLR4/MyD88-dependent NF-κBp65 activation in macrophages. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PTG and RH strains differ in their GPI biosynthesis and possess significantly different GPI-anchor content, while individual GPI species of both strains induce similar biological functions in macrophages.

  8. Histopathological And Biological Studies On The Role Of Soybean And Broad Bean AgainstRadiation Induce Damage In Rat Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Fathy Waer, **Abdel El ­ Rahman Mohamed Attia

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the physiological and histological activities in the animal body are disturbed after exposure to ionizing radiation. These disturbances are either due to direct harmful effect of radiation on the biological systems or to the indirect effect of free radicals formed in the body after irradiation. There is growing evidence that the type of food plays an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The biological disturbance due to ionizing radiation makes search for ways of protecting living organisms essential for controlling the radiation hazards. Much of the world population relies on legumes, as a stable food. Legumes can affectively protect cells and tissues against damage. Our present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of single dose !"#$%#&f the possible protective effect of feeding beans (broad beans and soybeans against radiation exposure. Histopathological, and biological changes of kidney function in irradiated, and bean fed animals were carried out. Animals were weighted and daily food intake was determined. The result obtained revealed that soybean is an extremely rich source of protein and fat as compared to faba bean. Radiations cause a reduction in food intake and weight gain. It causes great changes in the kidney glomeruli and collecting tubules. The recovery of the cells depend on the type of feeding so, feeding soybean gives a significant radiation protection and decreases the extent of changes induced by radiation

  9. Multislice quantitative computed tomography allows early detection of bone mineral density alterations induced by atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To demonstrate the utility of Multislice Quantitative Computed Tomography (MS-QCT) in the early detection of mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) alterations induced by an atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model. Materials and Methods. Male weanling Wistar rats (n =16) were divided by body weight (Wt) into 2 groups: control (C) and experimental (E), with no significant differences in the mean initial Wt (p>0.05). C was fed rodent stock diet ad libitum, and E an atherogenic diet for 3 weeks (3w). Zoometry (body weight and length) and diet intake (g/100g rat/day) were monitored. At 3 w in serum (mg/dL) lipidlipoprotein profile was studied: total cholesterol (t-C), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and MSQCT (Philips 64 CT, quantified with the eFilm Workstation 2.1) in seven mandibular areas (MA): n. 1 to 4: from chin to mandibular foramen, n. 5: coronoid process, n. 6: condylar process, n. 7: angular process. Statistics: Pearson's correlation between BMD in each MA and serum t-C. p0.05). Correlation coefficients (r) and their significance levels (p) were relevant in 5/7 MA. MA1:-0.580 (p=0.019), MA2:-0.709 (p=0.002), MA3:-0.635 (p=0.008), MA5:-0.674 (p=0.004), MA6:-0.564 (p=0.023). Conclusions. These results suggest that MS-QCT is an imaging diagnostic method that allows the early detection of mandible bone architecture alterations induced by an atherogenic diet. Inverse correlation between BMD and t-C would indicate an association between an atherogenic diet intake and potential temporomandibular disorders. (authors)

  10. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: A potential tool for the analysis of contaminants and macro/micronutrients in organic mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Senesi, Giorgio Saverio; de Oliveira Perazzoli, Ivan Luiz; Marangoni, Bruno Spolon; De Melo Benites, Vinícius; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira

    2016-09-15

    Organic fertilizers are obtained from waste of plant or animal origin. One of the advantages of organic fertilizers is that, from the composting, it recycles waste-organic of urban and agriculture origin, whose disposal would cause environmental impacts. Fast and accurate analysis of both major and minor/trace elements contained in organic mineral and inorganic fertilizers of new generation have promoted the application of modern analytical techniques. In particular, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is showing to be a very promising, quick and practical technique to detect and measure contaminants and nutrients in fertilizers. Although, this technique presents some limitations, such as a low sensitivity, if compared to other spectroscopic techniques, the use of double pulse (DP) LIBS is an alternative to the conventional LIBS in single pulse (SP). The macronutrients (Ca, Mg, K, P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Na, Mn, Zn) and contaminant (Cr) in fertilizer using LIBS in SP and DP configurations were evaluated. A comparative study for both configurations was performed using optimized key parameters for improving LIBS performance. The limit of detection (LOD) values obtained by DP LIBS increased up to seven times as compared to SP LIBS. In general, the marked improvement obtained when using DP system in the simultaneous LIBS quantitative determination for fertilizers analysis could be ascribed to the larger ablated mass of the sample. The results presented in this study show the promising potential of the DP LIBS technique for a qualitative analysis in fertilizers, without requiring sample preparation with chemical reagents. PMID:27261426

  11. The molecular biology of radiation-induced carcinogenesis: thymic lymphoma, myeloid leukaemia and osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janowski, M. (Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)); Cox, R. (Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit); Strauss, P.G. (GSF, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Molekulare Zellpathologie)

    1990-04-01

    In mice, external X- or {gamma}-irradiation may induce thymic lymphomas or myeloid leukaemias, while bone-seeking {alpha}-emitters may induce osteosarcomas, and to a lesser extent acute myeloid leukaemia. The paper reviews briefly some experimental data in respect to molecular mechanisms underlying these radio-carcinogenic processes. Thymic lymphomagenesis proceeds by an indirect mechanism in which recombinant proviruses could be involved. Myeloid leukaemogenesis is characterized by a very early putative initiating event, consisting of non-random rearrangements and/or deletions of chromosome 2. Osteosarcomagenesis in mice is often associated with the expression of proviruses, and the tumors often contain somatically acquired proviruses. (UK).

  12. Health effects of mineral dusts, Volume 28: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mossman, B.T. [ed.] [Vermont Univ., Burlington, VT (United States). Dept. of Pathology

    1993-12-31

    The processes that lead to the development of disease (or pathogenesis) by minerals very likely occur at or near the mineral-fluid interface. Thus the field of ``mineral-induced pathogenesis`` is a prime candidate for interdisciplinary research, involving mineral scientists, health scientists, petrologists, pathologists, geochemists, biochemists, and surface scientists, to name a few. This review volume and the short course upon which it was based are intended to provide some of the necessary tools for the researcher interested in this area of interdisciplinary research. The chapters present several of the important problems, concepts, and approaches from both the geological and biological ends of the spectrum. These two extremes are partially integrated throughout the book by cross-referencing between chapters. Chapter 1 also presents a general introduction into the ways in which these two areas overlap. The final chapter of this book discusses some of the regulatory aspects of minerals. A glossary is included at the end of this book, because the complexity of scientific terms in the two fields can thwart even the most enthusiastic of individuals. Individual reports have been processed separately for the database.

  13. Vibration-induced coherence enhances the performance of a biological quantum heat engine

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hong-Bin; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis has been the long-standing research interest due to its fundamental importance. Recently, studies on photosynthesis processes also inspire attention from thermodynamical aspect when considering photosynthetic apparatuses as biological quantum heat engines. Quantum coherence is shown to play a crucial role in enhancing the performance of these quantum heat engines. Based on the experimentally reported structure, we propose a quantum heat engine model with a non-Markovian vibrational mode. We show that one can obtain a performance enhancement easily for a wide range of parameters in the presence of the vibrational mode. Our results suggest new insights into the photosynthetic processes and a design principle mimicking natural organisms.

  14. Aluminum-Induced Entropy in Biological Systems: Implications for Neurological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Shaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 200 years, mining, smelting, and refining of aluminum (Al in various forms have increasingly exposed living species to this naturally abundant metal. Because of its prevalence in the earth’s crust, prior to its recent uses it was regarded as inert and therefore harmless. However, Al is invariably toxic to living systems and has no known beneficial role in any biological systems. Humans are increasingly exposed to Al from food, water, medicinals, vaccines, and cosmetics, as well as from industrial occupational exposure. Al disrupts biological self-ordering, energy transduction, and signaling systems, thus increasing biosemiotic entropy. Beginning with the biophysics of water, disruption progresses through the macromolecules that are crucial to living processes (DNAs, RNAs, proteoglycans, and proteins. It injures cells, circuits, and subsystems and can cause catastrophic failures ending in death. Al forms toxic complexes with other elements, such as fluorine, and interacts negatively with mercury, lead, and glyphosate. Al negatively impacts the central nervous system in all species that have been studied, including humans. Because of the global impacts of Al on water dynamics and biosemiotic systems, CNS disorders in humans are sensitive indicators of the Al toxicants to which we are being exposed.

  15. Biological implications of high-energy cosmic ray induced muon flux in the extragalactic shock model

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    A ~ 62 My periodicity in fossil biodiversity has been observed in independent studies of paleobiology databases going back 542 My. The period and phase of this biodiversity cycle coincides with the motion of our solar system in the galactic disk that oscillates perpendicular to the galactic plane with an amplitude of about 70 parsecs and a period of 63.6 My. Our Galaxy is falling toward the Virgo cluster due to its gravitational pull, forming a galactic shock at the north end of our galaxy due to this motion, capable of accelerating particles and exposing our galaxy's northern side to a higher flux of cosmic rays. These high-energy particles strike the Earth's atmosphere initiating extensive air showers, ionizing the atmosphere by producing charged secondary particles. Secondary particles such as muons produced as a result of nuclear interactions are able to reach the ground, enhancing the biological radiation dose, causing DNA damage and increasing mutation rates, which can have serious biological implicatio...

  16. The generation of C-3α epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its biological effects on bone mineral density in adult rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Christina; Lavery, Paula; Agellon, Sherry; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-05-01

    The source and function of C-3α epimer of 25(OH)D (C-3 epimer) is unknown. The objectives were to (1) establish if increasing doses of vitamin D (VD) results in a proportionate dose-response in C-3 epimer; and (2) determine the biological response of bone to C-3 epimer treatment. Sprague Dawley rats (12 weeks, n = 36 female, n = 36 male) were randomized to control AIN93-M diet (1 IU VD3/g diet) or an experimental diet for 8 weeks containing VD3 at 2 or 4 IU/g diet, C-3 epimer at 0.5 or 1 IU/g diet or 25(OH)D (0.5 IU/g diet). BW and food consumption were measured weekly. Blood was sampled at week 0, 4, and 8 for assessment of VD metabolites and bone metabolism biomarkers. DXA (week 0, 4, and 8) and in vivo micro CT (μCT) (week 0 and 8) were performed in vivo plus ex vivo μCT imaging and bone biomechanics. Dietary intake and anthropometry did not differ among diet groups. The dose-response of VD generated significantly elevated C-3 epimer only in females with concentrations of 4 IU VD diet group [mean 84.6 (62.5) nmol/L] exceeding control [mean 21.4 (18.5) nmol/L, p = 0.005]. Both sexes in the 25(OH)D group did not show significant increases in C-3 epimer, whereas 0.5 and 1 IU epimer groups exceeded 100 nmol/L of C-3 epimer by 8 weeks. These data suggest C-3 epimer is endogenously generated with higher intakes of VD. Endogenous and exogenous C-3 epimer accumulates in serum without impact upon bone health outcomes in a healthy young adult model over 8 weeks.

  17. Radiation-induced apoptosis in undifferentiated cells of the developing brain as a biological defense mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inouye, Minioru [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine; Tamaru, Masao

    1994-12-31

    Undifferentiated neural (UN) cells of the developing mammalian brain are highly sensitive to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation, transglutaminase activation, and internucleosomal DNA cleavage reveal radiation-induced cell death in the ventricular zone of the cerebral mantle and external granular layer of the cerebellum to be due to apoptosis. A statistically significant increase of cell mortality can be induced by 0.03 Gy X-irradiation, and the mortality increases linearly with increasing doses. It is not changed by split doses, probably because of the very slow repair of cellular damage and a lack of adaptive response. Although extensive apoptosis in the UN cell population results in microcephaly and mental retardation, it possesses the ability to recover from a considerable cell loss and to form the normal structure of the central nervous system. The number of cell deaths needed to induce tissue adnormalities in the adult murine brain rises in the range of 15-25% of the germinal cell population; with the threshold doses at about 0.3 Gy for cerebral anomalies and 1 Gy for cerebellar abnormalities. Threshold level is similarly suggested in prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors. High radiosensitivity of UN cells is assumed to be a manifestation of the ability of the cell to commit suicide when injured. Repeated replication of DNA and extensive gene expression are required in future proliferation and differentiation. Once an abnormality in DNA was induced and fixed in the UN cell, it would be greatly amplified and prove a danger in producing malformations and tumors. These cells would thus commit suicide for the benefit of the individual to eliminate their acquired genetic abnormalities rather than make DNA repair. UN cells in the developing brain are highly radiosensitive and readily involved in apoptosis. Paradoxically, however, this may be to protect individuals against teratogenesis and tumorigenesis. (J.P.N.).

  18. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Manassantin Analogues for Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Do-Yeon; Lee, Hye Eun; Weitzel, Douglas H.; PARK, KYUNGHYE; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Chen-Ting; Stephenson, Tesia N.; Park, Hyeri; Fitzgerald, Michael C.; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Mook, Robert A.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Lee, You Mie; Hong, Jiyong

    2015-01-01

    To cope with hypoxia, tumor cells have developed a number of adaptive mechanisms mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) to promote angiogenesis and cell survival. Due to significant roles of HIF-1 in the initiation, progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment of most solid tumors, a considerable amount of effort has been made to identify HIF-1 inhibitors for treatment of cancer. Isolated from Saururus cernuus, manassantins A (1) and B (2) are potent inhibitors of HIF-1 activi...

  19. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070252 Chen Meilan (Biological and Environmental College, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou 310015, China); Li Li Study on Adsorption of Phenol by Modified Organobentonite (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 24(4), 2005, p.259-261, 267, 6 illus., 1 table, 11 refs.) Key words: bentonite, benzene, adsorption

  20. Botanical and biological pesticides elicit a similar Induced Systemic Response in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretali, Luca; Bernardo, Letizia; Butterfield, Timothy S; Trevisan, Marco; Lucini, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Natural pesticides have attracted substantial interest due to the increase in organic agriculture and enhanced attention to environmental pollution. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are applied for both disease control and growth enhancement; PGPBs are known to elicit Induced Systemic Response (ISR) in plants. However, less is known about the effect of botanical pesticides, such as the azadirachtin-containing neem extracts, on plant metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of foliar application of the above-mentioned natural pesticides on the metabolic profiling of tomato. Leaf application of Bacillus subtilis fostered Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) in treated plants via the Jasmonic acid pathway, and enhanced production of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phytoalexins and auxins. Changes in sterols and terpenes, as well as an increase in glucosinolates were also observed. Interestingly, azadirachtin-treated tomatoes also showed an increase in ISR and our results revealed that most of the enriched metabolites are shared with a B. subtilis treatment, suggesting conserved biochemical responses. These (un)expected findings indicate that plants are not insensitive to application of natural pesticide and while Azadirachtin is applied as a direct pesticide, it also stimulates a defense response in tomatoes very similar to B. subtilis induced ISR. PMID:27251587

  1. Gamma irradiation induced disintegration of waste activated sludge for biological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, gamma irradiation was applied for the disintegration and dissolution of waste activated sludge produced during the biological wastewater treatment, and the solubilized sludge was used as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. The experimental results showed that the solubilization of waste activated sludge was 53.7% at 20 kGy and pH=12, and the SCOD, polysaccharides, protein, TN and TP contents in the irradiated sludge solutions was 3789.6 mg/L, 268.3 mg/L, 1881.5 mg/L, 132.3 mg/L and 80.4 mg/L, respectively. The irradiated sludge was used for fermentative hydrogen production, and the hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCODconsumed. It can be concluded that the irradiated waste activated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for fermentative hydrogen production.

  2. Dissociation between changes in immunoreactive parathormone and its biological indices induced by cimetidine in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, P C; Fischer, H R; Hackeng, W H; Schopman, W; Koorevaar, G; den Ottolander, G J; Silberbusch, J

    1981-01-01

    In three out of four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, 2 000 mg of cimetidine daily caused a reduction of immunoreactive parathormone (iPTH) when measured at 8.30 and 11.30 on days 16 and 17 on treatment. Serum Ca, PO4 and maximal tubular reabsorption of PO4 remained unchanged. Excretion of cAMP/100 ml GFR remained elevated to at least the same extent as before treatment. Two patients, in whom cimetidine treatment was continued for an additional 4 weeks, did not show further hormonal or biochemical changes compared with the evaluation on days 16 and 17. We conclude that reduction of iPTH is not accompanied by any change in biological activity of this hormone. The reason for this discrepancy remains unclear. PMID:6277160

  3. Analysis of micro-composition of biological tissue by means of induced radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, C.A.; Dunn, R.W.

    1948-05-24

    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers promises a wealth of information regarding the biochemical role of most elements and their components. Usually a radioactive sample of the element to be studied is administered to the plant or animal in a convenient form, and its distribution and rate of exchange are determined in later assays. This technique has, however, certain limitations, two of which will be discussed here: (1) radioactive isotopes are not generally useful for measurements of the concentration of elements in the body or its parts. They can be used only to give a measure of the rate of exchange of the elements and (2) the use of radioactive isotopes for tracer experiments requires that the radiation dose delivered to the tissue should be small in order not to disturb normal biological function.

  4. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  5. Cyclodextrin induced controlled delivery of a biological photosensitizer from a nanocarrier to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Pronab; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Das, Sinjan; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we have addressed to a demanding physicochemical aspect of therapeutic and drug research. We have reported a simple yet prospective technique that can be exploited for the controlled delivery of drugs and/or bioactive small molecules to the most relevant biomolecular target DNA. Exploiting various steady state and time resolved spectroscopic techniques together with the DNA helix melting study, we have shown that a biologically significant photosensitizer, namely, phenosafranin (PSF), can be quantitatively transferred to the DNA from the micellar nanocarrier made up of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) using the external stimulant β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The complexation property of β-CD with the nanocarrier (STS) has been utilized for the controlled release of the probe from the micelle to the DNA. Non-toxicity of the stimulant and the noninvasive nature of the carrier towards the target are expected to add to the suitability of this approach from a clinical perspective. PMID:26758082

  6. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  7. Formalin-induced fluorescence reveals cell shape and morphology in biological tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Leischner

    Full Text Available Ultramicroscopy is a powerful tool to reveal detailed three-dimensional structures of large microscopical objects. Using high magnification, we observed that formalin induces fluorescence more in extra-cellular space and stains cellular structures negatively, rendering cells as dark objects in front of a bright background. Here, we show this effect on a three-dimensional image stack of a hippocampus sample, focusing on the CA1 region. This method, called FIF-Ultramicroscopy, allows for the three-dimensional observation of cellular structures in various tissue types without complicated staining techniques.

  8. Research on biological effects induced by γ-irradiation combined with benzene, toluene and carbon monoxide inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the patterns of biological effects induced by γ-rays irradiation combined with simultaneous inhalation benzene, toluene or carbon monoxide and to analyze their antagonistic,additive or synergistic interaction. Methods: Ninety healthy male rabbits were equally divided into 9 groups. Eight of which were assigned to be test groups according to four-factor-two-dose-level orthogonal layout {L8(27) } program and the other one was the control group. The two dose-levels of these four agents were: the γ-irradiation doses were 0.0075 Gy/d and 0.0375 Gy/d, and the two concentrations of benzene, toluene and carbon monoxide were 40 +-15 and 162 +- 33 mg/m3, 90 +- 30 and 407 +- 68 mg/m3, 93 +- 4 and 278 +- 8 mg/m3, respectively. The animals were exposed to γ-irradiation combined with benzene,toluene or CO vapour 2 h a day and 5 days a week for successive 8 weeks. Variance analysis and comparison between test groups were made for analyzing the test data. Results: (1) It was showed that γ-irradiation, benzene and toluene could all induce chromosome aberrations, SCEs and micronuclei of lymphocytes and chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells; but no effect could be seen in CO alone treated group. (2) The ratios (ω) of biological effects jointly induced by the four agents and the sum of those induced separately by them were 2.16, 1.58, 2.07, 2.67, 1.25 and 1.18 for dicentric + ring,acentric, aberration cells, total aberration, micronuclei and micronucleus cells, respectively,and it was as high as 5.97 for aberrant sperms.The ratios showed that the interactions were synergistic(ω>1). However,interactions between γ-rays and benzene was antagonistic for acentric of lymphocytes. (3) The four agents could all obviously cause decrease of weight index of testis, γ-rays,toluene and CO could all markedly reduce the number of sperms and increase the ratio of aberrant sperms. Conclusion: γ-irradiation combined with benzene, toluene and CO inhalation can lead

  9. Restoration of bone mineralization by cinacalcet is associated with a significant reduction in calcitriol-induced vascular calcification in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Tineke M; Behets, Geert J; Jung, Susanne; Neven, Ellen; D'Haese, Patrick C; Querfeld, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigated to what extent normalization of bone turnover goes along with a reduction of high-dose calcitriol-induced vascular calcifications in uremic rats. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: sham-operated controls (n = 7), subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) uremic (CRF) animals (n = 12), CRF + calcitriol (vitD) (0.25 μg/kg/day) (n = 12), CRF + vitD + cinacalcet (CIN) (10 mg/kg/day) (n = 12), and CRF + vitD + parathyroidectomy (PTX) (n = 12). Treatment started 2 weeks after SNX and continued for the next 14 weeks. High-dose calcitriol treatment in hyperparathyroid rats went along with the development of distinct vascular calcification, which was significantly reduced by >50 %, in both CIN-treated and PTX animals. Compared to control animals and those of the CRF group, calcitriol treatment either in combination with CIN or PTX or not was associated with a significant increase in bone area comprising ±50 % of the total tissue area. However, whereas excessive woven bone accompanied by a dramatically increased osteoid width/area was seen in the CRF + vitD group, CIN treatment and PTX resulted in significantly reduced serum PTH level, which was accompanied by a distinct reduction of both the bone formation rate and the amount of osteoid. These data indicate that less efficient calcium and phosphorus incorporation in bone inherent to the severe hyperparathyroidism in vitamin D-treated uremic rats goes along with excessive vascular calcification, a process which is partially reversed by CIN treatment in combination with a more efficacious bone mineralization, thus restricting the availability of calcium and phosphate for being deposited in the vessel wall.

  10. Fabrication of aggregation-induced emission based fluorescent nanoparticles and their biological imaging application: recent progress and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aggregation-induced emission (AIE dyes have received wide-spread concern since their inception. Several types of AIE-based fluorescent nanoparticle (FNP have been developed, and the potential applications of these FNPs have also been explored. Recent studies of AIE-based FNPs in biological areas have suggested that they show promise as bio-materials for cell imaging and other biomedical applications. This article reviews recent progress in the synthesis of AIE-based FNPs via non-covalent, covalent and novel one-pot strategies, and the subsequent cell-imaging of those AIE-based FNPs. Many successes have been achieved, and there is still plenty of space for the development of AIE-based FNPs as new bio-materials.

  11. Spaceflight-induced variation on biological traits and effective components of Cassia obtusifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ren-jun; Qi, Zhi-hong; Han, Rui-lian; Liu, Feng-hua; Liu, Yan; Liang, Zong-suo

    2015-07-01

    The dry seeds of Cassia obtusifolia were carried by the "ShenZhou 8" satellite and sowed after landing. Based on our pri- or study on SP1, the characteristics of plants growth, physiological index and content of effective components were examined. The results showed that the QC10, QC29 strains matured 5 d earlier compared with control. The plant height, across diameter and ground diameter of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains was superior to the control at whole growth period. The branch number increased ranging from 4 to 11 and the number of pods reached 321, 313,281, respectively, which was dramatically higher than the control (246). The yield of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains increased noticeably from 31.4 to 63.2 g. The 1000-seed-weight of QC10, QC29, QC46 strains was 25.86, 25.88, 24.06 g, while the control was 23.69 g. Compared to the control, the mass fraction of chlorophyll was enhanced 1.098, 1.016, 0.297 mg. There was no significant difference in aurantio-obtusin and chrysophanol content of seeds. Through two years research, three high-yield mutant strains were obtained. This study indicates that spaceflight-induced mutants could provide new germplasm for C. obtusifolia breeding and offers the theoretical basis for further utilization of spaceflight-induced mutation to breed high-quality C. obtusifolia strains.

  12. A biological approach to the interspecies prediction of radiation-induced mortality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolutionary explanations for why sexually reproducing organisms grow old suggest that the forces of natural selection affect the ages when diseases occur that are subject to a genetic influence (referred to here as intrinsic diseases). When extended to the population level for a species, this logic leads to the general prediction that age-specific death rates from intrinsic causes should begin to rise as the force of selection wanes once the characteristic age of sexual maturity is attained. Results consistent with these predictions have been found for laboratory mice, beagles, and humans where, after adjusting for differences in life span, it was demonstrated that these species share a common age pattern of mortality for intrinsic causes of death. In quantitative models used to predict radiation-induced mortality, risks are often expressed as multiples of those observed in a control population. A control population, however, is an aging population. As such, mortality risks related to exposure must be interpreted relative to the age-specific risk of death associated with aging. Given the previous success in making interspecies predictions of age-related mortality, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced mortality observed in one species could also be predicted quantitatively from a model used to describe the mortality consequences of exposure to radiation in a different species. Mortality data for B6CF1 mice and beagles exposed to 60Co γ-rays for the duration of life were used for analysis

  13. Biological and physical approaches to improve induced resistance against green mold of stored citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arras, G; Dhallewin, G; Petretto, A; Marceddu, S; Loche, M; Agabbio, M

    2005-01-01

    Health and environmental concerns have point out the need to improve or change several manufacturing steps in the food chain. In this context particular attention should be given to the technologies involved in fruits and vegetables production. Nearly all fresh fruit and vegetables are subjected to different periods of storage and/or shelf-life before of their consumption. This implies the need to protect the commodities from microbial spoilage. Some Citrus species (e.g. lemon and grapefruit) may be stored for several months before consumption and then post-harvest treatments are essential to contain green (Penicillium digitatum) and blue (P. italicum) moulds. Alternative approaches to chemicals usually have a lower efficacy in containing rots but fulfill the consumer's expectation. Among the alternative strategies, the improvement of host natural resistance is promising. In this regard, we report some results concerning the use of biotic (yeast) and abiotic agents as inducers of phytoalexin (i.e. scoparone and/or scopoletin) accumulation in Citrus rind and its importance in the control of fungal decay. In all experiments the inducers were applied on fruits before or 24 h after inoculation with P. digitatum and the rot severity was monitored 7 days later. The accumulation of phytoalexins was monitored according to a standard methodology by HPLC. In all experiments a positive correlation was found between increase of the phytoalexin scoparone in host tissue and reduction of decay.

  14. Laser-induced damage in biological tissue: Role of complex and dynamic optical properties of the medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Elharith M.

    Since its invention in the early 1960's, the laser has been used as a tool for surgical, therapeutic, and diagnostic purposes. To achieve maximum effectiveness with the greatest margin of safety it is important to understand the mechanisms of light propagation through tissue and how that light affects living cells. Lasers with novel output characteristics for medical and military applications are too often implemented prior to proper evaluation with respect to tissue optical properties and human safety. Therefore, advances in computational models that describe light propagation and the cellular responses to laser exposure, without the use of animal models, are of considerable interest. Here, a physics-based laser-tissue interaction model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal temperature and pressure rise during laser exposure to biological tissues. Our new model also takes into account the dynamic nature of tissue optical properties and their impact on the induced temperature and pressure profiles. The laser-induced retinal damage is attributed to the formation of microbubbles formed around melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the damage mechanism is assumed to be photo-thermal. Selective absorption by melanin creates these bubbles that expand and collapse around melanosomes, destroying cell membranes and killing cells. The Finite Element (FE) approach taken provides suitable ground for modeling localized pigment absorption which leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution within pigmented cells following laser pulse exposure. These hot-spots are sources for localized thermo-elastic stresses which lead to rapid localized expansions that manifest themselves as microbubbles and lead to microcavitations. Model predictions for the interaction of lasers at wavelengths of 193, 694, 532, 590, 1314, 1540, 2000, and 2940 nm with biological tissues were generated and comparisons were made with available experimental data for the retina

  15. Review of low dose-rate epidemiological studies and biological mechanisms of dose-rate effects on radiation induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection system adopts the linear non-threshold model with using dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF). The dose-rate range where DDREF is applied is below 100 mGy per hour, and it is regarded that there are no dose-rate effects at very low dose rate, less than of the order of 10 mGy per year, even from the biological risk evaluation model based on cellular and molecular level mechanisms for maintenance of genetic integrity. Among low dose-rate epidemiological studies, studies of residents in high natural background areas showed no increase of cancer risks at less than about 10 mGy per year. On the other hand, some studies include a study of the Techa River cohort suggested the increase of cancer risks to the similar degree of Atomic bomb survivor data. The difference of those results was supposed due to the difference of dose rate. In 2014, International Commission on Radiological Protection opened a draft report on stem cell biology for public consultations. The report proposed a hypothesis based on the new idea of stem cell competition as a tissue level quality control mechanism, and suggested that it could explain the dose-rate effects around a few milligray per year. To verify this hypothesis, it would be needed to clarify the existence and the lowest dose of radiation-induced stem cell competition, and to elucidate the rate of stem cell turnover and radiation effects on it. As for the turnover, replenishment of damaged stem cells would be the important biological process. It would be meaningful to collect the information to show the difference of dose rates where the competition and the replenishment would be the predominant processes. (author)

  16. A mechanism for biologically-induced iodine emissions from sea-ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saiz-Lopez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground- and satellite-based measurements have reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea-ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I− and hypoiodous acid (HOI from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea-ice and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, to accumulate in the quasi-liquid layer (QLL on the surface of sea-ice. Prior to reaching the QLL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea-ice is depth-dependent. The QLL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest iodine is released to the atmosphere via 3 possible pathways: (1 emitted from the QLL and then transported throughout snow atop sea-ice, to be released to the atmosphere, (2 released directly from the QLL to the atmosphere in regions of sea-ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3 emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea-ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. The results show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e., I2, IBr, ICl released from sea-ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during this timeframe. The model results also indicate that iodine may trigger the catalytic release of bromine from sea

  17. A mechanism for biologically-induced iodine emissions from sea-ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxe, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ground- and satellite-based measurements reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO) in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea-ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I-) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea-ice) and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, to accumulate in a thin brine layer (BL) on the surface of sea-ice. Prior to reaching the BL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea-ice is depth-dependent. The BL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest iodine is released to the atmosphere via 3 possible pathways: (1) emitted from the BL and then transported throughout snow atop sea-ice, to be released to the atmosphere; (2) released directly from the BL to the atmosphere in regions of sea-ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3) emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea-ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. While a lack of experimental and observational data adds uncertainty to the model predictions, nevertheless the results show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e., I2, IBr, ICl) released from sea-ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during this timeframe. The model results

  18. Applications of High Resolution Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Environmental and Biological Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Labbe, Nicole [ORNL; Wagner, Rebekah J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

    2013-01-01

    This chapter details the application of LIBS in a number of environmental areas of research such as carbon sequestration and climate change. LIBS has also been shown to be useful in other high resolution environmental applications for example, elemental mapping and detection of metals in plant materials. LIBS has also been used in phytoremediation applications. Other biological research involves a detailed understanding of wood chemistry response to precipitation variations and also to forest fires. A cross-section of Mountain pine (pinceae Pinus pungen Lamb.) was scanned using a translational stage to determine the differences in the chemical features both before and after a fire event. Consequently, by monitoring the elemental composition pattern of a tree and by looking for abrupt changes, one can reconstruct the disturbance history of a tree and a forest. Lastly we have shown that multivariate analysis of the LIBS data is necessary to standardize the analysis and correlate to other standard laboratory techniques. LIBS along with multivariate statistical analysis makes it a very powerful technology that can be transferred from laboratory to field applications with ease.

  19. Temperature influence on biological phosphorus removal induced by aerobic/extended-idle regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bo; Wang, Dong-Bo; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Luo, Kun; Zeng, Guang-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Previous researches have demonstrated that biological phosphorus removal (BPR) from wastewater could be driven by the aerobic/extended-idle (A/EI) regime. This study further investigated temperature effects on phosphorus removal performance in six A/EI sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated at temperatures ranging from 5 to 30 °C. The results showed that phosphorus removal efficiency increased with temperature increasing from 5 to 20 °C but slightly decreased when temperature continually increased to 30 °C. The highest phosphorus removal rate of 97.1 % was obtained at 20 °C. The biomass cultured at 20 °C contained more polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) and less glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) than that cultured at any other temperatures investigated. The mechanism studies revealed that temperature affected the transformations of glycogen and polyhydroxyalkanoates, and the activities of exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate kinase activities. In addition, phosphorus removal performances of the A/EI and traditional anaerobic/oxic (A/O) SBRs were compared at 5 and 20 °C, respectively. The results showed the A/EI regime drove better phosphorus removal than the A/O regime at both 5 and 20 °C, and more PAO and less GAO abundances in the biomass might be the principal reason for the higher BPR in the A/EI SBRs as compared with the A/O SBRs. PMID:24464081

  20. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, Nikola, E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.a [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hartmann, Johannes [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schittl, Heike [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gerschpacher, Marion [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Quint, Ruth Maria [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light ({lambda}=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  1. SU-E-T-549: Modeling Relative Biological Effectiveness of Protons for Radiation Induced Brain Necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a model of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons as a function of dose and linear energy transfer (LET) for induction of brain necrosis using clinical data. Methods: In this study, treatment planning information was exported from a clinical treatment planning system (TPS) and used to construct a detailed Monte Carlo model of the patient and the beam delivery system. The physical proton dose and LET were computed in each voxel of the patient volume using Monte Carlo particle transport. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study registered to the treatment planning CT was used to determine the region of the necrosis in the brain volume. Both, the whole brain and the necrosis volumes were segmented from the computed tomography (CT) dataset using the contours drawn by a physician and the corresponding voxels were binned with respect to dose and LET. The brain necrosis probability was computed as a function of dose and LET by dividing the total volume of all necrosis voxels with a given dose and LET with the corresponding total brain volume resulting in a set of NTCP-like curves (probability as a function of dose parameterized by LET). Results: The resulting model shows dependence on both dose and LET indicating the weakness of the constant RBE model for describing the brain toxicity. To the best of our knowledge the constant RBE model is currently used in all clinical applications which may Result in increased rate of brain toxicities in patients treated with protons. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to develop more accurate brain toxicity models for patients treated with protons and other heavy ions

  2. SU-E-T-549: Modeling Relative Biological Effectiveness of Protons for Radiation Induced Brain Necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, D; Peeler, C; Grosshans, D; Titt, U; Taleei, R; Mohan, R [UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a model of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons as a function of dose and linear energy transfer (LET) for induction of brain necrosis using clinical data. Methods: In this study, treatment planning information was exported from a clinical treatment planning system (TPS) and used to construct a detailed Monte Carlo model of the patient and the beam delivery system. The physical proton dose and LET were computed in each voxel of the patient volume using Monte Carlo particle transport. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study registered to the treatment planning CT was used to determine the region of the necrosis in the brain volume. Both, the whole brain and the necrosis volumes were segmented from the computed tomography (CT) dataset using the contours drawn by a physician and the corresponding voxels were binned with respect to dose and LET. The brain necrosis probability was computed as a function of dose and LET by dividing the total volume of all necrosis voxels with a given dose and LET with the corresponding total brain volume resulting in a set of NTCP-like curves (probability as a function of dose parameterized by LET). Results: The resulting model shows dependence on both dose and LET indicating the weakness of the constant RBE model for describing the brain toxicity. To the best of our knowledge the constant RBE model is currently used in all clinical applications which may Result in increased rate of brain toxicities in patients treated with protons. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to develop more accurate brain toxicity models for patients treated with protons and other heavy ions.

  3. Boletus edulis biologically active biopolymers induce cell cycle arrest in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Cardoso, Claudia; Ferreira Milheiro Nunes, Fernando Hermínio; Ramos Novo Amorim de Barros, Ana Isabel; Marques, Guilhermina; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2013-04-25

    The use of biologically active compounds isolated from edible mushrooms against cancer raises global interest. Anticancer properties are mainly attributed to biopolymers including mainly polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, polysaccharide proteins, glycoproteins and proteins. In spite of the fact that Boletus edulis is one of the widely occurring and most consumed edible mushrooms, antitumor biopolymers isolated from it have not been exactly defined and studied so far. The present study is an attempt to extend this knowledge on molecular mechanisms of their anticancer action. The mushroom biopolymers (polysaccharides and glycoproteins) were extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The antiproliferative activity in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS180) was screened by means of MTT and BrdU assays. At the same time fractions' cytotoxicity was examined on the human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) by means of the LDH assay. Flow cytometry and Western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis and protein expression involved in anticancer activity of the selected biopolymer fraction. In vitro studies have shown that fractions isolated from Boletus edulis were not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells and in the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells. The best results were obtained in the case of the fraction designated as BE3. The tested compound inhibited cancer cell proliferation which was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1-phase. Growth inhibition was associated with modulation of the p16/cyclin D1/CDK4-6/pRb pathway, an aberration of which is a critical step in the development of many human cancers including colon cancer. Our results indicate that a biopolymer BE3 from Boletus edulis possesses anticancer potential and may provide a new therapeutic/preventive option in colon cancer chemoprevention.

  4. Immunogenicity induced by biologicals in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: View of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Korotaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present-day views of the immunogenicity of biological agents (BAs used to in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are analyzed. The immunogenicity of these medicaments is noted to depend on their molecular structure, individual patient characteristics, and used treatment regimens. As this takes place, the primary structure of the drug and its posttranslation modifications during manufacture are key factors. It is pointed out that a number of antigenic structures may give rise to the body's BA antibodies – murine epitopes, idiotopes, and allotropes, neoantigens forming in the coupling area of hybrid proteins, nonlinear epitopes present in the aggregated preparations. BAs that tend to form large immune complexes with these antibodies are most immunogenic. The antibodies to most BAs, except drugs based on soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors (etanercept, are neutralizing, i.e. they affect the efficiency of therapy, particularly when used over a long period of time.The results of trials evaluating the impact of antibodies to BAs on their clinical value are considered. It is believed that immunogenicity is itself of great importance in respect to the occurrence of the escape phenomenon of a response to BA therapy and to its safety. Attention is drawn to immunogenicity diagnostic problems; at the same it is noted that none of the used laboratory diagnostic techniques can reveal individual BA antibody forms and isotypes. It is concluded that there is a need for further investigations to standardize optimal methods for diagnosing neutralizing antibodies, to elaborate criteria for predicting a response to therapy in terms of an immunogenicity factor, and to reveal pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for the production of antibodies to BAs. The design of novel medicaments with minimal immunogenicity will depend on whether these mechanisms are common to all drugs or specific.

  5. Growth of novel ceramic layers on metals via chemical and heat treatments for inducing various biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi eKokubo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present authors’ systematic studies on growth of novel ceramic layers on Ti metal and its alloys by chemical and heat treatments for inducing bone-bonding bioactivity and some other biological functions are reviewed. Ti metal formed an apatite on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF, when heat-treated after exposure to strong acid solutions to form rutile surface layer, or to strong alkali solutions to form sodium titanate surface layer. Both types of Ti metal tightly bonded to the living bone.The alkali and heat treatment was applied to the surface Ti metal of an artificial hip joint and successfully used in the clinic since 2007. The acid and heat treatments was applied to porous Ti metal to induce osteoconductivity as well as osteoinductivity. The resulting product was successfully used in clinical trials for spinal fusion devices. For the Ti-based alloys, the alkali and heat treatment was a little modified to form calcium titanate surface layer. Bone-growth promoting Mg, Sr, and Zn ions as well as the antibacterial Ag ion were successfully incorporated into the calcium titanate layer.

  6. Growth of Novel Ceramic Layers on Metals via Chemical and Heat Treatments for Inducing Various Biological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The present authors' systematic studies on growth of novel ceramic layers on Ti metal and its alloys by chemical and heat treatments for inducing bone-bonding bioactivity and some other biological functions are reviewed. Ti metal formed an apatite on its surface in a simulated body fluid, when heat-treated after exposure to strong acid solutions to form rutile surface layer, or to strong alkali solutions to form sodium titanate surface layer. Both types of Ti metal tightly bonded to the living bone. The alkali and heat treatment was applied to the surface Ti metal of an artificial hip joint and successfully used in the clinic since 2007. The acid and heat treatments was applied to porous Ti metal to induce osteoconductivity as well as osteoinductivity. The resulting product was successfully used in clinical trials for spinal fusion devices. For the Ti-based alloys, the alkali and heat treatment was little modified to form calcium titanate surface layer. Bone-growth promoting Mg, Sr, and Zn ions as well as the antibacterial Ag ion were successfully incorporated into the calcium titanate layer. PMID:26579517

  7. Gene expression profiling analysis of bisphenol A-induced perturbation in biological processes in ER-negative HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rong; Gu, Liang; Li, Min; Jiang, Cizhong; Cao, Tongcheng; Zhang, Xiaobai

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor which has been detected in human bodies. Many studies have implied that BPA exposure is harmful to human health. Previous studies mainly focused on BPA effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cells. Genome-wide impacts of BPA on gene expression in ER-negative cells is unclear. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to characterize BPA-induced cellular and molecular impacts on ER-negative HEK293 cells. The microscopic observation showed that low-dose BPA exposure did not affect cell viability and morphology. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a list of differentially expressed genes in response to BPA exposure in HEK293 cells. These genes were involved in variable important biological processes including ion transport, cysteine metabolic process, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, etc. Notably, BPA up-regulated the expression of ERCC5 encoding a DNA endonuclease for nucleotide-excision repair. Further electrochemical experiment showed that BPA induced significant DNA damage in ER-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER-negative HEK293 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that ER-negative HEK293 cells employed mechanisms in response to BPA exposure different from ER-positive cells.

  8. Gene expression profiling analysis of bisphenol A-induced perturbation in biological processes in ER-negative HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yin

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an environmental endocrine disruptor which has been detected in human bodies. Many studies have implied that BPA exposure is harmful to human health. Previous studies mainly focused on BPA effects on estrogen receptor (ER-positive cells. Genome-wide impacts of BPA on gene expression in ER-negative cells is unclear. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to characterize BPA-induced cellular and molecular impacts on ER-negative HEK293 cells. The microscopic observation showed that low-dose BPA exposure did not affect cell viability and morphology. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a list of differentially expressed genes in response to BPA exposure in HEK293 cells. These genes were involved in variable important biological processes including ion transport, cysteine metabolic process, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, etc. Notably, BPA up-regulated the expression of ERCC5 encoding a DNA endonuclease for nucleotide-excision repair. Further electrochemical experiment showed that BPA induced significant DNA damage in ER-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER-negative HEK293 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that ER-negative HEK293 cells employed mechanisms in response to BPA exposure different from ER-positive cells.

  9. Biological studies on the effect of estrogen on experimentally induced asthma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desouki, Nabila I; Tabl, Ghada A; Elkhodary, Yasmin A A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of estrogen hormone on the experimentally induced asthma in male mice. The animals were divided into four groups, with 20 mice in each group; group I (control mice) included mice that received no treatment, group II included mice that received intraperitoneal estrogen injection (0.25 mg/kg body weight (bw), twice on day 28 of the experiment), group III (asthmatic mice) included asthmatic mice that received intraperitoneal injection of two doses of ovalbumin (OVA; 2 µg of OVA mixed with 100 µg of aluminum potassium sulfate) on days 1 and 14 of the experiment and then challenged intranasally with a single dose of OVA (50 µg dissolved in 0.05 ml phosphate-buffered saline; PBS) on day 28 of the experiment, and group IV (asthmatic mice treated with estrogen) included asthma model male mice that received the estrogen (0.5 mg/kg bw in 40 ml PBS, twice on the day 28 of the experiment). The immunohistochemical studies observed a marked intensity of CD15 immunoreactivity in the lung tissues of asthma model mice. Physiological results recorded that the total and differential count of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthma model mice recorded a significant increase in the number of leukocytes especially in the number of eosinophil cells. The BALF of asthma model mice showed high levels of interleukins 4 and 5 (IL-4 and IL-5), and there was a significant decrease in both the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF of asthma model mice treated with estrogen. In conclusion, the obtained results indicated that the asthma is responsible for certain immunohistochemical and physiological alterations induced in lung tissues of mice. The administration of estrogen to asthmatic male mice could improve these changes. For this reason, the present findings support the possible role of estrogen in modulating the inflammatory effects caused by asthma in male mice and may be helpful to cure many asthmatic progressions.

  10. Age-dependent change in biological characteristics of stem cells in radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Chiba (Japan); Yasukawa-Barnes, Jane; Gould, Michael N.; Clifton, Kelly H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    If you ask what types of cells are the targets for carcinogenesis, a popular answer would be that cancer arises from stem cells. Stem cells are cells that are capable of both self-renewal and generation of differentiated progenies. If the hypothesis of 'cancer as stem cell disease' is correct, the risk of carcinogenesis should be a function of the number of stem cells and their responsiveness of carcinogen-induced damage. In the present study, we addressed the feasibility of this hypothesis using the rat mammary carcinogenesis model. One of the important conclusions emerging from studies on atomic bomb survivors concerns age-related changes in the susceptibility to breast cancer. The relative risk of breast cancer is very high among women exposed to ionizing radiation before or during puberty, and it decreases thereafter. Little information is available, however, on age-related changes in the radiobiological nature of mammary stem cells. We examined age-associated changes in the number of mammary stem-like cells (clonogens) and their susceptibility to radiation in terms of cell death and carcinogenic initiation frequency. The results were as follows. (1) During the prepubertal period, the total number of mammary clonogens per rat increased exponentially with a population doubling time of {approx}4 days. After puberty, the doubling time lengthened to {approx}30 days. The total number of clonogens in abdominal and inguinal mammary glands was {approx}200 in 2-week-old rats, while it was {approx}5600 in 8-week-old rats. (2) The survival curves of clonogenic cells after irradiation indicated that radiation sensitivity of the cells before and during puberty was much higher than after puberty. (3) The initiation frequency of the clonogens from prepubertal rats after 5 Gy irradiation was four times higher than that of the clonogens from post-pubertal rats. These results suggest that changes in the number of stem cells and their radiobiological characteristics

  11. Comparing the biological washout of β+-activity induced in mice brain after 12C-ion and proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In clinical ion beam therapy, protons as well as heavier ions such as carbon are used for treatment. For protons, β+-emitters are only induced by fragmentation reactions in the target (target fragmentation), whereas for heavy ions, they are additionally induced by fragmentations of the projectile (further referred to as autoactivation). An approach utilizing these processes for treatment verfication, by comparing measured Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data to predictions from Monte Carlo simulations, has already been clinically implemented. For an accurate simulation, it is important to consider the biological washout of β+-emitters due to vital functions. To date, mathematical expressions for washout have mainly been determined by using radioactive beams of 10C- and 11C-ions, both β+-emitters, to enhance the counting statistics in the irradiated area. Still, the question of how the choice of projectile (autoactivating or non-autoactivating) influences the washout coefficients, has not been addressed. In this context, an experiment was carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center with the purpose of directly comparing irradiation-induced biological washout coefficients in mice for protons and 12C-ions. To this aim, mice were irradiated in the brain region with protons and 12C-ions and measured after irradiation with a PET/CT scanner (Siemens Biograph mCT). After an appropriate waiting time, the mice were sacrificed, then irradiated and measured again under similar conditions. The resulting data were processed and fitted numerically to deduce the main washout parameters. Despite the very low PET counting statistics, a consistent difference could be identified between 12C-ion and proton irradiated mice, with the 12C data being described best by a two component fit with a combined medium and slow washout fraction of 0.50 ± 0.05 and the proton mice data being described best by a one component fit with only one (slow) washout fraction of 0.73 ± 0

  12. An Optimized Biological Taser: Electric Eels Remotely Induce or Arrest Movement in Nearby Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2015-09-01

    Despite centuries of interest in electric eels, few studies have investigated the mechanism of the eel's attack. Here, I review and extend recent findings that show eel electric high-voltage discharges activate prey motor neuron efferents. This mechanism allows electric eels to remotely control their targets using two different strategies. When nearby prey have been detected, eels emit a high-voltage volley that causes whole-body tetanus in the target, freezing all voluntary movement and allowing the eel to capture the prey with a suction feeding strike. When hunting for cryptic prey, eels emit doublets and triplets, inducing whole-body twitch in prey, which in turn elicits an immediate eel attack with a full volley and suction feeding strike. Thus, by using their modified muscles (electrocytes) as amplifiers of their own motor efferents, eel's motor neurons remotely activate prey motor neurons to cause movement (twitch and escape) or immobilization (tetanus) facilitating prey detection and capture, respectively. These results explain reports that human movement is 'frozen' by eel discharges and shows the mechanism to resemble a law-enforcement Taser. PMID:26398438

  13. Molecular biology methods in assessing radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, A. [University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, Division of Genetics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-12-01

    Effort to predict the genetic consequences for humans of exposure to ionising radiation has been one of the most important issues of human genetics over the past 60 years. To date, there has been little experimental knowledge on the genetic risks of human exposure to ionising radiation. Radiation-induced deleterious hereditary effects have not been detected in human populations - not even among the offspring of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This does not mean deleterious hereditary effects do not exist in humans, but rather that they are small and/or difficult to detect because the normal incidence of inherited abnormalities is quite high in the human population. Thus, assessment of radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans has been based on the common knowledge of human heredity and on animal experiments. However, recent data have suggested that hyper-variable tandem repeat minisatellite loci provide a useful and sensitive experimental approach for monitoring radiation-induced germline mutations in humans. In order to investigate the feasibility of the minisatellite mutation screening system in assessing radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans, we examined the amount of hereditary minisatellite mutations among the offspring of Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers. The men studied received a median radiation dose of 109 mSv while working on the cleanup activities after the Chernobyl accident. We compared the minisatellite mutation rates of 155 children born to 147 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers after the accident to those of their 148 siblings born prior to it. In addition, 44 Estonian families, where the father had not been exposed to radiation, composed an additional control group. In all of these families, the paternity of the children was ascertained by using 5 minisatellite loci (APOB, HRAS, MCOB19, MCT118, and YNZ-22) in PCR-based analyses. Other 8 minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, and MS32) were used

  14. Studies on the biological functions of CPS1 in AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi; Fu, Rao; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-10-10

    Carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as treated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogenesis mycotoxin. In this study, we firstly confirmed that AFB1 down-regulated the expression of CPS1 in a dose-dependent manner. At the meantime, both siRNA knock down of CPS1 and AFB1 treatment inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis. To further analysis the function of CPS1, the interacting proteins of CPS1 were searched by Co-IP, and three interacting proteins including type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT1), albumin (ALB), and ubiquitin C (UBC) were found. Both KRT1 and ALB were new interacting proteins for CPS1. Our further study showed that CPS1 was regulating interacted and colocalized with KRT1 and ALB, and the intensity correlation was changed by AFB1. KRT1, ALB and CPS1 were all reported to play an important role in differentiation and tissue specialization. These results may offer an increasing understand that CPS1 might have a function in differentiation. PMID:27425868

  15. Compact acid-induced state of Clitoria ternatea agglutinin retains its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, A; Saleemuddin, M; Khan, R H

    2009-10-01

    The effects of pH on Clitoria ternatea agglutinin (CTA) were studied by spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, and by measuring carbohydrate specificity. At pH 2.6, CTA lacks well-defined tertiary structure, as seen by fluorescence and near-UV CD spectra. Far-UV CD spectra show retention of 50% native-like secondary structure. The mean residue ellipticity at 217 nm plotted against pH showed a transition around pH 4.0 with loss of secondary structure leading to the formation of an acid-unfolded state. This state is relatively less denatured than the state induced by 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. With a further decrease in pH, this unfolded state regains ~75% secondary structure at pH 1.2, leading to the formation of the A-state with native-like near-UV CD spectral features. Enhanced 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate binding was observed in A-state, indicating a "molten-globule" like conformation with exposed hydrophobic residues. Acrylamide quenching data exhibit reduced accessibility of quencher to tryptophan, suggesting a compact conformation at low pH. Size-exclusion chromatography shows the presence of a compact intermediate with hydrodynamic size corresponding to a monomer. Thermal denaturation of the native state was cooperative single-step transition and of the A-state was non-cooperative two-step transition. A-State regains 72% of the carbohydrate-binding activity. PMID:19916921

  16. BISIP I: A program for Bayesian inference of spectral induced polarization parameters, and application to mineral exploration at the Canadian Malartic gold deposit, Québec, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenière-Bérubé, Charles; Chouteau, Michel; Shamsipour, Pejman; Olivo, Gema R.

    2016-04-01

    Spectral induced polarization (SIP) parameters can be extracted from field or laboratory complex resistivity measurements, and even airborne or ground frequency domain electromagnetic data. With the growing interest in application of complex resistivity measurements to environmental and mineral exploration problems, there is a need for accurate and easy-to-use inversion tools to estimate SIP parameters. These parameters, which often include chargeability and relaxation time may then be studied and related to other rock attributes such as porosity or metallic grain content, in the case of mineral exploration. We present an open source program, available both as a standalone application or Python module, to estimate SIP parameters using Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. The Python language is a high level, open source language that is now widely used in scientific computing. Our program allows the user to choose between the more common Cole-Cole (Pelton), Dias, or Debye decomposition models. Simple circuits composed of resistances and constant phase elements may also be used to represent SIP data. Initial guesses are required when using more classic inversion techniques such as the least-squares formulation, and wrong estimates are often the cause of bad curve fitting. In stochastic optimization using MCMC, the effect of the starting values disappears as the simulation proceeds. Our program is then optimized to do batch inversion over large data sets with as little user-interaction as possible. Additionally, the Bayesian formulation allows the user to do quality control by fully propagating the measurement errors in the inversion process, providing an estimation of the SIP parameters uncertainty. This information is valuable when trying to relate chargeability or relaxation time to other physical properties. We test the inversion program on complex resistivity measurements of 12 core samples from the world-class gold deposit of Canadian Malartic. Results show

  17. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  18. Myocardial Structural and Biological Anomalies Induced by High Fat Diet in Psammomys obesus Gerbils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Sahraoui

    Full Text Available Psammomys obesus gerbils are particularly prone to develop diabetes and obesity after brief period of abundant food intake. A hypercaloric high fat diet has been shown to affect cardiac function. Here, we sought to determine whether a short period of high fat feeding might alter myocardial structure and expression of calcium handling proteins in this particular strain of gerbils.Twenty Psammomys obesus gerbils were randomly assigned to receive a normal plant diet (controls or a high fat diet. At baseline and 16-week later, body weight, plasma biochemical parameters (including lipid and carbohydrate levels were evaluated. Myocardial samples were collected for pathobiological evaluation.Sixteen-week high fat dieting resulted in body weight gain and hyperlipidemia, while levels of carbohydrates remained unchanged. At myocardial level, high fat diet induced structural disorganization, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, lipid accumulation, interstitial and perivascular fibrosis and increased number of infiltrating neutrophils. Myocardial expressions of pro-apoptotic Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α], intercellular (ICAM1 and vascular adhesion molecules (VCAM1 increased, while gene encoding cardiac muscle protein, the alpha myosin heavy polypeptide (MYH6, was downregulated. Myocardial expressions of sarco(endoplasmic calcium-ATPase (SERCA2 and voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cacna1c decreased, while protein kinase A (PKA and calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK2D expressions increased. Myocardial expressions of ryanodine receptor, phospholamban and sodium/calcium exchanger (Slc8a1 did not change.We conclude that a relative short period of high fat diet in Psammomys obesus results in severe alterations of cardiac structure, activation of inflammatory and apoptotic processes, and altered expression of calcium-cycling determinants.

  19. Nano-sized titanium dioxide-induced splenic toxicity: A biological pathway explored using microarray technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Lei [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Ling [Library of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Sang, Xuezi; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Hong, Jie; Cheng, Shen; Yu, Xiaohong; Liu, Dong; Xu, Bingqing; Hu, Renping; Sun, Qingqing; Cheng, Jie; Cheng, Zhe; Gui, Suxin [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Hong, Fashui, E-mail: Hongfsh_cn@sina.com [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Exposure to TiO{sub 2} NPs could be accumulated in the spleen. • Exposure to TiO{sub 2} NPs caused spleen lesions in mice. • Exposure to TiO{sub 2} NPs resulted in immune dysfunction in mice. • Exposure to TiO{sub 2} NPs caused alteration of 1041 genes expression of known function in the spleen. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) have been widely used in various areas, and its potential toxicity has gained wide attention. However, the molecular mechanisms of multiple genes working together in the TiO{sub 2} NP-induced splenic injury are not well understood. In the present study, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight TiO{sub 2} NPs were administered to the mice by intragastric administration for 90 consecutive days, their immune capacity in the spleen as well as the gene-expressed characteristics in the mouse damaged spleen were investigated using microarray assay. The findings showed that with increased dose, TiO{sub 2} NP exposure resulted in the increases of spleen indices, immune dysfunction, and severe macrophage infiltration as well as apoptosis in the spleen. Importantly, microarray data showed significant alterations in the expressions of 1041 genes involved in immune/inflammatory responses, apoptosis, oxidative stress, stress responses, metabolic processes, ion transport, signal transduction, cell proliferation/division, cytoskeleton and translation in the 10 mg/kg TiO{sub 2} NP-exposed spleen. Specifically, Cyp2e1, Sod3, Mt1, Mt2, Atf4, Chac1, H2-k1, Cxcl13, Ccl24, Cd14, Lbp, Cd80, Cd86, Cd28, Il7r, Il12a, Cfd, and Fcnb may be potential biomarkers of spleen toxicity following exposure to TiO{sub 2} NPs.

  20. Atypical behavior in the electron capture induced dissociation of biologically relevant transition metal ion complexes of the peptide hormone oxytocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Anne J.; Mihalca, Romulus; Heeren, Ron M. A.; Heck, Albert J. R.

    2006-07-01

    Doubly protonated ions of the disulfide bond containing nonapeptide hormone oxytocin and oxytocin complexes with different transition metal ions, that have biological relevance under physiological conditions, were subjected to electron capture dissociation (ECD) to probe their structural features in the gas phase. Although, all the ECD spectra were strikingly different, typical ECD behavior was observed for complexes of the nonapeptide hormone oxytocin with Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+, i.e., abundant c/z' and a'/y backbone cleavages and ECD characteristic S-S and S-C bond cleavages were observed. We propose that, although in the oxytocin-transition metal ion complexes the metal ions serve as the main initial capture site, the captured electron is transferred to other sites in the complex to form a hydrogen radical, which drives the subsequent typical ECD fragmentations. The complex of oxytocin with Cu2+ displayed noticeably different ECD behavior. The fragment ions were similar to fragment ions typically observed with low-energy collision induced dissociation (CID). We propose that the electrons captured by the oxytocin-Cu2+ complex might be favorably involved in reducing the Cu2+ metal ion to Cu+. Subsequent energy redistribution would explain the observed low-energy CID-type fragmentations. Electron capture resulted also in quite different specific cleavage sites for the complexes of oxytocin with Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+. This is an indication for structural differences in these complexes possibly linked to their significantly different biological effects on oxytocin-receptor binding, and suggests that ECD may be used to study subtle structural differences in transition metal ion-peptide complexes.

  1. Protection against LPS-induced cartilage inflammation and degradation provided by a biological extract of Mentha spicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kott Laima S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of mint [Mentha spicata] has been bred which over-expresses Rosmarinic acid (RA by approximately 20-fold. RA has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in small rodents; thus it was hypothesized that this plant would demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The objectives of this study were: a to develop an in vitro extraction procedure which mimics digestion and hepatic metabolism, b to compare anti-inflammatory properties of High-Rosmarinic-Acid Mentha spicata (HRAM with wild-type control M. spicata (CM, and c to quantify the relative contributions of RA and three of its hepatic metabolites [ferulic acid (FA, caffeic acid (CA, coumaric acid (CO] to anti-inflammatory activity of HRAM. Methods HRAM and CM were incubated in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, liver microsomes (from male rat and NADPH. Concentrations of RA, CA, CO, and FA in simulated digest of HRAM (HRAMsim and CM (CMsim were determined (HPLC and compared with concentrations in aqueous extracts of HRAM and CM. Cartilage explants (porcine were cultured with LPS (0 or 3 μg/mL and test article [HRAMsim (0, 8, 40, 80, 240, or 400 μg/mL, or CMsim (0, 1, 5 or 10 mg/mL, or RA (0.640 μg/mL, or CA (0.384 μg/mL, or CO (0.057 μg/mL or FA (0.038 μg/mL] for 96 h. Media samples were analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin 1β (IL-1, glycosaminoglycan (GAG, nitric oxide (NO and cell viability (differential live-dead cell staining. Results RA concentration of HRAMsim and CMsim was 49.3 and 0.4 μg/mL, respectively. CA, FA and CO were identified in HRAMsim but not in aqueous extract of HRAM. HRAMsim (≥ 8 μg/mL inhibited LPS-induced PGE2 and NO; HRAMsim (≥ 80 μg/mL inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. RA inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. No anti-inflammatory or chondroprotective effects of RA metabolites on cartilage explants were identified. Conclusions Our biological extraction procedure produces

  2. Radiation-induced defects in clay minerals, markers of the mobility of the uranium in solution in the unconformity-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the works driven on three groups of clay minerals (kaolins, illite, sudoite (di-tri-octahedral chlorites)) characteristics of the alteration halos surrounding unconformity-type uranium deposits, in order to reveal uranium paleo-circulations in the intra-cratonic meso-Proterozoic basins (1,2 - 1,6 Ga). Thanks to Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR), we were able to highlight the persistence of structural defects in kaolin-group minerals contemporaneous of the basin diagenesis, and demonstrate the existence of relatively stable defects in illites and sudoites contemporaneous of the uranium deposits setting. Thus, the main defect in illite (Ai centre) and the main defect in sudoite (As centre) are characterized by their g components such as, respectively, gt = 2,003 et g// = 2,051 for illite and gt = 2,008 et g// = 2,051 for sudoite. As the main defect in kaolins (kaolinite/dickite), the main defects in illite and sudoite are perpendicularly oriented according to the (ab) plane, on the tetrahedral Si-O bound. However, their thermal stabilities seem different. The observation of samples from different zones (background, anomal or mineralized) of the Athabasca basin (Canada) allowed to identify a parallel evolution between actual defects concentration measured in the different clay minerals and the proximity of the mineralisation zones. Consequently, clays minerals can be considered as potential plotters of zones where uranium-rich solutions have circulated. (author)

  3. Airway remodeling assessed by high-resolution computed tomography in patients with asthma:relationship to biological markers in induced sputum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世满

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of assessing asthma control by high-resolution computed tomography(HRCT) and biological markers in induced sputum.Methods Forty-eight patients with asthma(asthma group) and 10 healthy subjects(control group) were retrospectively analyzed.

  4. Genetic and functional analysis of a set of HIV-1 envelope genes obtained from biological clones with varying syncytium-inducing capacities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Andeweg (Arno); M. Groenink (Maarten); P. Leeflang; R.E.Y. de Goede; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); M. Tersmette; M.L. Bosch (Marnix)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractTo study HIV-1 envelope-mediated syncytium formation we have amplified, cloned, expressed, and sequenced individual envelope genes from a set of eight biological HIV-1 clones. These clones were obtained from two patients and display either a syncytium-inducing (SI) or nonsyncytium-induci

  5. Physical and biological predictors of radiation-induced whole lung injury: early results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop methods of predicting the pulmonary consequences of thoracic irradiation (RT) by prospectively studying changes in pulmonary function following RT. Methods: 105 patients receiving incidental partial lung irradiation during treatment of tumors in/around the thorax (lung-70, breast-18, lymphoma-4, misc-3) had whole lung function assessed (symptoms and pulmonary function tests [PFTs: FEV1-forced expiratory volume 1 sec; DLCO-diffusion capacity]) before and repeatedly 6-48 months following RT. All had computed tomography-based 3-dimensional (3D) dose calculations with lung density heterogeneity corrections for dose-volume histogram (DVH) and NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) calculations. Functional DVHs (DVfH) based on SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) lung perfusion scans, and serial transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) levels were available in 50 and 30 patients, respectively. The incidence and severity of changes in whole lung function were correlated with clinical, physical and biological factors outlined in the results. Exploratory statistical analyses were preformed using chi-square, logistic regression, and multiple linear regression. Mean pt age=57, range 21-87; sex: 63 F, 42 M; 29 had chemotherapy (CT) before/with RT; Follow-up 6-48 months (mean 15, median 12). Results RT-induced symptoms developed in 26 patients (7-grade I-no intervention; 16 grade II-steroids; 3 grade III-oxygen and steroids). A mixed model based on pre-RT DLCO and CT-based NTCP was strongly predictive for the development of symptoms (p30 Gy. In patients with 'good' pre-RT PFTs, there may be a relationship between the % reduction in PFT and % lung volume receiving >30 Gy (figure). Conclusion: Whole lung injury (symptoms or PFT changes) appears to be related to a variety of physical, biological and clinical factors. The data suggest that no one variable is likely to be an adequate predictor and that multi-faceted predictive models will be

  6. Trade in mineral resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  7. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression......, for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  8. The biological clock is regulated by adrenergic signaling in brown fat but is dispensable for cold-induced thermogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Li

    Full Text Available The biological clock plays an important role in integrating nutrient and energy metabolism with other cellular processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that core clock genes are rhythmically expressed in peripheral tissues, including the liver, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islets, and white and brown adipose tissues. These peripheral clocks are entrained by physiological cues, thereby aligning the circadian pacemaker to tissue functions. The mechanisms that regulate brown adipose tissue clock in response to physiological signals remain poorly understood. Here we found that the expression of core clock genes is highly responsive to cold exposure in brown fat, but not in white fat. This cold-inducible regulation of the clock network is mediated by adrenergic receptor activation and the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α. Brown adipocytes in mice lacking a functional clock contain large lipid droplets accompanied by dysregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and adaptive thermogenesis. Paradoxically, the "clockless" mice were competent in maintaining core body temperature during cold exposure. These studies elucidated the presence of adrenergic receptor/clock crosstalk that appears to be required for normal thermogenic gene expression in brown fat.

  9. Cytotoxic and Inflammatory Responses Induced by Outer Membrane Vesicle-Associated Biologically Active Proteases from Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ayan; Tapader, Rima; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar; Ghosh, Amit; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta; Saha, Dhira Rani; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Pal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Proteases in Vibrio cholerae have been shown to play a role in its pathogenesis. V. cholerae secretes Zn-dependent hemagglutinin protease (HAP) and calcium-dependent trypsin-like serine protease (VesC) by using the type II secretion system (TIISS). Our present studies demonstrated that these proteases are also secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and transported to human intestinal epithelial cells in an active form. OMV-associated HAP induces dose-dependent apoptosis in Int407 cells and an enterotoxic response in the mouse ileal loop (MIL) assay, whereas OMV-associated VesC showed a hemorrhagic fluid response in the MIL assay, necrosis in Int407 cells, and an increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) response in T84 cells, which were significantly reduced in OMVs from VesC mutant strain. Our results also showed that serine protease VesC plays a role in intestinal colonization of V. cholerae strains in adult mice. In conclusion, our study shows that V. cholerae OMVs secrete biologically active proteases which may play a role in cytotoxic and inflammatory responses. PMID:26930702

  10. Rigid proteins and softening of biological membranes—with application to HIV-induced cell membrane softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Himani; Zelisko, Matthew; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    A key step in the HIV-infection process is the fusion of the virion membrane with the target cell membrane and the concomitant transfer of the viral RNA. Experimental evidence suggests that the fusion is preceded by considerable elastic softening of the cell membranes due to the insertion of fusion peptide in the membrane. What are the mechanisms underpinning the elastic softening of the membrane upon peptide insertion? A broader question may be posed: insertion of rigid proteins in soft membranes ought to stiffen the membranes not soften them. However, experimental observations perplexingly appear to show that rigid proteins may either soften or harden membranes even though conventional wisdom only suggests stiffening. In this work, we argue that regarding proteins as merely non-specific rigid inclusions is flawed, and each protein has a unique mechanical signature dictated by its specific interfacial coupling to the surrounding membrane. Predicated on this hypothesis, we have carried out atomistic simulations to investigate peptide-membrane interactions. Together with a continuum model, we reconcile contrasting experimental data in the literature including the case of HIV-fusion peptide induced softening. We conclude that the structural rearrangements of the lipids around the inclusions cause the softening or stiffening of the biological membranes.

  11. Development of a micro-XRF system for biological samples based on proton-induced quasimonochromatic X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploykrachang, K.; Hasegawa, J.; Kondo, K.; Fukuda, H.; Oguri, Y.

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a micro-XRF system based on a proton-induced quasimonochromatic X-ray (QMXR) microbeam for in vivo measurement of biological samples. A 2.5-MeV proton beam impinged normally on a Cu foil target that was slightly thicker than the proton range. The emitted QMXR behind the Cu target was focused with a polycapillary X-ray half lens. For application to analysis of wet or aquatic samples, we prepared a QMXR beam with an incident angle of 45° with respect to the horizontal plane by using a dipole magnet in order to bend the primary proton beam downward by 45°. The focal spot size of the QMXR microbeam on a horizontal sample surface was evaluated to be 250 × 350 μm by a wire scanning method. A microscope camera with a long working distance was installed perpendicular to the sample surface to identify the analyzed position on the sample. The fluorescent radiation from the sample was collected by a Si-PIN photodiode X-ray detector. Using the setup above, we were able to successfully measure the accumulation and distribution of Co in the leaves of a free-floating aquatic plant on a dilute Co solution surface.

  12. Development of a micro-XRF system for biological samples based on proton-induced quasimonochromatic X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploykrachang, K., E-mail: ploykrachang.k.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Hasegawa, J. [Department of Energy Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kondo, K.; Fukuda, H.; Oguri, Y. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    We have developed a micro-XRF system based on a proton-induced quasimonochromatic X-ray (QMXR) microbeam for in vivo measurement of biological samples. A 2.5-MeV proton beam impinged normally on a Cu foil target that was slightly thicker than the proton range. The emitted QMXR behind the Cu target was focused with a polycapillary X-ray half lens. For application to analysis of wet or aquatic samples, we prepared a QMXR beam with an incident angle of 45° with respect to the horizontal plane by using a dipole magnet in order to bend the primary proton beam downward by 45°. The focal spot size of the QMXR microbeam on a horizontal sample surface was evaluated to be 250 × 350 μm by a wire scanning method. A microscope camera with a long working distance was installed perpendicular to the sample surface to identify the analyzed position on the sample. The fluorescent radiation from the sample was collected by a Si-PIN photodiode X-ray detector. Using the setup above, we were able to successfully measure the accumulation and distribution of Co in the leaves of a free-floating aquatic plant on a dilute Co solution surface.

  13. Development of a micro-XRF system for biological samples based on proton-induced quasimonochromatic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a micro-XRF system based on a proton-induced quasimonochromatic X-ray (QMXR) microbeam for in vivo measurement of biological samples. A 2.5-MeV proton beam impinged normally on a Cu foil target that was slightly thicker than the proton range. The emitted QMXR behind the Cu target was focused with a polycapillary X-ray half lens. For application to analysis of wet or aquatic samples, we prepared a QMXR beam with an incident angle of 45° with respect to the horizontal plane by using a dipole magnet in order to bend the primary proton beam downward by 45°. The focal spot size of the QMXR microbeam on a horizontal sample surface was evaluated to be 250 × 350 μm by a wire scanning method. A microscope camera with a long working distance was installed perpendicular to the sample surface to identify the analyzed position on the sample. The fluorescent radiation from the sample was collected by a Si-PIN photodiode X-ray detector. Using the setup above, we were able to successfully measure the accumulation and distribution of Co in the leaves of a free-floating aquatic plant on a dilute Co solution surface

  14. Biological features of an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ions irradiation and its genetic polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xicun; Li, Wenjian

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that heavy ions irradiation is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). These characters are believed to increase mutation frequency and mutation spectrum of plants or mammalian cells irradiated by heavy ions. Here we describe an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ion irradiation. The growth period of this mutant was shortened by about 20 days compared to the wild type. The proline content of the mutant was increased by 11.05% while the malondialdehyde content was significantly lower than that of wild type. In addition, the RAPD analysis indicated that the percentage of polymorphism between the mutant KFJT-1 and the control KFJT-CK reached 5.26%. The gain of early-maturity might solve the problem in the northwest region of China where seeds of sweet sorghum cannot be mature because of early frost. The early-maturity mutant may be important for future space cultivation.

  15. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 downregulates dexamethasone-induced tetranectin gene expression during the in vitro mineralization of the human osteoblastic cell line SV-HFO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iba, K; Sawada, N; Chiba, H;

    1995-01-01

    treatment as evidenced by Northern blotting. When transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) was added together with dexamethasone to the SV-HFO cell cultures, the mineralization process was markedly suppressed and the expression of tetra nectin and alkaline phosphatase was downregulated in a dose...

  16. Mechanisms and biological importance of photon-induced bystander responses. Do they have an impact on low-dose radiation responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elucidating the biological effect of low linear energy transfer (LET), low-dose and/or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation is essential in ensuring radiation safety. Over the past two decades, non-targeted effects, which are not only a direct consequence of radiation-induced initial lesions produced in cellular DNA but also of intra- and inter-cellular communications involving both targeted and non-targeted cells, have been reported and are currently defining a new paradigm in radiation biology. These effects include radiation-induced adaptive response, low-dose hypersensitivity, genomic instability, and radiation-induced bystander response (RIBR). RIBR is generally defined as a cellular response that is induced in non-irradiated cells that receive bystander signals from directly irradiated cells. RIBR could thus play an important biological role in low-dose irradiation conditions. However, this suggestion was mainly based on findings obtained using high-LET charged-particle radiations. The human population (especially the Japanese, who are exposed to lower doses of radon than the world average) is more frequently exposed to low-LET photons (X-rays or γ-rays) than to high-LET charged-particle radiation on a daily basis. There are currently a growing number of reports describing a distinguishing feature between photon-induced bystander response and high-LET RIBR. In particular, photon-induced by-stander response is strongly influenced by irradiation dose, the irradiated region of the targeted cells, and p53 status. The present review focuses on the photon-induced bystander response, and discusses its impact on the low-dose radiation effect. (author)

  17. Evaluating Biological Treatment Systems: (i) Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor versus Biological Aerated Filtration, and (ii) Sulfide-Induced corrosion in Anaerobic Digester Gas Piping

    OpenAIRE

    Asiedu, Kofi

    2001-01-01

    The research presented in this report is in two sections. Section I involved the performance of a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) versus a biological aerated filtration (BAF) and Section II involved study on causes of deposition in anaerobic digester gas piping. The first section evaluated and compared the performance of a laboratory-scale MBBR and BAF for organic carbon and suspended solids removal. A kinetic study was also performed on the MBBR to evaluate the system performance. T...

  18. Light-induced changes within photosystem II protects Microcoleus sp. in biological desert sand crusts against excess light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak Ohad

    Full Text Available The filamentous cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus, a major primary producer in desert biological sand crusts, is exposed to frequent hydration (by early morning dew followed by desiccation during potentially damaging excess light conditions. Nevertheless, its photosynthetic machinery is hardly affected by high light, unlike "model" organisms whereby light-induced oxidative stress leads to photoinactivation of the oxygen-evolving photosystem II (PSII. Field experiments showed a dramatic decline in the fluorescence yield with rising light intensity in both drying and artificially maintained wet plots. Laboratory experiments showed that, contrary to "model" organisms, photosynthesis persists in Microcoleus sp. even at light intensities 2-3 times higher than required to saturate oxygen evolution. This is despite an extensive loss (85-90% of variable fluorescence and thermoluminescence, representing radiative PSII charge recombination that promotes the generation of damaging singlet oxygen. Light induced loss of variable fluorescence is not inhibited by the electron transfer inhibitors 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropylbenzoquinone (DBMIB, nor the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP, thus indicating that reduction of plastoquinone or O(2, or lumen acidification essential for non-photochemical quenching (NPQ are not involved. The rate of Q(A (- re-oxidation in the presence of DCMU is enhanced with time and intensity of illumination. The difference in temperatures required for maximal thermoluminescence emissions from S(2/Q(A (- (Q band, 22 degrees C and S(2,3/Q(B (- (B band, 25 degrees C charge recombinations is considerably smaller in Microcoleus as compared to "model" photosynthetic organisms, thus indicating a significant alteration of the S(2/Q(A (- redox potential. We propose that enhancement of non-radiative charge recombination with rising light intensity may reduce

  19. V-type nerve agents phosphonylate ubiquitin at biologically relevant lysine residues and induce intramolecular cyclization by an isopeptide bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Breyer, Felicitas; Blum, Marc-Michael; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; John, Harald

    2014-08-01

    Toxic organophosphorus compounds (e.g., pesticides and nerve agents) are known to react with nucleophilic side chains of different amino acids (phosphylation), thus forming adducts with endogenous proteins. Most often binding to serine, tyrosine, or threonine residues is described as being of relevance for toxicological effects (e.g., acetylcholinesterase and neuropathy target esterase) or as biomarkers for post-exposure analysis (verification, e.g., albumin and butyrylcholinesterase). Accordingly, identification of novel protein targets might be beneficial for a better understanding of the toxicology of these compounds, revealing new bioanalytical verification tools, and improving knowledge on chemical reactivity. In the present study, we investigated the reaction of ubiquitin (Ub) with the V-type nerve agents Chinese VX, Russian VX, and VX in vitro. Ub is a ubiquitous protein with a mass of 8564.8 Da present in the extra- and intracellular space that plays an important physiological role in several essential processes (e.g., proteasomal degradation, DNA repair, protein turnover, and endocytosis). Reaction products were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight- mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and μ-high-performance liquid chromatography online coupled to UV-detection and electrospray ionization MS (μHPLC-UV/ESI MS). Our results originally document that a complex mixture of at least mono-, di, and triphosphonylated Ub adducts was produced. Surprisingly, peptide mass fingerprint analysis in combination with MALDI and ESI MS/MS revealed that phosphonylation occurred with high selectivity in at least 6 of 7 surface-exposed lysine residues that are essential for the biological function of Ub. These reaction products were found not to age. In addition, we herein report for the first time that phosphonylation induced intramolecular cyclization by formation of an isopeptide bond between the ε-amino group of a formerly phosphonylated

  20. Radiological hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present document is to review and assess the occupational hazards to uranium miners in Canada. Amendments to regulations set the maximum permissible dose to uranium miners at 50 mSv per year. Uranium miners are exposed to radon and thoron progeny, external gamma radiation and long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides in dust. The best estimate for the lifetime risk of inhaled radon progeny is about 3 x 10-4 lung cancers per WLM for the average miner, with a range of uncertainty from about 1 -6 x 10-4 per WLM. This central value is nearly twice as high as that recommended by the ICRP in 1981. The probability of serious biological consequences following exposure to external gamma rays is currently under review but is expected to be in the range of 3 - 6 x 10-2 Sv-1. Dosimetric calculations indicate that the stochastic risks per WLM of thoron progeny are about one-third of those for radon progeny. The annual limits on intake of inhaled ore dusts recommended by the ICRP are probably too low by at least a factor of two for the type of ore and dust normally encountered in underground uranium mines in Ontario; this is due in part to the fact that the average diameter of these dusts is five times greater than the value used by the ICRP. Radiological exposures of uranium miners in Canada were reviewed. The biological impact of these exposures were compared with those of conventional accidents on the basis of the years of normal life expectancy that are lost or seriously impaired due to occupational hazards. The objectives in considering all occupational risks are to reduce the total risk from all causes and to use funds spent for health protection as effectively as possible

  1. Polyphosphates inhibit extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoac, Betty; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Millán, José Luis; McKee, Marc D

    2013-04-01

    Studies on various compounds of inorganic phosphate, as well as on organic phosphate added by post-translational phosphorylation of proteins, all demonstrate a central role for phosphate in biomineralization processes. Inorganic polyphosphates are chains of orthophosphates linked by phosphoanhydride bonds that can be up to hundreds of orthophosphates in length. The role of polyphosphates in mammalian systems, where they are ubiquitous in cells, tissues and bodily fluids, and are at particularly high levels in osteoblasts, is not well understood. In cell-free systems, polyphosphates inhibit hydroxyapatite nucleation, crystal formation and growth, and solubility. In animal studies, polyphosphate injections inhibit induced ectopic calcification. While recent work has proposed an integrated view of polyphosphate function in bone, little experimental data for bone are available. Here we demonstrate in osteoblast cultures producing an abundant collagenous matrix that normally show robust mineralization, that two polyphosphates (PolyP5 and PolyP65, polyphosphates of 5 and 65 phosphate residues in length) are potent mineralization inhibitors. Twelve-day MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures with added ascorbic acid (for collagen matrix assembly) and β-glycerophosphate (a source of phosphate for mineralization) were treated with either PolyP5 or PolyP65. Von Kossa staining and calcium quantification revealed that mineralization was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both polyphosphates, with complete mineralization inhibition at 10μM. Cell proliferation and collagen assembly were unaffected by polyphosphate treatment, indicating that polyphosphate inhibition of mineralization results not from cell and matrix effects but from direct inhibition of mineralization. This was confirmed by showing that PolyP5 and PolyP65 bound to synthetic hydroxyapatite in a concentration-dependent manner. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) efficiently hydrolyzed the two PolyPs as

  2. Differential biologic effects of CPD and 6-4PP UV-induced DNA damage on the induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui Akira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UV-induced damage can induce apoptosis or trigger DNA repair mechanisms. Minor DNA damage is thought to halt the cell cycle to allow effective repair, while more severe damage can induce an apoptotic program. Of the two major types of UV-induced DNA lesions, it has been reported that repair of CPD, but not 6-4PP, abrogates mutation. To address whether the two major forms of UV-induced DNA damage, can induce differential biological effects, NER-deficient cells containing either CPD photolyase or 6-4 PP photolyase were exposed to UV and examined for alterations in cell cycle and apoptosis. In addition, pTpT, a molecular mimic of CPD was tested in vitro and in vivo for the ability to induce cell death and cell cycle alterations. Methods NER-deficient XPA cells were stably transfected with CPD-photolyase or 6-4PP photolyase to specifically repair only CPD or only 6-4PP. After 300 J/m2 UVB exposure photoreactivation light (PR, UVA 60 kJ/m2 was provided for photolyase activation and DNA repair. Apoptosis was monitored 24 hours later by flow cytometric analysis of DNA content, using sub-G1 staining to indicate apoptotic cells. To confirm the effects observed with CPD lesions, the molecular mimic of CPD, pTpT, was also tested in vitro and in vivo for its effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. Results The specific repair of 6-4PP lesions after UVB exposure resulted in a dramatic reduction in apoptosis. These findings suggested that 6-4PP lesions may be the primary inducer of UVB-induced apoptosis. Repair of CPD lesions (despite their relative abundance in the UV-damaged cell had little effect on the induction of apoptosis. Supporting these findings, the molecular mimic of CPD, (dinucleotide pTpT could mimic the effects of UVB on cell cycle arrest, but were ineffective to induce apoptosis. Conclusion The primary response of the cell to UV-induced 6-4PP lesions is to trigger an apoptotic program whereas the response of the cell to CPD

  3. Acidosis inhibits mineralization in human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shoko; Hirukawa, Koji; Togari, Akifumi

    2013-09-01

    Osteoblasts and osteoclasts maintain bone volume. Acidosis affects the function of these cells including mineral metabolism. We examined the effect of acidosis on the expression of transcription factors and mineralization in human osteoblasts in vitro. Human osteoblasts (SaM-1 cells) derived from the ulnar periosteum were cultured with α-MEM containing 50 μg/ml ascorbic acid and 5 mM β-glycerophosphate (calcifying medium). Acidosis was induced by incubating the SaM-1 cells in 10 % CO₂ (pH approximately 7.0). Mineralization, which was augmented by the calcifying medium, was completely inhibited by acidosis. Acidosis depressed c-Jun mRNA and increased osteoprotegerin (OPG) production in a time-dependent manner. Depressing c-Jun mRNA expression using siRNA increased OPG production and inhibited mineralization. In addition, depressing OPG mRNA expression with siRNA enhanced mineralization in a dose-dependent manner. Acidosis or the OPG protein strongly inhibited mineralization in osteoblasts from neonatal mice. The present study was the first to demonstrate that acidosis inhibited mineralization, depressed c-Jun mRNA expression, and induced OPG production in human osteoblasts. These results suggest that OPG is involved in mineralization via c-Jun in human osteoblasts.

  4. Molecular and chemical features of the excreted extracellular polysaccharides in Induced Biological Soil Crusts of different ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federico; Lanzhou, Chen; Liu, Yongding; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are complex microbial associations widely distributed in arid and semiarid environments. These microbial associations have recently been acknowledged as important in restoration ecology (Bowker 2007). The primary colonization of cyanobacteria and other crust organisms after events such as fire or cessation of plowing is considered critical for later vascular plant establishment, due to the control of seed germination and due to the complex pathways that BSCs are capable to establish between plants and crust organisms and exudates (Rossi et al. 2013). In a ten year study carried out in the hyper-arid region of Inner Mongolia (China), introduction of man - made BSCs (induced BSCs, IBSCs) proved to be effective in producing a shift of the ecosystem state from high abiotic to low abiotic stress, evidenced by an increase in photothrophic abundance and subshrub cover. The prerequisite for an efficient exploitation of crust organisms as soil colonizers is their capability to secrete large amount of exopolysaccharides (EPS) which are important, among the reasons, as they lead to soil and BSC stabilization and represent a noticeable source of C that can be respired by the crustal community. By these means, a deep chemical and physiological knowledge concerning these exudates is required. Notwithstanding the large amount of literature available, recently thoroughly reviewed by Mager and Thomas (2011), the chemical characteristics of EPS from BSCs, and in particular from IBSCs, have not been investigated yet. We analyzed the monosaccharidic composition and the molecular weight distribution of two EPS fractions, the more soluble fraction and the fraction more tightly bound to cells, extracted from IBSCs collected in the Inner Mongolian desert, inoculated in different years (namely 4, 6 and 8 years before the sampling), thus characterized by different developmental stages. We thereafter investigated the degradation processes involving EPS

  5. Synthesis of benzofuran derivatives as selective inhibitors of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase: effects on cell toxicity and osteoblast-induced mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquès, Stéphanie; Buchet, René; Popowycz, Florence; Lemaire, Marc; Mebarek, Saïda

    2016-03-01

    Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) by hydrolyzing pyrophosphate, an inhibitor of apatite formation, promotes extracellular matrix calcification during bone formation and growth, as well as during ectopic calcification under pathological conditions. TNAP is a target for the treatment of soft tissue pathological ossification. We synthesized a series of benzofuran derivatives. Among these, SMA14, displayed TNAP activity better than levamisole. SMA14 was found to be not toxic at doses of up to 40μM in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells and primary osteoblasts. As probed by Alizarin Red staining, this compound inhibited mineral formation in murine primary osteoblast and in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

  6. Recombinant paracoccin reproduces the biological properties of the native protein and induces protective Th1 immunity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Paiva Alegre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paracoccin is a dual-function protein of the yeast Paracoccidioides brasiliensis that has lectin properties and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities. Proteomic analysis of a paracoccin preparation from P. brasiliensis revealed that the sequence matched that of the hypothetical protein encoded by PADG-3347 of isolate Pb-18, with a polypeptide sequence similar to the family 18 endochitinases. These endochitinases are multi-functional proteins, with distinct lectin and enzymatic domains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The multi-exon assembly and the largest exon of the predicted ORF (PADG-3347, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the features of the recombinant proteins were compared to those of the native paracoccin. The multi-exon protein was also used for protection assays in a mouse model of paracoccidioidomycosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that the recombinant protein reproduced the biological properties described for the native protein-including binding to laminin in a manner that is dependent on carbohydrate recognition-showed N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, and stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages to produce high levels of TNF-α and nitric oxide. Considering the immunomodulatory potential of glycan-binding proteins, we also investigated whether prophylactic administration of recombinant paracoccin affected the course of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in mice. In comparison to animals injected with vehicle (controls, mice treated with recombinant paracoccin displayed lower pulmonary fungal burdens and reduced pulmonary granulomas. These protective effects were associated with augmented pulmonary levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ. We also observed that injection of paracoccin three days before challenge was the most efficient administration protocol, as the induced Th1 immunity was balanced by high levels of pulmonary IL-10, which may prevent the tissue damage caused by exacerbated

  7. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  8. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  9. Chelated minerals for poultry

    OpenAIRE

    SL Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confu...

  10. Mineral Supply Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Faced with shortcomings in its mineral supply, it’s imperative for China to balance its desire for reserves with its current economic needs Mineral resources are the corner- stone of materials needed for China’s national economic and social development.The country even counts on its mineral resources to satisfy 90 percent of its energy demands and over 95

  11. Dioxin exposure of human CD34+ hemopoietic cells induces gene expression modulation that recapitulates its in vivo clinical and biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a large number of biological effects, including skin, cardiovascular, neurologic diseases, diabetes, infertility, cancers and immunotoxicity. We analysed the in vitro TCDD effects on human CD34+ cells and tested the gene expression modulation by means of microarray analyses before and after TCDD exposure. We identified 257 differentially modulated probe sets, identifying 221 well characterized genes. A large part of these resulted associated to cell adhesion and/or angiogenesis and to transcription regulation. Synaptic transmission and visual perception functions, with the particular involvement of the GABAergic pathway were also significantly modulated. Numerous transcripts involved in cell cycle or cell proliferation, immune response, signal transduction, ion channel activity or calcium ion binding, tissue development and differentiation, female or male fertility or in several metabolic pathways were also affected after dioxin exposure. The transcriptional profile induced by TCDD treatment on human CD34+ cells strikingly reproduces the clinical and biological effects observed in individuals exposed to dioxin and in biological experimental systems. Our data support a role of dioxin in the neoplastic transformation of hemopoietic stem cells and in immune modulation processes after in vivo exposure, as indicated by the epidemiologic data in dioxin accidentally exposed populations, providing a molecular basis for it. In addition, TCDD alters genes associated to glucidic and lipidic metabolisms, to GABAergic transmission or involved in male and female fertility, thus providing a possible explanation of the diabetogenic, dyslipidemic, neurologic and fertility effects induced by TCDD in vivo exposure.

  12. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-08-13

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  13. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors

  14. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  15. Lim Mineralization Protein 3 Induces the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Amniotic Fluid Stromal Cells through Kruppel-Like Factor-4 Downregulation and Further Bone-Specific Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with extensive self-renewal properties can be easily isolated and rapidly expanded in culture from small volumes of amniotic fluid. These cells, namely, amniotic fluid-stromal cells (AFSCs, can be regarded as an attractive source for tissue engineering purposes, being phenotypically and genetically stable, plus overcoming all the safety and ethical issues related to the use of embryonic/fetal cells. LMP3 is a novel osteoinductive molecule acting upstream to the main osteogenic pathways. This study is aimed at delineating the basic molecular events underlying LMP3-induced osteogenesis, using AFSCs as a cellular model to focus on the molecular features underlying the multipotency/differentiation switch. For this purpose, AFSCs were isolated and characterized in vitro and transfected with a defective adenoviral vector expressing the human LMP3. LMP3 induced the successful osteogenic differentiation of AFSC by inducing the expression of osteogenic markers and osteospecific transcription factors. Moreover, LMP3 induced an early repression of the kruppel-like factor-4, implicated in MSC stemness maintenance. KLF4 repression was released upon LMP3 silencing, indicating that this event could be reasonably considered among the basic molecular events that govern the proliferation/differentiation switch during LMP3-induced osteogenic differentiation of AFSC.

  16. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  17. Measurement of νμ-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Eν is an element of 0.5-2.0 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for νμ-induced charged-current single π0 production on mineral oil (CH2) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5-2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q2, μ- kinematics, and π0 kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)x10-39 cm2/CH2 at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  18. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  19. A GAMOS plug-in for GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulation of radiation-induced light transport in biological media

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Adam K.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Arce, Pedro; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a tissue optics plug-in that interfaces with the GEANT4/GAMOS Monte Carlo (MC) architecture, providing a means of simulating radiation-induced light transport in biological media for the first time. Specifically, we focus on the simulation of light transport due to the Čerenkov effect (light emission from charged particle’s traveling faster than the local speed of light in a given medium), a phenomenon which requires accurate modeling of both the high energy particle and subsequen...

  20. Long-term suppression of Pythium abappressorium induced by Brassica juncea seed meal amendment is biologically mediated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence indicates that seed meal of Brassica juncea is an effective biofumigant against Pythium spp., an important biological component contributing to apple replant disease. However, the ability of this seed meal to render disease suppression even after termination of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) e...

  1. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  2. Solar ultraviolet radiation induces biological alterations in human skin in vitro: Relevance of a well-balanced UVA/UVB protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bernerd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous damages such as sunburn, pigmentation, and photoaging are known to be induced by acute as well as repetitive sun exposure. Not only for basic research, but also for the design of the most efficient photoprotection, it is crucial to understand and identify the early biological events occurring after ultraviolet (UV exposure. Reconstructed human skin models provide excellent and reliable in vitro tools to study the UV-induced alterations of the different skin cell types, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using different in vitro human skin models, the effects of UV light (UVB and UVA were investigated. UVB-induced damages are essentially epidermal, with the typical sunburn cells and DNA lesions, whereas UVA radiation-induced damages are mostly located within the dermal compartment. Pigmentation can also be obtained after solar simulated radiation exposure of pigmented reconstructed skin model. Those models are also highly adequate to assess the potential of sunscreens to protect the skin from UV-associated damage, sunburn reaction, photoaging, and pigmentation. The results showed that an effective photoprotection is provided by broad-spectrum sunscreens with a potent absorption in both UVB and UVA ranges.

  3. Radiation-induced cardiac damage in early left breast cancer patients: Risk factors, biological mechanisms, radiobiology, and dosimetric constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today there is general awareness of the potential damage to the heart in left-sided (more than in right-sided) breast cancer radiotherapy (RT). Historical changes in tumor and heart doses are presented here along with the impact of different RT techniques and volumes. Individual and pharmacological risk factors are also examined with respect to radiation damage. The biological mechanisms of harm are only partially understood, such as the radiobiology of heart damage due to the presence of various radiosensitive structures and their topographic heterogeneity. Furthermore, individual variability may expose patients to higher or lower risks of late cardiac damage or death. Damage mechanisms and radiobiological characteristics in heart irradiation are presented in relation to dosimetric and biological parameters.

  4. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  5. Phase Resetting Light Pulses Induce Per1 and Persistent Spike Activity in a Subpopulation of Biological Clock Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlman, Sandra J.; Silver, Rae; Le Sauter, Joseph; Bult-Ito, Abel; McMahon, Douglas G.

    2003-01-01

    The endogenous circadian clock of the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) can be reset by light to synchronize the biological clock of the brain with the external environment. This process involves induction of immediate-early genes such as the circadian clock gene Period1 (Per1) and results in a stable shift in the timing of behavioral and physiological rhythms on subsequent days. The mechanisms by which gene activation permanently alters the phase of clock neuron activity are unknown. T...

  6. The impact on atmospheric CO2 of iron fertilization induced changes in the ocean's biological pump

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, J. C.; Frenzel, H; Doney, S. C.; Gruber, N.; Jin, X.

    2007-01-01

    International audience Using numerical simulations, we quantify the impact of changes in the ocean's biological pump on the air-sea balance of CO2 by fertilizing a small surface patch in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region of the eastern tropical Pacific with iron. Decade-long fertilization experiments are conducted in a basin-scale, eddy-permitting coupled physical/biogeochemical/ecological model. In contrast to previous studies, we find that most of the dissolved inorganic carbon (...

  7. The combined effect of uranium and gamma radiation on biological responses and oxidative stress induced in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie, E-mail: nvanhoud@sckcen.b [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Horemans, Nele; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann [Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    Uranium never occurs as a single pollutant in the environment, but always in combination with other stressors such as ionizing radiation. As effects induced by multiple contaminants can differ markedly from the effects induced by the individual stressors, this multiple pollution context should not be neglected. In this study, effects on growth, nutrient uptake and oxidative stress induced by the single stressors uranium and gamma radiation are compared with the effects induced by the combination of both stressors. By doing this, we aim to better understand the effects induced by the combined stressors but also to get more insight in stressor-specific response mechanisms. Eighteen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were exposed for 3 days to 10 {mu}M uranium and 3.5 Gy gamma radiation. Gamma radiation interfered with uranium uptake, resulting in decreased uranium concentrations in the roots, but with higher transport to the leaves. This resulted in a better root growth but increased leaf lipid peroxidation. For the other endpoints studied, effects under combined exposure were mostly determined by uranium presence and only limited influenced by gamma presence. Furthermore, an important role is suggested for CAT1/2/3 gene expression under uranium and mixed stressor conditions in the leaves.

  8. A comparative study on biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles induced Heat Shock Proteins on fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girilal, M; Krishnakumar, V; Poornima, Paramasivan; Mohammed Fayaz, A; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2015-11-01

    The wide applicability of silver nanoparticles in medicine and pharmaceutical industries leads to its over exploitation and thus contaminating our environment. Majority of these nanoscale dimension particles finally accumulates in fresh water and marine ecosystem. As the nanoparticles behave entirely different from its corresponding bulk material, a better understanding of their environmental impacts in aquatic ecosystems is inevitable. The study was focused on a comparative stress physiology analysis of chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles and biogenic silver nanoparticles. Half maximal inhibitory concentration of biologically synthesized and chemically synthesized nanoparticles was found out (30μg/mL and 20μg/mL respectively). The Heat Shock Protein (HSP70) secretion was analysed in the fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus after exposing to different concentrations of biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles along with the silver in its ionic form. The intense immune-histochemical staining of fish tissues (muscle, kidney and liver) analyzed proportionately reflected the stress created. The colour intensity was directly proportional to the stress created or the stress protein released. High level of HSP70 expression was observed in all of the fish tissues exposed to silver ions and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles, when compared to that of biologically synthesized. The results revealed the significance of comparatively safe and less toxic biogenic nanoparticles compared to the chemically synthesized.

  9. A biological effectiveness study on chromosomal aberrations induced by fission neutrons versus 60Co γ-rays in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Whole blood lymphocytes samples being exposed to neutrons of 18 MeV energy and 60Co γ-rays respectively, both good dose-response relationships and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were derived. Methods: Heparinized whole blood samples were exposed to neutrons and 60Co γ-rays, respectively. Radiation doses were from 0.5 Gy to 3.0 Gy. Dose rate was 0.2 Gy/min. Unstable chromosomal aberrations dicentrics and centric rings (dic+r), the same as Micronuclei in binucleated cells, were scored. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values of dic+rand Micronucleus were derived. Results: Chromosomal aberrations (dic+r) and Micronucleus induced by either neutrons or 60Co γ-rays had a good dose-response relationship. RBE value of chromosomal aberrations, exposed neutrons at 0.5-3.0 Gy, ranged from 1.59 to 2.81, similarly, micronucleus from 1.23 to 2.14. Conclusion: linear-quadratic dose-response was found for the induction of dic+r and Micronucleus in human lymphocytes exposed in vitro to neutrons of 18 MeV energy. neutrons has higher biological effectiveness in low doses. (authors)

  10. Correlation of mineral dust-induced changes in the composition of a fraction enriched in lung surfactant with pulmonary histologic lesions in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schengrund, C.-L.; Griffith, J.W.; Wilson, R.P.; Xiaoli Chi [Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    1996-07-01

    In previous work the composition of surfactant isolated from cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage (CF-BAL) from the right lungs of monkeys instilled with 500 mg of either generic bituminous, anthracite, quartz, or titanium dioxide dust was compared with that of surfactant isolated from CF-BAL from control left lungs. Exposure to quartz, anthracite, or titanium dioxide induced a significant increase in the amount of protein recovered, which was evident throughout most of the time period (1 year) studied. Exposure to quartz also induced a significant decrease in the total amount of lipid-associated phosphorus. To determine whether dust-induced changes in surfactant composition paralleled changes in lung morphology, consecutive studies were carried out in rats. Rats were instilled with 50 mg of either quartz or anthracite dust/kilogram body weight. One milligram of bituminous dust was intilled with every 5 mg of quartz dust as a marker to indicate dust location. Histologic evaluation of quartz dust-exposed lungs showed alveolitis, including microgranulomas, which were associated with clusters of dust-containing macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells which were localized within alveoli and interstitium surrounding small bronchioles. The anthracite dust-exposed lungs contained similar cell types localized around small bronchioles, which did not form microgranulomas. Surfactant protein A was found within alveolar type II cells and macrophages of both rat and primate lungs, but not within macrophages markedly distended with dust particles. The number of alveolar type II cells appeared to increase in response to the length of time of exposure to dust, as did the total amount of protein recovered in the surfactant-enriched fractions prepared from CF-BAL from dust-instilled lungs relative to that in surfactant-enriched fractions isolated from CF-BAL from control lungs. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Azadirachtin interacts with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding domain of its receptors and inhibits TNF-induced biological responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Thoh, Maikho; Kumar, Pankaj; Nagarajaram, Hampathalu A.; Manna, Sunil K

    2013-01-01

    The role of azadirachtin, an active component of a medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), on TNF-induced cell signaling in human cell lines was investigated. Azadirachtin blocks TNF-induced activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and also expression of NF-κB-dependent genes such as adhesion molecules and cyclooxygenase 2. Azadirachtin inhibits the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (IκBα) phosphorylation and thereby its degradation and RelA (p65) nuclear translocation. It blocks IκBα kinase (IKK...

  12. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  13. Luobusaite: A New Mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Wenji; SHI Nicheng; FANG Qingsong; LI Guowu; XIONG Ming; YANG Jingsui; RONG He

    2006-01-01

    A group of mantle minerals including about 70-80 subtypes of minerals are discovered from a podiform chromitite in Tibet, China. Recovered minerals include diamond, coesite, moissanite,wustite, Fe-silides and a new mineral, luobusaite. All of these minerals were hand-picked from heavy-mineral separates of the podiform chromitite in the mantle peridotite of an ophiolite. The grains of luobusaite are as host mineral with inclusions of native silicon or as an intergrowth with native silicon and Fe-Si phase. Luobusaite occurs as irregular grains, with 0.1-0.2 mm in size, consisting of very finegrained aggregates. The mineral is steel-grey in color, metallic luster, and opaque. The empirical formula (based on 2 for Si) is Fe0.83Si2, according to the chemical compositions of luobusaite. X-ray powder-diffraction data: orthorhombic system, space group Cmca, a = 9.874 (14) (A), b = 7.784 (5) (A), c=7.829(7) (A), Z=16.

  14. Mineral commodity summaries 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2015 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials

  15. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  16. Surface miner MTS 1250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D. [MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Mining and Machinery Planning dept.

    1999-10-01

    The German manufacturer MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH has developed a new series of surface miners with capacities ranging between 500-2000 bm{sup 3}/h. The Surface Miner MTS 1250, launched at MINETIME '99, is described in this article. 1 tab., 1 photo.

  17. In-situ fluorescence hybridization applied to biological dosimetry: contribution of automation to the counting of radio-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of chromosome aberrations on peripheral blood lymphocytes is a dose indicator in the case of ionizing radiations over-exposure. Stable chromosome aberrations (translocations, insertions) are visualized after labelling of some chromosomes using the fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). The study of the use of the FISH technique in biological dosimetry is done with dose-effect curves. It seems that a bias is introduced during the observation of chromosome aberrations involving only 3 pairs of chromosomes. In order to avoid this bias, it would be useful to test the feasibility of using the multi-FISH technique in biological dosimetry. Moreover, this type of chromosome aberration changes with the type of irradiation. It is thus important to define the aberrations to be considered when the FISH technique is used. In order to reduce the time of image analysis, the CYTOGEN system, developed by IMSTAR company (Paris, France) has been adapted to the needs of biological dosimetry. This system allows to localize automatically the metaphases on the slide, which reduces the observation time by 2 or 4. An automatic detection protocol for chromosome aberrations has been implemented. It comprises the image capture, the contours detection and the classification of some chromosome aberrations. The different steps of this protocol have been tested in order to check that no bias is introduced by the automation. However, because radio-induced aberrations are rare events, it seems that a totally automatic system is not foreseeable. A semi-automatic analysis is more suitable. The use of the Slit-Scan technology (Laboratory of applied physics, Heidelberg, Germany) in biological dosimetry has been studied too. This technique allows to analyze rapidly a huge number of chromosomes. A good correlation has been observed between the dicentric frequency measured automatically and by manual counting. The system is under development and should be adapted to the detection of

  18. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl C; Overgaard, Søren

    treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as the controls. All sheep received restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus. At sacrifice, cortical bone samples from the femur midshaft of sheep were harvested, micro-CT scanned and tested in 3 point bending and in tensile. Bone collagen and mineral......The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone – Validation of large animal model for tissue engineering and biomaterial research Ming Ding,1* Carl Christian Danielsen,2 Søren Overgaard1 1Orthopaedic Research Laboratory......, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark 2Department of Connective Tissue Biology, Institute of Anatomy, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark Osteopenia in sheep has been successfully induced...

  19. Technical variability is greater than biological variability in a microarray experiment but both are outweighed by changes induced by stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Bryant

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A central issue in the design of microarray-based analysis of global gene expression is that variability resulting from experimental processes may obscure changes resulting from the effect being investigated. This study quantified the variability in gene expression at each level of a typical in vitro stimulation experiment using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. The primary objective was to determine the magnitude of biological and technical variability relative to the effect being investigated, namely gene expression changes resulting from stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human PBMC were stimulated in vitro with LPS, with replication at 5 levels: 5 subjects each on 2 separate days with technical replication of LPS stimulation, amplification and hybridisation. RNA from samples stimulated with LPS and unstimulated samples were hybridised against common reference RNA on oligonucleotide microarrays. There was a closer correlation in gene expression between replicate hybridisations (0.86-0.93 than between different subjects (0.66-0.78. Deconstruction of the variability at each level of the experimental process showed that technical variability (standard deviation (SD 0.16 was greater than biological variability (SD 0.06, although both were low (SD<0.1 for all individual components. There was variability in gene expression both at baseline and after stimulation with LPS and proportion of cell subsets in PBMC was likely partly responsible for this. However, gene expression changes after stimulation with LPS were much greater than the variability from any source, either individually or combined. CONCLUSIONS: Variability in gene expression was very low and likely to improve further as technical advances are made. The finding that stimulation with LPS has a markedly greater effect on gene expression than the degree of variability provides confidence that microarray-based studies can be used to

  20. Underground mineral extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  1. Mars Life? - Orange-colored Carbonate Mineral Globules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This photograph shows orange-colored carbonate mineral globules found in a meteorite, called ALH84001, believed to have once been a part of Mars. These carbonate minerals in the meteorite are believed to have been formed on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago. Their structure and chemistry suggest that they may have been formed with the assistance of primitive, bacteria-like living organisms. A two-year investigation by a NASA research team found organic molecules, mineral features characteristic of biological activity and possible microscopic fossils inside of carbonate minerals such as these in the meteorite.

  2. Endothelin-2/Vasoactive Intestinal Contractor: Regulation of Expression via Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by CoCl22, and Biological Activities Including Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the local hormone endothelin-2 (ET-2, or vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC, a member of the vasoconstrictor ET peptide family, where ET-2 is the human orthologous peptide of the murine VIC. While ET-2/VIC gene expression has been observed in some normal tissues, ET-2 recently has been reported to act as a tumor marker and as a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor in tumor cells. A recently published study reported that the hypoxic mimetic agent CoCl2 at 200 µM increased expression of the ET-2/VIC gene, decreased expression of the ET-1 gene, and induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS increase and neurite outgrowth in neuronal model PC12 cells. The ROS was generated by addition of CoCl2 to the culture medium, and the CoCl2-induced effects were completely inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6 gene expression was up-regulated upon the differentiation induced by CoCl2. These results suggest that expression of ET-2/VIC and ET-1 mediated by CoCl2-induced ROS may be associated with neuronal differentiation through the regulation of IL-6 expression. CoCl2 acts as a pro-oxidant, as do Fe(II, III and Cu(II. However, some biological activities have been reported for CoCl2 that have not been observed for other metal salts such as FeCl3, CuSO4, and NiCl2. The characteristic actions of CoCl2 may be associated with the differentiation of PC12 cells. Further elucidation of the mechanism of neurite outgrowth and regulation of ET-2/VIC expression by CoCl2 may lead to the development of treatments for neuronal disorders.

  3. Study of the temperature rise induced by a focusing transducer with a wide aperture angle on biological tissue containing ribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wang; Jiexing, Lin; Xiaozhou, Liu; Jiehui, Liu; Xiufen, Gong

    2016-04-01

    We used the spheroidal beam equation to calculate the sound field created by focusing a transducer with a wide aperture angle to obtain the heat deposition, and then we used the Pennes bioheat equation to calculate the temperature field in biological tissue with ribs and to ascertain the effects of rib parameters on the temperature field. The results show that the location and the gap width between the ribs have a great influence on the axial and radial temperature rise of multilayer biological tissue. With a decreasing gap width, the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward; as the ribs are closer to the transducer surface, the sound energy that passes through the gap between the ribs at the focus decreases, the maximum temperature rise decreases, and the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward with the ribs. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB921504 and 2011CB707902), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274166), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 020414380001), the Fund from State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SKLA201401), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M531313), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and SRF for ROCS, SEM.

  4. Study of the temperature rise induced by a focusing transducer with a wide aperture angle on biological tissue containing ribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wang; Jiexing, Lin; Xiaozhou, Liu; Jiehui, Liu; Xiufen, Gong

    2016-04-01

    We used the spheroidal beam equation to calculate the sound field created by focusing a transducer with a wide aperture angle to obtain the heat deposition, and then we used the Pennes bioheat equation to calculate the temperature field in biological tissue with ribs and to ascertain the effects of rib parameters on the temperature field. The results show that the location and the gap width between the ribs have a great influence on the axial and radial temperature rise of multilayer biological tissue. With a decreasing gap width, the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward; as the ribs are closer to the transducer surface, the sound energy that passes through the gap between the ribs at the focus decreases, the maximum temperature rise decreases, and the location of the maximum temperature rise moves forward with the ribs. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB921504 and 2011CB707902), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274166), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 020414380001), the Fund from State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SKLA201401), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M531313), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and SRF for ROCS, SEM.

  5. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles induce neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells via modulation of reactive oxygen species, phosphatases, and kinase signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Kim, BongWoo; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Choi, Hye Yeon; Yang, Gwangmo; Saha, Subbroto Kumar; Han, Dawoon; Han, Jihae; Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2014-07-01

    Nano-scale materials are noted for unique properties, distinct from those of their bulk material equivalents. In this study, we prepared spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with an average size of about 30 nm and tested their potency to induce neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells are considered an ideal in vitro model for studying neurogenesis, as they can be maintained in an undifferentiated state or be induced to differentiate into neuron-like phenotypes in vitro by several differentiation-inducing agents. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells by biologically synthesized AgNPs led to cell morphological changes and significant increase in neurite length and enhanced the expression of neuronal differentiation markers such as Map-2, β-tubulin III, synaptophysin, neurogenin-1, Gap-43, and Drd-2. Furthermore, we observed an increase in generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of several kinases such as ERK and AKT, and downregulation of expression of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) in AgNPs-exposed SH-SY5Y cells. Our results suggest that AgNPs modulate the intracellular signaling pathways, leading to neuronal differentiation, and could be applied as promising nanomaterials for stem cell research and therapy. PMID:24827677

  6. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles induce neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells via modulation of reactive oxygen species, phosphatases, and kinase signaling pathwayss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Kim, Bongwoo; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Choi, Hye Yeon; Yang, Gwangmo; Saha, Subbroto Kumar; Han, Dawoon; Han, Jihae; Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2014-04-22

    The relevant in vitro cellular model resembling functional neurons is important for the mechanistic research on various neuronal diseases. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells may be considered one of the ideal in vitro models for studying neuroscience, as they can be maintained in an undifferentiated state or be induced to differentiate into neuron-like phenotypes in vitro by several differentiation-inducing agents. In this study, we prepared spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with an average size of about 30 nm and tested their potency to induce neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells by biologically synthesized AgNPs led to cell morphological changes and significant increase in neurite length and enhanced the expression of neuronal differentiation markers such as Map-2, β-tubulin III, synaptophysin, neurogenin-1, Gap-43, and Drd-2. Furthermore, we observed an increase in generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of several kinases such as ERK and AKT, and down-regulation of expression of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) in AgNPs-exposed SH-SY5Y cells. Our results suggest that AgNPs could modulate the intracellular signaling pathways to lead to neuronal differentiation, and could be applied as promising nanomaterials for stem cell research and therapy. PMID:24753441

  7. Biological Activities of Chinese Propolis and Brazilian Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhu; Minli Chen; Qiyang Shou; Yinghua Li; Fuliang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Propolis is a bee-collected natural product and has been proven to have various bioactivities. This study tested the effects of Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis on streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis significantly inhibited body weight loss and blood glucose increase in diabetic rats. In addition, Chinese propolis-treated rats showed an 8.4% reduction of glycated hemoglobin levels compar...

  8. Oral secretions from Mythimna separata insects specifically induce defence responses in maize as revealed by high-dimensional biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinfeng; Sun, Guiling; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Chunxia; Hettenhausen, Christian; Schuman, Meredith C; Baldwin, Ian T; Li, Jing; Song, Juan; Liu, Zhudong; Xu, Guowang; Lu, Xin; Wu, Jianqiang

    2016-08-01

    Attack from insect herbivores poses a major threat to plant survival, and accordingly, plants have evolved sophisticated defence systems. Maize is cultivated as a staple crop worldwide, and insect feeding causes large production losses. Despite its importance in agriculture, little is known about how maize reacts to insect herbivory. Taking advantage of advances in sequencing and mass spectrometry technology, we studied the response of maize to mechanical wounding and simulated Mythimna separata (a specialist insect) herbivory by applying its oral secretions (OS) to wounds. In comparison to the responses induced by mechanical wounding, OS elicited larger and longer-lasting changes in the maize transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and phytohormones. Specifically, many genes, proteins and metabolites were uniquely induced or repressed by OS. Nearly 290 transcription factor genes from 39 families were involved in OS-induced responses, and among these, more transcription factor genes were specifically regulated by OS than by wounding. This study provides a large-scale omics dataset for understanding maize response to chewing insects and highlights the essential role of OS in plant-insect interactions. PMID:26991784

  9. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of Arylpiperazine-based novel Phthalimides: Active inducers of testicular germ cell apoptosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ANIL K SINGH; JITENDER K BHARDWAJ; ANA OLIVAL; YOGESH KUMAR; AVIJIT PODDER; ANKUR MAHESHWARI; RENUKA AGRAWAL; N LATHA; BRAJENDRA K SINGH; HELENA TOMÁS; JOÃO RODRIGUES; RAM KISHAN; B RUPINI; BRIJESH RATHI

    2016-08-01

    Understanding of apoptosis or programmed cell death has provided the basis for novel therapeutics that has resulted in rationally designed anticancer strategies. Recently, inducers of apoptosis have been used in cancer therapy. In this work, we describe the role of chiral phthalimides functionalized with piperazines aspotential apoptotic inducers. The listed twenty phthalimides were assessed for their in vitro apoptotic activity against testicular germ cells. All phthalimides showed a significant apoptotic response (∼39 to ∼68%). TUNEL assay and acridine orange fluorescence staining were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanismsresponsible for the cell death. Phthalimides exhibited substantial apoptotic induction following the intrinsic pathway mechanism. Studies advocated that the apoptotic induction was mediated through caspase-9, caspase-3, JNK MAP kinase and tumor suppressor p53, which was accompanied by DNA fragmentation and nuclearcondensation. Besides, the best five phthalimides regarding apoptotic action were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic effects against CAL-72 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Compounds showed efficient killing of cancer cells. This discovery of functionalized phthalimides as apoptotic inducers would be highly valuable in understanding the mechanism of apoptosis at the molecular level and opens up new possibilities for therapeutic strategies.

  10. Oral secretions from Mythimna separata insects specifically induce defence responses in maize as revealed by high-dimensional biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinfeng; Sun, Guiling; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Chunxia; Hettenhausen, Christian; Schuman, Meredith C; Baldwin, Ian T; Li, Jing; Song, Juan; Liu, Zhudong; Xu, Guowang; Lu, Xin; Wu, Jianqiang

    2016-08-01

    Attack from insect herbivores poses a major threat to plant survival, and accordingly, plants have evolved sophisticated defence systems. Maize is cultivated as a staple crop worldwide, and insect feeding causes large production losses. Despite its importance in agriculture, little is known about how maize reacts to insect herbivory. Taking advantage of advances in sequencing and mass spectrometry technology, we studied the response of maize to mechanical wounding and simulated Mythimna separata (a specialist insect) herbivory by applying its oral secretions (OS) to wounds. In comparison to the responses induced by mechanical wounding, OS elicited larger and longer-lasting changes in the maize transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and phytohormones. Specifically, many genes, proteins and metabolites were uniquely induced or repressed by OS. Nearly 290 transcription factor genes from 39 families were involved in OS-induced responses, and among these, more transcription factor genes were specifically regulated by OS than by wounding. This study provides a large-scale omics dataset for understanding maize response to chewing insects and highlights the essential role of OS in plant-insect interactions.

  11. The Impact of Conventional and Biological Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs on Bone Biology. Rheumatoid Arthritis as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Sofia Carvalho; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2016-08-01

    The bone and the immune system have a very tight interaction. Systemic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), induce bone loss, leading to a twofold increase in osteoporosis and an increase of fragility fracture risk of 1.35-2.13 times. This review focuses on the effects of conventional and biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) on bone biology, in the context of systemic inflammation, with a focus on RA. Published evidence supports a decrease in osteoclastic activity induced by DMARDs, which leads to positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown if this effect could be translated into fracture risk reduction. The combination with antiosteoclastic drugs can have an additional benefit.

  12. Thermal effects on microbial composition and microbiologically induced corrosion and mineral precipitation affecting operation of a geothermal plant in a deep saline aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerm, Stephanie; Westphal, Anke; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Alawi, Mashal; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2013-03-01

    The microbial diversity of a deep saline aquifer used for geothermal heat storage in the North German Basin was investigated. Genetic fingerprinting analyses revealed distinct microbial communities in fluids produced from the cold and warm side of the aquifer. Direct cell counting and quantification of 16S rRNA genes and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes by real-time PCR proved different population sizes in fluids, showing higher abundance of bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in cold fluids compared with warm fluids. The operation-dependent temperature increase at the warm well probably enhanced organic matter availability, favoring the growth of fermentative bacteria and SRB in the topside facility after the reduction of fluid temperature. In the cold well, SRB predominated and probably accounted for corrosion damage to the submersible well pump and iron sulfide precipitates in the near wellbore area and topside facility filters. This corresponded to lower sulfate content in fluids produced from the cold well as well as higher content of hydrogen gas that was probably released from corrosion, and maybe favored growth of hydrogenotrophic SRB. This study reflects the high influence of microbial populations for geothermal plant operation, because microbiologically induced precipitative and corrosive processes adversely affect plant reliability. PMID:23358731

  13. Thermal effects on microbial composition and microbiologically induced corrosion and mineral precipitation affecting operation of a geothermal plant in a deep saline aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerm, Stephanie; Westphal, Anke; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Alawi, Mashal; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2013-03-01

    The microbial diversity of a deep saline aquifer used for geothermal heat storage in the North German Basin was investigated. Genetic fingerprinting analyses revealed distinct microbial communities in fluids produced from the cold and warm side of the aquifer. Direct cell counting and quantification of 16S rRNA genes and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes by real-time PCR proved different population sizes in fluids, showing higher abundance of bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in cold fluids compared with warm fluids. The operation-dependent temperature increase at the warm well probably enhanced organic matter availability, favoring the growth of fermentative bacteria and SRB in the topside facility after the reduction of fluid temperature. In the cold well, SRB predominated and probably accounted for corrosion damage to the submersible well pump and iron sulfide precipitates in the near wellbore area and topside facility filters. This corresponded to lower sulfate content in fluids produced from the cold well as well as higher content of hydrogen gas that was probably released from corrosion, and maybe favored growth of hydrogenotrophic SRB. This study reflects the high influence of microbial populations for geothermal plant operation, because microbiologically induced precipitative and corrosive processes adversely affect plant reliability.

  14. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2010-03-01

    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social

  15. Biomimetic Mineralization of Recombinamer-Based Hydrogels toward Controlled Morphologies and High Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Chen, Xi; Fok, Alex; Rodriguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Aparicio, Conrado

    2015-11-25

    The use of insoluble organic matrices as a structural template for the bottom-up fabrication of organic-inorganic nanocomposites is a powerful way to build a variety of advanced materials with defined and controlled morphologies and superior mechanical properties. Calcium phosphate mineralization in polymeric hydrogels is receiving significant attention in terms of obtaining biomimetic hierarchical structures with unique mechanical properties and understanding the mechanisms of the biomineralization process. However, integration of organic matrices with hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, different in morphology and composition, has not been well-achieved yet at nanoscale. In this study, we synthesized thermoresponsive hydrogels, composed of elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), to template mineralization of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals using a biomimetic polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) mineralization process. Different from conventional mineralization where minerals were deposited on the surface of organic matrices, they were infiltrated into the frameworks of ELR matrices, preserving their microporous structure. After 14 days of mineralization, an average of 78 μm mineralization depth was achieved. Mineral density up to 1.9 g/cm(3) was found after 28 days of mineralization, which is comparable to natural bone and dentin. In the dry state, the elastic modulus and hardness of the mineralized hydrogels were 20.3 ± 1.7 and 0.93 ± 0.07 GPa, respectively. After hydration, they were reduced to 4.50 ± 0.55 and 0.10 ± 0.03 GPa, respectively. These values were lower but still on the same order of magnitude as those of natural hard tissues. The results indicated that inorganic-organic hybrid biomaterials with controlled morphologies can be achieved using organic templates of ELRs. Notably, the chemical and physical properties of ELRs can be tuned, which might help elucidate the mechanisms by which living organisms regulate the mineralization process.

  16. Multifractal Modelling of Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Mineralization refers to the physical process, which enhances the concentration of certain elements in rocks. The end products of the mineralization include both ore bodies which provide economically useable reservoir at the current industrial standard and altered rocks with elevated element concentration values below the minimum requirement for the current mining standard. The latter may be considered as resources potentially useful in the future. From this point of view, the mineral deposits are defined to be only an economic part of the total resources (a useable reservoir).

  17. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.

    1974-01-01

    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  18. Microbial composition in a deep saline aquifer in the North German Basin -microbiologically induced corrosion and mineral precipitation affecting geothermal plant operation and the effects of plant downtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerm, Stephanie; Westphal, Anke; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Alawi, Mashal; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2013-04-01

    The microbial composition in fluids of a deep saline geothermal used aquifer in the North German Basin was characterized over a period of five years. The genetic fingerprinting techniques PCR-SSCP and PCR-DGGE revealed distinct microbial communities in fluids produced from the cold and warm side of the aquifer. Direct cell counting and quantification of 16S rRNA genes and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes by real-time PCR proved different population sizes in fluids, showing higher abundance of Bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in cold fluids compared to warm fluids. Predominating SRB in the cold well probably accounted for corrosion damage to the submersible well pump, and iron sulfide precipitates in the near wellbore area and topside facility filters. This corresponded to a lower sulfate content in fluids produced from the cold well as well as higher content of hydrogen gas that was probably released from corrosion, and maybe favoured growth of hydrogenotrophic SRB. Plant downtime significantly influenced the microbial biocenosis in fluids. Samples taken after plant restart gave indications about the processes occurring downhole during those phases. High DNA concentrations in fluids at the beginning of the restart process with a decreasing trend over time indicated a higher abundance of microbes during plant downtime compared to regular plant operation. It is likely that a gradual drop in temperature as well as stagnant conditions favoured the growth of microbes and maturation of biofilms at the casing and in pores of the reservoir rock in the near wellbore area. Furthermore, it became obvious that the microorganisms were more associated to particles then free-living. This study reflects the high influence of microbial populations for geothermal plant operation, because microbiologically induced precipitative and corrosive processes adversely affect plant reliability. Those processes may favourably occur during plant downtime due to enhanced

  19. Late Precambrian oxygenation; inception of the clay mineral factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Martin; Droser, Mary; Mayer, Lawrence M; Pevear, David; Mrofka, David

    2006-03-10

    An enigmatic stepwise increase in oxygen in the late Precambrian is widely considered a prerequisite for the expansion of animal life. Accumulation of oxygen requires organic matter burial in sediments, which is largely controlled by the sheltering or preservational effects of detrital clay minerals in modern marine continental margin depocenters. Here, we show mineralogical and geochemical evidence for an increase in clay mineral deposition in the Neoproterozoic that immediately predated the first metazoans. Today most clay minerals originate in biologically active soils, so initial expansion of a primitive land biota would greatly enhance production of pedogenic clay minerals (the "clay mineral factory"), leading to increased marine burial of organic carbon via mineral surface preservation.

  20. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  1. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  2. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral ... Vitamin K lowers the drug's effectiveness and doctors base the medicine dose partly on the amount of ...

  3. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  4. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  5. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  6. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    the minerals mandatory permissions from the various governmental and local bodies are needed to obtain a prospecting mining license. One of the simplest ways to recover the placer sand is by manual scooping but sophisticated machines are also used...

  7. Minerals in environmental technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuiling, R.D. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Earth Sciences

    2000-07-01

    Minerals play a key role in the environment; this role is often not well understood, because the emphasis of most environmentalists is on air, water, or the composition of solid wastes as a whole, without paying attention to their mineralogical composition. Several minerals can serve as effective and cheap adsorbents for many toxic chemicals. Several minerals can be used as a cheap substitute for expensive chemicals in environmental technologies. Environmental technologies that produce an economically interesting mineral will have an edge over competing technologies. Most of the problems, overreaction, panicky and expensive measures with regard to exposure from quartz and asbestos stem from a poor understanding of natural levels of common contaminants, a disregard for mineralogy, and a lack of insight into natural processes in general.

  8. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  9. Heavy mineral placers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    , because of their high sp. gravity. Intrusive igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks are mostly the primary source for heavy placers (Table 3). Table 3. Important Placer Deposits of the world. Country Climatic zone Mineral Deposit Present Studies... minerals are of great value in studying 1. Provenance 2. Transport history of sediments 3. Weathering history of sediments and 4. In correlation and paleogeographic studies (Folk 1968). In addition to their use in solving academic and scientific...

  10. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm) was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1) • d(-1), respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  11. Clay Minerals: Adsorbophysical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and features of surfaces of clay minerals (kaolin, montmorillonite, etc) have an important scientific and practical value. On the surface the interrelation of processes at electronic, atomic and molecular levels is realized. Availability of mineral surface to external influences opens wide scientific and technical opportunities of use of the surface phenomena, so the research of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near-surface area of clay minerals is important. After long term researches of gas-clay mineral system in physical fields the author has obtained experimental and theoretical material contributing to the creation of the surface theory of clays. A part of the researches is dedicated to studying the mechanism of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near surface area of clay mineral systems, selectivity of the surface centers to interact with gas phase molecules and adsorbophysical properties. The study of physical and chemical properties of fine clay minerals and their modification has a decisive importance for development of theory and practice of nanotechnologies: they are sorbents, membranes, ceramics and other materials with required electronic features

  12. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  13. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  14. Cytomegalovirus infection induces a stem cell phenotype in human primary glioblastoma cells: prognostic significance and biological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornara, O; Bartek, J; Rahbar, A; Odeberg, J; Khan, Z; Peredo, I; Hamerlik, P; Bartek, J; Stragliotto, G; Landázuri, N; Söderberg-Nauclér, C

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with poor prognosis despite aggressive surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, this standard therapy does not target glioma cancer stem cells (GCSCs), a subpopulation of GBM cells that can give rise to recurrent tumors. GBMs express human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins, and previously we found that the level of expression of HCMV immediate-early (IE) protein in GBMs is a prognostic factor for poor patient survival. In this study, we investigated the relation between HCMV infection of GBM cells and the presence of GCSCs. Primary GBMs were characterized by their expression of HCMV-IE and GCSCs marker CD133 and by patient survival. The extent to which HCMV infection of primary GBM cells induced a GCSC phenotype was evaluated in vitro. In primary GBMs, a large fraction of CD133-positive cells expressed HCMV-IE, and higher co-expression of these two proteins predicted poor patient survival. Infection of GBM cells with HCMV led to upregulation of CD133 and other GSCS markers (Notch1, Sox2, Oct4, Nestin). HCMV infection also promoted the growth of GBM cells as neurospheres, a behavior typically displayed by GCSCs, and this phenotype was prevented by either chemical inhibition of the Notch1 pathway or by treatment with the anti-viral drug ganciclovir. GBM cells that maintained expression of HCMV-IE failed to differentiate into neuronal or astrocytic phenotypes. Our findings imply that HCMV infection induces phenotypic plasticity of GBM cells to promote GCSC features and may thereby increase the aggressiveness of this tumor. PMID:26138445

  15. Statin-induced myotoxicity is exacerbated by aging: A biophysical and molecular biology study in rats treated with atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Bellis, Michela; Conte, Elena; Liantonio, Antonella; Musaraj, Kejla; Cannone, Maria; Fonzino, Adriano; Giustino, Arcangela; De Luca, Annamaria; Romano, Rossella; Camerino, Claudia; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Desaphy, Jean-Francois; Conte Camerino, Diana; Pierno, Sabata

    2016-09-01

    Statin-induced skeletal muscle damage in rats is associated to the reduction of the resting sarcolemmal chloride conductance (gCl) and ClC-1 chloride channel expression. These drugs also affect the ClC-1 regulation by increasing protein kinase C (PKC) activity, which phosphorylate and close the channel. Also the intracellular resting calcium (restCa) level is increased. Similar alterations are observed in skeletal muscles of aged rats, suggesting a higher risk of statin myotoxicity. To verify this hypothesis, we performed a 4-5-weeks atorvastatin treatment of 24-months-old rats to evaluate the ClC-1 channel function by the two-intracellular microelectrodes technique as well as transcript and protein expression of different genes sensitive to statins by quantitative real-time-PCR and western blot analysis. The restCa was measured using FURA-2 imaging, and histological analysis of muscle sections was performed. The results show a marked reduction of resting gCl, in agreement with the reduced ClC-1 mRNA and protein expression in atorvastatin-treated aged rats, with respect to treated adult animals. The observed changes in myocyte-enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) expression may be involved in ClC-1 expression changes. The activity of PKC was also increased and further modulate the gCl in treated aged rats. In parallel, a marked reduction of the expression of glycolytic and mitochondrial enzymes demonstrates an impairment of muscle metabolism. No worsening of restCa or histological features was found in statin-treated aged animals. These findings suggest that a strong reduction of gCl and alteration of muscle metabolism coupled to muscle atrophy may contribute to the increased risk of statin-induced myopathy in the elderly. PMID:27377005

  16. Radiation-induced bystander effect in healthy G{sub 0} human lymphocytes: Biological and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloni, Paola; Latini, Paolo [Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo De Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Palitti, Fabrizio, E-mail: palitti@unitus.it [Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo De Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2011-08-01

    To study the bystander effects, G{sub 0} human peripheral blood lymphocytes were X-irradiated with 0.1, 0.5 and 3 Gy. After 24 h, cell-free conditioned media from irradiated cultures were transferred to unexposed lymphocytes. Following 48 h of medium transfer, viability, induction of apoptosis, telomere shortening, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and micronuclei (after stimulation) were analyzed. A statistically significant decrement in cell viability, concomitant with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, telomere shortening, increases in hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup -}) with depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, and higher frequencies of micronuclei, were observed in bystander lymphocytes incubated with medium from 0.5 and 3 Gy irradiated samples, compared to lymphocytes unexposed. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference between the response to 0.5 and 3 Gy of irradiation in bystander lymphocytes, was found. However, when lymphocytes were irradiated with 0.1 Gy, no bystander effect with regard to viability, apoptosis, telomere length, and micronuclei was observed, although a high production of ROS level persisted. Radiation in the presence of the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) suppressed oxidative stress induced by 3 Gy of X-rays with the effective elimination of bystander effects, suggesting a correlation between ROS and bystander signal formation in irradiated cells. The data propose that bystander effect might be mostly due to the reactions of radiation induced free radicals on DNA, with the existence of a threshold at which the bystander signal is not operative (0.1 Gy dose of X-rays). Our results may have clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure.

  17. Particle induced X-ray emission and ion dose distribution in a biological micro-beam: Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of a microbeam is to deliver a highly localized and small dose to the biological medium. This can be achieved by using a set of collimators that confine the charged particle beam to a very small spatial area of the order of microns in diameter. By using a system that combines an appropriate beam detection method that signals to a beam shut-down mechanism, a predetermined and counted number of energetic particles can be delivered to targeted biological cells. Since the shutter and the collimators block a significant proportion of the beam, there is a probability of the production of low energy X-rays and secondary electrons through interactions with the beam. There is little information in the biological microbeam literature on potential X-ray production. We therefore used Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the potential production of particle-induced X-rays and secondary electrons in the collimation system (which is predominantly made of tungsten) and the subsequent possible effects on the total absorbed dose delivered to the biological medium. We found, through the simulation, no evidence of the escape of X-rays or secondary electrons from the collimation system for proton energies up to 3 MeV as we found that the thickness of the collimators is sufficient to reabsorb all of the generated low energy X-rays and secondary electrons. However, if the proton energy exceeds 3 MeV our simulations suggest that 10 keV X-rays can escape the collimator and expose the overlying layer of cells and medium. If the proton energy is further increased to 4.5 MeV or beyond, the collimator can become a significant source of 10 keV and 59 keV X-rays. These additional radiation fields could have effects on cells and these results should be verified through experimental measurement. We suggest that researchers using biological microbeams at higher energies need to be aware that cells may be exposed to a mixed LET radiation field and be careful in their interpretation of

  18. The oxidative potential and biological effects induced by PM{sub 10} obtained in Mexico City and at a receptor site during the MILAGRO Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, Raul [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Serrano, Jesus [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Gomez, Virginia [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Foy, Benjamin de [Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Miranda, Javier [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Vega, Elizabeth [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Vazquez-Lopez, Ines [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Molina, Luisa T. [Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Manzano-Leon, Natalia [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Rosas, Irma [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R., E-mail: osornio@ualberta.ca [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Department of Paediatrics, University of Alberta, 1048 RTF, 8308 114 St, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V2 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    As part of a field campaign that studied the impact of Mexico City pollution plume at the local, sub-regional and regional levels, we studied transport-related changes in PM{sub 10} composition, oxidative potential and in vitro toxicological patterns (hemolysis, DNA degradation). We collected PM{sub 10} in Mexico City (T{sub 0}) and at a suburban-receptor site (T{sub 1}), pooled according to two observed ventilation patterns (T{sub 0} {yields} T{sub 1} influence and non-influence). T{sub 0} samples contained more Cu, Zn, and carbon whereas; T{sub 1} samples contained more of Al, Si, P, S, and K (p < 0.05). Only SO{sub 4}{sup -2} increased in T{sub 1} during the influence periods. Oxidative potential correlated with Cu/Zn content (r = 0.74; p < 0.05) but not with biological effects. T{sub 1} PM{sub 10} induced greater hemolysis and T{sub 0} PM{sub 10} induced greater DNA degradation. Influence/non-influence did not affect oxidative potential nor biological effects. Results indicate that ventilation patterns had little effect on intrinsic PM{sub 10} composition and toxicological potential, which suggests a significant involvement of local sources. - Highlights: > Transport-related changes in PM{sub 10} composition, oxidative potential and in vitro toxicity were studied. > Cu, Zn, and carbon levels were predominant in urban PM{sub 10}; receptor site PM{sub 10} was rich in soil elements. > SO{sub 4}{sup -2} was the only component increased in PM{sub 10} from the receptor during the influence periods. > PM{sub 10} oxidative potential correlates with Cu/Zn content but not with studied biological effects. > Ventilation patterns had little effect on PM{sub 10} composition and toxicity. - Mexico City ventilation patterns had little effect on the intrinsic PM{sub 10} composition and toxicological potential, which suggests a significant involvement of local sources as opposed to downwind transport.

  19. Geoelectrical Signatures Of Microbial Stimulated Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personna, Y. R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; O Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K. H.

    2007-05-01

    Bioremediation techniques are commonly utilized to address soil and groundwater contamination due to acid- mine drainage, industrial sources, and government nuclear weapon programs. One critical component of these efforts is the real time, spatially accurate monitoring of the remediation processes. For this reason non-invasive high resolution geophysical methods have been employed in the recent years to elucidate system transformations occurring during bioremediation. In our study, we performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of microbe-mediated iron sulfide (FeS) precipitation accompanying stimulated sulfate-reduction; a bioremediation technique currently utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface. In order to monitor the biomineralization process, we used two geoelectrical methods - induced polarization (IP) and self-potential (SP) - in conjunction with conventional geochemical measurements. The IP data showed significant anomalies associated with ongoing FeS mineralization accompanying microbial activity. The magnitude of the IP response can be considered a proxy for the mass of minerals accumulating in the pore space and may provide insight into the aggregation state of the mineralization. Additionally, strong SP anomalies developed during the mineralization as a result of the continuous redox state changes following the microbial induced mineral formation. Visibly black precipitates accumulated with the column indicating FeS precipitation, and high H2S content confirmed the observed geochemical and geophysical data. Overall, the results suggest that the IP and SP methods can be used to monitor the progress of the microbial induced mineralization process associated with the precipitation of insoluble metal sulfides, and indirectly monitor the microbial activity within the subsurface. These methods can be valuable tools to increase the efficiency of bioremediation techniques.

  20. Sandstone copper assessment of the Teniz Basin, Kazakhstan: Chapter R in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossette, Pamela M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Wallis, John C.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts national and global resource assessments (mineral, energy, water, and biological) to provide data and scientific analyses to support decision making. Three-part mineral resource assessments result in informed, unbiased, quantitative, and probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral resources and deposits. In particular, mineral assessment results inform decisions concerning land-use and mineral-resource development. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of the sandstone subtype of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits in the Teniz Basin, Kazakhstan, was undertaken by the USGS.

  1. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    Full Text Available Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1 • d(-1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P < 0.001. Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P < 0.05. It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  2. Analysis of proteins in biological samples by capillary sieving electrophoresis with postcolumn derivatization/laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, Takashi; Ogura, Takehito; Imasaka, Totaro

    2011-04-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated postcolumn derivatization of proteins separated by capillary sieving electrophoresis (CSE), in which naphthalene-2,3-dicarbaldehyde was employed as a fluorogenic labeling reagent. Standard proteins separated by CSE were reacted with naphthalene-2,3-dicarbaldehyde in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) which plays a role of a reducing agent in the derivatization reaction. To improve the sensitivity, we attempted the use of ethanethiol instead of 2-ME. Ethanethiol showed 1.4- to 4.5-fold lower limits of detection for proteins than 2-ME. Furthermore, we found that 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS) is a good marker for relative electrophoretic mobilities of proteins in CSE. Since APTS is a fluorescent and trivalent anion, it generates strong fluorescence and migrates faster than any of the proteins. Therefore, we employed APTS as a marker to obtain the relative electrophoretic mobilities of proteins. The present method was applied to the analyses of proteins in biological samples. Human Ewing's family tumor cell line 'RDES' was used as a sample. The cultured cells were lysed with a buffer containing Tris-HCl, NaCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 2-ME. After denaturation, the lysate was directly introduced into the capillary. Several peaks, which would correspond to proteins with molecular mass ranging from 10 to 93 kDa, were found in the cell lysate. In addition, we measured a milk sample by the CSE with postcolumn derivatization. The electropherogram showed five major peaks which corresponded to α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, κ-casein, bovine serum albumin, and mixture of α- and β-casein. PMID:21449073

  3. Phase Resetting Light Pulses Induce Per1 and Persistent Spike Activity in a Subpopulation of Biological Clock Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Sandra J.; Silver, Rae; Le Sauter, Joseph; Bult-Ito, Abel; McMahon, Douglas G.

    2012-01-01

    The endogenous circadian clock of the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) can be reset by light to synchronize the biological clock of the brain with the external environment. This process involves induction of immediate-early genes such as the circadian clock gene Period1 (Per1) and results in a stable shift in the timing of behavioral and physiological rhythms on subsequent days. The mechanisms by which gene activation permanently alters the phase of clock neuron activity are unknown. To study the relationship between acute gene activation and persistent changes in the neurophysiology of SCN neurons, we recorded from SCN neurons marked with a dynamic green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter of Per1 gene activity. Phase-resetting light pulses resulted in Per1 induction in a distinct subset of SCN neurons that also exhibited a persistent increase in action potential frequency 3–5 hr after a light pulse. By simultaneously quantifying Per1 gene activation and spike frequency in individual neurons, we found that the degree of Per1 induction was highly correlated with neuronal spike frequency on a cell-by-cell basis. Increased neuronal activity was mediated by membrane potential depolarization as a result of a reduction in outward potassium current. Double-label immunocytochemistry revealed that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing cells, but not arginine vasopressin (AVP)-expressing cells, exhibited significant Per1 induction by light pulses. Rhythmic GFP expression occurred in both VIP and AVP neurons. Our results indicate that the steps that link acute molecular events to permanent changes in clock phase involve persistent suppression of potassium current, downstream of Per1 gene induction, in a specific subset of Per1-expressing neurons enriched for VIP. PMID:12598633

  4. Systems biology approach to developing S2RM-based "systemstherapeutics" and naturally induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The degree to, and the mechanisms through, whichstem cells are able to build, maintain, and heal the bodyhave only recently begun to be understood. Much of thestem cell's power resides in the release of a multitudeof molecules, called stem cell released molecules (SRM).A fundamentally new type of therapeutic, namely"systems therapeutic", can be realized by reverseengineering the mechanisms of the SRM processes.Recent data demonstrates that the composition of theSRM is different for each type of stem cell, as well asfor different states of each cell type. Although systemsbiology has been successfully used to analyze multiplepathways, the approach is often used to develop a smallmolecule interacting at only one pathway in the system.A new model is emerging in biology where systemsbiology is used to develop a new technology actingat multiple pathways called "systems therapeutics". Anatural set of healing pathways in the human that usesSRM is instructive and of practical use in developingsystems therapeutics. Endogenous SRM processes inthe human body use a combination of SRM from twoor more stem cell types, designated as S2RM, doing sounder various state dependent conditions for each celltype. Here we describe our approach in using statedependentSRM from two or more stem cell types,S2RM technology, to develop a new class of therapeuticscalled "systems therapeutics." Given the ubiquitous andpowerful nature of innate S2RM-based healing in thehuman body, this "systems therapeutic" approach usingS2RM technology will be important for the developmentof anti-cancer therapeutics, antimicrobials, woundcare products and procedures, and a number of othertherapeutics for many indications.

  5. The long-term fertilization effect on biological activity of different genesis soils

    OpenAIRE

    Grigaliūnienė, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    The effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on biological activity of different genesis soils in long-term crop rotation trials was determined. Biological activity was diverse in the soils of different genesis and it activity correlated with some soil chemical properties. Organic and mineral fertilizers and their combinations more increased biological activity in the soil than only mineral fertilizers. Mineral fertilizers suppressed dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity (180 kg ha...

  6. RNA-sequencing analysis of TCDD-induced responses in zebrafish liver reveals high relatedness to in vivo mammalian models and conserved biological pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Li

    Full Text Available TCDD is one of the most persistent environmental toxicants in biological systems and its effect through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR has been well characterized. However, the information on TCDD-induced toxicity in other molecular pathways is rather limited. To fully understand molecular toxicity of TCDD in an in vivo animal model, adult zebrafish were exposed to TCDD at 10 nM for 96 h and the livers were sampled for RNA-sequencing based transcriptomic profiling. A total of 1,058 differently expressed genes were identified based on fold-change>2 and TPM (transcripts per million >10. Among the top 20 up-regulated genes, 10 novel responsive genes were identified and verified by RT-qPCR analysis on independent samples. Transcriptomic analysis indicated several deregulated pathways associated with cell cycle, endocrine disruptors, signal transduction and immune systems. Comparative analyses of TCDD-induced transcriptomic changes between fish and mammalian models revealed that proteomic pathway is consistently up-regulated while calcium signaling pathway and several immune-related pathways are generally down-regulated. Finally, our study also suggested that zebrafish model showed greater similarity to in vivo mammalian models than in vitro models. Our study indicated that the zebrafish is a valuable in vivo model in toxicogenomic analyses for understanding molecular toxicity of environmental toxicants relevant to human health. The expression profiles associated with TCDD could be useful for monitoring environmental dioxin and dioxin-like contamination.

  7. Effects of secretive bone morphogenetic protein 2 induced by gene transfection on the biological changes of NIH3T3 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wei-bin; WANG Juan; LU Chun; TANG Gui-xia

    2005-01-01

    Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, are powerful regulators of cartilage and bone formation. This study investigated the biological changes of NIH3T3 cells incubated with secretive BMP2 that was induced by gene transfection through transwell. Methods Eukaryonic expression vector (pcDNA3.1-B2) was transfered into NIH3T3 cells with SofastTM,a positive compound transfection agent. The positive cell clones were selected with G418. The cytoplasmic and extracellular expressions of BMP2 were determined by immunohistochemical stain and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NIH3T3 cells were co-cultured with hBMP2 gene transfecting cells through transwell, and the ultrastructure, alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of osteocalcin (the marker of osteogenetic differentiation) changes were observed. Results There were cytoplasmic and extracellular expressions of BMP2 in transfecting NIH3T3 cells. The ultrastructural changes, the high activity of alkaline phosphatase and the positive stain of osteocalcin suggested the osteogenetic differentiation tendency of NIH3T3 cells co-cultured with transfecting NIH3T3 cells. Conclusion Secretive BMP2 that is induced by gene transfection could promote the osteogenetic differentiation of fibroblast cells.

  8. Blood antioxidant enzymes as markers of exposure or effect in coal miners.

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin-Nadif, R; Auburtin, G; Dusch, M; Porcher, J. M.; Mur, J M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate if blood Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and total plasma antioxidant activities could be markers of biological activity resulting from exposure to respirable coal mine dust in active miners, and of pneumoconiosis in retired miners. METHODS--Blood samples were randomly obtained from active surface workers (n = 30) and underground miners (n = 34), and from retired miners without (n = 21), and with (n = 33) pneumoconiosis. Antioxidant ...

  9. The role of intercellular communication and oxidative metabolism in the propagation of ionizing radiation-induced biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autsavapromporn, Narongchai

    Coordinated interactions of specific molecular and biochemical processes are likely involved in the cellular responses to stresses induced by different ionizing radiations with distinctive linear energy transfer (LET) properties. Here, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of gap junction intercellular communication and oxidative metabolism in modulating cell killing and repair of potentially lethal damage (PLDR) in confluent AG1522 human fibroblasts exposed to 1 GeV protons (LET˜0.2 keV/μm), 137Cs γ rays (LET˜0.9 keV/μm), 241Am α particles (LET˜122 keV/μm) or 1 GeV/u iron ions (LET˜151 keV/μm) at doses by which all cells in the exposed cultures are irradiated. As expected, α-particles and iron ions were more effective than protons and γ rays at inducing cell killing. Holding γ- or proton-irradiated cells in the confluent state for several hours after irradiation promoted increased survival and decreased chromosomal damage. However, maintaining α-particle or iron ion-irradiated cells in the confluent state for various times prior to subculture resulted in increased rather than decreased lethality, and was associated with. persistent DNA damage and increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Inhibiting gap junction communication with 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid or by knockdown of connexin43, a constitutive protein of junctional channels in these cells, protected against the toxic effects expressed in these cells during confluent holding. Up-regulation of antioxidant defense by ectopic over-expression of glutathione peroxidase, protected against cell killing by α-particles when cells were analyzed shortly after exposure. However, it did not attenuate the decrease in survival during confluent holding. Together, these findings indicate that the damaging effect of α particles results in oxidative stress, and the toxic effects in the hours following irradiation are amplified by intercellular communication, but the communicated molecule(s) is

  10. Functional changes appropriate for determining mineral element requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaski, H C; Penland, J G

    1996-09-01

    One factor limiting efforts to determine human requirements for dietary intakes of mineral elements has been the unavailability of acceptable standards for evaluating the effects of marginal and mild deficiencies. Traditional approaches, such as growth, longevity, chemical balance and measurement of concentrations of minerals in plasma or serum and cellular components of the blood, have not been sensitive indicators of mineral nutriture. One alternative that has been shown to be responsive to graded dietary mineral intake is the evaluation of functional responses to specific challenges or stressors. Aberrant responses, either exaggerated or attenuated, to controlled stressors have been observed in a variety of physiological, psychological and immunological parameters when mineral intakes have been suboptimal by conventional standards, compared with adequate responses. In comparison to static biochemical approaches for assessment of mineral nutritional status, functional tests may be sensitive and responsive to alterations in mineral intake in adult humans. Dynamic functional measures complement static biochemical measures and reflect the net effect of deficiencies on integrated biological systems. The application of some of these types of dynamic evaluations of function may be a useful and productive approach for proposing mineral element intakes to optimize human health and biological function and performance.

  11. [Platelet factor 4, target of anti-heparin antibodies: application to biological diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombopenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiral, J

    1997-01-01

    Heparin-platelet factor 4 (H-PF4) complexes are the target for heparin-dependent antibodies present in most of heparin-induced thrombocytopenias (HIT). The highest reactivity is obtained with 27 IU of heparin per mg of PF4. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and pentosane polysulphate can also form these complexes. Antibodies to H-PF4, may be of the IgG, IgA or IgM isotypes. In some HIT, IgGs are absent and only IgMs and/or IgAs are observed. These antibodies may also develop in heparin (15%) or LMWH (8%) treated patients in the absence of thrombocytopenia. IgGs rarely develop in these cases. Presence of antibodies to H-PF4 is therefore a risk factor for developing HIT. Development of pathology requires additional factors such as: PF4 and heparin at an optimised ratio allowing formation of macromolecular complexes; presence of activated platelets exposing increased Fc gamma RII-A and heparin receptors; His. 131 phenotype of Fc gamma RII-A; pre-thrombotic and/or inflammatory clinical manifestations. Assay of antibodies to H-PF4 improves HIT diagnosis and could be predictive for monitoring heparin-therapies. PMID:9238439

  12. Biological Activities of Chinese Propolis and Brazilian Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Minli; Shou, Qiyang; Li, Yinghua; Hu, Fuliang

    2011-01-01

    Propolis is a bee-collected natural product and has been proven to have various bioactivities. This study tested the effects of Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis on streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis significantly inhibited body weight loss and blood glucose increase in diabetic rats. In addition, Chinese propolis-treated rats showed an 8.4% reduction of glycated hemoglobin levels compared with untreated diabetic rats. Measurement of blood lipid metabolism showed dyslipidemia in diabetic rats and Chinese propolis helped to reduce total cholesterol level by 16.6%. Moreover, oxidative stress in blood, liver and kidney was improved to various degrees by both Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis. An apparent reduction in levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and urine microalbuminuria-excretion rate demonstrated the beneficial effects of propolis in hepatorenal function. All these results suggested that Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis can alleviate symptoms of diabetes mellitus in rats and these effects may partially be due to their antioxidant ability. PMID:21785625

  13. Biological Activities of Chinese Propolis and Brazilian Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a bee-collected natural product and has been proven to have various bioactivities. This study tested the effects of Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis on streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis significantly inhibited body weight loss and blood glucose increase in diabetic rats. In addition, Chinese propolis-treated rats showed an 8.4% reduction of glycated hemoglobin levels compared with untreated diabetic rats. Measurement of blood lipid metabolism showed dyslipidemia in diabetic rats and Chinese propolis helped to reduce total cholesterol level by 16.6%. Moreover, oxidative stress in blood, liver and kidney was improved to various degrees by both Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis. An apparent reduction in levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and urine microalbuminuria-excretion rate demonstrated the beneficial effects of propolis in hepatorenal function. All these results suggested that Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis can alleviate symptoms of diabetes mellitus in rats and these effects may partially be due to their antioxidant ability.

  14. Biological Agents Influencing Physical Process in a Stream: A Case Study in Response to Human-Induced Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondossi, H. A.; Bienz, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present a case study of the Upper Williamson River, a major tributary to Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), to demonstrate illustrate the importance of biophysical interactions. The Klamath River is called 'the upside-down river' by some, due to its peculiar longitudinal profile--low-gradient at the headwaters east of the Cascade Range and steeper close to the mouth as it crosses the Cascades. The Upper Williamson River, as with other tributaries of UKL, flows through highly erodible volcanic ash (pumice) deposits of the Mazama eruption ~7,000 years ago, which created Crater Lake. There is little or no gravel in the broad, shallow alluvial valley of the River. We make the case that in this particular setting, the role of biological agents (e.g., riparian vegetation) is even more prominent than in settings with normal silica-derived sediment. Therefore, typical agricultural practices (removal of woody riparian vegetation, livestock grazing and trampling, etc.) cause rapid and severe channel response and therefore habitat degradation. However, when appropriately restored the recovery is also rapid and drastic. This spring-fed stream with few tributaries in the study area conveys relatively stable discharge, and has good water quality particularly in the upper reaches. It historically supported a population of native redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii), and the candidate species (for listing under the Endangered Species Act) Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) and countless other avian species. In the late 20th Century, after decades of heavy grazing and active removal of willows from the floodplain, the River banks were nearly bare and unstable. The channel was wide, shallow, and smooth. Consequently, poor water quality, particularly high temperature rendered the stream extremely poor habitat. With controlled grazing, re-establishment of willow galleries, and addition of large woody debris (LWD) the channel has recovered to a narrower, deeper cross-section, with

  15. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  16. Photoacoustic detection and optical spectroscopy of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in biologic tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhamami, Mosa; Kolios, Michael C.; Tavakkoli, Jahan, E-mail: jtavakkoli@ryerson.ca [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study are: (a) to investigate the capability of photoacoustic (PA) method in detecting high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments in muscle tissuesin vitro; and (b) to determine the optical properties of HIFU-treated and native tissues in order to assist in the interpretation of the observed contrast in PA detection of HIFU treatments. Methods: A single-element, spherically concaved HIFU transducer with a centre frequency of 1 MHz was utilized to create thermal lesions in chicken breast tissuesin vitro. To investigate the detectability of HIFU treatments photoacoustically, PA detection was performed at 720 and 845 nm on seven HIFU-treated tissue samples. Within each tissue sample, PA signals were acquired from 22 locations equally divided between two regions of interest within two volumes in tissue – a HIFU-treated volume and an untreated volume. Optical spectroscopy was then carried out on 10 HIFU-treated chicken breast specimens in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm, in 1-nm increments, using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere attachment. The authors’ optical spectroscopy raw data (total transmittance and diffuse reflectance) were used to obtain the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of HIFU-induced thermal lesions and native tissues by employing the inverse adding-doubling method. The aforementioned interaction coefficients were subsequently used to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient and light penetration depth of HIFU-treated and native tissues in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm. Results: HIFU-treated tissues produced greater PA signals than native tissues at 720 and 845 nm. At 720 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.68 ± 0.25 (mean ± standard error of the mean). At 845 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.75

  17. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  18. Letrozole-induced functional changes in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and their influence on breast cancer cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaifu; Kang, Hua; Wang, Yajun; Hai, Tao; Rong, Guohua; Sun, Haichen

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) influence the efficacy of endocrine therapy. Aromatase inhibitors inhibit the growth of breast tumors by inhibiting the synthesis of estrogen. However, it remains unknown whether the aromatase inhibitor letrozole has an additional impact on CAFs, which further influence the efficacy of endocrine therapy. Primary CAFs were isolated from primary estrogen receptor-positive human breast tumors. Estrogen-deprived culture medium was used to exclude the influence of steroids. In co-culture, primary cultured CAFs increased MCF7 cell adhesion, invasion, migration and proliferation, and letrozole treatment inhibited these increases, except for the increase in proliferation. In total, 258 up-regulated genes and 47 down-regulated genes with an absolute fold change >2 were identified in CAFs co-cultured with MCF7 cell after letrozole treatment. One up-regulated genes (POSTN) and seven down-regulated genes (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, IL-8, CXCL5, LEP and NGF) were further validated by real-time PCR. The changes in CCL2 and CXCL1 expression were further confirmed using an automated microscopic imaging-based, high content analysis platform. Although the results need further functional validation, this study is the first to describe the differential tumor-promoting phenotype of CAFs induced by letrozole and the associated gene expression alterations. Most importantly, our data revealed that down-regulation of several secreted factors (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1 etc.) in CAFs might be partially responsible for the efficacy of letrozole.

  19. Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

    2012-07-01

    Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

  20. In vitro formation of Ca-oxalates and the mineral glushinskite by fungal interaction with carbonate substrates and seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kolo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vitro formation of Ca-oxalates and glushinskite through fungal interaction with carbonate substrates and seawater as a process of biologically induced metal recycling and neo-mineral formation. The study also emphasizes the role of the substrates as metal donors. In the first experiment, thin sections prepared from dolomitic rock samples of Terwagne Formation (Carboniferous, Viséan, northern France served as substrates. The thin sections placed in Petri dishes were exposed to fungi grown from naturally existing airborne spores. In the second experiment, fungal growth and mineral formation was monitored using only standard seawater (SSW as a substrate. Fungal growth media consisted of a high protein/carbohydrates and sugar diet with demineralized water for irrigation. Fungal growth process reached completion under uncontrolled laboratory conditions. The newly formed minerals and textural changes caused by fungal attack on the carbonate substrates were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX, x-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The fungal interaction and attack on the dolomitic and seawater substrates resulted in the formation of Ca-oxalates (weddellite CaC2O4·2(H2O, whewellite (CaC2O4·(H2O and glushinskite MgC2O4·2(H2O associated with the destruction of the original hard substrates and their replacement by the new minerals. Both of Ca and Mg were mobilized from the experimental substrates by fungi. This metal mobilization involved a recycling of substrate metals into newly formed minerals. The biochemical and diagenetic results of the interaction strongly marked the attacked substrates with a biological fingerprint. Such fingerprints are biomarkers of primitive life. The formation of glushinskite is of specific importance that is related, besides its importance as a biomineral bearing a recycled Mg, to the possibility of its transformation through diagenetic pathway into an

  1. Mineral biotechnology. Microbial aspects of mineral beneficiation, metal extraction, and environmental control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Natarajan, K.A. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    Papers in this book illustrate the utility of mineral biotechnology with respect to biobeneficiation, bioleaching, bioremediation and biomineralization. Papers of particular interest to the coal industry include: depression of pyrite flotation by yeast and bacteris (S.K. Kawatra and T.C. Eisele); desulfurization of coal by microbial flotation in a semicontinuous system (T. Nagaoka and others); biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal - INEEL slurry column testing (K.S. Noah and G.J. Olson); microorganisms, biotechnology and acid rock drainage - emphasis on passive-biological control and treatment methods (N. Kuyucak); and utility of bioreagents in mineral processing (P. Somasundaran and others).

  2. Comparison of the biological effectiveness of 45 MeV C-ions and {gamma}-rays in inducing early and late effects in normal human primary fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratini, E. [Centro studi e ricerche e museo storico della fisica E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); Balduzzi, M. [ENEA, Roma, Italy and INFN, Sezione Roma1-Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Roma (Italy); Antonelli, F.; Sorrentino, E.; Esposito, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma, Italy and INFN, Sezione Roma1-Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Roma (Italy); Cuttone, G.; Romano, F. [INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Dini, V.; Simone, G.; Campa, A.; Tabocchini, M. A. [stituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma, Italy and INFN, Sezione Roma1-Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Roma (Italy); Belli, M. [INFN, Sezione Roma1-Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Roma (Italy)

    2013-07-18

    Investigation of the mechanisms underlying the biological effects induced by densely ionizing radiation has relevant implications in both radiation protection and therapy. In particular, the possible advantages of hadrontherapy with respect to conventional radiotherapy in terms of high conformal tumor treatment and sparing of healthy tissues are well known. Further improvements are limited by lack of radiobiological knowledge, particularly about the specific cellular response to the damage induced by particles of potential interest for tumor treatment. This study compares early and late effects induced in AG01522 normal human primary fibroblasts by {gamma}-rays and C-ions having E {approx} 45 MeV/u at the cell entrance, corresponding to LET (in water) {approx} 49 keV/{mu}m. Different end points have been investigated, namely: cell killing and lethal mutation, evaluated as early and delayed reproductive cell death, respectively; chromosome damage, as measured by micronuclei induction (MN); DNA damage, in terms of DSB induction and repair, as measured by the H2AX phosphorylation/dephosphorylation kinetics. Linear dose-response relationships were found for cell killing and induction of lethal mutations, with RBEs of about 1.3 and 1.6 respectively, indicating that the presence of genomic instability is greater in the progeny of C-ions irradiated cells. H2AX phosphorylation/dephosphorylation kinetics have shown a maximum foci number at 30 min after irradiation, higher for {gamma}-rays than for C-ions. However, in the first 12 h the fraction of residual {gamma}-H2AX foci was higher for C-ions irradiated cells, indicating a lower removal rate, possibly related to multiple/more complex damage along the particle track, with respect to the sparse lesions produced by {gamma}-rays. MN induction, observed after 72 h from irradiation, was also greater for C-ions. Overall, these data indicate a more severe DNA damage induced by 45 MeV/u C-ions with respect to {gamma}-rays, likely

  3. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  4. Phylogenetic significance of composition and crystal morphology of magnetosome minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Mihály ePósfai; Christopher eLefèvre; Denis eTrubitsyn; Dennis A. Bazylinski; Richard eFrankel

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize magnetosomes, nano-scale crystals of magnetite or greigite in membrane enclosures, that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole in each cell. MTB control the mineral composition, habit, size, and crystallographic orientation of the magnetosomes, as well as their arrangement within the cell. Studies involving magnetosomes that contain mineral and biological phases require multidisciplinary efforts. Here we use crystallographic, genomic and phylogenetic p...

  5. Phylogenetic significance of composition and crystal morphology of magnetosome minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Pósfai, Mihály; Lefèvre, Christopher T; Trubitsyn, Denis; Dennis A. Bazylinski; Frankel, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize magnetosomes, nano-scale crystals of magnetite or greigite in membrane enclosures that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole in each cell. MTB control the mineral composition, habit, size, and crystallographic orientation of the magnetosomes, as well as their arrangement within the cell. Studies involving magnetosomes that contain mineral and biological phases require multidisciplinary efforts. Here we use crystallographic, genomic and phylogenetic pe...

  6. Shock waves data for minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    Shock compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of shock wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. Shock wave equation of state, shock-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and shock temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the shock velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the shock velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the shock wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.

  7. A systems biology approach to investigate the effect of pH-induced gene regulation on solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic bacterium which is known for its solvent-producing capabilities, namely regarding the bulk chemicals acetone and butanol, the latter being a highly efficient biofuel. For butanol production by C. acetobutylicum to be optimized and exploited on an industrial scale, the effect of pH-induced gene regulation on solvent production by C. acetobutylicum in continuous culture must be understood as fully as possible. Results We present an ordinary differential equation model combining the metabolic network governing solvent production with regulation at the genetic level of the enzymes required for this process. Parameterizing the model with experimental data from continuous culture, we demonstrate the influence of pH upon fermentation products: at high pH (pH 5.7 acids are the dominant product while at low pH (pH 4.5 this switches to solvents. Through steady-state analyses of the model we focus our investigations on how alteration in gene expression of C. acetobutylicum could be exploited to increase butanol yield in a continuous culture fermentation. Conclusions Incorporating gene regulation into the model of solvent production by C. acetobutylicum enables an accurate representation of the pH-induced switch to solvent production to be obtained and theoretical investigations of possible synthetic-biology approaches to be pursued. Steady-state analyses suggest that, to increase butanol yield, alterations in the expression of single solvent-associated genes are insufficient; a more complex approach targeting two or more genes is required.

  8. Enzymatic recognition of DNA damage induced by UVB-photosensitized titanium dioxide and biological consequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Evidence for oxidatively DNA damage generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been considered to be biologically inert, finding use in cosmetics, paints and food colorants, recent reports have demonstrated that when TiO2 is attained by UVA radiation oxidative genotoxic and cytotoxic effects are observed in living cells. However, data concerning TiO2-UVB association is poor, even if UVB radiation represents a major environmental carcinogen. Herein, we investigated DNA damage, repair and mutagenesis induced by TiO2 associated with UVB irradiation in vitro and in vivo using Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. It was found that TiO2 plus UVB treatment in plasmid pUC18 generated, in addition to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), specific damage to guanine residues, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG), which are characteristic oxidatively generated lesions. In vivo experiments showed that, although the presence of TiO2 protects yeast cells from UVB cytotoxicity, high mutation frequencies are observed in the wild-type (WT) and in an ogg1 strain (deficient in 8-oxoG and FapyG repair). Indeed, after TiO2 plus UVB treatment, induced mutagenesis was drastically enhanced in ogg1 cells, indicating that mutagenic DNA lesions are repaired by the Ogg1 protein. This effect could be attenuated by the presence of metallic ion chelators: neocuproine or dipyridyl, which partially block oxidatively generated damage occurring via Fenton reactions. Altogether, the results indicate that TiO2 plus UVB potentates UVB oxidatively generated damage to DNA, possibly via Fenton reactions involving the production of DNA base damage, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine.

  9. Enzymatic recognition of DNA damage induced by UVB-photosensitized titanium dioxide and biological consequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Evidence for oxidatively DNA damage generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, A. Viviana, E-mail: alicia.pinto@incqs.fiocruz.br [Laboratorio de Diagnostico Molecular e Hematologia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21941-540, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radiobiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Deodato, Elder L. [Laboratorio de Diagnostico Molecular e Hematologia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21941-540, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radiobiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cardoso, Janine S. [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, Eliza F.; Machado, Sergio L.; Toma, Helena K. [Laboratorio de Diagnostico Molecular e Hematologia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21941-540, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Leitao, Alvaro C. [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Padula, Marcelo de [Laboratorio de Diagnostico Molecular e Hematologia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Ilha do Fundao, CEP 21941-540, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-06-01

    Although titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) has been considered to be biologically inert, finding use in cosmetics, paints and food colorants, recent reports have demonstrated that when TiO{sub 2} is attained by UVA radiation oxidative genotoxic and cytotoxic effects are observed in living cells. However, data concerning TiO{sub 2}-UVB association is poor, even if UVB radiation represents a major environmental carcinogen. Herein, we investigated DNA damage, repair and mutagenesis induced by TiO{sub 2} associated with UVB irradiation in vitro and in vivo using Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. It was found that TiO{sub 2} plus UVB treatment in plasmid pUC18 generated, in addition to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), specific damage to guanine residues, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG), which are characteristic oxidatively generated lesions. In vivo experiments showed that, although the presence of TiO{sub 2} protects yeast cells from UVB cytotoxicity, high mutation frequencies are observed in the wild-type (WT) and in an ogg1 strain (deficient in 8-oxoG and FapyG repair). Indeed, after TiO{sub 2} plus UVB treatment, induced mutagenesis was drastically enhanced in ogg1 cells, indicating that mutagenic DNA lesions are repaired by the Ogg1 protein. This effect could be attenuated by the presence of metallic ion chelators: neocuproine or dipyridyl, which partially block oxidatively generated damage occurring via Fenton reactions. Altogether, the results indicate that TiO{sub 2} plus UVB potentates UVB oxidatively generated damage to DNA, possibly via Fenton reactions involving the production of DNA base damage, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine.

  10. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  11. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...

  12. Uruguay minerals fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

  13. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  14. In vivo ectopic bone formation by devitalized mineralized stem cell carriers produced under mineralizing culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro-generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (PO4 (3-)) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano-computed tomography

  15. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review; Aspectos clinicos, biologicos, histopatologicos e tratamentos propostos para a mucosite oral induzida por radioterapia: revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonan, Paulo Rogerio Ferreti [Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros e Faculdades Unidas do Norte de Minas, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Odontologia]. E-mail: pbonan@yahoo.com; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Almeida, Oslei Paes de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Diagnostico Oral; Alves, Fabio de Abreu [Hospital do Cancer AC Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Estomatologia

    2005-07-01

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  16. Phylogenetic significance of composition and crystal morphology of magnetosome minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pósfai, Mihály; Lefèvre, Christopher T; Trubitsyn, Denis; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Frankel, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize magnetosomes, nano-scale crystals of magnetite or greigite in membrane enclosures that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole in each cell. MTB control the mineral composition, habit, size, and crystallographic orientation of the magnetosomes, as well as their arrangement within the cell. Studies involving magnetosomes that contain mineral and biological phases require multidisciplinary efforts. Here we use crystallographic, genomic and phylogenetic perspectives to review the correlations between magnetosome mineral habits and the phylogenetic affiliations of MTB, and show that these correlations have important implications for the evolution of magnetosome synthesis, and thus magnetotaxis. PMID:24324461

  17. Phylogenetic significance of composition and crystal morphology of magnetosome minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály ePósfai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB biomineralize magnetosomes, nano-scale crystals of magnetite or greigite in membrane enclosures, that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole in each cell. MTB control the mineral composition, habit, size, and crystallographic orientation of the magnetosomes, as well as their arrangement within the cell. Studies involving magnetosomes that contain mineral and biological phases require multidisciplinary efforts. Here we use crystallographic, genomic and phylogenetic perspectives to review the correlations between magnetosome mineral habits and the phylogenetic affiliations of MTB, and show that these correlations have important implications for the evolution of magnetosome synthesis, and thus magnetotaxis.

  18. The use of mineral crystals as bio-markers in the search for life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E. S.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed that minerals resulting from biologically controlled mineralization processes be utilized as biomarkers because of their favorable qualities. Universal signatures of life (biomarkers) are discussed in terms of their terrestrial forms and hypothetical Martian counterparts including organics, suites of specific inorganic and organic compounds, and isotopic ratios. It is emphasized that minerals produced under biologic control have morphological and isotopic compositions that are not found in their abiotic counterparts. Other biomarkers are not necessarily indicative of biological origin and are therefore unreliable resources for scientific study. Mineral crystals are also stable over long geological periods, and the minerals from Martian fluvial features can therefore be employed to search for fossils and biomarkers of early biological activity.

  19. Impact of environmental chemistry on mycogenic Mn oxide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, C. M.; Farfan, G. A.; Post, A.; Post, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    concentration of Mn(II) in solution was held constant (0, 0.15, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM) only in the Mn-supplemented experiment. Mycogenic Mn oxides were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). During the experiments, it was observed that each fungal species responded differently to the varying growth media. The addition of Na inhibited growth and oxidation of several species, and the highest concentrations of Mn in solution proved toxic to a few species. Fungi grown with Na produced a highly-disordered phyllomanganate phase similar to birnessite or vernadite. During growth in Ca-rich solutions, however, a more crystalline ranciéite-like phase was formed with 10Å interlayer spacing that collapsed to 7Å upon drying. Although a feitknechtite-like phase was expected in experiments with Mn concentrations greater than 0.5 mM, a birnessite-like phase was formed. This suggests that a more complex solution chemistry is required for transformation to the more crystalline phases, or the presence of the fungal biomass is inhibiting the ripening of the Mn oxides. This information sheds lights on how growth conditions impact the primary (biologically-induced) and secondary (abiotic reactions) mineral products of fungal Mn(II)-oxidation, which ultimately influences the overall impact of these minerals in the environment.

  20. Imaging and quantification of trace metals in thin biological specimens using microprobe techniques: synchrotron induced X-ray fluorescence microprobe and nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence microprobe (SXRF) with other micro-analytical techniques based on accelerated particle beams, such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) enable to quantify SXRF results of thin biological specimens. The same specimens were analysed by both techniques. The average thickness calculated by RBS of discrete tissue regions in equivalent sample sections was used to normalize SXRF data. Analysing the same sample region with PIXE technique, simultaneously to RBS, can validate the methodology once it will enable to compare concentrations obtained for elements that are detected by both SXRF and PIXE. Major departures were found for the quantification of Ca and Ti. For Cr and Fe a good agreement was found between both micro-analytical techniques. Differences below 20% were obtained for the majority of the elements and samples analysed. The procedure can be applied to produce quantitative elemental maps and it will be advantageous to quantify toxic elements present at low concentrations in tissues, such as Cr, Ni and Ph, which can only be efficiently assessed by SXRF. (authors)

  1. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  2. Platform-induced clay-mineral fractionation along a northern Tethyan basin-platform transect: implications for the interpretation of Early Cretaceous climate change (Late Hauterivian-Early Aptian)

    OpenAIRE

    Godet, Alexis; Bodin, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution clay-mineral analyses were performed on upper Hauterivian to lower Aptian sediments along a platform-to-basin transect through the northern Tethyan margin from the Neuchâtel area (Switzerland), to the Vocontian Trough (France) in order to investigate links between climate change, carbonate platform evolution, and fractionation patterns in clay minerals during their transport. During the Hauterivian, the northern Tethyan carbonate platform developed in a heterozoan mode, and t...

  3. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  4. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  5. The effect of biological activity, CaCO3 mineral dynamics, and CO2 degassing in the inorganic carbon cycle in sea ice in late winter-early spring in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, S.; Kennedy, H.; Norman, L.; Kennedy, D. P.; Dieckmann, G. S.; Thomas, D. N.

    A large-scale geographical study of the ice pack in the seasonal ice zone of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, took place from September to October 2006. Sea ice brines with a salinity greater than 58 and temperature lower than -3.6°C were sampled from 22 ice stations. The brines had large deficits in total alkalinity and in the concentrations of the major dissolved macronutrients (total dissolved inorganic carbon, nitrate, and soluble reactive phosphorus) relative to their concentrations in the surface oceanic water and conservative behavior during seawater freezing. The concentration deficits were related to the dissolved inorganic carbon-consuming processes of photosynthesis, CaCO3 precipitation, and CO2 degassing. The largest concentration deficits in total dissolved inorganic carbon were found to be associated with CaCO3 precipitation and CO2 degassing, because the magnitude of the photosynthesis-induced concentration deficit in total dissolved inorganic carbon is controlled by the size of the inorganic nutrient pool, which can be limited in sea ice by its openness to exchange with the surrounding oceanic water.

  6. Mineralization Potential of Electrospun PDO-Hydroxyapatite-Fibrinogen Blended Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac A. Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current bone autograft procedure for cleft palate repair presents several disadvantages such as limited availability, additional invasive surgery, and donor site morbidity. The present preliminary study evaluates the mineralization potential of electrospun polydioxanone:nano-hydroxyapatite : fibrinogen (PDO : nHA : Fg blended scaffolds in different simulated body fluids (SBF. Scaffolds were fabricated by blending PDO : nHA : Fg in the following percent by weight ratios: 100 : 0 : 0, 50 : 25 : 25, 50 : 50 : 0, 50 : 0 : 50, 0 : 0 : 100, and 0 : 50 : 50. Samples were immersed in (conventional (c, revised (r, ionic (i, and modified (m SBF for 5 and 14 days to induce mineralization. Scaffolds were characterized before and after mineralization via scanning electron microscopy, Alizarin Red-based assay, and modified burnout test. The addition of Fg resulted in scaffolds with smaller fiber diameters. Fg containing scaffolds also induced sheet-like mineralization while individual fiber mineralization was noticed in its absence. Mineralized electrospun Fg scaffolds without PDO were not mechanically stable after 5 days in SBF, but had superior mineralization capabilities which produced a thick bone-like mineral (BLM layer throughout the scaffolds. 50 : 50 : 0 scaffolds incubated in either r-SBF for 5 days or c-SBF for 14 days produced scaffolds with high mineral content and individual-mineralized fibers. These mineralized scaffolds were still porous and will be further optimized as an effective bone substitute in future studies.

  7. Detección precoz por Tomografía Computada Cuantitativa Multicorte de alteraciones en la densidad mineral ósea, inducidas por una dieta aterogénica, en un modelo experimental en ratas en crecimiento Multislice Quantitative Computed Tomography allozos early detectíon of bone mineral density alterations induced by atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Joaquín Gubert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Propósito. Demostrar la utilidad de la tomografía computada cuantitativa multicorte (QCT-MC en la detección precoz de alteraciones en la densidad mineral ósea (DMO mandibular, inducidas por una dieta aterogénica, en un modelo experimental en ratas en crecimiento. Materiales y Métodos. Ratas Wistar macho (n=16 al destete, loteadas por peso en 2 grupos: Control (C y experimental (E; peso promedio inicial sin diferencias significativas (p > 0,05; recibieron a libre demanda: C, dieta stock para roedores y E, dieta aterogénica por 3 semanas. Se monitorearon zoometría (peso y longitud corporales y consumo de dieta (g/100 g rata/día. A las 3 semanas en suero (mg/dL, se evaluó el perfil lipídico-lipoproteico: colesterol total (col-T, triglicéridos (TG, col HDL y noHDL, y la QCT-MC (Philips 64 CT, cuantificado con eFilm Workstation 2.1 de siete zonas mandibulares (ZM: n° 1 a 4, desde forámen mentoniano hacia mandibular; n° 5, proceso coronoide; n° 6, proceso condilar; n° 7, proceso angular. Se realizó análisis estadístico Pearson: correlación entre DMO de cada ZM y valor sérico de col-T (nivel de significación p 0,05. Los coeficientes de correlación (r y respectivos niveles de significación (p mostraron, en cinco de siete ZM, ser significativos: ZM 1: -0,580 (p = 0,019, ZM 2: -0,709 (p = 0,002, ZM 3: -0,635 (p = 0,008, ZM 5: -0.674 (p = 0,004, ZM 6: -0,564 (p = 0,023. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que la QCT-MC es un método de diagnóstico por imágenes que permite detectar precozmente alteraciones inducidas por una dieta aterogénica en la arquitectura ósea de la mandíbula. La correlación inversa entre la DMO y el col-T indicaría una asociación entre el consumo de una dieta aterogénica y posibles disfunciones témporo-mandibulares.Purpose. To demónstrate the utility of Multislice Quantitative Computed Tomography (MS-QCT in the early detection of mandibular bone mineral density (BMD alterations induced by an

  8. Construction Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  9. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  10. GT-Miner: a graph-theoretic data miner, viewer, and model processor

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Douglas E; Powell, Amy J; Carbone, Ignazio; Dean, Ralph A.

    2008-01-01

    Inexpensive computational power combined with high-throughput experimental platforms has created a wealth of biological information requiring analytical tools and techniques for interpretation. Graph-theoretic concepts and tools have provided an important foundation for information visualization, integration, and analysis of datasets, but they have often been relegated to background analysis tasks. GT-Miner is designed for visual data analysis and mining operations, interacts with other softw...

  11. Enhanced in vitro biological activity generated by surface characteristics of anodically oxidized titanium – the contribution of the oxidation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurihan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anodically oxidized titanium surfaces, prepared by spark discharge, have micro-submicron surface topography and nano-scale surface chemistry, such as hydrophilic functional groups or hydroxyl radicals in parallel. The complexity of the surface characteristics makes it difficult to draw a clear conclusion as to which surface characteristic, of anodically oxidized titanium, is critical in each biological event. This study examined the in vitro biological changes, induced by various surface characteristics of anodically oxidized titanium with, or without, release of hydroxyl radicals onto the surface. Anodically oxidized titanium enhanced the expression of genes associated with differentiating osteoblasts and increased the degree of matrix mineralization by these cells in vitro. The phenotypes of cells on the anodically oxidized titanium were the same with, or without, release of hydroxyl radicals. However, the nanomechanical properties of this in vitro mineralized tissue were significantly enhanced on surfaces, with release of hydroxyl radicals by oxidation effects. In addition, the mineralized tissue, produced in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on bare titanium, had significantly weaker nanomechanical properties, despite there being higher osteogenic gene expression levels. We show that enhanced osteogenic cell differentiation on modified titanium is not a sufficient indicator of enhanced in vitro mineralization. This is based on the inferior mechanical properties of mineralized tissues, without either being cultured on a titanium surface with release of hydroxyl radicals, or being supplemented with lysyl oxidase family members.

  12. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  13. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  14. Discussion on Nontraditional Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of nontraditional mineral resources, and pro pose the major system of nontraditional mineral resources, including nontraditional resources, research methods, mining and mineral economics. Then the authors conclude that the research on nontraditional mineral resources is not only significant to satisfication the human needs in the 21st century, but also important to the development of the present geological theory.

  15. Refractory Minerals in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qinguo; LI Jing; LIU Jiehua; LIU Yanjun

    2004-01-01

    Henan province is very rich in refractory minerals of many varieties including silica, dolomite, graphite,pearlite, sepiolite, olivine, and sillimanite group minerals, besides the abundant reserves of fireclay and bauxite,which lay a good foundation for the development of the refractories industry of the province. The paper introduces the reserves, distribution and character of the refractory minerals in Henan province.

  16. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  17. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  18. Using biological and physico-chemical test methods to assess the role of concrete mixture design in resistance to microbially induced corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Mitchell Wayne

    Concrete is the most widely used material for construction of wastewater collection, storage, and treatment infrastructure. The chemical and physical characteristics of hydrated portland cement make it susceptible to degradation under highly acidic conditions. As a result, some concrete wastewater infrastructure may be susceptible to a multi-stage degradation process known as microbially induced corrosion, or MIC. MIC begins with the production of aqueous hydrogen sulfide (H2S(aq)) by anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria present below the waterline. H2S(aq) partitions to the gas phase where it is oxidized to sulfuric acid by the aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus that resides on concrete surfaces above the waterline. Sulfuric acid then attacks the cement paste portion of the concrete matrix through decalcification of calcium hydroxide and calcium silica hydrate coupled with the formation of expansive corrosion products. The attack proceeds inward resulting in reduced service life and potential failure of the concrete structure. There are several challenges associated with assessing a concrete's susceptibility to MIC. First, no standard laboratory tests exist to assess concrete resistance to MIC. Straightforward reproduction of MIC in the laboratory is complicated by the use of microorganisms and hydrogen sulfide gas. Physico-chemical tests simulating MIC by immersing concrete specimens in sulfuric acid offer a convenient alternative, but do not accurately capture the damage mechanisms associated with biological corrosion. Comparison of results between research studies is difficult due to discrepancies that can arise in experimental methods even if current ASTM standards are followed. This thesis presents two experimental methods to evaluate concrete resistance to MIC: one biological and one physico-chemical. Efforts are made to address the critical aspects of each testing method currently absent in the literature. The first method presented is a new test

  19. Modified Ionic Liquid Cold-Induced Aggregation Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with Spectrofluorimetry for Trace Determination of Ofloxacin in Pharmaceutical and Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Norouzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Ofloxacin is a quinolone synthetic antibiotic, which acts against resistant mutants of bacteria by inhibiting DNA gyrase. This antibacterial agent is widely used in the treatment of respiratory tract, urinary tract and tissue-based infections, which are caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, an efficient modified ionic liquid cold-induced aggregation dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (M-IL-CIA-DLLME was combined with spectrofluorimetry for trace determination of ofloxacin in real samples.Methods: In this microextraction method, hydrophobic 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Hmim] [PF6] ionic liquid (IL as a microextraction solvent was dispersed into a heated sample solution containing sodium hexafluorophosphate (NaPF6 (as a common ion and the analyte of interest. Afterwards, the resultant solution was cooled in an ice-water bath and a cloudy condition was formed due to a considerable decrease of IL solubility. After centrifuging, the enriched phase was introduced to the spectrofluorimeter for the determination of ofloxacin.Results and major conclusion: In this technique, the performance of the microextraction method was not influenced by variations in the ionic strength of the sample solution (up to 30% w/v. Furthermore, [Hmim][PF6] IL was chosen as a green microextraction phase and an alternative to traditional toxic organic solvents. Different parameters affecting the analytical performance were studied and optimized. At optimum conditions, a relatively broad linear dynamic range of 0.15-125 μg l-1 and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.029 μg l-1 were obtained. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D. obtained for the determination of five replicates of the 10 ml solution containing 50 μg l-1 ofloxacin was 2.7%. Finally, the combined methodology was successfully applied to ofloxacin determination in actual pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples.

  20. KeyPathwayMiner 4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcaraz, Nicolas; Pauling, Josch; Batra, Richa;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the last decade network enrichment analysis has become popular in computational systems biology to elucidate aberrant network modules. Traditionally, these approaches focus on combining gene expression data with protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Nowadays, the so...... release of KeyPathwayMiner (version 4.0) that is not limited to analyses of single omics data sets, e.g. gene expression, but is able to directly combine several different omics data types. Version 4.0 can further integrate existing knowledge by adding a search bias towards sub-networks that contain...

  1. Mineralization of Hydroxyapatite Regulated by Recombinant Human-like Collagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We reported recombinant human-like type I collagen inducing growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro in the form of self-assembly of nano-fibrils of mineralized collagen resembling extracellular matrix, which obey the same rules, but is superior to the collagen derived from animal tissues because the latter may carry diseases of animals and cause immunological reactions. The mineralized collagen fibrils aligned parallel to each other to form mineralized collagen fibers. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals grew on the surface of these collagen fibrils with the c-axis of nanocrystals of HA orienting along the longitudinal axis of the fibrils.

  2. Effects of heat treatment of wood on hydroxylapatite type mineral precipitation and biomechanical properties in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekola, J; Lassila, L V J; Hirvonen, J; Lahdenperä, M; Grenman, R; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2010-08-01

    Wood is a natural fiber reinforced composite. It structurally resembles bone tissue to some extent. Specially heat-treated birch wood has been used as a model material for further development of synthetic fiber reinforced composites (FRC) for medical and dental use. In previous studies it has been shown, that heat treatment has a positive effect on the osteoconductivity of an implanted wood. In this study the effects of two different heat treatment temperatures (140 and 200 degrees C) on wood were studied in vitro. Untreated wood was used as a control material. Heat treatment induced biomechanical changes were studied with flexural and compressive tests on dry birch wood as well as on wood after 63 days of simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion. Dimensional changes, SBF sorption and hydroxylapatite type mineral formation were also assessed. The results showed that SBF immersion decreases the biomechanical performance of wood and that the heat treatment diminishes the effect of SBF immersion on biomechanical properties. With scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis it was shown that hydroxylapatite type mineral precipitation formed on the 200 degrees C heat-treated wood. An increased weight gain of the same material during SBF immersion supported this finding. The results of this study give more detailed insight of the biologically relevant changes that heat treatment induces in wood material. Furthermore the findings in this study are in line with previous in vivo studies.

  3. Mineral water and radioactivity. Technical report n. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report aims at giving to people taking charge of mineral water analysis, information needed to the interpretation of radioactivity monitoring results. It provides bulk notions on the radioactivity (biological and environmental effects), regulations and reference texts of the WHO (World Health Organization). Examples of activities and absorbed doses calculation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  5. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic versus mineral soil horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eBarry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer versus mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  6. Prediction of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements in foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolters, M.G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Minerals and trace elements play essential roles in numerous biochemical and physiological processes in animals and man. A deficiency, an overdose or imbalances between minerals or trace elements will exert a negative effect on health. Generally, it is not the ingested dose of minerals and trace elements that is important to maintain balance, but rather the amount that is bioavailable (available for biological and biochemical processes in the organism). Several food components are able to for...

  7. Surface miner MTS 1250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D. [MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The Surface Miner MTS 1250 has been developed and tested by MAN TAKRAF with technical support from MIBRAG mbH. Its technology is based on a detailed analysis of all machines on the market and constitutes an optimum combination of their advantages. The unit can either be driven by a diesel-hydraulic drive for truck operation or by an electro-mechanical/electro-hydraulic drive for beltwagon and belt conveyor operation. The new equipment design is particularly suitable for mining deposits of difficult configuration. For specific requirements, MAN TAKRAF offers tailor-made solutions with smaller or greater throughputs and with enhanced specific cutting strength. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Surface Miner MTS 1250 wurde von MAN TAKRAF mit fachlicher Unterstuetzung der MIBRAG entwickelt und erprobt. Seine Technik basiert auf einer detaillierten Analyse aller am Markt befindlichen Geraete und kombiniert deren Vorteile optimal. Mit diesel-hydraulischem Antrieb wird er in Verbindung mit Trucks eingesetzt. Mit elektro-mechanischem/elektro-hydraulischem Antrieb wird er in Kombination mit einem Spezialbrandwagen und einer Bandanlage eingesetzt. Das neue Geraetekonzept ist fuer den Abbau von schwierigen Lagerstaetten sehr gut geeignet. Selbstverstaendlich werden entsprechend den Einsatzanforderungen auch Geraete mit kleinerer oder groesserer Durchsatzleistung und mit hoeherer spezifischer Schneidleistung von MAN TAKRAF angeboten (orig.)

  8. Early-stage mineralization of hydrothermal tubeworms: New insights into the role of microorganisms in theprocess of mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    the early mineralization stage of tube wall was mainly controlled by microbial-induced mineralization and the degradation process of tube wall.

  9. Geophysical technique for mineral exploration and discrimination based on electromagnetic methods and associated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov; Michael S.

    2008-01-29

    Mineral exploration needs a reliable method to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and economic mineralization. A method and system includes a geophysical technique for subsurface material characterization, mineral exploration and mineral discrimination. The technique introduced in this invention detects induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data and uses remote geophysical observations to determine the parameters of an effective conductivity relaxation model using a composite analytical multi-phase model of the rock formations. The conductivity relaxation model and analytical model can be used to determine parameters related by analytical expressions to the physical characteristics of the microstructure of the rocks and minerals. These parameters are ultimately used for the discrimination of different components in underground formations, and in this way provide an ability to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and zones of economic mineralization using geophysical remote sensing technology.

  10. Occupational health assessment of chromite toxicity among Indian miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Prasad Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentration of hexavalent chromium pollution and contamination has contributed a major health hazard affecting more than 2 lakh mine workers and inhabitants residing in the Sukinda chromite mine of Odisha, India. Despite people suffering from several forms of ill health, physical and mental deformities, constant exposure to toxic wastes and chronic diseases as a result of chromite mining, there is a tragic gap in the availability of ′scientific′ studies and data on the health hazards of mining in India. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Odisha State Pollution Control Board and the Odisha Voluntary Health Association data were used to compile the possible occupational health hazards, hexavalent chromium exposure and diseases among Sukinda chromite mines workers. Studies were reviewed to determine the routes of exposure and possible mechanism of chromium induced carcinogenicity among the workers. Our studies suggest all forms of hexavalent chromium are regarded as carcinogenic to workers however the most important routes of occupational exposure to Cr (VI are inhalation and dermal contact. This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial occupational health hazards of chromite mining and associated metallurgical processes to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners exposed to these toxicants to foster a safe work environment. The authors anticipate that the outcome of this manuscript will have an impact on Indian chromite mining industry that will subsequently bring about improvements in work conditions, develop intervention experiments in occupational health and safety programs.

  11. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 2: update 2012 on the long-term treatment of schizophrenia and management of antipsychotic-induced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Glenthoj, Birte; Gattaz, Wagner F; Thibaut, Florence; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-02-01

    Abstract These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in 2006. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations that are clinically and scientifically meaningful. They are intended to be used by all physicians diagnosing and treating people suffering from schizophrenia. Based on the first version of these guidelines, a systematic review of the MEDLINE/PUBMED database and the Cochrane Library, in addition to data extraction from national treatment guidelines, has been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its efficacy and then categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5) ( Bandelow et al. 2008a ,b, World J Biol Psychiatry 9:242, see Table 1 ). This second part of the updated guidelines covers long-term treatment as well as the management of relevant side effects. These guidelines are primarily concerned with the biological treatment (including antipsychotic medication and other pharmacological treatment options) of adults suffering from schizophrenia.

  12. Clay minerals reactivity under thermal gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The argillaceous materials properties could be favourable to the radioelements confinement in high activity and thermogenic nuclear waste disposal. This study relates to the transformations induced on these materials under thermal stress and the impact on their properties. The samples were collected in the vicinity of a natural analogue: a basaltic intrusion in an argillaceous formation (argillites of Laumiere, Aveyron, France). This volcanic event has functioned for an unreachable time in a laboratory. The study of the mixed-layered illite-smectite minerals (I-S), major minerals of these argillites, shows an illitisation at the basaltic intrusion contact. The thin and disturbed variation of an index of crystallinity of the I-S corresponds to the influence of the geological context. Laumiere highlighted determining parameters (smectite formation during hydrothermal alteration) which has influenced the evolution of argillaceous materials in thermal context. (author)

  13. Prolonged triboluminescence in clays and other minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, N.; Coyne, L. M.; Lawless, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of various clays and minerals were ground or fractured and monitored with a liquid scintillation spectrometer in order to obtain triboluminescent decay curves. Kaolinite samples displayed several million counts/min after grinding, with a surface area emission estimated at tens of billions of photons/sq cm of surface. The photon production rates varied with the origin of the sample, and kaolinite continually yielded higher production rates than bentonite. The addition of water to the samples slightly increased the count rate of emitted light, while the addition of the fluorescent molecule substance tryptofan significantly enhanced the count rate. Freezing smears of kaolinite and montmorillonite in liquid nitrogen and in a salt ice mixture also induced triboluminescence in the montmorillonite. A possible connection between powdery triboluminescent materials formed in mining industries and respiratory disorders among miners is suggested.

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S.; Padma Suvarna, K.; Udayabhaska Reddy, G.; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  15. What do we really know about the role of microorganisms in iron sulfide mineral formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Aude; Gartman, Amy; Girguis, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Iron sulfide mineralization in low-temperature systems is a result of biotic and abiotic processes, though the delineation between these two modes of formation is not always straightforward. Here we review the role of microorganisms in the precipitation of extracellular iron sulfide minerals. We summarize the evidence that links sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and sulfide minerals in nature and we present a critical overview of laboratory-based studies of the nucleation and growth of iron sulfide minerals in microbial cultures. We discuss whether biologically derived minerals are distinguishable from abiotic minerals, possessing attributes that are uniquely diagnostic of biomineralization. These inquiries have revealed the need for additional thorough, mechanistic and high-resolution studies to understand microbially mediated formation of a variety of sulfide minerals across a range of natural environments.

  16. Internal Porosity of Mineral Coating Supports Microbial Activity in Rapid Sand Filters for Groundwater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Tatari, Karolina; Musovic, Sanin;

    2014-01-01

    prokaryotes in filter material with various degrees of mineral coating. We also examined the physical and chemical characteristics of the mineral coating. The amount of mineral coating correlated positively with the internal porosity, the packed bulk density, and the biologically available surface area.......6 μm) of the mineral coating, which had a thickness of up to 600 ± 51 μm. Environmental scanning electron microscopic (E-SEM) observations suggested an extracellular polymeric substance-rich matrix and submicron-sized bacterial cells. Nitrifier diversity profiles were similar irrespective of the degree...... of mineral coating, as indicated by pyrosequencing analysis. Overall, our results demonstrate that mineral coating positively affects microbial colonization and activity in rapid sand filters, most likely due to increased volumetric cell abundances facilitated by the large surface area of internal mineral...

  17. Exploitation of Bacterial Activities in Mineral Industry and Environmental Preservation: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Seifelnassr, Ahmed A. S.; Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid

    2013-01-01

    Since the identification and characterization of iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the 1940s, a rapid progress is being made in minerals engineering based on biological activities. Microorganisms can play a beneficial role in all facets of minerals processing, from mining to waste disposal and management. Some of the applications, such as biologically assisted leaching of copper sulfide ores, uranium ores, and biooxidation of refractory sulfide gold ores, are now established on the scale ...

  18. Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The origins and near-surface distributions of the approximately 250 known uranium and/or thorium minerals elucidate principles of mineral evolution. This history can be divided into four phases. The first, from ~4.5 to 3.5 Ga, involved successive concentrations of uranium and thorium from their initial uniform trace distribution into magmatic-related fluids from which the first U4+ and Th4+ minerals, uraninite (UO2), thorianite (ThO2) and coffinite (USiO4), precipitated in the crust. The second period, from ~3.5 to 2.2 Ga, saw the formation of large low-grade concentrations of detrital uraninite (containing several weight percent Th) in the Witwatersrand-type quartz-pebble conglomerates deposited in a highly anoxic fluvial environment. Abiotic alteration of uraninite and coffinite, including radiolysis and auto-oxidation caused by radioactive decay and the formation of helium from alpha particles, may have resulted in the formation of a limited suite of uranyl oxide-hydroxides. Earth’s third phase of uranium mineral evolution, during which most known U minerals first precipitated from reactions of soluble uranyl (U6+O2)2+ complexes, followed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at ~2.2 Ga and thus was mediated indirectly by biologic activity. Most uraninite deposited during this phase was low in Th and precipitated from saline and oxidizing hydrothermal solutions (100 to 300°C) transporting (UO2)2+-chloride complexes. Examples include the unconformity- and vein-type U deposits (Australia and Canada) and the unique Oklo natural nuclear reactors in Gabon. The onset of hydrothermal transport of (UO2)2+ complexes in the upper crust may reflect the availability of CaSO4-bearing evaporites after the GOE. During this phase, most uranyl minerals would have been able to form in the O2-bearing near-surface environment for the first time through weathering processes. The fourth phase of uranium mineralization began approximately 400 million years ago, as the rise of land plants

  19. 激光诱变洋葱的生物学效应及品种选育研究进展%Biological Effect That Laser Induced Mutation of Onion and Research Progress of Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘天春

    2012-01-01

    本文从激光诱变洋葱种子的生物学研究、激光诱变洋葱种子的品种选育研究和激光诱变洋葱新品种的栽培技术研究与推广3个方面综述了激光诱变洋葱的品种选育和相关理论研究进展,旨在为我国洋葱育种,尤其是激光诱变洋葱育种提供参考。%This paper makes an overall view of biological effect that laser induced mutation of onion and research progress of breeding.The aim is to provide reference for the onion breeding in China,especially in the aspect wich laser induced breeding.The discussion is mainly based on the following three aspects:Biological research that the laser induced breeding of onion;Seeds selection for laser breeding;and Practice and promotion of the breeding method that laser induced mutation of onion.

  20. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  1. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew A. Pasek; Maheen Gull

    2013-01-01

    The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat a...

  2. Biomimetic mineralization of metal-organic frameworks as protective coatings for biomacromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kang; Ricco, Raffaele; Doherty, Cara M.; Styles, Mark J.; Bell, Stephen; Kirby, Nigel; Mudie, Stephen; Haylock, David; Hill, Anita J.; Doonan, Christian J.; Falcaro, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing the robustness of functional biomacromolecules is a critical challenge in biotechnology, which if addressed would enhance their use in pharmaceuticals, chemical processing and biostorage. Here we report a novel method, inspired by natural biomineralization processes, which provides unprecedented protection of biomacromolecules by encapsulating them within a class of porous materials termed metal-organic frameworks. We show that proteins, enzymes and DNA rapidly induce the formation of protective metal-organic framework coatings under physiological conditions by concentrating the framework building blocks and facilitating crystallization around the biomacromolecules. The resulting biocomposite is stable under conditions that would normally decompose many biological macromolecules. For example, urease and horseradish peroxidase protected within a metal-organic framework shell are found to retain bioactivity after being treated at 80 °C and boiled in dimethylformamide (153 °C), respectively. This rapid, low-cost biomimetic mineralization process gives rise to new possibilities for the exploitation of biomacromolecules.

  3. Field models and numerical dosimetry inside an extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor: the theoretical link between the electromagnetically induced mechanical forces and the biological mechanisms of the cell tensegrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mognaschi, Maria Evelina; Di Barba, Paolo; Magenes, Giovanni; Lenzi, Andrea; Naro, Fabio; Fassina, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    We have implemented field models and performed a detailed numerical dosimetry inside our extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor which has been successfully used in in vitro Biotechnology and Tissue Engineering researches. The numerical dosimetry permitted to map the magnetic induction field (maximum module equal to about 3.3 mT) and to discuss its biological effects in terms of induced electric currents and induced mechanical forces (compression and traction). So, in the frame of the tensegrity-mechanotransduction theory of Ingber, the study of these electromagnetically induced mechanical forces could be, in our opinion, a powerful tool to understand some effects of the electromagnetic stimulation whose mechanisms remain still elusive. PMID:25202652

  4. Mineral fibres and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l-1, which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

  5. Early Biological Evolution in Relation to Mineral and Energy Resources: Igcp Project 157 Évolution biologique précoce en relation avec des ressources énergétiques et minérales : projet 157 de l'IGPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oehler J. H.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Project 157 of the International Geological Correlation Program is concerned with the timing of major events in biological history (such as the advent of bacterial sulfate reduction and the development of oxygen-releasing photosynthesis and how these events may have been related to the formation of mineral and fossil fuel deposits. Both direct and indirect forms of microbial involvement are being investigated. Examples of direct involvement would be contributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria to the formation of certain stratiform sulfide mineral deposits and massive accumulation of microbial remains to form bog head coals and oil shales. An example of indirect involvement would be photosynthetic oxygenation of the Proterozoic atmosphere providing conditions amenable to the formation of red bed copper deposits. Two aspects of Project 157 are directly applicable to the search for petroleum reserves. One is the subproject thut deals with pre-Devonian crude oils; a major conclusion of our work in this area is that many Proterozoic sedimentary sequences have oil and gas potential and should not be neglected by explorationists. The other is the subproject that deals with organic diagenesis of modern microbial mat communities; among other things, work in this area should lead to the recognition of new biological tracer compounds that can be used for oil-to-source correlations. Le projet 157 du Programme International de Corrélations Géologiques concerne le déroulement dans le temps des événements majeurs de l'histoire biologique (comme l'apparition de la réduction bactérienne des sulfates et le développement de la photosynthèse productive d'oxygène et comment ces événements sont en relation avec la formation de minerais et de combustibles fossiles. On étudie les actions microbiologiques directes ou indirectes. Des exemples d'actions directes peuvent être le rôle des bactéries réductrices des sulfates dans la formation de minerais

  6. Cr isotope fractionation in metal-mineral-microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Porcelli, Don; Thompson, Ian; Amor, Ken; Galer, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Microbes interact with metals and minerals in the environments, altering their physical and chemical state whilst in turn the metals and minerals affect microbial growth, activity and survival. The interactions between Cr, Fe minerals and bacteria were investigated in this study. Cr(VI) reduction experiments by two iron-reducing bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300 and Shewanella oneidensis MR 1, in the presence of two iron oxide minerals, goethite and hematite, were conducted. Both minerals were found to inhibit the Cr(VI) reduction rate by Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300 but accelerated Shewanella oneidensis MR 1. The Cr isotopic fractionation factor generated by both bacteria was mostly independent of the presence of the minerals, except for hematite with Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300, where the ɛ was much higher. Aqueous Fe(III) in the solution did not have any detectable impact on either bacterial Cr reduction rates or the isotopic fractionation factors, indicating that the reduction of Cr(VI) occurred prior to that of Fe(III). The presence of aqueous Fe(II) induced a very fast abiotic reduction of Cr, but had little impact on the bacterial Cr reduction rates or its isotope fractionations. The evidence suggests that the different impact that Fe minerals had on the bacteria were related to the way they attached to the minerals and the difference in the reduction mechanism. SEM images confirmed that the attachment of Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300 on the mineral surfaces were much more tightly packed than that of Shewanella oneidensis MR 1, so reducing mineral-metal interactions.

  7. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Robert C.

    2013-04-26

    The overall aim of this project was to contribute to our fundamental understanding of proteins and biological processes under extreme environmental conditions. We sought to define the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie biodegradative and other cellular processes in normal, extreme, and engineered environments. Toward that end, we sought to understand the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during respiration by bacteria on soluble iron and insoluble sulfide minerals. In accordance with these general aims, the specific aims were two-fold: To identify, separate, and characterize the extracellular biomolecules necessary for aerobic respiration on iron under strongly acidic conditions; and to elucidate the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble mineral substrates under harsh environmental conditions. The results of these studies were described in a total of nineteen manuscripts. Highlights include the following: 1. The complete genome of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 (type strain) was sequenced in collaboration with the DOE Joint Genome Institute; 2. Genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods were used to evaluate gene expression and in situ microbial activity in a low-complexity natural acid mine drainage microbial biofilm community. This was the first effort to successfully analyze a natural community using these techniques; 3. Detailed functional and structural studies were conducted on rusticyanin, an acid-stable electron transfer protein purified from cell-free extracts of At. ferrooxidans. The three-dimensional structure of reduced rusticyanin was determined from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear 15N- and 13C-edited NMR spectra. Concomitantly, the three-dimensional structure of oxidized rusticyanin was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 A by multiwavelength

  9. Concentrations of uranium and thorium in bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of uranium and thorium in commercial bottled mineral waters (81 domestic and 11 foreign products) have been analyzed using ICP-MS. Domestic bottled mineral waters exhibit very wide range of the uranium concentrations (0.1–3300 ng/L). However uranium concentrations of most samples were below 100 ng/L. There is no obvious correlation between the values of hardness and the uranium concentrations of the domestic bottled mineral waters. The uranium concentrations of foreign bottled mineral waters tended to be much higher than those of domestic ones (up to 4000 ng/L), and the values of hardness correlate roughly with the uranium concentration. It may be due to interactions between limestone and groundwater. Thorium concentrations of both domestic and foreign bottled mineral waters are typically less than 3.0 ng/L. Concentrations of uranium and thorium in bottled mineral waters were greatly lower than provisional guideline values defined by WHO. Therefore, it can be considered that there is no health risk chemically/radioactively induced by natural uranium and thorium in commercial mineral waters currently available in Japan, especially in Kyoto City. (author)

  10. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  11. [Osteoplastic effectiveness of mineralized bone matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the experiment conducted on 50 Wistar rats, the peculiarities of the reparative osteogenesis were studied using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray electron-probe microanalysis and histological techniques. Granulated mineralized bone matrix (MBM) obtained without thermal and demineralizing treatment, was implanted into the tibial defect. MBM was found to possess marked osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. It induced a prolonged activation of reparative osteogenesis after the implantation, as well as deep bone tissue ingrowth into the implant, acceleration of organotypic remodeling of regenerated bone, intense angiogenesis and early restoration of the damaged PMID:23805618

  12. The classification of minerals deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this part of book author present the classification of minerals deposits. Deposit formation take place as a result of complicated and long geology processes in the wide temperature intervals (from 1500 digC to usual) and pressures (from usual and to tens kilobars). Deposits of minerals as other investigation objects require in definite systematization on the base of definite characteristics

  13. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... FR 80948 (December 23, 2010)]. The original comment period for Release No. 34-63547 is scheduled to... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... 1934 (the ``Exchange Act'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are...

  14. Mineral Atlas of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 the mineral resources of Europe and neighbouring countries were presented as a printed map and a book of exhaustive information and references. This was the first published map inventory of mineral deposits from all parts of the formerly politically divided Europe (East and West), measured and evaluated according to identical geological and mining standards.

  15. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  16. Mineral exploration in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the level of mineral exploration in much of Africa over the last ten to fifteen years has stagnated or declines, it has risen dramatically in South Africa. This chapter reviews this growth trend along with changes in the type of minerals sought through these exploration expenditures, and then identifies factors important to these shifts over time in the level and distribution of exploration expenditures. The chapter describes certain aspects of the South African mining industry which are important for exploration and which distinguish South Africa from other mineral-producing countries. Annual exploration expenditures for South Africa are shown in millions of current and constant (1982) and in figure 5-2 for the period from 1960 to 1983. The data include exploration for nonfuel minerals as well as two mineral fuels - uranium and coal

  17. Importance of the mineral fraction in dairy science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Gaucheron, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are composed of proteins, lipids and sugar contributing to their nutritive and biological values. They also contain minerals in the form of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P and Cl) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, etc). Today, the analytical methods of quantification of these minerals allow us to have a precise idea of their contents in milk and dairy products. This knowledge plays a key role in dairy science and technology especially in the understanding on the s...

  18. Sustained plasmid DNA release from dissolving mineral coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Siyoung; Murphy, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (Ca-P) minerals such as hydroxyapatite are able to bind a diverse range of biological molecules due to the presence of anions and cations in their crystal structure. The well-characterized ability of Ca-P minerals to bind and release plasmid DNA, coupled with the ability of biodegradable Ca-P coatings to form on the surface of common biomaterials, provides a potential mechanism for controlled release of plasmid DNA from various biomaterials. In this study we hypothesized tha...

  19. New Geophysical Technique for Mineral Exploration and Mineral Discrimination Based on Electromagnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Zhdanov

    2009-03-09

    The research during the first two years of the project was focused on developing the foundations of a new geophysical technique for mineral exploration and mineral discrimination, based on electromagnetic (EM) methods. The developed new technique is based on examining the spectral induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data using effective-medium theory and advanced methods of 3-D modeling and inversion. The analysis of IP phenomena is usually based on models with frequency dependent complex conductivity distribution. In this project, we have developed a rigorous physical/mathematical model of heterogeneous conductive media based on the effective-medium approach. The new generalized effective-medium theory of IP effect (GEMTIP) provides a unified mathematical method to study heterogeneity, multi-phase structure, and polarizability of rocks. The geoelectrical parameters of a new composite conductivity model are determined by the intrinsic petrophysical and geometrical characteristics of composite media: mineralization and/or fluid content of rocks, matrix composition, porosity, anisotropy, and polarizability of formations. The new GEMTIP model of multi-phase conductive media provides a quantitative tool for evaluation of the type of mineralization, and the volume content of different minerals using electromagnetic data. We have developed a 3-D EM-IP modeling algorithm using the integral equation (IE) method. Our IE forward modeling software is based on the contraction IE method, which improves the convergence rate of the iterative solvers. This code can handle various types of sources and receivers to compute the effect of a complex resistivity model. We have demonstrated that the generalized effective-medium theory of induced polarization (GEMTIP) in combination with the IE forward modeling method can be used for rock-scale forward modeling from grain-scale parameters. The numerical modeling study clearly demonstrates how the various complex resistivity

  20. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  1. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  2. Iron(III)-bearing clay minerals enhance bioreduction of nitrobenzene by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Fubo; Liu, Yan; Griffin, Aron M; Gorski, Christopher A; Burgos, William D

    2015-02-01

    Iron-bearing clay minerals are ubiquitous in the environment, and the clay-Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox couple plays important roles in abiotic reduction of several classes of environmental contaminants. We investigated the role of Fe-bearing clay minerals on the bioreduction of nitrobenzene. In experiments with Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 and excess electron donor, we found that the Fe-bearing clay minerals montmorillonite SWy-2 and nontronite NAu-2 enhanced nitrobenzene bioreduction. On short time scales (clay minerals became increasingly important. We found that chemically reduced (dithionite) iron-bearing clay minerals reduced nitrobenzene more rapidly than biologically reduced iron-bearing clay minerals despite the minerals having similar structural Fe(II) concentrations. We also found that chemically reduced NAu-2 reduced nitrobenzene faster as compared to chemically reduced SWy-2. The different reactivity of SWy-2 versus NAu-2 toward nitrobenzene was caused by different forms of structural clay-Fe(II) in the clay minerals and different reduction potentials (Eh) of the clay minerals. Because most contaminated aquifers become reduced via biological activity, the reactivity of biogenic clay-Fe(II) toward reducible contaminants is particularly important.

  3. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  4. Fluid flow increases mineralized matrix deposition in 3D perfusion culture of marrow stromal osteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Gregory N.; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.; van den Dolder, Juliette; Sheffield, Tiffany L.; Ambrose, Catherine G.; Jansen, John A.; Mikos, Antonios G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Bone is a complex highly structured mechanically active 3D tissue composed of cellular and matrix elements. The true biological environment of a bone cell is thus derived from a dynamic interaction between responsively active cells experiencing mechanical forces and a continuously changing 3D matrix architecture. To investigate this phenomenon in vitro, marrow stromal osteoblasts were cultured on 3D scaffolds under flow perfusion with different rates of flow for an extended period to permit osteoblast differentiation and significant matrix production and mineralization. With all flow conditions, mineralized matrix production was dramatically increased over statically cultured constructs with the total calcium content of the cultured scaffolds increasing with increasing flow rate. Flow perfusion induced de novo tissue modeling with the formation of pore-like structures in the scaffolds and enhanced the distribution of cells and matrix throughout the scaffolds. These results represent reporting of the long-term effects of fluid flow on primary differentiating osteoblasts and indicate that fluid flow has far-reaching effects on osteoblast differentiation and phenotypic expression in vitro. Flow perfusion culture permits the generation and study of a 3D, actively modeled, mineralized matrix and can therefore be a valuable tool for both bone biology and tissue engineering.

  5. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  6. Relative biological effectiveness of carbon ions for tumor control, acute skin damage and late radiation-induced fibrosis in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Horsman, Michael Robert; Alsner, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to compare the biological effectiveness of carbon ions relative to x-rays between tumor control, acute skin reaction and late RIF of CDF1 mice. Material and methods. CDF1 mice with a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma implanted subcutaneously on the foot of t...

  7. Mineral Commodity Profiles -- Rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Reese, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- Rubidium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that melts at 39.3 ?C. One of the alkali metals, it is positioned in group 1 (or IA) of the periodic table between potassium and cesium. Naturally occurring rubidium is slightly radioactive. Rubidium is an extremely reactive metal--it ignites spontaneously in the presence of air and decomposes water explosively, igniting the liberated hydrogen. Because of its reactivity, the metal and several of its compounds are hazardous materials, and must be stored and transported in isolation from possible reactants. Although rubidium is more abundant in the earth?s crust than copper, lead, or zinc, it forms no minerals of its own, and is, or has been, produced in small quantities as a byproduct of the processing of cesium and lithium ores taken from a few small deposits in Canada, Namibia, and Zambia. In the United States, the metal and its compounds are produced from imported raw materials by at least one company, the Cabot Corporation (Cabot, 2003). Rubidium is used interchangeably or together with cesium in many uses. Its principal application is in specialty glasses used in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Rubidium?s photoemissive properties have led to its use in night-vision devices, photoelectric cells, and photomultiplier tubes. It has several uses in medical science, such as in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, the treatment of epilepsy, and the ultracentrifugal separation of nucleic acids and viruses. A dozen or more other uses are known, which include use as a cocatalyst for several organic reactions and in frequency reference oscillators for telecommunications network synchronization. The market for rubidium is extremely small, amounting to 1 to 2 metric tons per year (t/yr) in the United States. World resources are vast compared with demand.

  8. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  9. Quantum Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  10. Modeling of biological doses and mechanical effects on bone transduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, Romain; Jennane, Rachid; 10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.01.003

    2012-01-01

    Shear stress, hormones like parathyroid and mineral elements like calcium mediate the amplitude of stimulus signal which affects the rate of bone remodeling. The current study investigates the theoretical effects of different metabolic doses in stimulus signal level on bone. The model was built considering the osteocyte as the sensing center mediated by coupled mechanical shear stress and some biological factors. The proposed enhanced model was developed based on previously published works dealing with different aspects of bone transduction. It describes the effects of physiological doses variations of Calcium, Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 on the stimulus level sensed by osteocytes in response to applied shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow. We retained the metabolic factors (Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide, and Prostaglandin E2) as parameters of bone cell mechanosensitivity because stimulation/inhibition of induced pathways stimulates osteogenic response in vivo. We t...

  11. Book review: Mineral resource estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral Resource Estimation is about estimating mineral resources at the scale of an ore deposit and is not to be mistaken with mineral resource assessment, which is undertaken at a significantly broader scale, even if similar data and geospatial/geostatistical methods are used. The book describes geological, statistical, and geostatistical tools and methodologies used in resource estimation and modeling, and presents case studies for illustration. The target audience is the expert, which includes professional mining geologists and engineers, as well as graduate-level and advanced undergraduate students.

  12. Pyrite formation and mineral transformation pathways upon sulfidation of ferric hydroxides depend on mineral type and sulfide concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peiffer, Stefan; Behrends, Thilo; Hellige, Katrin; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Wan, Moli; Pollok, Kilian

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of ferric (hydr)oxides with dissolved sulfide does not lead to the instantaneous production of thermodynamically stable products but can induce a variety of mineral transformations including the formation of metastable intermediates. The importance of the various transformation pathways

  13. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation

  14. Facilitating the mineralization of oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogel by incorporation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nejadnik, M.R.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring strategies to induce the mineralization of hydrogels is an important step toward the development of hydrogel-based materials for bone regeneration. In the current study, the effect of incorporating hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on the mineralization capacity of an inert poly(ethylene g

  15. Mineral exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter provides an overview and comparisons of mineral exploration in Botswana and Papua New Guinea, including selection comparisons with Australia and Canada. It describes the history of exploration in Botswana and PNG. The concluding section summarizes the findings

  16. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., Release No. 34-63547 (Dec. 15, 2010) [75 FR 80948] (the ``Proposing Release''). \\5\\ Public Law 111-203... (Jan. 7, 2011) (``WGC I''). \\33\\ Conflict Minerals, Release No. 34-63793 (Jan. 28, 2011) [76 FR...

  17. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    in minor errors, implying that aquifer sediments containing poorly crystalline materials can be outgassed at low temperatures if the outgassing time is increased. Scanning electron microscopy of the studied minerals demonstrated that the particle size as calculated from BET data compares well with......Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...

  18. US Forest Service Mineral Rights

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the subsurface estate representing mineral rights; it is collected only if the subsurface estate is...

  19. Clay Minerals Deposit of Halakabad (Sabzevar- Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Clay minerals are expanded in south of Sabzevar. They are identified with light color in the filed. The XRD and XRF chemical and mineralogical studies on the Clay minerals indicated that their main clay minerals are Kaolinite, Illite and Dickite. Pyrophyllite is minor clay mineral. Quartz and Sanidine non clay minerals are present with clay minerals .Ratio of Al2O3 is about 40 per cent, it is very good for industrial minerals .Volcanic rocks are origin clay minerals .Their composition are bas...

  20. [Biological therapy for osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinya; Tanaka, Sakae

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bone formation and resorption balance. Advances in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of bone formation and resorption led to promising therapeutic targets for osteoporosis. In the novel biological drugs, denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) has been clinically applied by positive effect on bone mineral density, negative effect on bone resorption, preventive effect on fragility fractures and safety. Odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor is drawing attention as an antiresorptive drug which has lower bone resorption potency than bisphosphoneate. On the other hand, BHQ-880, an anti-Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) antibody and romosozumab (AMG-785) , an anti-sclerostin antibody which activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway are drawing attention as bone formation accelerators with no bone resorption acceleration. Clinical studies of these drugs are now ongoing and their clinical applications are expected. PMID:24870844