WorldWideScience

Sample records for biologically harmful radiation

  1. Ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures against it's harmful effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hhalel, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book intrduces a good knowledge in specifications of ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures againest harmful effectes. The book is devided in to five main sections, the first one introduces the hostorical bachground of the contributions of a number of scietists in the basic knolwledge of radiation and its biological effects. The second section deals with the physical and chemical principles of radiation the third one talks about radiation detection. While the fourth section talks (via seven chapter) about the effectes of ionizing radiation on living organisms molecules cells, tissues organs systems and the living organism the fifth section talks about the uses of radiation sources, the probability of radiation accidents, protective measures, international recommendations related to doses and safe use of ionizing radiation. (Abed Al-wali Al-ajlouni). 53 refs., 107 figs., 13 tabs

  2. Evaluation of DNA dosimetry to assess ozone-mediated variability of biologically harmful radiation in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, AL; Peat, HJ; Buma, AGJ

    In this study we investigated the use of a DNA dosimeter to accurately measure changes in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR; 280-315 nm) under Antarctic ozone hole conditions. Naked DNA solution in quartz tubes was exposed to ambient solar radiation at Rothera Research Station, Antarctica, between

  3. Bituminization of biologically harmful wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, M.; Magyar, M.; Mozes, G.; Csikos, R.; Kristof, M.; Toth, L.; Hima, G.

    1977-01-01

    The invention claims the bitumenization of biologically harmful wastes, such as industrial wastes containing radioactive materials. These wastes containing water are transported from sludge basins, this either by gravity or by mechanical stirrino. into a suitably adapted absorption zone or to several parallel zones filled with bitumen heated to 100 to 250 degC. An inert gas is forced into the system foaming the zone contents. The foam phase is decomposed by the action of heat while water is evaporated and condensed. Bitumen containing dry matter of the radioactive wastes is discharged from the bottom part of the absorption zone and stored in a tank. (Kr)

  4. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children

  5. Protective Role of Carnitine against the Harmful Biological Effects of Paracetamol and Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rahman, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, γ-radiation, and paracetamol + γ-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide

  6. Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatau, B.D.; Garba, N.N.; Yusuf, A.M.; Yamusa, Y. A.; Musa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In earlier studies, researchers aimed a single particle at the nucleus of the cell where DNA is located. Eighty percent of the cells shot through the nucleus survived. This contradicts the belief that if radiation slams through the nucleus, the cell will die. But the bad news is that the surviving cells contained mutations. Cells have a great capacity to repair DNA, but they cannot do it perfectly. The damage left behind in these studies from a single particle of alpha radiation doubled the damage that is already there. This proved, beyond a shadow of doubt, those there biological effects occur as a result of exposure to radiation, Radiation is harmful to living tissue because of its ionizing power in matter. This ionization can damage living cells directly, by breaking the chemical bonds of important biological molecules (particularly DNA), or indirectly, by creating chemical radicals from water molecules in the cells, which can then attack the biological molecules chemically. At some extent these molecules are repaired by natural biological processes, however, the effectiveness of this repair depends on the extent of the damage. The interaction of ionizing with the human body, arising either from external sources outside the body or from internal contamination of the body by radioactive materials, leads to the biological effects which may later show up as a clinical symptoms. Basically, this formed the baseline of this research to serve as a yardstick for creating awareness about radiation and its resulting effects.

  7. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung Chull An; Jae-Sung Kim; Seung Sik Lee; Shyamkumar Barampuram; Eun Mi Lee; Byung Yeoup Chung

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  8. [Harmful biological agents at museum workposts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Zduniak, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Rembisz, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of microbiological contamination of air and surfaces in museum premises with various collection specificities. In addition, the criteria for selecting indicators of contamination with harmful biological agents at museum workposts are proposed. The analysis of microbial contamination was carried out in 14 museum premises (storehouses, restoration workshops, exhibition hall). Microbiological air purity was measured with a MAS-100 Eco Air Sampler. Surface samples were collected using contact plates RODAC Envirocheck. Biochemical API tests were used to identify bacteria and yeasts. Fungi were diagnosed with taxonomic keys, based on macro- and microscopic mycelia assessment. The levels of microbiological contamination in museums varied and ranged from 2.1 x 10(2) to 7.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3 in the air and from 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.7 x 10(4) cfu/100 cm2 on surfaces. The dominant microorganisms were fungi, which accounted respectively for 18-98% and 23-100% of all isolates from tested sites and surfaces. It was found that the amount of fungi in the indoor air of the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography and the Museum of Independence Traditions equaled respectively 4.2 x 10(2) cfu/m3 and 1.4 x 10(4) cfu/m3, which means that they exceeded the recommended reference value of 2.0 x 10(2) cfu/m3. Having analyzed the frequency of strain isolation, the source of microorganisms and the hazard to human health, 10 fungal species were isolated, which may be regarded as indicators of contamination with harmful biological agents at museum workposts. They are: Aspergillus (A. niger, A. versicolor), Cladosporium (C. herbarum, C. macrocarpum), Penicillium (P. carneum, P. digitatum, P. italicum, P. paneum, P. polonicum), Rhizopus nigricans.

  9. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey [Department of Applied Plant Science-Horticulture, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow (India)

    2012-07-01

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  10. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey

    2012-01-01

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  11. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  12. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  13. Biologic effects of electromagnetic radiation and microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation and microwave exist mankind's environment widely. People realize they disserve authors' health when authors make use of them. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the major physic factors which injure people's health. A review of the biologic mechanism about electromagnetic radiation and microwave, their harmful effects to human body, problems in authors' research and the prospect

  14. Advances in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The classical period of radiation biology is coming to a close. Such change always occurs at a time when the ideas and concepts that promoted the burgeoning of an infant science are no longer adequate. This volume covers a number of areas in which new ideas and research are playing a vital role, including cellular radiation sensitivity, radioactive waste disposal, and space radiation biology

  15. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koggl, D.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    All nowadays problems of radio biology are considered: types of ionizing radiations, their interaction with material; damage of molecular structures and their reparation; reaction of cells and their recovery from radiation damage; reaction of the whole organism and its separate systems. Particular attention is given to the problems of radiation carcinogenesis and radiation hazard for man

  16. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Devi, P.; Satish Rao, B.S.; Nagarathnam, A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  17. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  18. Radiation biology and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wideroee, R.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation biology and radiation therapy can be compared with investigations in different layers of earth. Radiation biology works upwards from the elementary foundations, therapy works downwards with roots to secure and improve the clinical 'surface work'. The Ellis formula (Strandquist), which is a collection of clinical experience, is suited to form connections with radiobiology in the middle layers, and cooperation can give impulses for research. The structure and conditions of tumours and the complicated problems met with are discussed, based on the Carmel symposium of 1969. The oxygen problem in anoxic tumours is not yet solved. Experimental investigations of the effect itself give partly contradictory results. From a clinical viewpoint reoxygenation is of the utmost significance for obtaining control over the primary tumour, and advanced irradiation programmes will here give better results than the traditional ones. New chemicals, e.g. R 0 -07-0582, appear to reduce the OER value to 1.5, thereby making neutron therapy superfluous. Finally a problem from fundamental research is dealt with, wherein two hypotheses explaining the β-effect are described. The repair hypothesis gives a simple explanation but leaves many questions unanswered. The other hypothesis explains the β-effect as two neighbouring single breaks of the DNA molecule. It still presents difficulties, and is scarcely the correct explanation. (JIW)

  19. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book covers all aspects of biological radiation effects. The physical basis is dealt with in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects)

  20. Radiation biology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    For protection purposes, the biological effects of radiation are separated into stochastic effects (cancer, hereditary effects) presumed to be unicellular in origin, and tissue reactions due to injury in populations of cells. The latter are deterministic effects, renamed ‘tissue reactions’ in the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection because of the increasing evidence of the ability to modify responses after irradiation. Tissue reactions become manifest either early or late after doses above a threshold dose, which is the basis for recommended dose limits for avoiding such effects. Latency time before manifestation is related to cell turnover rates, and tissue proliferative and structural organisation. Threshold doses have been defined for practical purposes at 1% incidence of an effect. In general, threshold doses are lower for longer follow-up times because of the slow progression of injury before manifestation. Radiosensitive individuals in the population may contribute to low threshold doses, and in the future, threshold doses may be increased by the use of various biological response modifiers post irradiation for reducing injury. Threshold doses would be expected to be higher for fractionated or protracted doses, unless doses below the threshold dose only cause single-hit-type events that are not modified by repair/recovery phenomena, or if different mechanisms of injury are involved at low and high doses.

  1. Integrative radiation systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  2. Development trend of radiation biology research-systems radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation biology research has past 80 years. We have known much more about fundamentals, processes and results of biology effects induced by radiation and various factors that influence biology effects wide and deep, however many old and new scientific problems occurring in the field of radiation biology research remain to be illustrated. To explore and figure these scientific problems need systemic concept, methods and multi dimension view on the base of considerations of complexity of biology system, diversity of biology response, temporal and spatial process of biological effects during occurrence, and complex feed back network of biological regulations. (authors)

  3. Integrative Radiation Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [New York University School of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2015-02-27

    We plan to study tissue-level mechanisms important to human breast radiation carcinogenesis. We propose that the cell biology of irradiated tissues reveals a coordinated multicellular damage response program in which individual cell contributions are primarily directed towards suppression of carcinogenesis and reestablishment of homeostasis. We identified transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ) as a pivotal signal. Notably, we have discovered that TGFβ suppresses genomic instability by controlling the intrinsic DNA damage response and centrosome integrity. However, TGFβ also mediates disruption of microenvironment interactions, which drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition in irradiated human mammary epithelial cells. This apparent paradox of positive and negative controls by TGFβ is the topic of the present proposal. First, we postulate that these phenotypes manifest differentially following fractionated or chronic exposures; second, that the interactions of multiple cell types in tissues modify the responses evident in this single cell type culture models. The goals are to: 1) study the effect of low dose rate and fractionated radiation exposure in combination with TGFβ on the irradiated phenotype and genomic instability of non-malignant human epithelial cells; and 2) determine whether stromal-epithelial interactions suppress the irradiated phenotype in cell culture and the humanized mammary mouse model. These data will be used to 3) develop a systems biology model that integrates radiation effects across multiple levels of tissue organization and time. Modeling multicellular radiation responses coordinated via extracellular signaling could have a significant impact on the extrapolation of human health risks from high dose to low dose/rate radiation exposure.

  4. Radiation biology: a century of hopes and disappointments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.B.

    1998-01-01

    In the history of science, radiation biology will rank perhaps as the most popular subject to have attracted researchers from many disciplines of basic as well as applied sciences. Apart from the excitement arising in clinics relating to radiation treatment of cancers the tragedies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki brought numerous scientists together to investigate the harmful biological effects of ionizing radiation. It is then radiation biology picked up a great momentum. It started developing in two different directions what may be called basic radiation biology and radiation biology applied to radiotherapy of cancer. While great strides were being made in basic radiation biology trying to understand the biological effects of radiation and mechanisms thereof, clinical aspect remained confined mainly to the medical fraternity where empiricalism became the rule

  5. Biology of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present trends in biology of ionizing radiation are reviewed. The following topics are investigated: interaction of ionizing radiations with matter; the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions; properties of the free radicals intervening in the couples O 2 /H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 ; radiation chemistry of biological compounds; biological effects of ionizing radiations; biochemical mechanisms involving free radicals as intermediates; applications (biotechnological applications, origins of life) [fr

  6. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejourne, Michele.

    1977-01-01

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man [fr

  7. Biological effects of particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1988-01-01

    Conventional radiations such as photons, gamma rays or electrons show several physical or biological disadvantages to bring tumors to cure, therefore, more and more attentions is being paid to new modalitie such as fast neutrons, protons, negative pions and heavy ions, which are expected to overcome some of the defects of the conventional radiations. Except for fast neutrons, these particle radiations show excellet physical dose localization in tissue, moreover, in terms of biological effects, they demonstrate several features compared to conventional radiations, namely low oxygen enhancement ratio, high value of relative biological effectiveness, smaller cellular recovery, larger therapeutic gain factor and less cell cycle dependency in radiation sensitivity. In present paper the biological effects of particle radiations are shown comparing to the effects of conventional radiations. (author)

  8. Algae as test organisms of harmful effects of various radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The report describes a complex biotest in which algae serve as the test organisms and where a variety of algal characteristics are employed as indicators of the effects of harmful radiations on the cultures and single organisms. Rules for a successful choice of a suitable algal organism are discussed and the preparation of the latter for the test as well as the growth and morphogenic tests and some physiological responses of algae to harmful radiation are described. The survival and lethality are related to the interpretation of the test results particularly from the physiological and genetic points of view. The complex biotest concerns not only toxic but also mutagenic effects of the factors tested. Some easily detectable mutations in algae are mentioned and their spectra are recommended. The stability of the mutations and the possibility of their delayed manifestation are considered. The possibility of occurrence of teratogenic effects is also dealt with and the negative role of phenocopies in the correct evaluation of the mutation effects is mentioned. Advice for the breeding and laboratory maintenance of suitable algal strains for the biotest is given. Practical use of the biotest is demonstrated on the results of a test using modified samples of waste water from uranium industries. It is recommended that biotests confined to the evaluation of single characteristics of the test organism be replaced by this complex biotest whose results can be interpreted more extensively and exhibit a higher reliability. (author). 268 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  9. Radiation protection standards: a summary of the biological effects of ionising radiation and principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This leaflet in the NRPB At-a-Glance-Series briefly summarises the biological effects of radiation, harm and sensitivity to radiation, radiation protection principles, acceptability of risk and the control of doses to workers, the public and in medical procedures in the UK. (UK)

  10. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    In this review radiation produced by the nuclear industry is placed into context with other sources of radiation in our world. Human health effects of radiation, derivation of standards and risk estimates are reviewed in this document. The implications of exposing the worker and the general population to radiation generated by nuclear power are assessed. Effects of radiation are also reviewed. Finally, gaps in our knowledge concerning radiation are identified and current research on biological effects, on environmental aspects, and on dosimetry of radiation within AECL and Canada is documented in this report. (author)

  11. Applied radiation biology and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, R.; Gambini, D.-J.

    1990-01-01

    This book grew out of a series of courses in radiobiology and radiation protection which were given to students in schools for radiology technicians, radiation safety officers and to medical students. Topics covered include the sources of ionizing radiation and their interactions with matter; the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; dosimetry; the biological effects of ionizing radiation; the effects of ionizing radiation on the human body; natural radioexposure; medical radio-exposure; industrial radioexposure of electronuclear origin; radioexposure due to experimental nuclear explosions; radiation protection; and accidents with external and/or internal radio-exposure. (UK)

  12. Biological implications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays

  13. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heribanova, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principles and pathways of effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and cells are outlined. The following topics are covered: effects of radiation on living matter (direct effects, radical or indirect effects, dual radiation action, and molecular biological theories); effects of radiation on cells and tissues (cell depletion, changes in the cytogenetic information, reparation mechanisms), dose-response relationship (deterministic effects, stochastic effects), and the effects of radiation on man (acute radiation sickness, acute local changes, fetus injuries, non-tumorous late injuries, malignant tumors, genetic changes). (P.A.). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs

  14. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  15. Occurrence, Biology and Harmfulness of Byctiscus betulae (L. (Coleoptera, Rhynchitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, was studied the occurrence, biology and harmfulness of Byctiscus betulae (L. (Rhynchitidae on forest woody plants in the Brno region. Leaf rolls were found on 13 species (and 10 genera of woody plants. Most frequently, they occurred on Fagus sylvatica, Tilia spp. (namely on T. cordata, Salix caprea and Populus tremula. The beetles hibernate in ground pupal chambers and appear on woody plants in the last decade of April. After hibernation, females live on average seven (males five weeks, and damage on average 40 (males 25 cm2 of leaves. The females create leaf rolls on annual shoots they have gnawed, exceptionally (in 2% on leaves with damaged petioles. In the rolls on F. sylvatica, they roll on average 5.6 leaves whose total average area is 49.5 cm2 and lay on average 5.1 eggs. In the rolls on Tilia spp., they roll on average 3.3 leaves whose total area is 63.2 cm2 and lay on average 4.9 eggs. In the rolls on S. caprea, they roll on average 3.3 leaves whose total area is 38.3 cm2 and lay on average 3.5 eggs. The maximum number of laid eggs (on average 8.0 was observed in the leaf rolls on Vitis vinifera. The average number of eggs in the leaf rolls was decreasing from May to July. The number of eggs was increasing with the increasing total leaf area rolled. The females lay on average 50 eggs. On P. tremula, S. caprea and Pyrus pyraster they create about 15 leaf rolls, on F. sylvatica and Tilia spp. about 10 leaf rolls and on V. vinifera ca. 8 leaf rolls. Embryogenesis lasts from 8 to 9 days. Larvae develop over 3 instars and damage ca. 300 mm2 of leaves. Coming of age within 4−7 weeks, they leave the leaf rolls from mid-June to the beginning of September.

  16. Review of domestic radiation biology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Chun; Song Lingli; Ai Zihui

    2011-01-01

    Radiation biology research in China during the past ten years are reviewed. It should be noticed that radiation-biology should focus on microdosimetry, microbeam application, and radiation biological mechanism. (authors)

  17. The biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards of radiations to man are briefly covered in this paper. The natural background sources of radiations are stated and their resulting doses are compared to those received voluntarily by man. The basis of how radiations cause biological damage is given and the resulting somatic effects are shown for varying magnitude of dose. Risk estimates are given for cancer induction and genetic effects are briefly discussed. Finally four case studies of radiation damage to humans are examined exemplifying the symptoms of large doses of radiations [af

  18. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1991-05-01

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiotherapy. Current research topics include: oncogenic transformation assays, mutation studies involving interactions between radiation and environmental contaminants, isolation, characterization and sequencing of a human repair gene, characterization of a dominant transforming gene found in C3H 10T1/2 cells, characterize ab initio the interaction of DNA and radiation, refine estimates of the radiation quality factor Q, a new mechanistic model of oncogenesis showing the role of long-term low dose medium LET radiation, and time dependent modeling of radiation induced chromosome damage and subsequent repair or misrepair

  19. Biology relevant to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors

  20. Biological control of Microcystis dominated harmful algal blooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater resources are now threatened by the presence and increase of harmful algal blooms (HAB) all over the world. The HABs are sometimes a direct result of anthropogenic pollution entering water bodies, such as partially treated nutrient-rich effluents and the leaching of fertilisers and animal wastes. The impact of ...

  1. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  2. Radiation chemistry in development and research of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    During the establishment and development of radiation biology, radiation chemistry acts like bridge which units the spatial and temporal insight coming from radiation physics with radiation biology. The theory, model, and methodology of radiation chemistry play an important role in promoting research and development of radiation biology. Following research development of radiation biology effects towards systems radiation biology the illustration and exploration both diversity of biological responses and complex process of biological effect occurring remain to need the theory, model, and methodology come from radiation chemistry. (authors)

  3. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ''biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons

  4. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  5. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi- field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

  6. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent

  7. Biological Sensors for Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P. Schuch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is widely known as a genotoxic environmental agent that affects Earth ecosystems and the human population. As a primary consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion observed over the last decades, the increasing UV incidence levels have heightened the concern regarding deleterious consequences affecting both the biosphere and humans, thereby leading to an increase in scientific efforts to understand the role of sunlight in the induction of DNA damage, mutagenesis, and cell death. In fact, the various UV-wavelengths evoke characteristic biological impacts that greatly depend on light absorption of biomolecules, especially DNA, in living organisms, thereby justifying the increasing importance of developing biological sensors for monitoring the harmful impact of solar UV radiation under various environmental conditions. In this review, several types of biosensors proposed for laboratory and field application, that measure the biological effects of the UV component of sunlight, are described. Basically, the applicability of sensors based on DNA, bacteria or even mammalian cells are presented and compared. Data are also presented showing that on using DNA-based sensors, the various types of damage produced differ when this molecule is exposed in either an aqueous buffer or a dry solution. Apart from the data thus generated, the development of novel biosensors could help in evaluating the biological effects of sunlight on the environment. They also emerge as alternative tools for using live animals in the search for protective sunscreen products.

  8. Biology of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    A working knowledge of the biologic principles underlying radiotherapy for head and neck tumors is desirable for all the disciplines involved in the management of patients with these cancers. Clinical practice is certainly possible without this basic understanding, and historically most clinical advances have been made empirically. However, an understanding of the basic concepts permits a better appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of various treatment strategies and offers a rational approach for future modifications of techniques so as to improve the outcome of treatment

  9. Applied radiation biology and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  10. Progress in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Koji; Zingu, Kenichi; Matsuura, Keiichi; Aramaki, Ryoji; Yoshinaga, Haruma

    1980-01-01

    Possible mechanism of differences in radiosensitivity of malignant tumors in vivo was reviewed. The magnitude of repair of potentially lethal damage after X- or gamma-ray was relatively large for melanoma, osteosarcoma and glioblastoma multiform cultured in vitro. The proportion of hypoxic cells in malignant melanoma was relatively high and the Dq value of the dose response curves was relatively large, implying that these two factors also play important role for making malignant melanoma radioresistant. Recurrent tumor cells in vitro has relatively high amount of non-protein SH, which can protect cells from radiation. Except for these limited data, no experimental results has been reported which can explain the radiobiological mechanism of each radioresistant tumor. It was stressed that assessment of the radiobiological mechanism of the relatively radioresistant malignant tumors in vivo and new treatment protocol based on this assessment will improve the local control rate of malignant tumors in vivo as well as doing best in treating relatively radiosensitive tumors. (author)

  11. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  12. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J.; Weckert, E.

    2001-01-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  13. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J M; Chavanne, J [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  14. Emerging frontiers in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation biology owes its origin to the spectacular success in the treatment of human diseases by x-rays and radium, just after their respective discoveries in 1895-96. From the very inception it has attracted researchers from all disciplines of science. The target and hit theory developed by physicists, dominated the scene till the advent of radiation chemistry concepts which offered an entirely different perspective to the mechanisms involved in biological effects of radiations and their modification by endogenous and exogenous agents like radioprotectors and radiosensitisers including hyperthermia. The applied aspect of radiation biology mainly relates to radiation therapy of cancer which, in spite of its long existence, is still to achieve scientific perfection. Nevertheless, it did not wait -and fortunately so-, for its radiobiological rationality but continued its development to be the main modality for cancer treatment today. Several approaches are now being attempted to improve its efficacy by selectively damaging the cancerous cells while sparing the normal tissues and also by devising suitable predictive assays for radioresponse of different tumours to enable individualisation of treatment schedules. (author). 99 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H 2 O 2 )-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

  16. Clinical oncology based upon radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    This paper discussed the biological effects of radiation as physical energy, especially those of X-ray as electromagnetic radiation, by associating the position of clinical oncology with classical radiation cell biology as well as recent molecular biology. First, it described the physical and biological effects of radiation, cell death due to radiation and recovery, radiation effects at tissue level, and location information and dosage information in the radiotherapy of cancer. It also described the territories unresolved through radiation biology, such as low-dose high-sensitivity, bystander effects, etc. (A.O.)

  17. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  18. Biological indicators of radiation quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.; Wong, R.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The induction of many biological effects by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is strikingly different in one or two respects from the induction by acute low-LET radiation. If the acute low-LET dose-effect curve is of the usual quadratic form, it becomes linear as LET increases. In any case the linear slope increases as LET increases; that is, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) increases. Both changes might be exploited as biological indicators of whether or not the recent recalculations of dose and of neutron contribution to dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki seem consistent with the epidemiological observations. The biological end points that have been extensively studied in survivors include acute effects, growth and development after in utero or childhood exposure, genetic and cytogenetic effects in offspring, somatic chromosomal aberrations in survivors, and, of course, cancers, including leukemia. No significant indication among offspring of genetic or cytogenetic effects attributable to parental exposure has been found. Among the remaining end points, only the data on somatic chromosomal aberrations and on cancers appear robust enough to allow one to draw definite inferences by comparing experiences at the two cities

  19. Biology relevant to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    There are only very limited data on the health effects to humans from the two major components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. As a result, predictions of the accompanying effects must be based either on (1) data generated through studies of experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences higher than those in space, or (2) extrapolations from studies of gamma and x rays. Better information is needed about the doses, dose rates, and the energy and LET spectra of the radiations at the organ level that are anticipated to be encountered during extended space missions. In particular, there is a need for better estimates of the relationship between radiation quality and biological effects. In the case of deterministic effects, it is the threshold that is important. The possibility of the occurrence of a large solar particle event (SPE) requires that such effects be considered during extended space missions. Analyses suggest, however, that it is feasible to provide sufficient shielding so as to reduce such effects to acceptable levels, particularly if the dose rates can be limited. If these analyses prove correct, the primary biological risks will be the stochastic effects (latent cancer induction). The contribution of one large SPE to the risk of stochastic effects while undesirable will not be large in comparison to the potential total dose on a mission of long duration

  20. The effect of humus on biological cleaning of soils - association of harmful organic substances from mineral oil contaminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richnow, H.H.; Seifert, R.; Michaelis, W.

    1993-01-01

    The association of organic harmful substances and particularly their metabolites with the humin fraction is a process which has great ecological importance. The knowledge of the type and extent of such associations of harmful substances with the humin fraction of the soil plays a central part in the assessment of loading by harmful substances or the success of biological cleaning up measures. (orig.) [de

  1. Can the ionizing radiation and sunlight be harmful to health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesmen, Curt

    2008-01-01

    We're all exposed to radiation sources: the sun, X-rays, mammograms, CT scans, dental exams, even soil and we're just now finding out whether those rays, combined, are dangerous. Scientists are still figuring that out and they tend to disagree about the risks. But they recently found worrying signs that radiation exposure is on the rise, thanks largely to the popularity of high-tech medical exams such as CT scans. So it's wise to limit exposure as possible. The odds of developing cancer from radiation exposure are very small, but risks do rise the younger a person is radiated. There is a radiation footprint for every person. Some scientists do not believe any level of radiation is necessarily safe. At some time in life anyone will need a radiation-based medical treatment or diagnostic test. Radiation therapy may be the best way to shrink a cancer or save a life. A recent study warned that up to one-third of all CT scans may be medically unnecessary. Frequent flying theoretically ups cancer risks. After all, seven miles above sea level, there is much less atmosphere to absorb radiation from the sun.

  2. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay

  3. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  4. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.; Delegianis, M.J.

    1989-07-01

    An important event of the year was the designation of our Laboratory as a Center for Radiological Research by the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine and Vice-President for Health Sciences. Center status acknowledges the size and importance of the research efforts in this area, and allows a greater measure of independence in administrative matters. While the name has changed from a Laboratory to a Center within the Medical School, the mission and charge remain the same. The efforts of the Center are a multidisciplinary mix of physics, chemistry, and biology, mostly at a basic level, with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection or radiation therapy. About a quarter of our funding, mostly individual research awards, could be regarded as in direct support of radiotherapy, with the remainder (an NCI program project grant and DOE grants) being in support of research addressing more basic issues. An important effort currently underway concerns ab-initio calculations of the dielectric response function of condensed water. This investigation has received the coveted designation, ''Grand Challenge Project,'' awarded by DOE to research work which represents ''distinct advance on a major scientific or engineering problem that is broadly recognized as important within the mission of the Department.''

  5. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun; Dong, Kyung Rae; Han, Seung Moo

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

  6. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  7. Research progress on space radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjian; Dang Bingrong; Wang Zhuanzi; Wei Wei; Jing Xigang; Wang Biqian; Zhang Bintuan

    2010-01-01

    Space radiation, particularly induced by the high-energy charged particles, may cause serious injury on living organisms. So it is one critical restriction factor in Manned Spaceflight. Studies have shown that the biological effects of charged particles were associated with their quality, the dose and the different biological end points. In addition, the microgravity conditions may affect the biological effects of space radiation. In this paper we give a review on the biological damage effects of space radiation and the combined biological effects of the space radiation coupled with the microgravity from the results of space flight and ground simulation experiments. (authors)

  8. Biological research for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  9. Biological research for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by γ-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by γ-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate γ-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by γ-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  10. E. Biological effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report firstly summarises information on the biological hazards of radiation and their relation to radiation dose, and hence estimates the biological risks associated with nuclear power production. Secondly, it describes the basis and present status of radiation protection standards in the nuclear power industry

  11. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging without Harmful Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the…

  12. Radiation biology for the non-biologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1978-06-01

    This colloquium introduces some of the general concepts used in cell biology and in the study of the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms. The present research activities in radiation biology in the Biology Branch at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories cover a broad range of interests in the entire chain of events by which the initial radiation-induced changes in the living cell are translated into significant biological effects, including the eventual production of cancers and hereditary defects. The main theme of these research activities is an understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation damage to DNA (the carrier of hereditary information in all living organisms) can be actively repaired by the living cell. Advances in our understanding of these processes have broad implications for other areas of biology but also bear directly on the assessment of the biological hazards of ionizing radiation. The colloquium concludes with a brief discussion of the hazards of low-level radiation. (author)

  13. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K J; Lee, Y K; Kim, J S; Kim, J K; Lee, S J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  14. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes

  15. Radiation biology for pediatric radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    The biological effects of radiation result primarily from damage to DNA. There are three effects of concern to the radiologist that determine the need for radiation protection and the dose principle of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). (1) Heritable effects. These were thought to be most important in the 1950s, but concern has declined in recent years. The current ICRP risk estimate is very small at 0.2%/Sv. (2) Effects on the developing embryo and fetus include weight retardation, congenital anomalies, microcephaly and mental retardation. During the sensitive period of 8 to 15 weeks of gestation, the risk estimate for mental retardation is very high at 40%/Sv, but because it is a deterministic effect, there is likely to be a threshold of about 200 mSv. (3) Carcinogenesis is considered to be the most important consequence of low doses of radiation, with a risk of fatal cancer of about 5%/Sv, and is therefore of most concern in radiology. Our knowledge of radiation carcinogenesis comes principally from the 60-year study of the A-bomb survivors. The use of radiation for diagnostic purposes has increased dramatically in recent years. The annual collective population dose has increased by 750% since 1980 to 930,000 person Sv. One of the principal reasons is the burgeoning use of CT scans. In 2006, more than 60 million CT scans were performed in the U.S., with about 6 million of them in children. As a rule of thumb, an abdominal CT scan in a 1-year-old child results in a life-time mortality risk of about one in a thousand. While the risk to the individual is small and acceptable when the scan is clinically justified, even a small risk when multiplied by an increasingly large number is likely to produce a significant public health concern. It is for this reason that every effort should be made to reduce the doses associated with procedures such as CT scans, particularly in children, in the spirit of ALARA. (orig.)

  16. Molecular radiation biology: Future aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, U.

    1990-01-01

    Future aspects of molecular radiation biology may be envisaged by looking for unsolved problems and ways to analyse them. Considering the endpoints of cellular radiation effects as cell inactivation, chromosome aberrations, mutation and transformation, the type of DNA damage in the irradiated cell and the mechanisms of DNA repair as excision repair, recombination repair and mutagenic repair are essential topics. At present, great efforts are made to identify, to clone and to sequence genes involved in the control of repair of DNA damage and to study their regulation. There are close relationships between DNA repair genes isolated from various organisms, which promises fast progress for the molecular analysis of repair processes in mammalian cells. More knowledge is necessary regarding the function of the gene products, i.e. enzymes and proteins involved in DNA repair. Effort should be made to analyse the enzymatic reactions, leading to an altered nucleotide sequence, encountered as a point mutation. Mislead mismatch repair and modulation of DNA polymerase might be possible mechanisms. (orig.)

  17. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the existence of the adaptive response phenomenon induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in living cells.A wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was chosen as the biological target.As a parameter to quantify the sensibility of the target to radiation, the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 ) was observed. In our experimental condition a value of (60 ± 1) Gy was measured for LD50 with Dose Rate of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy/min. The method employed to show up the adaptive response phenomenon consisted in exposing the sample to low ''conditioning'' doses, which would initiate these mechanisms. Later the samples with and without conditioning were exposed to higher ''challenging'' doses (such as LD50), and the surviving fractions were compared. In order to maximize the differences, the doses and the time between irradiations were varied. The best results were obtained with both a conditioning dose of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy and a waiting time of 2 hs until the application of the challenging dose. Following this procedures the 80% of the conditioned samples has survived, after receiving the application of the LD50. The adaptive response phenomenon was also verified for a wide range of challenging doses

  18. Optical Protection Filters for Harmful Laser Beams and UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim M., Osama A.

    2007-02-01

    Due to the rapid growth of radiation protection applications in various devices and instruments, it is essential to use suitable filters for eye protection of the personal working in the radiation field. Different protection filters were produced to protect from four laser beam wavelengths (at 532nm, 632.8nm, 694nm and 1064nm) and block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters used optical thin film technology. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production filter processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Dralo (mixture of oxides TiO2/Al2O3), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO2/Al2O3); deposition by an electron beam gun. The output transmittance curves for both theoretical and experimental values of all filters are presented. To validate the suitability for use in a `real world', rather than laboratory test application, full environmental assessment was also carried out. These filters exhibited high endurance after exposing them to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance and humidity) according to military standards MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

  19. Optical Protection Filters for Harmful Laser Beams and UV Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azim M, Osama A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of radiation protection applications in various devices and instruments, it is essential to use suitable filters for eye protection of the personal working in the radiation field. Different protection filters were produced to protect from four laser beam wavelengths (at 532nm, 632.8nm, 694nm and 1064nm) and block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters used optical thin film technology. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production filter processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Dralo (mixture of oxides TiO2/Al2O3), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO2/Al2O3); deposition by an electron beam gun. The output transmittance curves for both theoretical and experimental values of all filters are presented. To validate the suitability for use in a 'real world', rather than laboratory test application, full environmental assessment was also carried out. These filters exhibited high endurance after exposing them to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance and humidity) according to military standards MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A

  20. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  1. Anthropic principle in biology and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akif'ev, A. P.; Degtyarev, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    It was suggested to add the anthropic principle of the Universe according to which the physical constants of fundamental particles of matter and the laws of their counteraction are those that an appearance of man and mind becomes possible and necessary, with some biological constants to the set of fundamental constants. With reparation of DNA as an example it was shown how a cell ran some parameters of Watson-Crick double helix. It was pointed that the concept of the anthropic principle of the Universe in its full body including biological constants was a key to developing of a unified theory of evolution of the Universe within the limits of scientific creationism [ru

  2. Study of biological effect of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guisheng

    1992-01-01

    The some progress on the study of biological effect for protract exposure to low dose rate radiation is reported, and it is indicated that the potential risk of this exposure for the human health and the importance of the routine monitoring of radiation dose for various nuclear installations. The potential exposure to the low dose rate radiation would attract people's extra attention

  3. Biological effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the proceedings of a conference organised jointly by Friends of the Earth (U.K.) and Greenpeace (International). The aim of the conference was to discuss the effects of low level radiation, particularly on man, within the terms of dose/risk relationships. The topics discussed included: sources of radiation, radiation discharges from nuclear establishments, predictive modelling of radiation hazards, radiation effects at Hiroshima, low dose effects and ICRP dose limits, variation in sensitivity to radiation, and the link between childhood cancer and nuclear power. (U.K.)

  4. Biological effects of proton radiation: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girdhani, S.; Hlatky, L.; Sachs, R.

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiation provides significant dosimetric advantages when compared with gamma radiation due to its superior energy deposition characteristics. Although the physical aspects of proton radiobiology are well understood, biological and clinical endpoints are understudied. The current practice to assume the relative biological effectiveness of low linear energy transfer (LET) protons to be a generic value of about 1.1 relative to photons likely obscures important unrecognised differentials in biological response between these radiation qualities. A deeper understanding of the biological properties induced by proton radiation would have both radiobiological and clinical impact. This article briefly points to some of the literature pertinent to the effects of protons on tissue-level processes that modify disease progression, such as angiogenesis, cell invasion and cancer metastasis. Recent findings hint that proton radiation may, in addition to offering improved radio-therapeutic targeting, be a means to provide a new dimension for increasing therapeutic benefits for patients by manipulating these tissue-level processes. (authors)

  5. Ionising radiation - physical and biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, Oe.; Ingebretsen, F.; Parr, H.

    1979-01-01

    The physics of ionising radiation is briefly presented. The effects of ionising radiation on biological cells, cell repair and radiosensitivity are briefly treated, where after the effects on man and mammals are discussed and related to radiation doses. Dose limits are briefly discussed. The genetic effects are discussed separately. Radioecology is also briefly treated and a table of radionuclides deriving from reactors, and their radiation is given. (JIW)

  6. Postgraduate studies in radiation biology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Lohmann, P.H.M.; Zeeland, A.A. van; Natarajan, A.T.; Schibilla, H.; Chadwick, K.; Kellerer, A.M.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    1998-01-01

    The present system of radiobiological research in universities and research centres is no longer able to train radiobiologists who have a comprehensive understanding of the entire field of radiation biology including both 'classical' and molecular radiation biology. However, such experts are needed in view of the role radiation protection plays in our societies. No single institution in Europe could now run a 1-year, full-time course which covers all aspects of the radiobiological basis of radiation protection. Therefore, a cooperative action of several universities from different EU member states has been developed and is described herein. (orig.)

  7. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with small animals, tissue cultures, and inanimate materials help with understanding the effects of ionizing radiation that occur at the molecular level and cause the gross effects observed in man. Topics covered in this chapter include the following: Radiolysis of Water; Radiolysis of Organic Compounds; Radiolysis in Cells; Radiation Exposure and Dose Units; Dose Response Curves; Radiation Effects in Animals; Factors Affecting Health Risks. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Biological effects of high LET radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masami [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Biological effect of radiation is different by a kind of it greatly. Heavy ions were generally more effective in cell inactivation, chromosome aberration induction, mutation induction and neoplastic cell transformation induction than {gamma}-rays in SHE cells. (author)

  9. Use of synchrotron radiation in radiation biology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takeshi

    1981-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) holds great expectation as a new research tool in the new areas of material science, because it has the continuous spectral distribution from visible light to X-ray, and its intensity is 10 2 to 10 3 times as strong as that of conventional radiation sources. In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, a synchrotron radiation experimental facility has been constructed, which will start operation in fiscal 1982. With this SR, the photons having the wavelength in undeveloped region from vacuum ultraviolet to soft X-ray are obtained as intense mono-wavelength light. The SR thus should contribute to the elucidation of the fundamentals in the biological action of radiation. The following matters are described: synchrotron radiation, experimental facility using SR, electron storage ring, features of SR, photon factory plan and synchrotron radiation experimental facility, utilization of SR in radiation biology field. (J.P.N.)

  10. Radiation biology of medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kelsey, Charles A; Sandoval, Daniel J; Chambers, Gregory D; Adolphi, Natalie L; Paffett, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a thorough yet concise introduction to quantitative radiobiology and radiation physics, particularly the practical and medical application. Beginning with a discussion of the basic science of radiobiology, the book explains the fast processes that initiate damage in irradiated tissue and the kinetic patterns in which such damage is expressed at the cellular level. The final section is presented in a highly practical handbook style and offers application-based discussions in radiation oncology, fractionated radiotherapy, and protracted radiation among others. The text is also supplemented by a Web site.

  11. Biological radiation effects and radioprotection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, H.

    1991-03-01

    In this report, after recalling the mode of action of ionizing radiations, the notions of dose, dose equivalents and the values of natural irradiation, the author describes the biological radiation effects. Then he presents the ICRP recommendations and their applications to the french radioprotection system

  12. Roles of radiation chemistry in development and research of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2009-01-01

    Radiation chemistry acts as a bridge connecting radiation physics with radiation biology in spatial and temporal insight. The theory, model, and methodology coming from radiation chemistry play an important role in the research and development of radiation biology. The chemical changes induced by ionizing radiation are involved not only in early event of biological effects caused by ionizing radiation but in function radiation biology, such as DNA damage and repair, sensitive modification, metabolism and function of active oxygen and so on. Following the research development of radiation biology, systems radiation biology, accurate quality and quantity of radiation biology effects need more methods and perfect tools from radiation chemistry. (authors)

  13. Areas of research in radiation chemistry fundamental to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Among all the environmental hazards to which man is exposed, ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated and the most responsibly monitored and controlled. Nevertheless, because of the importance of radiation in modern society from both the hazard as well as the utilitarian standpoints, much more information concerning the biological effects induced and their modification and reversal is required. Together with radiation physics, an understanding of radiation chemistry is necessary for full appreciation of biological effects of high and low energy radiations, and for the development of prophylactic, therapeutic and potentiating methods and techniques in biological organisms. The necessity of understanding the chemistry of any system, biological or not, that is to be manipulated and controlled, is so obvious as to make trivial a statement to that effect. If any natural phenomenon is to be put to our use, surely the elements of it must be studied and appreciated fully. In the preliminary statements of the various panels of this general group, the need for additional information on the basic radiation chemistry concerned in radiation-induced biological effects pervades throughout

  14. Biological effects of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotz, G.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief survey about the main radiobiological effects caused by ionizing radiation, human symptoms after irradiation and incorporation are shown. The special radiotoxic effect of radionuclides which are chemically associated with metabolism-specific elements such as calcium and potassium is shown and methods of treatment are indicated. (ORU) [de

  15. Biological effects of radiation and health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotian, Rahul P.; Kotian, Sahana Rahul; Sukumar, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The very fact that ionizing radiation produces biological effects is known from many years. The first case of injury reported by Sir Roentgen was reported just after a few months after discovery of X-rays in 1895. As early as 1902, the first case of X-ray induced cancer was reported in the literature. Early human evidence of harmful effects as a result of exposure to radiation in large amounts existed in the 1920s and 1930s, based upon the experience of early radiologists, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity underground, persons working in the radium industry, and other special occupational groups. The long-term biological significance of smaller, repeated doses of radiation, however, was not widely appreciated until relatively recently, and most of our knowledge of the biological effects of radiation has been accumulated since World War II. The mechanisms that lead to adverse health effects after exposure to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. Ionizing radiation has sufficient energy to change the structure of molecules, including DNA, within the cells of the body. Some of these molecular changes are so complex that it may be difficult for the body's repair mechanisms to mend them correctly. However, the evidence is that only a small fraction of such changes would be expected to result in cancer or other health effects. The most thoroughly studied individuals for the evaluation of health effects of ionizing radiation are the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings, a large population that includes all ages and both sexes.The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan has conducted followup studies on these survivors for more than 50 years. An important finding from these studies is that the occurrence of solid cancers increases in proportion to radiation dose. More than 60% of exposed survivors received a dose of radiation of less than 100 mSv (the definition of low dose used by the BEIR VII report). (author)

  16. Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction

  17. Introducing Biological Microdosimetry for Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Schoellnberger, H.

    2000-01-01

    Microdosimetry is important for radiation protection, for understanding mechanisms of radiation action, and for radiation risk assessment. This article introduces a generic, Monte Carlo based approach to biological microdosimetry for ionising radiation. Our Monte Carlo analyses are carried out with a widely used Crystal Ball software. The approach to biological microdosimetry presented relates to quantal biological effects data (e.g. cell survival, mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation) for which there is an initial linear segment to the dose-response curve. The macroscopic dose data considered were selected such that is could be presumed that the vast majority of cells at risk have radiation dose delivered to their critical target. For cell killing, neoplastic transformation, and mutagenesis, the critical biological target for radiation is presumed to be DNA. Our approach to biological microdosimetry does not require detailed information about the mass, volume, and shape of the critical biological target. Further, one does not have to know what formal distribution function applies to the microdose distribution. However, formal distributions are required for the biological data used to derive the non-parametric microdose distributions. Here, we use the binomial distribution to characterise the variability in the number of cells affected by a fixed macroscopic dose. Assuming this variability to arise from variability in the microscopic dose to the critical biological target, a non-parametric microdose distribution is generated by the standard Monte Carlo method. The non-parametric distribution is then fitted using a set of formal distributions (beta, exponential, extreme value, gamma, logistic, log-normal, normal, Pareto, triangular, uniform, and Weibull). The best fit is then evaluated based on statistical criteria (chi-square test). To demonstrate the application of biological microdosimetry, the standard Monte Carlo method is used with radiobiological data for

  18. Introducing Biological Microdosimetry for Ionising Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Schoellnberger, H

    2000-07-01

    Microdosimetry is important for radiation protection, for understanding mechanisms of radiation action, and for radiation risk assessment. This article introduces a generic, Monte Carlo based approach to biological microdosimetry for ionising radiation. Our Monte Carlo analyses are carried out with a widely used Crystal Ball software. The approach to biological microdosimetry presented relates to quantal biological effects data (e.g. cell survival, mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation) for which there is an initial linear segment to the dose-response curve. The macroscopic dose data considered were selected such that is could be presumed that the vast majority of cells at risk have radiation dose delivered to their critical target. For cell killing, neoplastic transformation, and mutagenesis, the critical biological target for radiation is presumed to be DNA. Our approach to biological microdosimetry does not require detailed information about the mass, volume, and shape of the critical biological target. Further, one does not have to know what formal distribution function applies to the microdose distribution. However, formal distributions are required for the biological data used to derive the non-parametric microdose distributions. Here, we use the binomial distribution to characterise the variability in the number of cells affected by a fixed macroscopic dose. Assuming this variability to arise from variability in the microscopic dose to the critical biological target, a non-parametric microdose distribution is generated by the standard Monte Carlo method. The non-parametric distribution is then fitted using a set of formal distributions (beta, exponential, extreme value, gamma, logistic, log-normal, normal, Pareto, triangular, uniform, and Weibull). The best fit is then evaluated based on statistical criteria (chi-square test). To demonstrate the application of biological microdosimetry, the standard Monte Carlo method is used with radiobiological data for

  19. Radiation biology of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofstad, E.K.; Norwegian Cancer Society, Oslo)

    1986-01-01

    The survival curves for melanoma cells exposed to single radiation doses in vitro and the specific growth delays for melanoma xenografts irradiated with single doses in vivo were found to differ considerably among individual cell lines and tumours. In fact, the differences could be almost as large as the largest differences observed among cell lines and xenografts from tumours of different histology with very different clinical radiocurability. Moreover, radiobiologic parameters that may have significant influence on tumour response to fractionated irradiation, e.g. growth rate, hypoxic fraction, reoxygenation ability, PLD-repair capacity and contact repair capacity, were found to differ greatly in magnitude among individual melanomas. This review therefore concludes that malignant melanoma is a tumour type that is very heterogeneous in radioresponsiveness, i.e. malignant melanomas should no longer be considered to be radiation resistant in general. The values of the α/β ratio derived from cell survival curves for melanoma cells irradiated in vitro and melanoma xenografts irradiated in vivo were found to cover a wide range relative to those for acutely and late responding normal tissues. Although these α/β ratios are no more than estimates of the effective α/β ratios in a clinical situation, they still indicated that hyperfractionation may be beneficial in the treatment of some melanomas, whereas others may be more efficiently treated by use of conventional fractionation regimes, either based on 2 Gy or higher doses per fraction. Consequently, optimum radiation therapy of malignant melanoma will probably require an individualized treatment strategy. In vitro assays for prediction of radiocurability and choice of treatment strategy for individual melanoma patients seem therefore highly warranted. (orig.)

  20. Biological consequences of radiation: risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This publication is a syllabus of a course on Radiation Protection. The publication offers an overview of the biological radiation effects at cellular level. For that purpose, different forms of cancers and their incidence are first discussed; structure and functioning of normal cells are considered and an introduction in genetics is given. Finally, an overview is presented of the character of tissue damage after high-dose irradiation. (G.J.P.)

  1. Synchrotron Radiation in Biology and Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelka, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    This work is focused on a present status of synchrotron radiation X-ray applications in medicine and biology to imaging, diagnostics, and radio- therapy. Properties of X-ray beams generated by synchrotron sources are compared with radiation produced by classical laboratory X-ray tubes. A list of operating and planned synchrotron facilities applicable to biomedical purposes is given, together with their basic characteristics. A concise overview of typical X-ray synchrotron techniques in biology and medicine is carried out with discussion of their specific properties and examples of typical results. (author)

  2. Biological effects of high-energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The biological effects of high-energy radiation are reviewed, with emphasis on the effects of the hadronic component. Proton and helium ion effects are similar to those of the more conventional and sparsely ionizing x- and γ-radiation. Heavy-ions are known to be more biologically effective, but the long term hazard from accumulated damage has yet to be assessed. Some evidence of widely varying but dramatically increased effectiveness of very high-energy (approximately 70 GeV) hadron beams is reviewed. Finally, the importance of the neutron component in many situations around high-energy accelerators is pointed out

  3. The influence of low doses of ionizing radiation on biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinska, T.

    1986-11-01

    Recent results concerning possible beneficial effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on biological systems are summarized. It is also pointed out on the basis of existing evidence that harmful effects on living organisms take place not only in the case of excess but also in the case of deficiency of ionizing radiation. Possibility of using radio-enhanced ultralow luminescence for studying hormesis phenomena is discussed. 24 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  4. [Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, A; Steciwko, A

    1998-01-01

    Since the mid 1970's, when Adey discovered that extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) may affect the calcium ions efflux from various cells, bioeffects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) have become the subject of growing interest and numerous research projects. At present, the fact that NIR exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on different physiological cellular parameters is rather unquestionable. At the same time, some epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to EMF is potentially harmful even if its intensity is very low. It has been proved that thermal factors are not responsible for these effects, therefore nowadays, they are called 'non-thermal effects'. Our paper deals with three different aspects of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation, bioelectromagnetism, electromagnetobiology and electromagnetic bioinformation. Firstly, we describe how EMF and photons can be produced within a living cell, how biological cycles are controlled, and what are the features of endogenous electromagnetic radiation. Secondly, we discuss various facets of external EMF interactions with living matter, focusing on extremely-low-frequencies, radio- and microwaves. Possible mechanisms of these interactions are also mentioned. Finally, we present a short overview of current theories which explain how electromagnetic couplings may control an open and dissipative structure, namely the living organism. The theory of electromagnetic bioinformation seems to explain how different physiological processes are triggered and controlled, as well as how long-range interactions may possibly occur within the complex biological system. The review points out that the presented research data must be assessed very carefully since its evaluation is crucial to set the proper limits of EMF exposure, both occupational and environmental. The study of biological effects of non-ioinizing radiation may also contribute to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic

  5. Bragg Curve, Biological Bragg Curve and Biological Issues in Space Radiation Protection with Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honglu, Wu; Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M.; Lin, Z.; Rusek, A.

    2006-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X-rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged particle exposure. Since the dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply as the particle approaches the end of its range, a position known as the Bragg peak, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle traversal since biological effects are influenced by the track structure of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the biological Bragg curve is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. To achieve a Bragg curve distribution, we exposed cells to energetic heavy ions with the beam geometry parallel to a monolayer of fibroblasts. Qualitative analyses of gamma-H2AX fluorescence, a known marker of DSBs, indicated increased clustering of DNA damage before the Bragg peak, enhanced homogenous distribution at the peak, and provided visual evidence of high linear energy transfer (LET) particle traversal of cells beyond the Bragg peak. A quantitative biological response curve generated for micronuclei (MN) induction across the Bragg curve did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono-to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition in cell progression, increased at the Bragg peak location. These results, along with other biological concerns, show that space radiation protection with shielding can be a complicated issue.

  6. Radiation biology in Canada 1962-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thacker, D.G.

    1963-02-01

    A survey of the research projects in radiation biology being carried out in Canada during the fiscal year 1962-63. The report includes the names of the investigators, their location, a brief description of the projects and information on the financial support being provided. A classification of the projects into areas of specific interest is also included. (author)

  7. Notions of radiation chemistry in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del.

    1989-10-01

    The present paper examines some aspects of the direct and indirect biological radiation effects: pair formation, free radicals, superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, oxygen singlet together with the endogen radioprotector mechanisms of organisms and the ways in which an improved radioresistance of biochemical systems can be achieved. (author) [pt

  8. Risk estimates of stochastic effects due to exposure to radiation - a stochastic harm index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, Y.G.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of exposure to low level radiation on the survival probability and life expectancy were investigated. The 1977 vital statistics of Jewish males in Israel were used as a baseline, mainly the data on normalized survival probability and life expectation as functions of age. Assumed effects of exposure were superposed on these data and the net differences calculated. It was found that the realistic rate effects of exposure to radiation are generally less than calculated by multiplying the collective dose by the risk factor. The effects are strongly age-dependent, decreasing sharply with age at exposure. The assumed harm due to exposure can be more than offset by improvements in medical care and safety. (H.K.)

  9. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  10. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Jonathan; Small, William; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  11. Redox processes in radiation biology and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstock, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Free-radical intermediates, particularly the activated oxygen species OH, O - 2 , and 1 O 2 , are implicated in many types of radiation damage to biological systems. In addition, these same species may be formed, either directly or indirectly through biochemical redox reactions, in both essential and aberrant metabolic processes. Cell survival and adaptation to an environment containing ionizing radiation and other physical and chemical carcinogens ultimately depend upon the cell's ability to maintain optimal function in response to free-radical damage at the chemical level. Many of these feedback control mechanisms are redox controlled. Radiation chemical techniques using selective radical scavengers, such as product analysis and pulse radiolysis, enable us to generate, observe, and characterize individually the nature and reactivity of potentially damaging free radicals. From an analysis of the chemical kinetics of free-radical involvement in biological damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, its protection and sensitization, and the role of free radicals in radiation and chemical carcinogenesis

  12. Radiobiology: Biologic effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    The biologic effects after exposure to ionizing radiation, such as cell death or tissue injury, result from a chain of complex physical, chemical, metabolic, and histologic events. The time scale of these radiation actions spans many orders of magnitude. The physical absorption of ionizing radiation occurs in about 10 -18 s, while late carcinogenic and genetic effects are expressed years or even generations later. Collectively, these effects form the science of radiobiology. Many of the concepts discussed in this chapter have been developed through the study of effects generated in tissues by external radiation sources, but they apply generally and often specifically to internally distributed radiopharmaceuticals which form the central topic of this book

  13. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crameri, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  14. Biological basis of chemo-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Van Houtte, P.; Cosset, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been for years treatment of choice of locally advanced non small cell lung cancer. Improvement due to the combination of radiation and chemotherapy has been shown recently through several randomized trials and a recent meta-analysis. These results may be explained by biological mechanisms, yet un-completely explored, which are detailed in this review and applied to lung cancer. The optimal combination scheme is not yet defined, even trough the concurrent approach is promising, at the expense of an increased toxicity which is the limiting factor of treatment escalation doses. Biological findings and future results of randomized trials will hopefully open new avenues in the therapeutic strategy of this poor prognosis disease. (authors)

  15. Biological evidence of low ionizing radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsch, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Throughout life, every person is constantly exposed to different types of ionising radiation, without even noticing the exposure. The mean radiation exposure for people living in Germany amounts to approximately 4 mSv per year and encompasses the exposure from natural and man-made sources. The risks associated with exposure to low doses of radiation are still the subject of intense and highly controversial discussions, emphasizing the social relevance of studies investigating the effects of low radiation doses. In this thesis, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were analyzed within three projects covering different aspects. DSBs are among the most hazardous DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation, because this type of damage can easily lead to the loss of genetic information. Consequently, the DSB presents a high risk for the genetic integrity of the cell. In the first project, extensive results uncovered the track structure of charged particles in a biological model tissue. This provided the first biological data that could be used for comparison with data that were measured or predicted using theoretical physical dosimetry methods and mathematical simulations. Charged particles contribute significantly to the natural radiation exposure and are used increasingly in cancer radiotherapy because they are more efficient in tumor cell killing than X- or γ-rays. The difference in the biological effects of high energy charged particles compared with X- or γ-rays is largely determined by the spatial distribution of their energy deposition and the track structure inducing a three-dimensional damage pattern in living cells. This damage pattern consists of cells directly hit by the particle receiving a high dose and neighboring cells not directly hit by primary particles but exposed to far-reaching secondary electrons (δ-electrons). These cells receive a much lower dose deposition in the order of a few mGy. The radial dose distribution of single particle tracks was

  16. Medical uses of radiation: retaining the benefit but recognizing the harm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.; Webb, G.

    1993-01-01

    Very soon after the discoveries of radiation and radioactivity, x rays were used in medical diagnosis. The benefits from this use were immediate and obvious, whereas the potential for harm was only discovered later. This paper reviews the historical trends and current situation in doses to patients from diagnostic radiology, to investigate whether the optimization requirement of radiological protection is being fully implemented. The use of constraints as a quantitative indicator is thought likely to help. Computed tomography is studied as an example of the introduction of a new technique with substantial diagnostic benefits but involving substantial doses. Doses to patients from nuclear medicine and radiotherapy are also reviewed. Doses to staff show trends that seem to indicate considerable attention to dose reduction. The overall conclusion is that the control of patient doses from diagnostic radiology is reasonable - but it could be better. (author). 54 refs

  17. The molecular theory of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.H.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    In this book we have tried to gather, in a logical sequence, the thoughts and reasoning which have led us from the raw and primitive beginning to the broader, more generally applicable, model. In doing this, it has been necessary to cover a wide range of topics in both cellular biology and radiation physics, and we apologize now to the reader who finds that we have gone into too much detail in one area and made too rough an approximation in the other. We have written what we feel is essential for the physicist to follow the influence exerted on the model by the biology, and for the biologist to follow the mathematical definition of the biological effect. (orig./VJ)

  18. Biological research for the radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Chan Kug; Shim, Hae Won; Jung, Il Lae; Byun, Hee Sun; Moon, Myung Sook; Cho, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sik

    2003-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H 2 O 2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H 2 O 2 )- induced apoptosis, we utilized α-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H 2 O 2 , ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H 2 O 2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H 2 O 2 (or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death

  19. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  20. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the year 2000 we completed our study of the genotoxic influence of occupational exposure to pesticides on human cells, and their susceptibility to radiation in particular. Examining blood samples from four countries: Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain we found that exposure to pesticides usually resulted in an increased susceptibility to the UV-C radiation, although statistical significance could only be concluded for inhabitants of Poland. In Spain, exposure to pesticides was proved to impair the lymphocyte DNA repair capability, while for the Polish group this repair capability appeared enhanced in people exposed to pesticides (see the research reports below). The possible influence of lifestyle or particular diet on the observed national differences would probably be worth analyzing. We also investigate the biological effectiveness of therapeutic beams (neutrons and X-rays). Experimental part of such study, concerning neutrons of different mean energies, is over and the results are now being processed. Our work covers hot issues of environmental and radiation biology making us research partners to many domestic and foreign scientific institutions. Our proficiency in the field is also reflected by membership in various expert boards (e.g. evaluating research applications for the Fifth EU Framework Programme for RTD and Demonstration Activities in the field 'Environment and Health', lecturing in the 2000 NATO IOS Life Science Books). We have entered the 5 th EU Programme Scheme within the EXPAH project starting January 1, 2001. (author)

  1. Microwave radiation - Biological effects and exposure standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, I.R.

    1980-06-01

    The thermal and nonthermal effects of exposure to microwave radiation are discussed and current standards for microwave exposure are examined in light of the proposed use of microwave power transmission from solar power satellites. Effects considered include cataractogenesis at levels above 100 mW/sq cm, and possible reversible disturbances such as headaches, sleeplessness, irritability, fatigue, memory loss, cardiovascular changes and circadian rhythm disturbances at levels less than 10 mW/sq cm. It is pointed out that while the United States and western Europe have adopted exposure standards of 10 mW/sq cm, those adopted in other countries are up to three orders of magnitude more restrictive, as they are based on different principles applied in determining safe limits. Various aspects of the biological effects of microwave transmissions from space are considered in the areas of the protection of personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, interactions of the transmitted radiation with cardiac pacemakers, and effects on birds. It is concluded that thresholds for biological effects from short-term microwave radiation are well above the maximal power density of 1 mW/sq cm projected at or beyond the area of exclusion of a rectenna.

  2. Harmful Waste Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Mun Bong; Lee, Shi Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Yoon, Seok Pyo; Lee, Jae Hyo; Jo, Byeong Ryeol

    2008-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of processing harmful waste, including concerned law and definition of harmful waste, current conditions and generation of harmful waste in Korea, international condition of harmful waste, minimizing of generation of harmful waste, treatment and storage. It also tells of basic science for harmful waste disposal with physics, chemistry, combustion engineering, microbiology and technique of disposal such as physical, chemical, biological process, stabilizing and solidification, incineration and waste in landfill.

  3. Ultraviolet radiation and its biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rames, J.; Bencko, V.

    1993-01-01

    In connexion with contamination of the atmosphere with freons, the interest is increasing in geophysical and health aspects of 'ozone holes' - the seasonal incidence of increased intensity of UV radiation. Its biological effects depend on the intensity of the radiation, the exposure time and the wavelength. There is a wide range of various sorts of damage, local as well as general. In addition to skin pigmentation and symptoms produced by an elevated histamine blood level, also changes are found which may have more serious and permanent consequences: changes in the number and structure of Langerhans islets, changes of the peripheral capillary walls, dimerization of pyrimidine and thymine in DNA. These changes demonstrably contribute to the development of skin malignancies. After exposure of the eye, changes in pigmentation are found, and depending on the dose, possibly also development of conjunctivitis or retinal damage. Recently the interaction of UV radiation with arsenic was investigated. On the other side, therapeutic effects of UV radiation combined with chemotherapy are used in dermatology, eg., for inhibition of contact sensitization. (author) 42 refs

  4. The late biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-06-15

    Full text: The principal objective of the symposium was to review the current status of understanding of the late biological effects of ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. A second objective was to critically evaluate information obtained from epidemiological studies of human population groups as well as from animal experimentation in order to provide a solid scientific basis upon which problems of current concern, such as radiation protection standards and risk-benefit analysis, could be deliberated. Eighty-one papers were presented in 10 sessions which covered epidemiological studies of late effects in human populations exposed to internal and/or external ionizing radiation; quantitative and qualitative data from animal experimentation of late effects; methodological problems and modern approaches; factors influencing susceptibility or expression of late radiation injury; comparative evaluation of late effects induced by radiation and other environmental pollutants, and problems of risk assessment. In addition, there were two evening sessions for free discussion of problems of interpreting animal data, and of the epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations. Reports on atomic bomb survivors showed that these epidemiological studies are providing dependable data, such as dose-related excess infant mortality. The reports also revealed the need for consensus in the method employed in the interpretation of data. That was also the case with studies on occupationally exposed populations at Hanford plant, where disparate results were presented on radiation-induced neoplasia among radiation workers. These data are, however, considered not so significant in relative terms when compared to risks involved in other industries. It was recommended that national registry systems for the dosimetry and medical records of radiation workers be established and co-ordinated internationally in order to facilitate reliable epidemiological

  5. Decontamination of biological ferment by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Ingrid T.; Salum, Debora C.; Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Duarte, Renato; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Biological ferment is a product obtained from pure yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture by a suitable technological process and employed to increase the size and porosity of the baker's products. Foods containing high microorganisms count indicate that Good Manufacturing Practices were not applied. The aim of this study was to observe the viability of Dry Biological Ferment after the radiation process using different doses of 60 Co gamma rays and different storage times. Dry baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae samples were purchased from a local supermarket in Sao Paulo (Brazil) and irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell source at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy doses (dose-rate of 3.51 kGy/h) at room temperature (25 deg C). The fluorescent method was performed to observe the viability of yeast cells. The viability decrease with the increase of the radiation dose, as shown: the amount of the viable cell found in the non-irradiated samples (control) at 0 day was 87.2%; 30 days 67.7%; 60 days 77.4% and 90 days 60.1%. With 1.0 kGy at 0 day was 61.4%; 30 days 22.7%; 60 days 56.9% and 90 days 24.2%. With 3.0 kGy at 0 day was 57.00%; at the next periods the most of the cells become not viable. (author)

  6. Biological aspects of radiation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzerke, J.; Universitaetsklinikum Dresden; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.; Oehme, L.; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy with unsealed radionuclides differs from external radiotherapy with regard to the radiation quality and energy range, the regional dose uniformity and the time course of irradiation regimen. External radiotherapy is planned precisely and can be applied to a target volume independently from blood flow during a course of irradiation fractions. In contrary, administered radiopharmaceuticals distribute according to their pharmacokinetic properties and generate a continuous irradiation corresponding to the effective halflife. The resulting dose rates are approximately 1 Gy/min and 1 Gy/h, respectively. The bio-kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals involves cellular accumulation and retention with highly variable affinity to specific organs that can be modulated as well. A remarkable dose gradient is found at the edge of volumes with enhanced uptake. The biological effect of an irradiation with decreasing intensity can be compared with the radiation effect caused by conventional fractionation with 2 Gy a day in external beam therapy by means of the linear-quadratic model. However, the experimental validation of this translation is still under investigation. Radionuclide therapy is usually performed in several cycles some month apart. This procedure fails to meet external radiotherapy. The vision of a combined external-internal radiotherapy requires efforts for a common dosimetry approach both in vitro and in vivo with a physical and biological verification of the results. (orig.)

  7. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text:The year 1999 we devoted mainly to the activities concerning our basic research, and requirements and expectations of three research projects. The environmental project from the European Community was supporting our research in the issues of human monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides. The two other radiobiology projects from the State Committee of Research were supporting our search on the biological efficiency and its enhancement of radio-therapeutic sources of various LET radiation. We succeeded fruitful co-operation with colleagues from Academy of Mining and Metallurgy that let us go faster with modernization of our laboratory by automation of our methods for screening cytogenetic damages. A lot of efforts were paid to modify our work by automatic reports of the coordinates of aberrant metaphases, and to make a smooth work of our new and own metaphase finder. We are sure that our new and unique research tool will not only enhance the accuracy and speed of measurements, but will also be useful for the purpose of the retrospective biological dosimetry of absorbed doses. We have applied fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic studies of biological effects induced by neutrons. Now, we are looking forward to apply this technique in a combination with the DNA damage measures done by SCGE assay, to our research on mechanisms of the induction and repair, or interaction of the lesions induced by genotoxic agents. Understanding of the regulation of these processes could be a good goal for the new century to come. (author)

  8. Ionizing radiation induced biological response and its public health implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, Gy.

    1994-01-01

    Several sources of ionizing radiation exist in natural and artificial environment of humanity. An overview of their biological effects and the biological response of man is present. Emphasize is given to the differences caused by high and low doses. The interrelation of radiology, radiation hygiene and public health is pointed out. Especially, the physical and biological effects of radiation on cells and their responses are discussed in more detail. (R.P.)

  9. Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marko, A M [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Advisory Committee on Radiological Protection; Myers, D K; Atchison, R J [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Advisory Committee on Radiological Protection. Secretariat; Gentner, N E [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-02-01

    The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually.

  10. Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually

  11. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of

  12. European Society for Radiation Biology 21. annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains about 100 abstracts of lectures presented to the conference covering a large variety of topics like: Radiobiology as a base for radiotherapy, radiation carcinogenesis and cellular effects, late and secondary effects of radiotherapy, radioprotection and radiosensitization, heavy ions in radiobiology and space research, microdosimetry and biological dosimetry, radiation effects on the mature and the developing central nervous system, DNA damage and repair and cellular mutations, the imact of radiation on the environment, free radicals in radiation biology

  13. Applications of synchrotron radiation in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khole, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the important role of synchrotron radiation in dealing with problems in various branches of biology and medicine, viz. molecular biology, molecular biophysics, biochemistry, cell biology, X-ray microscopy, molecular surgery, medical diagnostics (angiography, X-ray radiography, forensic medicine, element analysis), environmental biology, pollution control and photobiology. (author). 15 refs., 9 figs

  14. Activities in biological radiation research at the AGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AGF is working on a wide spectrum of biological radiation research, with the different scientific disciplines contributing different methodologies to long-term research projects. The following fields are studied: 1. Molecular and cellular modes of action of radiation. 2. Detection and characterisation of biological radiation damage, especially in humans. 3. Medical applications of radiation effects. 4. Concepts and methods of radiation protection. The studies will lead to suggestions for radiation protection and improved radiotherapy. They may also contribute to the development of environmental protection strategies. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  16. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed

  17. The application of test systems for balancing and optimising the biological decomposition of harmful substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hupe, K.; Heerenklage, J.; Lotter, S.; Stegmann, R.

    1993-01-01

    Various closed test systems on the laboratory scale for balancing and optimising biological soil cleaning processes are introduced: Glass vessels, respirometers and reactor systems. The systems are compared by many examples. (orig.) [de

  18. Low environmental radiation background impairs biological defence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to chemical radiomimetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satta, L.; Augusti-Tocco, G.; Ceccarelli, R.; Paggi, P.; Scarsella, G.; Esposito, A.; Fiore, M.; Poggesi, I.; Ricordy, R.; Cundari, E.

    1995-01-01

    Background radiation is likely to constitute one of the factors involved in biological evolution since radiations are able to affect biological processes. Therefore, it is possible to hypothesize that organisms are adapted to environmental background radiation and that this adaptation could increase their ability to respond to the harmful effects of ionizing radiations. In fact, adaptive responses to alkylating agents and to low doses of ionizing radiation have been found in many organisms. In order to test for effects of adaptation, cell susceptibility to treatments with high doses of radiomimetic chemical agents has been studied by growing them in a reduced environmental radiation background. The experiment has been performed by culturing yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7) in parallel in a standard background environment and in the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory, with reduced environmental background radiation. After a conditioning period, yeast cells were exposed to recombinogenic doses of methyl methanesulfonate. The yeast cells grown in the Gran Sasso Laboratory showed a higher frequency of radiomimetic induced recombination as compared to those grown in the standard environment. This suggests that environmental radiation may act as a conditioning agent

  19. Radiation biology using synchrotron radiation. In relation to radiation chemistry as an initial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Katsumi

    1995-01-01

    Radiation biology using synchrotron radiation have been investigated, focusing on the mechanism of the formation of molecular damage. This paper introduces recent outcome of these studies. First, the process from imparted energy to the formation of molecular damage is outlined. The previous studies can be largely categorized as dealing with (1) biological effects of inner-shell ionization on elements composing the living body and (2) X-ray energy dependence of biological effects. Bromine and phosphorus are used as elements for the study of inner-cell ionization. In the study on lethal effects of monochromatic soft X-rays on the BrdUMP-incorporated yeast cells, Auger enhancement was found to occur. The first report on the effects of K-shell absorption of cellular phosphorus atoms has revealed that biological effects on cellular lethality and genetic changes was enhanced by 40%. Plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide have been used to study biological effects of vacuum ultraviolet rays to monochromatic soft X-ray, which makes it possible to study strand breaks. Because experimental production of energy required for the formation of double strand breaks has become possible, synchrotron radiation plays a very important role in radiation biological studies. Finally, future issues are presented. (N.K.)

  20. The progress of molecular biology in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Kang

    1989-01-01

    The recent progress in application of molecular biology techniques in the study of radiation biology is reviewed. The three sections are as follows: (1) the study of DNA damage on molecular level, (2) the molecular mechanism of radiation cell genetics, including chromosome abberation and cell mutation, (3) the study on DNA repair gene with DNA mediated gene transfer techniques

  1. Ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S K; Raghevendrarao, M K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Library and Technical Information Section

    1975-10-01

    The article reviews the deliberations of the International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products and Biological Tissues which was held during 9-13 December 1974 under the auspices of the IAEA at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. 42 papers were presented in the following broad subject areas: (1) Microbiological Control aspects of radiation sterilization, (2) Dosimetry aspects of radiation sterilization practices, (3) Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the constituents of medical products, (4) Application of radiation sterilization of medical products of biological origin, (5) Technological aspects of radiation sterilization facilities, (6) Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical substances, (7) Reports on current status of radiation sterilization of medical products in IAEA member states and (8) Working group discussion on the revision of the IAEA recommended code of practice for radiation sterilization of medical products.

  2. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicator plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun, Ki Jung; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Song, Heui Sub

    1994-12-01

    Some clones of Tradescantia had dose response relationship involving somatic mutations such as appearance of pink, colorless or giant cell, and/or loss of reproductive integrity of stamen hair cells when exposed to radiation. Since Tradescantia could respond to radiation level as low as human being could be exposed to, it could play an important role as scientific tool of botanical tester for radiation. Especially TSH system can be easily applied to in situ monitoring of radiation by virtue of its excellent radiation indicator ship and simpleness in detection of mutations by radiation. 10 figs, 6 tabs, 19 refs. (Author)

  3. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun, Ki Jung; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Song, Heui Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Some clones of Tradescantia had dose response relationship involving somatic mutations such as appearance of pink, colorless or giant cell, and/or loss of reproductive integrity of stamen hair cells when exposed to radiation. Since Tradescantia could respond to radiation level as low as human being could be exposed to, it could play an important role as scientific tool of botanical tester for radiation. Especially TSH system can be easily applied to in situ monitoring of radiation by virtue of its excellent radiation indicator ship and simpleness in detection of mutations by radiation. 10 figs, 6 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  4. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The year 2001 started for us with new demanding tasks connected with participation in a new research project performed in collaboration with a excellent teams from six countries under the 5 th EU the Quality of Life Programme. The aim of the project EXPAH is to propose methods of molecular epidemiology for the risk assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the air. The exploration of cause-effect relationships for carcinogenic agents will be based on the study of exogenous and endogenous influence on DNA damage in exposed population, and will determine the relationship between biomarkers of exposure, effects and susceptibility in the exposed populations. Analysis of this damage is carried out using highly specialising multidisciplinary techniques brought together by seven laboratories specialised in chemical, biochemical and biological techniques for analysing DNA damage and repair, together with access to populations exposed to environmental pollution and experience in collecting samples. In the year 2001 all the members of the department put much effort in co-organizing 12. Meeting of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society. The Meeting was held in the September in Cracow and rewarded hard work of everybody with many applauding comments for the high scientific and organization level. Our parallel activities were concentrated on arrangement and preparation of the forthcoming Course on Human Monitoring for Genetic Effects proposed to us by the Alexander Hollaender Committee of the International Environmental Mutagenesis Society. The Alexander Hollaender ''HUMOGEF'' Course will concentrate on the commonly measured biomarkers (chromosome aberrations; micronuclei; DNA damage), but others (p53 protein levels; metabolic genotypes) will also be addressed. Scientists of international standing from the fields of toxicology, molecular biology, cytogenetics, mutation, and epidemiology, will present and discuss the state

  5. A contribution to the knowledge of biology and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L. (Coleoptera, Attelabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurrence, development and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L.. The majority of field studies was carried out at Training Forest Enterprise (TFE Masaryk Forest in Křtiny (District Brno-venkov in 2010 and 2011. In addition to this, the species was studied in detail also in a laboratory. It occurred mostly on Betula pendula and Carpinus betulus. Rarely, the species was found on Alnus glutinosa and Corylus avellana and only sporadically on Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos. In the studied area, larvae and pupae hibernate. Beetles occur on trees from the end of April to the beginning of July, sporadically later. Females lay on average 2.5 (in the laboratory 4.4 eggs into rolls on B. pendula, on C. betulus 2.2 eggs. During two months, they damage on average 5.3 cm2 leaves creating 14 rolls and laying 35 eggs into the rolls. Larvae consume only 1.7 cm2 leaf blade. The development of the species takes three to four months from egg laying to the departure of larvae into soil. On leaves of B. pendula of an average area of 14.2 cm2, females roll up the same area (about 11.2 cm2 as on leaves of C. betulus of an area of 21.7 cm2. Into the rolls, they lay on average the same number of eggs. The average number of eggs in rolls increases with the increased area of B. pendula leaf blade. Trees partly compensate for the reduction of assimilatory area also by the growth of the area of neighbouring undamaged leaves (on average by 12.7 %.

  6. A Paradigm Shift in Low Dose Radiation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Alatas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When ionizing radiation traverses biological material, some energy depositions occur and ionize directly deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA molecules, the critical target. A classical paradigm in radiobiology is that the deposition of energy in the cell nucleus and the resulting damage to DNA are responsible for the detrimental biological effects of radiation. It is presumed that no radiation effect would be expected in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure through nucleus. The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation. However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose radiation than they do to high dose radiation. Moreover, recent experimental evidences from many laboratories reveal the fact that radiation effects also occur in cells that were not exposed to radiation and in the progeny of irradiated cells at delayed times after radiation exposure where cells do not encounter direct DNA damage. Recently, the classical paradigm in radiobiology has been shifted from the nucleus, specifically the DNA, as the principal target for the biological effects of radiation to cells. The universality of target theory has been challenged by phenomena of radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effect and adaptive response. The new radiation biology paradigm would cover both targeted and non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. The mechanisms underlying these responses involve biochemical/molecular signals that respond to targeted and non-targeted events. These results brought in understanding that the biological response to low dose radiation at tissue or organism level is a complex process of integrated response of cellular targets as well as extra-cellular factors. Biological understanding of

  7. MEDICAL ASPECTS AND HARMFUL EFFECTS OF 50HZ ELECTROMAGNETIC FILED ON BIOLOGICAL SISTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sokolović

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF with extremely low frequency (ELF of 50Hz is very frequent nowadays. All frequency range of these fields are called electromagnetic smog.The aim of this experimental investigation was determination of ELF EMP influence on animals behavior, reproductive ability and oxidative stress as possible biological marker for EMP exposition.Wistar rats 4 months old were divided in experimental (4 female and 6 male animal and control group (4 female and 5 male. The experimental group was 45 days exposed to an electromagnetic field frequency 50 Hz, magnetic induction B=48 mT and intensity of electric field of E=50 V/m. Fertility is measured by number of newborn and biological effects were determined by observation of individual and collective behavior. Determination of increased oxidative stress was measured by quantity of malondialdehyde in brain homogenate.Aggresive behavior and visible panic reaction, disorientation and anxiosity were registered in experimental group. Increased oxydative stress was measured by significantly higher concentration of malondialdehyde in brain homogenate of experimental animals (4,89±0,65 nmol/mg prot. vs. control 2,72±0,42 nmol/mg prot., p<0.01. Impaired fertility was manifested through unsuccessful pregnancy of experimental animals. Exposition to ELF EMF induces disorders of central nervous sistem functions, increasing oxydative stress and impaired reproductive functions.

  8. The use of nuclear reactor in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Yowri

    1991-01-01

    The Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) is widely used not only in biology, but also in applied biology, today. These studies were surveyed in the present paper and the future possibility to use KUR in radiation biology was discussed. The researches on the effects of thermal neutrons on various normal tissues, the biological effects of neutrons except thermal neutrons, especially intermediate neutrons between thermal and high speed neutrons or cold neutrons, the adaptive response of cells to thermal neutron radiation, the application of nuclear reactor-produced radionuclides including 195m Pt to biology, and the mutation in botanical science and so on, should be continued using nuclear reactor. The necessity of nuclear reactor in biology and applied biology is emphasized. (author)

  9. Doses and biological effect of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrynkiewicz, A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the monograph is to review practical aspects of dosimetry. The work describes basic units which are used in dosimetry and natural as well as industrial sources of ionizing radiation. Information given in the monograph help in assessment of the radiation risk. 8 refs, 15 tabs

  10. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics

  11. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics.

  12. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1980-05-01

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  13. Human · mouse genome analysis and radiation biology. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Tada-aki

    1994-03-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the 25th NIRS symposium on Human, Mouse Genome Analysis and Radiation Biology. The 14 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. Role of cytogenetic techniques in biological dosimetry of absorbed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In most of the radiation accidents, physical dosimetric information is rarely available. Further, most of the accidental exposures are non-uniform involving either partial body or localized exposure to significant doses. In such situations, physical dosimetry does not provide reliable dose estimate. It has now been realized that biological dosimetric techniques can play an important role in the assessment of absorbed dose. In recent years, a number of biological indicators of radiation have been identified. These include the kinetics of onset and persistence of prodromal syndromes (radiation sickness), cytogenetic changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes, hematological changes, biochemical indicators, ESR spectroscopy of biological samples, induction of gene mutations in red blood cells, cytogenetic and physiological changes in skin and neurophysiological changes. In general, dosimetric information is derived by a combination of several different methods, as they have potential to serve as prognostic indicators. The role of cytogenetic techniques in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) as biological indicators of absorbed radiation is reviewed here

  15. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarachand, U.; Singh, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented

  16. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarachand, U; Singh, B B [eds.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Div.

    1996-12-31

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented.

  17. Biological effect of radiation on human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae [and others

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved.

  18. Biological effect of radiation on human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved

  19. Cells, targets, and molecules in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Cellular damage and repair are discussed with regard to inactivation models, dose-effect curves and cancer research, repair relative to damage accumulation, potentially lethal damage, repair of potentially lethal vs. sublethal damage, cell killing and DNA damage due to nonionizing radiation, and anisotonicity vs. lethality due to nonionizing radiation. Other topics discussed are DNA damage and repair in cells exposed to ionizing radiation, kinetics of repair of single-strand DNA breaks, effects of actinomycin D on x-ray survival curve of hamster cells, misrepair and lethality, and perspective and prospects

  20. Radiation hazards and biological effects of ionising radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Mechanism of damage: direct action of radiation, indirect action of radiation. Classification of effects: somatic effect, induction of cancer, factors, affecting somatic effects, genetic effect, inherited abnormalities, induced effects, early effects, late effects, deterministic effect, stochastic effect. Effect of specific group: development abnormality, childhood Cancer, fertile women, risk and uncertainty, comparison of risk

  1. Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) and its harmful effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanam, Yasmin; Singh, Yogender

    2012-01-01

    After radiation exposure a series of many clinical syndromes appear that is called as Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). ARS also known as radiation toxicology or radiation sickness. Both low and higher doses radiation exposure on human body cause different types of radiation syndromes. These radiations may be ionizing radiations. X-rays and gamma rays etc. some times neutrons or radionuclides may also be deposited in human body and their effective doses cause major injuries or abnormalities even sometimes death also. ARS consist of a sequence of phased symptoms. These symptoms appear after the radiation exposure for several days to several months or sometimes for a long period or years. ARS depends on the quantity of absorbed radiation dose (rad0). ARS is characterized by an initial prodromal stage of malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Critical effects of ARS are Hematologic, that results infections to low white blood cells (WBC), bleeding due to low platelets and anemia due to low red blood cells (RBC), Gastrointestinal results nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and abdominal pain (exposure doses of 600-1000 rad) and Neurovascular depending on the exposure dose. Neurovascular syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses greater than 1000 rad. It presents with neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, or decreased level of consciousness with an absence of vomiting. The clinical course of radiation sickness following a single intensive exposure to whole body radiation is characterized by three successive phases; a prodromal phase, which develops within minutes or hours after exposure, an ensuring latent period, which is relatively asymptomatic; and the main phase of the illness. Complete Blood Count (CBC) are helpful for the diagnosis for ARS. ARS may cause skin damage or loss of epidermis. Person suffering from nausea, vomiting, diarrhea should be admitted to well equipped hospitals or clinics. High exposured persons should be analysed CBC. Their

  2. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  3. Biophysical interpretation on the biological actions of radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1960-12-08

    It is known that nuclear radiations such as alpha, beta, gamma, x-rays and neutron, proton and other heavy ion beams have many different actions on living cells; as killing, delaying growth, abnormal cell divisions and various genetical mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This document describes the mechanisms and kinetics of biological effects of ionizing radiation.

  4. A new radiation biology: epigenetics, exosomes and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation leads to chronic disease, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive deficits and possibly metabolic diseases. The prevailing paradigm of radiation biology considers DNA damage to be the initiating event. Misrepair of initial DNA damage leads to gene mutations that promote clonal expansion and eventually malignancy. However, the paradigm is inconsistent with some recent radiobiological observations

  5. Early mechanisms in radiation-induced biological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    An introduction to the mechanisms of radiation action in biological systems is presented. Several questions about the nature of the radiation damage process are discussed, including recognition of the oxygen effects, dose-response relationships, and the importance of the hydroxyl radical

  6. Biophysical interpretation on the biological actions of radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1960-01-01

    It is known that nuclear radiations such as alpha, beta, gamma, x-rays and neutron, proton and other heavy ion beams have many different actions on living cells; as killing, delaying growth, abnormal cell divisions and various genetical mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This document describes the mechanisms and kinetics of biological effects of ionizing radiation

  7. Enhancements in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation following volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, A. M.; Ackerman, T. P.; Turco, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to estimate the changes in biologically effective radiation (UV-BE) at the earth's surface produced by the El Chichon (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991) eruptions. It is found that in both cases surface intensity can increase because the effect of ozone depletion outweighs the increased scattering.

  8. Radiation chemistry of biologically compatible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J. T.; Pomery, P.J.; Saadat, G.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] and poly (2-ethoxy ethyl methacrylate) [PEEMA] are of biomedical and industrial interest due to their biocompatibility with living tissue. In this paper the effect of high energy radiation on these polymers is reported. PHEMA and PEEMA have similar molecular structures to poly (methyl methacrylate)[PMMA], and the γ irradiation of this polymer is well understood. Hence the radiation chemistry of PMMA is used as model system for the the analysis of the radiation chemistry of these polymers. The mechanism of the radiation induced chemistry of the polymers has been investigated using a range of techniques including electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to establish free radical pathways, GC to identify small molecule volatile products, NMR to identify small molecule radiation products and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) to determine molecular weight changes. Whilst much of the major part of the radiation chemistry can be attributed to similar reactions which can be observed in PMMA, there are a number of new radicals which are present as a result of the influence of the side chain interactions which reduces the mobility of the polymer chain

  9. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Solomon, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 10 6 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10 -6 PYR -1 WLM -1 ). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  10. Low-dose ionizing radiation – is it harmful to health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, A. H. [CERN Radiation Protection Group (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN))

    1987-09-15

    A conference on the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation organized in London earlier this year by the British Nuclear Energy Society brought together epidemiologists who have been investigating the mortality of workers from the nuclear industry in an attempt to put low-level radiation risk estimates on a scientific basis.

  11. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury-Herard, A.; Boiteux, S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Toledano, M.

    2000-06-01

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  12. Biological Bases for Radiation Adaptive Responses in the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Yong [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belinsky, Steven [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Our main research objective was to determine the biological bases for low-dose, radiation-induced adaptive responses in the lung, and use the knowledge gained to produce an improved risk model for radiation-induced lung cancer that accounts for activated natural protection, genetic influences, and the role of epigenetic regulation (epiregulation). Currently, low-dose radiation risk assessment is based on the linear-no-threshold hypothesis, which now is known to be unsupported by a large volume of data.

  13. Biological effects of radiation human health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    The biological hazards of nuclear energy usage are a growing source of public concern. The medical profession may well be expected to contribute to public debate on the issue. This document, therefore, attempts a balanced review of the known and suspected human biological consequences of exposure to different types of ionizing radiation, emphasizing in particular the nuclear industry

  14. Radiation, chemical and biological protection. Mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasek, D.; Svetlik, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this text-book mass destruction weapons and radiation, chemical and biological protection are reviewed. The text-book contains the following chapter: (1) Mass destruction weapons; (2) Matter and material; (3) Radioactive materials; (4) Toxic materials; (5) Biological resources; (6) Nuclear energetic equipment; Appendices; References.

  15. Adaptation hypothesis of biological efficiency of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.; Georgievskij, A.B.; Karpov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Adaptation hypothesis of biological efficiency of ionizing radiation is based on acknowledgement of invariance of fundamental laws and principles of biology related to unity of biota and media, evolution and adaptation for radiobiology. The basic arguments for adaptation hypothesis validity, its correspondence to the requirements imposed on scientific hypothes are presented

  16. Biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Few weeks ago, when the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) submitted to the U.N. General Assembly the UNSCEAR 1994 report, the international community had at its disposal a broad view of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. The 1994 report (272 pages) specifically addressed the epidemiological studies of radiation carcinogenesis and the adaptive responses to radiation in cells and organisms. The report was aimed to supplement the UNSCEAR 1993 report to the U.N. General Assembly- an extensive document of 928 pages-which addressed the global levels of radiation exposing the world population, as well as some issues on the effects of ionizing radiation, including: mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis due to radiation exposure, influence of the level of dose and dose rate on stochastic effects of radiation, hereditary effects of radiation effects on the developing human brain, and the late deterministic effects in children. Those two UNSCEAR reports taken together provide an impressive overview of current knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This article summarizes the essential issues of both reports, although it cannot cover all available information. (Author)

  17. Biological effects of ionizing radiation - changing worker attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.; Schenley, C.

    1989-01-01

    Training Resources and Data Exchange (TRADE) Radiation Protection Training Special Interest Group has taken an innovative approach to providing DOE contractors with radiation worker training material information. Newly-hired radiation workers may be afraid to work near radiation and long-term radiation workers may become indifferent to the biological hazard of radiation. Commercially available training material is often presented at an inappropriate technical level or in an uninteresting style. These training problems have been addressed in the DOE system through development of a training videotape and supporting material package entitled Understanding Ionizing Radiation and its Biological Effects. The training package, developed and distributed by TRADE specifically to meet the needs of DOE contractor facilities, contains the videotape and accompanying paper supporting materials designed to assist the instructor. Learning objectives, presentation suggestion for the instructor, trainee worksheets, guided discussion questions, and trainee self-evaluation sheets are included in the training package. DOE contractors have agreed that incorporating this training module into radiation worker training programs enhances the quality of the training and increase worker understanding of the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  18. Do Good Without Causing Undue Harm. Experts Tackle Patient Radiation Safety During IAEA's Scientific Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, about four billion X-ray exams, 35 million nuclear medicine exams and eight million radiation therapy treatment courses are undertaken each year. With millions exposed to ionizing radiation for medical purposes, and developing countries acquiring more machines to treat and diagnose cancer, the safety of patients is an ever-increasing concern. During the IAEA´s Scientific Forum, cancer experts and regulators put their heads together to explore the problems and possible solutions relating to the safe and appropriate use of new radiation medicine technology in developed and developing countries

  19. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Lim, Yong Tak

    1998-06-01

    KAERI and INP(Poland) have been carried out parallel study and joint experiments on the major topics according to MOU about their cooperative project. The experimental materials were T-4430 clones. Main results of the cooperative project were made on {sup r}esponse of TSH mutation to low LET radiation, response of TSH mutation to neutrons, response of TSH to mixed irradiation with different radiations and synergism between radiation and environmental factors such as photo period and diurnal temperature difference. Both institutes have established wide variety of research techniques applicable to tradescantia study through the cooperation. These result of research can make the role of fundamental basis for the better relationship between Korea and Poland. (author). 46 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs.

  20. Request for Travel Funds for Systems Radiation Biology Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [NYU School of Medicine

    2014-03-22

    The 3rd International Systems Radiation Biology Workshop brought together the major European, US and Japanese research programs on radiation risk as well as selected experts representing systems biological approaches to discuss how the new methodologies could be best exploited for low dose research. A significant part of the workshop was devoted to discussions organised as breakout group sessions. To facilitate discussions number of participants was limited to 60 persons. To achieve the goals of this symposium in this international conference, support from DOE is vital. Hence, this proposal requested support in the amount of $15,000 to cover the travel expenses of international experts and radiation biology scientists from the United States. This supporting mechanism was clearly identified to the selected US participants as a conference support award from the DOE (See attached PDF). The workshop was an outstanding opportunity to strengthen interactions between leading experts in the emerging areas of radiation sciences, and will also provide opportunities for younger scientists to meet with experts and discuss their results. This workshop was designed to endorse active engagement in international collaboration. A major objective of this conference was to effectively communicate research results, in order to ensure that current thinking reflects sound science of radiation biology. Further, this international event addressed the use and success of scientific initiatives in radiation biology for policymakers, standard-setters, and the general public.

  1. Radiation biology as a basis for multidisciplinary cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, N.

    2017-01-01

    The research field of radiation biology has progressed greatly thanks to the advances in molecular biology. DNA in the cell nucleus is the principal target of radiation. The biological effect of radiation can be determined by how the DNA damage is processed in the cell. In order to prevent deleterious biological effects due to DNA damage, the cells possess a system termed 'DNA damage response'. The DNA damage response finally induces cell cycle arrest, activation of DNA repair pathways, or cell death. If accurately repaired, DNA damage will result in survival of cells with no biological effects. If inaccurately repaired, DNA damage may result in survival of cells exhibiting genetic alterations, which can lead to the development of various diseases including cancer. If unrepaired, fatal DNA damage such as the DNA double-strand break will result in cell depth. Since radiation therapy and chemotherapy are designed to specifically kill cancer cells by inducing DNA double-strand breaks, it is important to take advantage of cancer-specific abnormalities in DNA damage response. In this review, I describe the impact of targeting DNA damage response in cancer therapy and show how progress in radiation biology has contributed to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. (author)

  2. Research in radiation biology, in the environment, and in radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.; Myers, D.K.; Ophel, I.L.; Cowper, G.; Newcombe, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Research in radiation biology at CRNL is concerned with: evaluation of the effects of low doses of radiation upon humans and other living organisms; the development of new methods for detecting the effects of radiation exposure in large populations; the continued development of improved methods by which radiation levels can be measured accurately and reliably; and evaluation of the effects of nuclear power use upon the environment. The present report summarizes our background knowledge of radiation hazards and describes current research activities in Biology and Health Physics Division at CRNL. (author)

  3. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1994-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described

  4. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1994-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described.

  5. Radiations at the physics-biology interface. Utilization of radiations for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douzou, P.

    1997-01-01

    Structural biology, which study the relation between the structure of biomolecules and their function, is at the interface between physics and biology. With the help of large radiation instruments such as X ray diffraction and neutron scattering, important advancements have been accomplished in the understanding of specific biological functions and led to the development of protein engineering (such as directed mutagenesis)

  6. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements

  7. Reducing the Harmful Effects of Infrared Radiation on the Skin Using Bicosomes Incorporating β-Carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Fajarí, Lluís; Rodríguez, Gelen; Cócera, Mercedes; Moner, Verónica; Barbosa-Barros, Lucyanna; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; de la Maza, Alfonso; López, Olga

    2016-01-01

    In this work the effect of infrared (IR) radiation, at temperatures between 25 and 30°C, on the formation of free radicals (FRs) in the skin is studied. Additionally, the influence of IR radiation at high temperatures in the degradation of skin collagen is evaluated. In both experiments the protective effect against IR radiation of phospholipid nanostructures (bicosomes) incorporating β-carotene (Bcb) is also evaluated. The formation of FRs in skin under IR exposure was measured near physiological temperatures (25-30°C) using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin trap and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The study of the collagen structure was performed by small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation. EPR results showed an increase in the hydroxyl radical in the irradiated skin compared to the native skin. The skin collagen was degraded by IR exposure at high temperatures of approximately 65°C. The treatment with Bcb reduced the formation of FRs and kept the structure of collagen. The formation of FRs by IR radiation does not depend on the increase of skin temperature. The decrease of FRs and the preservation of collagen fibers in the skin treated with Bcb indicate the potential of this lipid system to protect skin under IR exposure. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Radiation carcinogenesis: Epidemiology and biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D.; Fraumeni, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to radiation have led to the identification of a preventable cause of cancer, but in the long run perhaps the most important contribution of radiation studies will be to provide insights into the basic processes of human carcinogenesis. In this volume, key investigators of major epidemiologic projects summarize their observations to date, including information to help assess the effects of low-level exposures. Experimentalists and theorists emphasize the relevance of laboratory and epidemiologic data in elucidating carcinogenic risks and mechanisms in man. This volume was prepared with several objectives in mind: (a) organize and synthesize knowledge on radiation carcinogenesis through epidemiologic and experimental approaches; (b) illustrate and explore ways of utilizing this information to gain insights into the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development; (c) stimulate the formation of hypotheses suited to experimental or epidemiologic testing, theoretical modeling, and multidisciplinary approaches; and (d) identify recent advances that clarify dose-response relationships and the influence of low-dose exposures, provide leads to carcinogenic mechanisms and host-environmental interactions, and suggest strategies for future research and preventive action

  9. The biological effectiveness of heavy ion radiations in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    Although heavy ions are rarely encountered in the majority of terrestrial environments, the exposure of humans to this fascinating class of ionizing radiation is becoming more frequent. Long-duration spaceflight, new radiotherapeutic procedures and enhanced levels of radon, and other naturally-occurring alpha particle emitters, have all increased concern and stimulated interest recently within the radiological protection and radiobiological communities. Significant data concerning the long-term effects of low levels of heavy ions on mammalian systems are correspondingly scarce, leading to increased emphasis on modelling all aspects of the radiation-organism interaction. Contemporary radiation protection procedures reflect the need for a more fundamental understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the biological actions of such radiations. Major deficiencies exist in the current recommendations for assessment of relative effectiveness, the enhanced severity of the biological consequences instigated by heavy ions, over conventional sparsely ionizing radiations. In an attempt to remedy some of the inadequate concepts and assumptions presently employed and, simultaneously, to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms behind the notion of radiation quality, a series of algorithms have been developed and executed as computer code, to evaluate the biological effectiveness of heavy ion radiation ''tracks'' according to a number of criteria. These include consideration of the spatial characteristics of physical energy deposition in idealised cellular structures (finite particle range, radial extension of tracks via δ-ray emission) and the likelihood of induction and mis-repair of severe molecular lesions (double-strand breaks, multiply-damaged sites). (author)

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Worry About the Health Harms of Medical Imaging Radiation in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Gold, Geoffrey S; Baser, Raymond E; Hricak, Hedvig; Dauer, Lawrence T

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, there have been dramatic increases in medical imaging use and increasing media attention to increased exposure to ionizing radiation in the United States. Patient perspectives on medical imaging radiation (MIR) use is understudied, but could guide primary care discussions. This study examines prevalence of worry about the health harms from MIR in the US general population. This cross-sectional study used the 2012-2013 Health Information National Trends Survey conducted by the National Cancer Institute. A nationally representative sample (N = 3532) was drawn from the US general population to observe prevalence of worry about MIR as well as potential covariates, including demographic, medical, and psychological factors, health information-seeking, physician trust in providing cancer information, and cancer fatalism. About 65% of the sample population reported experiencing at least some worry about MIR. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions indicate higher rates of MIR worry among women, racial/ethnic minorities, those with lower educational attainment, foreign-born Americans, those who self-report poorer health, and those with a personal history of cancer. Lower trust in cancer information from physicians and greater attention to cancer information from popular media were each associated with higher rates of worry about health harms of MIR. An accurate assessment of public worry about MIR will aid primary care providers' efforts to understand patient responses to medical imaging and identify addressable knowledge gaps regarding benefits and risks of medical imaging. These data may improve risk communication regarding medical imaging among referring primary care physicians, radiologists, and patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, C; Borras, C; Carlson, D

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  12. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, C [Wayne State University, Grosse Pointe, MI (United States); Borras, C [Radiological Physics and Health Services, Washington, DC (United States); Carlson, D [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  13. Prototype Biology-Based Radiation Risk Module Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald G.; Patel, Zarana; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of space radiation and risk mitigation are strategic knowledge gaps for the Evolvable Mars Campaign. The current epidemiology-based NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model contains large uncertainties (HAT #6.5a) due to lack of information on the radiobiology of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and lack of human data. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. Our proposed study will compare DNA damage, histological, and cell kinetic parameters after irradiation in normal 2D human cells versus 3D tissue models, and it will use a multi-scale computational model (CHASTE) to investigate various biological processes that may contribute to carcinogenesis, including radiation-induced cellular signaling pathways. This cross-disciplinary work, with biological validation of an evolvable mathematical computational model, will help reduce uncertainties within NSCR and aid risk mitigation for radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  14. Oxygen effect in radiation biology: caffeine and serendipity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The 'hit theory' developed in 1920s to explain the actions of ionizing radiation on cells and organisms was purely physical, and its limitation was its inadequacy to address the contemporary findings such as the oxygen enhancement of radiobiological damage, and the increased radio- sensitivity of dividing compared to non-dividing cells. The textbooks written prior to 1970s did not either refer at all to oxygen as a radiosensitizer, or had mentioned it only in a passing manner; yet 'oxygen effect' was emerging as the central dogma in radiation biology. The oxygen effect in radiation biology is highly interdisciplinary encompassing atomic physics (i.e. interaction of photon with matter), radiation chemistry (formation of reactive oxygen species), molecular signalling, gene expression and genetic alterations in cells (mutation, cancer) or the cell death (apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic catastrophe, etc.). Cell death in higher organisms is now recognized as the precursor of possible error-free cell replacement repair. (author)

  15. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  16. Light scattering on PHA granules protects bacterial cells against the harmful effects of UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Eva; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Mullerova, Lucie; Samek, Ota; Koller, Martin; Hesko, Ondrej; Kucera, Dan; Marova, Ivana; Obruca, Stanislav

    2018-02-01

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the form of intracellular granules. The primary function of PHA is the storage of carbon and energy. Nevertheless, there are numerous reports that the presence of PHA granules in microbial cells enhances their stress resistance and fitness when exposed to various stress factors. In this work, we studied the protective mechanism of PHA granules against UV irradiation employing Cupriavidus necator as a model bacterial strain. The PHA-accumulating wild type strain showed substantially higher UV radiation resistance than the PHA non-accumulating mutant. Furthermore, the differences in UV-Vis radiation interactions with both cell types were studied using various spectroscopic approaches (turbidimetry, absorption spectroscopy, and nephelometry). Our results clearly demonstrate that intracellular PHA granules efficiently scatter UV radiation, which provides a substantial UV-protective effect for bacterial cells and, moreover, decreases the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species in UV-challenged cells. The protective properties of the PHA granules are enhanced by the fact that granules specifically bind to DNA, which in turn provides shield-like protection of DNA as the most UV-sensitive molecule. To conclude, the UV-protective action of PHA granules adds considerable value to their primary storage function, which can be beneficial in numerous environments.

  17. The mechanism for the primary biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byakov, Vsevolod M; Stepanov, Sergei V

    2006-01-01

    The primary biological response of living organisms to the passage of fast charged particles is traditionally believed to be dominated by the chemical reactions of the radical products from the radiolysis of cellular water (OH, H, e aq - , O 2 - , H 2 O 2 ) and by the bioradicals that they produce (and which can also result from the direct electronic activation of biomolecules). This understanding has provided insight into how ionizing radiations affect biological systems and, most importantly, what radioprotection and radiosensibilizing effects are produced by chemical compounds introduced into an organism. However, a number of key radiobiological facts remain unexplained by the current theory, stimulating a search for other biologically active factors that may be triggered by radiation. This review examines a fact that is usually ignored in discussing the biological impact of ionizing radiation: the local increase in acidity in the water solution along the track of a charged particle. The acidity in the track is very different from its value for cellular water in a living organism. Biological processes are well-known to be highly sensitive to changes in the environmental acidity. It seems that the biological impact of ionizing radiations is dominated not by the water radiolysis products (mostly radicals) listed above but particles of a different nature, hydroxonium ions H 3 O + , where the term hydroxonium refer to protonated water molecules. This modification of the mechanism of primary radiobiological effects is in good agreement with experimental data. In particular, the extremal dependence of the relative biological efficiency (RBE) of radiations on their ionizing energy losses is accounted for in quantitative terms, as is the increase in the RBE in the relativistic energy range. (reviews of topical problems)

  18. The biological effects of low doses of radiation: medical, biological and ecological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun-Aajav, T.; Ajnai, L.; Manlaijav, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The results of recent studies show that low doses of radiation make many different structural and functional changes in a cell and these changes are preserved for a long time. This phenomenon is called as effects of low doses of radiation in biophysics, radiation biology and radiation medicine. The structural and functional changes depend on doses and this dependence has non-linear and bimodal behaviour. More detail, the radiation effect goes up and reaches its maximum (Low doses maximum) in low doses region, then it goes down and takes its stationary means (there is a negative effect in a few cases). With increases in doses and with further increases it goes up. It is established that low dose's maximum depends on physiological state of a biological object, radiation quality and dose rate. During the experiments another special date was established. This specialty is that many different physical and chemical factors are mutually connected and have synergetic behaviour. At present, researches are concentrating their attention on the following three directions: 1. Direct and indirect interaction of radiation's low doses: 2. Interpretation of its molecular mechanism, regulation of the positive effects and elaboration of ways o removing negative effects: 3. Application of the objective research results into practice. In conclusion the authors mention the current concepts on interpretation of low doses effect mechanism, forward their own views and emphasize the importance of considering low doses effects in researches of environmental radiation pollution, radiation medicine and radiation protection. (author)

  19. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, O.

    1959-01-01

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  20. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O

    1959-01-15

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  1. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 29 papers in this progress report which deal with radiobiological physics, the biological effects of ionizing radiations, and the modification of these effects by chemical and pharmacological agents

  2. A brief review of intermediate controlled nuclear syntheses (ICNS) without harmful radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanjewar, R. B. [Department of Chemistry Dharampeth M. P. Deo Memorial Science College, NAGPUR-440033, India rb-lanjewar@rediffmail.com (India)

    2015-03-10

    Hadronic mechanics gave birth to new magnecular fuels. The present day demand is of clean energy source that is cheap and abundant. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind etc. Nuclear energy conventionally produced by fission reactions emits hazardous radiation and radioactive waste. The requirements of clean and safe energy gets fulfilled by novel fuel that achieved by elevating the traditional quantum mechanics to hadronic mechanics and to hadronic chemistry. In the present paper, a comprehensive review on both the theoretical and experimental aspect of the Intermediate Controlled Nuclear Synthesis (ICNS) as developed by Italian American Scientist Professor R. M. Santilli.

  3. Philosophy and methodology for protection of mankind and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaratnam, A.

    1990-01-01

    In the nuclear energy field, the consciousness of safety, the planning of facilities and operations to ensure safety, the methods for monitoring to ensure compliance with safety standards, as well as the record of safety have been of a very high standard, in contrast to the situation with respect to control of hazards from chemical pollutants. The philosophy, methodologies and the data bases that the radiation protection community has evolved are of great relevance and applicability in the wider context of environmental protection, public health and industrial safety. (author). 5 refs

  4. Biological indicators for radiation absorbed dose: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.D.; Venkatachalam, P.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Biological dosimetry has an important role to play in assessing the cumulative radiation exposure of persons working with radiation and also in estimating the true dose received during accidents involving external and internal exposure. Various biodosimetric methods have been tried to estimate radiation dose for the above purposes. Biodosimetric methods include cytogenetic, immunological and mutational assays. Each technique has certain advantages and disadvantages. We present here a review of each technique, the actual method used for detection of dose, the sensitivity of detection and its use in long term studies. (author)

  5. A Review: Some biological effects of high LET radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    There are qualitative and quantitative differences in the biological damage observed after exposure to high LET radiation as compared to that caused by low LET radiations. This review is concerned with these differences, which are ultimately reflected at the biochemical, cellular and even whole animal levels. In general, high LET radiations seem to produce biochemical damage which is more severe and possibly less repairable. Experimental data for those effects are presented in terms of biochemical RBE's with consideration of both early and late manifestations. An LET independent process by which significant biochemical damage may result from protons, neutrons and negative pion mesons is discussed.

  6. Radiation-resistant composite for biological shield of personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, D. E.; Barabash, A. D.; Potapov, Yu B.; Panfilov, D. V.; Perekalskiy, O. E.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents the results of theoretical and practical justification for the use of polymer concrete based on nonisocyanate polyurethanes in biological shield structures. We have identified the impact of ratio: polymer - radiation-resistant filling compound on the durability and protection properties of polymer concrete. The article expounds regression dependence of the change of basic properties of the aforementioned polymer concrete on the absorbed radiation dose rate. Synergy effect in attenuation of radioactivity release in case of conjoint use of hydrogenous polymer base and radiation-resistant powder is also addressed herein.

  7. Biological radiation effects of Radon in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel P, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to contribute to the knowledge on the effects of radon and its decay products, the aim of this investigation is to study the biological effects of radon using Drosophila melanogaster throught the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and the analysis of some adaptative factors exposing larvaes to controlled radon atmosphers, considering that this insect could be used as biological monitor. Using the somatic mutation test a mutagenic effect was observed proportional to radon concentration, into an interval of 1 ± 0.3 to 111 ± 7.4 KBq/m 3 equivalent to doses under 0.0106 Gy. The correlation analysis gives a linear (r=0.80) relationship with a positive slope of 0.2217. The same happens when gamma rays are used in the interval of 1 to 20 Gy, given a linear dose-dependent effect (r=0.878) is obtained; nevetheless the slop is smaller (m=0.003) than for radon. Analysing the results of adaptative factors of the nine exposed generations, it was found that probably radon exposition induced dominant lethals during gametogenesis or/and a selection of the more component gamets of the treated individuals in larval state. It was reflected in the significant decrease on fecundity of the generation exposed. Nevertheless the laying eggs had an increase in egg-to-adult viability and the develop velocity was higher than in control for 3 KBq/m 3 , this suggest that radon concentrations used were able to induce repair mechanisms. These data agree with the Hormesis hypothesis that says: low doses have positive effects on health. It was not possible to obtain a dose-effect relationship except with the develop velocity where it was found a dose-effect inverse proportion. In conclusion, Drosophila melanogaster could be a good system to obtain in vivo damaged induction concentration dependent of radon and its decay products, as well as to study the effects in an exposed population by the analysis of adaptative factors. (Author)

  8. Influence of biological variables on radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shunsaku

    1989-01-01

    1. Age at exposure: Female B6C3F 1 mice were irradiated at day 17 of the prenatal age, or day 0, 7, 35, 105, 240 or 365 of the postnatal age with 1.9, 3.8 or 5.7 Gy of gamma-rays from 137 Cs. All mice were allowed to live through their entire lifespan under a specific pathogen free condition. It has become evident that mice of the late fetal period have susceptibility to induction of pituitary tumors, bone tumors, liver tumors, lung tumors, lymphocytic lymphomas and ovarian tumors. Neonatal mice were found to be more susceptible to induction of lymphocytic lymphomas, liver tumors and ovarian tumors than fetal mice. Irradiation of fetal or neonatal mice did not result in the excess development of myeloid leukemias and Harderian gland tumors, whereas these neoplasms were induced by irradiation at the adult period. 2. Combination effects of radiation and chemicals: Both sexes of B6WF 1 mice were exposed to X-rays at day 5 of postnatal age. After weaning, pellet diet containing 0.05 % phenobarbital was given until their natural death. It was rather surprising that life-shortening effect of X-irradiation was decreased by oral administration of phenobarbital. This effect seemed to be due to delayed development of neoplastic diseases. Administration of phenobarbital did not result in decrease in incidences of neoplasms. (author)

  9. Environmental radiation: basic principles, biological facts, potential risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodemann, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    This book describes the complex processes that underlie the effects of different types of radiation at the cellular, organ and organismic level. Technical terms central to the subject matter are printed in italicize and explained in a glossary along with all physical quantities and dimensional units referred to. Through a systematic presentation of various aspects of the effects of environmental radiation on humans the author has endeavoured to make it clear that any discussion on potential health hazards must be conducted specific to the type of radiation in question. Furthermore, to study these issues meaningfully one must have a knowledge of the scientific basis of interactions between the various types of radiation and biological systems and be able to assess the relative impact of environmental radiation compared with other environmental health hazards

  10. Sterilization of biological tissues with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Martinez P, M.E.; Luna Z, D.

    1997-01-01

    On June 1994, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the South Central Hospital for High Specialty of PEMEX (HCSAE) began a joint work with the finality to obtain radio sterilized amniotic membranes for to be used as cover (biological bandage) in burnt patients. Subsequently the Chemistry Faculty of UNAM and the National Institute of Cardiology began to collaborate this last with interest on cardiac valves for graft. Starting from 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports this project (MEX/7/008) whose main objective is to set up the basis to establish in Mexico a Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (amniotic membranes, skin, bones, tendons, cardiac valves, etc.) to be used with therapeutic purposes (grafts). The IAEA support has consisted in the equipment acquisition which is fundamental for the Tissue Bank performance such as an experimental irradiator, laminar flow bell, lyophilizer, vacuum sealer and special knives for tissues. Also visits to Mexico of experts have been authorized with the aim of advising to the personnel which participate in the project and scientific visits of this personnel to another tissue banks (Sri Lanka and Argentine). The establishment in Mexico of a Tissue bank will be a great benefit because it will have availability of distinct tissues for grafts and it will reduce the synthetic materials importation which is very expensive. (Author)

  11. Physics fundamentals and biological effects of synchrotron radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prezado, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of radiation therapy is to deposit a curative dose in the tumor without exceeding the tolerances in the nearby healthy tissues. For some radioresistant tumors, like gliomas, requiring high doses for complete sterilization, the major obstacle for curative treatment with ionizing radiation remains the limited tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissue. This limitation is particularly severe for brain tumors and, especially important in children, due to the high risk of complications in the development of the central nervous system. In addition, the treatment of tumors close to an organ at risk, like the spinal cord, is also restricted. One possible solution is the development of new radiation therapy techniques exploiting radically different irradiation modes and modifying, in this way, the biological equivalent doses. This is the case of synchrotron radiation therapy (SRT). In this work the three new radiation therapy techniques under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), in Grenoble (France) will be described, namely: synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (SSRT), microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) and minibeam radiation therapy. The promising results in the treatment of the high grade brain tumors obtained in preclinical studies have paved the way to the clinical trials. The first patients are expected in the fall of 2010. (Author).

  12. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The year 1998 might again be called as the ''Comet Year''. The rain of bolides expected in the sky resembles pictures of DNA damages in shapes, numbers, mysterious processes and sometimes challenges to detect them. It was in this year that we detected, in a fluorescent light under the microscope, another ''shinning star'' a long time expected translocation induced by neutrons and then transferred to its glitter through fluorescence in situ hybridization technic. The year was filled in with measurements and brought plenty of scientific events that are partly reflected in the following pages; strong will and hard work to maintain research standards equal to technologically advanced partners in Europe and in other parts of the World; the USA, Sth Korea. We mainly devoted the year 1998 to the activities concerning our basic research, and requirements and expectations of various Committees in the issues of three research projects. We gather results on genotoxicity of pesticides, occupational exposures, and also the importance of life styles as factors affecting the levels of damage induced in human cells. We have also succeeded to go faster with modernization of our methodology by transferring the single cell ''Comet Assay'' to the routine work for the analysis of DNA damage induced by UV and X-rays radiation and for the studies on individual variability in the damage repair capacity. On January 13th we installed a new powerful RTG machine. Polish Atomic Energy supported this investment. And this was really the meaningful celebration of 100 anniversary of the discovery of POLONIUM and RADIUM. So, now, before a new therapeutic tool will be used in routine applications for radiotherapy, we with our new beautiful and powerful roentgen machine are deeply involved in the exploration of the strength of radiotherapeutic efficiency of sources and schedules. With the use of gene mutations in TSH-assay, we have finally established good dose response curves for

  13. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1984-November 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, H.H.

    1985-07-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Radiological Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Columbia University. The report consists of 17 individual reports plus an overall summary. Reports survey research results in neutron dosimetry, microdosimetry of electron beams and x-radiation, development of theoretical models for biological radiation effects and induction of oncogenic transformations. Individual abstracts were also prepared for each paper

  14. DEGRO 2012. 18. annual congress of the German Radiation Oncology Society. Radiation oncology - medical physics - radiation biology. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes the abstracts of the contributions and posters of the 18th annual congress of the German Radiation Oncology Society DEGRO 2012. The lectures covered the following topics: Radiation physics, therapy planning; gastrointestinal tumors; radiation biology; stererotactic radiotherapy/breast carcinomas; quality management - life quality; head-neck-tumors/lymphomas; NSCL (non-small cell lung carcinomas); pelvic tumors; brain tumors/pediatric tumors. The poster sessions included the following topics: quality management, recurrent tumor therapy; brachytherapy; breast carcinomas and gynecological tumors; pelvis tumors; brain tumors; stereotactic radiotherapy; head-neck carcinomas; NSCL, proton therapy, supporting therapy; clinical radio-oncology, radiation biology, IGRT/IMRT.

  15. Further approaches to biological indicators of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.; Kormos, C.; Kerekes, J.; Sztanyik, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    Despite of the decades-long investigations, the search for proper biological indicator of radiation injuries did not result in techniques fulfilling all the requirements. So far, the most reliable assay is the dicentric chromosome aberration analysis. New developments have been made recently on a cytogenetic technique, the micronucleus assay, and for local injuries on the application of thermography

  16. Harmful algal blooms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.; PrabhaDevi; DeSouza, L.; Verlecar, X.N.; Naik, C.G.

    as harmful algal bloom. Bloom formation is a natural process and it enhances biological productivity, but turns worrisome when caused by toxic species, leading to massive fish mortalities and hazards to human health. Incidences of'red tide' are increasing...

  17. On the mechanism of the biological effect of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulis, M.A.; Margulis, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms of the biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR) and ultrasound (US) were considered. The current views on the nature of toxicity of IR, which is usually assigned to the formation of radicals in living tissues and to the straight-line collision of an ionizing particle with the DNA molecule, were analyzed. It was established that the amount of radicals formed in biological tissues in conditions of ultrasonically induced cavitation can be as large as that for IR; however, the biological effect of US is much softer as compared to IR. It was shown that the contribution of the indirect mechanism to the total biological effect of IR can be estimated by comparing US and IR in their chemical action; the contribution of the indirect mechanism to the biological effect of IR was found to be negligibly small. An alternative mechanism was proposed to explain the biological effect of IR. In accordance with the proposed model, IR with a high linear energy transfer (LET) value breaks through cell walls and biological membranes and causes damage to them, such that the cell can lose its regenerative capacity. Moreover, high-energy heavy ionizing particles perforate cytoplasm to form channels. Ionizing radiation with a low LET value (γ- and X-rays) causes multiple damages to biological membranes. Ionizing particles can also cause damages to membranes of mitochondria thus affecting the mechanism of cellular respiration, which will cause neoplastic diseases. The straight-line collision of an ionizing particle with a DNA molecule was found to be 5-7 orders of magnitude less probable as compared to the collision with a wall or membrane. It was shown that multiple perforations of cell walls and damages to membranes are characteristic only of ionizing particles, which have sufficiently long tracks, and do not occur upon exposure to ultrasonic waves, microwaves, UV radiation, and magnetic fields [ru

  18. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  19. Solar ultraviolet radiation from cancer induction to cancer prevention: solar ultraviolet radiation and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuorkey, Muobarak J

    2015-09-01

    Although decades have elapsed, researchers still debate the benefits and hazards of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. On the one hand, humans derive most of their serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], which has potent anticancer activity, from solar UVB radiation. On the other hand, people are more aware of the risk of cancer incidence associated with harmful levels of solar UVR from daily sunlight exposure. Epidemiological data strongly implicate UV radiation exposure as a major cause of melanoma and other cancers, as UVR promotes mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. This review highlights the impact of the different mutagenic effects of solar UVR, along with the cellular and carcinogenic challenges with respect to sun exposure.

  20. 5. Conference cycle. The radiations and the Biological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar G, M.; Chavez B, A.

    1991-06-01

    Nuclear technologies and their development have influenced many aspects of modern life. Besides used for electricity production nuclear technologies are applied in many other fields, especially in biological sciences. In genetics and molecular biology they enable research resulting in increased food production and better food preservation. Usage in material sciences lead to new varieties of plastics or improved characteristics. Nuclear applications are used in pe troleum industries and in forecasting geothermic power. Radiobiology and radiotherapy enable diagnosis and therapy of several diseases, e.g. cancer. Nuclear technologies also contribute to preserve the environment. They offer methods to analyse as well as decrease the environmental impacts. The 5. conference cyle entitled 'The Radiations and the Biological Sciences' aims to inform students of biological sciences about new nuclear technologies applied in their field of interest

  1. Assessment of the biological effects of 'strange' radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryakhin, E.A.; Tryapitsina, G.A.; Urutskoyev, L.I.; Akleyev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The results from studies of the effects produced by electrical explosions of foils made from super pure materials in water point to the emergence of new chemical elements. An additional finding was the discharge of 'strange' radiation accompanying the transformation of chemical elements. However, currently, the mechanism involved in the interaction between 'strange' radiation and a substance or a biological entity remains obscure. Therefore, the aim of the present research is to investigate the biological effects of the 'strange' radiation. Pilot studies were performed at the RECOM RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' in April-May of 2004. The animals used in the experiment were female mice of C57Bl/6 line aged 80 days with body weight 16-18 g. The animals were exposed to radiation discharged during explosions of Ti foils in water and aqueous solutions. The cages with animals were placed at 1 m from the epicenter of the explosion. Explosions were carried out on the 19. (3 explosions), 20. (4 explosions) and 22. (3 explosions) of April, 2004 (explosions No1373 - No1382, respectively). The animals were assigned to 4 experimental groups comprised of 17-20 mice per group. The animals received experimental exposure within 1, 2 and 3 days of the experiment. In total, the experimental groups were exposed to 3, 7 and 10 explosions, respectively. In order to identify the biological reactions, the following parameters were estimated: number of nucleated cells in the bone marrow, number of CFU in the spleen after additional gamma-irradiation (6 Gy), cell composition of the bone marrow, the rate of erythrocytes with the different level of maturation in the bone marrow, the rate of erythrocytes with the micronuclei in the bone marrow, the reaction of bone marrow cells to additional gamma-irradiation (2 Gy), number of leucocytes in the peripheral blood, and cell composition of the peripheral blood. The following conclusions were drawn from these studies: 1. 'strange' radiation resulting

  2. Advances in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors. Proceedings of a Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is a fundamental part of all radiation protection work. The measurements are made with a variety of instruments, and health physicists, after professional interpretation of the data, can assess the levels of exposure which might be encountered in a given area or the individual doses received by workers, visitors and others at places where the possibility of radiation exposure exists. The types of radiation concerned here are photon radiations, ranging from soft X-rays to gamma rays, and particulate radiations such as β-rays, α-particles, protons, neutrons and fission fragments. The type of technique used depends not only on the type of radiation but also on such factors as whether the radiation is from a source internal or external to the body. Radiation dosimetry is not only used at nuclear facilities; it has diverse applications, for example in determining doses when radiation sources are employed for medical diagnostics and therapy, in safeguarding workers in any industry where isotopes are used, and in assessing the effect of both naturally occurring and man-made radiations on the general public and the environment. The advances of modern technology have increased the variety of sources; an example can be given from colour television, where the high potential necessary in certain colour cathode-ray tubes generates a non-negligible amount of X-rays. The Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors was one of a continuing series of meetings in which the International Atomic Energy Agency furthers the exchange of information on all aspects of personnel and area dosimetry. The Symposium was devoted in particular to a study of the dose meters themselves - their radiation-sensitive elements (both physical and biological),their instrumentation, and calibration and standardization. Several speakers suggested that the situation in the standardization and calibration of measuring equipment and sources was

  3. DEGRO 2009. Radiation oncology - medical physics - radiation biology. Abstracts; DEGRO 2009. Radioonkologie - Medizinische Physik - Strahlenbiologie. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The special volume of the journal covers the abstracts of the DEGRO 2009 meeting on radiation oncology, medical physics, and radiation biology, covering the following topics: seldom diseases, gastrointestinal tumors, radiation reactions and radiation protection, medical care and science, central nervous system, medical physics, the non-parvicellular lung carcinomas, ear-nose-and throat, target-oriented radiotherapy plus ''X'', radio-oncology - young academics, lymphomas, mammary glands, modern radiotherapy, life quality and palliative radiotherapy, radiotherapy of the prostate carcinoma, imaging for planning and therapy, the digital documentation in clinics and practical experiences, NMR imaging and tomography, hadrons - actual status in Germany, urinal tract oncology, radiotoxicity.

  4. Biological response of cancer cells to radiation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam eBaskar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and has the ability to spread or metastasize throughout the body. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development, care and treatment modalities. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is an important and integral component of cancer management, mostly conferring a survival benefit. Radiation therapy destroys cancer by depositing high-energy radiation on the cancer tissues. Over the years, radiation therapy has been driven by constant technological advances and approximately 50% of all patients with localized malignant tumors are treated with radiation at some point in the course of their disease. In radiation oncology, research and development in the last three decades has led to considerable improvement in our understanding of the differential responses of normal and cancer cells. The biological effectiveness of radiation depends on the linear energy transfer (LET, total dose, number of fractions and radiosensitivity of the targeted cells or tissues. Radiation can either directly or indirectly (by producing free radicals damages the genome of the cell. This has been challenged in recent years by a newly identified phenomenon known as radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE. In RIBE, the non-irradiated cells adjacent to or located far from the irradiated cells/tissues demonstrate similar responses to that of the directly irradiated cells. Understanding the cancer cell responses during the fractions or after the course of irradiation will lead to improvements in therapeutic efficacy and potentially, benefitting a significant proportion of cancer patients. In this review, the clinical implications of radiation induced direct and bystander effects on the cancer cell are discussed.

  5. Chemical and biological effects of radiation sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation is extensively used for the sterilization of plastic materials, pharmaceuticals and biological tissue grafts. The pharmaceuticals may be solid, liquid, or suspension in a liquid or a solution. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation, generally used for sterilization, primarily interacts with these materials through the Compton process. The resulting damage may be direct or indirect. In aqueous systems the primary species produced compete for interaction among themselves and the dissolved solutes. The nature, the G-values and the reactions of the primary species very much depend on the pH of the solution. The important chemical changes in plastic materials are gas liberation, change in concentration of double bonds, cross-linking, degradation and oxidation. These chemical changes lead to some physical changes like crystallinity, specific conductivity and permeability. The reactions in biological systems are very complex and are influenced by the presence or absence of water and oxygen. Water produces indirect damage and the radiation effect is generally more in the presence of oxygen. Most microorganisms are relatively radioresistant. Various tissues of an animal differ in their response to radiation. Catgut is not stable to irradiation. Lyophilized human serum is stable to irradiation whereas, when irradiated in aqueous solutions, several changes are observed. Generally, pharmaceuticals are considerably more stable in the dry solid state to ionizing radiations than in aqueous solutions or in any other form of molecular aggregation. (author)

  6. Biological Complexities in Radiation Carcinogenesis and Cancer Radiotherapy: Impact of New Biological Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozdarani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although radiation carcinogenesis has been shown both experimentally and epidemiologically, the use of ionizing radiation is also one of the major modalities in cancer treatment. Various known cellular and molecular events are involved in carcinogenesis. Apart from the known phenomena, there could be implications for carcinogenesis and cancer prevention due to other biological processes such as the bystander effect, the abscopal effect, intrinsic radiosensitivity and radioadaptation. Bystander effects have consequences for mutation initiated cancer paradigms of radiation carcinogenesis, which provide the mechanistic justification for low-dose risk estimates. The abscopal effect is potentially important for tumor control and is mediated through cytokines and/or the immune system (mainly cell-mediated immunity. It results from loss of growth and stimulatory and/or immunosuppressive factors from the tumor. Intrinsic radiosensitivity is a feature of some cancer prone chromosomal breakage syndromes such as ataxia telangectiasia. Radiosensitivity is manifested as higher chromosomal aberrations and DNA repair impairment is now known as a good biomarker for breast cancer screening and prediction of prognosis. However, it is not yet known whether this effect is good or bad for those receiving radiation or radiomimetic agents for treatment. Radiation hormesis is another major concern for carcinogenesis. This process which protects cells from higher doses of radiation or radio mimic chemicals, may lead to the escape of cells from mitotic death or apoptosis and put cells with a lower amount of damage into the process of cancer induction. Therefore, any of these biological phenomena could have impact on another process giving rise to genome instability of cells which are not in the field of radiation but still receiving a lower amount of radiation. For prevention of radiation induced carcinogenesis or risk assessment as well as for successful radiation

  7. Biological effects of radiation and estimation of risk to radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The biological effects of radiation have three stages: physical, chemical and biological. A precise mathematical description of biological effects and of one-to-one correspondence between the initial energy absorption and final effect has not been possible, because several factors are involved in biological effects and their manifestation period varies from less than one second to several years. The mechanism of biological radiation effects is outlined. The two groups of these effects are (1) immediate and (2) delayed. The main aim of radiation protection programme is to eliminate the risk of non-stochastic effects to an acceptable level. The mean annual dose for 30,000 radiation workers in India is 2.7 m Sv. Estimated risk of fatal cancer from this dose is about 50 cases of cancer per year per million workers which is well below the ICRP standard for safe occupation stipulated at fatality rate less than or equal to 100 per year per milion workers. When compared with risk in other occupations, the risk to radiation workers is much less. (M.G.B.)

  8. View of environmental radiation effects from the study of radiation biology in C. elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans is a non-parasitic soil nematode and is well-known as a unique model organism, because of its complete cell-lineage, nervous network and genome sequences. Also, C. elegans can be easily manipulated in the laboratory. These advantages make C. elegans as a good in vivo model system in the field of radiation biology. Radiation effects in C. elegans have been studied for three decades. Here, I briefly review the current knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing irradiation in C. elegans with a scope of environmental radiation effects. Firstly, basic information of C. elegans as a model organism is described. Secondly, historical view is reported on the study of radiation biology in C. elegans. Thirdly, our research on learning behavior is presented. Finally, an opinion of the use of C. elegans for environmental radiation protection is referred. I believe that C. elegans may be a good promising in vivo model system in the field of environmental radiation biology. (author)

  9. Routine medicare and radiation exposure (3) biology about radiation exposure for its understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tsutomu; Hirata, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced biological responses are easily explained as follows. The process of cancer formation is on the hypothesis of multi-step carcinogenesis of the initiation, promotion and progression. Radiation is an exogenous physical initiator. Physical process of ionization in biomaterials by radiation occurs within the time of 10 -12 sec order, which resulting in chemical process (10 -6 sec) leading to tissue response or to cancerous change (several tens hours to several decades). Direct and indirect effects on DNA are yielded with the high LET (linear energy transfer) radiation and low, through OH-radical formation, respectively. Double strand break of DNA induced by radiation is repaired by the error-free homologous recombination or error-prone non-homologous end-joining. At the early phase of the damage, DNA damage response begins to work for repairing, and when the response is inoperable, cellular response is induced to lead radiation apoptosis as an exclusion mechanism of abnormal cells. The biological effects differ even at the same dose of different radiations when their LET is different, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used. For correction of the stochastic radiation effect, the radiation weighting factor (W R ) is used for conversion to the single photon beam dose that ICRP defines as the equivalent dose (H T , Sv). ICRP (Pub. 103) also recommends the use of RBE (Gy) for the definitive effect. Radiation effects are known to be modified by such phenomena as the bystander effect, cluster damage of DNA, radiation adaptation, hormesis, dose rate effect and non-tumor inducing dose. ICRP employs linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for low dose and low dose rate carcinogenesis. (T.T.)

  10. Biological imaging in radiation therapy: role of positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Ursula; Hentschel, Michael; Grosu, Anca-Ligia [Departments of Radiation Oncology, University of Freiburg, Robert Koch Str. 3, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Weber, Wolfgang [Nuclear Medicine, University of Freiburg, Robert Koch Str. 3, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ursula.nestle@uniklinik-freiburg.de

    2009-01-07

    In radiation therapy (RT), staging, treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation of response are traditionally based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These radiological investigations have the significant advantage to show the anatomy with a high resolution, being also called anatomical imaging. In recent years, so called biological imaging methods which visualize metabolic pathways have been developed. These methods offer complementary imaging of various aspects of tumour biology. To date, the most prominent biological imaging system in use is positron emission tomography (PET), whose diagnostic properties have clinically been evaluated for years. The aim of this review is to discuss the valences and implications of PET in RT. We will focus our evaluation on the following topics: the role of biological imaging for tumour tissue detection/delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) and for the visualization of heterogeneous tumour biology. We will discuss the role of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in lung and head and neck cancer and the impact of amino acids (AA)-PET in target volume delineation of brain gliomas. Furthermore, we summarize the data of the literature about tumour hypoxia and proliferation visualized by PET. We conclude that, regarding treatment planning in radiotherapy, PET offers advantages in terms of tumour delineation and the description of biological processes. However, to define the real impact of biological imaging on clinical outcome after radiotherapy, further experimental, clinical and cost/benefit analyses are required. (topical review)

  11. Biological imaging in radiation therapy: role of positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Ursula; Weber, Wolfgang; Hentschel, Michael; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2009-01-07

    In radiation therapy (RT), staging, treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation of response are traditionally based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These radiological investigations have the significant advantage to show the anatomy with a high resolution, being also called anatomical imaging. In recent years, so called biological imaging methods which visualize metabolic pathways have been developed. These methods offer complementary imaging of various aspects of tumour biology. To date, the most prominent biological imaging system in use is positron emission tomography (PET), whose diagnostic properties have clinically been evaluated for years. The aim of this review is to discuss the valences and implications of PET in RT. We will focus our evaluation on the following topics: the role of biological imaging for tumour tissue detection/delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) and for the visualization of heterogeneous tumour biology. We will discuss the role of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in lung and head and neck cancer and the impact of amino acids (AA)-PET in target volume delineation of brain gliomas. Furthermore, we summarize the data of the literature about tumour hypoxia and proliferation visualized by PET. We conclude that, regarding treatment planning in radiotherapy, PET offers advantages in terms of tumour delineation and the description of biological processes. However, to define the real impact of biological imaging on clinical outcome after radiotherapy, further experimental, clinical and cost/benefit analyses are required.

  12. Exotic harmful algae in marine ecosystems : an integrated biological-economic-legal analysis of impacts and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, JCJM; Nunes, PALD; Dotinga, HM; Kooistra, WHCF; Vrieling, EG; Peperzak, L

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are the cause of important damages to marine living resources and human beings. HABs are generated by micro-algae. These marine species are primarily introduced through ballast water of ships and, to a lesser extent, through import of living fish, in particular shellfish.

  13. Radiation Biology: A Handbook for Teachers and Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the radiobiology of normal tissues and tumours is a core prerequisite for the practice of radiation oncology. As such the study of radiobiology is mandatory for gaining qualification as a radiation oncologist in most countries. Teaching is done partly by qualified radiobiologists in some countries, and this is supplemented by teaching from knowledgeable radiation oncologists. In low and middle income (LMI) countries the teachers are often radiation oncologists and/or medical physicists. In Europe, a master's course on radiobiology is taught jointly by a consortium of five European Universities. This is aimed at young scientists from both Western and Eastern Europe, training in this discipline. Recently the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) initiated the launch of a radiobiology teaching course outside Europe (Beijing, 2007; Shanghai, 2009). Radiation protection activities are governed by many regulations and recommendations. These are based on knowledge gained from epidemiological studies of health effects from low as well as from high dose radiation exposures. Organizations like the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have put a lot of effort into reviewing and evaluating the biological basis to radiological protection practices. Personnel being trained as future radiation protection personnel should have a basic understanding of the biological and clinical basis to the exposure limitations that they are subject to and that they implement for industrial workers and the public at large. It is for these reasons that aspects of Radiobiology related to protection issues are included in this teaching syllabus. In LMI countries, many more teachers are needed in radiobiology, and the establishment of regional training centres or special regional training courses in radiobiology, are really the only options to solve the obvious deficit in knowledge of radiobiology in such countries. Radiobiology teaching

  14. Radiation biological technology for preservation of agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryasheva, A.

    1988-01-01

    A study is reported on the food irradiation procedures experimented in the Moskow Institute for National Economy. The effect of gamma radiation on the quality, mass loss and storage life of fruits and vegetables is investigated. The combined effect of several biological and environmental factors on the microorganisms affecting foodstuffs are discussed. The influence of dose rate is illustrated quantitatively for different species of fruits and vegetables. 3 tabs., 6 refs

  15. Biological effects of ionizing radiation; Efectos biologicos de la radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  16. Radiation processing of biological tissues for nuclear disaster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A number of surgical procedures require tissue substitutes to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Allograft tissues provide an excellent alternative to autografts. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission via tissue allografts is a major concern. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Radiation processing has well appreciated technological advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. Radiation processed biological tissues can be provided by the tissue banks for the management of injuries due to a nuclear disaster. A nuclear detonation will result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Radiation processed tissues have the potential to repair or reconstruct damaged tissues and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. (author)

  17. Biological mechanisms of radiation effects; Biologische Mechanismen der Strahlenwirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, S.; Doerr, W. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, ATRAB - Angewandte und Translationale Radiobiologie, Univ.-Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wien (Austria)

    2017-07-15

    Exposure to ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes is inevitable in modern medicine. The therapeutic application of irradiation is highly effective against cancer; however, this implies exposure of normal tissue structures to significant doses of radiation. Diagnostic or therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation can result in tissue changes and tumor induction in the long term. Knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying these effects is essential for individualization of the application. This article examines the biological mechanisms at the tissue and molecular level, the clinical manifestation of radiation effects, dose-dependence of the risk and the temporal progression as well as influencing factors. The time course of the reaction of tissues to radiation exposure extends over wide ranges up to many decades. The effects of radiation on tissues are classified into early and late and their pathobiology is significantly different. Various factors (R) influencing the clinical manifestation of radiation effects have been identified related to the exposure pattern. The radiation tolerance of normal tissue structures regarding the induction of functional deficits shows great variation but always has a threshold value, which is usually not exceeded in diagnostic procedures. The risk of a radiation-induced fatal malignancy (total body exposure 5%/Gy) for a medical administration of radiation must be considered as very low in comparison to the natural risks. Informed consent of patients must reflect this in a balanced way. (orig.) [German] Eine Exposition mit ionisierender Strahlung fuer diagnostische Zwecke ist in der modernen Medizin unumgaenglich. Bei einer Tumorerkrankung ist die therapeutische Anwendung dieser Strahlung hoch effektiv. Dies impliziert immer eine Exposition normaler Gewebestrukturen mit signifikanten Strahlendosen. Die diagnostische oder therapeutische Exposition mit ionisierender Strahlung kann langfristig zu Gewebeveraenderungen und

  18. Overview. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology. Section 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    1995-01-01

    The activities of the Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology in 1994 cover the following goals: application of fission neutrons to cancer therapy, studies on neutron efficiency to induce mutation and chromosomal damage, study on the formula for alteration of the repair process observed in case of gene mutation in TSH assay, investigation of new methods for more accurate measurements of molecular and cellular damage caused by radiation and environmental agents and studies on possible improvement in the application of different radiation sources to clinical cancer therapy. In this section of the Annual Report, the description of the mentioned activities as well as the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given

  19. Synchrotron radiation. 4. Analyses of biological samples using synchrotron radiation. 3. Research on radiation damage to DNA using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Kaoru

    1998-01-01

    This review described how the synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to solve problems unknown hitherto in radiation biology. Historically, the target substance of UV light in bacterial death was suggested to be nucleic acid in 1930. Researches on the radiation damage to DNA were begun at around 1960 and have mainly used UV light, X-ray and γray. Soft X-ray and vacuum UV whose energy covering from several eV to scores of keV have not been used since UV and X-ray lack the energy of this range. This is one of reasons why detailed process leading to radiation-induced death, carcinogenicity and mutation has not been known hitherto. RS possesses wide range of energy, i.e., from UV to hard X-ray, of high intensity, which is helpful for studying the unknown problems. The RS studies were begun in nineteen-seventies. Those include the action spectrum studies and atomic target studies. In the former, the course of the effect, e.g., the mechanism of DNA double strand breakage, can be elucidated. In the latter, photon of known energy can be irradiated to the specified atom like phosphorus in DNA which elucidating the precise physicochemical process of the breakage. Use of RS in these studies is thought still meaningful in future. (K.H.) 62 refs

  20. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohankumar, M.N.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author)

  1. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohankumar, M N; Jeevanram, R K [Safety Research and Health Physics Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1996-12-31

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author). 98 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Personal recollections of radiation biology research at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of the Hanford biology programme over a period of nearly five decades. The programme began in the 1940s with a focus on understanding the potential health effects of radionuclides such as 131 I associated with fallout from the atomic bomb. These studies were extended in the 1950s to experiments on the toxicity and metabolism of plutonium and fission products such as 90 Sr and 137 Cs. In the 1960s, a major long term project was initiated on the inhalation toxicology and carcinogenic effects of plutonium oxide and plutonium nitrate in dogs and rodents. The project remained a major effort within the overall Hanford biology programme throughout the 1970s and 1980s, during which time a broad range of new projects on energy-related pollutants, radon health effects, and basic radiation biology were initiated. Despite the many evolutionary changes that have occurred in the Hanford biology programme, the fundamental mission of understanding the effects of radiation on human health has endured for nearly five decades. (author)

  3. Biological responses to low dose rate gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, Junji; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2003-01-01

    Linear non-threshold (LNT) theory is a basic theory for radioprotection. While LNT dose not consider irradiation time or dose-rate, biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose. Moreover, experimental and epidemiological studies that can evaluate LNT at low dose/low dose-rate are not sufficiently accumulated. Here we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, dose-rate and irradiation time using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells as indicators of biological responses. We also acquired quantitative data at low doses that can evaluate adaptability of LNT with statistically sufficient accuracy. Our results demonstrate that biological responses at low dose-rate are remarkably affected by exposure time, and they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in long-term irradiation. We also found that change of biological responses at low dose was not linearly correlated to dose. These results suggest that it is necessary for us to create a new model which sufficiently includes dose-rate effect and correctly fits of actual experimental and epidemiological results to evaluate risk of radiation at low dose/low dose-rate. (author)

  4. IAEA activities related to radiation biology and health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, Jan; Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA is involved in capacity building with regard to the radiobiological sciences in its member states through its technical cooperation programme. Research projects/programmes are normally carried out within the framework of coordinated research projects (CRPs). Under this programme, two CRPs have been approved which are relevant to nuclear/radiation accidents: (1) stem cell therapeutics to modify radiation-induced damage to normal tissue, and (2) strengthening biological dosimetry in IAEA member states. (note)

  5. Radiation and man - evaluation of biological and environmental low level radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riklis, E.

    1977-01-01

    The harmful effects of acute radiation cannot be resolved by statistical means and require clearer knowledge of mechanisms of action and much wider collection of human experience before any definite sound stand can be taken. Much information has accumulated from animal experiments, and still the interpretations are not always clearcut, but for human experience it is only the occasional accident which can give a direct answer. Some of the phenomena attributed to low dose radiation are summarized. There are regions of radiation exposure about which we have only limited positive knowledge, an all low-dose risk estimates have been based on effects observed at relatively high doses. Much information has been gathered which does not support the severity of former basic principles, especially our knowledge of mechanisms of repair existing in most cells as natural defence against the damages caused by radiation as well as by many chemicals which act as mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. Understanding these mechanism, their scope of action and their availability to a damaged cell and organism will lead towards modification of the acceptable permissible exposures, in some cases towards severity, but in most cases towards leniency and higher values. For the evaluation of the effects of low level low dose-rate radiations, whether external, or from internal deposition of isotopes, only late somatic and genetic effects should be considered. (B.G.)

  6. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  7. Flow cytometric life cycle analysis in cellular radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Three approaches to flow cytometric histogram analysis were developed: (1) differential histogram analysis, (2) DNA histogram analysis, and (3) multiparameter data analysis. These techniques were applied to an important unresolved problem in radiation biology. The initial responses to irradiation of a mammalian cell which occur during the first two cell cycles following the irradiation are of considerable interest to the radiation biologist. During the first two post-irradiation cell cycles, cells which ultimately will survive repair radiation-induced damage, while some cells begin to express some of the radiation-induced nuclear and chomatin damage. Caffeine- and thymidine-treated, and untreated gamma-irradiated cell populations were studied with respect to the radiation-induced G2 delay, deficient DNA synthesis, and the appearance of cells with abnormal DNA contents. It is hypothesized that the measured deficiency in DNA synthesis observed in the first post-irradiation cell cycle may be a result of daughter cells from abnormal first post-irradiation mitoses

  8. Complex systems of biological interest stability under ionising radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclot, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    This PhD work presents the study of stability of molecular systems of biological interest in the gas phase after interaction with ionising radiations. The use of ionising radiation can probe the physical chemistry of complex systems at the molecular scale and thus consider their intrinsic properties. Beyond the fundamental aspect, this work is part of the overall understanding of radiation effects on living organisms and in particular the use of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. Specifically, this study focused on the use of low-energy multiply charged ions (tens of keV) provided by the GANIL (Caen), which includes most of the experiments presented. In addition, experiments using VUV photons were also conducted at synchrotron ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). The bio-molecular systems studied are amino acids and nucleic acid constituents. Using an experimental crossed beams device allows interaction between biomolecules and ionising radiation leads mainly to the ionization and fragmentation of the system. The study of its relaxation dynamics is by time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled to a coincidences measurements method. It is shown that an approach combining experiment and theory allows a detailed study of the fragmentation dynamics of complex systems. The results indicate that fragmentation is generally governed by the Coulomb repulsion but the intramolecular rearrangements involve specific relaxation mechanisms. (author) [fr

  9. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, David G.; Grimm, Jan; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Perez, Bradford A.; Santiago, Philip M.; Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results: The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers fivefold. Conclusions: Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer.

  10. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ``biological fingerprint`` of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  11. The biological effects of exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios for exposure to ionising radiation range from natural background radiation (chronic) to the explosions of atomic bombs (acute), with some medical, industrial and research exposures lying between these extremes. Biological responses to radiation that predominate at high doses incurred at high dose rates are different from those that predominate at low doses and low dose rates. Single doses from bomb explosions ranged up to many thousand mGy. Acute doses greater than about 1000 mGy cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Below this threshold, radiation has a variety of potential latent health effects: Change to the incidence of cancer is the most usual subject of attention but change to longevity may be the best overall measure because decreased incidences of non-cancer mortality have been observed to coincide with increased incidence of cancer mortality. Acute doses greater than 500 mGy cause increased risks of cancer and decreased life expectancy. For doses less than 100 mGy, beneficial overall health effects ('radiation hormesis') have been observed. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic exposure to natural radiation has occurred throughout evolution and is necessary for the normal life and health of current species. Dose rates greater than the present global average of about 2 mGy per year have either no discernible health effect or beneficial health effects up to several hundred mGy per year. It is clearly not credible that a single health effects model -- such as the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of risk estimation -- could fit all latent health effects. A more realistic model is suggested.

  12. Relative biological effectiveness if alpha radiation for human lung exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoshenko, I.; Kirdin, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The concept of RBE, which introduced by ICRP and ICRU about 50 years ago to compare biological effects of ionizing radiation of different types, still continues to be the essential element of current and projected radiation protection systems in terms of deriving quantities (quality factor and radiation weighting factor). For example, RBE for the stochastic effects induction has to be considered for appropriate radiation weighting of the absorbed dose while estimating equivalent dose. Simulation of lung cancer radiation risk for the cases of inhalation of radon progeny and incorporation of plutonium in lung in comparison with external reference radiation allows assessment of RBE for alpha-radiation. Specific radiation risk models were developed by results of the direct epidemiological studies and used for such simulation. Simulation included published risk models for nuclear workers of the Mayak facilities in the former Soviet Union exposed to incorporated plutonium (Kreisheimer et al., 2003; Gilbert et al., 2004) and underground miners exposed to radon progenies (BEIR VI, 1999). Additionally lung cancer risk model was developed for a case of population indoor radon exposure. Lung cancer risk related to external exposure is estimated using the risk model develop ed using data of Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. By results of lifetime lung cancer risk simulation using Monte Carlo approach estimated median value of RBE in case of indoor radon exposure is 1.5 (with 90% range 0.4 to 7). In case of the two models developed by BEIR VI for lung cancer risk due to radon exposure in underground miners the median values of RBE are 2.1 and 4.4 (with 90% ranges 0.3 to 17 and 0.7 to 45) respectively.Two different models for lung cancer risk related to plutonium exposure resulted in close estimates of RBE: median value of 12 and 13 (with 90% range 4 to 104 and 4 to 136) respectively. Considerable discrepancy between RBE

  13. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure; Biologische Wirkungen niedriger Dosen ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  14. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology: Progress report, December 1, 1987-November 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.; Delegianis, M.J.

    1988-07-01

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiation therapy. At the current level of funding, approximately one quarter of the research of the Laboratory could be regarded as in support of radiotherapy, with the remainder addressing more basic issues. The new initiatives have been in two directions. First, there has been an increased emphasis on research in radiation chemistry, inasmuch as this subject which involves the study of free radicals and fast radiation chemistry processes starts to bridge the gap between physics and biology, between the initial deposition of radiant energy and its final expression in terms of biological consequences. Second, the emphasis in the biological research has moved towards studies at the molecular level, with the appointment of new members of staff with expertise in this area. Individual chapters were processed separately for the data base

  15. Studies on the Promotion of Biological Application by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Y. C.; Kuk, I. H.; Song, H. S.

    2006-03-01

    Radiation Technology (RT) has been widely used in most of all fields of industries, medical, bioresources, food and agriculture, public hygiene, and environment. Therefore, its application has been also researched in various parts. For industrialization of the developed technology, not only the application technology will be developed, but the accurate dosimetry and improvement of the services of irradiation practice should be performed as soon as possible. Evaluation of effects and reaction mechanism of biological materials by irradiation was performed in this year in the long term research planning. The researches and experiments were well performed and the good results were obtained. The results may be donated in the progress of radiation biology and the new establishment on the application of RT. Also, one of the results was the evaluation of the structural changes of biomolecules and its application in the fields of food and biotechnology industries. Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI) will be well settled down and promotion of research activity of newly established institute by the fundamental support of KAERI. And, ARTI can get the goal where the vision of the hub of RT in Asia/Pacific region by 2020

  16. Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment. Nerve cells respond particularly well to IR, which has been proposed for a range of neurostimulation and neuromodulation applications, and recent progress in neural stimulation and regeneration are discussed in this review. The applications of IR therapy have moved on rapidly in recent years. For example, IR therapy has been developed that does not actually require an external power source, such as IR-emitting materials, and garments that can be powered by body heat alone. Another area of interest is the possible involvement of solar IR radiation in photoaging or photorejuvenation as opposites sides of the coin, and whether sunscreens should protect against solar IR? A better understanding of new developments and biological implications of IR could help us to improve therapeutic effectiveness or develop new methods of PBM using IR wavelengths. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Pardo, M.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon 11801 Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: memp@nuclear.inin.mx; Ley-Chavez, E. [ISSEMYM Toluca, Mexico DF (Mexico); Reyes-Frias, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon 11801 Mexico DF (Mexico); Rodriguez-Ferreyra, P. [Hospital ' Dr. Nicolas San Juan' , Toluca, Mexico DF (Mexico); Vazquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M.A. [Hospital General de Mexico, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is 'Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation'. At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  18. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  19. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Pardo, M.E.; Ley-Chavez, E.; Reyes-Frias, M.L.; Rodriguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vazquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is 'Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation'. At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders

  20. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  1. Assessment of radiation safety awareness and attitude toward biological effect of radiation for employees in nuclear workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngchuay, U.; Jetawattana, S.; Toeypho, V.; Eso, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrated a potential relevance of data pertaining to the interaction of awareness in radiation biology and their attitude towards radiation hazards. The obtained information is useful in ascertaining the effectiveness of the ongoing radiation safety program and will be further used to determine the relationships between the radiation effective dose and cytogenetic approach in these groups of workers. (author)

  2. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  3. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde; Smith, Jim T.; Ford, Alex T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  4. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Ford, Alex T., E-mail: alex.ford@port.ac.uk [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  5. Biological efficiency of interaction between various radiation and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Yu, Dong Han; Lee, Byoung Hun; Petin, Vladislav G.; Geras'kin, Stanislav A.; Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina; Panek, Agnieszka; Wiechec, Anna

    2004-06-01

    This research project has been carried out jointly with INP (Poland) to develop technologies to assess the biological efficiency of interaction between radiation and chemicals. Through the cooperative project, KAERI and INP have established wide variety of bioassay techniques applicable to radiation bioscience, human monitoring, molecular epidemiology and environmental science. The joint experiment, in special, made it possible to utilize the merits of both institutes and to upgrade and verify KAERI's current technology level. All results of the cooperative research will be jointly published in high standard scientific journals listed in the Science Citation Index (SCI), which can make the role of fundamental basis for improving relationship between Korea and Poland. Research skills such as Trad-MCN assay, SCGE assay, immunohistochemical assay and molecular assay developed through joint research will be further elaborated and will be continuously used for the collaboration between two institutes

  6. Radiation exposure and the woman worker: biological and legal parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The interpretation of federal and state legislation and regulations concerning the radiation protection of women in the workplace has not been a clear and straightforward procedure. On one hand, the safety of all workers, independent of sex, imposes a specific directive for the enforcement of working standards in general. On the other hand, must allowance be made in setting radiation standards for the particular biological characteristics of workers, some of whom are women. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act provides equal employment opportunity for women and is now being enforced. All legal questions aside, men and women are decidedly different in one aspect; only women can conceive and carry a fetus and studies have shown that, in humans, the most radiosensitive stage of the fetus is during the first trimester of pregnancy. Possible legal and socio-economic aspects of questions posed by the employment of women by the nuclear industry are considered

  7. Epigenetics in radiation biology: a new research frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Sural

    2014-01-01

    The number of people that receive exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) via occupational, diagnostic, or treatment-related modalities is progressively rising. It is now accepted that the negative consequences of radiation exposure are not isolated to exposed cells or individuals. Exposure to IR can induce genome instability in the germ line, and is further associated with transgenerational genomic instability in the off spring of exposed males. The exact molecular mechanisms for transgenerational genome instability have yet to be elucidated, although there is support for it being an epigenetically induced phenomenon. This review is centered on the long-term biological effects associated with IR exposure, mainly focusing on the epigentic mechanisms and also some facts about whether dental radiology (IOPA, OPG, CT, MRI, CBCT) can lead to carcinogenesis. (author)

  8. Biological rhythms for rehabilitation of radiation damage of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, T.G.; Vasil'eva, G.S.; Efimov, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Considerable disturbances in biological eurhythmycal structure of redoracu were discovered for people living in Borodulikha area of the Semipalatinsk test site. The deep desynchronise may result in a development of the cardiovascular, bronco-pulmonary, endocrine, oncologic, neuro psychic diseases. A method to correct the biological eurhythmycal structure was developed. Homeopathic doses of melatonin ('rhythm driver' managing the most regenerating and immune systems) and uthynol (promoting production of dehydroepiandrosterone of maternal prehormone of 27 hormones) were used to provide the general correction. The endocrine diseases are not practically subjected to the homeopathic correction. The sub correction was sometimes carried out after 5 months. The developed methods of rehabilitation of the radiation damages are unique, since they allow performing the homeopathic correction using the acupuncture monitoring

  9. UV and vacuum-UV biological spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Amando Siuiti

    1996-01-01

    Full text. Synchrotron radiation has been used as light source in the UV and VUV region for the study of many biological systems. In the time domain, measurements are made that allow the observation of dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules like proteins and peptides, using the fluorescent properties of either intrinsic or extrinsic probes. Optical activity of groups inside biomolecules allows the use of circular dichroism techniques to generate structural information and to follow processes like protein folding. Confocal scanning of synchrotron light generates microscopy resolution below 100 nm, allowing the creation of high quality three dimensional images of biological samples, and the collection of fluorescence originated from microvolumes inside the samples. We propose a station at LNLS for these three techniques: time-resolved fluorescence, circular dischroism and confocal microscopy, using UV and VUV light. (author)

  10. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Castano, S.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1990-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study ol chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y =α + β 1 D + β 2 D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 14 refs

  11. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navlet Armenta, J.M.; Gonzalez, S.; Silva, A.

    1990-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haemathological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study of chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 o C has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y = α+β 1 D+β 2 D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author)

  12. Which benefits and harms of preoperative radiotherapy should be addressed? A Delphi consensus study among rectal cancer patients and radiation oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunneman, Marleen; Pieterse, Arwen H.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Marijnen, Corrie A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: We previously found considerable variation in information provision on preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) in rectal cancer. Our aims were to reach consensus among patients and oncologists on which benefits/harms of PRT should be addressed during the consultation, and to assess congruence with daily clinical practice. Materials and methods: A four-round Delphi-study was conducted with two expert panels: (1) 31 treated rectal cancer patients and (2) 35 radiation oncologists. Thirty-seven possible benefits/harms were shown. Participants indicated whether addressing the benefit/harm was (1) essential, (2) desired, (3) not necessary, or (4) to be avoided. Consensus was assumed when ⩾80% of the panel agreed. Results were compared to 81 audio-taped consultations. Results: The panels reached consensus that six topics should be addressed in all patients (local control, survival, long term altered defecation pattern and faecal incontinence, perineal wound healing problems, advice to avoid pregnancy), three in male patients (erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, infertility), and four in female patients (vaginal dryness, pain during intercourse, menopause, infertility). On average, less than half of these topics were addressed in daily clinical practice. Conclusions: This study showed substantial overlap between benefits/harms that patients and oncologists consider important to address during the consultation, and at the same time poor congruence with daily clinical practice

  13. Vanguards of paradigm shift in radiation biology. Radiation-induced adaptive and bystander responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (below 100 mSv) are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation, using a linear no-threshold model (LNT model). However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose/low dose-rate radiation than they do to high dose/high dose-rate radiation. In other words, there are accumulated findings which cannot be explained by the classical ''target theory'' of radiation biology. The radioadaptive response, radiation-induced bystander effects, low-dose radio-hypersensitivity, and genomic instability are specifically observed in response to low dose/low dose-rate radiation, and the mechanisms underlying these responses often involve biochemical/molecular signals that respond to targeted and non-targeted events. Recently, correlations between the radioadaptive and bystander responses have been increasingly reported. The present review focuses on the latter two phenomena by summarizing observations supporting their existence, and discussing the linkage between them from the aspect of production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. (author)

  14. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ON BRAIN TISSUE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Đinđić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microwave radiation induces multiple organ dysfunctions, especially in CNS.The aim of this work was investigation of biological effects of microwave radiation on rats' brain and determination of increased oxidative stress as a possible pathogenetic's mechanism.Wis tar rats 3 months old were divided in experimental (4 female and 4 male animal and control group (5 female and 4 male. This experimental group was constantly exposed to a magnetic field of 5 mG. We simulated using of mobile phones 30 min every day. The source of NIR emitted MF that was similar to mobile phones at 900 MHz. The rats were killed after 2 months. Biological effects were determined by observation of individual and collective behavior and body mass changes. Lipid per oxidation was determined by measuring quantity of malondialdehyde (MDA in brain homogenate.The animals in experimental group exposed to EMF showed les weight gain. The most important observations were changing of basic behavior models and expression of aggressive or panic behavior. The content of MDA in brain tissue is singificantly higher (1.42 times in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields (3,82±0.65 vs. control 2.69±0.42 nmol/mg proteins, p<0.01.Increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation after exposition in EM fields induced disorders of function and structure of brain.

  15. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48 V and 62 Zn. (author)

  16. Comparative biological hazards of chemical pollutants and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical pollutants from conventional energy and industrial sources released to the environment presumably pose a hazard to man's health and environmental resources. Insufficient knowledge of their detailed mechanisms of interaction with the biological systems seems to provide the greatest drawback in current attempts for realistic assessment of the health risks of chemical pollutants in the short and long terms. Nevertheless, their detrimental health consequences are becoming more and more apparent as a result of recent epidemiological surveys of workers in conventional energy installations and of the chronically exposed general public. So far nuclear power has succeeded in achieving a remarkable health safety record. In view of its projected expansion, research on biological effects of low-level radiation and radionuclides should continue to re-evaluate the health safety consequences. However, a projection from past experiences together with continued efforts to improvements of health safety aspects seem to justify an expectation that the proposed expansions in the nuclear power programme should not have an unfavourable impact on the environment. The potential hazards and challenges from the associated radiation in man's environment have proved manageable. More attention now needs to be paid urgently to safeguard human health and environment against the chemical pollutants

  17. Comparative biological hazards of chemical pollutants and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, R N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1978-06-01

    Chemical pollutants from conventional energy and industrial sources released to the environment presumably pose a hazard to man's health and environmental resources. Insufficient knowledge of their detailed mechanisms of interaction with the biological systems seems to provide the greatest drawback in current attempts for realistic assessment of the health risks of chemical pollutants in the short and long terms. Nevertheless, their detrimental health consequences are becoming more and more apparent as a result of recent epidemiological surveys of workers in conventional energy installations and of the chronically exposed general public. So far nuclear power has succeeded in achieving a remarkable health safety record. In view of its projected expansion, research on biological effects of low-level radiation and radionuclides should continue to re-evaluate the health safety consequences. However, a projection from past experiences together with continued efforts to improvements of health safety aspects seem to justify an expectation that the proposed expansions in the nuclear power programme should not have an unfavourable impact on the environment. The potential hazards and challenges from the associated radiation in man's environment have proved manageable. More attention now needs to be paid urgently to safeguard human health and environment against the chemical pollutants.

  18. Biological indicators for the assessment of a radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement of the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes, though a useful method of biological dosimetry, is techious, difficult to carry out, and time-consuming. It is most appropriate for an assessment of the probability of late damage of low doses up to 20 rad. The many attempts at using biochemical indicators for the absorbed dose have not had satisfactory results so far. Morphological changes especially of the peripheral blood cells and bone narrow cells are a sure sign of a radiolesion. However, there is the problem of quantitative measurement of these processes which has made it impossible so far to elaborate a useful biological dosimetry on this basis. Apart from the analysis of peripheral lymphocytes and leucocythes, there are three new approaches of potential value: 1. Analysis of up to 19 clinical and chemical parameters of the blood serum, - it gives a rough estimate of the probability of lethality of high prognostic value. 2. Observation of the peripheral reticulocyte count - a quick and rather uncomplicated method that does not require specific laboratories. 3. Measurement of the rate of incorporation of labelled iododeoxyuridine in bone narrow cells of radiation-exposed persons or in cell cultures in a medium containing serum of radiation-exposed persons; this method appears promising for the narrow dose range and also raises same questions concerning basic research into intercellular signal substances. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation

  20. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  1. Biological basis of combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yokoyama, Kumiko; Okuyama, Shinichi; Yamaura, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The biological basis for combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin (BLM) was studied on C 2 W cells growing in vitro. When BLM was added to the medium before or after irradiation, a potentiating effect was observed. The potentiation remained for 4-6 hours after irradiation. To make clear the mechanism, both type of repair from radiation damage (Elkind type and PLD) by BLM were examined. BLM didn't inhibit the Elkind type recovery but it did inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD repair). Plateau phase C 2 W cells were irradiated, incubated at 37 0 C for a various number of hours, then trypsinized for colony formation. PLD repair was inhibited when BLM was added immediately after irradiation. Based on such experimental results, we treated lung cancer with combination of radiation and BLM. BLM was injected intravenously within 30 minutes after irradiation. Although it seems too early to discuss the result of the combination therapy, it is very promising. (J.P.N.)

  2. Biological basis of combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H; Matsuzawa, T; Yokoyama, K; Okuyama, S; Yamaura, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1976-01-01

    The biological basis for combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin (BLM) was studied on C/sub 2/W cells growing in vitro. When BLM was added to the medium before or after irradiation, a potentiating effect was observed. The potentiation remained for 4-6 hours after irradiation. To make clear the mechanism, both type of repair from radiation damage (Elkind type and PLD) by BLM were examined. BLM didn't inhibit the Elkind type recovery but it did inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD repair). Plateau phase C/sub 2/W cells were irradiated, incubated at 37/sup 0/C for a various number of hours, then trypsinized for colony formation. PLD repair was inhibited when BLM was added immediately after irradiation. Based on such experimental results, we treated lung cancer with combination of radiation and BLM. BLM was injected intravenously within 30 minutes after irradiation. Although it seems too early to discuss the result of the combination therapy, it is very promising.

  3. Health and biological effects of non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Seze, R.; Souques, M.; Aurengo, A.; Bach, V.; Burais, N.; Cesarini, J.P.; Cherin, A.; Decobert, V.; Dubois, G.; Hours, M.; Lagroye, I.; Leveque, Ph.; Libert, J.P.; Lombard, J.; Loos, N.; Mir, L.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Thuroczy, G.; Wiart, J.; Lehericy, St.; Pelletier, A.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Douki, Th.; Guibal, F.; Tordjman, I.; Gaillot de Saintignon, J.; Collard, J.F.; Scoretti, R.; Magne, I.; Veyret, B.; Katrib, J.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations. Sixteen presentations out of 17 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - NMR: biological effects and implications of Directive 2004/40 on electromagnetic fields (S. Lehericy); 2 - impact of RF frequencies from mobile telephone antennas on body homeostasis (A. Pelletier); 3 - expression of stress markers in the brain and blood of rats exposed in-utero to a Wi-Fi signal (I. Lagroye); 4 - people exposure to electromagnetic waves: the challenge of variability and the contribution of statistics to dosimetry (J. Wiart); 5 - status of knowledge about electromagnetic fields hyper-sensitivity (J.P. Marc-Vergnes; 6 - geno-toxicity of UV radiation: respective impact of UVB and UVA (T. Douki); 7 - National day of prevention and screening for skin cancers (F. Guibal); 8 - UV tan devices: status of knowledge about cancer risks (I. Tordjman, and J. Gaillot de Saintignon); 9 - modulation of brain activity during a tapping task after exposure to a 3000 μT magnetic field at 60 Hz (M. Souques and A. Legros); 10 - calculation of ELF electromagnetic fields in the human body by the finite elements method (R. Scoretti); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field (I. Magne); 12 - LF and static fields, new ICNIRP recommendations: what has changed, what remains (B. Veyret); 13 - risk assessment of low energy lighting systems - DELs and CFLs (J.P. Cesarini); 14 - biological effects to the rat of a chronic exposure to high power microwaves (R. De Seze); 15 - theoretical and experimental electromagnetic compatibility approaches of active medical implants in the 10-50 Hz frequency range: the case of implantable cardiac defibrillators (J. Katrib); French physicians and electromagnetic fields (M. Souques). (J.S.)

  4. Radioprotection, biological effects of the radiations and security in the handling of radioactive material

    CERN Document Server

    Teran, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of the philosophy of the radioprotection is dependent on the understanding of the effects of the radiation in the man. Behind the fact that the radiation is able to produce biological damages there are certain factors with regard to the biological effects of the radiations that determine the boarding of the radioprotection topics.

  5. Biology panel: coming to a clinic near you. Translational research in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, Elizabeth L.; Thames, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    The explosion of knowledge in molecular biology coupled with the rapid and continuing development of molecular techniques allow a new level of research in radiation biology aimed at understanding the processes that govern radiation damage and response in both tumors and normal tissues. The challenge to radiation biologists and radiation oncologists is to use this knowledge to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of human tumors by rapidly translating these new findings into clinical practice. This panel will focus on both sides of the therapeutic ratio coin, the manipulation of tumor control by manipulating the processes that control cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, and the reduction of normal tissue morbidity by applying the emerging information on the genetic basis of radiosensitivity. Apoptosis is a form of cell death believed to represent a minor component of the clinical effects of radiation. However, if apoptosis is regulated by anti-apoptotic mechanisms, then it may be possible to produce a pro-apoptotic phenotype in the tumor cell population by modulating the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic mechanisms by pharmacological intervention. Thus signaling-based apoptosis therapy, designed to overcome the relative resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis, may improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of human tumors. The explosion of information concerning cell cycle regulation in both normal and tumor cells has provided the opportunity for insights into the mechanism of action of chemotherapeutic agents that can act as radiosensitizers. The second talk will explore the hypothesis that the dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoints in some cancers can be exploited to improve the therapeutic index of radiation sensitizers, specifically the fluoropyrimidines which appear to act at the G1/S transition. Finally, efforts to increase tumor control will be translated into clinical practice only if such treatments do not increase the complication

  6. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1985-November 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.

    1986-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Radiological Research Laboratory of the Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University. The bulk of the research of the Laboratory involves basic and fundamental aims, not confined to radiotherapy. Research carried out in the Laboratory covers the determination of microdosimetry quantities, computer simulation of particle tracks, determination of oncogenic transformation, and the transfection of DNA into cells. The Hallmark of the Laboratory is the interaction between physics and biology

  7. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, October 1, 1982-November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    A wide range of research is carried out at the Radiological Research Laboratory, from computer simulation of particle tracks to the determination of oncogenic transformation in mammalian cells. Mechanistic studies remain the central mission in an attempt to understand the biological action of ionizing radiations. Collaborative research is carried out on the use of radiosensitizers on chemosensitizers on the effect of hormones on oncogenic transformation and on cataractogenesis

  8. Continuing training program in radiation protection in biological research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, R.; Hidalgo, R.M.; Usera, F.; Macias, M.T.; Mirpuri, E.; Perez, J.; Sanchez, A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in biological research has many specific characteristics. A great variety of radioisotopic techniques involve unsealed radioactive sources, and their use not only carries a risk of irradiation, but also a significant risk of contamination. Moreover, a high proportion of researchers are in training and the labor mobility rate is therefore high. Furthermore, most newly incorporated personnel have little or no previous training in radiological protection, since most academic qualifications do not include training in this discipline. In a biological research center, in addition to personnel whose work is directly associated with the radioactive facility (scientific-technical personnel, operators, supervisors), there are also groups of support personnel The use of ionizing radiation in biological research has many specific characteristics. A great variety of radioisotopic techniques involve unsealed radioactive sources, and their use not only carries a risk of irradiation, but also a significant risk of contamination. Moreover, a high proportion of researchers are in training and the labor mobility rate is therefore high. Furthermore, most newly incorporated personnel have little or no previous training in radiological protection, since most academic qualifications do not include training in this discipline. In a biological research center, in addition to personnel whose work is directly associated with the radioactive facility (scientific-technical personnel, operators, supervisors), there are also groups of support personnel maintenance and instrumentation workers, cleaners, administrative personnel, etc. who are associated with the radioactive facility indirectly. These workers are affected by the work in the radioactive facility to varying degrees, and they therefore also require information and training in radiological protection tailored to their level of interaction with the installation. The aim of this study was to design a

  9. 13th AINSE radiation biology conference: conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The forty one papers presented at this conference covered the areas of radiation induced lesions, apoptosis, genetics and radiobiological consequences of low level radiation exposure, clinical applications of radiation, mammalian cells radiosensitivity and radiation-activated proteins

  10. Biological dose assessment of 15 victims in Haerbin radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian-xiang; Huang, Min-yan; Ruan, Jian-lei; Bai, Yu-shu; Xu, Su

    2008-01-01

    Full text: a) On July 5 and 8, 2005, Two patients with bone marrow suppression were successively hospitalized by the First Affiliated Hospital of Haerbin Medical University. Examination results showed that the patients seemed to get suspicious radiation disease. On July 13, 2005, a radioactive source was found in the patients' dwelling. The radiation source is Iridium-192 with 0.5 Ci(1.85 x 10 10 Bq) radioactivity. The radiation source is a metal bar which is a kind of radioactive industrial detection source for welding. The source is currently stored in the urban radioactive waste storehouse of Heilongjiang province. After finding the radioactive source on July 13, The Haerbin municipal government initiated an emergency response plan and developed medical rescue, radioactive source examination and case detection through organizing ministries involving health, environmental protection and public security. After receiving a report at 17:00 on July 14, 2005, Chinese Ministry of Health immediately sent experts to the spot for investigation, dose estimation and direction of patients' rescue. Health authority carried out physical examination twice on 113 residents within 30 meters to the source, among which 4 got radiation sickness, 5 showed abnormal hemotogram, and others showed no abnormal response. Of 4 patients with radiation sickness, one 81 year old patient has died of severe bone marrow form of sub acute radiation sickness coupled with lung infection and prostrate apparatus at 13:00 on Oct., 20. Two children have been treated in Beitaiping Road Hospital in Beijing, another patient has been treated in local hospital. b) Biological dosimetry using conventional chromosome aberration analysis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has been shown as a reliable and useful tool in medical management of radiation accident victims. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of the victims were cultured using conventional culture medium with colchicine added at the beginning. Chromosome

  11. The relative biological effectiveness of radiations of different quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a review of the literature relevant to the selection of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for use in arriving at values of the quality factor (Q). Emphasis is placed on response to small ( M . In a wide variety of systems, the RBE M for fast (fission) neutrons, with low doses and dose rates, appears to be of the order of 20 or more compared to moderately filtered 250 kVp x rays and 40 or more compared to higher energy gamma rays. These values, which are much larger than those observed with large doses delivered at high dose rates, are due mainly, but not entirely, to a decrease in the slope of the curve for the ow-LET reference radiation at low dose

  12. Synchrotron radiation and structure biology. From the instrumentation view point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakabe, N.

    1996-01-01

    Structure Biology is based on a three dimensional macromolecule structures, the most of which are studied by x-ray crystal structure analysis. Synchrotron radiation X-rays are quite strong, tunable, very parallel and pico-second order bunch and are very suitable for diffraction data collection of macromolecular crystals. To collect accurate data at high resolution from large unit cell protein crystals using SR, we made screenless large Weissenberg cameras with imaging plates at the PF. 146 research projects using this data collection system were running in 1995. They include 51 projects from 11 overseas countries. Recently we have developed user-friendly type Weissenberg camera for the structure biology project of TARA (Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance), and installed it at BL6B of the PF. Cylindrical cassette radius of this new camera is 575.7mm and two large format (400x800mm) imaging plates (IP) can be fixed into the cassette by suction from back side. However, the system is not automatic and manual tasks to be performed are heavy. Therefore an automation of the system is very urgent to maintain accuracy and resolution. We are now developing a high accuracy, high resolution and high speed automated data collection system. This fully automated system consists of a camera, an IP reader equipped with 8 reading heads, an IP eraser, and a cassette transportation mechanism. In the new system, one imaging plate is fixed inside of a movable cylindrical cassette. The cassette presenting 16 rectangular holes, direct beam injection of i.e. 1.0A X-rays would produce 8 images of data at 2.6A resolutions. As 2 cassettes can be used simultaneously on the cassette transportation system, one cassette is being read while the other one is being exposed, therefore completely removing the reading bottleneck problem. This system therefore permits to use the radiation with the maximum of efficiency, and reduce the manpower necessary for data recording. (author)

  13. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem.

  14. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem

  15. Biological activities caused by far-infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoué, Shojiro; Kabaya, Morihiro

    1989-09-01

    Contrary to previous presumption, accumulated evidence indicates that far-infrared rays are biologically active. A small ceramic disk that emist far-infrared rays (4 16 μm) has commonly been applied to a local spot or a whole part of the body for exposure. Pioneering attempts to experimentally analyze an effect of acute and chronic radiation of far-infrared rays on living organisms have detected a growth-promoting effect in growing rats, a sleep-modulatory effect in freely behaving rats and an insomiac patient, and a blood circulation-enhancing effect in human skin. Question-paires to 542 users of far-infrared radiator disks embedded in bedelothes revealed that the majority of the users subjectively evaluated an improvement of their health. These effects on living organisms appear to be non-specifically triggered by an exposure to far-infrared rays, which eventually induce an increase in temperature of the body tissues or, more basically, an elevated motility of body fluids due to decrease in size of water clusters.

  16. Scientific projection paper on biologic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.

    1980-01-01

    There is widespread knowledge about the effects of radiation in human populations but the studies have had some limitations which have left gaps in our knowledge. Most populations have had exposure to high doses with little information on the effect of dose rate. The characteristics of the populations have been restricted by the location of the disaster, the occupational limitations, or the basic risks associated with the under-lying disease for which radiation was given. All doses have been estimated and such values are subject to marked variability particularly when they rely on sources of data such as hospital records. The biological data although extensive have several deficits in information. Which are the sites in which cancer is produced by irradiation and what are the cell types which are produced. The sensitivity of various tissues and organs are not similar and it is important to rank them according to susceptibility. This has been done in the past but the results are not complete for all cell types and organs. The temporal patterns for tumor development, the latent period, the period of expressed excess, the life-time risks need to be defined more precisely for the cancers. Many populations have not been followed long enough to express the complete risk

  17. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Final report, October 1, 1971--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, H.H.; Hall, E.J.

    1978-02-01

    Research under Contract EY-76-C-02-3243 has been carried out in the area of Radiation Physics, Biophysics and Radiation Biology. During the period of this contract the major accomplishments include, in Physics, the refinement of tissue equivalent dosimetry, the formulation of the concepts of microdosimetry, the development of apparatus used in microdosimetry, and the development of ionization chambers with internal gas multiplication. Principal contributions in Radiobiology have included the determination of RBE and OER as a function of neutron energy, the study of combined effects of radiation and a variety of other agents, and the investigation of the transformation of cells in tissue culture. Theoretical research centered around the development of the theoretical framework of microdosimetry and the establishment of the Theory of Dual Radiation Action. In a cooperative effort with Brookhaven National Laboratory, a major accelerator facility dedicated exclusively to Radiobiology and Radiation Physics, has been developed. Members of the laboratory have performed extensive service to national and international organizations

  18. Effect of high linear energy transfer radiation on biological membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, D.; Srivastava, M.; Kale, R.K.; Sarma, A.

    1998-01-01

    Cellular membranes are vital elements, and their integrity is extremely essential for the viability of the cells. We studied the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the membranes. Rabbit erythrocytes (1 x 10 7 cells/ml) and microsomes (0.6 mg protein/ml) prepared from liver of rats were irradiated with 7 Li ions of energy 6.42 MeV/u and 16 O ions of energy 4.25 MeV/u having maximum LET values of 354 keV/μm and 1130 keV/μm, respectively. 7 Li- and 16 O-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation was found to increase with fluence. The 16 O ions were more effective than 7 Li ions, which could be due to the denser energy distribution in the track and the yield of free radicals. These findings suggested that the biological membranes could be peroxidized on exposure to high-LET radiation. Inhibition of the lipid peroxidation was observed in the presence of a membrane-active drug, chlorpromazine (CPZ), which could be due to scavenging of free radicals (mainly HO. and ROO.), electron donation, and hydrogen transfer reactions. The 7 Li and 16 O ions also induced hemolysis in erythrocytes. The extent of hemolysis was found to be a function of time and fluence, and showed a characteristic sigmoidal pattern. The 16 O ions were more effective in the lower fluence range than 7 Li ions. These results were compared with lipid peroxidation and hemolysis induced by gamma-radiation. (orig.)

  19. Study on the radiation-induced biological responses based on the analysis of metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Haeran; Roh, Changhyun; Shin, Heejune; Ryu, Dongkyoung

    2013-01-15

    1. Objectives □ Establishment of basis of biological radiation response study by metabolite analysis 2. Project results □ Establishment of analytical basis of radiation-responsive metabolites in biological samples - Large scale collection of tissue samples from irradiated animal for radiation metabolomics research - Establishment of mass spectromety (GC MS, LC MS-MS) analysis methods of biological samples - 3 Standard Operation Protocols (SOP) for ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS, Q-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites from biological samples - Establishment of database for radiation metabolites □ Basic research on radiation-responsive metabolites and the interpretation of their functions - Validation of spermidine as a candidate biomarker of acute radiation response in mouse blood - Verification of 5 radiation-responsive steroid hormones and alteration of their metabolic enzyme activities in mouse blood - Verification of 13 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain -Verification of 10 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain - Verification of 74 radiation-responsive metabolites in whole rat brain by ultra high resolution FT-ICR MS and Q-TOF MS analysis 3. Expected benefits and plan of application □ Establishment of research basis of radiation metabolomics in Korea □ Provision of core technology in radiation bioscience and safety field by application of radiation metabolomics results to the technology development in radiation biodosimetry, and radiation response evaluation and modulation.

  20. Study on the radiation-induced biological responses based on the analysis of metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Haeran; Roh, Changhyun; Shin, Heejune; Ryu, Dongkyoung

    2013-01-01

    1. Objectives □ Establishment of basis of biological radiation response study by metabolite analysis 2. Project results □ Establishment of analytical basis of radiation-responsive metabolites in biological samples - Large scale collection of tissue samples from irradiated animal for radiation metabolomics research - Establishment of mass spectromety (GC MS, LC MS-MS) analysis methods of biological samples - 3 Standard Operation Protocols (SOP) for ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS, Q-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites from biological samples - Establishment of database for radiation metabolites □ Basic research on radiation-responsive metabolites and the interpretation of their functions - Validation of spermidine as a candidate biomarker of acute radiation response in mouse blood - Verification of 5 radiation-responsive steroid hormones and alteration of their metabolic enzyme activities in mouse blood - Verification of 13 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain -Verification of 10 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain - Verification of 74 radiation-responsive metabolites in whole rat brain by ultra high resolution FT-ICR MS and Q-TOF MS analysis 3. Expected benefits and plan of application □ Establishment of research basis of radiation metabolomics in Korea □ Provision of core technology in radiation bioscience and safety field by application of radiation metabolomics results to the technology development in radiation biodosimetry, and radiation response evaluation and modulation

  1. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  2. Radiation efficacy and biological risk from whole-breast irradiation via intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desantis, David M.

    Radiotherapy is an established modality for women with breast cancer. During the delivery of external beam radiation to the breast, leakage, scattered x-rays from the patient and the linear accelerator also expose healthy tissues and organs outside of the breast, thereby increasing the patient's whole-body dose, which then increases the chance of developing a secondary, radiation-induced cancer. Generally, there are three IntensityModulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery techniques from a conventional linear accelerator; forward planned (FMLC), inverse planned 'sliding window' (DMLC), and inverse planned 'step-and-shoot' (SMLC). The goal of this study was to determine which of these three techniques delivers an optimal dose to the breast with the least chance of causing a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer. A conventional, non-IMRT, 'Wedge' plan also was compared. Computerized Tomography (CT) data sets for both a large and small sized patient were used in this study. With Varian's Eclipse AAA algorithm, the organ doses specified in the revised ICRP 60 publication were used to calculate the whole-body dose. Also, an anthropomorphic phantom was irradiated with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) at each organ site for measured doses. The risk coefficient from the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII report of 4.69 x 10-2 deaths per Gy was used to convert whole-body dose to risk of a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer. The FMLC IMRT delivered superior tumor coverage over the 3D conventional plan and the inverse DMLC or SMLC treatment plans delivered clinically equivalent tumor coverage. However, the FMLC plan had the least likelihood of inadvertently causing a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer compared to the inverse DMLC, SMLC, and Wedge plans.

  3. Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  5. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  6. Biological and sanitary effects of non ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugere, H.; Hours, M.; Seze, R. de; Bernier, M.; Letertre, Th.; Aurengo, A.; Burais, N.; Bedja, M.; Merckel, O.; Decat, G.; Lagroye, I.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier de Gannes, F.; Aurengo, A.; Souques, M.; Cesarini, J.P.; Lagroye, I.; Aurengo, A.; Cesarini, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this day was to encourage the collaborations, especially multidisciplinary, on the biological, clinical, epidemiological and dosimetry aspects. The different presentations are as follow: the magneto reception among animals; the health and radio frequencies foundation; expo-metry to radio frequency fields: dosemeters evaluation; the electro-optical probes as tool of hyper frequency dosimetry; characterisation of emissions produced by the low consumption fluo-compact lamps in the perspective of persons exposure; strong and weak points of epidemiology; numerical dosimetry in low frequency magnetic and/or electric field; exposure of the French population to the 50 Hz magnetic field: first results for the Ile-de-france and Rhone alpes areas; characterisation of the exposure to the very low frequency magnetic fields in the town of Champlan; measurement of the residential exposure of children to the extremely low frequency, very low frequency and radiofrequency (E.L.F., V.L.F. and R.F.) fields and modeling of the high voltage magnetic field face to the child leukemia; effects of radiofrequency signals of wireless communications on the young animals; study of combined effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves and a known mutagen on DNA by two different approaches; effects on the oxidizing stress of nervous cells exposure to an (enhanced data rates for GSM evolution) E.D.G.E. signal; is environmental epidemiology still a science; cardiac implants and exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields in occupational environment; the tanning by artificial UV radiation: norms and legislation; mobiles phones, Wi Fi and other wireless communications; effects on health of 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields; natural and artificial ultraviolet radiations: a proved risk. (N.C.)

  7. Stochastic biological response to radiation. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tohru; Hirabayashi, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Authors explain that the radiation effect on biological system is stochastic along the law of physics, differing from chemical effect, using instances of Cs-137 gamma-ray (GR) and benzene (BZ) exposures to mice and of resultant comprehensive analyses of gene expression. Single GR irradiation is done with Gamma Cell 40 (CSR) to C57BL/6 or C3H/He mouse at 0, 0.6 and 3 Gy. BE is given orally at 150 mg/kg/day for 5 days x 2 weeks. Bone marrow cells are sampled 1 month after the exposure. Comprehensive gene expression is analyzed by Gene Chip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array (Affymetrix) and data are processed by programs like case normalization, statistics, network generation, functional analysis etc. GR irradiation brings about changes of gene expression, which are classifiable in common genes variable commonly on the dose change and stochastic genes variable stochastically within each dose: e.g., with Welch-t-test, significant differences are between 0/3 Gy (dose-specific difference, 455 pbs (probe set), in stochastic 2113 pbs), 0/0.6 Gy (267 in 1284 pbs) and 0.6/3 Gy (532 pbs); and with one-way analysis of variation (ANOVA) and hierarchial/dendrographic analyses, 520 pbs are shown to involve the dose-dependent 226 and dose-specific 294 pbs. It is also shown that at 3 Gy, expression of common genes are rather suppressed, including those related to the proliferation/apoptosis of B/T cells, and of stochastic genes, related to cell division/signaling. Ven diagram of the common genes of above 520 pbs, stochastic 2113 pbs at 3 Gy and 1284 pbs at 0.6 Gy shows the overlapping genes 29, 2 and 4, respectively, indicating only 35 pbs are overlapping in total. Network analysis of changes by GR shows the rather high expression of genes around hub of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) at 0.6 Gy, and rather variable expression around CREB hub/suppressed expression of kinesin hub at 3 Gy; in the network by BZ exposure, unchanged or low expression around p53 hub and suppression

  8. Physical grounds for biological effect of laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinov, A N

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to the understanding of biological activity caused by low-intensity laser radiation, in which coherence is a factor of paramount importance, has been developed. It is based on the dipole interaction of gradient laser fields with cells, organelles and membranes. The laser intensity gradients in an object arise due to the interference of the light scattered by the tissue with the incident light beam (speckle formation). Apart from speckles, different types of light spatial modulation can be created deliberately using different schemes for beam interference. It is shown that gradient laser fields may cause spatial modulation of the concentration of particles and increase their 'partial temperature'. This paper presents the results of experimental observation of trapping of different types of particles, including human lymphocytes, in the interference fields of the He-Ne laser. The sweep-net effect on particles of different sizes on moving the laser field is demonstrated and crystal-like self-organization of particles in the laser gradient field is observed. The influence of gradient laser fields on erythrocyte rouleaus, on the apoptosis of human lymphocytes as well as on their chromosome aberrations is demonstrated. It may be concluded from the experimental studies that the influence of an interference laser field with a rightly chosen period can stimulate the repair system of a cell, increasing its viability

  9. Biological effect of focal alpha radiation on the hamster lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.; Prine, J.R.; Holland, L.M.; Richmond, C.R.

    1975-11-01

    Monodispersed 10-μm diameter ZrO 2 ceramic microspheres, containing varying amounts of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , were injected into the jugular vein of 100-day-old Syrian hamsters. These biologically inert microspheres lodged subsequently in pulmonary capillaries and remained static in position throughout the life span of the animals with no discernible inflammatory response. The numbers of microspheres injected ranged from 2000 to 10,000 and the specific activity from 0 to 59 pCi/sphere so that the lung burdens were 0 to 354 nCi/animal. At these numbers, each plutonium-laden microsphere served as an independent, focal source of alpha radiation. No consistent alteration of life spans post-exposure was seen in the experimental hamsters compared to controls. Pulmonary tissue responses were minimal with only 0.5 percent of the animals given Pu/ZrO 2 microspheres ultimately developing primary tumors of the lung. No unexpected gross or histologic lesion were found in other major body tissues

  10. Metabolomics in Radiation-Induced Biological Dosimetry: A Mini-Review and a Polyamine Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhyun Roh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we elucidate that polyamine metabolite is a powerful biomarker to study post-radiation changes. Metabolomics in radiation biodosimetry, the application of a metabolomics analysis to the field of radiobiology, promises to increase the understanding of biological responses by ionizing radiation (IR. Radiation exposure triggers a complex network of molecular and cellular responses that impacts metabolic processes and alters the levels of metabolites. Such metabolites have potential as biomarkers for radiation dosimetry. Among metabolites, polyamine is one of many potential biomarkers to estimate radiation response. In addition, this review provides an opportunity for the understanding of a radiation metabolomics in biodosimetry and a polyamine case study.

  11. Molecular biology in radiation oncology. Radiation oncology perspective of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are used to illustrate the application of molecular biology to clinical radiation oncology. Identified by linkage analysis and cloned, the structure of the genes and the numerous mutations are determined by molecular biology techniques that examine the structure of the DNA and the proteins made by the normal and mutant alleles. Mutations in the non-transcribed portion of the gene will not be found in protein structure assays and may be important in gene function. In addition to potential deleterious mutations, normal polymorphisms of the gene will also be detected, therefore not all differences in gene sequence may represent important mutations, a finding that complicates genetic screening and counseling. The localization of the protein in the nucleus, the expression in relation to cell cycle and the association with RAD51 led to the discovery that the two BRCA genes may be involved in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The defect in DNA repair can increase radiosensitivity which might improve local control using breast-conserving treatment in a tumor which is homozygous for the loss of the gene (i.e., BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes). This is supported by the early reports of a high rate of local control with breast-conserving therapy. Nonetheless, this radiosensitivity theoretically may also lead to increased susceptibility to carcinogenic effects in surviving cells, a finding that might not be observed for decades. The susceptibility to radiation-induced DNA damage appears also to make the cells more sensitive to chemotherapy. Understanding the role of the normal BRCA genes in DNA repair might help define a novel mechanism for radiation sensitization by interfering with the normal gene function using a variety of molecular or biochemical therapies

  12. Towards biologically conformal radiation therapy (BCRT): Selective IMRT dose escalation under the guidance of spatial biology distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Xing Lei

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the spatial biology distribution (e.g., clonogen density, radiosensitivity, tumor proliferation rate, functional importance) in most tumors and sensitive structures is heterogeneous. Recent progress in biological imaging is making the mapping of this distribution increasingly possible. The purpose of this work is to establish a theoretical framework to quantitatively incorporate the spatial biology data into intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) inverse planning. In order to implement this, we first derive a general formula for determining the desired dose to each tumor voxel for a known biology distribution of the tumor based on a linear-quadratic model. The desired target dose distribution is then used as the prescription for inverse planning. An objective function with the voxel-dependent prescription is constructed with incorporation of the nonuniform dose prescription. The functional unit density distribution in a sensitive structure is also considered phenomenologically when constructing the objective function. Two cases with different hypothetical biology distributions are used to illustrate the new inverse planning formalism. For comparison, treatments with a few uniform dose prescriptions and a simultaneous integrated boost are also planned. The biological indices, tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), are calculated for both types of plans and the superiority of the proposed technique over the conventional dose escalation scheme is demonstrated. Our calculations revealed that it is technically feasible to produce deliberately nonuniform dose distributions with consideration of biological information. Compared with the conventional dose escalation schemes, the new technique is capable of generating biologically conformal IMRT plans that significantly improve the TCP while reducing or keeping the NTCPs at their current levels. Biologically conformal radiation therapy (BCRT

  13. Influence of vitamins on cytostatic drugs: radiation-chemical and radiation-biological investigations in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, E.

    2002-03-01

    Many environmental burdens (air pollution, formation of ozone etc.), humans nowadays are exposed to, in connection with unhealthy way of living promote the formation of free radicals e.g. OH and peroxylradicals in the organism. Those show an enormous cell-damaging effect, and can weaken the immune system or cause cancer diseases. The number of humans suffering from different forms of cancer is rising world-wide. Therefore it is necessary to find new and better therapy forms for this illness. The organism has its own protective system, which is able to capture free radicals and make them innocuous to a large extent. Apart from various enzyme systems the antioxidizing vitamins C (ascorbic acid), E (α-tocopherol) and β-carotin play an important role in this process. Now it was of interest whether vitamin B1 (thiamine) also possesses the ability to work as a radiation protector or to influence the effect of different cytostatic drugs. In the context of this thesis the radiation-chemical and radiation-biological behaviour of vitamin B1 was examined under different conditions (in presence and absence of oxygen as well as in media saturated with N 2 O). HPLC analysis were performed to establish radiolysis products. Furthermore the synergistic effect of vitamin B1 on cytostatic drugs (sanazole, mitomycin C) was studied alone or in combination with other vitamins (C, E and β-carotin) by using two different E. coli bacteria strains as a model for living systems. (author)

  14. The radiation biology of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) produces a complex mixture of high and low-LET radiations in tissue. Using data on the biological effectiveness of these various dose components, derived primarily in small animals irradiated with thermal neutrons, it has been possible to express clinical BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units. The accuracy of these calculated doses in normal tissue and tumor will be reviewed. Clinical trials are underway at a number of centers. There are differences in the neutron beams at these centers, and differences in the details of the clinical protocols. Ideally, data from all centers using similar boron compounds and treatment protocols should be compared and combined, if appropriate, in a multi-institutional study in order to strengthen statistical analysis. An international dosimetry exchange is underway that will allow the physical doses from the various treatment centers to be quantitatively compared. As a first step towards the comparison of the clinical data, the normal brain tolerance data from the patients treated in the initial Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Harvard/MIT BNCT clinical trials have been compared. The data provide a good estimate of the normal brain tolerance for a somnolence syndrome endpoint, and provide guidance for setting normal brain tolerance limits in ongoing and future clinical trials. Escalation of the dose in BNCT can be accomplished by increasing the amount of the boron compound administered, increasing the duration of the neutron exposure, or both. The dose escalations that have been carried out to date at the various treatment centers will be compared and contrasted. Possible future clinical trials using BNCT in combination with other modalities will be discussed

  15. The need for and the importance of biological indicators of radiation effects with special reference to injuries in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.; Bianco, A.

    1982-01-01

    The need for further research on the existing and new biological indicators of radiation injury has been expressed. The studies on the radiation-induced alterations of membrane structure and function stimulated investigations aiming to develop an indicator based on membrane-phenomena. The co-ordinated research programme on ''Cell Membrane Probes as Biological Indicators of Radiation Injury in Radiation Accidents'' was initiated in mid 1977 and terminated in 1980. Within this programme many basic observations were made in connection with altered features of various animal and human cell membranes. Molecular, biophysical, biochemical and cell biological approaches were performed. The rapid reaction within minutes or hours of membranes against relatively low doses of various types of irradiations were described and the effects proved to be transitory, i.e. membrane regeneration occurred within hours. These dose- and timedependent alterations suggest the possibility of developing a biological indicator which would give signals at the earliest period after radiation injury when no other biological informations are available. The importance of a system of biological indicators is emphasized. (author)

  16. Cytogenetic techniques as biological indicator and dosimeter of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, V.; Hristova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The cytogenetic methods are established techniques for bio monitoring and bio dosimetry of professionally and accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation subjects. They are applied to continue the evaluation of the physical dosimetry and to consider the individual radiosensitivity. The results of cytogenetic monitoring and dosimetry of radiation exposed subjects carried out during the last 5 years in laboratory of Radiation Genetics, NCRRP is reported. Laboratory of Radiation genetics performs cytogenetic monitoring of low dose radiation professionally or medically exposed subjects: workers in Kozloduy NPP, radioactive waste repository workers, X-rays diagnostically exposed patients, and radiotherapy exposed as well. Three cytogenetic indicators are applied as the most sensitive indicators for human radiation exposure: analysis of micronuclei (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and stable translocations (FISH). The optimized methodology for application of different cytogenetic techniques for radiation estimation is discussed

  17. Current status of biological indicators to detect and quantify previous exposures to radiation. Biological Indicators Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.; Eisele, G.; Burr, W. Jr.; Hubner, K.; Wachholz, B.

    1991-01-01

    Hematologic changes following whole-body exposure to gamma or x-ray radiation have been used to estimate dose. The usefulness of this biological indicator is limited because of the recovery of these cells with time, thus making it unsuitable for estimation of dose years after exposure. The same is true for spermatogenic indicators; recovery and restoration of sperm numbers and fertility makes this biological indicator impractical for assessing radiation dose decades after radiation exposure. As noted in the text of the report, immunological concepts are in a state of rapid development, and it is possible that improved methods for applying immunologic procedures as biological indicators of radiation may be developed in the future. However, at the time, immunological indicators are not useful, even in an early time period, for quantitating radiation dose after total-body irradiation. A semiquantitative effect is observable in the early phase after total-body irradiation over a period of days to weeks, but there is little data available to indicate whether any of the immunological parameters can be indicative of a dose when the test is applied several years after radiation exposure. More detailed information regarding immunological indicators for estimating irradiation dose has been summarized elsewhere (Wasserman 1986). There is good agreement that ionizing radiation causes biochemical changes in the body; however, attempts to apply these changes to provide a reliable biological dosimetry system have not been particularly successful. The status of this research has been summarized by Gerber (1986). One of the difficulties has been the problem of establishing clear dose-effect relationships in humans. The lack of specificity in the response for radiation is another problem

  18. Protection provided by criminal law against hazards of nuclear energy and the harmful effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.

    1989-01-01

    The subjects, principles and purpose of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law are set out, and criminal offences under atomic energy law are outlined explaining the legal terminology applied. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radioactive materials are briefly discussed, primarily looking at the hazards involved and the protective role of criminal law principles that have been developed in connection with the atomic energy law and its application in practice. The draft version of the 16th criminal law amendment act - Act to combat environmental delinquency - is discussed, which aims at adoption of all criminal offences under atomic energy law by the Criminal Code. The book furthermore presents considerations about basic features of delinquency under atomic energy and radiation protection law, revealing elements and facts of offences defined, and particular problems resulting thereof. The question arises, e.g., whether an incorporation of the provisions into the Special Annex to the Criminal Code, in sections 27 and 28, is a wise and suitable decision. The book finally discusses the development of definition of criminal offences by a de lege feranda approach, referring to (1) the Chernobyl reactor accident, (2) the Nuclear Safeguards agreements, and (3) the definition of maximum permissible radiation dose. (HP) [de

  19. The applications of microdosimetry in radiation biology study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eunhee

    2002-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms by which the ionizing radiation causes these damages, the spatial patterns of interaction and energy deposition by radiations should be explained in cellular level. All the descriptions of the physical process of radiation interaction and energy transfer in cellular or microscopic scale constitute the field of microdosimetry. The underlying motivations of microdosimetry study range from the efficient control of the radiation protection measures to the improvement of the diagnostic and therapeutic effectiveness in medical applications of radiation. The major quantity in the conventional radiation dosimetry or the macroscopic dosimetry is the 'absorbed dose' defined as the mean value of the possible energy depositions per unit mass of the target. With the microscopic targets such as cells and subcellular organelles, the average quantity can not represent the radiation actions on the targets any more because of the inhomogeneous and stochastic nature in radiation interaction with matter. The essence of microdosimetry is to study the fluctuation of energy deposition in a microscopic volume and its deviation from the mean value attributed to the inherent randomness of radiation interactions with matter

  20. Confronting actual influence of radiation on human bodies and biological defense mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Junko

    2012-01-01

    After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, social, economical, psychological pressures on local residents and fears of radiation among the general public have not been resolved. Based on the assumption that the negligence of specialists to clearly explain the influence of radiation on human bodies to the general public is the factor for above mentioned pressures and fears, the influence of radiation from a realistic view was discussed. The topics covered are: (1) understanding the meaning of radiation regulation, (2) radiation and threshold values, (3) actual influence of low-dose radiation, (4) chemical and biological defense in defense mechanism against radiation, (5) problems raised by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. Furthermore, the article explains the principles and the applications of biological defense function activation, and suggested that self-help efforts to fight against stress are from now on. (S.K.)

  1. Epidemiology Without Biology: False Paradigms, Unfounded Assumptions, and Specious Statistics in Radiation Science (with Commentaries by Inge Schmitz-Feuerhake and Christopher Busby and a Reply by the Authors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Bill; Meyerson, Gregory; Siegel, Jeffry A

    Radiation science is dominated by a paradigm based on an assumption without empirical foundation. Known as the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, it holds that all ionizing radiation is harmful no matter how low the dose or dose rate. Epidemiological studies that claim to confirm LNT either neglect experimental and/or observational discoveries at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels, or mention them only to distort or dismiss them. The appearance of validity in these studies rests on circular reasoning, cherry picking, faulty experimental design, and/or misleading inferences from weak statistical evidence. In contrast, studies based on biological discoveries demonstrate the reality of hormesis: the stimulation of biological responses that defend the organism against damage from environmental agents. Normal metabolic processes are far more damaging than all but the most extreme exposures to radiation. However, evolution has provided all extant plants and animals with defenses that repair such damage or remove the damaged cells, conferring on the organism even greater ability to defend against subsequent damage. Editors of medical journals now admit that perhaps half of the scientific literature may be untrue. Radiation science falls into that category. Belief in LNT informs the practice of radiology, radiation regulatory policies, and popular culture through the media. The result is mass radiophobia and harmful outcomes, including forced relocations of populations near nuclear power plant accidents, reluctance to avail oneself of needed medical imaging studies, and aversion to nuclear energy-all unwarranted and all harmful to millions of people.

  2. Biological effects of very low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseev, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    The paper deals with a qualitative microdosimetric analysis of a new radiobiological phenomenon (physiological reaction of the cell as a whole to very low doses of ionizing radiations). The analysis is aimed at identifying the type of the primary interaction of radiation with the cell and finding its place in the cell

  3. Radiations from GSM Base Stations and its Biological Effects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    All rights reserved ... radiofrequency radiations on albino mice placed in exposure cages and ... information in Nigeria on the possible effects of the .... The slides were left to dry on the hot plate ... potential health effect of the RF radiations. It is also a pointer to the need for .... The telecommunication industry is an essential.

  4. Thyroid cancer due to biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvão, T.; Castro, N.; Teixeira, D.; Matuo, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is considered the most common in the region of the head and neck. It can be caused by spontaneous mutations, but also by ionizing radiation. The effect of ionizing radiation on the thyroid has been studied for several decades. The exact cause of the cancer is not known, but people with certain risk factors are more vulnerable, such as exposure to radiation, family history and age over 40 years. The thyroid is susceptible to the effects of radiation and is involved in the field of diagnostic or therapeutic irradiation, and may present functional and structural changes. Radiation can act in different ways, such as inhibiting or activating specific functions of the follicular epithelium, reducing the number of functioning follicles, altering vascularization or vascular permeability and inducing immune reactions. These morphological and histological changes may be related to the development of thyroid cancer

  5. Biological Effects of Interaction between Radiation and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Kyung Man; Han, Min; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    The organisms are exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Radiation is known to cause cell death, mainly due to its ability to produce reactive oxygen species in cells. The combined action between radiation and various chemicals is a distinguishing feature of modern life. Mercury chloride is a widespread environmental pollutant that is known to have toxic effects. Synergistic effects of radiation and HgCl{sub 2} on human cells was previously reported. NAC is a well-known sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant whose role in radioprotection has been explored in several studies. There has been an increasing interest of studying the role of NAC as a radioprotective substance. The present study was designed not only to assess the synergistic effects between radiation and HgCl{sub 2}, but also to investigate protective effects of NAC on cells.

  6. Life sciences: Nuclear medicine, radiation biology, medical physics, 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA dealing with Life Sciences issued during the period 1980-1994. The publications are grouped in the following chapters: Nuclear Medicine (including Radiopharmaceuticals), Radiation Biology and Medical Physics (including Dosimetry)

  7. Radiation physics and biology: Progress report for period December 1, 1986-November 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, J.S.

    1987-04-01

    This annual report describes progress made on 14 individual research projects. These projects fall naturally into theoretical biophysics, experimental microdosimetry and radiation biology. Each project has been separately abstracted for the Energy Data Base

  8. A Model for Protective Behavior Against the Harmful Effects of Radiation for Radiological Technologists in Medical Radiological Technologists in Medical Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Moon, In Ok

    2009-01-01

    Protective behavior of radiological technologists against radiation exposure is important to achieve reduction of the patient doses without compromising medical achievements. This study attempts to provide a basic model for the sophisticated intervention strategy that increases the level of the protective behavior of the technologists. The model was applied to real situations in Korea to demonstrate its utility. The results of this study are summarized as follows: First, the protective environment showed the highest relationship in the factors considered, r=0.637 (p<0.01). Secondly, the important factors were protective environment in environment characteristics, expectation for the protective behavior 0.228 (p<0.001), self efficacy 0.142 (p<0.001), and attitude for the protective behavior 0.178 (p<0.001) in personal characteristics, and daily patient -0.112 (p<0.001) and number of the participation in the education session for the protective behavior 0.074 (p<0.05). Thirdly, the final protective behavior model by a path analysis method had direct influence on the attitude 0.171 (p<0.01) and environment 0.405 (p<0.01) for the protective behavior, self efficacy 0.122 (p<0.01), expectation for the protective behavior 0.16 (p<0.01), and self-efficacy in the specialty of projects 0.154 (p<0.01). The acceptance of the model determined by the absolute fit index (GFI), 0.969, and by the incremental fit index (CFI), 0.943, showed very significant levels. Value of 2/df that is a factor applied to verify the acceptance of the model was 37, which implies that the result can be accepted in the desirable range. In addition, the parsimonious fit index configured by AGFI (0.890) and TLI (0.852) was also considered as a scale that accepts the model in practical applications. In case of the establishment of some specific intervention strategies based on the protective behavior model against harmful radiation effects proposed in this study, the strategy will provide an effective way

  9. A Model for Protective Behavior Against the Harmful Effects of Radiation for Radiological Technologists in Medical Radiological Technologists in Medical Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Moon, In Ok [Ewha Woman' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Protective behavior of radiological technologists against radiation exposure is important to achieve reduction of the patient doses without compromising medical achievements. This study attempts to provide a basic model for the sophisticated intervention strategy that increases the level of the protective behavior of the technologists. The model was applied to real situations in Korea to demonstrate its utility. The results of this study are summarized as follows: First, the protective environment showed the highest relationship in the factors considered, r=0.637 (p<0.01). Secondly, the important factors were protective environment in environment characteristics, expectation for the protective behavior 0.228 (p<0.001), self efficacy 0.142 (p<0.001), and attitude for the protective behavior 0.178 (p<0.001) in personal characteristics, and daily patient -0.112 (p<0.001) and number of the participation in the education session for the protective behavior 0.074 (p<0.05). Thirdly, the final protective behavior model by a path analysis method had direct influence on the attitude 0.171 (p<0.01) and environment 0.405 (p<0.01) for the protective behavior, self efficacy 0.122 (p<0.01), expectation for the protective behavior 0.16 (p<0.01), and self-efficacy in the specialty of projects 0.154 (p<0.01). The acceptance of the model determined by the absolute fit index (GFI), 0.969, and by the incremental fit index (CFI), 0.943, showed very significant levels. Value of 2/df that is a factor applied to verify the acceptance of the model was 37, which implies that the result can be accepted in the desirable range. In addition, the parsimonious fit index configured by AGFI (0.890) and TLI (0.852) was also considered as a scale that accepts the model in practical applications. In case of the establishment of some specific intervention strategies based on the protective behavior model against harmful radiation effects proposed in this study, the strategy will provide an effective way

  10. Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  11. Thalassiosira mala (Bacillariophyta), a potentially harmful, marine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thalassiosira malaitalic> (Bacillariophyta), a potentially harmful, marine diatom from Chilka Lake and other coastal localities of Odisha, India: Nomenclature, ... Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4370, USA; Department of Biology, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA ...

  12. An introduction to radiation induced degradation of biological molecules in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Manohar

    1991-01-01

    Radiation chemistry of aqueous systems is the chemistry of H, OH, e aq - , H 3 O + and H 2 O * formed when a solute in aqueous solutions is exposed to ionising radiation. The pulse radiolysis technique has helped in the production, the detection and understanding of the reactions of primary species with solutes. A great deal of data on radiation biochemical studies e.g. degradation of DNA, its constituents and their protection, radiation protection and sensitisation, generation of superoxide ion and their reactions has already been reported but a great deal still needs to be done for the understanding of radiation biology. (author). 12 refs

  13. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

  14. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  15. Biological effects of ionizing radiations. Radiological accident from Goiania, GO, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Emico

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the fundaments of radiation physics, the natural and artificial sources, biological effects, radiation protection. We also examine the sequence of events that resulted in Goiania accident with a source of caesium-137 from abandoned radiotherapy equipment and its terrible consequences. (author)

  16. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, in cooperation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, organized an international conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, held in seville, Spain, from 17 to 21 November 1997. This technical document contains concise papers submitted to the conference

  17. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, in cooperation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, organized an international conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, held in seville, Spain, from 17 to 21 November 1997. This technical document contains concise papers submitted to the conference. Refs, figs, tabs.

  18. Medical and biological aspects of ionizing radiation influence in consequence with accident at ChNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidlovs'ka, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph presents the issues on systematic influence of ionizing radiation on the biological systems. The results of personal complex studies because of influence of ionizing radiation in consequence with accident at ChNPP on auditory analyzer, creating voice, cardiovascular system and central nervous system are submitted.

  19. Exposures at low doses and biological effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    2000-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to radiation from natural, man-made and medical sources, and world-wide average annual exposure can be set at about 3.5 mSv. Exposure to natural sources is characterised by very large fluctuations, not excluding a range covering two orders of magnitude. Millions of inhabitants are continuously exposed to external doses as high as 10 mSv per year, delivered at low dose rates, very few workers are exposed above the legal limit of 50 mSv/year, and referring to accidental exposures, only 5% of the 116 000 people evacuated following the Chernobyl disaster encountered doses above 100 mSv. Epidemiological survey of accidentally, occupationally or medically exposed groups have revealed radio-induced cancers, mostly following high dose-rate exposure levels, only above 100 mSv. Risk coefficients were derived from these studies and projected into linear models of risk (linear non-threshold hypothesis: LNT), for the purpose of risk management following exposures at low doses and low dose-rates. The legitimacy of this approach has been questioned, by the Academy of sciences and the Academy of medicine in France, arguing: that LNT was not supported by Hiroshima and Nagasaki studies when neutron dose was revisited; that linear modelling failed to explain why so many site-related cancers were obviously nonlinearly related to the dose, and especially when theory predicted they ought to be; that no evidence could be found of radio-induced cancers related to natural exposures or to low exposures at the work place; and that no evidence of genetic disease could be shown from any of the exposed groups. Arguments were provided from cellular and molecular biology helping to solve this issue, all resulting in dismissing the LNT hypothesis. These arguments included: different mechanisms of DNA repair at high and low dose rate; influence of inducible stress responses modifying mutagenesis and lethality; bystander effects allowing it to be considered that individual

  20. Peculiarities of biological effect of pulsed laser radiation and 60Co γ rays on microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petin, V.G.; Rusina, L.K.; Sebrant, Yu.V.; Baranov, V.Yu.; Malyuta, D.D.; Nyz'ev, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The sensitivity of yeast cells of different ploidy and bacterial cells of different strains to pulsed laser radiation and combined action of laser and ionizing radiation has been studied. Laser preirradiation of yeast cells did not change the cell sensitivity to the ionizing radiation. The biological effect was non-additive after the exposure to sequence of pulses in comparison with the exposure to a single pulse. The failure of cell reproductive ability after laser irradiation was irrepairable

  1. Non-ionizing radiations : physical characteristics, biological effects and health hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Workshop was a project of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee of IRPA and comprised a series of educational lectures and demonstrations intended to give a comprehensive overview of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation: physical characteristics, sources of concern, levels of exposure, mechanisms of interaction and reported effects of these fields and radiations with biological tissues, human studies, health risk assessment, national and international standards and guidelines, and protective measures

  2. The use of biologically based cancer risk models in radiation epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Zielinski, J.M.; Hazelton, W.D.; Garner, M.J.; Moolgavkar, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Biologically based risk projection models for radiation carcinogenesis seek to describe the fundamental biological processes involved in neoplastic transformation of somatic cells into malignant cancer cells. A validated biologically based model, whose parameters have a direct biological interpretation, can also be used to extrapolate cancer risks to different exposure conditions with some confidence. In this article, biologically based models for radiation carcinogenesis, including the two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model and its extensions, are reviewed. The biological and mathematical bases for such models are described, and the implications of key model parameters for cancer risk assessment examined. Specific applications of versions of the TSCE model to important epidemiologic datasets are discussed, including the Colorado uranium miners' cohort; a cohort of Chinese tin miners; the lifespan cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and a cohort of over 200,000 workers included in the National Dose Registry (NDR) of Canada. (author)

  3. Progress in hprt mutation assay and its application in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jing; Li Qiang

    2008-01-01

    hprt gene is an X-linked locus that has been well studied and widely used as a bio-marker in mutation detection, hprt mutation assay is a gene mutation test system in mammalian cells in vitro which has been used as a biological dosimeter. In this paper, the biological characteristics of hprt gene, hprt mutation detection methodology and the application of hprt mutation assay in radiation biology are comprehensively reviewed. (authors)

  4. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroe, Andrew; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cornelius, I. M.; Pisacane, V. L.; Ziegler, J. F.; M E Nelson, M. E.; Cucinotta, F.; Zaider, M.; Dicello, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Humans exploring outer space are exposed to space radiation composed of high-energy protons and heavy ions. In deep space, the radiation environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). In the energy range from 100MeV per nucleon to 10GeV per nucleon, the GCR consists of 87 percent protons, 12 percent helium ions, and 1 percent heavier ions (Simpson 1983). Protons are also the major component of solar particle events (SPEs), with a smaller contribution by helium and heavier ions emitted from the Sun. Organizations planning and conducting space travel such as NASA and ESA have a fundamental interest in evaluating adverse health effects induced by GCR and SPEs in human space explorers and their offspring. In future space missions both personnel and electronic devices are going to be required to perform for longer periods within a radiation environment. For these applications it is imperative that heterogeneous shielding structures, biological structures and the secondaries produced by such structures be investigated thoroughly. The spectra of secondaries can be investigated and monitored utilising solid-state microdosimeters as have been developed at the CMRP. The effectiveness of such shielding in inhibiting the production of harmful secondaries can also be investigated and in turn optimised utilising Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation studies that utilise microdosimetry as the measurement parameter. The microdosimetric spectra produced by a solar proton radiation field traversing heterogeneous structures, such as spacecraft shielding and the astronaut will be investigated as part of this simulation study. The effectiveness of the microdosimeter in such an environment will also be assessed and presented

  5. Biological fingerprint of high LET radiation. Brenner hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yoshiaki; Awa, Akio; Nakamura, Nori

    1997-01-01

    Hypothesis by Brenner et al. (1994) that in chromosome aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes induced by radiation exposure, F value (dicentrics/rings) differs dependently on the LET and can be a biomarker of high LET radiation like neutron and α-ray was reviewed and evaluated as follows. Radiation and chromosome aberrations; in this section, unstable aberrations like dicentric and rings (r) and stable ones like translocation and pericentric inversions were described. F value. Brenner hypothesis. Bauchinger's refutation. F value determined by FISH method; here, FISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. F value in studies by author's Radiation Effect Research Facility. Frequency of chromosome aberration in A-bomb survivors and ESR (ESR: electron spin resonance). The cause for fluctuation of F values. The Brenner hypothesis could not be supported by studies by author's facility, suggesting that the rate of inter-chromosomal and intra-chromosomal exchange abnormalities can not be distinguishable by the radiation LET. This might be derived from the difference in detection technology of r rather than in LET. (K.H.)

  6. The role of ionizing radiation in biological control of agricultural pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although the commercial biological control industry is growing, it still represents only a small portion of the international market of pest control sales (about 3%). This low ratio is due to several factors including high cost of production of biological control agents and technical and regulatory difficulties that complicate the shipping procedures and create trade barriers. This article summarizes the role of ionizing radiation in supporting the use of biological control agents in insect pest control and concentrates on its role in the production, transport, distribution, and release of parasites and predators and the advantages that ionizing radiation can offer, in comparison with traditional techniques. (author)

  7. Biological bases for radiation protection standards and implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1987-01-01

    The author sums up the principles involved in radiation as being composed of three basic requirements: 1) the individual dose limitation 2) the justification of radiation sources or practices 3) the optimization of protection. This philosophy is more sophisticated than the old approach of threshold and safety factors, which, however, is still valid for protection against non-stochastic effects. Discussion following presentation of the paper ranged over cost benefit analysis and optimization of protection systems, uranium mining, and the varying reactions of different governments. (U.K.)

  8. Long-term biological effects induced by ionizing radiation--implications for dose mediated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, S D; Astărăstoae, V

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are considered to be risk agents that are responsible for the effects on interaction with living matter. The occurring biological effects are due to various factors such as: dose, type of radiation, exposure time, type of biological tissue, health condition and the age of the person exposed. The mechanisms involved in the direct modifications of nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA are reviewed. Classical target theory of energy deposition in the nucleus that causes DNA damages, in particular DNA double-strand breaks and that explanation of the biological consequences of ionizing radiation exposure is a paradigm in radiobiology. Recent experimental evidences have demonstrated the existence of a molecular mechanism that explains the non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation exposure. Among these novel data, genomic instability and a variety of bystander effects are discussed here. Those bystander effects of ionizing radiation are fulfilled by cellular communication systems that give rise to non-targeted effects in the neighboring non irradiated cells. This paper provides also a commentary on the synergistic effects induced by the co-exposures to ionizing radiation and various physical agents such as electromagnetic fields and the co-exposures to ionizing radiation and chemical environmental contaminants such as metals. The biological effects of multiple stressors on genomic instability and bystander effects are also discussed. Moreover, a brief presentation of the methods used to characterize cyto- and genotoxic damages is offered.

  9. Biological effectiveness and application of heavy ions in radiation therapy described by a physical and biological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.J.; Hansen, J.W.

    1982-12-01

    A description is given of the physical basis for applying track structure theory in the determination of the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation of single- and multi-hit target systems. It will be shown that for applying the theory to biological systems the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation is inadequately described by an RBE-factor, whereas the complete formulation of the probability of survival must be used, as survival depends on both radiation quality and dose. The theoretical model of track structure can be used in dose-effect calculations for neutron-, high-LET, and low-LET radiation applied simultaneously in therapy. (author)

  10. Relative biological efficiency of 592 MeV protons. Analysis of the biological effect of secondary radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legeay, G.; Baarli, J.

    1968-01-01

    The relative biological efficiency (RBE) of high energy protons is of importance because of their effects in the field of radioprotection around large accelerators and during space-flights. The nature of the interactions between 592 MeV protons and biological tissues makes it necessary to take into consideration the contribution of secondary radiation to the biological effect. Since it is not possible to obtain from a synchrotron a beam having a sufficiently large cross-section to irradiate large animals, one has to resort to certain devices concerning the mode of exposure when small laboratory animals are used. By irradiating rats individually and in groups, and by using the lethal test as a function of time, the authors show that the value of the RBE is different for animals of the same species having the same biological parameters. Thus there appears an increase in the biological effect due to secondary radiation produced in nuclear cascades which develop in a large volume, for example that of a human being. (author) [fr

  11. Radiation protection in biological investigation centers. Problematic, development and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, M.T.; Pina, R.; Usera, F.

    1998-01-01

    The radiological risk derivatives from the radioisotope techniques accomplished in the different investigation lines developed in the Centers object of this work, have necessary made establishing an organization that assure some adequate protection conditions in the use of the ionizing radiations

  12. 14. annual meeting of the European Society of Radiation Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under the aspect of clinical application, findings of fundamental experiments on animals and cells are reported in which highly different radiation sources and doses were used. Novel and interesting results were obtained, in particular, with the application of pions and fast neutrons in the irradiation of tumour cells. (AJ) [de

  13. 4. Berder Meeting - Biology of ionizing radiation - Booklet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This conference has been organized around 5 sessions: 1) radioimmunotherapy and signaling, 2) external radiotherapy and signaling, 3) dosimetry and radiobiology, 4) early events induced by radiation, and 5) radiotherapy and tumor response. This document gathers 50 short papers the 2 first are dedicated respectively to the presentation of the 'Canceropole Grand Ouest' and the story of radioimmunotherapy

  14. Computer simulation of heating of biological tissue during laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojanic, S.; Sreckovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Computer model is based on an implicit finite difference scheme to solve the diffusion equation for light distribution and the bio-heat equation. A practical application of the model is to calculate the temperature distributions during thermal coagulation of prostate by radiative heating. (author)

  15. Basics of Radiation Biology When Treating Hyperproliferative Benign Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Rödel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, low- and moderate-dose radiation therapy (RT has been shown to exert a beneficial therapeutic effect in a multitude of non-malignant conditions including painful degenerative muscoloskeletal and hyperproliferative disorders. Dupuytren and Ledderhose diseases are benign fibroproliferative diseases of the hand/foot with fibrotic nodules and fascial cords, which determine debilitating contractures and deformities of fingers/toes, while keloids are exuberant scar formations following burn damage, surgery, and trauma. Although RT has become an established and effective option in the management of these diseases, experimental studies to illustrate cellular composites and factors involved remain to be elucidated. More recent findings, however, indicate the involvement of radiation-sensitive targets like mitotic fibroblasts/myofibroblasts as well as inflammatory cells. Radiation-related molecular mechanisms affecting these target cells include the production of free radicals to hamper proliferative activity and interference with growth factors and cytokines. Moreover, an impairment of activated immune cells involved in both myofibroblast proliferative and inflammatory processes may further contribute to the clinical effects. We here aim at briefly describing mechanisms contributing to a modulation of proliferative and inflammatory processes and to summarize current concepts of treating hyperproliferative diseases by low and moderate doses of ionizing radiation.

  16. Relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors in the context of animals and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higley, K.A.; Kocher, D.C.; Real, A.G.; Chambers, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation weighting factors have long been employed to modify absorbed dose as part of the process of evaluating radiological impact to humans. Their use represents an acknowledgement of the fundamental difference in energy deposition patterns of charged and uncharged particles, and how this can translate into varying degrees of biological impact. Weighting factors used in human radiation protection are derived from a variety of endpoints taken from in-vitro experiments that include human and animal cell lines, as well as in-vivo experiments with animals. Nonetheless, the application of radiation weighting factors in the context of dose assessment of animals and plants is not without some controversy. Specifically, radiation protection of biota has largely focused on limiting deterministic effects, such as reduced reproductive fitness. Consequently, the application of conventional stochastic-based radiation weighting factors (when used for human protection) appears inappropriate. While based on research, radiation weighting factors represent the parsing of extensive laboratory studies on relative biological effectiveness. These studies demonstrate that the magnitude of a biological effect depends not just on dose, but also on other factors including the rate at which the dose is delivered, the type and energy of the radiation delivering the dose, and, most importantly, the endpoint under consideration. This article discusses the efforts taken to develop a logical, transparent, and defensible approach to establishing radiation weighting factors for use in assessing impact to non-human biota, and the challenges found in differentiating stochastic from deterministic impacts.

  17. Development of technology for biological dosimetry -A study on the radiation and environmental safety-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Suk; Cheon, Ki Jeong; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Sang Bok; Kim, In Kyu; Park, Hyo Kook

    1994-07-01

    α-amylase showed a significant increase in its activity when exposed to radiation of 0.1 Gy. However it had no relationship with radiation dose. Enzyme activities in liver tissue showed similar changes to those in serum. Among others, changes in acid phosphatase activity were highly related to radiation dose. Of acute phase proteins in serum, CRP, ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin positively responded to radiation while albumin did negatively. ELISA proved to be an efficient method to detect changes in serum protein level. Finally the measurements of changes in APRs using ELISA could provide an useful tools for biological dosimetry. (Author)

  18. Influence of beta radiation from tritium and gamma radiation from 60Co on the biological half-times of organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, I.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of beta radiation from tritium on the biological half-times of organically bound tritium in particular tissues of the rat is compred with the influence of fractionated gamma radiation from 60 Co. (M.F.W.)

  19. Biological effects and radiation protection in the dental office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcox, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    In conclusion, it is important to point out that denistry's contribution to the United States population's radiation exposure is small. Significant improvements have been made, but since dentistry is only one of the contributors to the population's total exposure to radiation, it is important that we make every effort to keep our contribution as low as is practical. Unnecessary exposure should be reduced whenever possible but this should not be used to deter the practitioner from obtaining radiographs when they are clinically indicated. It is very likely that the risk to the United States population resulting from failure to obtain adequate diagnostic information when radiographs are indicated is considerably greater than any risk resulting from their use

  20. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Heum; Kim, Jin Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground.

  1. Biologic effects and health hazards of microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerski, P; Ostrowski, K; Shore, M L; Silverman, C., Suess, M.J.; Waldeskog, B

    1974-01-01

    Proceedings of an international symposium held in Warsaw, 15--18 Oct. 1973, sponsored by the World Health Organization, the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and the Polish Scientific Council to the Minister of Health and Social Welfare are presented. It covered numerous aspects of exposure to microwave radiation. The papers more specifically relating to occupational exposure to microwaves deal with: measurement of microwave radiations, clinical manifestations, neurological findings, health status of microwave workers, blood protein disorders, effects of electromagnetic fields in densely populated areas, microwave cataract and concomitant pathology, retinal changes, assessment of lens translucency in microwave workers. A list of participants at the symposium and an author and subject index are appended.

  2. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Heum; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2011-12-01

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground

  3. Biological and medical effects of UV radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazena, H.

    1994-01-01

    Effecsts of UV radiation on human health are discussed. UV radiation is taken up through the skin and eyes. In the case of the eyes, the only known effects are damaging ones (e.g. cataracts). Irradiation of the skin, on the other hand, may either have a prophylactic and therapeutic effect or cause health problems if the exposure is too frequent and/or the dose too high. Positive effects are: Stimulation of the vitamin-D-3 synthesis and the autoimmune system, economisation of blood circulation, higher fitness, and the development of a UV protection system in the skin. Negative effects are: UV erythema, disturbances of the unspecific resistance and the immune system, and photocarcinogenesis. (orig.) [de

  4. Radiation and cancer in Wales. The biological consequences of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    recent developments have made necessary the revision of the original booklet. Chapter 1 of this second edition is an updating of the first edition. Chapter 2 covers in more detail the effects of low-level radiation in Wales, including discussion of the increases in bone cancer and the effects of Chernobyl. The second-event theory is reproduced as Chapter 3, which also includes a copy of the original paper to the International Journal of Radiation Biology and some of the responses which have been made to it, both by the referees for this journal and other authorities in the field

  5. Radiation and cancer in Wales. The biological consequences of low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, C C

    1994-07-01

    recent developments have made necessary the revision of the original booklet. Chapter 1 of this second edition is an updating of the first edition. Chapter 2 covers in more detail the effects of low-level radiation in Wales, including discussion of the increases in bone cancer and the effects of Chernobyl. The second-event theory is reproduced as Chapter 3, which also includes a copy of the original paper to the International Journal of Radiation Biology and some of the responses which have been made to it, both by the referees for this journal and other authorities in the field.

  6. Insolubilisation of biologically active materials with novel radiation graft copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.; Jankiewicz, S.V.; Levot, R.; Sangster, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The use of radiation grafting to immobilise a typical enzyme, trypsin, is reported. The technique involves radiation grafting to a backbone polymer a monomer containing an appropriate functional group to which the enzyme is bonded. In the present work, p-nitrostyrene has been grafted to representative trunk polymers, polypropylene and PVC, the nitro group in the resulting copolymer converted to the isothiocyanato derivative to which trypsin is attached. Of importance to this insolubilisation process, especially for radiation sensitive backbone polymers, is the inclusion of additives which enhance grafting. A new class of additives which increase the grafting yields is reported using as representative backbone polymers, naturally occurring cellulose and synthetic low density polyethylene. The new additives are specific metal salts such as LiClO 4 . The reactivity of these salts in grafting enhancement has been compared with that of mineral acid which has previously been used as an additive to increase grafting yields in both preirradiation and simultaneous techniques. A new model for grafting enhancement in the presence of the metal salts as well as acids is proposed whereby increased grafting yields are attributed to increased partitioning of monomer into the graft region in the presence of ionic solutes. The value of these additives in preparing copolymers suitable for general reagent insolubilisation reactions is discussed

  7. Working group 6: Health. 2. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the increasing development of nuclear energy have been evaluated for the Belgian population. Nuclear industry has been shown to be safer than conventional industry, epidemiological and toxicological data connected with the nuclear energy being more complete than those related to the conventional energy. Somatic and genetic effects of small and high doses of ionizing radiations on the Belgian population have been estimated. Small doses of ionizing radiations are expected to promote only carcinogenic effects. The latent period of cancers, the plateau region (period of high risk) and the absolute and relative risk expressed per rem per 10 6 people per year for leukaemia (having the highest risk) and for the ''other cancers'' have been also estimated. These estimations were obtained by linear extrapolation to the 1 rem level from observations made after irradiation at relatively high dose levels and much higher dose rates. Strict protective regulations have been recommended in order to reduce to a minimum the exposure of population to ionizing radiations as well as to get more information on the radioactive genetic and somatic consequences on population. (G.C.)

  8. Biological effects of alpha radiation on a human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorleifson, E.M.; Marro, L.; Tracy, B.L.; Wilkinson, D.; Segura, T.M.; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L.; Leach, K.; Ford, B.N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the environment, natural and man-made sources of radioactive material can become integrated into the food chain. Polonium-210 is a significant source of radiation exposure to caribou and to northern human populations who are dependent on caribou for a major portion of their meat supply. Previous work has shown that humans consuming caribou meat containing measurable quantities of polonium-210 can incorporate a substantial fraction of the radionuclide (Thomas et. al.). Conventional chromosome aberration analysis of blood samples collected from 40 individuals who routinely consumed caribou meat was performed to measure genetic damage from the ingested radioactive material. At least 500 metaphase spreads were analysed for each of 39 individuals. Radiation-specific chromosomal aberrations such as dicentrics and rings were scored and their frequencies were compared to the range of aberrations observed in non-caribou consuming populations. This study was designed to address the possible impact of environmental polonium-210 on background radiation health effects in humans

  9. Space radiation-induced bystander effect: kinetics of biologic responses, mechanisms, and significance of secondary radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonon, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Widespread evidence indicates that exposure of cell cultures to a particles results in significant biological changes in both the irradiated and non-irradiated bystander cells in the population. The induction of non-targeted biological responses in cell cultures exposed to low fluences of high charge (Z) and high energy (E) particles is relevant to estimates of the health risks of space radiation and to radiotherapy. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the induction of stressful effects in confluent normal human fibroblast cultures exposed to low fluences of 1000 MeV/u iron ions (linear energy transfer (LET) 151 keV/μm), 600 MeV/u silicon ions (LET 50 keV/μm) or 290 MeV/u carbon ions (LET 13 keV/μm). We compared the results with those obtained in cell cultures exposed, in parallel, to low fluences of 0.92 MeV/u a particles (LET 109 keV/μm). Induction of DNA damage, changes in gene expression, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation during 24 h after exposure of confluent cultures to mean doses as low as 0.2 cGy of iron or silicon ions strongly supported the propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to bystander cells. At a mean dose of 0.2 cGy, only 1 and 3 % of the cells would be targeted through the nucleus by an iron or silicon ion, respectively. Within 24 h post-irradiation, immunoblot analyses revealed significant increases in the levels of phospho-TP53 (serine 15), p21Waf1 (also known as CDKN1A), HDM2, phospho-ERK1/2, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation. The magnitude of the responses suggested participation of non-targeted cells in the response. Furthermore, when the irradiated cell populations were subcultured in fresh medium shortly after irradiation, greater than expected increases in the levels of these markers were also observed during 24 h. Together, the results imply a rapidly propagated and persistent bystander effect. In situ analyses in confluent cultures showed 53BP1 foci formation, a marker of DNA damage, in

  10. Some progress on radiation chemistry of substances of biological interests and biological applications of radiation technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Fang Xingwang

    1995-01-01

    Studies in China on the detection method of irradiated food, mechanism of DNA damage induced by peroxidation, radiolysis of natural products and herbs are reviewed on the update open literature, and some progress on applications of radiation technology is summarized. (author)

  11. Ionizing radiation - one of the most important link of the energetic chain in biological cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, W. [Technical Univ. Poznan, Radio- and Photochemistry Dept., Poznan (Poland)

    1999-09-01

    High (large) and low (small) doses of ionizing radiation consistently induce opposite physiologic effects in biological systems. The effects of low doses cannot be inferred by interpolation between the result from groups exposed to high doses and controls irradiated only by Natural Background Radiation. Stimulation ('bio-positive') effects by low-level doses of ionizing radiation are called radiation hormesis. It is still controversial idea, however it was found that some biological objects (yeast, seeds, animals) after gamma irradiation by low-level doses (10-50 times more NBR) can increase their development. The result of present researches demonstrate that the excitation of living system by gamma quanta (high energy) initiates prolonged secondary emission that influences biota and activates many important processes in biological systems. According to the excitation theory of bio-molecules the author suggests that gamma irradiation in low-level doses excites such molecules as DNA and proteins, and this being followed by a long-termed secondary coherent radiation. The spectral analysis of this secondary emission confirmed the contribution of the UV component to the total emission. The data obtaining by using SPC method (single photon counting) make possible a partial understanding of the radiation hormesis phenomenon and suggest closer relationship to UV emission from biological systems during mitotic processes. The experiments with humic acid (high doses) and glycine (low doses) confirm the author hypothesis that gamma-irradiated organic compounds are capable to emit secondary radiation. This secondary radiation probably plays very significant role in the intercellular communication inside the living systems. In conclusion the author proposed de-excitation processes in bio-molecules as a common denominator of UV and ionizing radiation interacting with living cells. Finally he refers to the Cerenkov radiation which is created inside the biological cells

  12. Ionizing radiation - one of the most important link of the energetic chain in biological cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraczko, W.

    1999-01-01

    High (large) and low (small) doses of ionizing radiation consistently induce opposite physiologic effects in biological systems. The effects of low doses cannot be inferred by interpolation between the result from groups exposed to high doses and controls irradiated only by Natural Background Radiation. Stimulation ('bio-positive') effects by low-level doses of ionizing radiation are called radiation hormesis. It is still controversial idea, however it was found that some biological objects (yeast, seeds, animals) after gamma irradiation by low-level doses (10-50 times more NBR) can increase their development. The result of present researches demonstrate that the excitation of living system by gamma quanta (high energy) initiates prolonged secondary emission that influences biota and activates many important processes in biological systems. According to the excitation theory of bio-molecules the author suggests that gamma irradiation in low-level doses excites such molecules as DNA and proteins, and this being followed by a long-termed secondary coherent radiation. The spectral analysis of this secondary emission confirmed the contribution of the UV component to the total emission. The data obtaining by using SPC method (single photon counting) make possible a partial understanding of the radiation hormesis phenomenon and suggest closer relationship to UV emission from biological systems during mitotic processes. The experiments with humic acid (high doses) and glycine (low doses) confirm the author hypothesis that gamma-irradiated organic compounds are capable to emit secondary radiation. This secondary radiation probably plays very significant role in the intercellular communication inside the living systems. In conclusion the author proposed de-excitation processes in bio-molecules as a common denominator of UV and ionizing radiation interacting with living cells. Finally he refers to the Cerenkov radiation which is created inside the biological cells. Because

  13. Biological effect of non-ionizing radiations on microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Nakaoka, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of 60-Hz and 500 mT on the growth and the mutation frequency of the budding yeast S.cerevisiae and on the behavior of the ciliate Paramecium multimicronucleatum. The growth rate and mutation frequencies of several strains of S.cerevisiae (wild type and radiation sensitive mutants, rad or rev) were examined but no significant difference was observed. Moreover, the behavior of P.multimicronucleatum under the ELF-MF was examined. When exposed to a vertical field of 0.6 T, the cells accumulated at the upper end of the cuvette. (author)

  14. Biological effect of non-ionizing radiations on microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Osaka Univ., Radioisotope Research Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Nakaoka, Yasuo [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Engineering Science, Department of Biophysical Engineering, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    We studied the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of 60-Hz and 500 mT on the growth and the mutation frequency of the budding yeast S.cerevisiae and on the behavior of the ciliate Paramecium multimicronucleatum. The growth rate and mutation frequencies of several strains of S.cerevisiae (wild type and radiation sensitive mutants, rad or rev) were examined but no significant difference was observed. Moreover, the behavior of P.multimicronucleatum under the ELF-MF was examined. When exposed to a vertical field of 0.6 T, the cells accumulated at the upper end of the cuvette. (author)

  15. Review of relative biological effectiveness dependence on linear energy transfer for low-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Nezahat; Muirhead, Colin R

    2009-01-01

    Information on Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to gamma radiation has been used to estimate cancer risks for the whole range of photon (x-rays) and electron energies which are commonly encountered by radiation workers in the work place or by patients and workers in diagnostic radiology. However, there is some uncertainty regarding the radiation effectiveness of various low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiations (x-rays, gamma radiation and electrons). In this paper we review information on the effectiveness of low-LET radiations on the basis of epidemiological and in vitro radiobiological studies. Data from various experimental studies for chromosome aberrations and cell transformation in human lymphocytes and from epidemiological studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors, patients medically exposed to radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and occupational exposures of nuclear workers are considered. On the basis of in vitro cellular radiobiology, there is considerable evidence that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-energy low-LET radiation (gamma radiation, electrons) is less than that of low-energy low-LET radiation (x-rays, betas). This is a factor of about 3 to 4 for 29 kVp x-rays (e.g. as in diagnostic radiation exposures of the female breast) and for tritium beta-rays (encountered in parts of the nuclear industry) relative to Co-60 gamma radiation and 2-5 MeV gamma-rays (as received by the Japanese A-bomb survivors). In epidemiological studies, although for thyroid and breast cancer there appears to be a small tendency for the excess relative risks to decrease as the radiation energy increases for low-LET radiations, it is not statistically feasible to draw any conclusion regarding an underlying dependence of cancer risk on LET for the nominally low-LET radiations. (review)

  16. Basic molecular biology in radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytoemaa, T.

    1992-01-01

    The tumour suppressor gene p53 is 'guardian of the genome'. If a DNA molecule (each chromosome has one DNA molecule) is damaged by an external factor, such as ionizing radiation, the protein product of the p53 gene stops the cell's proliferative activity until the damage is repaired. If the repair fails, the p53 gene product normally triggers programmed death of the cell. P53 gene itself is commonly damaged by radiation (or by another DNA-damaging factor). The altered gene product fails to control the integrity of the genome, and it also prevents the guardian action of the protein which is produced by the intact allele (each cell has two p53 genes). Under these circumstances any subsequent damage to DNA, induced e.g. by a chemical, is easily 'fixed'. Potentially critical sites for an additional DNA damage are the proto-oncogens (when damaged these genes are called oncogens), which commonly act as components of the regulatory network in a cell. Permanent malfunction of the signal network may then lead to uncontrolled cell growth, resulting in a malignant clone (=cancer). This simplified molecular model seems to be the common mechanism in many (or most) human cancers. (orig.)

  17. The effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Report of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-11-01

    In the summer of 1970, the Federal Radiation Council (whose activities have since been transferred to the Radiation Office of the EPA) asked the National Academy of Sciences for information relevant to an evaluation of present radiation protection guides. This report is in response to that request. It presents a summary and analysis, by members of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations and its subcommittees, of current knowledge relating to risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. In many respects, the report is a sequel to the reports of the Committee on the Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation, published by the NAS-NRC from 1956 to 1961

  18. The effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Report of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-11-01

    In the summer of 1970, the Federal Radiation Council (whose activities have since been transferred to the Radiation Office of the EPA) asked the National Academy of Sciences for information relevant to an evaluation of present radiation protection guides. This report is in response to that request. It presents a summary and analysis, by members of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations and its subcommittees, of current knowledge relating to risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. In many respects, the report is a sequel to the reports of the Committee on the Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation, published by the NAS-NRC from 1956 to 1961.

  19. Combining Radiation Epidemiology With Molecular Biology-Changing From Health Risk Estimates to Therapeutic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Michael; Port, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    The authors herein summarize six presentations dedicated to the key session "molecular radiation epidemiology" of the ConRad meeting 2015. These presentations were chosen in order to highlight the promise when combining conventional radiation epidemiology with molecular biology. Conventional radiation epidemiology uses dose estimates for risk predictions on health. However, combined with molecular biology, dose-dependent bioindicators of effect hold the promise to improve clinical diagnostics and to provide target molecules for potential therapeutic intervention. One out of the six presentations exemplified the use of radiation-induced molecular changes as biomarkers of exposure by measuring stabile chromosomal translocations. The remaining five presentations focused on molecular changes used as bioindicators of the effect. These bioindicators of the effect could be used for diagnostic purposes on colon cancers (genomic instability), thyroid cancer (CLIP2), or head and neck squamous cell cancers. Therapeutic implications of gene expression changes were examined in Chernobyl thyroid cancer victims and Mayak workers.

  20. Ecological and nonhuman biological effects of solar UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrest, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies regarding the impact of UV-B radiation upon ecological and nonhuman biological systems is the subject of the report. For years scientists and laymen alike have causally noted the impact of solar ultraviolet radiation upon the nonhuman component of the biosphere. Stratospheric ozone functions effectively as an ultraviolet screen by filtering out solar radiation in the 220-320 nm waveband as it penetrates through the atmosphere, thus allowing only small amounts of the longer wavelengths of radiation in the waveband to leak through to the surface of the earth. Although this radiation (UV-B radiation, 290-320 nm) comprises only a small fraction (lesser tha 1%) of the total solar spectrum, it can have a major impact on biological systems due to its actinic nature. Many organic molecules, most notably DNA, absorb UV-B radiation which can initiate photochemical reactions. It is life's ability, or lack thereof, to cope with enhanced levels of solar UV-B radiation that has generated concern over the potential depletion of stratospheric ozone

  1. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonan, Paulo Rogerio Ferreti; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Alves, Fabio de Abreu

    2005-01-01

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  2. Biological effect of low-dose application beta-radiation on the gingival mucosa of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolitov, Yu.A.; Kovtun, N.N.; Timofeev, L.V.

    1999-01-01

    Biological effect of low-dose application beta-radiation on the gingival mucosa of dogs is studied. Obtained data illustrate the interactions between tissues in local exposure of live tissue to beta-radiation and determine the threshold total dose as 400 sGy. Higher doses lead to secondary changes in the gingival mucosa after which the tissue barrier does not recover [ru

  3. Effects of low-level radiation on biologic systems: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, T.L.; Hoditschek, B.

    1980-12-01

    This review presents an organized survey of scientific literature dealing with the biologic effects of low-level radiation. It includes brief discussions of topics of particular interest, a listing of useful review articles, an extensive bibliography, and listings of sources that can be used to update this document in the future. The topics discussed include experimental studies, the linear hypothesis, medical effects, occupational effects, effects of exposure to naturally occurring radiation, consumer products, and laws and regulations

  4. Considerations on hypoxic conditions. On the past setback of classic radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Klimova, S.V.; Tamasu, Shogo; Nakamura, Hideaki; Murayama, Chieko

    2002-01-01

    Considerations on hypoxic cancer cell environment are made on classic radiation biology concept and on a new proposal of the anti-cancer strategy. Classic radiation biology knowledge of hypoxic cancer cells has produced many of clinical trials, which, however, have failed after all. This is because the knowledge is that the cells are recognized to be in a rather static hypoxic condition. Based on authors' investigations, made is the proposal that improvement of dynamic, acute hypoxic conditions yielded via blood circulation between the heterogeneous malignant cancer cells and the dynamic homeostatic systems of normal cells including immunity is important as one of cancer therapy approaches. (N.I.)

  5. Information on biological health effects of ionizing radiation and radionuclides: the rule of a web site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, A.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.; Flury-Herard, A.; Ourly, F.; Hemidy, P.; Lallemand, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a source of information on biological and health effects of radionuclides and ionizing radiation in an easy to use format. Reported work is made up of two distinct parts: data sheets for selected radionuclides and a web file. Data sheets: Specific radiation data sheets provide an overview of the properties, the environmental behaviour, the different pathways of human exposure and the biological and health consequences of selected radionuclides. Radionuclides that have been selected are those commonly dealt with in nuclear industry (and in other areas such as medicine) and released to the environment or naturally occurring (plutonium, tritium, carbon 14). Data sheets corresponding to the different radionuclides are based on the main sources of scientific information in dosimetry, epidemiology, radiobiology and radiation protection. These data sheets are intended for radiation protection specialists and physicians. They include: main physical and chemical characteristics, main radiation protection data: dose coefficients (public, workers), dose limits sources, total released estimate (nuclear industry, atmospheric tests, main pathway of human exposure and biological behaviour, biological and health effects, medical supervision, treatment a list of the main references, appendix providing accurate information. Web file: http://www-dsv.cea.fr/doc/carmin_ext/fond.php This web file provides a source of information on biological and health effects of ionizing radiation and biological basic knowledge of radiation protection. Available for consultation via Internet, compiled information provides, in a same file, subjects as varied as biological mechanisms, ionizing radiations action, biological and health effects, risk assessment This file is mainly intended to assist in informing and training of non-specialist readership (students, teaching on radiation protection basic knowledge. This electronic document is divided in three

  6. Radiation cytogenetic in vitro studies on human donors in the development of a suitable biological dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjaktarovic, N.

    1988-02-01

    The final report is on the work carried out under the Agency research contract 3173/RB entitled ''Radiation cytogenetic in vitro studies on human donors in the development of a suitable biological dosimeter'', at the Clinical Hospital Centre ''Zvezdara'' in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In co-operation and co-ordination dissemination with an international team of cytogeneticists under the IAEA CRP, the development of a suitable biological dosimetry system has been accomplished at the national institute to assist reliably in the absorbed radiation-dose assessment of accidentally-over-exposed personnel. The quantitative yield of asymmetrical chromosomal aberrations, such as dicentrics, rings and fragments consequent to exposure(s) to radiation overdose, help in such estimation of vital prognostic and radiation protection significance. This biological dosimeter system is particularly essential where the exposed person was not wearing any physical dosemeter during the accident. Prerequisite for implementation of an effective biological dosimetry is the availability of a reliable standard dose-response curve and an adherence to a protocol for lymphocytic chromosome analysis in first division phase of lymphocytes. The validation of the reported biological dosimeter is established through its successful analysis of a simulated over-exposure incident, with the associated error of less than 10%. Analytical cytogenetic methods for whole- and part-body acute exposures have been discussed. Part of the results have been reported in the publications under the CRP concerned

  7. Radiation degradation of biological residues (Aflatoxins) produced in food laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Aquino, Simone; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Zorzete, Patricia; Correa, Benedito

    2007-01-01

    Some molds have the capacity to produce substances that are toxic and generally cancer-causing agents, such as aflatoxins, that stand between the most important carcinogenic substances (class one of the agents which are certainly carcinogenous for human people according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer). Aspergillus spp. is present in world-wide distribution, with predominance in tropical and subtropical regions growing in any substratum. The aim of this work is establish a minimum dose of radiation that degrades aflatoxins produced by fungi Aspergillus spp. The Aspergillus spp. colonies will be cultivated in coconut agar medium and the samples will be conditioned in appropriate bags for irradiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Gammacell 220 with dose of 20 kGy. (author)

  8. Medical-biological aspects of radiation effects in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapultseva, E; Ustenko, K; Uskalova, D; Savina, N

    2017-01-01

    We have shown that γ-irradiation at doses of 100 and 1000 mGy significantly compromised fecundity and reproductive success of the directly exposed D. magna . These effects were also observed among the non-exposed first-generation progeny of irradiated parents, thus implying the manifestation of transgenerational effects in Daphnia . We have also shown that compromised viability of irradiated D. magna can be attributed cytotoxic effects of irradiation. It would therefore appear that the compromised viability may be attributed to the cytotoxic effects resulted from epigenetic changes affecting some metabolic pathways involved in detoxification of free-radicals. Additionally we have analyzed more distant progeny of irradiated at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mGy Daphnia . Our data demonstrated that multicellular crustacean D. magna represent a very useful experimental model for analyse of long-term effects of ionising radiation at the organismal level. (paper)

  9. Radiation degradation of biological residues (Aflatoxins) produced in food laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Aquino, Simone; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (brazil)]. E-mails: vladrogo@yahoo.com.br; villavic@ipen.br; Zorzete, Patricia; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas]. E-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Some molds have the capacity to produce substances that are toxic and generally cancer-causing agents, such as aflatoxins, that stand between the most important carcinogenic substances (class one of the agents which are certainly carcinogenous for human people according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer). Aspergillus spp. is present in world-wide distribution, with predominance in tropical and subtropical regions growing in any substratum. The aim of this work is establish a minimum dose of radiation that degrades aflatoxins produced by fungi Aspergillus spp. The Aspergillus spp. colonies will be cultivated in coconut agar medium and the samples will be conditioned in appropriate bags for irradiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Gammacell 220 with dose of 20 kGy. (author)

  10. Ablation of biological tissues by radiation of strontium vapor laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldatov, A. N., E-mail: general@tic.tsu.ru; Vasilieva, A. V., E-mail: anita-tomsk@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin ave., 36, 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    A two-stage laser system consisting of a master oscillator and a power amplifier based on sources of self- contained transitions in pairs SrI and SrII has been developed. The radiation spectrum contains 8 laser lines generating in the range of 1 – 6.45 μm, with a generation pulse length of 50 – 150 ns, and pulse energy of ∼ 2.5 mJ. The divergence of the output beam was close to the diffraction and did not exceed 0.5 mrad. The control range of the laser pulse repetition rate varied from 10 to 15 000 Hz. The given laser system has allowed to perform ablation of bone tissue samples without visible thermal damage.

  11. Radiation degradation of biological waste (aflatoxins) produced in food laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2009-01-01

    Many filamentous fungi can produce secondary metabolites, called mycotoxins, which can be found in food and agricultural products. One of the main genera of myco toxigenic fungi related to the food chain is the Aspergillus spp. There are over 400 mycotoxins described in the literature, the most common the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The mycotoxins are commonly found in foods and are considered one of the most dangerous contaminants. The aflatoxin B1 is classified in group one by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. Aflatoxins resisting for more than one hour in autoclave making it necessary to other means of degradation of these toxins. This work aimed to observe the effects of gamma radiation of 60 Co and electron beams in the degradation of aflatoxins and compare the damage caused on the morphology of the Aspergillus flavus. The fungus was grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 10 days and was subsequently transferred to coconut agar medium, and maintained for 14 days at 25 degree C. After this step the coconut agar was ground to become a homogeneous pasty and was irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy. The samples used in scanning electron microscopy were irradiated with doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy with sources of 60 Co and electron beams. Irradiation with electron accelerator showed a slightly higher degradation to gamma radiation, reducing 29.93 %, 34.50 %, 52.63 % and 72.30 % for doses of 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy, respectively. The Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that doses of 2.5 to 10 kGy did not cause damage to the fungus, but with a dose of 20 kGy it can be observed fungal damage to structures. (author)

  12. [Modification of radiation damage to biological objects by lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskanian, K Sh; Vorozhzova, S V; Abrosimova, A N; Mitsyn, G V; Gaevskiĭ, V N

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments had the purpose to study effects of gamma-rays 60Co (5 Gy) and the combined effects of laser 650 nm (1 mJ/cm2) and gamma-rays 60Co (5 Gy) on survivability, body mass, integument and mitotic index of marrow cells (MC) of young mice C57BL/6. Laser was applied to the mouse hairy back only. Ten months of gamma-irradiation brought death to 50% of mice; the combined irradiation killed only 30%. Starting on month six after gamma-irradiation, body mass was less in comparison with mice exposed to the combined irradiation. In addition, all mice lost body mass sharply before death. All gamma-irradiated mice were touched with grey over the period of 30 days; in 40 days, 10 of 20 mice had incipient local radiation alopecia on the back that passed fully within next month. However, all mice developed radiation ulcers on the fourth month since irradiation. Two mice formed also neck tumors. In 5 months tails fell off in 2 mice. Some grey streaks appeared on mice exposed to the combined irradiation 3 months later only; three mice remained black throughout the follow-up. Alopecia was found in three survivors in 5 months after irradiation. Mitotic activity of marrow cells obtained from mice on day 15 since exposure to lasing and combined irradiation was higher in comparison with cells from intact mice. In a year, the MC mitotic index was higher in mice exposed to the combined irradiation as compared with the gamma-irradiated mice.

  13. Evaluation of lead in biological samples treated with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, O.M.

    1996-01-01

    The active dry yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae was able to remove lead successfully from the media. The yeast cells (5 g/100 ml) tolerated up to 8190 ppm lead. The most appropriate conditions for better uptake was when the yeast cells were incubated for 2 hours with different concentrations of lead. Both live and dead cells showed an uptake that exceeded 80% even when there was only 16% of the cells alive. The X RF technique proved that lead is associated with the cells, little, or no lead is found in the media after incubation. Lead bio sorption was investigated in concentrations ranging from 500 to 8000 ppm, the uptake followed the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models and was found to be 180 mg/g when the incubation was for 2 h rs. Increasing the concentration of peptone from 0 to 1.5% induced a significant increase in metal removal. Incubating the metal with the cells at 45% showed an uptake that reached 97.44%. Radiation affected the metal uptake to a great extent, increasing the dose of exposure to the cells incubated with lead. led to the increase in the uptake of the metal. When the dose of exposure was 8 kGy, the metal removal reached a maximum of 91% compared to 84 for non-irradiated samples. When the irradiated cells were incubated with lead a variable uptake capacity was observed. When the cells were exposed to 4 kGy, they were capable of removing the metal more efficiently, other exposure doses showed an uptake that was almost the same. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that lead was deposited as electron dense granules around the cells. The EDX identified the metal. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the cells was affected when radiation was used, the cells shrunk and lost their ellipsoidal shape, while the addition of lead did not affect their morphology at all

  14. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides and induced biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi Keizo; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Relationship between irradiation effect of polysaccharides and induced biological activity for plants has been investigated. Sodium alginate was irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). Measurement of molecular weight and analysis of UV spectra of irradiated sodium alginate have been carried out. The molecular weight was decreased by irradiation in both conditions. New absorbance peak derived from double bond or/and carbonyl group was appeared at close to 267 nm by irradiation in UV spectra. It was found that alginate having molecular weight about 10,000 is most suitable to used as growth promoter in plants. To obtain the molecular weight of 10,000 by irradiation, the necessary doses are 100 kGy in liquid state and 500 kGy in solid state, respectively. (author)

  15. Mammalian spermatogenesis as a biologic dosimeter for radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, U; Schumann, J; Goehde, W; Mueller, K [Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.)

    1981-01-01

    Mouse spermatogenesis was used as an in vivo test system obviously suitable as a biologic dosimeter. Ionizing irradiation induced changes in the freqency distribution of the cellular DNA content of whole testis preparations. These changes can be analysed by flow cytometry. Such measurements deliver information on: (1) an increase of the coefficient of variation of the DNA histograms of some spermatogenic cells, (2) induction of diploid mature sperm, and (3) the dose-depending inactivation of the highly sensitive differentiated spermatogonia. In this model especially No. 3 delivers quantitative information on the cytotoxic action of ionizing irradiation and chemical noxae as well, whereas Nos 1 and 2 may be used as qualitative criteria of mutagenic action of physical and chemical agents, No. 2 obviously being more sensitive than No. 1.

  16. Biological impact of high-dose and dose-rate radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliev, V.; Popov, D. [Russian Academy of Science, Vladicaucas (Russian Federation); Jones, J.; Gonda, S. [NASA -Johnson Space Center, Houston (United States); Prasad, K.; Viliam, C.; Haase, G. [Antioxida nt Research Institute, Premier Micronutrient Corporation, Novato (United States); Kirchin, V. [Moscow State Veterinary and Biotechnology Acade my, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rachael, C. [University Space Research Association, Colorado (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Experimental anti-radiation vaccine is a power tool of immune - prophylaxis of the acute radiation disease. Existing principles of treatment of the acute radiation dis ease are based on a correction of developing patho-physiological and biochemical processes within the first days after irradiation. Protection from radiation is built on the general principles of immunology and has two main forms - active and passive immunization. Active immunization by the essential radiation toxins of specific radiation determinant (S.D.R.) group allows significantly reduce the lethality and increase duration of life among animals that are irradiated by lethal and sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation.The radiation toxins of S.D.R. group have antigenic properties that are specific for different forms of acute radiation disease. Development of the specific and active immune reaction after intramuscular injection of radiation toxins allows optimize a manifestation of a clinical picture and stabilize laboratory parameters of the acute radiation syndromes. Passive immunization by the anti-radiation serum or preparations of immune-globulins gives a manifestation of the radioprotection effects immediately after this kind of preparation are injected into organisms of mammals. Providing passive immunization by preparations of anti-radiations immune-globulins is possible in different periods of time after radiation. Providing active immunization by preparations of S.D.R. group is possible only to achieve a prophylaxis goal and form the protection effects that start to work in 18 - 35 days after an injection of biological active S.D.R. substance has been administrated. However active and passive immunizations by essential anti-radiation toxins and preparations of gamma-globulins extracted from a hyper-immune serum of a horse have significantly different medical prescriptions for application and depend on many factors like a type of radiation, a power of radiation, absorption doses, a time of

  17. Biological impact of high-dose and dose-rate radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliev, V.; Popov, D.; Jones, J.; Gonda, S.; Prasad, K.; Viliam, C.; Haase, G.; Kirchin, V.; Rachael, C.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental anti-radiation vaccine is a power tool of immune - prophylaxis of the acute radiation disease. Existing principles of treatment of the acute radiation dis ease are based on a correction of developing patho-physiological and biochemical processes within the first days after irradiation. Protection from radiation is built on the general principles of immunology and has two main forms - active and passive immunization. Active immunization by the essential radiation toxins of specific radiation determinant (S.D.R.) group allows significantly reduce the lethality and increase duration of life among animals that are irradiated by lethal and sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation.The radiation toxins of S.D.R. group have antigenic properties that are specific for different forms of acute radiation disease. Development of the specific and active immune reaction after intramuscular injection of radiation toxins allows optimize a manifestation of a clinical picture and stabilize laboratory parameters of the acute radiation syndromes. Passive immunization by the anti-radiation serum or preparations of immune-globulins gives a manifestation of the radioprotection effects immediately after this kind of preparation are injected into organisms of mammals. Providing passive immunization by preparations of anti-radiations immune-globulins is possible in different periods of time after radiation. Providing active immunization by preparations of S.D.R. group is possible only to achieve a prophylaxis goal and form the protection effects that start to work in 18 - 35 days after an injection of biological active S.D.R. substance has been administrated. However active and passive immunizations by essential anti-radiation toxins and preparations of gamma-globulins extracted from a hyper-immune serum of a horse have significantly different medical prescriptions for application and depend on many factors like a type of radiation, a power of radiation, absorption doses, a time of

  18. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C -0.68 , with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  19. Gamma-irradiated onions as a biological indicator of radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Agarwal, Deepshikha; Chaudhuri, S.K.; Ram Senwar, Kana; Bhatnagar, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Post-irradiation identification and dose estimation are required to assess the radiation-induced effects on living things in any nuclear emergency. In this study, radiation-induced morphological/cytological changes i.e., number of root formation and its length, shooting length, reduction in mitotic index, micronuclei formation and chromosomal aberrations in the root tip cells of gamma-irradiated onions at lower doses (50-2000 cGy) are reported. The capabilities of this biological species to store the radiation-induced information are also studied

  20. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  1. Biological effects of radiation in combination with other physical, chemical or biological agents. Annex L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex considers the combined action of radiation with potentially important environmental conditions. Since there is a scarcity of systematic data on which an analysis of combined effects can be based, this Annex will be more hypothetical and will attempt to suggest definitions, to identify suitable methods of analysis, to select from a large amount of diffuse information the conditions and the data of importance for further consideration and to provide suggestions for future research. For humans in environmental circumstances the UNSCEAR Committee has been unable to document any clear case of synergistic interaction between radiation and other agents, which could lead to substantial modifications of the risk estimates for significant sections of the population.

  2. Physical and biological dosimetries of Cf-252 radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hisao; Wada, Tadashi; Dokiya, Takushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1986-01-01

    Recently Cf-252 sources containing 300 μg have become available in a size identical to 1 Ci of Cs-137 and with the use of remotely controlled afterloading apparatus, safe therapy with little exposure to the therapist is now possible. Radiation leakage from the Cf-252 apparatus and from the treatment room was measured with REM-meter and it was possible to reduce the leakage from the treatment room to less than 1 mrem/h (gamma rays) and 0.5 mrem/h (neutrons). Measurement of fast neutrons was made with a twin chamber composed of a tissue equivalent ionization chamber and a carbon ionization chamber. The neutron dose in air and the absorbed dose in tissue equivalent water tank were measured, which showed that in air, neutrons were 70% and photons were 30% of dose. In water, greater distances from the source, neutrons attenuate and gamma rays increase in dose. The results of studies on the skin reaction of mice and sperm cleavage delay time of sea urchins indicated that the RBE ranges from 1.5 to 3.0 using the high dose rate system. Neutrons are remarkably affected by a time factor. With the use of high dose rate sources, the dose rate has become higher, but the overall time has been extended through dose fractionation and it was considered advisable to employ an RBE of 3-4 in these studies. (Auth.)

  3. A review of the biological and clinical aspects of radiation caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Gabrielle P; Jham, Bruno C; Magalhães, Cláudia S; Sensi, Luis Guilherme; Freire, Addah R

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this article is to review the clinical and biological features underlying the development and progression of radiation caries. Although radiotherapy (RT) plays an important role in the management of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), it is also associated with several undesired side effects such as radiation caries which is a common, yet serious, complication. To review the condition, the Pubmed database was searched using the keywords "radiotherapy," "radiation," "caries," "hyposalivation," "prevention" and "management". Only studies published in the English language were selected. Cross-referencing identified additionally relevant studies. RT leads to alterations in the dentition, saliva, oral microflora, and diet of patients. Consequently, irradiated patients are at increased risk for the development of a rapid, rampant carious process known as radiation caries. Motivation of patients, adequate plaque control, stimulation of salivary flow, fluoride use, and nutritional orientation are essential to reduce the incidence of radiation caries and ultimately improve the quality of life for HNC patients. Radiation caries is an aggressive side effect of RT. Dentists play an important role in the prevention of the condition via comprehensive oral healthcare before, during, and after the active cancer therapy. Dentists should understand the clinical and biological aspects underlying radiation caries to prevent the development of lesions and provide optimal treatment when needed.

  4. Radiation Synthesis of Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogels for Biological Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.; Hegazy, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Poly(acrylamide/maleic acid/gelatin) P(AAm/MA/G) hydrogel networks were synthesized by 60 Co gamma irradiation at different doses. The properties of the hydrogels such as gelation percent, porosity, and moisture retention were investigated. The swelling ratio (S), equilibrium water content (EWC) and diffusion characteristics, including equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR), diffusion constant (n) and diffusion coefficients (D) were investigated and a non-Fickian type of diffusion characteristics was found in all the swelling media for the diffusion of water into these hydrogels. Further, the swelling pattern of P(AAm/MA/G) hydrogels was studied in different physiological bio-fluids, ph and ionic/salt solutions and showed great responsiveness due to their ionic character. The penetration velocity (v) of these biological fluids into such hydrogels was also calculated and it was found to be the maximum in urea and the minimum in synthetic urine. The higher equilibrium water content of these hydrogels, promotes them to be used as biomedical/pharmaceutical technology. The caffeine release as a drug model has been studied at ph 1 and ph 7 to resemble the ph of the stomach and the intestine, respectively. The caffeine release was controlled by the hydrogel crosslinking density that caused in increase of the irradiation dose

  5. Uses of chemotherapy together with radiation, and its biological basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ikuo; Terashima, Toyozo

    1978-01-01

    Effect of use of anticancer drugs together with radiation, especially effects of Actinomycin D (AMD), Bleomycin (BLM), and Adriamycin (Ad) which seemed to have synergistic effect, and other substances which have possibility to have synergistic effect were described. It was clarified that AMD out of them showed synergistic effect to inhibit repair of sublethel damage induced by irradiation in addition to anticancer effect itself. Therefore, it is thought that use of AMD is effective especially to cancer with high radioresistance and it is better to administer this drug just before or just after irradiation. It seems to be better to administer at one time with high concentration in the allowable range. It is difficult to come to a conclusion as to BLM and Ad, generalized as well as the conclusion of AMD, but it seems to be better to use BLM and Ad together with irradiation at the same time. As BLM is highly effective especially to epithelial cells, it must be necessary to investigate whether there is a difference of characteristics between cells. In any case, there are two great factors, the concentration and action time (containing the time remaining in vivo) of drugs, and moreover, another factor, time relation to irradiation is added. Therefore, an experiment schedule is complicated so much, and it is important to study quantitatively on the basis of systematic experimental plan. As to clinical application of them, it is necessary to perform an experiment in vitro which is exullent in estimation and an experiment in vivo which certified the effects in keeping organic cooperation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Radiation oncology - Linking technology and biology in the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C. Norman

    2002-01-01

    Technical advances in radiation oncology including CT-simulation, 3D-conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques, and brachytherapy have allowed greater treatment precision and dose escalation. The ability to intensify treatment requires the identification of the critical targets within the treatment field, recognizing the unique biology of tumor, stroma and normal tissue. Precision is technology based while accuracy is biologically based. Therefore, the intensity of IMRT will undoubtedly mean an increase in both irradiation dose and the use of biological agents, the latter considered in the broadest sense. Radiation oncology has the potential and the opportunity to provide major contributions to the linkage between molecular and functional imaging, molecular profiling and novel therapeutics for the emerging molecular targets for cancer treatment. This process of 'credentialing' of molecular targets will require multi disciplinary imaging teams, clinicians and basic scientists. Future advances will depend on the appropriate integration of biology into the training of residents, continuing post graduate education, participation in innovative clinical research and commitment to the support of basic research as an essential component of the practice of radiation oncology

  7. Epidemiological and radio-biological studies in high background radiation areas of Kerala coast: implications in radiation protection science and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi

    2018-01-01

    Till date, Linear No Threshold hypothesis (LNT) is well accepted in radiation protection science in spite of its limitations. However, dose response studies using multiple biological end points from high-background radiation areas have challenged the linearity. Radio-biological and epidemiological studies from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast showed non-linearity as well as efficient repair of DNA damage in HLNRA indicating that dose limits for public exposure needs to be revisited which may have implications in radiation protection science, human health and low dose radiation biology. However, further studies using high throughput approach is required to identify chronic radiation signatures in human population exposed to elevated level of natural background radiation

  8. WE-DE-202-00: Connecting Radiation Physics with Computational Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  9. WE-DE-202-00: Connecting Radiation Physics with Computational Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  10. Biological dosimetry in case of combined radiation injuries. Biologicheskaya dozimetriya pri kombinirovannykh radiatsionnykh porazheniyakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirov, V G; Teslenko, V M

    1990-11-01

    The state of biological dosimetry methods and prospects for their development are considered. Attention is paid to biological indicators of radiation injuries caused by nuclear weapons. It is noted, that determination of the number of lymphocytes in the blood in case of combined radiation injuries should be concerned with great care and in each case the analysis results should reffered to critically and supported by the data from other investigations. Promissing are the methods related to dermination of reticulocyte number in the peripheral blood within the irradiation dose range, causing bone marrow form of radiation syndrome, method of leukocyte adhesion and some other methods based on the change of biophysical caracteristics of cell membranes. To increase the information efficiency it is necessary to combine these methods with the methods, based on genetic change registration, and to develop a combined method.

  11. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium relevant to radiation protection guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Present knowledge of the relevant physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium as a basis for establishing radiation protection guidelines is summarized. The first section of the report reviews the chemical and physical properties of radiocerium relative to the biological behavior of internally-deposited cerium and other lanthanides. The second section of the report gives the sources of radiocerium in the environment and the pathways to man. The third section of the report describes the metabolic fate of cerium in several mammalian species as a basis for predicting its metabolic fate in man. The fourth section of the report considers the biomedical effects of radiocerium in light of extensive animal experimentation. The last two sections of the report describe the history of radiation protection guidelines for radiocerium and summarize data required for evaluating the adequacy of current radiation protection guidelines. Each section begins with a summary of the most important findings that follow

  12. Potential biological indicators of multi-organ damage: Application to radiation accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertho, J.M.; Souidi, M.; Gourmelon, P.

    2009-01-01

    Accidental irradiations induce a complex pathological situation, difficult to assess and to treat. However, recent results describing new biological indicators of radiation-induced damages such as Flt3-ligand, citrulline and oxy-sterol concentration in the plasma, together with results obtained in large animal models of high dose irradiation, allowed a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms induced by uncontrolled irradiations. This conducted to leave the classical paradigm of the acute radiation syndrome, described as the association of three individual syndromes, the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastro-intestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome, in favour of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, with the implication of other organs and systems. Follow-up of victims from two recent radiation accidents brings a confirmation of the usefulness of the newly described biological indicators, and also a partial confirmation of this new concept of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. (authors)

  13. 'K' contribution to the biological effect of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissiere, Arnaud

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the importance of 'K' ionizations on DNA as critical physical events initiating the biological effects of ionizing radiation, in particular in human cells. Ultra-soft X-rays are used as a probe of core ionization events. A decisive test consists in comparing the biological effects at 250 eV and 350 eV (before and after the carbon K - threshold). The results show a sharp increase of the biological efficiency for both cellular inactivation and chromosomal exchange aberration above the carbon K-threshold, correlated with the one of core events occurring in DNA atoms. The heavy ion irradiation displays again the paradoxical behaviour of cellular inactivation cross sections as a function of LET. Finally, the 'K' event contribution to cellular inactivation of usual low LET radiation is estimated to be about 75%. (author) [fr

  14. Non-Directional Radiation Spread Modeling and Non-Invasive Estimating the Radiation Scattering and Absorption Parameters in Biological Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Makarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on a development of new non-invasive measurement methods of optical parameters of biological tissues, which are responsible for the scattering and absorption of monochromatic radiation. It is known from the theory of radiation transfer [1] that for strongly scattering media, to which many biological tissues pertain, such parameters are parameters of diffusion approximation, as well as a scattering coefficient and an anisotropy parameter.Based on statistical modeling the paper examines a spread of non-directional radiation from a Lambert light beam with the natural polarization that illuminates a surface of the biological tissue. Statistical modeling is based on the Monte Carlo method [2]. Thus, to have the correct energy coefficient values of Fresnel reflection and transmission in simulation of such radiation by Monte Carlo method the author uses his finding that is a function of the statistical representation for the incidence of model photons [3]. The paper describes in detail a principle of fixing the power transmitted by the non-directional radiation into biological tissue [3], and the equations of a power balance in this case.Further, the paper describes the diffusion approximation of a radiation transfer theory, often used in simulation of radiation propagation in strongly scattering media and shows its application in case of fixing the power transmitted into the tissue. Thus, to represent an uneven power distribution is used an approximating expression in conditions of fixing a total input power. The paper reveals behavior peculiarities of solution on the surface of the biological tissue inside and outside of the incident beam. It is shown that the solution in the region outside of the incident beam (especially far away from it, essentially, depends neither on the particular power distribution across the surface, being a part of the tissue, nor on the refractive index of the biological tissue. It is determined only by

  15. Radiation, its biological effects and uses: past experiences and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Neha; Pande, Nivedita

    2012-01-01

    Radiation refers to electromagnetic energy that travels through space in the form of particles or waves. It is energy such as heat, light, sound, radio waves and radar. It is everywhere including in the food we eat and the air that we breathe. Biological effects of radiation including cell killing, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are all due to damage to DNA; Radiation releases OH ions from water molecules, which cause the cell damage due to their oxidizing effect. The mechanism by which radiation causes damage to human tissue, or any other material, is by ionization of atoms in the material. Genetic or heritable effects appear in the future generations of the exposed person as a result of radiation damage to the reproductive cells. Radiation may alter the DNA within any cell. Cell damage and death that result from mutations in somatic cells occur only in the organism in which the mutation occurred and are therefore termed somatic or no heritable effects. Acute radiation dose is defined as a large dose delivered during a short period of time. Genetic or heritable effects appear in the future generations of the exposed person as a result of radiation damage to the reproductive cells. The radiation used for cancer treatment may come from a machine outside the body, or it may come from radioactive material placed in the body near tumor cells or injected into the bloodstream. Radiation is used to help remove toxic pollutants, such as exhaust gases from coal-fired power stations and industry. For example, electron beam radiation can remove dangerous sulphur dioxides and nitrogen oxides from our environment and used to help remove toxic pollutants, such as exhaust gases from coal-fired power stations and industry. (author)

  16. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  17. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-01-01

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database

  18. Radiation damage relative to transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens at low temperature: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, R.M.; Taylor, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    When biological specimens are irradiated by the electron beam in the electron microscope, the specimen structure is damaged as a result of molecular excitation, ionization, and subsequent chemical reactions. The radiation damage that occurs in the normal process of electron microscopy is known to present severe limitations for imaging high resolution detail in biological specimens. The question of radiation damage at low temperatures has therefore been investigated with the view in mind of reducing somewhat the rate at which damage occurs. The radiation damage protection found for small molecule (anhydrous) organic compounds is generally rather limited or even non-existent. However, large molecule, hydrated materials show as much as a 10-fold reduction at low temperature in the rate at which radiation damage occurs, relative to the damage rate at room temperature. In the case of hydrated specimens, therefore, low temperature electron microscopy offers an important advantage as part of the overall effort required in obtaining high resolution images of complex biological structures. (author)

  19. The yield, processing, and biological consequences of clustered DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikazono, Naoya; Noguchi, Miho; Fujii, Kentaro; Urushibara, Ayumi; Yokoya, Akinari

    2009-01-01

    After living cells are exposed to ionizing radiation, a variety of chemical modifications of DNA are induced either directly by ionization of DNA or indirectly through interactions with water-derived radicals. The DNA lesions include single strand breaks (SSB), base lesions, sugar damage, and apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites). Clustered DNA damage, which is defined as two or more of such lesions within one to two helical turns of DNA induced by a single radiation track, is considered to be a unique feature of ionizing radiation. A double strand break (DSB) is a type of clustered DNA damage, in which single strand breaks are formed on opposite strands in close proximity. Formation and repair of DSBs have been studied in great detail over the years as they have been linked to important biological endpoints, such as cell death, loss of genetic material, chromosome aberration. Although non-DSB clustered DNA damage has received less attention, there is growing evidence of its biological significance. This review focuses on the current understanding of (1) the yield of non-DSB clustered damage induced by ionizing radiation (2) the processing, and (3) biological consequences of non-DSB clustered DNA damage. (author)

  20. Action of radiations on some biological model systems. Technical progress report, 1 October 1975--1 June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, G.

    1976-01-01

    Work during the period 1st October 1975 to 1st June 1976 is reviewed. The topics investigated include: investigation of the action of ionizing radiation on enzyme proteins, using the technique of pulse rdiolysis; the use of fast nanosecond laser pulse techniques in the study of biochemical and biological model systems; and the action of ionizing radiation on mammalian cells, particularly at low doses. Using chromatin as the model substance, radiation biological processes at the nucleoprotein level were investigated

  1. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxins that may harm or kill fish and marine animals. Humans who eat shellfish contaminated with HAB toxins ... toxins that may harm or kill fish and marine animals. Humans who eat shellfish containing toxins produced by ...

  2. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This conference facilitates a meeting of scientists and researchers to present and discuss their newest areas of research and investigation. It incorporates presentations on medical radiation therapies, biological effects of radiation, future areas of concern and nanotechnology

  3. Cellular response to ionizing radiations: a study of the roles of physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWyngaert, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A study of the complementary roles of physics and biology in determining the response of cellular systems to ionizing radiations has been conducted. Upon exposure to radiation, a cell responds in a binary (yes/no) manner in terms of its proliferative ability (survival). The relationship between the survival probability and absorbed dose may then be examined in terms of relevant physical and biological parameters. The approach to these studies was to vary the physics and biology independently and observe separately their influences upon the measured effect. Unique to these studies was the use of heterogeneous tumor systems. These are solid tumors found to consist of genetically related but identifiably distinct populations of cells. The two heterogeneous systems studied, a murine system consisting of four subpopulations and a human tumor system with two subpopulations, were exposed to graded doses of 14 MeV neutrons or x-rays and their effectiveness in inducing cell lethality compared. A further examination of the radiation effect involved a study at the chemical level, measuring the ability of oxygen to potentiate the damage produced by photon irradiation. To summarize, the physics, biology and the environment have all been varied, and the systematics of the responses studied. The data were analyzed within the formalisms of the dual theory of radiation action, the repair-misrepair model, and the repair saturation model of cell killing. The change in survival curve shape and the increased effectiveness in cell killing for higher Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiations (neutrons vs. x-rays) are discussed in relation to explanations in terms of either physical or biochemical processes

  4. Biological effects of space radiation on human cells. History, advances and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalouf, M.; Foray, N.; Durante, M.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to radiation is one of the main concerns for space exploration by humans. By focusing deliberately on the works performed on human cells, we endeavored to review, decade by decade, the technological developments and conceptual advances of space radiation biology. Despite considerable efforts, the cancer and the toxicity risks remain to be quantified: the nature and the frequency of secondary heavy ions need to be better characterized in order to estimate their contribution to the dose and to the final biological response; the diversity of radiation history of each astronaut and the impact of individual susceptibility make very difficult any epidemiological analysis for estimating hazards specifically due to space radiation exposure. Cytogenetic data undoubtedly revealed that space radiation exposure produce significant damage in cells. However, our knowledge of the basic mechanisms specific to low-dose, to repeated doses and to adaptive response is still poor. The application of new radiobiological techniques, like immunofluorescence, and the use of human tissue models different from blood, like skin fibroblasts, may help in clarifying all the above items. (author)

  5. Self-harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-harm refers to a person's harming their own body on purpose. About 1 in 100 people hurts himself or herself in this way. More females hurt themselves than males. A person who self-harms usually does not mean to kill himself or herself. But they are at higher risk of attempting suicide if they do ...

  6. Biological effects of low-dose radiation on human population living in high-background radiation areas of Kerala coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    High-level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coast is densely populated and known for its wide variation in background radiation dose levels due to uneven distribution of monazite in the beach sand. The background radiation dose varies from 1 to 45 mGv/y. The areas with >1.5mGy/y is considered as HLNRA. Human population inhabiting in this area are exposed to low-dose chronic radiation since generations. Hence, this population provides an ideal situation to study dose response and adaptive response, if any, due to natural chronic low-dose exposure. It has been investigated extensively to study the biological and health effects of long-term low-dose/low-dose radiation exposure. So far over 150, 000 newborns monitored from hospital-based study did not reveal any significant difference in the incidence of any of the malformations and stillbirth between HLNRA and adjacent control areas. A case-control study on cleft lip/palate and mental retardation did not show any association with background radiation dose. Cytogenetic investigation of over 27,000 newborns did not show any significant increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations and karyotype anomalies. DNA damage endpoints, such as micronuclei, telomere length and DNA strand breaks, did not reveal any significant difference between control and exposed population. Studies on DNA damage and repair revealed efficient repair of DNA strand breaks in HLNRA individuals. Molecular studies using high throughput microarray analysis indicated a large number of genes involved in various molecular and cellular pathways. Indications of in vivo radioadaptive response due to natural chronic low-dose exposure in this population have important implications to human health. (author)

  7. Health effects of low-level ionising radiation: biological basis for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The biological basis for risk assessment is discussed. The risks of carcinogenic effects, teratogenic effects, and genetic (heritable) effects are estimated to vary in proportion with the dose of radiation in the low-dose domain; however, the risks also appear to vary with the LET of the radiation, age at the time of irradiation, and other variables. Although the data suffice to place the risks in perspective with other hazards of modern life, further research to refine the reliability of the risk assessment is called for. (author)

  8. The current status of studies on mitochondrial DNA with tumor, radiation biological effects and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingjie; Sang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial plays a very important role in sustaining the normal physiological function, because it is the center of energy making and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the only genetic material outside the nuclear. The result of studies showed that many diseases have a close relationship with mtDNA mutation and deletion. This article reviewed the current status of research on mtDNA with tumor, radiation biological effects and aging, in order to initiate the application study of mtDNA in the circle of radiation medicine

  9. At the Crossroads of Cancer Stem Cells, Radiation Biology, and Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerweck, Leo E; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    Reports that a small subset of tumor cells initiate and sustain tumor growth, are resistant to radiation and drugs, and bear specific markers have led to an explosion of cancer stem cell research. These reports imply that the evaluation of therapeutic response by changes in tumor volume is misleading, as volume changes reflect the response of the sensitive rather than the resistant tumorigenic cell population. The reports further suggest that the marker-based selection of the tumor cell population will facilitate the development of radiation treatment schedules, sensitizers, and drugs that specifically target the resistant tumorigenic cells that give rise to treatment failure. This review presents evidence that contests the observations that cancer stem cell markers reliably identify the subset of tumor cells that sustain tumor growth and that the marker-identified population is radioresistant relative to the marker-negative cells. Experimental studies show that cells and tumors that survive large radiation doses are not more radioresistant than unirradiated cells and tumors, and also show that the intrinsic radiosensitivity of unsorted colony-forming tumor cells, in combination with the fraction of unsorted tumor cells that are tumor initiating, predicts tumor radiocurability. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Biological effects and radiation protection in veterinary radiology: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, P.C.; Siqueira, D.; Barros, F.S.

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary radiology is a tool of excellent diagnostic support. Besides X--ray, it counts on technological advances such as computed tomography, nuclear medicine and interventional radiology . It is common during X-ray practice to use exposure parameters with short times to avoid blurring by the movement of the animal, but the fact that the animals need to be immobilized during the exposures contribute significantly with the increase of the dose received by the professionals, whose biological risks are not yet well established as a result of exposure to other factors harmful to health, such as anesthetic gases, insecticides, zoonoses and others. For this reason, we sought to verify the main radiological risks to which veterinarians are exposed and the best means to guarantee radiological protection

  11. Multidisciplinary approach of early breast cancer: The biology applied to radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgier, Céline; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Azria, David

    2010-01-01

    Early breast cancer treatment is based on a multimodality approach with the application of clinical and histological prognostic factors to determine locoregional and systemic treatments. The entire scientific community is strongly involved in the management of this disease: radiologists for screening and early diagnosis, gynecologists, surgical oncologists and radiation oncologists for locoregional treatment, pathologists and biologists for personalized characterization, genetic counselors for BRCA mutation history and medical oncologists for systemic therapies. Recently, new biological tools have established various prognostic subsets of breast cancer and developed predictive markers for miscellaneous treatments. The aim of this article is to highlight the contribution of biological tools in the locoregional management of early breast cancer

  12. Statistical issues in biological radiation dosimetry for risk assessment using stable chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, J.B.; Preston, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Biological dosimeters are useful for epidemiologic risk assessment in populations exposed to catastrophic nuclear events and as a means of validating physical dosimetry in radiation workers. Application requires knowledge of the magnitude of uncertainty in the biological dose estimates and an understanding of potential statistical pitfalls arising from their use. This paper describes the statistical aspects of biological dosimetry in general and presents a detailed analysis in the specific case of dosimetry for risk assessment using stable chromosome aberration frequency. Biological dose estimates may be obtained from a dose-response curve, but negative estimates can result and adjustment must be made for regression bias due to imprecise estimation when the estimates are used in regression analyses. Posterior-mean estimates, derived as the mean of the distribution of true doses compatible with a given value of the biological endpoint, have several desirable properties: they are nonnegative, less sensitive to extreme skewness in the true dose distribution, and implicitly adjusted to avoid regression bias. The methods necessitate approximating the true-dose distribution in the population in which biological dosimetry is being applied, which calls for careful consideration of this distribution through other information. An important question addressed here is to what extent the methods are robust to misspecification of this distribution, because in many applications of biological dosimetry it cannot be characterized well. The findings suggest that dosimetry based solely on stable chromosome aberration frequency may be useful for population-based risk assessment

  13. Characterization of Radiation Fields for Assessing Concrete Degradation in Biological Shields of NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remec, Igor; Rosseel, Thomas M.; Field, Kevin G.; Pape, Yann Le

    2017-09-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to 60 years of operation and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years have renewed interest in long-term material degradation in NPPs. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations are constructed from concrete, including safety-related structures such as biological shields and containment buildings; therefore, concrete degradation is being considered with particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV) in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the currently available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database is desirable to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants.

  14. Biological effectiveness of pulsed and continuous neutron radiation for cells of yeast Saccharomyces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyb, T.S.; Komarova, E.V.; Potetnya, V.I.; Obaturov, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Data are presented on biological effectiveness of fast neutrons generated by BR-10 reactor (dose rate up to 3.8 Gy/s) in comparison with neutrons of pulsed BARS-6 reactor (dose rate ∼6x10 6 Gy/s) for yeast Saccharomyces vini cells of a wild type Menri 139-B and radiosensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae (rad52/rad52; rad54/rad54) mutants which are defective over different systems of DNA reparation. Value of relative biological efficiency (RBE) of continuous radiation for wild stam is from 3.5 up to 2.5 when survival level being 75-10 %, and RBE of pulsed neutron radiation is in the limits of 2.0-1.7 at the same levels. For mutant stam the value of RBE (1.4-1.6) of neutrons is constant at all survival levels and does not depend on dose rate [ru

  15. The impact of advances in human molecular biology on radiation genetic risk estimation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the conceptual framework, the data base, methods and assumptions used thus far to assess the genetic risks of exposure of human populations to ionising radiation. These are then re-examined in the contemporary context of the rapidly expanding knowledge of the molecular biology of human mendelian diseases. This re-examination reveals that (i) many of the assumptions used thus far in radiation genetic risk estimation may not be fully valid and (ii) the current genetic risk estimates are probably conservative, but provide an adequate margin of safety for radiological protection. The view is expressed that further advances in the field of genetic risk estimation will be largely driven by advances in the molecular biology of human genetic diseases. (author). 37 refs., 5 tabs

  16. UNCERTAINTY ON RADIATION DOSES ESTIMATED BY BIOLOGICAL AND RETROSPECTIVE PHYSICAL METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Samaga, Daniel; Della Monaca, Sara; Marrale, Maurizio; Bassinet, Celine; Burbidge, Christopher I; Correcher, Virgilio; Discher, Michael; Eakins, Jon; Fattibene, Paola; Güçlü, Inci; Higueras, Manuel; Lund, Eva; Maltar-Strmecki, Nadica; McKeever, Stephen; Rääf, Christopher L; Sholom, Sergey; Veronese, Ivan; Wieser, Albrecht; Woda, Clemens; Trompier, Francois

    2018-03-01

    Biological and physical retrospective dosimetry are recognised as key techniques to provide individual estimates of dose following unplanned exposures to ionising radiation. Whilst there has been a relatively large amount of recent development in the biological and physical procedures, development of statistical analysis techniques has failed to keep pace. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of the art in uncertainty analysis techniques across the 'EURADOS Working Group 10-Retrospective dosimetry' members, to give concrete examples of implementation of the techniques recommended in the international standards, and to further promote the use of Monte Carlo techniques to support characterisation of uncertainties. It is concluded that sufficient techniques are available and in use by most laboratories for acute, whole body exposures to highly penetrating radiation, but further work will be required to ensure that statistical analysis is always wholly sufficient for the more complex exposure scenarios.

  17. Biological evidence of low ionizing radiation doses; Biologischer Nachweis niedriger Dosen ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsch, Johanna

    2017-03-17

    Throughout life, every person is constantly exposed to different types of ionising radiation, without even noticing the exposure. The mean radiation exposure for people living in Germany amounts to approximately 4 mSv per year and encompasses the exposure from natural and man-made sources. The risks associated with exposure to low doses of radiation are still the subject of intense and highly controversial discussions, emphasizing the social relevance of studies investigating the effects of low radiation doses. In this thesis, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were analyzed within three projects covering different aspects. DSBs are among the most hazardous DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation, because this type of damage can easily lead to the loss of genetic information. Consequently, the DSB presents a high risk for the genetic integrity of the cell. In the first project, extensive results uncovered the track structure of charged particles in a biological model tissue. This provided the first biological data that could be used for comparison with data that were measured or predicted using theoretical physical dosimetry methods and mathematical simulations. Charged particles contribute significantly to the natural radiation exposure and are used increasingly in cancer radiotherapy because they are more efficient in tumor cell killing than X- or γ-rays. The difference in the biological effects of high energy charged particles compared with X- or γ-rays is largely determined by the spatial distribution of their energy deposition and the track structure inducing a three-dimensional damage pattern in living cells. This damage pattern consists of cells directly hit by the particle receiving a high dose and neighboring cells not directly hit by primary particles but exposed to far-reaching secondary electrons (δ-electrons). These cells receive a much lower dose deposition in the order of a few mGy. The radial dose distribution of single particle tracks was

  18. Biological Effects of Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, Visible Light, Infrared Radiation and Vitamin D for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Humans evolved in sunlight and had depended on sunlight for its life giving properties that was appreciated by our early ancestors. However, for more than 40 years the lay press and various medical and dermatology associations have denounced sun exposure because of its association with increased risk for skin cancer. The goal of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits that have been associated with exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet A (UVA) ultraviolet B (UVB), visible and infrared radiation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  20. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Wilson, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Dicello, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/μm. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used

  1. Systems Biology Modeling of the Radiation Sensitivity Network: A Biomarker Discovery Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschrich, Steven; Zhang Hongling; Zhao Haiyan; Boulware, David; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Bloom, Gregory; Torres-Roca, Javier F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The discovery of effective biomarkers is a fundamental goal of molecular medicine. Developing a systems-biology understanding of radiosensitivity can enhance our ability of identifying radiation-specific biomarkers. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity, as represented by the survival fraction at 2 Gy was modeled in 48 human cancer cell lines. We applied a linear regression algorithm that integrates gene expression with biological variables, including ras status (mut/wt), tissue of origin and p53 status (mut/wt). Results: The biomarker discovery platform is a network representation of the top 500 genes identified by linear regression analysis. This network was reduced to a 10-hub network that includes c-Jun, HDAC1, RELA (p65 subunit of NFKB), PKC-beta, SUMO-1, c-Abl, STAT1, AR, CDK1, and IRF1. Nine targets associated with radiosensitization drugs are linked to the network, demonstrating clinical relevance. Furthermore, the model identified four significant radiosensitivity clusters of terms and genes. Ras was a dominant variable in the analysis, as was the tissue of origin, and their interaction with gene expression but not p53. Overrepresented biological pathways differed between clusters but included DNA repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, and metabolism. The c-Jun network hub was validated using a knockdown approach in 8 human cell lines representing lung, colon, and breast cancers. Conclusion: We have developed a novel radiation-biomarker discovery platform using a systems biology modeling approach. We believe this platform will play a central role in the integration of biology into clinical radiation oncology practice.

  2. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H{sub p}(10) and H{sub p}(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10{sup -3}, 5.06x10{sup -2}], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10{sup -2}, 3.36x10{sup -1}], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10{sup -1}, 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an

  3. Current status of biological indicators to detect and quantify previous exposures to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.; Eisele, G.; Burr, W. Jr.; Hubner, K.; Wachholz, B.

    1991-01-01

    As noted in the text of this paper, immunological concepts are in a state of rapid development, and it is possible that improved methods for applying immunologic procedures as biological indicators of radiation may be developed in the future. However, at the present time, immunological indicators are not useful, even in an early time period, for quantitating radiation dose after total-body irradiation. A semiquantitative effect is observable in the early phase after total-body irradiation over a period of days to weeks, but there is little data available to indicate whether any of the immunological parameters can be indicative of a dose when the test is applied several years after radiation exposure. More detailed information regarding immunological indicators for estimating irradiation dose has been summarized elsewhere

  4. Status of research on biological effects and safety of electromagnetic radiation: telecommunications frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, S B

    1994-06-01

    The possible adverse effects on human health of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave electromagnetic fields and radiation are of public concern. As the ambient electromagnetic environment continues to intensify (e.g. cellular and portable phones, wireless communications, LANs, PCNs) the effects of exposure from cumulative sources and prolonged exposure to low levels needs to be addressed. This review considers RF and microwave radiation above 100 kHz. It is acknowledged that there are several possible areas of biological interaction which have health implications and about which current knowledge is limited. Advice is based on the assessment of risks to health resulting from these exposures as derived from studies on the effects of RF radiation on animals and volunteers and from epidemiological studies of exposed populations. 360 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation Micro Beams in Cell Micro Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2007-01-01

    This book demonstrates the applications of synchrotron radiation in certain aspects of cell microbiology, specifically non-destructive elemental analyses, chemical-state analyses and imaging (distribution) of the elements within a cell. The basics for understanding and applications of synchrotron radiation are also described to make the contents easier to be understood for a wide group of researchers in medical and biological sciences who might not be familiar with the physics of synchrotron radiation. The two main techniques that are discussed in this book are the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and the x-ray fine structure analysis (XAFS). Application of these techniques in investigations of several important scientific fields, such as neurodegeneration and other diseases related to cell malfunctioning, are demonstrated in this book.

  6. Future development of biological understanding of radiation protection: implications of nonstochastic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-protection standards are based on minimizing or preventing biological effects in exposed populations. Radiation-induced biological effects can be classified as stochastic--malignant and hereditary diseases for which the probability of an effect occurring is a function of dose without threshold--and nonstochastic--inflammatory and degenerative diseases for which the severity and frequency of the effect varies with the dose and for which a threshold is present. The current International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) approach for setting limits for intakes of radionuclides by workers, which accounts for doses to significantly exposed organs of the body, is based on limitation of stochastic effects in most situations. When setting exposure limits, nonstochastic effects are generally considered to be unlikely at the limits for stochastic effects. In some situations, limits based on prevention of nonstochastic effects are lower than for stochastic effects. This review considers the threshold radiation doses for thyroid, bone, liver and lung and their relationship to the limits recommended by the ICRP and the cancer risks at the limits. This review indicates that the threshold dose for nonstochastic effects in thyroid and lung is much above the dose limit as advocated by ICRP. The threshold dose for nonstochastic effects in bone and liver is much closer to the dose limit, but protection from nonstochastic effects should still be afforded by the dose limits

  7. The SCID-hu mouse and its application to human radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; McCune, J.M.; Namikawa, Reiko.

    1993-01-01

    The radiobiological study of humans has been hampered by a lack of suitable in vivo experimental models. Of course, acute and chronic radiation effects in humans have been documented in the studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors and patients irradiated either by therapeutic intent or by accident. However, the information gained from these studies has been limited by the difficulties in estimating precise radiation doses and in obtaining biological samples for directly analyzing the processes of radiation-induced pathogenesis. With these issues in mind, we propose that the severe combined immunodeficient mouse-human chimera can be used as an in vivo experimental model for human radiation biology. We have developed techniques by which normal human bone marrow can be implanted into immunodeficient C.B-17 scid/scid (SCID) mice (S. Kyoizumi et al, Blood 79, 1704, 1992). We have report that this in vivo model can be used for the analysis of radiation damage to human bone marrow. After whole-body irradiation of the engrafted animals, human progenitor cells within the human marrow were destroyed in a dose-dependent manner (D 0 = 0.7-1.0Gy, n = 1.0). Acute hematotoxicity was reduced when the radioprotective agent (WR-2721) was administered prior to irradiation. After low dose irradiation, the recovery of human progenitor activity was accelerated by treatment with human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). This small animal model may prove amenable for the risk analysis of human radiation exposure as well as for the development of new modalities for the prevention and treatment of radiotoxic damage to the human hematopoietic system. (author)

  8. A literature survey of the biological effects and mechanics of electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeh, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The following report discusses the very controversial subject of electromagnetic interaction with the human body. The project was undertaken in the form of a literature survey to investigate the biological mechanisms responsible for the interaction, the theoretical models and associated mathematical techniques required to model the human body, the resulting energy deposition in the human and the factors which effect this. It was established that at present the most realistic model of man can be obtained using a block model and moment method technique with improved methods such as conjugate gradients or band approximation for the necessary matrix inversion. The impedance method of modelling could be very promising for future research. From the literature studied on biological effects no scientific evidence was found which definitely proves or disproves hazardous effects exist at low field intensities ( -2 ). The testes and the lens of the eye can be harmed, however, if the intensity is sufficient to cause a temperature rise of 1 degree Celsius in these organs

  9. [Self-harming behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Nienke; Pollen, Wim; van Meijel, Berno

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of self-harm, a 28-year-old female patient and a 19-year-old female patient with self-harming behaviour are presented. The first patient refused treatment of cut wounds when the doctor enquired about the reason for self-harm. The second patient was referred for mental health care. These cases illustrate the complexity of this behaviour for the patient and the caregiver. Self-harm is often a symbol of underlying problems and serves multiple psychological functions. It is mostly used by patients to cope with unbearable emotions for which they have no other solution. The self-harm invokes different feelings in caregivers which tend to influence the attitude of the caregiver towards the patient. It is very important that caregivers are aware of their feelings and use them professionally. People who self-harm should not be judged, but treated respectfully and attention should be paid to their suffering.

  10. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1990-09-01

    This is part 11 of a database constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on authors, key words, title, year, journal name, or publication number. Photocopies of the publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by our publication acquisition numbers. This volume contains 1048 additional entries, which are listed in alphabetical order by author. The computer software used for the database is a simple but sophisticated relational database program that permits quick information access, high flexibility, and the creation of customized reports. This program is inexpensive and is commercially available for the Macintosh and the IBM PC. Although the database entries were made using a Macintosh computer, we have the capability to convert the files into the IBM PC version. As of this date, the database cites 2260 publications. Citations in the database are from 200 different scientific journals. There are also references to 80 books and published symposia, and 158 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed within the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly predominate. The journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, with a total of 242 citations in the database, and Mutation Research, with 185 citations. Other journals with over 100 citations in the database, are Radiation Research, with 136, and International Journal of Radiation Biology, with 132

  11. Transient impedance changes in venous endothelial monolayers as a biological radiation dosimetry response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Fossum Young

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In March of 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent 14 m-high tsunami caused major damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan.  While cancer incidence in the radiation-exposed population is a logical concern, the complex effects of radiation on the heart and cardiovascular system are also of interest.  Immediate and early vascular radiation effects could be exploited as a dosimetry modality.  To test whether non-coronary vasculature exhibited transient perturbation in barrier function, video microscopy studies and Electric Cell Substrate Impedance Sensing technology were used to probe very subtle changes in primary human vascular endothelium.  Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers exhibit a transient, statistically significant decrease (P = 0.017 in monolayer resistance 3 h after irradiation with 5.0 Gy of g rays.  Radiation induced perturbations in HUVEC monolayer permeability are similar in magnitude and kinetics to those observed in coronary arterial endothelium.  Therefore, at least two types of vasculature respond to radiation on ECIS arrays with an early transient disruption in permeability.  The finding supports the use of early passage HUVECs for use in bioelectric dosimetry studies of vasculature and suggests that permeability of vessels could potentially serve as a biological dosimetry tool.

  12. Radiation-induced secretory protein, clusterin. Its inductive mechanism and biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Boothman, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes biochemistry of secretory clusterin (C), its radiation-inductive mechanism and biological significance. C is a glycoprotein found to be secreted from cells given various stresses like radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-ray, and participates to red cell clustering. Human C gene locates on the chromosome 8p21-p12, C has MW of 60 kDa, its precursor undergoes the degrading processing to α- and β-chains to form their heterodimer before glycosylation, and the C is finally secreted. So many other names have been given to C due to its numerous functions which have been discovered in other fields, such as apolipoprotein J. C is abundant in plasma, milk, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, etc. Within 24 hr after X-ray irradiation, extracellular insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level is elevated, and through its binding to the receptor, Src/MAPK signaling participates to C expression. Nuclear C, also induced by radiation, is a splicing variant of C and not secreted from cells. C is induced by radiation with as low dose as 2 cGy, which is different from induction of nuclear C. Secreted C is incorporated in cells by endocytosis and promotes the intracellular survival reaction through IGF-1 receptor/MAPK/Egr-1 pathway, whereas nuclear C induces cell apoptosis via unknown mechanism. Further studies are required for elucidation of the roles of secretory and nuclear C in cellular radiation responses. (R.T.)

  13. The effect of radiation on bioluminescent bacteria: possible use of luminescent bacteria as a biological dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantel, J.; Freidin, M.; Perry, H.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the response of the bioluminescent Photobacterium phosphoreum to radiation, and the possible use of the bacteria as a biological radiation dosemeter, i.e. a water-equivalent biological system that will compare beams not merely on the basis of absorbed dose, but also have intrinsic RBE values for different radiation beams. Samples were irradiated by a 12 MeV electron beam at a dose rate of 3.0 Gy min -1 , by 60 Co gamma rays at 2.85 Gy min -1 , and by 100 kVsub(p) x-rays at a dose rate of 2.13 Gy min -1 . To study dose-rate dependence, the survival fraction was obtained for a 12 MeV electron beam at 0.50 and 12 Gy min -1 for 20.0 Gy. The survival fraction proved to be independent of dose rate in this range. The results presented in this work indicate that by using bioluminescent bacteria, RBE measurements can be markedly simplified and the results interpreted unequivocally. (U.K.)

  14. Biological dosimetry: the potential use of radiation-induced apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, R.; Andres, R.; Larsson, B.; Ozsahin, M.; Crompton, N.E.A.; Trott, K.

    1997-01-01

    An assay for biological dosimetry based on the induction of apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes is described. Radiation-induced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric identification of cells displaying apoptosis-associated DNA condensation. CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes were analysed. They were recognized on the basis of their cell-surface antigens. Four parameters were measured for both cell types: cell size, granularity, antigen immunofluorescence and DNA content. Apoptosis was quantified as the fraction of CD4-, or CD8-positive cells with a characteristic reduction of cell size and DNA content. At doses below 1 Gy, levels of radiation-induced apoptosis increased for up to 5 days after irradiation. Optimal dose discrimination was observed 4 days after irradiation, at which time the dose-response curves were linear, with a slope of 8% ± 0.5% per 0.1 Gy. In controlled, dose-response experiments the lowest dose level at which the radiation-induced apoptosis frequency was still significantly above control was 0.05 Gy. After 5 days post-irradiation incubation, intra- and interdonor variations were measured and found to be similar; thus, apoptotic levels depend more on the dose than on the donor. The results demonstrate the potential of this assay as a biological dosimeter. (orig.)

  15. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha radiation in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia; Tracy, Bliss; Ping, Tilly; Baweja, Anar; Wickstrom, Mark; Sidhu, Narinder; Hiebert, Linda

    2007-03-01

    Northern peoples can receive elevated radiation doses (1- 10 mSv/y) from transfer of polonium-210 (210Po) through the lichen-caribou-human food chain. Ingested 210Po is primarily blood-borne and thus many of its short range alpha particles irradiate the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha particles vs. x-rays was examined in porcine aortic endothelial cells as a surrogate for understanding what might happen to human endothelial cells in northern populations consuming traditional foods. Cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to x-ray and 210Po alpha particle radiation. Alpha irradiation was applied to the cell cultures internally via the culture medium and externally, using thin-bottomed culture dishes. The results given here are based on the external irradiation method, which was found to be more reliable. Dose-response curves were compared for four lethal endpoints (cell viability, live cell fraction, release of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and clonogenic survival) to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha radiation. The alpha RBE for porcine cells varied from 1.6-21, depending on the endpoint: 21.2+/-4.5 for cell viability, 12.9+/-2.7 for decrease in live cell number, 5.3+/-0.4 for LDH release to the medium but only 1.6 +/-0.1 for clonogenic survival. The low RBE of 1.6 was due to x-ray hypersensitivity of endothelial cells at low doses.

  16. Gamma radiation effect on biological activity and enzymatic properties of snake venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, E.; Yarleque, A.; Campos, S.; Zavaleta, A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation, from Co-60, on the biological activity and on some enzymatic activities, present in the venoms of Lachesis muta and Bothrops atrox, using samples of dried venom that had been irradiated at a dose of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 Mrad have been studied. Variations in the degree of hemorrhage and local necrosis were observed in albino mice injected subcutaneously with venoms of both types. The reduction of the biological activity was greater for the local hemorrhagic effect and was dependent on the doses of irradiation. The specific activity of various enzymes, present in both venoms, is affected by the gamma radiation, at a dose of 0.1 Mrad the order of increasing inactivation being: exonuclease (4%), phospholipase (24%), caseinolytic enzyme (20%), tamesterase (33%), a thrombine-like enzyme (40%), fibrinolytic enzyme (41%), 5'-nucleotidase (50%) and endonuclease (55%). The enzymatic inactivation was augmented by 0.5 and 1.0 Mrad, without maintaining an arithmetic relation. The enzyme of major resistance to the radiation was exonuclease, whereas 5'-nucleotidase and endonuclease were the most sensitive. No significant changes were observed in the spectrum of UV absorbtion (range 260 to 290 nm) nor in the contents of L-tyrosine in the irradiated venoms

  17. A perspective on dose limits and biological effects of radiation on the foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Gordon, K.

    1992-01-01

    The potential biological effects of radiation doses to pregnant workers consistent with Canadian regulations and ICRP recommendations are reviewed. These hazards are in general very small compared to the normal hazards associated with human development. Potential carcinogenic effects may well be the major biological problem associated with foetal exposures. Radiation hazards to the embryo are essentially zero for exposures occurring during the first four weeks after conception. The new ICRP recommendations on exposures of pregnant women suggest a number of problems to be solved. These include (a) improvements in current methods of measuring both external radiation doses and intakes of certain radionuclides in Canada, (b) further research on the metabolism of radionuclides in pregnant women, including concentrations of certain radionuclides in foetal/embryonic tissues and also in adjacent tissues of the mother; and (c) socio-economic problems that may be involved in the implementation of the recommendations on exposures of pregnant workers, particularly in small facilities such as nuclear medicine departments in hospitals. (Author) 3 tabs., 21 refs

  18. Evaluation of the processing of dry biological ferment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Ingrid Traete

    2007-01-01

    The developed work had with objectives to demonstrate if it had alteration in the growth of UFC in plate and in the viability of yeasts and total bacteria when dry biological ferment was dealt with by different doses to gamma radiation and under different times storage, to determine the D10 dose for total bacteria and yeasts in this product and to analyzed the processing of this product it promoted some benefit without causing unfeasibility of exactly. The different samples of dry biological ferment had been irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell - 220 source at 0.5; 1; 2 and 3 kGy doses (dose rate of 3.51 kGy/h). This procedure referring samples to each dose of radiation had been after destined to the microbiological analysis and the test of viability while excessively the samples had been stored the ambient temperature (23 degree C). The increase of the dose of radiation caused a reduction in the counting of yeasts growth, of total bacteria growth and also in the frequency of viable yeast cells, demonstrated by FDA-EB fluorescent method. Beyond of radiation the storage time also it influenced in counting reduction of total bacteria and reduction of frequency of viable cells. According with the analysis of simple linear regression, the dose of radiation necessary to eliminate 90% of the yeast population was between 1.10 and 2.23 kGy and for the bacterial population varied between 2.31 and 2.95 kGy. These results demonstrated clearly the negative points of the application of ionizing radiation in dry biological ferment; therefore the interval of D10 found for total bacteria is superior to found for yeasts. Being thus, the use of this resource for the improvement of the product quality becomes impracticable, since to reduce significantly the bacterial population necessarily we have that to diminish the population of yeasts. With yeasts reduction of we will go significantly to modify the quality and the viability of product. (author)

  19. Statistical Modeling of Radiative Transfer and Transient Characteristics for Multilayer Biological Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Makarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monte-Carlo method [1] already long ago proved itself as a powerful and universal tool for mathematical modelling in various areas of science and engineering. Researchers often choose this method when it is difficult to find a solution by other ways (or impossible at all, e.g. because of sophisticated analytical dependences, area of modelling or boundary conditions. Certainly, this necessarily statistical and flexible method requires significant computation time, but a continuously increasing computation capability makes it more and more attractive for a choice in specific situation.One of the promising areas to use the method of statistical modelling is description of light propagation in the turbid (scattering media. A high motivation for development of this approach is widely used lasers in biomedicine [3]. Besides, owing to its flexibility, the Monte-Carlo method is also of importance in theoretical researches, in particular, to estimate a degree of adequacy of the offered approximation methods for solving a radiative transfer equation [4].It is known that key parameters of turbid media are an absorption coefficient (characterizes absorption probability of a photon per unit of path length and a scattering coefficient (characterizes scattering probability of a photon per unit of path length. The ratio of each of the coefficients to their sum (extinction defines a probability of "death" or "survival" of a photon, respectively, in interaction with lenses. Generally, in the scattering medium there is a non-coherent radiation component, which in turbid media such as biological tissues, already at the insignificant depth becomes prevailing over the coherent one (residual of the incident laser beam [5].The author used the Monte-Carlo method to simulate optical radiation propagation in the multilayer biological tissues with their optical characteristics corresponding to the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Such a biological tissue is the absorbing

  20. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Biological Molecules—Mechanisms of Damage and Emerging Methods of Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Julie A.; Bansal, Nidhi; Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Weiling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR) involve a highly orchestrated series of events that are amplified by endogenous signaling and culminating in oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, proteins, and many metabolites. Despite the global impact of IR, the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue damage reveal that many biomolecules are chemoselectively modified by IR. Recent Advances: The development of high-throughput “omics” technologies for mapping DNA and protein modifications have revolutionized the study of IR effects on biological systems. Studies in cells, tissues, and biological fluids are used to identify molecular features or biomarkers of IR exposure and response and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their expression or synthesis. Critical Issues: In this review, chemical mechanisms are described for IR-induced modifications of biomolecules along with methods for their detection. Included with the detection methods are crucial experimental considerations and caveats for their use. Additional factors critical to the cellular response to radiation, including alterations in protein expression, metabolomics, and epigenetic factors, are also discussed. Future Directions: Throughout the review, the synergy of combined “omics” technologies such as genomics and epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics is highlighted. These are anticipated to lead to new hypotheses to understand IR effects on biological systems and improve IR-based therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21: 260–292. PMID:24382094

  1. Self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skegg, Keren

    The term self-harm is commonly used to describe a wide range of behaviours and intentions including attempted hanging, impulsive self-poisoning, and superficial cutting in response to intolerable tension. As with suicide, rates of self-harm vary greatly between countries. 5-9% of adolescents in western countries report having self-harmed within the previous year. Risk factors include socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychiatric illness--particularly depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. Cultural aspects of some societies may protect against suicide and self-harm and explain some of the international variation in rates of these events. Risk of repetition of self-harm and of later suicide is high. More than 5% of people who have been seen at a hospital after self-harm will have committed suicide within 9 years. Assessment after self-harm includes careful consideration of the patient's intent and beliefs about the lethality of the method used. Strong suicidal intent, high lethality, precautions against being discovered, and psychiatric illness are indicators of high suicide risk. Management after self-harm includes forming a trusting relationship with the patient, jointly identifying problems, ensuring support is available in a crisis, and treating psychiatric illness vigorously. Family and friends may also provide support. Large-scale studies of treatments for specific subgroups of people who self-harm might help to identify more effective treatments than are currently available. Although risk factors for self-harm are well established, aspects that protect people from engaging in self-harm need to be further explored.

  2. Carbon Heavy-ion Radiation Induced Biological effects on Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Xishan; Gong, Ning; Meng, Qingmei; Liu, Jiawei; Wang, Ting

    2016-07-01

    Large number of researches on rice after spaceflights indicated that rice was a favorable model organism to study biological effects induced by space radiation. The stimulative effect could often be found on rice seedlings after irradiation by low-dose energetic heavy-ion radiation. Spaceflight also could induce stimulative effect on kinds of seeds. To further understand the mechanism of low-dose radiation biological effects and the dose range, the germinated rice seeds which were irradiated by different doses of carbon heavy-ion (0, 0.02, 0.1, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20Gy, LET=27.3keV/µm) were used as materials to study. By investigating the variation of rice phenotype under different doses, we found that 2Gy radiation dose was a dividing point of the phenotypic variation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the variation of mitochondria, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome and nucleus in mesophyll cell of rice apical meristem at 24 hours after radiation with different doses. The cells were not apparently physiologically damaged when the dose of radiation was less than 2Gy. The number of chloroplast did not change significantly, but the number of mitochondria was significantly increased, and gathered around in the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum; the obvious lesion of chloroplast and mitochondria were found at the mesophyll cells when radiation dose was higher than 2Gy. The mitochondria were swelling and appearing blurred crest. The chloroplast and mitochondrial mutation rate increased significantly (pmitochondrial was an important organelle involved in the antioxidative systems, its dysfunction could result in the increase of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. We found that the growth stimulation induced by low-dose radiation mainly occurred at three-leaf stage along with the increasing activity of antioxidase system and damages of lipid peroxidation. We also found that the relative expression of genes sdhb and aox1a

  3. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases as Medical Counter Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

  4. A hypothesis on biological protection from space radiation through the use of new therapeutic gases as medical counter measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoenfeld Michael P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is biological damage that is associated with increased oxidative stress. It is therefore important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and as biological signaling molecules for management of the body's response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it can be concluded that this approach may have therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion (IR injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, and aging. We envision applying these therapies through inhalation of gas mixtures or ingestion of water with dissolved gases.

  5. Proceedings of the international conference on radiation biology and clinical applications: a molecular approach towards innovations in applied radiobiology and a workshop on strategies in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Innovations in radiotherapy approaches to cancer and radiation biology research is of growing interest in radiation researchers to conduct preclinical studies at their centers and translating the results as soon as possible to clinical radiotherapy practice. Recent papers have greatly enriched the current knowledge of radiation oncology, especially radiobiology and molecular oncology, and this has radically changed the oncology practice in radiation therapy in just a few years. The conference theme highlights the molecular and cellular responses within tissue and higher levels of mammalian biological organization. New experimental radiobiology research to underpin current and future regulatory decisions setting workplace exposure limits. To develop rapid, high-precision analytical methods that assess radiation exposure doses from clinical samples and thus aid in the triage and medical management of radiological casualties. Innovative approaches to improve the accuracy, dose range, ease of use, and speed of classical biodosimetry. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. Biological effects of ionizing radiations. Radiological accident from Goiania, GO, Brazil; Efeitos biologicos das radiacoes ionizantes. Acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Emico, E-mail: emico.okuno@if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF-USP), SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    This article presents the fundaments of radiation physics, the natural and artificial sources, biological effects, radiation protection. We also examine the sequence of events that resulted in Goiania accident with a source of caesium-137 from abandoned radiotherapy equipment and its terrible consequences. (author)

  7. Biological effects of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields and radiation: III radiofrequency and microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.D.; Kowalczuk, C.I.; Sienkiewicz, Z.J.

    1991-12-01

    The biological effects of experimental exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave radiation above 100 kHz are reviewed with the intention of providing a summary of effects directly relevant to considerations of the health and safety of exposed people. The biological bases for restricting exposures are also briefly discussed. Studies of the possible effects of electromagnetic field exposure on human populations are described in a separate report. The majority of the biological effects of acute exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave radiation are consistent with responses to induced heating, resulting either from frank rises in tissue or body temperature of about 1 0 C or more, or from responses involved in minimising the total heat load. Most responses have been reported at specific energy absorption rates (SARs) above about 1-2 W kg -1 in different animal species exposed under various environmental conditions. These animal, particularly primate, data indicate the sorts of responses that are likely to occur in humans subject to a sufficient heat load. In addition, most animal and cell culture data indicate that RF and microwave exposure is not mutagenic and so will not result in somatic mutation or in hereditary effects; such exposure is therefore unlikely to initiate cancers. With some exceptions that are described below, restrictions on the acute exposure of humans to RF or microwave radiation should be based on the acute responses to raised body temperature. It seems probable that healthy people can tolerate short-term (minute-hour) rises in body temperature of up to about 1 0 C. This rise is well below the maximum tolerable increase but nevertheless represents a significant thermal load. The evidence suggests that the exposure of resting humans in moderate environments at whole-body SARs of 1 W kg -1 , and up to 4 W kg -1 for short periods, will result in body temperature rises of less than 1 0 C. A restriction of whole-body SAR for healthy people to 0

  8. Effects of gamma radiations on some aspects of the biology of salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Miloud, Najla

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed at the study of the effect of gamma radiation on certain aspects of the biology of Salmonella, few works joined this type and gamma radiations. The lethal effect of ionizing radiations was associated at other bacterial types, to an oxidative stress due to the presence of reactive spices of oxygen and leading to deteriorations of membrane cells, proteins and nucleic acids.Thus, we proceeded to an analysis of the viability of four Salmonella serovars subject to different radiation doses going from 0.5 to 2 KGy. The results showed a viability reduction dose dependent with a differential behavior, statistically significant. In order to detect possible radio induced changes at the restriction site of the enzymes XbaI and BlnI usually used for the typing of Salmonella, we carried out a DNA restriction profile analyse of the four serovars by pulsed filed gel electrophoresis. The results showed that no change appeared on the level of these restriction sites for the used enzymes following an irradiation of 2KGy. The study of the sensitivity of Salmonella to antibiotics after a gamma radiation showed that gamma radiation has increased the sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to porin associated antibiotics. Statistical analyses showed that the effect of different irradiation dose treatment on the antibiotic sensitivity is increasingly significant. The irradiation didn't induce modifications of the sensitivity to other antibiotics, probably because of their nature, of their penetration mode inside the cell or their action way. To tray to explain the differential behavior of different serovars to irradiation. We analyzed by Quantitative real time PCR (RT- PCR), the expression level of the ARNm of the genes KATN (catalase non-hemique), DNAK (protein of thermal shock), RNA polymerase as well as of the 16S rRNA. The results showed either a repression or an induction of certain genes under the effect of an irradiation of 2 KGy. (Author)

  9. Physical and biological data collected along the Texas, Mississippi, and Florida Gulf coasts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Harmful Algal BloomS Observing System from 19 Aug 1953 to 11 July 2014 (NODC Accession 0120767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HABSOS (Harmful Algal BloomS Observing System) is a data collection and distribution system for harmful algal bloom (HAB) information in the Gulf of Mexico. The goal...

  10. Changes in number and function of the lymphocyte populations as a biological indicator for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehos, A.; Hinz, G.; Schwarz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Siegal and Siegal reported that the number of immunoglobulin producing cells, especially after higher doses of ionizing radiation on isolated mononuclear cells decreases considerably. However, if non-irradiated B cells are cultivated with irradiated (16 Gy) T cells, a significant increase of immunoglobulin production due to the non-irradiated B cells can be observed. Siegal and Siegal described a similar result when they combined and cultivated non-irradiated with irradiated mononuclear cells. The immunoglobulin producing cells decreased in a lower and increased in a higher dose range. The two results can be explained by the fact that Tg cells which act as suppressor cells are relatively sensitive to radiation while Tm cells which are helper cells in this test are relatively resistant. According to these results, B lymphocytes are the most sensitive of the lymphocyte subpopulations. The aim of the project is to clarify whether the mentioned effects are suitable for 'biological dosimetry'. (orig./MG)

  11. Applicability of discovery science approach to determine biological effects of mobile phone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Nylund, Reetta; Joenväärä, Sakari; Reivinen, Jukka

    2004-02-01

    We argue that the use of high-throughput screening techniques, although expensive and laborious, is justified and necessary in studies that examine biological effects of mobile phone radiation. The "case of hsp27 protein" presented here suggests that even proteins with only modestly altered (by exposure to mobile phone radiation) expression and activity might have an impact on cell physiology. However, this short communication does not attempt to present the full scientific evidence that is far too large to be presented in a single article and that is being prepared for publication in three separate research articles. Examples of the experimental evidence presented here were designed to show the flow of experimental process demonstrating that the use of high-throughput screening techniques might help in rapid identification of the responding proteins. This, in turn, can help in speeding up of the process of determining whether these changes might affect human health.*

  12. Atmospheric ions and probable indirect biological effect of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The problem is discussed of the health consequences of low radiation doses (of less than 0.01 Gy). Owing to natural radioactivity and cosmic radiation, ions are formed in the atmosphere which may thus indirectly mediate the effects of ionizing radiation on the organism. The rate of ion formation is approximately 6.1 ion pairs/cm 3 .s and their number will not exceed 10 3 ions/cm 3 . In an environment where artificial radioactive sources are used, the ion concentration may reach up to 10 5 ions/cm 3 . The effect of ions on man may be divided into several types: 1. effect on mental state (behaviour, fatigue, headaches); 2. effect on the cardiovascular system; 3. effect on the bronchial system;and 4. effect on physiological processes, e.g., secretion by endocrine glands. It is not yet known whether the biological effect of small (fast) ions is a function of their electric charge only or of their kinetic energy as well. The view is discussed that low radiation doses through indirect effects have favourable and beneficial influence on the human organism. (M.D.)

  13. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast; Effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants. Petit dejeuner de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flury-Herard, A [CEA, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 75 - Paris (France); Boiteux, S; Dutrillaux, B [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 92 (France); Toledano, M [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2000-06-01

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  14. [Experience of the development special medical technical laboratory for studies of effects caused by potent electromagnetic radiation in biologic objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, B N; Kalyada, T V; Petrov, S V

    2015-01-01

    This article covers topics of creating special medical technical laboratory for medial and biologic studies concerning influence of potent high-frequency elecromagnetic radiation on various biologic objects. The authors gave example of such laboratory, described its construction features, purpose and main characteristics of the included devices.

  15. Biological bases of radiological protection criteria for superficial, low penetrating radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, M W

    1986-01-01

    When the body is exposed to low penetrating radiation such as beta or low energy X-rays, the skin, eyes and sometimes testes may be the most highly irradiated organs of the body. In order to assess the biological response following such exposures it is necessary to understand the radiobiology of the specific organs and, in particular, the identity and depth of the most radiosensitive cells. This information is also directly relevant to the needs of those responsible for calculating and measuring doses to personnel. Up to date information on the identification and depth of cells at risk, and the biological response following non-uniform exposures will be reviewed. The limitations in this knowledge which are creating problems for dosimetric applications are identified so that radiobiology programmes can then be evaluated and tailored to meet these practical needs.

  16. The use of the dicentric assay for biological dosimetry for radiation accidents in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidekova, Valeria; Hristova, Rositsa; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Atanasova, Petya; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena

    2010-02-01

    This paper details the construction of a 137Cs gamma calibration curve that has been established for dicentric assay and the testing and validation of the curve through biological dosimetry in three situations of suspected workplace overexposure that arose accidentally or through negligence or lack of appropriate safety measures. The three situations were: (1) suspected 137Cs contamination in a factory air supply; (2) suspected exposure to an industrial 192Ir source; and (3) accidental exposure of construction workers to radiation from a 60Co radiotherapy source in a hospital medical physics department. From a total of 24 potentially-exposed subjects, only one worker was found to have a statistically significant dose (0.16 Gy, 95% confidence intervals 0.02-0.43 Gy). In all other cases, the main function of the biological dosimetry was to reassure the subjects that any dose received was low.

  17. Wavelength dependence of biological damage induced by UV radiation on bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana L; Oliveira, Vanessa; Baptista, Inês; Henriques, Isabel; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide; Correia, António; Cunha, Ângela

    2013-01-01

    The biological effects of UV radiation of different wavelengths (UVA, UVB and UVC) were assessed in nine bacterial isolates displaying different UV sensitivities. Biological effects (survival and activity) and molecular markers of oxidative stress [DNA strand breakage (DSB), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase] were quantified and statistically analyzed in order to identify the major determinants of cell inactivation under the different spectral regions. Survival and activity followed a clear wavelength dependence, being highest under UVA and lowest under UVC. The generation of ROS, as well as protein and lipid oxidation, followed the same pattern. DNA damage (DSB) showed the inverse trend. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that survival under UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths was best explained by DSB, oxidative damage to lipids, and intracellular ROS levels, respectively.

  18. In Silico Nanodosimetry: New Insights into Nontargeted Biological Responses to Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Kuncic

    2012-01-01

    nontargeted responses cannot be understood in the framework of DNA-centric radiobiological models; what is needed are new physically motivated models that address the damage-sensing signalling pathways triggered by the production of reactive free radicals. To this end, we have conducted a series of in silico experiments aimed at elucidating the underlying physical processes responsible for nontargeted biological responses to radiation. Our simulation studies implement new results on very low-energy electromagnetic interactions in liquid water (applicable down to nanoscales and we also consider a realistic simulation of extranuclear microbeam irradiation of a cell. Our results support the idea that organelles with important functional roles, such as mitochondria and lysosomes, as well as membranes, are viable targets for ionizations and excitations, and their chemical composition and density are critical to determining the free radical yield and ensuing biological responses.

  19. Spectral and spatial shaping of a laser-produced ion beam for radiation-biology experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pommarel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of radiation biology on laser-based accelerators is most interesting due to the unique irradiation conditions they can produce, in terms of peak current and duration of the irradiation. In this paper we present the implementation of a beam transport system to transport and shape the proton beam generated by laser-target interaction for in vitro irradiation of biological samples. A set of four permanent magnet quadrupoles is used to transport and focus the beam, efficiently shaping the spectrum and providing a large and relatively uniform irradiation surface. Real time, absolutely calibrated, dosimetry is installed on the beam line, to enable shot-to-shot control of dose deposition in the irradiated volume. Preliminary results of cell sample irradiation are presented to validate the robustness of the full system.

  20. Radiation-induced DNA-protein cross-links: Mechanisms and biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Xu, Xu; Salem, Amir M H; Shoulkamy, Mahmoud I; Ide, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    Ionizing radiation produces various DNA lesions such as base damage, DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). Of these, the biological significance of DPCs remains elusive. In this article, we focus on radiation-induced DPCs and review the current understanding of their induction, properties, repair, and biological consequences. When cells are irradiated, the formation of base damage, SSBs, and DSBs are promoted in the presence of oxygen. Conversely, that of DPCs is promoted in the absence of oxygen, suggesting their importance in hypoxic cells, such as those present in tumors. DNA and protein radicals generated by hydroxyl radicals (i.e., indirect effect) are responsible for DPC formation. In addition, DPCs can also be formed from guanine radical cations generated by the direct effect. Actin, histones, and other proteins have been identified as cross-linked proteins. Also, covalent linkages between DNA and protein constituents such as thymine-lysine and guanine-lysine have been identified and their structures are proposed. In irradiated cells and tissues, DPCs are repaired in a biphasic manner, consisting of fast and slow components. The half-time for the fast component is 20min-2h and that for the slow component is 2-70h. Notably, radiation-induced DPCs are repaired more slowly than DSBs. Homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the repair of radiation-induced DPCs as well as DSBs. Recently, a novel mechanism of DPC repair mediated by a DPC protease was reported, wherein the resulting DNA-peptide cross-links were bypassed by translesion synthesis. The replication and transcription of DPC-bearing reporter plasmids are inhibited in cells, suggesting that DPCs are potentially lethal lesions. However, whether DPCs are mutagenic and induce gross chromosomal alterations remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemical and biological responses in V79 cells grown in different background radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amicarelli, F.; Colafarina, S.; Ara, C.; Antonelli, F.; Balata, M.; Belli, M.; Simone, G.; Satta, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In order to investigate the influence of a low background radiation environment on the biochemical and biological responses of mammalian cells cultured in vitro, a cell culture laboratory has been set up at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), located under the Gran Sasso d'Italia mountain, where cosmic rays are reduced by a factor of 10 6 and neutrons by a factor of 10 3 respect to the outside environment. Chinese hamster V79 cells were grown in parallel for up to nine months at LNGS and at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS). At the LNGS the exposure due to radon was reduced by a factor of about 25 with respect to the ISS. The biological end points addressed concerned cells proliferation, the expression of enzymes specific for the reduction of superoxydes, mutation induction by gamma-rays at the hprt locus and apoptotic sensitivity. After 9 months of culture, the cells grown at the LNGS, compared to the cells grown at the ISS, exhibit: i) a significant increase of the cell density at confluence; ii) a significantly higher capacity to scavenge organic and inorganic hydroperoxydes but a reduced scavenging capacity towards superoxide anions; iii) an increase in both the basal hprt mutation frequency and the sensitivity to the mutagenic effect of gamma-rays. The cells grown at the LNGS also show greater apoptotic sensitivity at the third month of culture that is no longer detected after nine months. Overall, these data suggest that cell response to ionizing radiation may be more complex than that predicted by a linear relationship with the dose and are consistent with the occurrence of an adaptive response related to the background radiation. However, other possibilities cannot be excluded such as the selection, in the two cultures, of clones having different characteristics, independently of the different radiation background. Work is in progress to better elucidate this point

  2. Generation of radicals in hard biological tissues under the action of laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, Alexander P.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Sobol, Emil N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Lunina, Elena V.; Zhitnev, Yurii N.; Markaryan, Galina L.; Lunin, Valerii V.

    2002-07-01

    The formation of radicals upon UV and IR laser irradiation of some biological tissues and their components was studied by the EPR technique. The radical decay kinetics in body tissue specimens after their irradiation with UV light were described by various models. By the spin trapping technique, it was shown that radicals were not produced during IR laser irradiation of cartilaginous tissue. A change in optical absorption spectra and the dynamics of optical density of cartilaginous tissue, fish scale, and a collagen film under exposure to laser radiation in an air, oxygen, and nitrogen atmosphere was studied.

  3. Biological effects of single HZE-particles of the cosmic radiation: Free Flyer Biostack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Free Flyer Biostack is designed as a passive, longer term experiment for investigations into the dosimetry of cosmic HZE particles (high-charge energetic particles), the effects of single HZE particles on isolated biological samples, and the synergistic effects of conditions in space, as e.g. zero gravity and presence of a permanent, weakly ionizing component of the cosmic radiation. For the experiments summarized in this project report, the AgCl detector type developed in Frankfurt has been used, consisting of monocrystalline AgCl films, about 130-150 μm thick, and doped with 5000 ppm of Cd. (DG) With 9 figs [de

  4. Evaluation of experimental animal biological state at exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.A.; Rejtarova, T.Je.; Chernyikov, G.B.; Timoshevs'ka, Je.V.; Kozozojeva, O.O.

    1997-01-01

    New approaches to quantitative evaluation of ionizing radiation absorbed dose within the low-dose range (up to 400 mGy) according to the degree of the organism biological response was developed. The purpose of the stage of the work published in Communication 1 is to evaluate the shifts in the animal behaviour and cellular composition of the blood at irradiation by the dose of 100,200 and 400 mGy. Distinct dose dependence of behaviour reactions and hematological indices within the dose range of 100-400 mGy was not noted

  5. Study on the Chinese traditional drugs' sterilization and disinfestation by radiation and their biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shouxiang; Yang Ruikun; Liu Desheng

    1987-01-01

    The study of the sterilization and disinfestation by 60 Co γ-radiation and their biological effects on tuber of elevated gastrodia, Chinese angelica and Dangshen have been carried out. The experimental results show that optimal dose was 2 x 10 5 - 4 x 10 5 rad to kill insect in the three Chinese traditional drugs. The results also show that the content of the chemical composition of irradiated group is similar to control group under 6 x 10 5 rad. The thin-layer chromatography colour-maculae are almost the same. They have the same Rf exponent

  6. Biological stress responses induced by alpha radiation exposure in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, A.; Horemans, N.; Van Hees, M.; Nauts, R. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Knapen, D.; Blust, R. [University of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    To enhance the robustness of radiation protection criteria for biota, additional information on the biological impact of radionuclides on non-human biota is needed. In particular the effects of alpha emitting isotopes have been poorly studied within a radioecological contextual though they exhibit a high linear energy transfer which can cause significant biological damage when taken up by organisms. Therefore, it is not only essential to measure alpha radiation toxicity, but also try to understand the underlying mechanisms of this stressor. The current study aimed to contribute to a better knowledge of the fundamental processes regulating alpha radiation stress response mechanisms in higher plants. {sup 241}Am was primarily selected as it is an almost pure alpha emitter and, as a daughter nuclide of {sup 241}Pu, it will become one of the dominant pollutants in plutonium affected areas. The aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor has proven its value in eco-toxicological research as representative of higher aquatic plants (OECD guideline nr. 221) and will be used to analyze alpha radiation stress in plant systems. An individual growth inhibition test was set up by means of single dose-response curve in order to identify the Effective Dose Rates (EDR-values) for frond size and biomass. As the mean path length is small for alpha particles, the accumulation of the radionuclide inside species represents almost exclusively the dosimetry. Therefore, quantification of {sup 241}Am uptake and {sup 241}Am distribution were evaluated separately for roots and fronds taking the activity concentrations of growth medium into account. Taken together with the respective dose conversion coefficients from the ERICA tool, this allowed to construct an accurate dosimetric model to determine internal and external dose rates. Different standard media were tested on growth rate and biomass to analyse the amount of {sup 241}Am taken up by the plants exposed from 2.5 to 100 kBq/L. From these

  7. Ionizing radiation induced cataracts: Recent biological and mechanistic developments and perspectives for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Barnard, Stephen; Bright, Scott; Dalke, Claudia; Jarrin, Miguel; Kunze, Sarah; Tanner, Rick; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Quinlan, Roy A; Graw, Jochen; Kadhim, Munira; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    The lens of the eye has long been considered as a radiosensitive tissue, but recent research has suggested that the radiosensitivity is even greater than previously thought. The 2012 recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to substantially reduce the annual occupational equivalent dose limit for the ocular lens has now been adopted in the European Union and is under consideration around the rest of the world. However, ICRP clearly states that the recommendations are chiefly based on epidemiological evidence because there are a very small number of studies that provide explicit biological, mechanistic evidence at doses <2Gy. This paper aims to present a review of recently published information on the biological and mechanistic aspects of cataracts induced by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The data were compiled by assessing the pertinent literature in several distinct areas which contribute to the understanding of IR induced cataracts, information regarding lens biology and general processes of cataractogenesis. Results from cellular and tissue level studies and animal models, and relevant human studies, were examined. The main focus was the biological effects of low linear energy transfer IR, but dosimetry issues and a number of other confounding factors were also considered. The results of this review clearly highlight a number of gaps in current knowledge. Overall, while there have been a number of recent advances in understanding, it remains unknown exactly how IR exposure contributes to opacification. A fuller understanding of how exposure to relatively low doses of IR promotes induction and/or progression of IR-induced cataracts will have important implications for prevention and treatment of this disease, as well as for the field of radiation protection. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Invited papers and discussions. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The levels and biological effects resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation are continuously reviewed by the United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Since its creation in 1928, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has issued recommendations on protection against ionizing radiation. The UNSCEAR estimates and the ICRP recommendations have served as the basis for national and international safety standards on radiation safety, including those developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Concerning health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, the international standards are based on the plausible assumption that, above the unavoidable background radiation dose, the probability of effects increases linearly with dose, i.e. on a 'linear, no threshold' (LNT) assumption. However, in recent years the biological estimates of health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation and the regulatory approach to the control of low level radiation exposure have been much debated. To foster information exchange on the relevant issues, an International Conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and WHO in co-operation with UNSCEAR, was held from 17-21 November 1997 at Seville, Spain. These Proceedings contain the invited special reports, keynote papers, summaries of discussions, session summaries and addresses presented at the opening and closing of the Conference

  9. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Book I, Agricultural, Animal and Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.; Sisworo, E.L.; Maha, M.; Ismachin, M.; Hilmy, N.; Sumatra, M.; Mugiono; Wandowo; Soebianto, Y.S

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the 10 t h Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  10. Radiation protection in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ashkar, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full text: People are exposed to ionizing radiation in many different forms: cosmic rays that penetrate earth atmosphere or radiation from soil and mineral resources are natural forms of ionizing radiation. Other forms are produced artificially using radioactive materials for various beneficial applications in medicine, industry and other fields. The greatest concerns about ionizing radiation are tied to its potential health effects and a system of radiation protection has been developed to protect people from harmful radiation. The promotion of radiation protection is one of the International Atomic Energy Agency main activities. Radiation protection concerns the protection of workers, members of public, and patients undergoing diagnosis and therapy against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The report covers the responsibility of radiation protection officer in Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) in Inshas - Egypt, also presents the protection against ionizing radiation from external sources, including types of radiation, sources of radiation (natural - artificial), and measuring units of dose equivalent rate. Also covers the biological effects of ionizing radiation, personal monitoring and radiation survey instruments and safe transport of radioactive materials. The report describes the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2), the survey instruments used, also presents the results obtained and gave a relations between different categories of data. (author)

  11. Heavy ion radiation biology research facility and ongoing activities at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Asitikantha

    2014-01-01

    Heavy Ion Radiation Biology is an interdisciplinary science involving use of charged particle accelerator in the study of molecular biology. It is the study of the interaction of a beam of swift heavy ions with a biological system. In contrast to the sparsely ionizing photon or electron radiation, the high velocity charged heavy ions leave a track of densely populated ionization sites resulting in clustered DNA damage. The growing interest in this field encompasses the studies in gene expression, mechanisms of cell death, DNA damage and repair, signal transduction etc. induced because of this unique assault on the genetic material. IUAC radiation biology programme is focused on the in-vitro studies of different effects of heavy ion irradiation on eukaryotic cells. The facility provides a laboratory for pre and post irradiation treatment of samples. The irradiation system called ASPIRE (Automatic Sample Positioning for Irradiation in Radiation Biology Experiments) is installed at the dedicated Radiation Biology Beam line. It produces a nearly uniform flux distribution over a irradiation field of 40 mm diameter. The particle doses can be preselected and repeated within inherent statistical accuracy. The particle energy can also be measured. The facility is at present utilized by the University researchers of India. A few results obtained by the investigators would be presented. The outcome of the research in heavy ion radiation biology would be of immense use in augmenting the efficacy of Hadron therapy of cancer. The results would also contribute to the field of space radiation protection. It would also help in understanding the phenomena subsequent to complex DNA damage. (author)

  12. Biological prevention and/or treatment strategies for radiation myelopathy. Discussion of a new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, C.; Ataman, F.; Price, R.E.; Kian Ang, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Radiosensitivity of the spinal cord makes both curative first-line treatment of numerous malignancies and re-irradiation of recurrent or second tumors more difficult. This review discusses recent advances in basic research that alter the view on the pathogenesis of radiation myelopathy, possibly offering strategies for prevention and/or therapy. Results: Available data of developmental neurobiology and preclinical studies of demyelinating diseases revealed interesting insights into oligodendrocyte development, intercellular signaling pathways, and myelination processes. Current findings suggest that administration of cytokines could increase proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, enhance their differentiation, upregulate synthesis of myelin constituents, and promote myelin regeneration in the adult central nervous system. Other compounds might also be able to modulate progression of pathogenic processes that eventually lead to radiation myelopathy. This offers several possible biological prevention and/or treatment strategies, which currently are being investigated in animal studies. Conclusions: Technical options as well as optimization of fractionation parameters should be given priority in the attempt to reduce iatrogenic neurotoxicity. However, rational biological strategies could offer a new perspective for many patients. (orig.) [de

  13. Biological response to radiation. Studies of model organism, C. elegans, with micro-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashitani, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    Described are mainly author's studies on radiation response and its biological significance in a nematode, C. elegans, particularly focusing its germ cells. The model organism is bisexual and the mature one is suitable to observe the development, differentiation and concomitant chromosome dynamics of male and female germ cells, and accordingly, the responses occurring in those cells at different stages post irradiation of the whole worm. Authors have shown in the organism irradiated by 100 Gy X-ray that pachytene cells in meiosis have high radio-resistance due to their increased expression of enzymes related with homologous recombination. They have also presented the apoptotic cascade in germ cells triggered by radiation by comparison of wild type and ab1-1-gene-deleted worms. Micro-beam of 12 C 5+ ion in Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) has been used to irradiate the body parts of the worm to study the bystander effects, which has revealed that germ cells are shielded from the effect in the worm. It is thought important to use the micro-beam, with which the irradiation area can be precisely controllable, for studying the bystander effect in a body of higher animals like a mouse as well as in worm somatic cells. (T.I.)

  14. The Protective Role of Lettuce oil (Lactuca sativa) against Radiation induced Biological Hazards in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the potential role of lettuce oil against damages induced in rats due to exposure to gamma radiation. Adult male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups each of 12 animals. The first group was considered control animals. The second group received, via gavages, lettuce oil (200 mg/Kg body weight) for 3 weeks. The third group was subjected to a single dose of 6.5Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The fourth group received lettuce oil for 3 weeks then was exposed to radiation. Blood samples were collected 1 and 7 days post irradiation. Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in the level of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) while a significant decrease was recorded in glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit percentage (Hct%), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets (PLT), leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone hormone . In rats treated with lettuce oil then exposed to radiation, the results showed an improvement in all previous parameters. It could be concluded that lettuce oil might reduce the biological hazards in rats induced by gamma irradiation

  15. Conventional radiation-biological dosimetry using frequencies of unstable chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.

    1998-01-01

    Frequency of chromosome aberrations detected by conventional cytogenetics is a very useful parameter in biological radiodosimetry. It can be used for estimating absorbed doses in individuals working with radioactive sources and individuals accidentally exposed to radiation. In the first case subjects wear physical dosimeters as a routine safety habit. The laboratory at the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD, Brazil) has been using conventional cytogenetic analysis to complement data obtained by physical dosimetry since 1983. Until now, more than one hundred cases were investigated where individual physical dosimeters detected occupational exposure (above the safety limits allowed). In total, only 34% of these cases were confirmed by conventional cytogenetic dosimetry. Also, conventional cytogenetic analysis following the radiation accident of Goiania (Brazil) in 1987 have been used. Peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentrics fragments) to estimate absorbed radiation doses. During the emergency period, doses were estimated to help immediate medical treatment using in vitro calibration curves produced before the accident. Later on, doses were assessed once more using new in vitro calibration curves. A drawback of this technique is that unstable aberrations are lost after exposure. To investigate the mean lifespan of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations, we have followed 15 victims of the Goiania accident over all these years. Results suggest that the disappearance of unstable aberrations is dose-dependent. This could explain the variation in the results found among studies in this field

  16. Conventional radiation-biological dosimetry using frequencies of unstable chromosome aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S. [Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, Cx. P. 37750, Rio de Janeiro 22.780-160 (Brazil)

    1998-08-03

    Frequency of chromosome aberrations detected by conventional cytogenetics is a very useful parameter in biological radiodosimetry. It can be used for estimating absorbed doses in individuals working with radioactive sources and individuals accidentally exposed to radiation. In the first case subjects wear physical dosimeters as a routine safety habit. The laboratory at the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD, Brazil) has been using conventional cytogenetic analysis to complement data obtained by physical dosimetry since 1983. Until now, more than one hundred cases were investigated where individual physical dosimeters detected occupational exposure (above the safety limits allowed). In total, only 34% of these cases were confirmed by conventional cytogenetic dosimetry. Also, conventional cytogenetic analysis following the radiation accident of Goiania (Brazil) in 1987 have been used. Peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentrics fragments) to estimate absorbed radiation doses. During the emergency period, doses were estimated to help immediate medical treatment using in vitro calibration curves produced before the accident. Later on, doses were assessed once more using new in vitro calibration curves. A drawback of this technique is that unstable aberrations are lost after exposure. To investigate the mean lifespan of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations, we have followed 15 victims of the Goiania accident over all these years. Results suggest that the disappearance of unstable aberrations is dose-dependent. This could explain the variation in the results found among studies in this field

  17. Ordinance on protection from the harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance). As of January 8, 1987. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, O.

    1992-01-01

    The German X-ray Ordinance (Roentgenverordnung) contains the main protective provisions applying to the field of X-ray equipment and sources of unwanted X radiation. It thus forms a complement to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlenschutzverordnung). The X-ray Ordinance is based, as is the Radiation Protection Ordinance, on the German Nuclear Energy Act (Atomgesetz). It transposes the same Euratom Directives into national law, through which above all the limit values are defined. The current state of the X-ray Ordinance is that of the text promulgated on 8.01.1987 with the subsequent amendments, the last of which was adopted on 19.12.1990. The brochure also reproduces the Official Memorandum to the X-ray Ordinance, as this gives important indications for the legal construction of the Ordinance. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Dose Response Model of Biological Reaction to Low Dose Rate Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, J.; Furikawa, C.; Hoshi, Y.; Kawakami, Y.; Ogata, H.

    2004-01-01

    time, and that dose rate effect changes as a function of dose-rate and irradiation time. Many epidemiological and experimental studies have been demonstrated that biological responses to radiation at low dose/low dose rate does not follow LNT. Our study supports their observations with sufficient statistical power. Threshold of radiation risk will be discussed. (Author)

  19. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and remission of vital oxidative injury by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Nomura, T.; Kojima, S.

    2000-01-01

    Excessive active oxygen produced in vivo by various causes is toxic. Accumulation of oxidation injuries due to excessive active causes cell and tissue injuries, inducing various pathologic conditions such as aging and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, there are chemical defense mechanisms in the body that eliminate active oxygen or repair damaged molecules, defending against resultant injury. It is interesting reports that appropriate oxidation stress activate the chemical biological defense mechanisms. In this study, to elucidate these phenomena and its mechanism by low dose radiation, we studied on the below subjects. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms by low dose radiation: (1) The effects radiation on lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the organs, membrane fluidity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined in rats and rabbits. Rats were irradiated with low dose X-ray over their entire bodies, and rabbits inhaled vaporized radon spring water, which primarily emitted α-ray. The following results were obtained. Unlike high dose X-ray, low dose X-ray and radon inhalation both reduced LPO levels and made the state of the SH-group on membrane-bound proteins closer to that of juvenile animals, although the sensitivity to radioactivity varied depending on the age of the animals and among different organs and tissues. The SOD activity was elevated, suggesting that low dose X-ray and radon both activate the host defensive function. Those changes were particularly marked in the organs related to immune functions of the animals which received low dose X-ray, while they were particularly marked in the brain after radon inhalation. It was also found that those changes continued for longer periods after low dose X-irradiation. (2) Since SOD is an enzyme that mediates the dismutation of O 2 - to H 2 O 2 , the question as to whether the resultant H 2 O 2 is further detoxicated into H 2 O and O 2 or not must still be evaluated. Hence, we studied

  20. Spinal cordd biological safety comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xilinbaoleri; Xu Wanlong; Chen Gang; Liu Hao; Wang Ruozheng; Bai Jingping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the spine intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and the conventional radiation therapy on the beagle spinal cord neurons, in order to prove the biological safety of IMRT of the spinal cord. Methods: Twelve selected purebred beagles were randomly divided into 2 groups. A beagle clinical model of tumor was mimiced in the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebrae. Then the beagles were irradiated by 2 different models of intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy, with the total irradiation doses of 50 and 70 Gy. The samples of spinal cord were taken out from the same position of the nine and tenth thoracic vertebrae at the third month after radiation.All the samples were observed by the electron microscope, and the Fas and HSP70 expression in spinal cord neurons were evaluated by immunohistochemistry method. Terminal deoxynucleatidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) technique was used to examine the apoptotic cells in the spinal cord. Results: The neurons in the spinal cord of IMRT group were mainly reversible injury, and those in the conventional radiation therapy were mainly apoptosis. Compared with the conventional radiation therapy group [50 Gy group, (7.3 ± 1.1)%; 70 Gy group, (11.3 ± 1.4)%], the apoptosis rate of the spinal cord neurons of the intensity modulated radiotherapy group [50 Gy group, (1.2 ± 0.7)%; 70 Gy group (2.5 ± 0.8)%] was much lower[(50 Gy group, t=0.022, P<0.05; 70 Gy group, t=0.017, P<0.05)]. The expression levels of Fas in the IMPT group (50 Gy group, 4.6 ± 0.8; 70 Gy group, 7.4 ± 1.1) were also much lowerthan those in the other group (50 Gy group, 15.1 ± 6.4; 70 Gy group, 19.3 ± 7.6. 50 Gy group, t=0.231, P<0.05; 70 Gy group, t=0.457, P<0.05), while the expression levels of HSP70 in the IMPT group (50 Gy group, 9.1 ± 0.8; 70 Gy group, 7.3 ± 1.4)were much higher than those in the conventional radiation therapy group (50 Gy group, 2.1 ± 0.9; 70 Gy group, 1.7 ± 0