WorldWideScience

Sample records for biologically based multistage

  1. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of

  2. Multi-stage separations based on dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2004-07-13

    A system utilizing multi-stage traps based on dielectrophoresis. Traps with electrodes arranged transverse to the flow and traps with electrodes arranged parallel to the flow with combinations of direct current and alternating voltage are used to trap, concentrate, separate, and/or purify target particles.

  3. An Inventory-Theory-Based Inexact Multistage Stochastic Programming Model for Water Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    M. Q. Suo; Li, Y. P.; Huang, G. H.; Fan, Y. R.; Li, Z

    2013-01-01

    An inventory-theory-based inexact multistage stochastic programming (IB-IMSP) method is developed for planning water resources systems under uncertainty. The IB-IMSP is based on inexact multistage stochastic programming and inventory theory. The IB-IMSP cannot only effectively handle system uncertainties represented as probability density functions and discrete intervals but also efficiently reflect dynamic features of system conditions under different flow levels within a multistage context....

  4. Robust modified GA based multi-stage fuzzy LFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a robust genetic algorithm (GA) based multi-stage fuzzy (MSF) controller is proposed for solution of the load frequency control (LFC) problem in a restructured power system that operates under deregulation based on the bilateral policy scheme. In this strategy, the control signal is tuned online from the knowledge base and the fuzzy inference, which request fewer sources and has two rule base sets. In the proposed method, for achieving the desired level of robust performance, exact tuning of the membership functions is very important. Thus, to reduce the design effort and find a better fuzzy system control, membership functions are designed automatically by modified genetic algorithms. The classical genetic algorithms are powerful search techniques to find the global optimal area. However, the global optimum value is not guaranteed using this method, and the speed of the algorithm's convergence is extremely reduced too. To overcome this drawback, a modified genetic algorithm is being used to tune the membership functions of the proposed MSF controller. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a three area restructured power system with possible contracted scenarios under large load demand and area disturbances in comparison with the multi-stage fuzzy and classical fuzzy PID controllers through FD and ITAE performance indices. The results evaluation shows that the proposed control strategy achieves good robust performance for a wide range of system parameters and load changes in the presence of system nonlinearities and is superior to the other controllers. Moreover, this newly developed control strategy has a simple structure, does not require an accurate model of the plant and is fairly easy to implement, which can be useful for the real world complex power systems

  5. Sequential maneuvering decisions based on multi-stage influence diagram in air combat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A multi-stage influence diagram is used to model the pilot's sequential decision making in one on one air combat.The model based on the multi-stage influence diagram graphically describes the elements of decision process,and contains a point-mass model for the dynamics of an aircraft and takes into account the decision maker's Dreferences under uncertain conditions.Considering an active opponent,the opponent's maneuvers can be modeled stochastically.The solution of multistage influence diagram Can be obtained by converting the multistage influence diagram into a two-level optimization problem.The simulation results show the model is effective.

  6. Mean squared error properties of the kernel-based multi-stage median predictor for time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. de Gooijer; A. Gannoun; D. Zerom Godefay

    2002-01-01

    We propose a kernel-based multi-stage conditional median predictor for -mixing time series of Markovian structure. Mean squared error properties of single-stage and multi-stage conditional medians are derived and discussed.

  7. An Inventory-Theory-Based Inexact Multistage Stochastic Programming Model for Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Q. Suo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory-theory-based inexact multistage stochastic programming (IB-IMSP method is developed for planning water resources systems under uncertainty. The IB-IMSP is based on inexact multistage stochastic programming and inventory theory. The IB-IMSP cannot only effectively handle system uncertainties represented as probability density functions and discrete intervals but also efficiently reflect dynamic features of system conditions under different flow levels within a multistage context. Moreover, it can provide reasonable transferring schemes (i.e., the amount and batch of transferring as well as the corresponding transferring period associated with various flow scenarios for solving water shortage problems. The applicability of the proposed IB-IMSP is demonstrated by a case study of planning water resources management. The solutions obtained are helpful for decision makers in not only identifying different transferring schemes when the promised water is not met, but also making decisions of water allocation associated with different economic objectives.

  8. Multistage principal component analysis based method for abdominal ECG decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflection of fetal heart electrical activity is present in registered abdominal ECG signals. However this signal component has noticeably less energy than concurrent signals, especially maternal ECG. Therefore traditionally recommended independent component analysis, fails to separate these two ECG signals. Multistage principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed for step-by-step extraction of abdominal ECG signal components. Truncated representation and subsequent subtraction of cardio cycles of maternal ECG are the first steps. The energy of fetal ECG component then becomes comparable or even exceeds energy of other components in the remaining signal. Second stage PCA concentrates energy of the sought signal in one principal component assuring its maximal amplitude regardless to the orientation of the fetus in multilead recordings. Third stage PCA is performed on signal excerpts representing detected fetal heart beats in aim to perform their truncated representation reconstructing their shape for further analysis. The algorithm was tested with PhysioNet Challenge 2013 signals and signals recorded in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Results of our method in PhysioNet Challenge 2013 on open data set were: average score: 341.503 bpm2 and 32.81 ms. (paper)

  9. A NOVEL METHOD FOR MULTISTAGE SCENARIO GENERATION BASED ON CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    XIAODONG JI; XIUJUAN ZHAO; XIULI CHAO

    2006-01-01

    Based on cluster analysis, a novel method is introduced in this paper to generate multistage scenarios. A linear programming model is proposed to exclude the arbitrage opportunity by appending a scenario to the generated scenario set. By means of a cited stochastic linear goal programming portfolio model, a case is given to exhibit the virtues of this scenario generation approach.

  10. Multistage Effort and the Equity Structure of Venture Investment Based on Reciprocity Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For venture capitals, it is a long process from an entry to its exit. In this paper, the activity of venture investment will be divided into multistages. And, according to the effort level entrepreneurs will choose, the venture capitalists will provide an equity structure at the very beginning. As a benchmark for comparison, we will establish two game models on multistage investment under perfect rationality: a cooperative game model and a noncooperative one. Further, as a cause of pervasive psychological preference behavior, reciprocity motivation will influence the behavior of the decision-makers. Given this situation, Rabin’s reciprocity motivation theory will be applied to the multistage game model of the venture investment, and multistage behavior game model will be established as well, based on the reciprocity motivation. By looking into the theoretical derivations and simulation studies, we find that if venture capitalists and entrepreneurs both have reciprocity preferences, their utility would have been Pareto improvement compared with those under perfect rationality.

  11. Multi-stage genetic fuzzy systems based on the iterative rule learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    González Muñoz, Antonio; Herrera Triguero, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) represent a class of adaptive search techniques inspired by natural evolution mechanisms. The search properties of GAs make them suitable to be used in machine learning processes and for developing fuzzy systems, the so-called genetic fuzzy systems (GFSs). In this contribution, we discuss genetics-based machine learning processes presenting the iterative rule learning approach, and a special kind of GFS, a multi-stage GFS based on the iterative rule...

  12. Multi-stage phase retrieval algorithm based upon the gyrator transform

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, José A.; Duadi, H.; Alieva, Tatiana; Zalevsky, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The gyrator transform is a useful tool for optical information processing applications. In this work we propose a multi-stage phase retrieval approach based on this operation as well as on the well-known Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. It results in an iterative algorithm able to retrieve the phase information using several measurements of the gyrator transform power spectrum. The viability and performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by means of several numerical simulations and exp...

  13. Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on the Multistage Nested Wiener Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong He; Bin Tang

    2015-01-01

    A novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique based on data level and order recursive Multistage Nested Wiener Filters (MSNWF) which is used in adaptive beamforming for subarray signal is proposed in this paper. The two subarrays using the same array geometry are used to form a signal whose phase relative to the reference signal is a function of the DOA. The DOA is estimated by calculating the phase-shift between the reference signal and its phase-shifted version. The performance of...

  14. Forestry inventory based on multistage sampling with probability proportional to size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. C. L.; Hernandez, P., Jr.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1983-01-01

    A multistage sampling technique, with probability proportional to size, is developed for a forest volume inventory using remote sensing data. The LANDSAT data, Panchromatic aerial photographs, and field data are collected. Based on age and homogeneity, pine and eucalyptus classes are identified. Selection of tertiary sampling units is made through aerial photographs to minimize field work. The sampling errors for eucalyptus and pine ranged from 8.34 to 21.89 percent and from 7.18 to 8.60 percent, respectively.

  15. Research on Three-Dimensional Unsteady Turbulent Flow in Multistage Centrifugal Pump and Performance Prediction Based on CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-jian Wang; Jian-she Zheng; Lu-lu Li; Shuai Luo

    2013-01-01

    The three-dimensional flow physical model of any stage of the 20BZ4 multistage centrifugal pump is built which includes inlet region, impeller flow region, guide-vane flow region and exit region. The three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow numerical model is created based on Navier-Stoke solver and standard k-ε turbulent equations. The method of multireference frame (MRF) and SIMPLE algorithm are used to simulate the flow in multistage centrifugal pump based on FLUENT software. The distribu...

  16. A multi-stage approach for damage detection in structural systems based on flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, E.; Imbimbo, M.

    2016-08-01

    The paper proposes a fusion approach for damage detection in structural applications in the case of multiple damage locations and three-dimensional systems. Based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, a multi-stage approach is proposed with the mode shapes assumed as primary sources and local decisions based on a flexibility method. The proposed approach has been applied to two case studies, a a fixed end beam analyzed in other papers and a three dimensional structures codified in a Benchmark problem. Both the case studies have shown the ability and the efficiency of the proposed approach to detect damage also in the case of multiple damage, limited number of identified parameters and noise measurements.

  17. SOLAR ABSORBING COOLING SYSTEMS BASED ON MULTISTAGE HEAT-MASS-TRANSFER DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the worked out schematics for the alternative refrigeration systems and of air-conditioning systems, based on the use of absorbing cycle and of the sunny energy for the regeneration (renewals of absorbent solution. We use here the cascade principle of construction of all heat-mass-transfer apparatus with variation of both the temperature level and the growth of absorbent concentration on the cascade stages. The heat-mass-transfer equipment as a part of the drying and cooling units is standardized and is executed by means of multistage monoblock compositions from poly-meric materials. The preliminary analysis of possibilities of the sunny systems in application to the tasks of cooling of environment and air-conditioning systems is carried out.

  18. Multi-Stage Optimization Based Automatic Voltage Control Systems Considering Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic voltage control (AVC) system for power systems with limited continuous voltage control capability. The objective is to minimize the operational cost over a period, which consists of the power loss in the grid, the shunt switching cost, the transformer tap change...... cost and the generator reactive power output cost. The problem is formulated in a multi-stage optimal reactive power flow (MORPF) framework, solved by the nonlinear programming techniques via a rolling process. The voltage uncertainty caused by wind power forecasting errors is considered in the optimal...... electricity control center, where study cases based on the western Danish power system demonstrate the superiority of the proposed AVC system in term of the cost minimization. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to verify the proposed method on the robustness improvements....

  19. Performance of a modified multi-stage bubble column reactor for lead(II) and biological oxygen demand removal from wastewater using activated rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excessive release of wastewater into the environment is a major concern worldwide. Adsorption is the one of the most effective technique for treatment of wastewater. In this work activated carbon prepared from rice husk has been used as an adsorbent. In the present investigation a three phase modified multi-stage bubble column reactor (MMBCR) has been designed to remove lead and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from wastewater by means of its adsorption onto the surface of activated rice husk. The multi-staging has been achieved by hydrodynamically induced continuous bubble generation, breakup and regeneration. Under optimum conditions, maximum lead and BOD reduction achieved using activated rice husk was 77.15% and 19.05%, respectively. Results showed MMBCR offered appreciated potential benefits for lead removal from wastewater and BOD removal, even this extent of removal is encouraging and the MMBCR can be used a pretreatment unit before subjecting the wastewater to biological treatment

  20. A Multistage Control Mechanism for Group-Based Machine-Type Communications in an LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When machine-type communication (MTC devices perform the long-term evolution (LTE attach procedure without bit rate limitations, they may produce congestion in the core network. To prevent this congestion, the LTE standard suggests using group-based policing to regulate the maximum bit rate of all traffic generated by a group of MTC devices. However, previous studies on the access point name-aggregate maximum bit rate based on group-based policing are relatively limited. This study proposes a multistage control (MSC mechanism to process the operations of maximum bit rate allocation based on resource-use information. For performance evaluation, this study uses a Markov chain with to analyze MTC application in a 3GPP network. Traffic flow simulations in an LTE system indicate that the MSC mechanism is an effective bandwidth allocation method in an LTE system with MTC devices. Experimental results show that the MSC mechanism achieves a throughput 22.5% higher than that of the LTE standard model using the group-based policing, and it achieves a lower delay time and greater long-term fairness as well.

  1. Preference Integration and Optimization of Multistage Weighted Voting System Based on Ordinal Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-ke Chen; Yan Zou; Zhe Chen

    2014-01-01

    Multistage voting is a common voting form through which the winners are selected. By virtue of weighted multistage voting rules, in this paper, we establish a weighted voting model by analyzing the correlation between individual preference and group preference. The weights of voters in each voting stage are adjusted through preference deviation degrees between individual preferences and group preference, and the ranking among candidates in each stage is determined according to weighted Borda ...

  2. A scenario tree-based decomposition for solving multistage stochastic programs. With application in energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlke, Debora

    2011-07-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development and implementation of an optimization method for the solution of multistage stochastic mixed-integer programs arising in energy production. Motivated by the strong increase in electricity produced from wind energy, we investigate the question of how energy storages may contribute to integrate the strongly fluctuating wind power into the electric power network. In order to study the economics of energy storages, we consider a power generation system which consists of conventional power plants, different types of energy storages, and an offshore wind park which supplies a region of certain dimension with electrical energy. On this basis, we aim at optimizing the commitment of the facilities over several days minimizing the overall costs. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer optimization program concentrating on the combinatorial and stochastic aspects. The nonlinearities arising from partial load efficiencies of the units are approximated by piece-wise linear functions. In order to account for the uncertainty regarding the fluctuations of the available wind power and of the prices for electricity purchased on the spot market, we describe the affected data via a scenario tree. Altogether, we obtain a stochastic multistage mixed-integer problem (SMIP) of high complexity whose solution is algorithmically and computationally challenging. The main focus of this thesis is on the development of a scenario tree-based decomposition approach combined with a branch-and-bound method (SD-BB) for solution of the SMIP described above. This novel method relies on the decomposition of the original formulation into several subproblems based on the splitting of the scenario tree into subtrees. Using a branch-and-bound framework which we extend by Lagrangian relaxation, we can solve the problem to global optimality. In order to support the solution process, we investigate the polyhedral substructure which results from the description

  3. Vibration based condition monitoring of a multistage epicyclic gearbox in lifting cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Bassel; Eltabach, Mario; Antoni, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a model-based technique for detecting wear in a multistage planetary gearbox used by lifting cranes. The proposed method establishes a vibration signal model which deals with cyclostationary and autoregressive models. First-order cyclostationarity is addressed by the analysis of the time synchronous average (TSA) of the angular resampled vibration signal. Then an autoregressive model (AR) is applied to the TSA part in order to extract a residual signal containing pertinent fault signatures. The paper also explores a number of methods commonly used in vibration monitoring of planetary gearboxes, in order to make comparisons. In the experimental part of this study, these techniques are applied to accelerated lifetime test bench data for the lifting winch. After processing raw signals recorded with an accelerometer mounted on the outside of the gearbox, a number of condition indicators (CIs) are derived from the TSA signal, the residual autoregressive signal and other signals derived using standard signal processing methods. The goal is to check the evolution of the CIs during the accelerated lifetime test (ALT). Clarity and fluctuation level of the historical trends are finally considered as a criteria for comparing between the extracted CIs.

  4. A multistage FE updating procedure for damage identification in large-scale structures based on multiobjective evolutionary optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Perea, Antonio; Perera Velamazán, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to develop a multistage scheme for damage detection for large structures based on experimental modal data and on finite element (FE) model updating methods applied on simple FE models. In the first stage, occurrence and approximate location of damage is performed by using damage functions in order to decrease the number of parameters to be updated. The goal in the second stage is to identify the specific damaged members and damage extent by considering only the members belongi...

  5. Intelligent Search Method Based ACO Techniques for a Multistage Decision Problem EDP/LFP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostefa RAHLI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a numerical library of calculation based optimization in electrical supply networks area is in the centre of the current research orientations, thus, our project in a form given is centred on the development of platform NMSS1. It's a software environment which will preserve many efforts as regards calculations of charge, smoothing curves, losses calculation and economic planning of the generated powers [23].The operational research [17] in a hand and the industrial practice in the other, prove that the means and processes of simulation reached a level of very appreciable reliability and mathematical confidence [4, 5, 14]. It is of this expert observation that many processes make confidence to the results of simulation.The handicaps of this approach or methodology are that it makes base its judgments and handling on simplified assumptions and constraints whose influence was deliberately neglected to be added to the cost to spend [14].By juxtaposing the methods of simulation with artificial intelligence techniques, gathering set of numerical methods acquires an optimal reliability whose assurance can not leave doubt.Software environment NMSS [23] can be a in the field of the rallying techniques of simulation and electric network calculation via a graphic interface. In the same software integrate an AI capability via a module expert system.Our problem is a multistage case where are completely dependant and can't be performed separately.For a multistage problem [21, 22], the results obtained from a credible (large size problem calculation, makes the following question: Could choice of numerical methods set make the calculation of a complete problem using more than two treatments levels, a total error which will be the weakest one possible? It is well-known according to algorithmic policy; each treatment can be characterized by a function called mathematical complexity. This complexity is in fact a coast (a weight overloading

  6. Multi-stage kernel-based conditional quantile prediction in time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. de Gooijer; A. Gannoun; D. Zerom Godefay

    2001-01-01

    We present a multi-stage conditional quantile predictor for time series of Markovian structure. It is proved that at any quantile level p \\in (0,1), the asymptotic mean squared error (MSE) of the new predictor is smaller than the single-stage conditional quantile predictor. A simulation study confir

  7. Improved quality prediction model for multistage machining process based on geometric constraint equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Limin; He, Gaiyun; Song, Zhanjie

    2016-03-01

    Product variation reduction is critical to improve process efficiency and product quality, especially for multistage machining process (MMP). However, due to the variation accumulation and propagation, it becomes quite difficult to predict and reduce product variation for MMP. While the method of statistical process control can be used to control product quality, it is used mainly to monitor the process change rather than to analyze the cause of product variation. In this paper, based on a differential description of the contact kinematics of locators and part surfaces, and the geometric constraints equation defined by the locating scheme, an improved analytical variation propagation model for MMP is presented. In which the influence of both locator position and machining error on part quality is considered while, in traditional model, it usually focuses on datum error and fixture error. Coordinate transformation theory is used to reflect the generation and transmission laws of error in the establishment of the model. The concept of deviation matrix is heavily applied to establish an explicit mapping between the geometric deviation of part and the process error sources. In each machining stage, the part deviation is formulized as three separated components corresponding to three different kinds of error sources, which can be further applied to fault identification and design optimization for complicated machining process. An example part for MMP is given out to validate the effectiveness of the methodology. The experiment results show that the model prediction and the actual measurement match well. This paper provides a method to predict part deviation under the influence of fixture error, datum error and machining error, and it enriches the way of quality prediction for MMP.

  8. Optimization of Unbalanced Multi-stage Logistics Systems Based on Prüfer Number and Effective Capacity Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Unbalanced multi-stage logistics systems are optimized using an improved genetic algorithm based on the Prüfer number and the effective capacity coding. The improved decoding procedure uses the node capacity of the logistics system as an important factor, which influences the decoding procedure. As a result, any Prüfer number produced stochastically can be decoded to a feasible logistics pattern, which matchs the node capacities of the logistics system. With effective capacity coding, an unbalanced logistics system can be converted to a set of balanced systems. The effective capacity coding was combined with the Prüfer number to construct the chromosome for the new method to search the whole solution space of the unbalanced multi-stage logistics system. Simulation results show that the new method finds a better solution with less computational time than st-GA. Although using a little more memory, the new method is still an efficient and robust method for optimizing unbalanced multi-stage logistics systems.

  9. A risk-based interactive multi-stage stochastic programming approach for water resources planning under dual uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Huang, G. H.; Wang, S.; Li, W.; Guan, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a risk-based interactive multi-stage stochastic programming (RIMSP) approach is proposed through incorporating the fractile criterion method and chance-constrained programming within a multi-stage decision-making framework. RIMSP is able to deal with dual uncertainties expressed as random boundary intervals that exist in the objective function and constraints. Moreover, RIMSP is capable of reflecting dynamics of uncertainties, as well as the trade-off between the total net benefit and the associated risk. A water allocation problem is used to illustrate applicability of the proposed methodology. A set of decision alternatives with different combinations of risk levels applied to the objective function and constraints can be generated for planning the water resources allocation system. The results can help decision makers examine potential interactions between risks related to the stochastic objective function and constraints. Furthermore, a number of solutions can be obtained under different water policy scenarios, which are useful for decision makers to formulate an appropriate policy under uncertainty. The performance of RIMSP is analyzed and compared with an inexact multi-stage stochastic programming (IMSP) method. Results of comparison experiment indicate that RIMSP is able to provide more robust water management alternatives with less system risks in comparison with IMSP.

  10. Pricing convertible bonds based on a multi-stage compound-option model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pu; He, Zhiwei; Zhu, Song-Ping

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of multi-stage compound options to the valuation of convertible bonds (CBs). Rather than evaluating a nested high-dimensional integral that has arisen from the valuation of multi-stage compound options, we found that adopting the finite difference method (FDM) to solve the Black-Scholes equation for each stage actually resulted in a better numerical efficiency. By comparing our results with those obtained by solving the Black-Scholes equation directly, we can show that the new approach does provide an approximation approach for the valuation of CBs and demonstrate that it offers a great potential for a further extension to CBs with more complex structures such as those with call and/or put provisions.

  11. Mathematical modeling on multi-stage series crushing ratio distribution based on fuzzy physical programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Long QI; Chen-Chen CAI; Ping-Zhen LANG

    2013-01-01

    Double-layer,multi-roller plate crusher is a new device,that uses a multi-stage series crushing style to break particles,with the crushing ratio distribution directly influencing the machine's performance.Three crushing ratios of 2.25,2.15 and 2.0 1,used for fuzzy physical programming,were determined.The comparison of the optimized result between the double-layer multi-roller plate crusher and a high pressure roll grinder showed that the double-layer multi-roller plate crusher had a better performance,reducing crushing force and wear.

  12. Real-time video fusion based on multistage hashing and hybrid transformation with depth adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongjian; Xia, Shixiong; Yao, Rui; Niu, Qiang; Zhou, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Concatenating multicamera videos with differing centers of projection into a single panoramic video is a critical technology of many important applications. We propose a real-time video fusion approach to create wide field-of-view video. To provide a fast and accurate video registration method, we propose multistage hashing to find matched feature-point pairs from coarse to fine. In the first stage of multistage hashing, a short compact binary code is learned from all feature points, and then we calculate the Hamming distance between each two points to find the candidate-matched points. In the second stage, a long binary code is obtained by remapping the candidate points for fine matching. To tackle the distortion and scene depth variation of multiview frames in videos, we build hybrid transformation with depth adjustment. The depth compensation between two adjacent frames extends into multiple frames in an iterative model for successive video frames. We conduct several experiments with different dynamic scenes and camera numbers to verify the performance of the proposed real-time video fusion approach.

  13. Research on Three-Dimensional Unsteady Turbulent Flow in Multistage Centrifugal Pump and Performance Prediction Based on CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jian Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional flow physical model of any stage of the 20BZ4 multistage centrifugal pump is built which includes inlet region, impeller flow region, guide-vane flow region and exit region. The three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow numerical model is created based on Navier-Stoke solver and standard k-ε turbulent equations. The method of multireference frame (MRF and SIMPLE algorithm are used to simulate the flow in multistage centrifugal pump based on FLUENT software. The distributions of relative velocity, absolute velocity, static pressure, and total pressure in guide vanes and impellers under design condition are analyzed. The simulation results show that the flow in impeller is mostly uniform, without eddy, backflow, and separation flow, and jet-wake phenomenon appears only along individual blades. There is secondary flow at blade end and exit of guide vane. Due to the different blade numbers of guide vane and impeller, the total pressure distribution is asymmetric. This paper also simulates the flow under different working conditions to predict the hydraulic performances of centrifugal pump and external characteristics including flow-lift, flow-shaft power, and flow-efficiency are attained. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results, and because of the mechanical losses and volume loss ignored, there is a little difference between them.

  14. Verification of KAERI-DySCo for a dynamic simulation of VHTR-based SI hydrogen production facilities 1: sulfuric acid multistage distillation column module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI has developed the dynamic code (KAERI-DySCo) to analyze the start-up behaviors of the SI process components. This study focuses on the verification of a simulation module for the sulfuric acid multi-stage distillation column in the KAERI-DySCo. In agreement with the steady state values measured experimentally by KIST, it has been finally confirmed that the SAMDC, which is one of the simulation modules in KAERI-DySCo for the dynamic simulation code of VHTR-based SI hydrogen production facilities, is a feasible simulation module for calculating the start-up dynamic behavior of a sulfuric acid multistage distillation column

  15. Validation of multi-stage telephone-based identification of cognitive impairment and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui Helena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many types of research on dementia and cognitive impairment require large sample sizes. Detailed in-person assessment using batteries of neuropyschologic testing is expensive. This study evaluates whether a brief telephone cognitive assessment strategy can reliably classify cognitive status when compared to an in-person "gold-standard" clinical assessment. Methods The gold standard assessment of cognitive status was conducted at the University of Southern California Alzheimer Disease Research Center (USC ADRC. It involved an examination of patients with a memory complaint by a neurologist or psychiatrist specializing in cognitive disorders and administration of a battery of neuropsychologic tests. The method being evaluated was a multi-staged assessment using the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-modified (TICSm with patients and the Telephone Dementia Questionnaire (TDQ with a proxy. Elderly male and female patients who had received the gold standard in-person assessment were asked to also undergo the telephone assessment. The unweighted kappa statistic was calculated to compare the gold standard and the multistage telephone assessment methods. Sensitivity for classification with dementia and specificity for classification as normal were also calculated. Results Of 50 patients who underwent the gold standard assessment and were referred for telephone assessment, 38 (76% completed the TICS. The mean age was 78.1 years and 26 (68% were female. When comparing the gold standard assessment and the telephone method for classifying subjects as having dementia or no dementia, the sensitivity of the telephone method was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.36, 1.00, the specificity was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.89,1.00. Kappa was 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.000. Considering a gold-standard assessment of age-associated memory impairment as cognitive impairment, the sensitivity of the telephone approach is 0.38 (95

  16. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-12-10

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836

  17. Multi-Stage Feature Selection by Using Genetic Algorithms for Fault Diagnosis in Gearboxes Based on Vibration Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Cerrada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are growing demands for condition-based monitoring of gearboxes, and techniques to improve the reliability, effectiveness and accuracy for fault diagnosis are considered valuable contributions. Feature selection is still an important aspect in machine learning-based diagnosis in order to reach good performance in the diagnosis system. The main aim of this research is to propose a multi-stage feature selection mechanism for selecting the best set of condition parameters on the time, frequency and time-frequency domains, which are extracted from vibration signals for fault diagnosis purposes in gearboxes. The selection is based on genetic algorithms, proposing in each stage a new subset of the best features regarding the classifier performance in a supervised environment. The selected features are augmented at each stage and used as input for a neural network classifier in the next step, while a new subset of feature candidates is treated by the selection process. As a result, the inherent exploration and exploitation of the genetic algorithms for finding the best solutions of the selection problem are locally focused. The Sensors 2015, 15 23904 approach is tested on a dataset from a real test bed with several fault classes under different running conditions of load and velocity. The model performance for diagnosis is over 98%.

  18. Double differential cross-section calculations based on a Monte Carlo formulation of the multistage preequilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear data libraries are widely used in reactor design, shielding, and activation analyses. In many instances there is either a complete lack of paucity of data; therefore nuclear reaction models must supplement and augment experimental data. Theoretical nuclear models, therefore, go hand in hand with data in creating the best nuclear data libraries possible. The intranuclear cascade model (INC), the first and classical approach to describing the preequilibrium regime, follows coordinate-space, particle trajectories within the nucleus by means of the Monte Carlo algorithm in which numerical simulation of the scattering process is based on experimental nucleon-nucleon scattering cross sections. Angular distributions are calculated but the emission at back angles can underpredict data by a few orders of magnitude. The multistage preequilibrium exciton model (MPM) has been implemented in LAHET, the Los Alamos National Laboratory version of the high-energy transport code, in order to correct this defect. Preequilibrium models are statistical, but employ an analytical solution technique. First, the MPM does not completely replace the INC, even at low-incident energies. It is possible that augmenting the MPM with a nuclear surface model, which provides greater particle emission at the tail of the spectra, may allow MPM to replace INC for these cases. Second, a more physical interfacing scheme between MPM and the Bertini model INC is being sought that would employ an excitation energy dependence. This would augment the present ISABEL INC counting scheme that follows the number of excitons created

  19. A design methodology for a magnetorheological fluid damper based on a multi-stage radial flow mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C. R.; Zhao, D. X.; Xie, L.; Liu, Q.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper based on a multi-stage radial flow mode is put forward, compared with traditional ones with annular damping channel which are of low magnetic field utilization and high energy consumption. The equivalent magnetic circuit model is derived, along with the relation between the magnetic induction at the working gap and the exciting current in the field coils. The finite-element software ANYSY is used to analyze the distribution of the magnetic field in the MR valve. The flow differential equation for a MR fluid in radial flow is theoretically set up, and the numerical solution is validated by means of the Herschel-Bulkley constitutive model. A MR damper was designed and fabricated in Chongqing University in accordance with the technical requirements of a railway vehicle anti-yaw damper, and the force-displacement characteristic of the damper was tested with J95-I type shock absorber test-bed. The results show that the experimental damping forces are in good agreement with the analytical ones, and the methodology is believed to help predict the damping force of a MR damper.

  20. A design methodology for a magnetorheological fluid damper based on a multi-stage radial flow mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper based on a multi-stage radial flow mode is put forward, compared with traditional ones with annular damping channel which are of low magnetic field utilization and high energy consumption. The equivalent magnetic circuit model is derived, along with the relation between the magnetic induction at the working gap and the exciting current in the field coils. The finite-element software ANYSY is used to analyze the distribution of the magnetic field in the MR valve. The flow differential equation for a MR fluid in radial flow is theoretically set up, and the numerical solution is validated by means of the Herschel–Bulkley constitutive model. A MR damper was designed and fabricated in Chongqing University in accordance with the technical requirements of a railway vehicle anti-yaw damper, and the force–displacement characteristic of the damper was tested with J95-I type shock absorber test-bed. The results show that the experimental damping forces are in good agreement with the analytical ones, and the methodology is believed to help predict the damping force of a MR damper. (paper)

  1. Thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system with variable boundary conditions in the wafer based precision glass moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    of the multi-stage heating system in a wafer based glass moulding process. In order to investigate the importance of the radiation from the interior and surface of the glass, a simple finite volume code is developed to model one dimensional radiation–conduction heat transfer in the glass wafer for an...... different pressures. Finally, the three-dimensional modelling of the multi-stage heating system in the wafer based glass moulding process is simulated with the FEM software ABAQUS for a particular industrial application for mobile phone camera lenses to obtain the temperature distribution in the glass wafer...... of the heating system in the glass moulding process considering detailed heating mechanisms therefore plays an important part in optimizing the heating system and the subsequent pressing stage in the lens manufacturing process.The current paper deals with three-dimensional transient thermal modelling...

  2. Empirical vs. Expected IRT-Based Reliability Estimation in Computerized Multistage Testing (MST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwei; Breithaupt, Krista; Tessema, Aster; Chuah, David

    2006-01-01

    Two IRT-based procedures to estimate test reliability for a certification exam that used both adaptive (via a MST model) and non-adaptive design were considered in this study. Both procedures rely on calibrated item parameters to estimate error variance. In terms of score variance, one procedure (Method 1) uses the empirical ability distribution…

  3. Health and human rights in Chin State, Western Burma: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sollom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%-94.1% reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  4. SOLAR ABSORBING COOLING SYSTEMS BASED ON MULTISTAGE HEAT-MASS-TRANSFER DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshenko A.V.; Ludnitsky K.V.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the worked out schematics for the alternative refrigeration systems and of air-conditioning systems, based on the use of absorbing cycle and of the sunny energy for the regeneration (renewals) of absorbent solution. We use here the cascade principle of construction of all heat-mass-transfer apparatus with variation of both the temperature level and the growth of absorbent concentration on the cascade stages. The heat-mass-transfer equipment as a part of the drying and coo...

  5. SOLAR MULTI-STAGE ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS BASED ON FILM TYPE HEAT-MASS EXCHANGE APPARATUSES

    OpenAIRE

    Дорошенко, О.В.; Антонова, А.Р.; Людницький, К.В.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the developed circuit solutions for alternative refrigeration systems based on the of heat-absorption cycle and solar energy utilization for regeneration (recovery) of the absorbent solution. Cascade principle of heat-mass exchange apparatuses construction was applied, of drying and cooling loops with varying of  temperature level and increasing  of absorbent concentration on the cascade steps. Film type heat and mass transfer equipment, which is the part of the drying and ...

  6. Randomly Wired Multistage Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Maggs, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    Randomly wired multistage networks have recently been shown to outperform traditional multistage networks in three respects. First, they have fast deterministic packet-switching and circuit-switching algorithms for routing permutations. Second, they are nonblocking, and there are on-line algorithms for establishing new connections in them, even if many requests for connections are made simultaneously. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, they are highly fault tolerant.

  7. Characterization of kerogen from Timahdit shale (Y-layer) based on multistage alkaline permanganate degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambles, A.; Halim, M.; Jacquesy, J.-C.; Vitorovic, D.; Ziyad, M. (Universite de Poitiers, Poitiers (France). Lab. de Chimie)

    1994-01-01

    A 15-step alkaline permanganate degradation of kerogen from Moroccan Timahdit Oil Shale (Y-layer) was carried out. Oxidation products were obtained in a good yield (64 wt% based on initial kerogen). Detailed g.c. and g.c.-m.s. analyses of ether- and water-soluble acids and products of further controlled permanganate degradation of precipitated acids served as a basis for the quantitative estimation of the contributions of various types of products and for comparison with other kerogens. Taking into account the dominant aliphatic (44.2%) and aromatic (34.8%) nature of the acidic oxidation products, the existence of an aliphatic cross-linked nucleus mixed with cross-linked aromatic units in the Timahdit-Y shale kerogen is postulated. These findings were corroborated by FT-i.r. and [sup 13]C CP-MAS n.m.r. analyses. Saturated hydrocarbons were also found in the oxidation products; they were probably trapped in the kerogen matrix. 34 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  9. A multistage framework for reliability-based distribution expansion planning considering distributed generations by a self-adaptive global-based harmony search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors present a new multistage framework for reliability-based Distribution Expansion Planning (DEP) in which expansion options are a reinforcement and/or installation of substations, feeders, and Distributed Generations (DGs). The proposed framework takes into account not only costs associated with investment, maintenance, and operation, but also expected customer interruption cost in the optimization as four problem objectives. At the same time, operational restrictions, Kirchhoff's laws, radial structure limitation, voltage limits, and capital expenditure budget restriction are considered as problem constraints. The proposed model is a non-convex optimization problem having a non-linear, mixed-integer nature. Hence, a hybrid Self-adaptive Global-based Harmony Search Algorithm (SGHSA) and Optimal Power Flow (OPF) were used and followed by a fuzzy satisfying method in order to obtain the final optimal solution. The SGHSA is a recently developed optimization algorithm which imitates the music improvisation process. In this process, the harmonists improvise their instrument pitches, searching for the perfect state of harmony. The planning methodology was demonstrated on the 27-node, 13.8-kV test system in order to demonstrate the feasibility and capability of the proposed model. Simulation results illustrated the sufficiency and profitableness of the newly developed framework, when compared with other methods. - Highlights: • A new multistage framework is presented for reliability-based DEP problem. • In this paper, DGs are considered as an expansion option to increase the flexibility of the proposed model. • In this paper, effective factors of DEP problem are incorporated as a multi-objective model. • In this paper, three new algorithms HSA, IHSA and SGHSA are proposed. • Results obtained by the proposed SGHSA algorithm are better than others

  10. Multistage treatment system for raw leachate from sanitary landfill combining biological nitrification-denitrification/solar photo-Fenton/biological processes, at a scale close to industrial--biodegradability enhancement and evolution profile of trace pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Silva, M Elisabete F; Cunha-Queda, A Cristina; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Sousa, M A; Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2013-10-15

    A multistage treatment system, at a scale close to the industrial, was designed for the treatment of a mature raw landfill leachate, including: a) an activated sludge biological oxidation (ASBO), under aerobic and anoxic conditions; b) a solar photo-Fenton process, enhancing the bio-treated leachate biodegradability, with and without sludge removal after acidification; and c) a final polishing step, with further ASBO. The raw leachate was characterized by a high concentration of humic substances (HS) (1211 mg CHS/L), representing 39% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and a high nitrogen content, mainly in the form of ammonium nitrogen (>3.8 g NH4(+)-N/L). In the first biological oxidation step, a 95% removal of total nitrogen and a 39% mineralization in terms of DOC were achieved, remaining only the recalcitrant fraction, mainly attributed to HS (57% of DOC). Under aerobic conditions, the highest nitrification rate obtained was 8.2 mg NH4(+)-N/h/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), and under anoxic conditions, the maximum denitrification rate obtained was 5.8 mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N)/h/g VSS, with a C/N consumption ratio of 2.4 mg CH3OH/mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N). The precipitation of humic acids (37% of HS) after acidification of the bio-treated leachate corresponds to a 96% DOC abatement. The amount of UV energy and H2O2 consumption during the photo-Fenton reaction was 30% higher in the experiment without sludge removal and, consequently, the reaction velocity was 30% lower. The phototreatment process led to the depletion of HS >80%, of low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions >70% and other organic micropollutants, thus resulting in a total biodegradability increase of >70%. The second biological oxidation allowed to obtain a final treated leachate in compliance with legal discharge limits regarding water bodies (with the exception of sulfate ions), considering the experiment without sludge. Finally, the high efficiency of the overall treatment

  11. Multistage stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pflug, Georg Ch

    2014-01-01

    Multistage stochastic optimization problems appear in many ways in finance, insurance, energy production and trading, logistics and transportation, among other areas. They describe decision situations under uncertainty and with a longer planning horizon. This book contains a comprehensive treatment of today’s state of the art in multistage stochastic optimization.  It covers the mathematical backgrounds of approximation theory as well as numerous practical algorithms and examples for the generation and handling of scenario trees. A special emphasis is put on estimation and bounding of the modeling error using novel distance concepts, on time consistency and the role of model ambiguity in the decision process. An extensive treatment of examples from electricity production, asset liability management and inventory control concludes the book

  12. A timer inventory based upon manual and automated analysis of ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data using multistage probability sampling. [Plumas National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M.; Jaakkola, S.

    1974-01-01

    A quasi-operational study demonstrating that a timber inventory based on manual and automated analysis of ERTS-1, supporting aircraft data and ground data was made using multistage sampling techniques. The inventory proved to be a timely, cost effective alternative to conventional timber inventory techniques. The timber volume on the Quincy Ranger District of the Plumas National Forest was estimated to be 2.44 billion board feet with a sampling error of 8.2 percent. Costs per acre for the inventory procedure at 1.1 cent/acre compared favorably with the costs of a conventional inventory at 25 cents/acre. A point-by-point comparison of CALSCAN-classified ERTS data with human-interpreted low altitude photo plots indicated no significant differences in the overall classification accuracies.

  13. Coupling methods for multistage sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvet, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Multistage sampling is commonly used for household surveys when there exists no sampling frame, or when the population is scattered over a wide area. Multistage sampling usually introduces a complex dependence in the selection of the final units, which makes asymptotic results quite difficult to prove. In this work, we consider multistage sampling with simple random without replacement sampling at the first stage, and with an arbitrary sampling design for further stages. We consider coupling ...

  14. The Biological Bases of Conformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ThomasJoshau HenryMorgan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favour adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective use of social information in decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behaviour in nonhuman animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history and ontogeny of conformity and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behaviour conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subject’s behaviour is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behaviour may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for

  15. A Multistage Approach for Image Registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Francis; Hu, Jianghai; Du, Eliza Yingzi

    2016-09-01

    Successful image registration is an important step for object recognition, target detection, remote sensing, multimodal content fusion, scene blending, and disaster assessment and management. The geometric and photometric variations between images adversely affect the ability for an algorithm to estimate the transformation parameters that relate the two images. Local deformations, lighting conditions, object obstructions, and perspective differences all contribute to the challenges faced by traditional registration techniques. In this paper, a novel multistage registration approach is proposed that is resilient to view point differences, image content variations, and lighting conditions. Robust registration is realized through the utilization of a novel region descriptor which couples with the spatial and texture characteristics of invariant feature points. The proposed region descriptor is exploited in a multistage approach. A multistage process allows the utilization of the graph-based descriptor in many scenarios thus allowing the algorithm to be applied to a broader set of images. Each successive stage of the registration technique is evaluated through an effective similarity metric which determines subsequent action. The registration of aerial and street view images from pre- and post-disaster provide strong evidence that the proposed method estimates more accurate global transformation parameters than traditional feature-based methods. Experimental results show the robustness and accuracy of the proposed multistage image registration methodology. PMID:26292357

  16. Heterogeneity in multistage carcinogenesis and mixture modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgenthaler Stephan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carcinogenesis is commonly described as a multistage process, in which stem cells are transformed into cancer cells via a series of mutations. In this article, we consider extensions of the multistage carcinogenesis model by mixture modeling. This approach allows us to describe population heterogeneity in a biologically meaningful way. We focus on finite mixture models, for which we prove identifiability. These models are applied to human lung cancer data from several birth cohorts. Maximum likelihood estimation does not perform well in this application due to the heavy censoring in our data. We thus use analytic graduation instead. Very good fits are achieved for models that combine a small high risk group with a large group that is quasi immune.

  17. Multi-stage thermal-economical optimization of compact heat exchangers: A new evolutionary-based design approach for real-world problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complicated task of design optimization of compact heat exchangers (CHEs) have been effectively performed by using evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in the recent years. However, mainly due to difficulties of handling extra variables, the design approach has been based on constant rates of heat duty in the available literature. In this paper, a new design strategy is presented where variable operating conditions, which better represent real-world problems, are considered. The proposed strategy is illustrated using a case study for design of a plate-fin heat exchanger though it can be employed for all types of heat exchangers without much change. Learning automata based particle swarm optimization (LAPSO), is employed for handling nine design variables while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. For handling the constraints, a novel feasibility based ranking strategy (FBRS) is introduced. The numerical results indicate that the design based on variable heat duties yields in more cost savings and superior thermodynamics efficiency comparing to a conventional design approach. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has shown a superior performance in finding the near-optimum solution for this task when it is compared to the most popular evolutionary algorithms in engineering applications, i.e. genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). - Highlights: • Multi-stage design of heat exchangers is presented. • Feasibility based ranking strategy is employed for constraint handling. • Learning abilities added to particle swarm optimization

  18. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Sonderman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses. One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density 920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.23, 6.49, as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11. This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  19. Is Biology based on Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-04-01

    The equation on Boltsmann's tomb is S = K log W, giving 137 = 10E60 where 10E60 closely stands for the age of the universe in Plank times. We wish we could add ``137 = 10E60'' on his tomb as a contribution leading physics towards information in biology as explained in our book ``Quantum Consciousness - the Road to Reality.'' (1) We draft our speculation that such a step may explain the underlying physical cause for mutations. Tiny immeasurable and slow changes well beyond the tenth digit of fine structure constant may suffice to change the information system in constituent particles of nucleotides with their external effects forcing changes in the genetic code with successful changes resulting into mutations. (2) Our quantum mechanical published derivation of the strong coupling implies gravity as a cumulative effect of quantum mechanical particles further implying that the universal constant of gravity (G) can not be constant everywhere. (1) and (2) put together should remove Darwin's confusion about the constancy of gravity. Moving planets and Sunstorms should also cause changes in G on earth unnoticeable to mankind, but large enough to have an impact on the internal particles of nucleotides which should implicitly have an external effect on the genetic code per our theory.

  20. Disjoint Paths Multi-stage Interconnection Networks Stability Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Rastogi, Ravi; Chauhan, Durg Singh; Govil, Mahesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    This research paper emphasizes that the Stable Matching problems are the same as the problems of stable configurations of Multi-stage Interconnection Networks (MIN). The authors have solved the Stability Problem of Existing Regular Gamma Multi-stage Interconnection Network (GMIN), 3-Disjoint Gamma Multi-stage Interconnection Network (3DGMIN) and 3-Disjoint Path Cyclic Gamma Multi-stage Interconnection Network (3DCGMIN) using the approaches and solutions provided by the Stable Matching Problem. Specifically Stable Marriage Problem is used as an example of Stable Matching. For MINs to prove Stable two existing algorithms are used:-the first algorithm generates the MINs Preferences List in time and second algorithm produces a set of most Optimal Pairs of the Switching Elements (SEs) (derived from the MINs Preferences List) in time. Moreover, the paper also solves the problem of Ties that occurs between the Optimal Pairs. The results are promising as the comparison of the MINs based on their stability shows that ...

  1. A Multistage Method for Multiobjective Route Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Gen, Mitsuo

    The multiobjective route selection problem (m-RSP) is a key research topic in the car navigation system (CNS) for ITS (Intelligent Transportation System). In this paper, we propose an interactive multistage weight-based Dijkstra genetic algorithm (mwD-GA) to solve it. The purpose of the proposed approach is to create enough Pareto-optimal routes with good distribution for the car driver depending on his/her preference. At the same time, the routes can be recalculated according to the driver's preferences by the multistage framework proposed. In the solution approach proposed, the accurate route searching ability of the Dijkstra algorithm and the exploration ability of the Genetic algorithm (GA) are effectively combined together for solving the m-RSP problems. Solutions provided by the proposed approach are compared with the current research to show the effectiveness and practicability of the solution approach proposed.

  2. Transfer Function of Multi-Stage Active Filters: A Solution Based on Pascal's Triangle and a General Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Luc

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed to simplify analytical computations of the transfer function for electrical circuit filters, which are made from repetitive identical stages. A method based on the construction of Pascal's triangle is introduced and then a general solution from two initial conditions is provided for the repetitive identical stage. The present…

  3. Experiments for Multi-Stage Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Multi-stage processes are very common in both process and manufacturing industries. In this article we present a methodology for designing experiments for multi-stage processes. Typically in these situations the design is expected to involve many factors from different stages. To minimize the req...... number of stages and also show how to identify and estimate the effects. Both regular and non-regular designs are considered as base designs in generating the overall design.......Multi-stage processes are very common in both process and manufacturing industries. In this article we present a methodology for designing experiments for multi-stage processes. Typically in these situations the design is expected to involve many factors from different stages. To minimize the...... required number of experimental runs, we suggest using mirror image pairs of experiments at each stage following the first. As the design criterion, we consider their projectivity and mainly focus on projectivity 3 designs. We provide the methodology for generating these designs for processes with any...

  4. Charcoal Production via Multistage Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun; Ka Leung Lam; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    Interests in charcoal usage have recently been re-ignited because it is believed that charcoal is a muchbetter fuel than wood. The conventional charcoal production consumes a large amount of energy due to the prolonged heating time and cooling time which contribute to the process completing in one to several days. Wood py-rolysis consists of both endothermic and exothermic reactions as well as the decomposition of the different components at different temperature range (hemicellulose: 200-260℃; cellulose: 240-350℃ and lignin: 280-500℃). Inthis study we propose a multistagepyrolysis which is an approach to carry out pyrolysis with multiple heating stages so as to gain certain processing benefits. We propose a three-stage approach which includes rapid stepwise heating stage to a variable target temperatures of 250 ℃, 300℃, 350 ℃ and 400 ℃, slow and gradual heatingstage to a tinal temperature of 400℃ and adiabatic with cooling stage. The multi-stage pyrolysis process can save 30% energy and the processing time by using a first temperature target of 300 ℃and heating rate of 5℃.min-1 to produce a fixed-carbon yield of 25.73% as opposed to the base case with a fixed-carbon yield of23.18%.

  5. Bioreactors for high cell density and continuous multi-stage cultivations: options for process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Felipe; Vázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2016-03-01

    With an increasing demand for efficacious, safe, and affordable vaccines for human and animal use, process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production demands advanced process strategies to overcome the limitations of conventional batch cultivations. However, the use of fed-batch, perfusion, or continuous modes to drive processes at high cell density (HCD) and overextended operating times has so far been little explored in large-scale viral vaccine manufacturing. Also, possible reductions in cell-specific virus yields for HCD cultivations have been reported frequently. Taking into account that vaccine production is one of the most heavily regulated industries in the pharmaceutical sector with tough margins to meet, it is understandable that process intensification is being considered by both academia and industry as a next step toward more efficient viral vaccine production processes only recently. Compared to conventional batch processes, fed-batch and perfusion strategies could result in ten to a hundred times higher product yields. Both cultivation strategies can be implemented to achieve cell concentrations exceeding 10(7) cells/mL or even 10(8) cells/mL, while keeping low levels of metabolites that potentially inhibit cell growth and virus replication. The trend towards HCD processes is supported by development of GMP-compliant cultivation platforms, i.e., acoustic settlers, hollow fiber bioreactors, and hollow fiber-based perfusion systems including tangential flow filtration (TFF) or alternating tangential flow (ATF) technologies. In this review, these process modes are discussed in detail and compared with conventional batch processes based on productivity indicators such as space-time yield, cell concentration, and product titers. In addition, options for the production of viral vaccines in continuous multi-stage bioreactors such as two- and three-stage systems are addressed. While such systems have shown similar virus titers compared to

  6. Multistage Magnetic Separator of Cells and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ken; Ainsworth, Mark; Daily, Bruce; Dunn, Scott; Metz, Bill; Vellinger, John; Taylor, Brock; Meador, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The multistage electromagnetic separator for purifying cells and magnetic particles (MAGSEP) is a laboratory apparatus for separating and/or purifying particles (especially biological cells) on the basis of their magnetic susceptibility and magnetophoretic mobility. Whereas a typical prior apparatus based on similar principles offers only a single stage of separation, the MAGSEP, as its full name indicates, offers multiple stages of separation; this makes it possible to refine a sample population of particles to a higher level of purity or to categorize multiple portions of the sample on the basis of magnetic susceptibility and/or magnetophoretic mobility. The MAGSEP includes a processing unit and an electronic unit coupled to a personal computer. The processing unit includes upper and lower plates, a plate-rotation system, an electromagnet, an electromagnet-translation system, and a capture-magnet assembly. The plates are bolted together through a roller bearing that allows the plates to rotate with respect to each other. An interface between the plates acts as a seal for separating fluids. A lower cuvette can be aligned with as many as 15 upper cuvette stations for fraction collection during processing. A two-phase stepping motor drives the rotation system, causing the upper plate to rotate for the collection of each fraction of the sample material. The electromagnet generates a magnetic field across the lower cuvette, while the translation system translates the electromagnet upward along the lower cuvette. The current supplied to the electromagnet, and thus the magnetic flux density at the pole face of the electromagnet, can be set at a programmed value between 0 and 1,400 gauss (0.14 T). The rate of translation can be programmed between 5 and 2,000 m/s so as to align all sample particles in the same position in the cuvette. The capture magnet can be a permanent magnet. It is mounted on an arm connected to a stepping motor. The stepping motor rotates the arm to

  7. Language Based Techniques for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik

    calculi have similarly been used for the study of bio-chemical reactive systems. In this dissertation it is argued that techniques rooted in the theory and practice of programming languages, language based techniques if you will, constitute a strong basis for the investigation of models of biological......Process calculus is the common denominator for a class of compact, idealised, domain-specific formalisms normally associated with the study of reactive concurrent systems within Computer Science. With the rise of the interactioncentred science of Systems Biology a number of bio-inspired process...... systems as formalised in a process calculus. In particular it is argued that Static Program Analysis provides a useful approach to the study of qualitative properties of such models. In support of this claim a number of static program analyses are developed for Regev’s BioAmbients – a bio-inspired variant...

  8. Improved Heuristics for Multi-Stage Requirements Planning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph D. Blackburn; Robert A. Millen

    1982-01-01

    Most of the recent studies of heuristic lot-sizing techniques for multi-stage material requirements planning systems have investigated the problem in the context of a single stage. In this paper, the multi-stage problem is first modeled analytically to indicate the potential errors inherent in the commonly proposed single-pass, stage-by-stage approaches (e.g., Wagner-Whitin). Then, based on this analysis, several simple cost modifications are suggested to improve the global optimality of thes...

  9. Interconnected Levels of Multi-Stage Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. The results from the case study indicate that multi-stage marketing exists on different levels. Thus, managers...... in a multi-stage marketing context. This understanding assists managers in assessing and balancing different aspects of multi- stage marketing. The triadic perspective also offers avenues for further research.......Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes...

  10. Multistage Campaigning in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farajtabar, Mehrdad; Harati, Sahar; Song, Le; Zha, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of how to optimize multi-stage campaigning over social networks. The dynamic programming framework is employed to balance the high present reward and large penalty on low future outcome in the presence of extensive uncertainties. In particular, we establish theoretical foundations of optimal campaigning over social networks where the user activities are modeled as a multivariate Hawkes process, and we derive a time dependent linear relation between the intensity of exogenous events and several commonly used objective functions of campaigning. We further develop a convex dynamic programming framework for determining the optimal intervention policy that prescribes the required level of external drive at each stage for the desired campaigning result. Experiments on both synthetic data and the real-world MemeTracker dataset show that our algorithm can steer the user activities for optimal campaigning much more accurately than baselines.

  11. Multi-stage complex contagions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A.; Gleeson, James P.; Porter, Mason A.

    2013-03-01

    The spread of ideas across a social network can be studied using complex contagion models, in which agents are activated by contact with multiple activated neighbors. The investigation of complex contagions can provide crucial insights into social influence and behavior-adoption cascades on networks. In this paper, we introduce a model of a multi-stage complex contagion on networks. Agents at different stages—which could, for example, represent differing levels of support for a social movement or differing levels of commitment to a certain product or idea—exert different amounts of influence on their neighbors. We demonstrate that the presence of even one additional stage introduces novel dynamical behavior, including interplay between multiple cascades, which cannot occur in single-stage contagion models. We find that cascades—and hence collective action—can be driven not only by high-stage influencers but also by low-stage influencers.

  12. Network-Based Models in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas

    Biological systems are characterized by a large number of diverse interactions. Interaction maps have been used to abstract those interactions at all biological scales ranging from food webs at the ecosystem level down to protein interaction networks at the molecular scale.

  13. Improving the efficiencies of simultaneous organic substance and nitrogen removal in a multi-stage loop membrane bioreactor-based PWWTP using an on-line Knowledge-Based Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-Bo; Nie, Shu-Kai; Ren, Nan-Qi; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Cui, Min-Hua

    2011-10-15

    The results of the use of an expert system (ES) to control a novel multi-stage loop membrane bioreactor (MLMBR) for the simultaneous removal of organic substances and nutrients are reported. The study was conducted at a bench-scale plant for the purpose of meeting new discharge standards (GB21904-2008) for the treatment of chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater (1200-9600 mg/L COD, 500-2500 mg/L BOD5, 50-200 mg/L NH4+-N and 105-400 mg/L TN in the influent water) by developing a distributed control system. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances and nitrogen levels in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy. The proposed distributed control system, which is supervised by a Knowledge-Based Expert System (KBES) constructed with G2 (a tool for expert system development) and a back propagation BP artificial neural network, permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A support vector machine (SVM) is applied to achieve pattern recognition. A set of experiments involving variable sludge retention time (SRT), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amounts of COD, TN and NH4+-N in the effluent decreased by 55%, 62% and 38%, respectively, compared to the usual operating conditions. These improvements were achieved with little energy cost because the performance of the treatment plant was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. PMID:21862097

  14. Return Vane Installed in Multistage Centrifugal Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Miyano, Masafumi; Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Kawashima, Daisuke; Wada, Akihiro; Hara, Takashi; Sakoda, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    To optimize the stationary components in the multistage centrifugal pump, the effects of the return vane profile on the performances of the multistage centrifugal pump were investigated experimentally, taking account of the inlet flow conditions for the next stage impeller. The return vane, whose trailing edge is set at the outer wall position of the annular channel downstream of the vane and which discharges the swirl-less flow, gives better pump performances. By equipping such return vane w...

  15. Multi-stage LTL transport systems in supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to unify concepts and to describe the multi-stage transport systems and their integratyion to supply chain management. Multi-stage distribution systems are common logistics management, and often they are assimilated to multi-stage transport strategies. However, transport is often considered as an external operation or a specific stage, even when it is a multi-stage system. First, the paper presents the main concepts of multi-stage transport systems by defining the concept an m...

  16. Recent developments in the multistage modeling of cohort data for carcinogenic risk assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumdar, S; Redmond, C K; Costantino, J P; Patwardhan, R N; Zhou, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The modeling of cohort data based on the Armitage-Doll multistage model of the carcinogenic process has gained popular acceptance as a methodology for quantitative risk assessment for estimating the dose-related relationships between different occupational and environmental carcinogenic exposures and cancer mortality. The multistage model can be used for extrapolation to low doses relevant for setting environmental standards and also provides information regarding whether more than one stage ...

  17. Mechanical and mathematical models of multi-stage horizontal fracturing strings and their application

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanghua Lian; Ying Zhang; Xu Zhao; Shidong Ding; Tiejun Lin

    2015-01-01

    Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, ...

  18. Biological Based Risk Assessment for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) - made up of high-energy protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, and solar particle events (SPEs) - comprised largely of low- to medium-energy protons are the primary health concern for astronauts for long-term space missions. Experimental studies have shown that HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation, making risk assessments for cancer and degenerative risks, such as central nervous system effects and heart disease, highly uncertain. The goal for space radiation protection at NASA is to be able to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessments for Mars exploration to be small enough to ensure acceptable levels of risks are not exceeded and to adequately assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as shielding or biological countermeasures. We review the recent BEIR VII and UNSCEAR-2006 models of cancer risks and their uncertainties. These models are shown to have an inherent 2-fold uncertainty as defined by ratio of the 95% percent confidence level to the mean projection, even before radiation quality is considered. In order to overcome the uncertainties in these models, new approaches to risk assessment are warranted. We consider new computational biology approaches to modeling cancer risks. A basic program of research that includes stochastic descriptions of the physics and chemistry of radiation tracks and biochemistry of metabolic pathways, to emerging biological understanding of cellular and tissue modifications leading to cancer is described.

  19. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanodevices in Biological Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Veetil, Aneesh T; Jaffrey, Samie R; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2016-06-01

    The nanoscale engineering of nucleic acids has led to exciting molecular technologies for high-end biological imaging. The predictable base pairing, high programmability, and superior new chemical and biological methods used to access nucleic acids with diverse lengths and in high purity, coupled with computational tools for their design, have allowed the creation of a stunning diversity of nucleic acid-based nanodevices. Given their biological origin, such synthetic devices have a tremendous capacity to interface with the biological world, and this capacity lies at the heart of several nucleic acid-based technologies that are finding applications in biological systems. We discuss these diverse applications and emphasize the advantage, in terms of physicochemical properties, that the nucleic acid scaffold brings to these contexts. As our ability to engineer this versatile scaffold increases, its applications in structural, cellular, and organismal biology are clearly poised to massively expand. PMID:27294440

  20. HOMOGENEOUS MULTISTAGE ARCHITECTURE FOR REAL-TIME IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Chenini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a new multistage architecture oriented to real-time complex processing applications. Given a set of rules, this proposed architecture allows the using of different communication links (point to point link, hardware router… to connect unlimited number of parallel computing elements (software processors to follow the increasing complexity of algorithms. In particular, this work brings out a parallel implementation of multihypothesis approach for road recognition application on the proposed Multiprocessor Systemon-Chip (MP-SoC architecture. This algorithm is usually the main part of the lane keeping applications. Experimental results using images of a real road scene are presented. Using a low cost FPGA-based System-on-Chip, our hardware architecture is able to detect and recognize the roadsides in a time limit of 60 mSec. Moreover, we demonstrate that our multistage architecture may be used to achieve good speed-up in solving automotive applications.

  1. Mathematical Biology Modules Based on Modern Molecular Biology and Modern Discrete Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Robeva, Raina; Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to introduce students to mathematical methods beyond the interface of biology with calculus. Based on ongoing research, and designed to use the project-...

  2. Interconnected levels of multi-stage marketing: A triadic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. ...

  3. Multistage Spectral Relaxation Method for Solving the Hyperchaotic Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Saberi Nik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a pseudospectral method application for solving the hyperchaotic complex systems. The proposed method, called the multistage spectral relaxation method (MSRM is based on a technique of extending Gauss-Seidel type relaxation ideas to systems of nonlinear differential equations and using the Chebyshev pseudospectral methods to solve the resulting system on a sequence of multiple intervals. In this new application, the MSRM is used to solve famous hyperchaotic complex systems such as hyperchaotic complex Lorenz system and the complex permanent magnet synchronous motor. We compare this approach to the Runge-Kutta based ode45 solver to show that the MSRM gives accurate results.

  4. Semantic Search among Heterogeneous Biological Databases Based on Gene Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Liang CAO; Lei QIN; Wei-Zhong HE; Yang ZHONG; Yang-Yong ZHU; Yi-Xue LI

    2004-01-01

    Semantic search is a key issue in integration of heterogeneous biological databases. In thispaper, we present a methodology for implementing semantic search in BioDW, an integrated biological datawarehouse. Two tables are presented: the DB2GO table to correlate Gene Ontology (GO) annotated entriesfrom BioDW data sources with GO, and the semantic similarity table to record similarity scores derived fromany pair of GO terms. Based on the two tables, multifarious ways for semantic search are provided and thecorresponding entries in heterogeneous biological databases in semantic terms can be expediently searched.

  5. Multistage spectral polarimeter based on integrated acousto-optical Ti:LiNbO3 TE-TM converters for WDM system monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Reinhold; Maucher, A.; Ricken, Raimund

    1999-04-01

    A 4-stage spectral polarimeter based on Ti:LiNbO3 acousto- optical TE-TM converters has been realized. It has about 20 dB stopband suppression and can measure polarimetric spectra as well as the time evolution of the state of polarization. A simple optical spectrum analyzer is also proposed.

  6. Enzyme-regulated the changes of pH values for assembling a colorimetric and multistage interconnection logic network with multiple readouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A colorimetric and multistage biological network has been developed. • This system was on the basis of the enzyme-regulated changes of pH values. • This enzyme-based system could assemble large biological circuit. • Two signal transducers (DNA/AuNPs and acid–base indicators) were used. • The compositions of samples could be detected through visual output signals. - Abstract: Based on enzymatic reactions-triggered changes of pH values and biocomputing, a novel and multistage interconnection biological network with multiple easy-detectable signal outputs has been developed. Compared with traditional chemical computing, the enzyme-based biological system could overcome the interference between reactions or the incompatibility of individual computing gates and offer a unique opportunity to assemble multicomponent/multifunctional logic circuitries. Our system included four enzyme inputs: β-galactosidase (β-gal), glucose oxidase (GOx), esterase (Est) and urease (Ur). With the assistance of two signal transducers (gold nanoparticles and acid–base indicators) or pH meter, the outputs of the biological network could be conveniently read by the naked eyes. In contrast to current methods, the approach present here could realize cost-effective, label-free and colorimetric logic operations without complicated instrument. By designing a series of Boolean logic operations, we could logically make judgment of the compositions of the samples on the basis of visual output signals. Our work offered a promising paradigm for future biological computing technology and might be highly useful in future intelligent diagnostics, prodrug activation, smart drug delivery, process control, and electronic applications

  7. Enzyme-regulated the changes of pH values for assembling a colorimetric and multistage interconnection logic network with multiple readouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanyan; Ran, Xiang; Lin, Youhui [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Graduate School of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ren, Jinsong, E-mail: jren@ciac.ac.cn [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Qu, Xiaogang [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2015-04-22

    Highlights: • A colorimetric and multistage biological network has been developed. • This system was on the basis of the enzyme-regulated changes of pH values. • This enzyme-based system could assemble large biological circuit. • Two signal transducers (DNA/AuNPs and acid–base indicators) were used. • The compositions of samples could be detected through visual output signals. - Abstract: Based on enzymatic reactions-triggered changes of pH values and biocomputing, a novel and multistage interconnection biological network with multiple easy-detectable signal outputs has been developed. Compared with traditional chemical computing, the enzyme-based biological system could overcome the interference between reactions or the incompatibility of individual computing gates and offer a unique opportunity to assemble multicomponent/multifunctional logic circuitries. Our system included four enzyme inputs: β-galactosidase (β-gal), glucose oxidase (GOx), esterase (Est) and urease (Ur). With the assistance of two signal transducers (gold nanoparticles and acid–base indicators) or pH meter, the outputs of the biological network could be conveniently read by the naked eyes. In contrast to current methods, the approach present here could realize cost-effective, label-free and colorimetric logic operations without complicated instrument. By designing a series of Boolean logic operations, we could logically make judgment of the compositions of the samples on the basis of visual output signals. Our work offered a promising paradigm for future biological computing technology and might be highly useful in future intelligent diagnostics, prodrug activation, smart drug delivery, process control, and electronic applications.

  8. SU-E-T-480: Radiobiological Dose Comparison of Single Fraction SRS, Multi-Fraction SRT and Multi-Stage SRS of Large Target Volumes Using the Linear-Quadratic Formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, C; Hrycushko, B; Jiang, S; Meyer, J; Timmerman, R [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the radiobiological effect on large tumors and surrounding normal tissues from single fraction SRS, multi-fractionated SRT, and multi-staged SRS treatment. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with a centrally located large volume target (18.2 cm{sup 3}) was scanned using a 16 slice large bore CT simulator. Scans were imported to the Multiplan treatment planning system where a total prescription dose of 20Gy was used for a single, three staged and three fractionated treatment. Cyber Knife treatment plans were inversely optimized for the target volume to achieve at least 95% coverage of the prescription dose. For the multistage plan, the target was segmented into three subtargets having similar volume and shape. Staged plans for individual subtargets were generated based on a planning technique where the beam MUs of the original plan on the total target volume are changed by weighting the MUs based on projected beam lengths within each subtarget. Dose matrices for each plan were export in DICOM format and used to calculate equivalent dose distributions in 2Gy fractions using an alpha beta ratio of 10 for the target and 3 for normal tissue. Results: Singe fraction SRS, multi-stage plan and multi-fractionated SRT plans had an average 2Gy dose equivalent to the target of 62.89Gy, 37.91Gy and 33.68Gy, respectively. The normal tissue within 12Gy physical dose region had an average 2Gy dose equivalent of 29.55Gy, 16.08Gy and 13.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The single fraction SRS plan had the largest predicted biological effect for the target and the surrounding normal tissue. The multi-stage treatment provided for a more potent biologically effect on target compared to the multi-fraction SRT treatments with less biological normal tissue than single-fraction SRS treatment.

  9. Multi-stage fuzzy load frequency control using PSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) based multi-stage fuzzy (PSOMSF) controller is proposed for solution of the load frequency control (LFC) problem in a restructured power system that operate under deregulation based on the bilateral policy scheme. In this strategy the control is tuned on line from the knowledge base and fuzzy inference, which request fewer sources and has two rule base sets. In the proposed method, for achieving the desired level of robust performance, exact tuning of membership functions is very important. Thus, to reduce the design effort and find a better fuzzy system control, membership functions are designed automatically by PSO algorithm, that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. The motivation for using the PSO technique is to reduce fuzzy system effort and take large parametric uncertainties into account. This newly developed control strategy combines the advantage of PSO and fuzzy system control techniques and leads to a flexible controller with simple stricture that is easy to implement. The proposed PSO based MSF (PSOMSF) controller is tested on a three-area restructured power system under different operating conditions and contract variations. The results of the proposed PSOMSF controller are compared with genetic algorithm based multi-stage fuzzy (GAMSF) control through some performance indices to illustrate its robust performance for a wide range of system parameters and load changes

  10. The biological bases of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is based on a large number of human data collected during the past 80 years. For dose levels of a few hundred rads, risks can be evaluated very accurately. Yet it is difficult to derive from them the risks due to low doses because of the uncertainty on the dose-effect relationship. In the practice, pessimistic assumptions are used, which involves an over-estimation of risks. However, even in these unfavorable conditions, risks associated to occupational activities implying radiation exposure seem to be less important than in most industries. Radiation protection has played a historical and essential part in the quantitative assessment of risks and opened a new era of occupational medicine and environmental health investigations. Many substances, such as radiations, are mutagenic and/or carcinogenic at very low doses, and in many cases human exposure cannot be avoided. Therefore, a policy advocating refusal of any risk whatsoever and absolute safety will lure with unattainable and misleading prospects. The only method is to assess the quantitative importance of the various risks in order to decide how far a damage may be tolerable in the various cases when exposure cannot be avoided

  11. From the dilute solution to the pure compound:Extraction strategy based on a multi-stage process of phase separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOUTAUDIER; Christelle; TENU; Richard; COUNIOUX; Jean-Jacques

    2010-01-01

    It is very rare that a one-step process of extraction leads to the pure compound with a high degree of purity specified by an industrial application.The various stages of a synthesis process and possible secondary reactions may lead to the synthesis of more or less complex and highly diluted solutions.In this work,the rationale and strategy for extraction and purification of a high added value compound are discussed.All the thinking is based on the knowledge and the exploitation of phase diagrams and then developed for different unit operations of the process.The most significant research tools are the experimental data and the modelling of phase equilibrium to estimate the yield of each step of extraction.The significant example chosen involves all the basic methods of phase separation,starting with liquid-vapour equilibrium:stripping of high volatility components and then more or less complex distillation are classically employed.The theoretical plateau number can be deduced from the equilibrium equation curves.The second step is based on the study of the liquid-liquid equilibrium and is an intermediate step for enrichment of the solution when distillation is not possible.A final step based on solid-liquid equilibrium consists of the selective crystallization of the pure product at low temperature,in order to satisfy the requirements of purity and safety imposed by industrial use.The conclusion includes all isolation operations in the form of a general extraction and purification scheme.

  12. Histological image classification using biologically interpretable shape-based features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic cancer diagnostic systems based on histological image classification are important for improving therapeutic decisions. Previous studies propose textural and morphological features for such systems. These features capture patterns in histological images that are useful for both cancer grading and subtyping. However, because many of these features lack a clear biological interpretation, pathologists may be reluctant to adopt these features for clinical diagnosis. We examine the utility of biologically interpretable shape-based features for classification of histological renal tumor images. Using Fourier shape descriptors, we extract shape-based features that capture the distribution of stain-enhanced cellular and tissue structures in each image and evaluate these features using a multi-class prediction model. We compare the predictive performance of the shape-based diagnostic model to that of traditional models, i.e., using textural, morphological and topological features. The shape-based model, with an average accuracy of 77%, outperforms or complements traditional models. We identify the most informative shapes for each renal tumor subtype from the top-selected features. Results suggest that these shapes are not only accurate diagnostic features, but also correlate with known biological characteristics of renal tumors. Shape-based analysis of histological renal tumor images accurately classifies disease subtypes and reveals biologically insightful discriminatory features. This method for shape-based analysis can be extended to other histological datasets to aid pathologists in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions

  13. On optimizing distance-based similarity search for biological databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rui; Xu, Weijia; Ramakrishnan, Smriti; Nuckolls, Glen; Miranker, Daniel P

    2005-01-01

    Similarity search leveraging distance-based index structures is increasingly being used for both multimedia and biological database applications. We consider distance-based indexing for three important biological data types, protein k-mers with the metric PAM model, DNA k-mers with Hamming distance and peptide fragmentation spectra with a pseudo-metric derived from cosine distance. To date, the primary driver of this research has been multimedia applications, where similarity functions are often Euclidean norms on high dimensional feature vectors. We develop results showing that the character of these biological workloads is different from multimedia workloads. In particular, they are not intrinsically very high dimensional, and deserving different optimization heuristics. Based on MVP-trees, we develop a pivot selection heuristic seeking centers and show it outperforms the most widely used corner seeking heuristic. Similarly, we develop a data partitioning approach sensitive to the actual data distribution in lieu of median splits. PMID:16447992

  14. Health and human rights in eastern Myanmar after the political transition: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kaur Parmar

    Full Text Available Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian parliamentary government in March 2011. Qualitative reports suggest that exposure to violence and displacement has declined while international assistance for health services has increased. An assessment of the impact of these changes on the health and human rights situation has not been published.Five community-based organizations conducted household surveys using two-stage cluster sampling in five states in eastern Myanmar from July 2013-September 2013. Data was collected from 6, 178 households on demographics, mortality, health outcomes, water and sanitation, food security and nutrition, malaria, and human rights violations (HRV. Among children aged 6-59 months screened, the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (representing moderate or severe malnutrition was 11.3% (8.0-14.7. A total of 250 deaths occurred during the year prior to the survey. Infant deaths accounted for 64 of these (IMR 94.2; 95% CI 66.5-133.5 and there were 94 child deaths (U5MR 141.9; 95% CI 94.8-189.0. 10.7% of households (95% CI 7.0-14.5 experienced at least one HRV in the past year, while four percent reported 2 or more HRVs. Household exposure to one or more HRVs was associated with moderate-severe malnutrition among children (14.9 vs. 6.8%; prevalence ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2. Household exposure to HRVs was associated with self-reported fair or poor health status among respondents (PR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5.This large survey of health and human rights demonstrates that two years after political transition, vulnerable populations of eastern Myanmar are less likely to experience human rights violations compared to previous surveys. However, access to health services remains constrained, and risk of disease and death remains higher than the country as a whole. Efforts to address these poor health indicators should prioritize support for populations that remain outside the scope of most formal government and donor programs.

  15. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Mark V.; Levitsky, Lev I.; Gorshkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-06-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms.

  16. Critical assessment of multistage pseudospark switches

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, K; Petzenhauser, I

    2004-01-01

    In repetitive pulsed power there is a strong increasing demand for the development of high voltage pulse forming networks (PFN), which can be operated with high repetition rates and simultaneously with extremely long lifetime. Typical applications for such PFN's are modulators for the next generation of accelerators, pulse generators for flue gas cleaning with electrostatic precipitators, high power gas lasers, accelerators for medical radiography and drivers of high power microwaves. For instance, in the next generation linear collider the traditional thyratron/PFN modulators will no longer meet the new requirements. Multistage thyratrons are available for hold- off voltages up to 240 kV, but their handling is complicated, the reliability poor and the costs are high. To equip the 1600 modulators, which are planned for SLAC's next linear collider, with multistage thyratrons is unaffordable. Solid-state devices in combination with step-up transformers are under discussion, but their performance is not yet sati...

  17. Ramsey Stochastic Model via Multistage Stochastic Programming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňková, Vlasta

    Vol. Part II. České Budějovice: University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Economy , 2010 - (Houda, M.; Friebelová, J.), s. 328-333 ISBN 978-80-7394-218-2. [28th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics 2010. České Budějovice (CZ), 08.09.2010-10.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/0107; GA ČR GAP402/10/1610 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Ramsey stochastic model * Multistage stochastic programming * Confidence intervals * Autoregressive sequences * Stability * Empirical estimates Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/kankova-ramsey stochastic model via multistage stochastic programming.pdf

  18. The optimal multi-stage contest

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Qiang; Lu, Jingfeng

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal (effort-maximizing) structure of multi-stage sequential-elimination contests with pooling competition in each stage. We allow the contest organizer to design the contest structure in two arms: contest sequence (the number of stages, and the number of remaining contestants in each stage), and prize allocation. First, we find that the optimality of "winner-take-all" (single final winner, single final prize, no intermediate prizes) is independent of the contes...

  19. Biological Impact of Music and Software-Based Auditory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-based communication skills are developed at a young age and are maintained throughout our lives. However, some individuals--both young and old--encounter difficulties in achieving or maintaining communication proficiency. Biological signals arising from hearing sounds relate to real-life communication skills such as listening to speech in…

  20. A Project-Based Biologically-Inspired Robotics Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, R. M.; Zauner, K.-P.

    2013-01-01

    The design of any robotic system requires input from engineers from a variety of technical fields. This paper describes a project-based module, "Biologically-Inspired Robotics," that is offered to Electronics and Computer Science students at the University of Southampton, U.K. The overall objective of the module is for student groups to…

  1. What does the hydrolysis perform in the fermentation of biogas? Biogas, hydrolysis, fermenter biology, multistage process operation; Was kann die Hydrolyse bei der Biogasvergaerung leisten? Biogas, Hydrolyse, Fermenterbiologie, mehrphasige Prozessfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechsner, H.; Lemmer, A. [Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie, Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays renewable primary products are normally favored for fermentation in agricultural biogas plants. Since this substrate has to be cultivated for biogas fermentation in particular and hence causes production costs, the energy content of the material should be dissipated in biogas completely. For this the fermentation process has to run as efficient as possible. In case of one-phase process management with high space loading there is a risk of imbalance and maybe even collapse of process biology in the fermenter. In case of high space loading and short retention time the substrate won't be fermented completely. The aim is to create good conditions for microorganism participating in the process by a two-phase process management which integrates a stage of hydrolysis. In the stage of hydrolysis the microorganisms and enzymes metabolize the organic matter into readily biodegradable carbonic acids, which can be supplied targeted in the following methanisation as substrate for methanogenic bacteria. The hydrolysis proceeds under various terms and conditions (aerobic/anaerobic, different pH-value, different temperature level). This necessitates a safe control of operation and process parameters, which is often difficult to ensure in practice. In a malfunctioning hydrolysis also methane can be produced, that causes energy losses and environmental damage when emitted in atmosphere. Hydrogen can be produced in the hydrolysis as well what can involve a safety risk. Urgent need for research exists concerning the two-phase fermentation of renewable primary products. By systematic laboratory analysis the knowledge should be expanded, to improve the planning reliability in this field. (orig.)

  2. Multi-stage sampling in genetic epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, A S; Halpern, J

    When data are expensive to collect, it can be cost-efficient to sample in two or more stages. In the first stage a simple random sample is drawn and then stratified according to some easily measured attribute. In each subsequent stage a random subset of previously selected units is sampled for more detailed observation, with a unit's sampling probability determined by its attributes as observed in the previous stages. These designs are useful in many medical studies; here we use them in genetic epidemiology. Two genetic studies illustrate the strengths and limitations of the approach. The first study evaluates nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in U.S. blacks. The goal is to estimate the relative contributions of white male genes and white female genes to the gene pool of African-Americans. This example shows that the Horvitz-Thompson estimators proposed for multi-stage designs can be inefficient, particularly when used with unnecessary stratification. The second example is a multi-stage study of familial prostate cancer. The goal is to gather pedigrees, blood samples and archived tissue for segregation and linkage analysis of familial prostate cancer data by first obtaining crude family data from prostate cancer cases and cancer-free controls. This second example shows the gains in efficiency from multi-stage sampling when the individual likelihood or quasilikelihood scores vary substantially across strata. PMID:9004389

  3. Bayesian synthetic evaluation of multistage reliability growth with instant and delayed fix modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the multistage reliability growth tests with instant and delayed fix modes, the failure data can be assumed to follow Weibull processes with different parameters at different stages. For the Weibull process within a stage, by the proper selection of prior distribution form and the parameters, a concise posterior distribution form is obtained, thus simplifying the Bayesian analysis. In the multistage tests, the improvement factor is used to convert the posterior of one stage to the prior of the subsequent stage. The conversion criterion is carefully analyzed to determine the distribution parameters of the subsequent stage's variable reasonably. Based on the mentioned results, a new synthetic Bayesian evaluation program and algorithm framework is put forward to evaluate the multistage reliability growth tests with instant and delayed fix modes. The example shows the effectiveness and flexibility of this method.

  4. Design of intermediate die shape of multistage profile drawing for linear motion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Sung Min; Kim, Byung Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The design of an intermediate die shape is very important in multistage profile drawing. In this study, two design methods for the intermediate die shape of a multistage profile drawing for producing a linear motion guide (LM) guide is proposed. One is the electric field analysis method using the equipotential lines generated by electric field analysis, and the other is the virtual die method using a virtual drawing die constructed from the initial material and the final product shape. In order to design the intermediate die shapes of a multistage profile drawing for producing LM guide, the proposed design methods are applied, and then FE analysis and profile drawing experiment are performed. As a result, based on the measurement of dimensional accuracy, it can be known that the intermediate die shape can be designed effectively

  5. Dynamic analysis for solid waste management systems: an inexact multistage integer programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongping; Huang, Guohe

    2009-03-01

    In this study, a dynamic analysis approach based on an inexact multistage integer programming (IMIP) model is developed for supporting municipal solid waste (MSW) management under uncertainty. Techniques of interval-parameter programming and multistage stochastic programming are incorporated within an integer-programming framework. The developed IMIP can deal with uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval numbers, and can reflect the dynamics in terms of decisions for waste-flow allocation and facility-capacity expansion over a multistage context. Moreover, the IMIP can be used for analyzing various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic consequences. The developed method is applied to a case study of long-term waste-management planning. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been generated for binary and continuous variables. They can help generate desired decisions of system-capacity expansion and waste-flow allocation with a minimized system cost and maximized system reliability. PMID:19320267

  6. A Quasi-One-Dimensional CFD Model for Multistage Turbomachines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olivier Léonard; Olivier Adam

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a fast and reliable CFD model that is able to simulate stationary and transient operations of multistage compressors and turbines. This analysis tool is based on an adapted version of the Euler equations solved by a time-marching, finite-volume method. The Euler equations have been extended by including source terms expressing the blade-flow interactions. These source terms are determined using the velocity triangles and a row-by-row representation of the blading at mid-span. The losses and deviations undergone by the fluid across each blade row are supplied by correlations. The resulting flow solver is a performance prediction tool based only on the machine geometry, offering the possibility of exploring the entire characteristic map of a multistage compressor or turbine. Its efficiency in terms of CPU time makes it possible to couple it to an optimization algorithm or to a gas turbine performance tool. Different test-cases are presented for which the calculated characteristic maps are compared to experimental ones.

  7. Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-based communication skills are developed at a young age and are maintained throughout our lives. However, some individuals – both young and old – encounter difficulties in achieving or maintaining communication proficiency. Biological signals arising from hearing sounds relate to real-life communication skills such as listening to speech in noisy environments and reading, pointing to an intersection between hearing and cognition. Musical experience, amplification, and software-based ...

  8. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Espaux, Leo; Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Li, Rachel; Keasling, Jay D

    2015-12-01

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. We further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing. PMID:26479184

  9. Prototype Biology-Based Radiation Risk Module Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald G.; Patel, Zarana; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of space radiation and risk mitigation are strategic knowledge gaps for the Evolvable Mars Campaign. The current epidemiology-based NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model contains large uncertainties (HAT #6.5a) due to lack of information on the radiobiology of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and lack of human data. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. Our proposed study will compare DNA damage, histological, and cell kinetic parameters after irradiation in normal 2D human cells versus 3D tissue models, and it will use a multi-scale computational model (CHASTE) to investigate various biological processes that may contribute to carcinogenesis, including radiation-induced cellular signaling pathways. This cross-disciplinary work, with biological validation of an evolvable mathematical computational model, will help reduce uncertainties within NSCR and aid risk mitigation for radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  10. Robust Analysis and Parameters Identification of the Nonlinear Multistage Dynamical System in Batch Fermentation of Glycerol

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a complex biological problem which is the fermentation of glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae in batch culture. We set up an improved multistage model involving the concentration of intracellular substances. Furthermore, the existence, uniqueness, and continuity of solutions with respect to the parameters are discussed. On the condition that glycerol and 1,3-propanediol are assumed to pass the cell membrane by passive diffusion coupled with facilitated transport, we take th...

  11. The potential of standards-based agriculture biology as an alternative to traditional biology in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellu, George Sahr

    schools. Thoron & Meyer (2011) suggested that research into the contribution of integrated science courses toward higher test scores yielded mixed results. This finding may have been due in part to the fact that integrated science courses only incorporate select topics into agriculture education courses. In California, however, agriculture educators have developed standards-based courses such as Agriculture Biology (AgBio) that cover the same content standards as core traditional courses such as traditional biology. Students in both AgBio and traditional biology take the same standardized biology test. This is the first time there has been an opportunity for a fair comparison and a uniform metric for an agriscience course such as AgBio to be directly compared to traditional biology. This study will examine whether there are differences between AgBio and traditional biology with regard to standardized test scores in biology. Furthermore, the study examines differences in perception between teachers and students regarding teaching and learning activities associated with higher achievement in science. The findings of the study could provide a basis for presenting AgBio as a potential alternative to traditional biology. The findings of this study suggest that there are no differences between AgBio and traditional biology students with regard to standardized biology test scores. Additionally, the findings indicate that co-curricular activities in AgBio could contribute higher student achievement in biology. However, further research is required to identify specific activities in AgBio that contribute to higher achievement in science.

  12. Multivalued and Multiple Reflected Raytracing with Extreme Value Based on the Multistage Modified Shortest-path Method%分区多步最短路径极值法多值多次反射波追踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小平; 白超英; 刘宽厚

    2011-01-01

    The grid-based raytracing algorithms,such as the finite-difference eikonal equation solver and the shortest-path method,are all based on the Fermat (minimum travel time) principle, which is able to track the first reflected arrivals only. In heterogeneous media involving a relatively larger velocity contrast or complex reflected interface. The seismic wavefronts are self-intersected, as a result, the rays are multi-paths. In order to simulate such multivalued and multiple reflected arrivals, we put forward an algorithm to trace the multivalued and multiple reflected arrivals, it referred as the extreme value algorithm based on the multistage modified shortest-path method, which is capable of tracking the multivalued and multiple reflected arrivals in velocity model included complex reflected interfaces. The principles of the extreme value are that;we firstly conduct down-wind raytracing from both sources and receivers to the sampled reflected interfaces and record the traveltimes and raypaths at each sampled reflected point,and sum up traveltime value at each reflected point, and form a stacked' traveltime-distance' curve (or surface for 3D case);secondly we solve extremum values for this stacked'traveltime-distance'curveCor surface).in which the location of the extreme points are the reflected points; finally we link the raypaths and add traveltimes from the source to the reflected point,and then to the receiver. Thus the multivalued and multiple reflected arrivals are successfully traced. This algorithm has a simple principle, high accuracy, fast CPU time and easy adaptation for complex media-Compared with the fast marching method and error analysis.it is evident that the extreme value of the multistage shortest-path method is a feasible and efficient algorithm for tracking the multivalued and multiple reflected arrivals.%基于网格单元扩展的射线追踪算法,如:较为流行的有限差分解程函方程法和最短路径法均是建立在费马(最小

  13. EUD-based biological optimization for carbon ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Treatment planning for carbon ion therapy requires an accurate modeling of the biological response of each tissue to estimate the clinical outcome of a treatment. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) accounts for this biological response on a cellular level but does not refer to the actual impact on the organ as a whole. For photon therapy, the concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) represents a simple model to take the organ response into account, yet so far no formulation of EUD has been reported that is suitable to carbon ion therapy. The authors introduce the concept of an equivalent uniform effect (EUE) that is directly applicable to both ion and photon therapies and exemplarily implemented it as a basis for biological treatment plan optimization for carbon ion therapy. Methods: In addition to a classical EUD concept, which calculates a generalized mean over the RBE-weighted dose distribution, the authors propose the EUE to simplify the optimization process of carbon ion therapy plans. The EUE is defined as the biologically equivalent uniform effect that yields the same probability of injury as the inhomogeneous effect distribution in an organ. Its mathematical formulation is based on the generalized mean effect using an effect-volume parameter to account for different organ architectures and is thus independent of a reference radiation. For both EUD concepts, quadratic and logistic objective functions are implemented into a research treatment planning system. A flexible implementation allows choosing for each structure between biological effect constraints per voxel and EUD constraints per structure. Exemplary treatment plans are calculated for a head-and-neck patient for multiple combinations of objective functions and optimization parameters. Results: Treatment plans optimized using an EUE-based objective function were comparable to those optimized with an RBE-weighted EUD-based approach. In agreement with previous results from photon

  14. EUD-based biological optimization for carbon ion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brüningk, Sarah C., E-mail: sarah.brueningk@icr.ac.uk; Kamp, Florian; Wilkens, Jan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Str. 22, München 81675, Germany and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, Garching 85748 (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Treatment planning for carbon ion therapy requires an accurate modeling of the biological response of each tissue to estimate the clinical outcome of a treatment. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) accounts for this biological response on a cellular level but does not refer to the actual impact on the organ as a whole. For photon therapy, the concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) represents a simple model to take the organ response into account, yet so far no formulation of EUD has been reported that is suitable to carbon ion therapy. The authors introduce the concept of an equivalent uniform effect (EUE) that is directly applicable to both ion and photon therapies and exemplarily implemented it as a basis for biological treatment plan optimization for carbon ion therapy. Methods: In addition to a classical EUD concept, which calculates a generalized mean over the RBE-weighted dose distribution, the authors propose the EUE to simplify the optimization process of carbon ion therapy plans. The EUE is defined as the biologically equivalent uniform effect that yields the same probability of injury as the inhomogeneous effect distribution in an organ. Its mathematical formulation is based on the generalized mean effect using an effect-volume parameter to account for different organ architectures and is thus independent of a reference radiation. For both EUD concepts, quadratic and logistic objective functions are implemented into a research treatment planning system. A flexible implementation allows choosing for each structure between biological effect constraints per voxel and EUD constraints per structure. Exemplary treatment plans are calculated for a head-and-neck patient for multiple combinations of objective functions and optimization parameters. Results: Treatment plans optimized using an EUE-based objective function were comparable to those optimized with an RBE-weighted EUD-based approach. In agreement with previous results from photon

  15. A semi-analytical modelling of multistage bunch compression with collective effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagorodnov, Igor; Dohlus, Martin

    2010-07-15

    In this paper we introduce an analytical solution (up to the third order) for a multistage bunch compression and acceleration system without collective effects. The solution for the system with collective effects is found by an iterative procedure based on this analytical result. The developed formalism is applied to the FLASH facility at DESY. Analytical estimations of RF tolerances are given. (orig.)

  16. Identifying discriminative classification-based motifs in biological sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Vens, Celine; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Danchin, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Identification of conserved motifs in biological sequences is crucial to unveil common shared functions. Many tools exist for motif identification, including some that allow degenerate positions with multiple possible nucleotides or amino acids. Most efficient methods available today search conserved motifs in a set of sequences, but do not check for their specificity regarding to a set of negative sequences. Results: We present a tool to identify degenerate motifs, based on a giv...

  17. Applications of Case-Based Reasoning in Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jurisica, Igor; Glasgow, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a computational reasoning paradigm that involves the storage and retrieval of past experiences to solve novel problems. It is an approach that is particularly relevant in scientific domains, where there is a wealth of data but often a lack of theories or general principles. This article describes several CBR systems that have been developed to carry out planning, analysis, and prediction in the domain of molecular biology.

  18. Sleep and Multisystem Biological Risk: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Judith E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Seeman, Teresa E

    2015-01-01

    Background Short sleep and poor sleep quality are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and mortality. This study examines the contribution of sleep duration and sleep quality on a multisystem biological risk index that is known to be associated with morbidity and mortality. Methods Analyses include a population-based sample from the Midlife Development in the United States survey recruited to the Biomarker substudy. A total of 1,023 participants aged 54.5 years (S...

  19. Biologically-inspired Microfluidic Platforms and Aptamer-based Nanobiosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hansang

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in micro/nano- technologies have shown high potentials in the field of quantitative biology, biomedical science, and analytical chemistry. However, micro/nano fluidics still requires multi-layered structures, complex plumbing/tubing, and external equipments for large-scale applications and nanotechnology-based sensors demand high cost. Interestingly, nature has much simpler and more effective solutions. The goal of this dissertation is to develop novel microfluidic platforms a...

  20. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics in cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, T. C.; Mann, M

    2010-01-01

    The global analysis of protein composition, modifications, and dynamics are important goals in cell biology. Mass spectrometry (MS)–based proteomics has matured into an attractive technology for this purpose. Particularly, high resolution MS methods have been extremely successful for quantitative analysis of cellular and organellar proteomes. Rapid advances in all areas of the proteomic workflow, including sample preparation, MS, and computational analysis, should make the technology more eas...

  1. What is infidelity? Perceptions based on biological sex and personality

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton V; Nagurney AJ

    2011-01-01

    Victoria Thornton, Alexander NagurneyTexas State University – San Marcos, San Marcos, Texas, USAAbstract: The study examines perceptions of infidelity, paying particular attention to how these perceptions differ based on biological sex and personality traits, specifically agency and communion and their unmitigated counterparts. The study utilizes a sample of 125 male and 233 female college students. In addition to the personality measures, participants completed a 19-item checklist ...

  2. Bioinformatics glossary based Database of Biological Databases: DBD

    OpenAIRE

    Siva Kiran RR; Setty MVN; Hanumatha Rao G

    2009-01-01

    Database of Biological/Bioinformatics Databases (DBD) is a collection of 1669 databases and online resources collected from NAR Database Summary Papers (http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/a/) & Internet search engines. The database has been developed based on 437 keywords (Glossary) available in http://falcon.roswellpark.org/labweb/glossary.html. Keywords with their relevant databases are arranged in alphabetic order which enables quick accession of databases by researchers. Dat...

  3. Competency-based reforms of the undergraduate biology curriculum: integrating the physical and biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Katerina V; Chmielewski, Jean; Gaines, Michael S; Hrycyna, Christine A; LaCourse, William R

    2013-06-01

    The National Experiment in Undergraduate Science Education project funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is a direct response to the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians report, which urged a shift in premedical student preparation from a narrow list of specific course work to a more flexible curriculum that helps students develop broad scientific competencies. A consortium of four universities is working to create, pilot, and assess modular, competency-based curricular units that require students to use higher-order cognitive skills and reason across traditional disciplinary boundaries. Purdue University; the University of Maryland, Baltimore County; and the University of Miami are each developing modules and case studies that integrate the biological, chemical, physical, and mathematical sciences. The University of Maryland, College Park, is leading the effort to create an introductory physics for life sciences course that is reformed in both content and pedagogy. This course has prerequisites of biology, chemistry, and calculus, allowing students to apply strategies from the physical sciences to solving authentic biological problems. A comprehensive assessment plan is examining students' conceptual knowledge of physics, their attitudes toward interdisciplinary approaches, and the development of specific scientific competencies. Teaching modules developed during this initial phase will be tested on multiple partner campuses in preparation for eventual broad dissemination. PMID:23737624

  4. A Biologically Based Chemo-Sensing UAV for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F.M.J. Verschure

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Antipersonnel mines, weapons of cheap manufacture but lethal effect, have a high impact on the population even decades after the conflicts have finished. Here we investigate the use of a chemo-sensing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (cUAV for demining tasks. We developed a blimp based UAV that is equipped with a broadly tuned metal-thin oxide chemo-sensor. A number of chemical mapping strategies were investigated including two biologically based localization strategies derived from the moth chemical search that can optimize the efficiency of the detection and localization of explosives and therefore be used in the demining process. Additionally, we developed a control layer that allows for both fully autonomous and manual controlled flight, as well as for the scheduling of a fleet of cUAVs. Our results confirm the feasibility of this technology for demining in real-world scenarios and give further support to a biologically based approach where the understanding of biological systems is used to solve difficult engineering problems.

  5. Sharpening of the multistage modified comb filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of filter sharpening method to the modified comb filter (MCF in the case of decimation factor, which is product of two or more positive integers. It is shown that in the case of multistage decimation with MCF, filters in each stage are also MCF. Applying the sharpening to the decimation filter in the last stage provides very good results, with savings in the number of operations comparing to the case of sharpening of the complete filter. Direct-form FIR polyphase filter structure is proposed for the filters in each stage.

  6. Multistage Stochastic Programming Problems; Stability and Approximation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňková, Vlasta

    Berlin: Springer, 2007 - (Waldmann, K.; Stocker, U.), s. 595-600 ISBN 978-3-540-69994-1. [Annual International Conference of the German Operations Research Society (GOR). Karlsruhe (DE), 06.09.2006-08.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1294; GA ČR GA402/05/0115; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/1417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Multistage Sstochastic programming problems * individal probability constraints * autoregressive (generally) nonlinear sequence Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  7. Unemployment problem via multistage stochastic programming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňková, Vlasta; Chovanec, Petr

    Bratislava: University of Economics in Bratislava, 2006 - (Pekár, J.; Lukáčik, M.), s. 69-76 ISBN 80-8078-129-X. [Quantitative Methods in Economics. Multiple Criteria Decision Making XIII. Bratislava (SK), 06.12.2006-08.12.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1294 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Multistage stochastic programming problems * unemployment problem * restructuralization * random element * probability constraints Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  8. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.

    1996-11-01

    Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. has conducted a series of eleven catalytic, multi-stage, liquefaction (CMSL) bench scale runs between February, 1991, and September, 1995. The purpose of these runs was to investigate novel approaches to liquefaction relating to feedstocks, hydrogen source, improved catalysts as well as processing variables, all of which are designed to lower the cost of producing coal-derived liquid products. This report summarizes the technical assessment of these runs, and in particular the evaluation of the economic impact of the results.

  9. Biological Basis of Exercise-Based Treatments for Musculoskeletal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Tarabishy, Ayman; Kadic, Fawzi; Brown, Elke H.P.; Sowa, Gwendolyn

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-based therapies are the cornerstone of rehabilitation programs. While the benefits of exercise on systemic and tissue function are generally accepted, mechanisms underlying these benefits are sometimes poorly understood. An improved understanding of the effects of mechanical loading on molecular and cellular processes has the potential to lead to more disease-specific and efficacious exercise-based therapies. The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature examining the role of mechanical signaling on muscle and cartilage biology. PMID:21703582

  10. Web-based software tool for constraint-based design specification of synthetic biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberortner, Ernst; Densmore, Douglas

    2015-06-19

    miniEugene provides computational support for solving combinatorial design problems, enabling users to specify and enumerate designs for novel biological systems based on sets of biological constraints. This technical note presents a brief tutorial for biologists and software engineers in the field of synthetic biology on how to use miniEugene. After reading this technical note, users should know which biological constraints are available in miniEugene, understand the syntax and semantics of these constraints, and be able to follow a step-by-step guide to specify the design of a classical synthetic biological system-the genetic toggle switch.1 We also provide links and references to more information on the miniEugene web application and the integration of the miniEugene software library into sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools for synthetic biology ( www.eugenecad.org ). PMID:25426642

  11. Performance-based assessment of biology teachers: Promises and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Angelo

    BioTAP, the biology component of the Teacher Assessment Project, explored three modes of performance-based teacher assessment: portfolios, simulations, and portfolio-based simulations. Assessments were designed by a team of university-based researchers and classroom teachers. Assessments were completed by 15 high school biology teachers from a variety of teaching contexts. Portfolios are defined as collections of evidence gathered on site, such as videotapes of instruction. The portfolios had four sections: planning, instruction, assessment, and professional development. Simulation exercises are replications of critical tasks of teaching in a standardized setting, for example, an interview about adapting a textbook. Portfolio-based simulations take advantage of the contextual aspects of portfolios and the standardization of simulations, for example, an interview on student misconceptions about the laboratory experience that was presented in the portfolio. Using a holistic process, teachers were rated in categories derived from the five core propositions of teacher knowledge and skill proposed by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Teachers reported that the assessments had a high degree of fidelity to teaching and provided stimuli to improving teaching. The description presented in this article provides a foundation for those who wish to advance the research in science teacher assessment.

  12. Subsychronous vibration of multistage centrifugal compressors forced by rotating stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    A multistage centrifugal compressor, in natural gas re-injection service on an offshore petroleum production platform, experienced subsynchronous vibrations which caused excessive bearing wear. Field performance testing correlated the subsynchronous amplitude with the discharge flow coefficient, demonstrating the excitation to be aerodynamic. Adding two impellers allowed an increase in the diffuser flow angle (with respect to tangential) to meet the diffuser stability criteria based on factory and field tests correlated using the theory of Senoo (for rotating stall in a vaneless diffuser). This modification eliminated all significant subsynchronous vibrations in field service, thus confirming the correctness of the solution. Other possible sources of aerodynamically induced vibrations were considered, but the judgment that those are unlikely has been confirmed by subsequent experience with other similar compressors.

  13. Silicon nanowire networks for multi-stage thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fabricated flexible single, double, and quadruple stacked Si thermoelectric modules. • Measured an enhanced power production of 27%, showing vertical stacking is scalable. • Vertically scalable thermoelectric module design of semiconducting nanowires. • Design can utilize either p or n-type semiconductors, both types are not required. • ΔT increases with thickness therefore power/area can increase as modules are stacked. - Abstract: We present the fabrication and characterization of single, double, and quadruple stacked flexible silicon nanowire network based thermoelectric modules. From double to quadruple stacked modules, power production increased 27%, demonstrating that stacking multiple nanowire thermoelectric devices in series is a scalable method to generate power by supplying larger temperature gradient. We present a vertically scalable multi-stage thermoelectric module design using semiconducting nanowires, eliminating the need for both n-type and p-type semiconductors for modules

  14. Axial flow, multi-stage turbine and compressor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design models of multi-stage, axial-flow turbine and compressor are developed for high temperature nuclear reactor power plants with Closed Brayton Cycle for energy conversion. The models are based on a mean-line through-flow analysis for free-vortex flow, account for the profile, secondary, end wall, trailing edge and tip clearance losses in the cascades, and calculate the geometrical parameters of the blade cascades. The effects of the mean-stage work coefficient, flow coefficient and stage reaction on the design and performance of helium turbine and compressor are investigated. The results compare favorably with those reported for 6 stages helium turbine and 20 stages helium compressor. Also presented and discussed are the results of parametric analyses of a 530-MW helium turbine, and a 251-MW helium compressor.

  15. Image-based surface matching algorithm oriented to structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merelli, Ivan; Cozzi, Paolo; D'Agostino, Daniele; Clematis, Andrea; Milanesi, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Emerging technologies for structure matching based on surface descriptions have demonstrated their effectiveness in many research fields. In particular, they can be successfully applied to in silico studies of structural biology. Protein activities, in fact, are related to the external characteristics of these macromolecules and the ability to match surfaces can be important to infer information about their possible functions and interactions. In this work, we present a surface-matching algorithm, based on encoding the outer morphology of proteins in images of local description, which allows us to establish point-to-point correlations among macromolecular surfaces using image-processing functions. Discarding methods relying on biological analysis of atomic structures and expensive computational approaches based on energetic studies, this algorithm can successfully be used for macromolecular recognition by employing local surface features. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be employed both to identify surface similarities in context of macromolecular functional analysis and to screen possible protein interactions to predict pairing capability. PMID:21566253

  16. Thickness distribution of multi-stage incremental forming with different forming stages and angle intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军超; 杨芬芬; 周志强

    2015-01-01

    Although multi-stage incremental sheet forming has always been adopted instead of single-stage forming to form parts with a steep wall angle or to achieve a high forming performance, it is largely dependent on empirical designs. In order to research multi-stage forming further, the effect of forming stages (n) and angle interval between the two adjacent stages (Δα) on thickness distribution was investigated. Firstly, a finite element method (FEM) model of multi-stage incremental forming was established and experimentally verified. Then, based on the proposed simulation model, different strategies were adopted to form a frustum of cone with wall angle of 30° to research the thickness distribution of multi-pass forming. It is proved that the minimum thickness increases largely and the variance of sheet thickness decreases significantly as the value of n grows. Further, with the increase of Δα, the minimum thickness increases initially and then decreases, and the optimal thickness distribution is achieved with Δα of 10°. Additionally, a formula is deduced to estimate the sheet thickness after multi-stage forming and proved to be effective. And the simulation results fit well with the experimental results.

  17. Photonic applications based on biological/inorganic nano hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Pengfei; Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    2016-02-01

    Biological Retinal is an effective and efficient photochromic compounds and one of the best candidates for photon conversion, transmission and storage, from the view of bionics and natural selection. We observed large optical nonlinearity by using new fabricated films of photoactive Retinol hybrid materials. Based on reversible photoinduced anisotropy and transient optical characteristics, the Retinol hybrids can be used to design novel photonic devices, such as holographic elements, all-optical switch and spatial light modulator. Also, the study is important for further understanding the photochemical mechanism of vision process.

  18. Paramagnetic defects in multistage ion-implanted polyamide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    multistage ion implantation accompanied with the decreasing in the implantation energy thus permits to create the highly conductive channels between the surface and the buried conducting carbonaceous layer appearing in the interior of the implanted region that opens up the fresh opportunities for fabrication the polymer-based planar functional electronic devices

  19. Learning Cell Biology as a Team: A Project-Based Approach to Upper-Division Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Boggs, James

    2002-01-01

    To help students develop successful strategies for learning how to learn and communicate complex information in cell biology, we developed a quarter-long cell biology class based on team projects. Each team researches a particular human disease and presents information about the cellular structure or process affected by the disease, the cellular…

  20. MathBench Biology Modules: Web-Based Math for All Biology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karen C.; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Schneider, Katie; Thompson, Katerina V.; Shields, Patricia A.; Fagan, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, biology has not been a heavily quantitative science, but this is changing rapidly (Ewing 2002; Gross 2000; Hastings and palmer 2003; Jungck 2005; Steen 2005). Quantitative approaches now constitute a key tool for modern biologists, yet undergraduate biology courses remain largely qualitative and descriptive. Although biology majors…

  1. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  2. Design Strategies of Fluorescent Biosensors Based on Biological Macromolecular Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Morii

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent biosensors to detect the bona fide events of biologically important molecules in living cells are increasingly demanded in the field of molecular cell biology. Recent advances in the development of fluorescent biosensors have made an outstanding contribution to elucidating not only the roles of individual biomolecules, but also the dynamic intracellular relationships between these molecules. However, rational design strategies of fluorescent biosensors are not as mature as they look. An insatiable request for the establishment of a more universal and versatile strategy continues to provide an attractive alternative, so-called modular strategy, which permits facile preparation of biosensors with tailored characteristics by a simple combination of a receptor and a signal transducer. This review describes an overview of the progress in design strategies of fluorescent biosensors, such as auto-fluorescent protein-based biosensors, protein-based biosensors covalently modified with synthetic fluorophores, and signaling aptamers, and highlights the insight into how a given receptor is converted to a fluorescent biosensor. Furthermore, we will demonstrate a significance of the modular strategy for the sensor design.

  3. Lung cancer from radon and smoking: a multistage model for the WISMUT uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the world's third-largest uranium-mining province located in areas of Saxony and Thuringia in the former German Democratic Republic, the WISMUT Company conducted extensive uranium mining starting in 1946. Up to 1990, when mining activities were discontinued, most of the 400,000 employees had been exposed to uranium ore dust and radon and its progeny. It is well established that, besides smoking, such exposures are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. From about 130,000 known miners a huge cohort of 59,000 miners has been formed and in an epidemiological analysis lung cancer risks have been evaluated (Grosche et al., 2006). We will present an alternative approach using a biologically-based multistage carcinogenesis model quantifying the lung-cancer risk related to both the exposure to radon and smoking habits. This mechanistic technique allows for extrapolation to the low exposures that are important for present-day radiation protection purposes and the transfer of risk across populations. The model is applied to a sub-cohort of about 35,000 persons who were employed at WISMUT after 1955, with known annual exposures estimated from the job-exposure matrix (Lehmann et al., 2004). Unfortunately, detailed information on smoking is missing for most miners. However, this information has been retrieved in two case-control studies, one of which was nested in the cohort while the other was not (Brueske-Hohlfeld et al., 2006). For these studies, the relevant smoking parameters are assembled in so-called smoking spectra that are next projected onto the entire cohort using a Monte-Carlo sampling method. Individual smoking habits that are randomly assigned to the cohort members, together with the information on annual exposure to radon, is used as an input for the multistage model. Model parameters related to radon and tobacco exposure are fitted with a maximum-likelihood technique. We will show results of the observed and expected lung

  4. Mechanical and mathematical models of multi-stage horizontal fracturing strings and their application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanghua Lian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, open differential-pressure sliding sleeve, and open ball-injection sliding sleeve under a hold-down packer. Moreover, mathematical models were respectively built for the above three cases. According to the Lame formula and Von Mises stress calculation formula for the thick-walled cylinder in the theory of elastic mechanics, a mathematical model was also established to calculate the equivalent stress for tubing string safety evaluation when the fracturing string was under the combined action of inner pressure, external squeezing force and axial stress, and another mathematical model was built for the mechanical strength and safety evaluation of multi-stage fracturing strings. In addition, a practical software was developed for the mechanical safety evaluation of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing strings according to the mathematical model developed for the mechanical calculation of the multi-packer string in horizontal wells. The research results were applied and verified in a gas well of Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin with excellent effects, providing a theoretical basis and a simple and reliable technical means for optimal design and safety evaluation of safe operational parameters of multi-stage fracturing strings in horizontal wells.

  5. Laser-based micro/nanoengineering for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, E.; Ranella, A.; Farsari, M.; Fotakis, C.

    2009-09-01

    Controlling the interactions of light with matter is crucial for the success and scalability for materials processing applications at micro and nano-scales. The use of ultrafast pulsed lasers (i.e. lasers emitting pulses of duration shorter than 10 -12 s) for the micro/nano engineering of biomaterials or materials relevant to biological applications opens up several exciting possibilities in this respect. These possibilities rely on several attractive features of ultrafast laser-matter interaction processes which allow nanoscale spatial resolution, non-thermal and non-destructive engineering to take place. This article presents a review of novel laser-based techniques for the printing and micro- and nano- scale surface modification of materials for biological applications. Emphasis is placed on techniques appropriate for biochip and tissue engineering applications, for which there is an increasing demand over the last years. Besides presenting recent advances achieved by these techniques, this work also delineates existing limitations and highlights emerging possibilities and future prospects in this field.

  6. Modeling to Improve Vegetation-Based Wetland Biological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    To meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act (1972), natural resource managers need to be able to detect biological degradation in wetland ecosystems. Biological indices are commonly used by managers to assess wetland biological condition. The accuracy and precision of wetland condition assessments are directly related to the performance of these indices, and biological index performance is thought to be related to how well an index controls for the effects of environmental attributes on b...

  7. RegenBase: a knowledge base of spinal cord injury biology for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Alison; Abeyruwan, Saminda W; Al-Ali, Hassan; Sakurai, Kunie; Ferguson, Adam R; Popovich, Phillip G; Shah, Nigam H; Visser, Ubbo; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) research is a data-rich field that aims to identify the biological mechanisms resulting in loss of function and mobility after SCI, as well as develop therapies that promote recovery after injury. SCI experimental methods, data and domain knowledge are locked in the largely unstructured text of scientific publications, making large scale integration with existing bioinformatics resources and subsequent analysis infeasible. The lack of standard reporting for experiment variables and results also makes experiment replicability a significant challenge. To address these challenges, we have developed RegenBase, a knowledge base of SCI biology. RegenBase integrates curated literature-sourced facts and experimental details, raw assay data profiling the effect of compounds on enzyme activity and cell growth, and structured SCI domain knowledge in the form of the first ontology for SCI, using Semantic Web representation languages and frameworks. RegenBase uses consistent identifier schemes and data representations that enable automated linking among RegenBase statements and also to other biological databases and electronic resources. By querying RegenBase, we have identified novel biological hypotheses linking the effects of perturbagens to observed behavioral outcomes after SCI. RegenBase is publicly available for browsing, querying and download.Database URL:http://regenbase.org. PMID:27055827

  8. Methemoglobin-Based Biological Dose Assessment for Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Zhao, Su-Ying; Xie, Li-Hua; Miao, Yu-Ji; Li, Qun; Min, Rui; Liu, Pei-Dang; Zhang, Hai-Qian

    2016-07-01

    Methemoglobin is an oxidative form of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. The authors' aim was to develop a new biological dosimeter based on a methemoglobin assay. Methemoglobin in peripheral blood (of females or males) that was exposed to a Co source (0.20 Gy min) was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The dose range was 0.5-8.0 Gy. In a time-course experiment, the time points 0, 0.02, 1, 2, 3, 7, 15, 21, and 30 d after 4-Gy irradiation of heparinized peripheral blood were used. Methemoglobin levels in a lysed erythrocyte pellet from the irradiated blood of females and males increased with the increasing dose. Methemoglobin levels in female blood irradiated with γ-doses more than 4 Gy were significantly higher than those in male samples at the same doses. Two dose-response relations were fitted to the straight line: one is with the correlation coefficient of 0.98 for females, and the other is with the correlation coefficient of 0.99 for males. The lower limit of dose assessment based on methemoglobin is about 1 Gy. Methemoglobin levels in blood as a result of auto-oxidation increase after 7-d storage at -20 °C. The upregulation of methemoglobin induced by γ-radiation persists for ∼3 d. The absorbed doses that were estimated using the two dose-response relations were close to the actual doses. The results suggest that methemoglobin can be used as a rapid and accurate biological dosimeter for early assessment of absorbed γ-dose in human blood. PMID:27218292

  9. Target Image Classification through Encryption Algorithm Based on the Biological Features

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiwu Chen; Qing E. Wu; Weidong Yang

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively make biological image classification and identification, this paper studies the biological owned characteristics, gives an encryption algorithm, and presents a biological classification algorithm based on the encryption process. Through studying the composition characteristics of palm, this paper uses the biological classification algorithm to carry out the classification or recognition of palm, improves the accuracy and efficiency of the existing biological classifica...

  10. PARALLEL MULTI-STAGE & MULTI-STEP METHOD IN ODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-qiu Song

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the theory of parallel multi-stage & multi-step method is dis cussed, which is a form of combining Runge-Kutta method with linear multi-step method that can be used for parallel computation.

  11. Multi-stage high order semi-Lagrangian schemes for incompressible flows in Cartesian geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Alexandre; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Efficient transport algorithms are essential to the numerical resolution of incompressible fluid flow problems. Semi-Lagrangian methods are widely used in grid based methods to achieve this aim. The accuracy of the interpolation strategy then determines the properties of the scheme. We introduce a simple multi-stage procedure which can easily be used to increase the order of accuracy of a code based on multi-linear interpolations. This approach is an extension of a corrective algorithm introduced by Dupont \\& Liu (2003, 2007). This multi-stage procedure can be easily implemented in existing parallel codes using a domain decomposition strategy, as the communications pattern is identical to that of the multi-linear scheme. We show how a combination of a forward and backward error correction can provide a third-order accurate scheme, thus significantly reducing diffusive effects while retaining a non-dispersive leading error term.

  12. A Simulated Annealing Algorithm for the Optimization of Multistage Depressed Collector Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Karl R.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bulson, Brian A.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) is widely used as a high-power transmitting source for space and airborne communications. One critical factor in designing a TWTA is the overall efficiency. However, overall efficiency is highly dependent upon collector efficiency; so collector design is critical to the performance of a TWTA. Therefore, NASA Glenn Research Center has developed an optimization algorithm based on Simulated Annealing to quickly design highly efficient multi-stage depressed collectors (MDC).

  13. Solar Multi-stage Refrigeration Systems on the Basis of Absorber with the Internal Evaporative Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshenko A.V.; Kirillov V.H.; Antonova A.R.; Liudnicky K.V.

    2015-01-01

    In the article, the developed schematics are presented for the alternative refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution. Multi-stage principle of construction of drying and cool contours of solar systems is used with growth of concentration of absorbent on the stages of cooler. An absorber with internal evaporative cooling, allowing to remove the separate evaporated cooler, usually included ...

  14. Flash flood detection through a multi-stage probabilistic warning system for heavy precipitation events

    OpenAIRE

    Alfieri, L.; Velasco, D.; Thielen, J.

    2011-01-01

    The deadly combination of short to no warning lead times and the vulnerability of urbanized areas makes flash flood events extremely dangerous for the modern society. This paper contributes to flash flood early warning by proposing a multi-stage warning system for heavy precipitation events based on threshold exceedances within a probabilistic framework. It makes use of meteorological products at different resolutions, namely, numerical weather predictions (NWP), radar-NWP b...

  15. Modelling of losses in multi-stage axial compressors with subsonic conditions / William James Swift

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, William James

    2003-01-01

    The need was identified to develop an analytical performance prediction code for subsonic multistage axial compressors that can be included in network analysis software. It was found that performance calculations based on an elementary one-dimensional meanline prediction method could achieve remarkable accuracy, provided that sound models are used for the losses, deviation and the onset of rotating stall. Consequently, this study focuses on gaining more expertise on the modelli...

  16. Performance Improvement of a Return Channel in a Multistage Centrifugal Compressor Using Multiobjective Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Nishida, Hideo; Sugimura, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the design parameters of a return channel on the performance of a multistage centrifugal compressor was numerically investigated, and the shape of the return channel was optimized using a multiobjective optimization method based on a genetic algorithm to improve the performance of the centrifugal compressor. The results of sensitivity analysis using Latin hypercube sampling suggested that the inlet-to-outlet area ratio of the return vane affected the total pressure loss in the r...

  17. Scalable Layer-2/Layer-3 Multistage Switching Architectures for Software Routers

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Andrea; Neri, Fabio; Mellia, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Software routers are becoming an important alternative to proprietary and expensive network devices, because they exploit the economy of scale of the PC market and open-source software. When considering maximum performance in terms of throughput, PC-based routers suffer from limitations stemming from the single PC architecture, e.g., limited bus bandwidth, and high memory access latency. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we present a multistage architecture that combines a layer-2 ...

  18. A multistage differential transformation method for approximate solution of Hantavirus infection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdoğan, Ahmet; Merdan, Mehmet; Yildirim, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is presented a reliable algorithm based on the standard differential transformation method (DTM), which is called the multi-stage differential transformation method (MsDTM) for solving Hantavirus infection model. The results obtanied by using MsDTM are compared to those obtained by using the Runge-Kutta method (R-K-method). The proposed technique is a hopeful tool to solving for a long time intervals in this kind of systems.

  19. Multi-stage magnetic induction mass accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic induction method of mass acceleration readily lends itself to multi-staging. In the limit of many stages, such an accelerator approaches a distributed energy source system where only closing switches are necessary. We describe the design and performance of a three-stage accelerator, each driven by a separate capacitor bank. This system was modeled using a previously reported computer code. In order to do this the code was modified to calculate projectile acceleration through a succession of driver coils: Thermal conductivity and surface melting models were also added. The former is necessary due to the extended transit time through many stages. The latter is needed in anticipation of the more extreme ohmic heating when the capacitor banks are replaced by explosive-driven, magnetic flux compression generators. The performance goal of this system is to at least double the kinetic energy of a 0.3 kgm copperclad, steel projectile injected at a velocity of 300 m/sec from an explosive-driven gun. We then plan to test the system at the thermal and mechanical limit by using explosive-driven, magnetic flux compression generators as energy sources. We envision a six-stage system driven by three generators

  20. Some recommendations for multi-arm multi-stage trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, James; Magirr, Dominic; Law, Martin; Jaki, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Multi-arm multi-stage designs can improve the efficiency of the drug-development process by evaluating multiple experimental arms against a common control within one trial. This reduces the number of patients required compared to a series of trials testing each experimental arm separately against control. By allowing for multiple stages experimental treatments can be eliminated early from the study if they are unlikely to be significantly better than control. Using the TAILoR trial as a motivating example, we explore a broad range of statistical issues related to multi-arm multi-stage trials including a comparison of different ways to power a multi-arm multi-stage trial; choosing the allocation ratio to the control group compared to other experimental arms; the consequences of adding additional experimental arms during a multi-arm multi-stage trial, and how one might control the type-I error rate when this is necessary; and modifying the stopping boundaries of a multi-arm multi-stage design to account for unknown variance in the treatment outcome. Multi-arm multi-stage trials represent a large financial investment, and so considering their design carefully is important to ensure efficiency and that they have a good chance of succeeding. PMID:23242385

  1. SYNTHESIS OF SULFONAMIDE BASED SCHIFF’S BASES AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION TOWARDS COLLETOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Siliveru Swamy; Parthasarathy, T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of research was to synthesize the better antifungal compounds, different substituted aromatic aldehydes are chosen as the starting materials for the synthesis of Schiff’s bases with sulfonamides in presence of alcohol and acidic reagent. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by HRMS spectral analysis data. The derivatives were subjected to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides spore germination to evaluate their biological activity.

  2. STS-based education in non-majors college biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Phyllis Lee

    The study explored the effect of the science-technology-society (STS) and traditional teaching methods in non-majors biology classes at a community college. It investigated the efficacy of the two methods in developing cognitive abilities at Bloom's first three levels of learning. It compared retention rates in classes taught in the two methods. Changes in student attitude relating to anxiety, fear, and interest in biology were explored. The effect of each method on grade attainment among men and women was investigated. The effect of each method on grade attainment among older and younger students was examined. Results of the study indicated that no significant differences, relating to retention or student attitude, existed in classes taught in the two methods. The study found no significant cognitive gains at Bloom's first three levels in classes taught in the traditional format. In the STS classes no significant gains were uncovered at Bloom's first level of cognition. Statistically significant gains were found in the STS classes at Bloom's second and third levels of cognition. In the classes taught in the traditional format no difference was identified in grade attainment between males and females. In the STS-based classes a small correlational difference between males and females was found with males receiving lower grades than expected. No difference in grade attainment was found between older and younger students taught in the traditional format. In the STS-based classes a small statistically significant difference in grade attainment was uncovered between older and younger students with older students receiving more A's and fewer C's than expected. This study found no difference in the grades of older, female students as compared to all other students in the traditionally taught classes. A weak statistically significant difference was discovered between grade attainment of older, female students and all other students in the STS classes with older, female

  3. Organization of a radioisotope based molecular biology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the application of molecular techniques to medicine. Together with other molecular biology techniques it is being increasingly applied to human health for identifying prognostic markers and drug resistant profiles, developing diagnostic tests and genotyping systems and for treatment follow-up of certain diseases in developed countries. Developing Member States have expressed their need to also benefit from the dissemination of molecular advances. The use of radioisotopes, as a step in the detection process or for increased sensitivity and specificity is well established, making it ideally suitable for technology transfer. Many molecular based projects using isotopes for detecting and studying micro organisms, hereditary and neoplastic diseases are received for approval every year. In keeping with the IAEA's programme, several training activities and seminars have been organized to enhance the capabilities of developing Member States to employ in vitro nuclear medicine technologies for managing their important health problems and for undertaking related basic and clinical research. The background material for this publication was collected at training activities and from feedback received from participants at research and coordination meetings. In addition, a consultants' meeting was held in June 2004 to compile the first draft of this report. Previous IAEA TECDOCS, namely IAEA-TECDOC-748 and IAEA-TECDOC-1001, focused on molecular techniques and their application to medicine while the present publication provides information on organization of the laboratory, quality assurance and radio-safety. The technology has specific requirements of the way the laboratory is organized (e.g. for avoiding contamination and false positives in PCR) and of quality assurance in order to provide accurate information to decision makers. In addition while users of the technology accept the scientific rationale of using radio

  4. Minimizing the Switch and Link Conflicts in an Optical Multi-stage Interconnection Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Ved Prakash; Tyagi, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    Multistage Interconnection Networks (MINs) are very popular in switching and communication applications. A MIN connects N inputs to N outputs and is referred as an N \\times N MIN; having size N. Optical Multistage Interconnection Network (OMIN) represents an important class of Interconnection networks. Crosstalk is the basic problem of OMIN. Switch Conflict and Link Conflict are the two main reason of crosstalk. In this paper, we are considering both problems. A number of techniques like Optical window, Improved Window, Heuristic, Genetic, and Zero have been proposed earlier in this research domain. In this paper, we have proposed two algorithms called Address Selection Algorithm and Route Selection Algorithm (RSA). RSA is based on Improved Window Method. We have applied the proposed algorithms on existing Omega network, having shuffle-exchange connection pattern. The main functionality of ASA and RSA is to minimize the number of switch and link conflicts in the network and to provide conflict free routes.

  5. A multi-stage noise adaptive switching filter for extremely corrupted images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Hai; Adhami, Reza; Wang, Yi

    2015-07-01

    A multi-stage noise adaptive switching filter (MSNASF) is proposed for the restoration of images extremely corrupted by impulse and impulse-like noise. The filter consists of two steps: noise detection and noise removal. The proposed extrema-based noise detection scheme utilizes the false contouring effect to get better over detection rate at low noise density. It is adaptive and will detect not only impulse but also impulse-like noise. In the noise removal step, a novel multi-stage filtering scheme is proposed. It replaces corrupted pixel with the nearest uncorrupted median to preserve details. When compared with other methods, MSNASF provides better peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and structure similarity index (SSIM). A subjective evaluation carried out online also demonstrates that MSNASF yields higher fidelity.

  6. Particle swarm optimization of ascent trajectories of multistage launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontani, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    Multistage launch vehicles are commonly employed to place spacecraft and satellites in their operational orbits. If the rocket characteristics are specified, the optimization of its ascending trajectory consists of determining the optimal control law that leads to maximizing the final mass at orbit injection. The numerical solution of a similar problem is not trivial and has been pursued with different methods, for decades. This paper is concerned with an original approach based on the joint use of swarming theory and the necessary conditions for optimality. The particle swarm optimization technique represents a heuristic population-based optimization method inspired by the natural motion of bird flocks. Each individual (or particle) that composes the swarm corresponds to a solution of the problem and is associated with a position and a velocity vector. The formula for velocity updating is the core of the method and is composed of three terms with stochastic weights. As a result, the population migrates toward different regions of the search space taking advantage of the mechanism of information sharing that affects the overall swarm dynamics. At the end of the process the best particle is selected and corresponds to the optimal solution to the problem of interest. In this work the three-dimensional trajectory of the multistage rocket is assumed to be composed of four arcs: (i) first stage propulsion, (ii) second stage propulsion, (iii) coast arc (after release of the second stage), and (iv) third stage propulsion. The Euler-Lagrange equations and the Pontryagin minimum principle, in conjunction with the Weierstrass-Erdmann corner conditions, are employed to express the thrust angles as functions of the adjoint variables conjugate to the dynamics equations. The use of these analytical conditions coming from the calculus of variations leads to obtaining the overall rocket dynamics as a function of seven parameters only, namely the unknown values of the initial state

  7. Indoor biology pollution control based on system-based humidity priority control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚昱; 谢慧; 石博强

    2009-01-01

    Indoor biological contamination and HVAC system secondary contamination problems caused wide public concerns. Biological contamination control will be the next step to achieve better IAQ. The most efficient and safe way to control biological contamination was to limit relative humidity in HVAC system and conditioned environment in the range that is more unsuitable for microorganism to survive. In this paper,by referring to bio-clean project experiences,a system-based humidity priority control manner came into being by lowering outdoor air humidity ratio to eliminate all indoor latent load and using self recirculation units to bear indoor sensible load. Based on the whole-course residue humidity contaminant control concept,dynamic step models for coil and conditioned zone were developed to describe mass and energy conservation and transformation processes. Then,HVAC system and conditioned zone dynamic models were established on LabVIEW+Matlab platform to investigate optimized regulation types,input signatures and control logics. Decoupling between cooling and dehumidification processes can be achieved and a more simplified and stable control system can be acquired by the system-based humidity priority control strategy. Therefore,it was a promising way for controlling biological pollution in buildings in order to achieve better IAQ.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities for Learning Biology in Distance-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallyburton, Chad L.; Lunsford, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    The history of learning biology through distance education is documented. A review of terminology and unique problems associated with biology instruction is presented. Using published research and their own teaching experience, the authors present recommendations and best practices for managing biology in distance-based formats. They offer ideas…

  9. Mathematical Biology Modules Based on Modern Molecular Biology and Modern Discrete Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeva, Raina; Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to…

  10. Mass Spectrometry-based Proteomics and Peptidomics for Systems Biology and Biomarker Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Robert; Ma, Di; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    The scientific community has shown great interest in the field of mass spectrometry-based proteomics and peptidomics for its applications in biology. Proteomics technologies have evolved to produce large datasets of proteins or peptides involved in various biological and disease progression processes producing testable hypothesis for complex biological questions. This review provides an introduction and insight to relevant topics in proteomics and peptidomics including biological material sel...

  11. Molecular biology-based diagnosis and therapy for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainly described are author's investigations of the title subject through clinical and basic diagnosis/therapeutic approach. Based on their consideration of carcinogenesis and pathological features of pancreatic cancer (PC), analysis of expression of cancer-related genes in clinically available samples like pancreatic juice and cells biopsied can result in attaining their purposes. Desmoplasia, a pathological feature of PC, possibly induces resistance to therapy and one of strategies is probably its suppression. Targeting stem cells of the mesenchyma as well as those of PC is also a strategy in future. Authors' studies have revealed that quantitation of hTERT (coding teromerase) mRNA levels in PC cells micro-dissected from cytological specimens is an accurate molecular biological diagnostic method applicable clinically. Other cancer-related genes are also useful for the diagnosis and mucin (MUC) family genes are shown to be typical ones for differentiating the precancerous PC, PC and chronic pancreatisis. Efficacy of standard gemcitabine chemotherapy can be individualized with molecular markers concerned to metabolism of the drug like dCK. Radiotherapy/radio-chemotherapy are not so satisfactory for PC treatment now. Authors have found elevated MMP-2 expression and HGF/c-Met signal activation in irradiated PC cells, which can increase the invasive capability; and stimulation of phosphorylation and activation of c-Met/MARK in co-culture of irradiated PC cells with messenchymal cells from PC, which possibly leads to progression of malignancy of PC through their interaction, of which suppression, therefore, can be a new approach to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. Authors are making effort to introducing adenovirus therapy in clinic; exempli gratia (e.g.), the virus carrying wild type p53, a cancer-suppressive gene, induces apoptosis of PC cells often having its mutated gene. (T.T.)

  12. Application of multi-stage Monte Carlo method for solving machining optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the overall machining performance implies optimization of machining processes, i.e. determination of optimal machining parameters combination. Optimization of machining processes is an active field of research where different optimization methods are being used to determine an optimal combination of different machining parameters. In this paper, multi-stage Monte Carlo (MC method was employed to determine optimal combinations of machining parameters for six machining processes, i.e. drilling, turning, turn-milling, abrasive waterjet machining, electrochemical discharge machining and electrochemical micromachining. Optimization solutions obtained by using multi-stage MC method were compared with the optimization solutions of past researchers obtained by using meta-heuristic optimization methods, e.g. genetic algorithm, simulated annealing algorithm, artificial bee colony algorithm and teaching learning based optimization algorithm. The obtained results prove the applicability and suitability of the multi-stage MC method for solving machining optimization problems with up to four independent variables. Specific features, merits and drawbacks of the MC method were also discussed.

  13. Neural Network Learning for Principal Component Analysis: A Multistage Decomposition Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGDazheng; ZHANGXianda; BAOZheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel neural network model for finding the principal components of an Ndimensional data stream. This neural network consists of r (≤N) neurons, where the i-th neuron has only N - i+1 weights and an N- i+1 dimensional input vector, while each neuron in most of the relative classical neural networks includes N weights and an N dimensional input vector. All the neurons are trained by the NIC algorithm under the single component case[7] so as to get a series of dimension-reducing principal components in which the dimension number of the i-th principal component is N- i+1. In multistage dimension-reducing processing, the weight vector of i-th neuron is always orthogonal to the subspace constructed from the weight vectors of the first i-1 neurons. By systematic reconstruction technique, wecan recover all the principal components from a series of dimension-reducing ones. Its remarkable advantage is that its computational efficiency of the neural network learning based on the Novel information criterion (NIC) is improved and the weight storage is reduced, by the multistage dimension-reducing processing (multistage decomposition)for the covariance matrix or the input vector sequence. In addition, we study several important properties of the NIC learning algorithm.

  14. Multistage models of carcinogenesis and their implications for dose-response models and risk projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multistage models are used to both describe the biological steps in developing a cancer and as a mathematical description of the relationship of exposure to tumor incidence. With the rapid development of molecular biology the stages of tumor development are becoming understood. Specifically, the effect and role of proto-oncogenes and suppressor genes are exciting developments in the field of carcinogenesis. Mathematically the field has moved from the original Armitage-Doll multistage model to the more current cell kinetic models. These latter models attempt to describe both the rate of cell mutation and the birth-death process involved in clonal expansion. This then allows modeling of both initiation and promotion or cellular proliferation. The field of radiation carcinogenesis has a considerable body of data and knowledge. Unfortunately, relatively little work has been done with the cell kinetic models as to estimation of tumor incidence. This may be due to the newness of kinetic models in general. The field holds promise and it is essential if we are to develop better human risk estimates from exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  15. Controllability in Multi-Stage Laser Ion Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.

    2015-11-01

    The present paper shows a concept for a future laser ion accelerator, which should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers and ion post acceleration devices. Based on the laser ion accelerator components, the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled, and a future compact laser ion accelerator would be designed for ion cancer therapy or for ion material treatment. In this study each component is designed to control the ion beam quality. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching are successfully realized by a multi-stage laser-target interaction. A combination of each component provides a high controllability of the ion beam quality to meet variable requirements in various purposes in the laser ion accelerator. The work was partly supported by MEXT, JSPS, ASHULA project/ ILE, Osaka University, CORE (Center for Optical Research and Education, Utsunomiya University, Japan), Fudan University and CDI (Creative Dept. for Innovation) in CCRD, Utsunomiya University.

  16. Multi-stage methodology to detect health insurance claim fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marina Evrim; Nagarur, Nagen

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare costs in the US, as well as in other countries, increase rapidly due to demographic, economic, social, and legal changes. This increase in healthcare costs impacts both government and private health insurance systems. Fraudulent behaviors of healthcare providers and patients have become a serious burden to insurance systems by bringing unnecessary costs. Insurance companies thus develop methods to identify fraud. This paper proposes a new multistage methodology for insurance companies to detect fraud committed by providers and patients. The first three stages aim at detecting abnormalities among providers, services, and claim amounts. Stage four then integrates the information obtained in the previous three stages into an overall risk measure. Subsequently, a decision tree based method in stage five computes risk threshold values. The final decision stating whether the claim is fraudulent is made by comparing the risk value obtained in stage four with the risk threshold value from stage five. The research methodology performs well on real-world insurance data. PMID:25600704

  17. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Ricardo JS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C; simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74 and control (CON, n = 12 through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM, hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD: total daily 7.7 (1.5 L/day, during running 732 (183 ml/h and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3 g/day, during running 270 (151 mg/L ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p vs. CON. Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2% (p p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage. Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p p  Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations.

  18. Biological and ecological responses to carbon-based nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A.

    This dissertation examines the biological and ecological responses to carbon nanoparticles, a major class of nanomaterials which have been mass produced and extensively studied for their rich physical properties and commercial values. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review on the structures, properties, applications, and implications of carbon nanomaterials, especially related to the perspectives of biological and ecosystems. Given that there are many types of carbon nanomaterials available, this chapter is focused on three major types of carbon-based nanomaterials only, namely, fullerenes, single walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. On the whole organism level, specifically, Chapter II presents a first study on the fate of fullerenes and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in rice plants, which was facilitated by the self assembly of these nanomaterials with NOM. The aspects of fullerene uptake, translocation, biodistribution, and generational transfer in the plants were examined and quantified using bright field and electron microscopy, FT-Raman, and FTIR spectroscopy. The uptake and transport of fullerene in the plant vascular system were attributed to water transpiration, convection, capillary force, and the fullerene concentration gradient from the roots to the leaves of the plants. On the cellular level, Chapter III documents the differential uptake of hydrophilic C60(OH)20 vs. amphiphilic C70-NOM complex in Allium cepa plant cells and HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. This study was conducted using a plant cell viability assay, and complemented by bright field, fluorescence and electron microscopy imaging. In particular, C60(OH)20 and C70-NOM showed contrasting uptake in both the plant and mammalian cells, due to their significant differences in physicochemistry and the presence of an extra hydrophobic plant cell wall in the plant cells. Consequently, C60(OH)20 was found to induce toxicity in Allium cepa cells but not in HT-29 cells, while C70

  19. Usefulness and limits of biological dosimetry based on cytogenetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage from occupational or accidental exposure to ionising radiation is often assessed by monitoring chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and these procedures have, in several cases, assisted physicians in the management of irradiated persons. Thereby, circulating lymphocytes, which are in the G0 stage of the cell cycle are stimulated with a mitogenic agent, usually phytohaemagglutinin, to replicate in vitro their DNA and enter cell division, and are then observed for abnormalities. Comparison with dose response relationships obtained in vitro allows an estimate of exposure based on scoring: - Unstable aberrations by the conventional, well-established analysis of metaphases for chromosome abnormalities or for micronuclei; - So-called stable aberrations by the classical G-banding (Giemsa-Stain-banding) technique or by the more recently developed fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) method using fluorescent-labelled probes for centromeres and chromosomes. Three factors need to be considered in applying such biological dosimetry: (1) Radiation doses in the body are often inhomogeneous. A comparison of the distribution of the observed aberrations among with that expected from a normal poisson distribution can allow conclusions to be made with regard to the inhomogeneity of exposure by means of the so-called contaminated poisson distribution method; however, its application requires a sufficiently large number of aberrations, i.e. an exposure to a rather large dose at a high dose rate. (2) Exposure can occur at a low dose rate (e.g. from spread or lost radioactive sources) rendering a comparison with in vitro exposure hazardous. Dose-effect relationships of most aberrations that were scored, such as translocations, follow a square law. Repair intervening during exposure reduces the quadratic component with decreasing dose rate as exposure is spread over a longer period of time. No valid solution for this problem has yet been developed, although

  20. Usefulness and limits of biological dosimetry based on cytogenetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Rueff, J; Gerber, G B; Léonard, E D

    2005-01-01

    Damage from occupational or accidental exposure to ionising radiation is often assessed by monitoring chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and these procedures have, in several cases, assisted physicians in the management of irradiated persons. Thereby, circulating lymphocytes, which are in the G0 stage of the cell cycle are stimulated with a mitogenic agent, usually phytohaemagglutinin, to replicate in vitro their DNA and enter cell division, and are then observed for abnormalities. Comparison with dose-response relationships obtained in vitro allows an estimate of exposure based on scoring: Unstable aberrations by the conventional, well-established analysis of metaphases for chromosome abnormalities or for micronuclei; So-called stable aberrations by the classical G-banding (Giemsa-Stain-banding) technique or by the more recently developed fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) method using fluorescent-labelled probes for centromeres and chromosomes. Three factors need to be considered in applying such biological dosimetry: (1) Radiation doses in the body are often inhomogeneous. A comparison of the distribution of the observed aberrations among cells with that expected from a normal poisson distribution can allow conclusions to be made with regard to the inhomogeneity of exposure by means of the so-called contaminated poisson distribution method; however, its application requires a sufficiently large number of aberrations, i.e. an exposure to a rather large dose at a high dose rate. (2) Exposure can occur at a low dose rate (e.g. from spread or lost radioactive sources) rendering a comparison with in vitro exposure hazardous. Dose-effect relationships of most aberrations that were scored, such as translocations, follow a square law. Repair intervening during exposure reduces the quadratic component with decreasing dose rate as exposure is spread over a longer period of time. No valid solution for this problem has yet been developed, although

  1. SYNTHESIS OF SULFONAMIDE BASED SCHIFF’S BASES AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION TOWARDS COLLETOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliveru Swamy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was to synthesize the better antifungal compounds, different substituted aromatic aldehydes are chosen as the starting materials for the synthesis of Schiff’s bases with sulfonamides in presence of alcohol and acidic reagent. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by HRMS spectral analysis data. The derivatives were subjected to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides spore germination to evaluate their biological activity.

  2. Effect of Crosstalk on Permutation in Optical Multistage Interconnection Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Er Sandeep; Aggarwal, Er Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Optical MINs hold great promise and have advantages over their electronic networks.they also hold their own challenges. More research has been done on Electronic Multistage Interconnection Networks, (EMINs) but these days optical communication is a good networking choice to meet the increasing demands of high-performance computing communication applications for high bandwidth applications. The electronic Multistage Interconnection Networks (EMINs) and the Optical Multistage Interconnection Networks (OMINs) have many similarities, but there are some fundamental differences between them such as the optical-loss during switching and the crosstalk problem in the optical switches. To reduce the negative effect of crosstalk, various approaches which apply the concept of dilation in either the space or time domain have been proposed. With the space domain approach, extra SEs are used to ensure that at most one input and one output of every SE will be used at any given time. For an Optical network without crosstalk, ...

  3. Multi-Stage Bunch Compressors for the International Linear Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Tenenbaum, Peter G.; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Wolski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    We present bunch compressor designs for the International Linear Collider (ILC) which achieve a reduction in RMS bunch length from 6 mm to 0.3 mm via multiple stages of compression, with stages of acceleration inserted between the stages of compression. The key advantage of multi-stage compression is that the maximum RMS energy spread is reduced to approximately 1 percent, compared to over 3 percent for a single-stage design. Analytic and simulation studies of the multi-stage bunch compr...

  4. Multi-Stage Bunch Compressors for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present bunch compressor designs for the International Linear Collider (ILC) which achieve a reduction in RMS bunch length from 6 mm to 0.3 mm via multiple stages of compression, with stages of acceleration inserted between the stages of compression. The key advantage of multi-stage compression is that the maximum RMS energy spread is reduced to approximately 1%, compared to over 3% for a single-stage design. Analytic and simulation studies of the multi-stage bunch compressors are presented, along with performance comparisons to a single-stage system. Parameters for extending the systems to a larger total compression factor are discussed

  5. Multi-Stage Bunch Compressors for the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tenenbaum, P G; Wolski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    We present bunch compressor designs for the International Linear Collider (ILC) which achieve a reduction in RMS bunch length from 6 mm to 0.3 mm via multiple stages of compression, with stages of acceleration inserted between the stages of compression. The key advantage of multi-stage compression is that the maximum RMS energy spread is reduced to approximately 1%, compared to over 3% for a single-stage design. Analytic and simulation studies of the multi-stage bunch compressors are presented, along with performance comparisons to a single-stage system. Parameters for extending the systems to a larger total compression factor are discussed.

  6. Bodypart Recognition Using Multi-stage Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhennan; Zhan, Yiqiang; Peng, Zhigang; Liao, Shu; Shinagawa, Yoshihisa; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2015-01-01

    Automatic medical image analysis systems often start from identifying the human body part contained in the image; Specifically, given a transversal slice, it is important to know which body part it comes from, namely "slice-based bodypart recognition". This problem has its unique characteristic--the body part of a slice is usually identified by local discriminative regions instead of global image context, e.g., a cardiac slice is differentiated from an aorta arch slice by the mediastinum region. To leverage this characteristic, we design a multi-stage deep learning framework that aims at: (1) discover the local regions that are discriminative to the bodypart recognition, and (2) learn a bodypart identifier based on these local regions. These two tasks are achieved by the two stages of our learning scheme, respectively. In the pre-train stage, a convolutional neural network (CNN) is learned in a multi-instance learning fashion to extract the most discriminative local patches from the training slices. In the boosting stage, the learned CNN is further boosted by these local patches for bodypart recognition. By exploiting the discriminative local appearances, the learned CNN becomes more accurate than global image context-based approaches. As a key hallmark, our method does not require manual annotations of the discriminative local patches. Instead, it automatically discovers them through multi-instance deep learning. We validate our method on a synthetic dataset and a large scale CT dataset (7000+ slices from wholebody CT scans). Our method achieves better performances than state-of-the-art approaches, including the standard CNN. PMID:26221694

  7. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Ina; Meierhofer, David

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology. PMID:27128910

  8. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Aretz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology.

  9. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Ina; Meierhofer, David

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology. PMID:27128910

  10. Multistage variable probability forest volume inventory. [the Defiance Unit of the Navajo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    An inventory scheme based on the use of computer processed LANDSAT MSS data was developed. Output from the inventory scheme provides an estimate of the standing net saw timber volume of a major timber species on a selected forested area of the Navajo Nation. Such estimates are based on the values of parameters currently used for scaled sawlog conversion to mill output. The multistage variable probability sampling appears capable of producing estimates which compare favorably with those produced using conventional techniques. In addition, the reduction in time, manpower, and overall costs lend it to numerous applications.

  11. SBML-PET: a Systems Biology Markup Language-based parameter estimation tool

    OpenAIRE

    Zi, Z.; Klipp, E.

    2006-01-01

    The estimation of model parameters from experimental data remains a bottleneck for a major breakthrough in systems biology. We present a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) based Parameter Estimation Tool (SBML-PET). The tool is designed to enable parameter estimation for biological models including signaling pathways, gene regulation networks and metabolic pathways. SBML-PET supports import and export of the models in the SBML format. It can estimate the parameters by fitting a variety of...

  12. MULTISTAGED BURNER DESIGN FOR IN-FURNACE NOX CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of a multistage combustion modification design, combining two advanced NOx control technologies, on a pilot-scale (0.9 MW) package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control of high nitrogen fuel combustion applications. A low NOx precomb...

  13. LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: GASEOUS FUEL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the evaluation of a multistaged combustion burner design on a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency. Both deep air staging, resulting in a three-stage configuration, and boiler front wall fuel staging of undo...

  14. Nuclear-Reaction Control by Multistage Mathematical-Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Leikkonen

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available The method of Multistage Mathematical Programming (MMP has been adapted for optimal control of the spatial power distribution in nuclear reactors. Changes in power distribution arise from variations in the operational conditions of the reactor, and excite oscillations which in large reactors may approach the stability limit.

  15. Defining characteristics of multi-speed multistage hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.О. Михайлюк

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available  In the given work characteristics of technological petrocontaining water current in multistage hydrocyclones at various speeds containing working chambers with changing cross-section sections are examined. The theoretical substantiation of the conditions promoting their application for division of petrocontaining water in systems of their preparation for reuse or returning in environment is brought.

  16. Wavelet-based detection of transients in biological signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzaik, Tahsin; Jagadeesh, Jogikal M.

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents two multiresolution algorithms for detection and separation of mixed signals using the wavelet transform. The first algorithm allows one to design a mother wavelet and its associated wavelet grid that guarantees the separation of signal components if information about the expected minimum signal time and frequency separation of the individual components is known. The second algorithm expands this idea to design two mother wavelets which are then combined to achieve the required separation otherwise impossible with a single wavelet. Potential applications include many biological signals such as ECG, EKG, and retinal signals.

  17. Developing a biological dosimeter based on mitochondrial DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurement of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage from ionizing radiation may be advantageous in determining radiation radiation exposures and assessing their effects on atomic radiation workers. The mitochondrial DNA molecule is one potential cellular DNA target which is: fully defined and sequenced; present in many copies per cell; not vital to cellular survival; and less subject to DNA repair than nuclear DNA. A method is described to isolate and analyse normal mitochondrial DNA. We describe the developments needed to determine DNA damage in mitochondrial DNA. The target is to make a biological dosimeter. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  18. Rethinking biology instruction: The application of DNR-based instruction to the learning and teaching of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Lee

    Educational studies report that secondary and college level students have developed only limited understandings of the most basic biological processes and their interrelationships from typical classroom experiences. Furthermore, students have developed undesirable reasoning schemes and beliefs that directly affect how they make sense of and account for biological phenomena. For these reasons, there exists a need to rethink instructional practices in biology. This dissertation discusses how the principles of Harel's (1998, 2001) DNR-based instruction in mathematics could be applied to the teaching and learning of biology. DNR is an acronym for the three foundational principles of the system: Duality, Necessity, and Repeated-reasoning. This study examines the application of these three principles to ecology instruction. Through clinical and teaching interviews, I developed models of students' existing ways of understanding in ecology and inferred their ways of thinking. From these models a hypothetical learning trajectory was developed for 16 college level freshmen enrolled in a 10-week ecology teaching experiment. Through cyclical, interpretive analysis I documented and analyzed the evolution of the participants' progress. The results provide empirical evidence to support the claim that the DNR principles are applicable to ecology instruction. With respect to the Duality Principle, helping students develop specific ways of understanding led to the development of model-based reasoning---a way of thinking and the cognitive objective guiding instruction. Through carefully structured problem solving tasks, the students developed a biological understanding of the relationship between matter cycling, energy flow, and cellular processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, and used this understanding to account for observable phenomena in nature. In the case of intellectual necessity, the results illuminate how problem situations can be developed for biology learners

  19. Competency-Based Reforms of the Undergraduate Biology Curriculum: Integrating the Physical and Biological Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Katerina V.; Chmielewski, Jean; Gaines, Michael S.; Hrycyna, Christine A.; Lacourse, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Experiment in Undergraduate Science Education project funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is a direct response to the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians report, which urged a shift in premedical student preparation from a narrow list of specific course work to a more flexible curriculum that helps students develop broad scientific competencies. A consortium of four universities is working to create, pilot, and assess modular, competency-based curricular units ...

  20. Biologically based strategies to augment rotator cuff tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Schaer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC are among the most frequent tendon injuries. In spite of the developments in both open and arthroscopic surgery, RC repair still very often fails. In order to reduce the failure rate after surgery, several experimental in vitro and in vivo therapy methods have been developed for biological improvement of the reinsertion. This article provides an overview of the current evidence for augmentation of RC reconstruction with growth factors. Furthermore, potential future therapeutic approaches are discussed. We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed database using various combinations of the keywords "tendon," "rotator cuff," "augmentation," "growth factor," "platelet-rich fibrin," and "platelet-rich plasma" for publications up to 2011. Given the linguistic capabilities of the research team, we considered publications in English, German, French, and Spanish. We excluded literature reviews, case reports, and letters to the editor.

  1. A Predictive Model of Multi-Stage Production Planning for Fixed Time Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozłowski Edward

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional production planning model based upon a deterministic approach is well described in the literature. Due to the uncertain nature of manufacturing processes, such model can however incorrectly represent actual situations on the shop floor. This study develops a mathematical modeling framework for generating production plans in a multistage manufacturing process. The devised model takes into account the stochastic model for predicting the occurrence of faulty products. The aim of the control model is to determine the number of products which should be manufactured in each planning period to minimize both manufacturing costs and potential financial penalties for failing to fulfill the order completely.

  2. Multistage Off-Line Permutation Packet Routing on a Mesh: An Approach with Elementary Mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Chiew; Yingjiu Li

    2009-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed for off-line permutation packet routing on a mesh. One of the methods is known as multistage routing, in which the first stage is crucial. For the first stage of routing, the previous study normally converts it to a problem of graph theory and proves the existence of solutions. However, there is a lack of simple algorithms to the first stage of routing. This article presents an explicit and simple approach for the first stage of routing based on elementary mathematics.

  3. Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a...

  4. Information fluency for undergraduate biology majors: applications of inquiry-based learning in a developmental biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Kathleen M; Eastman, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Many initiatives for the improvement of undergraduate science education call for inquiry-based learning that emphasizes investigative projects and reading of the primary literature. These approaches give students an understanding of science as a process and help them integrate content presented in courses. At the same time, general initiatives to promote information fluency are being promoted on many college and university campuses. Information fluency refers to discipline-specific processing of information, and it involves integration of gathered information with specific ideas to form logical conclusions. We have implemented the use of inquiry-based learning to enhance and study discipline-specific information fluency skills in an upper-level undergraduate Developmental Biology course. In this study, an information literacy tutorial and a set of linked assignments using primary literature analysis were integrated with two inquiry-based laboratory research projects. Quantitative analysis of student responses suggests that the abilities of students to identify and apply valid sources of information were enhanced. Qualitative assessment revealed a set of patterns by which students gather and apply information. Self-assessment responses indicated that students recognized the impact of the assignments on their abilities to gather and apply information and that they were more confident about these abilities for future biology courses and beyond. PMID:18316808

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of gelatin-based scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Tronci, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development of entropy-elastic gelatin based networks in the form of films or scaffolds. The materials have good prospects for biomedical applications, especially in the context of bone regeneration. Entropy-elastic gelatin based hydrogel films with varying crosslinking densities were prepared with tailored mechanical properties. Gelatin was covalently crosslinked above its sol gel transition, which suppressed the gelatin chain helicity. Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)...

  6. Biological and Environmental Transformations of Copper-Based Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhongying; von dem Bussche, Annette; Kabadi, Pranita K.; Kane, Agnes B.; Hurt, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Copper-based nanoparticles are an important class of materials with applications as catalysts, conductive inks, and antimicrobial agents. Environmental and safety issues are particularly important for copper-based nanomaterials because of their potential large-scale use and their high redox activity and toxicity reported from in vitro studies. Elemental nanocopper oxidizes readily upon atmospheric exposure during storage and use, so copper oxides are highly relevant phases to consider in stud...

  7. A multi-stage sampling strategy for the delineation of soil pollution in a contaminated brownfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-stage sampling strategy, based on sequential Gaussian simulation, was presented to optimize the step-wise selection of a small numbers of additional samples to delineate soil pollution. This strategy was applied to a Belgian brownfield of 5.2 ha polluted with lead (Pb). Starting from an initial number of 240 samples in stage 1, additional samples were added, 25 per stage, and the reduction of the uncertainty in the Pb delineation was monitored. Twenty stages were used. Already in stage 6 a local optimum was found based on the median conditional coefficient of variation. An independent validation confirmed that this index was to be preferred over the median conditional variance. So for the brownfield considered our procedure indicated that 365 selected samples would have been sufficient, representing a gain of 70.7% in sampling effort compared to current practice which resulted in a sampling effort of 1245 samples. - A multi-stage sampling strategy based on geostatistics provides an efficient procedure to delineate a pollution in a contaminated brownfield

  8. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Gelatin-based Scaffolds

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, G

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the development of entropy-elastic gelatin based networks in the form of films or scaffolds. The materials have good prospects for biomedical applications, especially in the context of bone regeneration. Entropy-elastic gelatin based hydrogel films with varying crosslinking densities were prepared with tailored mechanical properties. Gelatin was covalently crosslinked in water above its sol gel transition, which suppressed the gelatin chain helicity. Amorphous films were prepared with tailorable degrees of swelling and wet state Young's modulus. The knowledge gained with this bulk material was transferred to the integrated process of foaming and crosslinking to obtain porous gelatin-based scaffolds. A gelatin solution was foamed in the presence of saponin and the resulting foam was fixed by chemical crosslinking with a diisocyanate. The scaffolds were analyzed in the dry state by micro computed tomography (\\mu CT, porosity: 65\\pm 11-73\\pm 14 vol.-%), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM,...

  9. Inquiry-based Science Instruction in High School Biology Courses: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Eze

    A lack of research exists about how secondary school science teachers use inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how science teachers used inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning in high school biology courses. The conceptual framework was based on Banchi and Bell's model of increasing levels of complexity for inquiry-based instruction. A multiple case study research design was conducted of biology programs at 3 high schools in an urban school district in the northeastern region of the United States. Participants included 2 biology teachers from each of the 3 high schools. Data were collected from individual interviews with biology teachers, observations of lessons in biology, and documents related to state standards, assessments, and professional development. The first level of data analysis involved coding and categorizing the interview and observation data. A content analysis was used for the documents. The second level of data analysis involved examining data across all sources and all cases for themes and discrepancies. According to study findings, biology teachers used confirmation, structure, and guided inquiry to improve student learning. However, they found open inquiry challenging and frustrating to implement because professional development about scaffolding of instruction over time was needed, and students' reading and writing skills needed to improve. This study contributes to positive social change by providing educators and researchers with a deeper understanding about how to scaffold levels of inquiry-based science instruction in order to help students become scientifically literate citizens.

  10. Realization of Multistage FIR Filters using Pipelining-Interleaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ciric

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Multistage digital filters can be one of the solutions for the realization of filters with a narrow transition zone. If requirements for the width of transition zone are too strict, then they are the only alternative, and the decimation/interpolation must be performed in several steps. Combining decimation/interpolation operations related to the implementation of multi-channel filters in the PI (pipelining/interleaving technique can give an efficient structure of multichannel multistage filter. Using the advantages offered by newer generations of FPGA chips in terms of digital design structure, it is possible to realize such filters with considerable savings of hardware resources and reduce the effect of finite length codeword. This paper proposes such an efficient implementation and presents the results of such a realization with FPGA components.

  11. Fuzzy-like multiple objective multistage decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2014-01-01

    Decision has inspired reflection of many thinkers since the ancient times. With the rapid development of science and society, appropriate dynamic decision making has been playing an increasingly important role in many areas of human activity including engineering, management, economy and others. In most real-world problems, decision makers usually have to make decisions sequentially at different points in time and space, at different levels for a component or a system, while facing multiple and conflicting objectives and a hybrid uncertain environment where fuzziness and randomness co-exist in a decision making process. This leads to the development of fuzzy-like multiple objective multistage decision making. This book provides a thorough understanding of the concepts of dynamic optimization from a modern perspective and presents the state-of-the-art methodology for modeling, analyzing and solving the most typical multiple objective multistage decision making practical application problems under fuzzy-like un...

  12. Performance of Multi-Channel Multi-Stage Spectrum Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Gabran, Wesam; Čabrić, Danijela

    2010-01-01

    We present an analytical framework which enables performance evaluation of different multi-channel multi-stage spectrum sensing protocols for Opportunistic Spectrum Access networks. Analyzed performance metrics include the average secondary user throughput and the average collision probability between the primary and secondary users. The analysis framework takes into account buffering of incoming secondary user traffic, parallel and single channel access, as well as prolonged channel observation periods at the first and last stage of sensing. The main results show that when a constraint is given upon the probability of primary user mis-detection, multi-stage sensing is in most cases superior to the single stage sensing counterpart. Further, prolonged channel observation at the first sensing stage decreases the collision probability considerably while keeping the throughput at an acceptable level. Finally, in most network scenarios considered in this work, two stages of sensing are enough to obtain the maximum...

  13. Team-Based Learning Enhances Performance in Introductory Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Given the problems associated with the traditional lecture method, the constraints associated with large classes, and the effectiveness of active learning, continued development and testing of efficient student-centered learning approaches are needed. This study explores the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) in a large-enrollment…

  14. Process for multi-stage treatment of radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the multi-stage treatment of radioactive waste waters with a decanter the solids contained in the waste waters are dried up to a residual moisture of 10% and are subsequently disposed. Solids remaining in the liquid part are removed with a separator up to the colloidal range, whereas the liquid product of the decanter is filtered up to the molecular range so that it can be used as industrial water. (orig.)

  15. Numerical Study of Multistage Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycle Axial Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    SCIACOVELLI, L.; CINNELLA, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Transonic flows through axial, multi-stage, transcritical ORC turbines, are investigated by using a numerical solver including advanced multiparameter equations of state and a high-order discretization scheme. The working fluids in use are the refrigerants R134a and R245fa, classified as dense gases due to their complex molecules and relatively high molecular weight. Both inviscid and viscous numerical simulations are carried out to quantify the impact of dense gas effects and viscous effe...

  16. Multi-Stage Transportation Problem With Capacity Limit

    OpenAIRE

    I. Brezina; Z. Čičková; J. Pekár; M. Reiff

    2010-01-01

    The classical transportation problem can be applied in a more general way in practice. Related problems as Multi-commodity transportation problem, Transportation problems with different kind of vehicles, Multi-stage transportation problems, Transportation problem with capacity limit is an extension of the classical transportation problem considering the additional special condition. For solving such problems many optimization techniques (dynamic programming, linear programming, special algor...

  17. Use of a continuous multistage bioreactor to mimic winemaking fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Tiphaine; Perez, Marc; Mouret, Jean-Roch; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Camarasa, Carole

    2011-01-01

    Continuous fermentation set-ups are of great interest for studying the physiology of microorganisms. In winemaking conditions, yeasts go through a growth phase and a stationary phase during which more than half of the sugar is fermented. A comprehensive study of wine-yeast physiology must therefore include yeasts in a non-growing phase. This condition is impossible to achieve within a chemostat, which led us to design a multi-stage fermentation device. In this study, we evaluated the ability ...

  18. Analysis of multi-stage open shop processing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eggermont, Christian E.J.; Schrijver, Alexander; Woeginger, Gerhard J.

    2011-01-01

    We study algorithmic problems in multi-stage open shop processing systems that are centered around reachability and deadlock detection questions. We characterize safe and unsafe system states. We show that it is easy to recognize system states that can be reached from the initial state (where the system is empty), but that in general it is hard to decide whether one given system state is reachable from another given system state. We show that the problem of identifying reachable deadlock ...

  19. Modeling multistage decision processes with Reflexive Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasenko, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces application of Reflexive Game Theory to the matter of multistage decision making processes. The idea behind is that each decision making session has certain parameters like "when the session is taking place", "who are the group members to make decision", "how group members influence on each other", etc. This study illustrates the consecutive or sequential decision making process, which consist of two stages. During the stage 1 decisions about the parameters of the ultima...

  20. Analysis and Optimization of a Multistage Inventory-Queue System

    OpenAIRE

    Liming Liu; Xiaoming Liu; David D. Yao

    2004-01-01

    An important issue in the management of supply chains and manufacturing systems is to control inventory costs at different locations throughout the system while satisfying an end-customer service-level requirement. The challenge involved is to solve a nonlinear constrained optimization problem that captures the key dynamics of a complex production-inventory system. In this paper, we first develop a multistage inventory-queue model and a job-queue decomposition approach that evaluates the perf...

  1. Dynamic-programming approaches to single-and multi-stage stochastic knapsack problems for portfolio optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Wai Gea

    1999-01-01

    This thesis proposes new methods, based on dynamic programming, for solving certain single-stage and multi-stage integer stochastic knapsack problems. These problems model stochastic portfolio optimization problems (SPOPs) which assume deterministic unit weight, and normally distributed unit return with known mean and variance for each item type. Given an initial wealth, the objective is to select a portfolio that maximizes the probability of achieving or exceeding a specified final return th...

  2. Effect Analysis of Geometric Parameters on Stainless Steel Stamping Multistage Pump by Experimental Test and Numerical Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan Wang; Weidong Shi; Ling Zhou; Weigang Lu

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of stainless steel stamping multistage pump, quadratic regression orthogonal test, hydraulic design, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to analyze the effect of pump geometric parameters. Sixteen impellers are designed based on the quadratic regression orthogonal test, which have three factors including impeller outlet slope, impeller blade outlet stagger angle, and impeller blade outlet width. Through quadratic regression equation, the function...

  3. A Taxonomy of Causality-Based Biological Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Bodei, Chiara; Chiarugi, Davide; Gori, Roberta; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.8

    2010-01-01

    We formally characterize a set of causality-based properties of metabolic networks. This set of properties aims at making precise several notions on the production of metabolites, which are familiar in the biologists' terminology. From a theoretical point of view, biochemical reactions are abstractly represented as causal implications and the produced metabolites as causal consequences of the implication representing the corresponding reaction. The fact that a reactant is produced is represented by means of the chain of reactions that have made it exist. Such representation abstracts away from quantities, stoichiometric and thermodynamic parameters and constitutes the basis for the characterization of our properties. Moreover, we propose an effective method for verifying our properties based on an abstract model of system dynamics. This consists of a new abstract semantics for the system seen as a concurrent network and expressed using the Chemical Ground Form calculus. We illustrate an application of this fr...

  4. Inspection logistics planning for multi-stage production systems with applications to semiconductor fabrication lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kyle Dakai

    Since the market for semiconductor products has become more lucrative and competitive, research into improving yields for semiconductor fabrication lines has lately received a tremendous amount of attention. One of the most critical tasks in achieving such yield improvements is to plan the in-line inspection sampling efficiently so that any potential yield problems can be detected early and eliminated quickly. We formulate a multi-stage inspection planning model based on configurations in actual semiconductor fabrication lines, specifically taking into account both the capacity constraint and the congestion effects at the inspection station. We propose a new mixed First-Come-First-Serve (FCFS) and Last-Come-First-Serve (LCFS) discipline for serving the inspection samples to expedite the detection of potential yield problems. Employing this mixed FCFS and LCFS discipline, we derive approximate expressions for the queueing delays in yield problem detection time and develop near-optimal algorithms to obtain the inspection logistics planning policies. We also investigate the queueing performance with this mixed type of service discipline under different assumptions and configurations. In addition, we conduct numerical tests and generate managerial insights based on input data from actual semiconductor fabrication lines. To the best of our knowledge, this research is novel in developing, for the first time in the literature, near-optimal results for inspection logistics planning in multi-stage production systems with congestion effects explicitly considered.

  5. Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills In A Marine Biology Class Through Problem-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Magsino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine students' perspectives of their learning in marine biology in the collaborative group context of Problem-based Learning (PBL. Students’ higher order thinking skills (HOTS using PBL involves the development of their logical thinking and reasoning abilities which stimulates their curiosity and associative thinking. This study aimed to investigate how critical thinking skills, particularly analysis, synthesis and evaluation were enhanced in a marine biology class through PBL. Qualitative research approach was used to examine student responses in a questionnaire involving 10 open-ended questions that target students’ HOTS on a problem presented in a marine biology class for BS Biology students. Using axial coding as a qualitative data analysis technique by which grounded theory can be performed, the study was able to determine how students manifest their higher reasoning abilities when confronted with a marine biology situation. Results show student responses yielding affirmative remarks on the 10 questions intended to know their level of analysis (e.g., analyzing, classifying, inferring, discriminating and relating or connecting, synthesis (e.g., synthesizing and collaborating, and evaluation (e.g., comparing, criticizing, and convincing of information from the presented marine biology problem. Consequently, students were able to effectively design experiments to address the presented issue through problem-based learning. Results of the study show that PBL is an efficient instructional strategy embedded within a conventional curriculum used to develop or enhance critical thinking in marine biology.

  6. Laser-based printing and patterning for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sones, C. L.; Katis, I.N.; He, P.; Mills, B.; A. Mosayyebi; Butement, J.; Feinäugle, M.; Eason, R. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the use of pulsed lasers as patterning and printing tools for the end applications of micro-contact printing and paper-based fluidics. A fs-laser was used with a digital multi-mirror device (DMD) to structure a mould via ablation or photo-polymerisation. The patterns in this mould were then cast into polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS)-mould which was used for micro-contact printing. With the end-goal of producing a microfluidic diagnostic sensor on paper, a ns-laser was used for laser-ind...

  7. Toward Biological Diagnosis System Based on Digital Versatile Disc Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tomofumi; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kumar, Penmetcha K. R.; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Awazu, Koichi; Tominaga, Junji

    2007-06-01

    A novel biosensor utilizing an interference of light reflected at the interfaces of a multilayer structure is proposed. This biosensor detects analytes by monitoring the changes in reflection intensity due to their adsorption to the sensor surface, on which functional biomolecules are immobilized to specifically bind to the analytes. The proposed biosensing instrument is based on a commercial digital versatile disc (DVD) system, which allows the instrument to be small and inexpensive. For the preliminary examination, SiO2 thin films with a well-defined thickness were deposited on the sensor surface. The reflection intensity varied almost linearly depending on the thickness of the SiO2 films in a thickness range of 2-10 nm. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that biotin-streptavidin binding events were clearly detectable on a rotating disc substrate at a constant linear velocity of 4.0 m/s. We named this interference-based biosensor BioDVD, which is expected to be useful for high-throughput multi-analyte bioassays.

  8. Multistage epidermal carcinogenesis in transgenic mice: cooperativity and paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, D A; Wang, X J; Roop, D R

    1996-04-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of human neoplasia with a frequency approaching that of all other neoplasms combined. Given this alarming statistic, which may be further exacerbated by increased ultraviolet B irradiation from ozone depletion, it is vital that realistic, relevant model systems are developed to increase our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis that result in or evaluate new treatment modalities. Toward this goal, the ability to stably introduce genes into the germline of mice has greatly enhanced prospects for generation of transgenic animal models of multistage molecular carcinogenesis. Moreover, when genes are combined with regulatory sequences that target their expression to specific tissues, investigators are able to study neoplasia both in the context of living organisms and in the tissues suspected of being the targets of these genes. The epidermis is an attractive tissue for targeted gene expression; not only is it a model for epithelial diseases in general, but the accessibility of the epidermis allows easy detection of progressive pathological changes that result from transgene expression and facilitates assessment of the potential role played by environmental factors. We have developed a targeting vector based on the human keratin gene (HK1), which is expressed exclusively in the epidermis of transgenic mice, at a late stage in development and in both basal and differentiated cells. Through the use of this targeting ability, rasHa, fos, and TGF alpha transgenic mice have been developed that exhibit preneoplastic epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, and later benign, regression prone papillomas. Together, coexpression of two oncogenes cooperated to give autonomous papillomas, which possessed the phenotypic stability to allow assessment of a third genetic event, namely loss of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, via mating with p53 knockout mice. Loss of p53 expression, however, identified a

  9. 一种对基于耗尽关机多级固体火箭概念设计的改进方法%An Improved Method for Conceptual Design of Multi-stage Solid Rockets Based on Depleted Shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何麟书; Murad.Y

    2005-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket motors are preferred for most ballistic missiles because they need simple maintenance and can be launched quickly.But the conventional thrust termination devices limit the depletion of every stage's grain and increase some extra-weight.An improved method for designing a multi-stage solid rocket based depleted shutdown was provided.In order to solve the problem of lack of thrust termination devices,a device to adjust the burnout angle will match the final burnout velocity and satisfy the desired range.The method can also limit the detection from anti-ballistic missile system.%由于维护简单和发射快速,弹道导弹多用固体火箭发动机,但繁杂的推力终止装置使各级装药不能耗尽并让结构增重.提出了一种对基于耗尽关机多级固体火箭概念设计的改进方法,此方法满足导弹系统主要的战技要求.为解决无推力终止装置的末速不准问题,可在末级发动机采用姿态调整装置,对射角进行调整,配合末速以满足射程要求.本方法还可抑制敌方反导探测.

  10. Aqueous biphasic system based on cholinium ionic liquids: extraction of biologically active phenolic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Sónia Isabel Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic acids are aromatic secondary plant metabolites, widely spread throughout the plant kingdom. Due to their biological and pharmacological properties, they have been playing an important role in phytotherapy and consequently techniques for their separation and purification are in need. This thesis aims at exploring new sustainable separation processes based on ionic liquids (ILs) in the extraction of biologically active phenolic acids. For that purpose, three phenolic acids with simi...

  11. Miniaturized droplets-based microarray of chemical and biological high-throughput tests

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Ana I.; Correia, Clara R.; Custódio, Catarina A.; Mano, J.F

    2013-01-01

    Publicado em "Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, vol. 7, supp. 1 (2013) The development of high-throughput and combinatorial technologies is helping to speed up research that is applicable in many areas of chemistry, engineering and biology. We propose a simple, versatile high-efficient and new superhydrophobic platform, which permits to arrange of quasi-spherical aqueous-based droplets with the capability to support and monitor a series of chemical/biolog...

  12. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Field-Effect Transistors for Label-Free Chemical/Biological Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    PingAn Hu; Jia Zhang; Le Li; Zhenlong Wang; William O’Neill; Pedro Estrela

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has advantages of high sensitivity, low decreased energy consumption and potentially highly miniaturized integration. Owing to their particular structu...

  13. Synthesis, characterization, biological and electrochemical evaluation of novel ether based ON donor bidentate Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Safeer; Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra; McKee, Vickie; Bolte, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Four novel ON donor Schiff bases (E)-2-((4-phenoxyphenylimino)methyl)phenol (HL1), (E)-2-((4-(4-biphenyloxy)phenylimino)methyl)phenol(HL2), (E)-2-((4-(naphthalen-1-yloxy) phenylimino)methyl)phenol(HL3)and(E)-2-((4-(2-naphthoxy)phenylimino)methyl)phenol (HL4)have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic, analytical and electro-analytical techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of Schiff base (HL3) revealed that phenol and anthracene rings are inclined at 30.25(9)° and 89.64(4)° to the central phenyl ring, respectively. Intra and inter molecular interactions are observed in single crystal analysis of HL3 Intramolecular interactions are hydrogen bonding but most of the intermolecular interactions are of the C-H … π type. There is a bit of π … π stacking between the anthracene groups. Only compounds (HL1) and (HL3) have been investigated for the biological activities due to slight solubility of (HL2) and (HL4) in DMSO. The results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay indicated LD50 values order of 104 M-1.

  14. Cyanoacetamide based Barbiturates, Thiobarbiturates and their Biological Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various cyanoacetamide based Knoevenagel adducts were coupled with barbituric acid / thiobarbituric acid and triethylorthoformate via a one pot three component reaction in 2-butanol availing the desired compound in excellent yields. All the synthesized compounds (2-15) were extensively characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Mass spectrometry and elemental analysis and were screened for antibacterial, antiurease, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and chymotrypsin inhibition studies. In case of antibacterial studies 2 was found appreciably active against the six selected strains whereas the rest of the compounds were moderately active. The urease inhibition studies revealed compound 5 and 12 as potent whereas the rest were found inactive where thiourea was used as control. Antioxidant activity results exhibited with 2 as the most active and rest of compounds showed good activity. In case of chymotrypsin inhibition studies all the synthesized compounds were found inactive with the exception of 6 which was moderately active. (author)

  15. Aqueous biological graphene based formulations for ink-jet printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybowska-Sarapuk Łucja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce heterophasic graphene nanoplatelets based formulation designed for ink-jet printing and biomedical applications. The compositions should meet two conditions: should be cytocompatible and have the rheological properties that allow to apply it with ink-jet printing technique. In view of the above conditions, the selection of suspensions components, such as binder, solvent and surfactants was performed. In the first stage of the research the homogeneity of the dispersion of nanoplatelets and their sedimentation behaviour in diverse solutions were tested. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of each ink on human mesenchymal stem cells was examined using the Alamar Blue Test. At the same time the rheology of the resulting suspensions was tested. As a result of these tests the best ink composition was elaborated: water, polyethylene glycol, graphene nanoplatelets and the surfactant from DuPont company.

  16. Multistage heat treatment for super alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel base alloys of the type γ/γ' are dealt with containing localized regions of low-melting components. The Ni based complex superalloys developed for high demands (temperature, mechanical stressing) are subject to increasing segregation following casting when solidifying. The method compared to previous known processes improves the homogenization of the cast pieces by a special thermal treatment. It is based on diffusion to change the composition of the segregated regions in order to raise their melting point. This can be normally up to 1700C below the melting point of the alloy mixture. Sofar known methods are based on the removal of these segregated regions. The present method does not essentially influence the actual amount (part volume) of these regions, but changes its composition by thermal treatment of 2 to 20 h. in a temperature region of maximum 550C (preferably 300C) below the melting temperature of the entectic. The melting point of the entectic thus rises to a temperature of at least 100C above the γ'solubility curve. A second heat treatment is performed in order to dissolve the γ'-particles occuring in the cast having a particle size of 2-5μm. It takes place at a temperature above that of the γ' solubility curve but below that of the raised temperature of melt start. About 1-10 h are sufficient for practically complete dissolving of the γ'-material. Cooling down to room temperature is carried out at such a rate as to prevent the formation of coarse γ'-particles. Following the invented heat treatment, the particle size of the γ'-phase is of the order of less than 1μm. (IHOE)

  17. A multistage model of hospital bed requirements.

    OpenAIRE

    Pendergast, J F; Vogel, W B

    1988-01-01

    This article presents a model for projecting future hospital bed requirements, based on clinical judgment and basic probability theory. Clinical judgment is used to define various categories of care, including a category for patients who are inappropriately hospitalized, for a large teaching hospital with a heavy indigent and psychiatric workload. Survey results and discharge abstract data are then used to calculate expected discharges and patient days for each clinical category. These expect...

  18. FABRICATION OF MESSAGE DIGEST TO AUTHENTICATE AUDIO SIGNALS WITH ALTERNATION OF COEFFICIENTS OF HARMONICS IN MULTI-STAGES (MDAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kr. Mondal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Providing security to audio songs for maintaining its intellectual property right (IPR is one of chanllenging fields in commercial world especially in creative industry. In this paper, an effective approach has been incorporated to fabricate authentication of audio song through application of message digest method with alternation of coefficients of harmonics in multi-stages of higher frequency domain without affecting its audible quality. Decomposing constituent frequency components of song signal using Fourier transform with generating secret code via applying message digest followed by alternating coefficients of specific harmonics in multi-stages generates a secret code and this unique code is utilized to detect the originality of the song. A comparative study has been made with similar existing techniques and experimental results are also supported with mathematical formula based on Microsoft WAVE (".wav" stereo sound file.

  19. Quantum Dot- and Aptamer-Based Nanostructures for Biological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshik, Xenia

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanoparticles that have gained popularity in optical and electronic applications in recent years. Aptamers are short man-made oligonucleotides with high binding affinity for a specific target. One part of this work presents an optical FRET-based sensor for K+ and Pb2+ consisting of a fluorescent quantum dot, an aptamer, and a gold nanoparticle quencher. Additionally, an electrochemical sensor for K+ and Pb2+ is also presented, which consists of an aptamer with an electron donor bound to graphene. Both sensors are shown to detect K+ and Pb2+ at concentrations critical for human health. The emission spectrum of the optical sensor is also shown to shift in response to strong electric fields. UV-excited TiO 2 quantum dots are also investigated for their ability to influence the dynamics of voltage gated ion channels in cells. It was found that the activation voltage is shifted in the presence of UV-excited TiO2 quantum dots. Electrostatic force measurements and theoretical calculations confirm that electric fields in TiO2 can in fact be optically induced. ZnO quantum dots are also synthesized and their optical and electrical properties are similarly investigated. Additionally, Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is used in this work to find previously-unknown spectra of the aptamer Apt-alphavbeta3 and the peptide thymosin-beta4.

  20. Some biologically active oxovanadium(IV) complexes of triazole derived Schiff bases: their synthesis, characterization and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Zahid H; Sumrra, Sajjad H

    2010-10-01

    A series of biologically active oxovanadium(IV) complexes of triazole derived Schiff bases L(1)-L(5) have been synthesized and characterized by their physical, analytical, and spectral data. The synthesized ligands potentially act as bidentate, in which the oxygen of furfural and nitrogen of azomethine coordinate with the oxovanadium atom to give a stoichiometry of vanadyl complexes 1:2 (M:L) in a square-pyramidal geometry. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities on different species of pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, S. flexneri, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, and B. subtilis) and fungi (T. longifusus, C. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis, F. solani, and C. glabrata) have been studied. All compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains and good antifungal activity against most of the fungal strains. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to check the cytotoxicity of coordinated and uncoordinated synthesized compounds. PMID:20429776

  1. Pilot-scale multistage membrane process for the separation of CO2 from LNG-fired flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seung Hak

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a multistage pilot-scale membrane plant was constructed and operated for the separation of CO2 from Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)-fired boiler flue gas of 1000 Nm3/day. The target purity and recovery of CO2 were 99 vol.% and 90%, respectively. For this purpose, asymmetric polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fibers membranes has been developed in our previous work and has evaluated the effects of operating pressure and feed concentration of CO2 on separation performance. The operating and permeation data obtained were also analyzed in relation with the numerical simulation data using countercurrent flow model. Based on these results, in this study, four-staged membrane process including dehumidification process has been designed, installed, and operated to demonstrate the feasibility of multistage membrane systems for removing CO2 from flue gases. The operation results using this plant were compared to the numerical simulation results on multistage membrane process. The experimental results matched well with the numerical simulation data. The concentration and the recovery of CO2 in the permeate stream of final stage were ranged from 95-99 vol.% and 70-95%, respectively, depending on the operating conditions. This study demonstrated the applicability of the membrane-based pilot plant for CO2 recovery from flue gas. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interconnected levels of Multi-Stage Marketing – A Triadic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. The results from the case study indicate that multi-stage marketing exists on different levels. Thus, managers......Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes...... must not only decide in general on the merits of multi-stage marketing for their firm, but must also decide on which level they will engage in multi-stage marketing. The triadic perspective enables a rich and multi-dimensional understanding of how different business relationships influence each other...

  3. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  4. Distribution characteristics of holdups in a multi-stage bubble column using electrical resistance tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo Jin; Yicheng Lian; Yujian Qin; Suohe Yang; Guangxiang He

    2013-01-01

    Based on the principle of chemical reaction engineering,the addition of perforated plates can improve the performance of conventional bubble column and decrease the backmixing behaviors.The distribution characteristics of gas holdup in a multi-stage bubble column embedded with five types of sieve plates and three types of tongue plates were studied using electrical resistance tomography (ERT).The effects of superficial gas velocity and the geometric design of perforated plates on the gas holdup and its radial distribution above and below the plates of the bubble column were discussed.Experimental results show ERT is suitable as an online monitoring tool to provide useful information on the hydrodynamic parameters of multi-stage bubble columns.With increasing superficial gas velocity,local gas holdup increases,and gas holdup below the plate increases with decrease of free area (%FA),hole diameters or angle of tongue plates.ERT technique facilitates noninvasive and nonintrusive visualization of cross-sectional distribution of gas holdup in a bubble column.

  5. Simulation and analysis of multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine enantiomers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wen; Kewen Tang; Jicheng Zhou; Panliang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the interfacial ligand exchange model and the law of conservation of mass, the multi-stage enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction model has been established to analyze and discuss on multi-stage centrifugal fractional extraction process of 4-nitrobenzene glycine (PGL) enantiomers. The influence of phase ratio, extractant concentra-tion, and PF6−concentration on the concentrations of enantiomers in the extract and raffinate was investigated by experiment and simulation. A good agreement between model and experiment was obtained. On this basis, the influence of many parameters such as location of stage, concentration levels, extractant excess, and number of stages on the symmetric separation performance was simulated. The optimal location of feed stage is the middle of fractional extraction equipment. The feed flow must satisfy a restricted relationship on flow ratios and the liquid throughout of centrifugal device. For desired purity specification, the required flow ratios decrease with extractant concentration and increase with PF6−concentration. When the number of stages is 18 stages at extractant excess of 1.0 or 14 stages at extractant excess of 2.0, the eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach to 99%.

  6. Multi-stage shifter for subsecond time resolution of emulsion gamma-ray telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe gamma-ray sources precisely, a balloon-borne experiment with a new type of detector, the emulsion gamma-ray telescope, is planned. A multi-stage shifter mechanism based on the concept of an analog clock serves as a time stamper with subsecond time resolution and uses multiple moving stages mounted on the emulsion chambers. This new technique was employed in a test experiment using a small-scale model in a short-duration balloon flight. Tracks recorded in nuclear emulsion were read by a fully automated scanning system, were reconstructed, and time information were assigned by analysis of their position displacements in the shifter layers. The estimated time resolution was 0.06–0.15 s. The number of tracks passing through the detector was counted every second, and hadron jets were detected as significant excesses observed in the counting rate. In future, the multi-stage shifter is greatly contributing to ongoing efforts to increase the effective area of emulsion gamma-ray telescopes.

  7. Multi-stage shifter for subsecond time resolution of emulsion gamma-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokujo, H.; Aoki, S.; Takahashi, S.; Kamada, K.; Mizutani, S.; Nakagawa, R.; Ozaki, K.

    2013-02-01

    To observe gamma-ray sources precisely, a balloon-borne experiment with a new type of detector, the emulsion gamma-ray telescope, is planned. A multi-stage shifter mechanism based on the concept of an analog clock serves as a time stamper with subsecond time resolution and uses multiple moving stages mounted on the emulsion chambers. This new technique was employed in a test experiment using a small-scale model in a short-duration balloon flight. Tracks recorded in nuclear emulsion were read by a fully automated scanning system, were reconstructed, and time information were assigned by analysis of their position displacements in the shifter layers. The estimated time resolution was 0.06-0.15 s. The number of tracks passing through the detector was counted every second, and hadron jets were detected as significant excesses observed in the counting rate. In future, the multi-stage shifter is greatly contributing to ongoing efforts to increase the effective area of emulsion gamma-ray telescopes.

  8. Multi-Stage, Multi-Resolution Method for Automatic Characterization of Epileptic Spikes in EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan.M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a technique is proposed for the automatic detection of the spikes in long term 18 channel human electroencephalograms (EEG with less number of data set. The scheme for detecting epileptic and non epileptic spikes in EEG is based on a multi resolution, multi-level analysis and Artificial Neural Network(ANN approach. Wavelet Transform (WT is a powerful tool for signal compression, recognition, restoration and multi-resolutionanalysis of non-stationary signal. The signal on each EEG channel is decomposed into six sub bands using a non-decimated WT. Each sub band is analyzed by using a non-linear energy operator, in order to detect spikes. A parameter extraction stage extracts theparameters of the detected spikes that can be given as the input to ANN classifier. A robust system that combines multiple signal-processing methods in a multistage scheme, integratingwavelet transform and artificial neural network is proposed here. This system is experimented on a simulated EEG pattern waveform as well as with real patient data. The system is evaluated on testing data from 81 patients, totaling more than 800 hours of recordings.90.0% of the epileptic events were correctly detected and the detection rate of non epileptic events was 98.0%. We conclude that the proposed system has good performance in detecting epileptic form activities; further the multistage multiresolution approach is an appropriate way of automatic classification problems in EEG.

  9. Multistage Development of Müller-Achenbach model for Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin A. Oshkovr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the conceptual development of constitutive Müller-Achenbach model and proceeds to construct a model based on phase transition under changing temperature and load for variants of martensite in shape memory alloy CuAlNi (Copper-aluminum-nickel. Problem statement: Motivation of this research is rare information of a variant of martensite phase (M++ and prediction of the shape recovery of shape memory alloy in this stage of transformation. Approach: The mathematical equations proposed a prediction of stability of Austenite phases and extend it to multistage martensitic phase transformation. These phase transformations occurred by loading on the material. Equations described free energy landscape in CuAlNi shape memory alloys at low (260K and high temperature (440K. The model evaluated the free energy due to the phase transformation between the austenite and multistage martensitic structures. Results: Results for M++ phase showed decrease in temperature from 440K to 260K presented decrease in stress approximately from 1 kN to 0.4kN and free energy from 5 kJ/kg to 0.1 kJ/kg. Equations have been solved and plotted by software programmed in MATLAB. Conclusions/Recommendations: The model which has derived focused on homogeneous shape memory alloys, but future performance requirements will most likely be met with heterogeneous materials. Therefore, simulation models for heterogeneous materials must be developed.

  10. Cost effectiveness of a multi-stage return to work program for workers on sick leave due to low back pain, design of a population based controlled trial [ISRCTN60233560

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Johannes R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the design of a population based randomized controlled trial (RCT, including a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing participative ergonomics interventions between 2–8 weeks of sick leave and Graded Activity after 8 weeks of sick leave with usual care, in occupational back pain management. Methods Design An RCT and cost-effectiveness evaluation in employees sick-listed for a period of 2 to 6 weeks due to low back pain. Interventions used are 1. Communication between general practitioner and occupational physician plus Participative Ergonomics protocol performed by an ergonomist. 2. Graded Activity based on cognitive behavioural principles by a physiotherapist. 3. Usual care, provided by an occupational physician according to the Dutch guidelines for the occupational health management of workers with low back pain. The primary outcome measure is return to work. Secondary outcome measures are pain intensity, functional status and general improvement. Intermediate variables are kinesiophobia and pain coping. The cost-effectiveness analysis includes the direct and indirect costs due to low back pain. The outcome measures are assessed before randomization (after 2–6 weeks on sick leave and 12 weeks, 26 weeks and 52 weeks after first day of sick leave. Discussion The combination of these interventions has been subject of earlier research in Canada. The results of the current RCT will: 1. crossvalidate the Canadian findings in an different sociocultural environment; 2. add to the cost-effectiveness on treatment options for workers in the sub acute phase of low back pain. Results might lead to alterations of existing (international guidelines.

  11. Research on Efficiency of R&D Activity of Gansu Based on the Multi-stage VRS Model of DEA Method%甘肃省R&D活动效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱宁; 玄兆辉; 马巧丽

    2012-01-01

    Based on VRS model of data envelopment analysis and the data of the second investigation of R&D Resources, the paper puts forward the measuring method for efficiency of R&D activity to calculate the efficiency of R&D activity of Cansu provinces in 2009. Meanwhile, the paper analyzes the DEA validity, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of various regions. In order to reach a better efficiency, it makes a further study on the reasons of low-efficiency of R&D activity and how to adjust the combination between inputs and outputs correctly in some areas.%本文基于数据包络分析的VRS模型原理提出了R&D活动效率的测算方法,运用第二次R&D资源清查资料对甘肃省2009年各市州的R&D活动效率进行了测算,分析了各地区R&D活动的DEA有效性、纯技术效率、规模效益情况,并就部分地区R&D活动效率低的原因及如何调整其投入产出项的组合,从而达到较高的效率进行了深入研究.

  12. Agent-based Models in Synthetic Biology: Tools for Simulation and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V.Krishnamurthy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiset of agents based modeling and simulation paradigm for synthetic biology. The multiset of agents –based programming paradigm, can be interpreted as the outcome arising out of deterministic, nondeterministic or stochastic interaction among elements in a multiset object space, that includes the environment. These interactions are like chemical reactions and the evolution of the multiset can emulate the system biological functions. Since the reaction rules are inherently parallel, any number of actions can be performed cooperatively or competitively among the subsets of elements, so that the elements evolve toward equilibrium or emergent state. Practical realization of this paradigm for system biological simulation is achieved through the concept of transactional style programming with agents, as well as soft computing (neural- network principles. Also we briefly describe currently available tools for agent-based-modeling, simulation and animation.

  13. YeastMed: an XML-Based System for Biological Data Integration of Yeast

    CERN Document Server

    Briache, Abdelaali; Kerzazi, Amine; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Montes, Jose F Aldana; Hassani, Badr D Rossi; Lairini, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    A key goal of bioinformatics is to create database systems and software platforms capable of storing and analysing large sets of biological data. Hundreds of biological databases are now available and provide access to huge amount of biological data. SGD, Yeastract, CYGD-MIPS, BioGrid and PhosphoGrid are five of the most visited databases by the yeast community. These sources provide complementary data on biological entities. Biologists are brought systematically to query these data sources in order to analyse the results of their experiments. Because of the heterogeneity of these sources, querying them separately and then manually combining the returned result is a complex and laborious task. To provide transparent and simultaneous access to these sources, we have developed a mediator-based system called YeastMed. In this paper, we present YeastMed focusing on its architecture.

  14. Multistage chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Weeks, C.E.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Skin tumors in mice can be induced by the sequential application of a subthreshold dose of a carcinogen (initiation phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a noncarcinogenic tumor promoter. The initiation phase requires only a single application of either a direct acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen which has to be metabolized before being active and is essentially an irreversible step which probably involves a somatic cell mutation. There is a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activites of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their ability to bind covalently to epidermal DNA. Laboratory results suggest that bay region diol-epoxides are the ultimate carcinogenic form of PAH carcinogens. Potent inhibitors and stimulators of PAH tumor initiation appear to affect the level of the PAH diol-epoxide reacting with specific DNA bases. Reecent data suggests that the tumor promotion stage involves at least three important steps: (1) the induction of embryonic looking cells (dark cells) in adult epidermis; (2) an increased production of epidermal prostaglandins and polyamines; (3) sustained proliferation of dark cells. Retinoic acid specifically inhibits step two whereas the anti-inflammatory steriod fluocinolone acetonide is a potent inhibitor of steps one and three. The mechanism and the importance of a specific sequence for each step in chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin are detailed.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, biological and electrochemical evaluation of novel ether based ON donor bidentate Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Safeer; Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra; McKee, Vickie; Bolte, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Four novel ON donor Schiff bases (E)-2-((4-phenoxyphenylimino)methyl)phenol (HL1), (E)-2-((4-(4-biphenyloxy)phenylimino)methyl)phenol(HL2), (E)-2-((4-(naphthalen-1-yloxy) phenylimino)methyl)phenol(HL3)and(E)-2-((4-(2-naphthoxy)phenylimino)methyl)phenol (HL4)have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic, analytical and electro-analytical techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of Schiff base (HL3) revealed that phenol and anthracene rings are inclined at 30.25(9)° and 89.64(4)° to the central phenyl ring, respectively. Intra and inter molecular interactions are observed in single crystal analysis of HL3 Intramolecular interactions are hydrogen bonding but most of the intermolecular interactions are of the C-H … π type. There is a bit of π … π stacking between the anthracene groups. Only compounds (HL1) and (HL3) have been investigated for the biological activities due to slight solubility of (HL2) and (HL4) in DMSO. The results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay indicated LD50 values <1 μg/ml showing significant antitumor activity with IC50 values 14.20 and 4.54 μg/ml respectively. The compounds were highly active in protecting DNA against hydroxyl free radicals in concentration dependent manner. Voltammetric results indicated that one electron irreversible oxidation product is formed due to hydroxyl moiety and the process is diffusion controlled. On exposing to DNA environment the electrooxidised product developed electrostatic linkage and groove binding intercalation while consuming the DNA concentration substantially. The binding strength was quantitative in terms of drug-DNA binding of the order of 104 M-1.

  16. Multiparametric imaging of biological systems by force-distance curve-based AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrêne, Yves F; Martínez-Martín, David; Medalsy, Izhar; Alsteens, David; Müller, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    A current challenge in the life sciences is to understand how biological systems change their structural, biophysical and chemical properties to adjust functionality. Addressing this issue has been severely hampered by the lack of methods capable of imaging biosystems at high resolution while simultaneously mapping their multiple properties. Recent developments in force-distance (FD) curve-based atomic force microscopy (AFM) now enable researchers to combine (sub)molecular imaging with quantitative mapping of physical, chemical and biological interactions. Here we discuss the principles and applications of advanced FD-based AFM tools for the quantitative multiparametric characterization of complex cellular and biomolecular systems under physiological conditions. PMID:23985731

  17. Teaching Statistics in Biology: Using Inquiry-based Learning to Strengthen Understanding of Statistical Analysis in Biology Laboratory Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Anneke M.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing need for students in the biological sciences to build a strong foundation in quantitative approaches to data analyses. Although most science, engineering, and math field majors are required to take at least one statistics course, statistical analysis is poorly integrated into undergraduate biology course work, particularly at the lower-division level. Elements of statistics were incorporated into an introductory biology course, including a review of statistics concepts ...

  18. Rethinking biology instruction : the application of DNR-based instruction to the learning and teaching of biology

    OpenAIRE

    Maskiewicz, April Lee

    2006-01-01

    Educational studies report that secondary and college level students have developed only limited understandings of the most basic biological processes and their interrelationships from typical classroom experiences. Furthermore, students have developed undesirable reasoning schemes and beliefs that directly affect how they make sense of and account for biological phenomena. For these reasons, there exists a need to rethink instructional practices in biology. This dissertation discusses how th...

  19. Dynamics of multi-stage infections on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sherborne, N; Kiss, I Z

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of infectious diseases with a non-exponentially distributed infectious period. This is achieved by considering a multi-stage infection model on networks. Using pairwise approximation with a standard closure, a number of important characteristics of disease dynamics are derived analytically, including the final size of an epidemic and a threshold for epidemic outbreaks. Stochastic simulations of dynamics on networks are performed and compared to the results of pairwise models for several realistic examples of infectious diseases to illustrate the role played by the number of stages in the disease dynamics. The agreement between the pairwise and simulation methods is excellent in the cases we consider.

  20. Wetness measurements in a model multistage low pressure steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive measurement of wetness losses, exhaust fog droplet diameters, wetness and coarse water content have been taken in a model multistage LP steam turbine over a wide range of flow conditions. It was found that for conventional condensing turbine exhaust wetness fractions of approximately 0.10, the measured wetness loss factor was in reasonable agreement with the Baumann value. Comparison of exhaust wetness fractions derived from dynamometer power and five-hole probe radial traverse measurements, with those found independently from the Central Electricity Research Laboratories optical probe traverses, generally showed agreement to within approximately ±0.01. (author)

  1. Thermochemical production of hydrogen via multistage water splitting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents and reviews the fundamental thermodynamic principles underlying thermochemical water splitting processes. The overall system is considered first and the temperature limitation in process thermal efficiency is developed. The relationship to an ideal water electrolysis cell is described and the nature of efficient multistage reaction processes is discussed. The importance of the reaction entropy change and the relation of the reaction free energy change to the work of separation is described. A procedure for analyzing thermochemical water splitting processes is presented and its use to calculate individual stage efficiency is demonstrated. A number of processes are used to illustrate the concepts and procedures.

  2. Improved Multistage Wiener Filters in Nonhomogeneous Clutter Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Tang; Xue-Gang Wang; Ke-Song Chen

    2008-01-01

    A new method combining space-time preprocessing with multistage Wiener filters (STPMWF) is proposed to improve the performance of space-time adaptive processing (STAP) in nonhomogeneous clutter scenario. The new scheme only requires the data from the primary range bin, thus it can suppress discrete interferers efficiently, without calculating the inverse of covariance matrix. Comparing to the original MWF approach, the proposed scheme can be regarded as practical solutions for robust and effective STAP of nonhomogeneous radar data. The theoretical analysis shows that our STPMWF is simple in implementation and fast in convergence. The numeric results by using simulated data exhibit a good agreement with the proposed theory.

  3. An integral equation solution for multistage turbomachinery design calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    A method was developed to calculate flows in multistage turbomachinery. The method is an extension of quasi-three-dimensional blade-to-blade solution methods. Governing equations for steady compressible inviscid flow are linearized by introducing approximations. The linearized flow equations are solved using integral equation techniques. The flows through both stationary and rotating blade rows are determined in a single calculation. Multiple bodies can be modelled for each blade row, so that arbitrary blade counts can be analyzed. The method's benefits are its speed and versatility.

  4. BOWiki: an ontology-based wiki for annotation of data and integration of knowledge in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Sergio E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Ontology development and the annotation of biological data using ontologies are time-consuming exercises that currently require input from expert curators. Open, collaborative platforms for biological data annotation enable the wider scientific community to become involved in developing and maintaining such resources. However, this openness raises concerns regarding the quality and correctness of the information added to these knowledge bases. The combination of a collaborative web-based platform with logic-based approaches and Semantic Web technology can be used to address some of these challenges and concerns. Results We have developed the BOWiki, a web-based system that includes a biological core ontology. The core ontology provides background knowledge about biological types and relations. Against this background, an automated reasoner assesses the consistency of new information added to the knowledge base. The system provides a platform for research communities to integrate information and annotate data collaboratively. Availability The BOWiki and supplementary material is available at http://www.bowiki.net/. The source code is available under the GNU GPL from http://onto.eva.mpg.de/trac/BoWiki.

  5. Antibody-Based Biologics and Their Promise to Combat Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sause, William E; Buckley, Peter T; Strohl, William R; Lynch, A Simon; Torres, Victor J

    2016-03-01

    The growing incidence of serious infections mediated by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains poses a significant risk to public health. This risk is exacerbated by a prolonged void in the discovery and development of truly novel antibiotics and the absence of a vaccine. These gaps have created renewed interest in the use of biologics in the prevention and treatment of serious staphylococcal infections. In this review, we focus on efforts towards the discovery and development of antibody-based biologic agents and their potential as clinical agents in the management of serious S. aureus infections. Recent promising data for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting anthrax and Ebola highlight the potential of antibody-based biologics as therapeutic agents for serious infections. PMID:26719219

  6. A graph based system for multi-stage attacks recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Safaa O. Al-Mamory; Zhai Jianhong; Zhang Hongli

    2008-01-01

    Building attack scenario is one of the most important aspects in network security. This paper proposed a system which collects intrusion alerts, clusters them as sub-attacks using alerts abstraction, aggregates the similar sub-attacks, and then correlates and generates correlation graphs. The scenarios were represented by alert classes instead of alerts themselves so as to reduce the required rules and have the ability of detecting new variations of attacks. The proposed system is capable of passing some of the missed attacks. To evaluate system effectiveness, it was tested with different datasets which contain multi-step attacks. Compressed and easily understandable correlation graphs which reflect attack scenarios were generated. The proposed system can correlate related alerts, uncover the attack strategies, and detect new variations of attacks.

  7. Sensor placement for active control of surge in multi-stage axial compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a methodology is presented to determine the optimal sensor choice for active control of surge in multi-stage axial flow compressors. In this method, the compression system is modeled based on the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy. The model is then linearized at unstable steady-state points, and the Linear Quadratic Gaussian controllers are designed to stabilize the compression system. The effects of different sensor types and locations on active stabilization process are then investigated for both low and high compressor speeds. Based on this sensor placement methodology, the sensor location and type are selected in order to minimize the estimation error and air bleed mass flow. The results are presented to show the effectiveness of the methodology. These results show that the proper sensor location is dependent on the compressor rotational speed and the instability origination

  8. Concept of Powerful Multistage Coaxial Cyclotron for Pulsed and Continuous Beam Production

    CERN Document Server

    Tumanyan, A R; Guiragossian, Z G T; Akopov, N Z

    1999-01-01

    The concept of large-radius multistage coaxial cyclotrons having separated orbits is described, to generate proton beams of 120-2000 MeV energy at tens of GW pulsed and hundreds of MW in continuous beam power operation. Accelerated beam losses must be less than 0.1 W/m for the intercepted average beam power linear density. The concept is inherently configured to actively compensate the longitudinal and transverse space charge expansion in beam bunches. These are based on (1) actively varying the bunch acceleration equilibrium phase while maintaining isochronism, independently for each cyclotron turns; (2) independently changing the acceleration voltage for each turn together with orbit corrections that preserve isochronism; (3) independently changing the transverse betatron oscillation tune shift, to assure non-resonant operation. Also, (4) sextupole lenses are included to compensate for chromaticity effects. Moreover, the concept is based on optimum uses of practical successful results so far achieved in bea...

  9. Preparing Biology Teachers to Teach Evolution in a Project-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle; Park Rogers, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a project-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching evolution to inform efforts in teacher preparation. Data analysis of a secondary biology educator teaching evolution through a PBL approach illuminated: (1) active student voice, which allowed students to reflect on their positioning on evolution and consider multiple…

  10. Capacity for DNA-barcode based taxonomy in support of Great Lakes biological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enumerating organisms collected via nets and sediment grabs is a mainstay of aquatic ecology. Since morphological taxonomy can require considerable resources and expertise, DNA barcode-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers a valuable tool in support of biological...

  11. Effects of Conceptual Change Text Based Instruction on Ecology, Attitudes toward Biology and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Gülcan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the conceptual change text based instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of ecological concepts, and attitudes toward biology and environment. Participants were 82 ninth grade students in a public high school in the Northwestern Turkey. A treatment was employed over a…

  12. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Casper Nyamukondiwa; Frank Chidawanyika; Pride Mudavanhu

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such oppor...

  13. Designing and Implementing a Hands-On, Inquiry-Based Molecular Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Laura B.; Morrison-Shetlar, Alison I.

    2007-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning was used to enhance an undergraduate molecular biology course at Georgia Southern University, a primarily undergraduate institution in rural southeast Georgia. The goal was to use a long-term, in-class project to accelerate higher-order thinking, thereby enabling students to problem solve and apply their knowledge to novel…

  14. Biofilm growth of Chlorella sorokiniana in a rotating biological contactor based photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, W.M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Cuaresma, M.; Libor, Z.; Bhaiji, T.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae biofilms could be used as a production platform for microalgae biomass. In this study, a photobioreactor design based on a rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used as a production platform for microalgae biomass cultivated in biofilm. In the photobioreactor, referred to as Algadisk, m

  15. Using Team-Based Learning to Teach Grade 7 Biology: Student Satisfaction and Improved Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjoura, Christiane; Tayeh, Paula Abou; Zgheib, Nathalie K.

    2015-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an innovative form of collaborative learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBL's effect on the performance and satisfaction of grade 7 students in biology in a private school in Lebanon, as well as teachers' willingness to implement this new methodology. An exploratory study was performed whereby two…

  16. Students' Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Tutorial Program for College Biology Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. S.; Prevost, L.; Lemons, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of core concepts and processes of science in solving problems is important to successful learning in biology. We have designed and developed a Web-based, self-directed tutorial program, "SOLVEIT," that provides various scaffolds (e.g., prompts, expert models, visual guidance) to help college students enhance their…

  17. Integrating biological knowledge based on functional annotations for biclustering of gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Juan A; Troncoso, Alicia; Nepomuceno-Chamorro, Isabel A; Aguilar-Ruiz, Jesús S

    2015-05-01

    Gene expression data analysis is based on the assumption that co-expressed genes imply co-regulated genes. This assumption is being reformulated because the co-expression of a group of genes may be the result of an independent activation with respect to the same experimental condition and not due to the same regulatory regime. For this reason, traditional techniques are recently being improved with the use of prior biological knowledge from open-access repositories together with gene expression data. Biclustering is an unsupervised machine learning technique that searches patterns in gene expression data matrices. A scatter search-based biclustering algorithm that integrates biological information is proposed in this paper. In addition to the gene expression data matrix, the input of the algorithm is only a direct annotation file that relates each gene to a set of terms from a biological repository where genes are annotated. Two different biological measures, FracGO and SimNTO, are proposed to integrate this information by means of its addition to-be-optimized fitness function in the scatter search scheme. The measure FracGO is based on the biological enrichment and SimNTO is based on the overlapping among GO annotations of pairs of genes. Experimental results evaluate the proposed algorithm for two datasets and show the algorithm performs better when biological knowledge is integrated. Moreover, the analysis and comparison between the two different biological measures is presented and it is concluded that the differences depend on both the data source and how the annotation file has been built in the case GO is used. It is also shown that the proposed algorithm obtains a greater number of enriched biclusters than other classical biclustering algorithms typically used as benchmark and an analysis of the overlapping among biclusters reveals that the biclusters obtained present a low overlapping. The proposed methodology is a general-purpose algorithm which allows

  18. Discontinuous transition of a multistage independent cascade model on networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a multistage version of the independent cascade model, which we call a multistage independent cascade (MIC) model, on networks. This model is parameterized by two probabilities: the probability T1 that a node adopting a fad increases the awareness of a neighboring susceptible node and the probability T2 that an adopter directly causes a susceptible node to adopt the fad. We formulate a tree approximation for the MIC model on an uncorrelated network with an arbitrary degree distribution pk. Applied on a random regular network with degree k = 6, this model exhibits a rich phase diagram, including continuous and discontinuous transition lines for fad percolation and a continuous transition line for the percolation of susceptible nodes. In particular, the percolation transition of fads is discontinuous (continuous) when T1 is larger (smaller) than a certain value. A similar discontinuous transition is observed in random graphs and scale-free networks. Furthermore, assigning a finite fraction of initial adopters dramatically changes the phase boundaries. (paper)

  19. STUDY OF PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF MOLASSES-BASED DISTILLERY EFFLUENT

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Chaudhary* AK Sharma and Birbal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Molasses based distilleries are recognized as of major polluting industries with a large amount of annual effluent production. Modi Distillery, located at Modi Nagar in western Uttar Pradesh, is a molasses-based distillery with a capacity of 26 KLPD. Being an alcohol-processing unit, we estimated capacity and efficiency of Modi distillery that discharges highly polluted effluent to small drainage with a very high biological oxygen demand (BOD) (42,000-51,000mg/ltr) and chemical oxygen demand ...

  20. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bal-Ram Adhikari; Maduraiveeran Govindhan; Aicheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based el...

  1. GUBS, a Behavior-based Language for Open System Dedicated to Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Basso-Blandin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a domain specific language, GUBS (Genomic Unified Behavior Specification, dedicated to the behavioral specification of synthetic biological devices, viewed as discrete open dynamical systems. GUBS is a rule-based declarative language. By contrast to a closed system, a program is always a partial description of the behavior of the system. The semantics of the language accounts the existence of some hidden non-specified actions possibly altering the behavior of the programmed device. The compilation framework follows a scheme similar to automatic theorem proving, aiming at improving synthetic biological design safety.

  2. Best Practices for Promoting Functional Biology Education: Activity-Based, Laboratory-Oriented Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Mgboyibo Osuafor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of science education is fostering students’ intellectual competencies. This goal can only be achieved when students are actively involved in the teaching-learning process. This study therefore, investigated the extent to which the biology teachers employ pupil-centered activities such as laboratory/practical instructional methods in order to improve the learning outcome of their students. The descriptive survey involved 73 Biology teachers randomly selected from all the six education zones of Anambra state, Nigeria. Four research questions and two hypotheses guided the conduct of the study. A 32-item structured questionnaire which has reliability co-efficient of 0.82 was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. Results show that Biology teachers adopt practical-oriented strategies in teaching biology, conduct practical activities to a high extent, and perceive practical exercises as essential to effective teaching and learning of the subject. Provision of adequate number of laboratory materials, employment of adequate number of biology teachers, making provision for well designed laboratory activities in the curriculum and training of teachers on how to effectively combine theory with practical are some of the strategies that will encourage biology teachers to conduct practical lessons. There was no significant difference between male and female biology teachers in their responses to the different aspects investigated. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made which include that curriculum designers should incorporate guides for practical activities that go with each topic in the curriculum so as to encourage the teachers to teach theory with practical.

  3. Solar Multi-stage Refrigeration Systems on the Basis of Absorber with the Internal Evaporative Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the developed schematics are presented for the alternative refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution. Multi-stage principle of construction of drying and cool contours of solar systems is used with growth of concentration of absorbent on the stages of cooler. An absorber with internal evaporative cooling, allowing to remove the separate evaporated cooler, usually included after the absorber of the proper stage, is developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus of film-type, entering in the complement of drying and cool contours compatible and executed on the basis of multichannel compositions from polymeric materials. The preliminary comparative analysis of possibilities of the solar refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems is executed.

  4. Application of Multistage Homotopy Perturbation Method to the Chaotic Genesio System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. H. Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding accurate solution of chaotic system by using efficient existing numerical methods is very hard for its complex dynamical behaviors. In this paper, the multistage homotopy-perturbation method (MHPM is applied to the Chaotic Genesio system. The MHPM is a simple reliable modification based on an adaptation of the standard homotopy-perturbation method (HPM. The HPM is treated as an algorithm in a sequence of intervals for finding accurate approximate solutions to the Chaotic Genesio system. Numerical comparisons between the MHPM and the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4 solutions are made. The results reveal that the new technique is a promising tool for the nonlinear chaotic systems of ordinary differential equations.

  5. A multistage, semi-automated procedure for analyzing the morphology of nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Chiwoo

    2012-07-01

    This article presents a multistage, semi-automated procedure that can expedite the morphology analysis of nanoparticles. Material scientists have long conjectured that the morphology of nanoparticles has a profound impact on the properties of the hosting material, but a bottleneck is the lack of a reliable and automated morphology analysis of the particles based on their image measurements. This article attempts to fill in this critical void. One particular challenge in nanomorphology analysis is how to analyze the overlapped nanoparticles, a problem not well addressed by the existing methods but effectively tackled by the method proposed in this article. This method entails multiple stages of operations, executed sequentially, and is considered semi-automated due to the inclusion of a semi-supervised clustering step. The proposed method is applied to several images of nanoparticles, producing the needed statistical characterization of their morphology. © 2012 "IIE".

  6. Multi-stage full waveform inversion strategy for 2D elastic VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Ju-Won

    2015-08-19

    One of the most important issues in the multi-parametric full waveform inversion (FWI) is to find an optimal parameterization, which helps us recover the subsurface anisotropic parameters as well as seismic velocities, with minimal tradeoff. As a result, we analyze three different parameterizations for elastic VTI media in terms of the influence of the S-waves on the gradient direction for c13, the spatial coverage of gradient direction and the degree of trade-offs between the parameters. Based on the dependency results, we design a multi-stage elastic VTI FWI strategy to enhance both the spatial coverage of the FWI and the robustness to the trade-offs among the parameters as well as FWI for the c13 structure.

  7. Optimal design of multistage chemostats in series using different microbial growth kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Petroleum Engineering Technology, Abu Dhabi Polytechnic (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the optimum design of multistage chemostats (CSTRs) was investigated. The optimal design was based on the minimum overall reactor volume using different volume for each chemostat. The paper investigates three different microbial growth kinetics; Monod kinetics, Contois kinetics and the Logistic equation. The total dimensionless residence time (theta Total) was set as the optimization objective function that was minimized by varying the intermediate dimensionless substrate concentration (alfa i). The effect of inlet substrate concentration (S0) to the first reactor on the optimized total dimensionless residence time was investigated at a constant conversion of 0.90. In addition, the effect of conversion on the optimized total dimensionless residence time was also investigated at constant inlet substrate concentration (S0). For each case, optimization was done using up to five chemostats in series.

  8. Study on hydrodynamics and mass transfer of the critically safe multistage mixer-settler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on structure of critically safe multistage mixer-settler for the extraction process of high enriched uranium and plutonium has been completed. The mixer-settler has simple structure, good critical safety, flexibility in operation (O/A from 0.5 to 5) and high extraction efficiency (Ex > 90%). These performances have been proved in the hydrodynamics and mass transfer experiments at a three stages cascade mixer-settler. Based on the others experience, a trapezoidal impeller combined with half-open turbine is developed which has stronger pumping and well mixing function at low rotating speed. The optimal rotating speed is 250 to 280 r/min obtained by experiments

  9. Multi-stage drying of PVA aqueous solution film; PVA suiyoeki no bunri tofu kanso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, M.; Inoue, S. [Dai Nippon Printing Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Imakawa, H. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan), Faculty of Engineering; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-07-10

    In a multi-stage coating and drying process, in which PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol) film was formed by repeating twice a set of operations consisting of coating PVA aqueous solution and convective drying of it, the drying process was numerically simulated using a drying model based on mass transfer within a coated film. The possibility of minimizing drying time was also investigated. Total drying time, summed over the first and second stages, required to yield a target mean moisture concentration in the solution film was calculated while changing the final mean moisture concentration of the first stage. It was found that the minimum drying time appeared for each target concentration and the effect of reduction on the total drying time became significant with increasing target concentration. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Multistage and multiobjective formulations of globally optimal upgradable expansions for electric power distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri Yazdi Pin, Mohammad

    Electric power distribution systems are the last high voltage link in the chain of production, transport, and delivery of the electric energy, the fundamental goals of which are to supply the users' demand safely, reliably, and economically. The number circuit miles traversed by distribution feeders in the form of visible overhead or imbedded underground lines, far exceed those of all other bulk transport circuitry in the transmission system. Development and expansion of the distribution systems, similar to other systems, is directly proportional to the growth in demand and requires careful planning. While growth of electric demand has recently slowed through efforts in the area of energy management, the need for a continued expansion seems inevitable for the near future. Distribution system and expansions are also independent of current issues facing both the suppliers and the consumers of electrical energy. For example, deregulation, as an attempt to promote competition by giving more choices to the consumers, while it will impact the suppliers' planning strategies, it cannot limit the demand growth or the system expansion in the global sense. Curiously, despite presence of technological advancements and a 40-year history of contributions in the area, many of the major utilities still relay on experience and resort to rudimentary techniques when planning expansions. A comprehensive literature review of the contributions and careful analyses of the proposed algorithms for distribution expansion, confirmed that the problem is a complex, multistage and multiobjective problem for which a practical solution remains to be developed. In this research, based on the 15-year experience of a utility engineer, the practical expansion problem has been clearly defined and the existing deficiencies in the previous work identified and analyzed. The expansion problem has been formulated as a multistage planning problem in line with a natural course of development and industry

  11. Multistage Stochastic Programming and its Applications in Energy Systems Modeling and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golari, Mehdi

    considering the integration of renewable energy resources into production planning of energy-intensive manufacturing industries. Recently, a growing number of manufacturing companies are considering renewable energies to meet their energy requirements to move towards green manufacturing as well as decreasing their energy costs. However, the intermittent nature of renewable energies imposes several difficulties in long term planning of how to efficiently exploit renewables. In this study, we propose a scheme for manufacturing companies to use onsite and grid renewable energies provided by their own investments and energy utilities as well as conventional grid energy to satisfy their energy requirements. We propose a multistage stochastic programming model and study an efficient solution method to solve this problem. We examine the proposed framework on a test case simulated based on a real-world semiconductor company. Moreover, we evaluate long-term profitability of such scheme via so called value of multistage stochastic programming.

  12. Biological science learning model based on Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwari, Nahdi, Maizer Said; Sulistyowati, Eka

    2016-02-01

    Local wisdom as product of local knowledge has been giving a local context in science development. Local wisdom is important to connect scientific theories and local conditions; hence science could be accessed by common people. Using local wisdom as a model for learning science enables students to build contextual learning, hence learning science becomes more meaningful and becomes more accessible for students in a local community. Based on this consideration, therefore, this research developed a model for learning biology based on Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity. For this purpose, Turgo's biodiversity was mapped, and any local values that are co-existing with the biodiversity were recorded. All of these informations were, then, used as a hypohetical model for developing materials for teaching biology in a senior high school adjacent to Turgo. This research employed a qualitative method. We combined questionnaries, interviews and observation to gather the data. We found that Turgo community has been practicing local wisdom on using traditional plants for many uses, including land management and practicing rituals and traditional ceremonies. There were local values that they embrace which enable them to manage the nature wisely. After being cross-referenced with literature regarding educational philoshophy, educational theories and teachings, and biology curriculum for Indonesia's senior high school, we concluded that Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity can be recommended to be used as learning materials and sources for biological learning in schools.

  13. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Dale L; Alvarez, Consuelo J

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic "parts," students construct a "reporter plasmid" expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a "sensor plasmid," the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p < 0.05) for all learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses. PMID:26753032

  14. RegenBase: a knowledge base of spinal cord injury biology for translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Alison; Abeyruwan, Saminda W.; Al-Ali, Hassan; Sakurai, Kunie; Ferguson, Adam R.; Popovich, Phillip G.; Shah, Nigam H.; Visser, Ubbo; John L Bixby; Lemmon, Vance P.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) research is a data-rich field that aims to identify the biological mechanisms resulting in loss of function and mobility after SCI, as well as develop therapies that promote recovery after injury. SCI experimental methods, data and domain knowledge are locked in the largely unstructured text of scientific publications, making large scale integration with existing bioinformatics resources and subsequent analysis infeasible. The lack of standard reporting for experiment...

  15. In situ crosslinked smart polypeptide nanoparticles for multistage responsive tumor-targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huqiang; Liu, Peng; Sheng, Nan; Gong, Ping; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-03-01

    Smart tumor-targeted drug delivery is crucial for improving the effect of chemotherapy and reducing the adverse effects. Here, we synthesized a smart polypeptide copolymer based on n-butylamine-poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-cysteine) (PLL-PLC) with functionalization of folic acid (FA) and 1,2-dicarboxylic-cyclohexene anhydride (DCA) for multistage responsive tumor-targeted drug delivery. The copolymers (FA-PLL(DCA)-PLC) spontaneously crosslinked in situ to form redox and pH dual responsive FA-PLL(DCA)-PLC nanoparticles (FD-NPs), which had a reversible zeta potential around -30 mV at pH 7.4, but switched to +15 mV at pH 5.0. Moreover, FD-NPs effectively loaded DOX with a loading capacity at 15.7 wt%. At pH 7.4, only 24.5% DOX was released within 60 h. However, at pH 5.0, the presence of 10 mM DTT dramatically accelerated DOX release with over 90% of DOX released within 10 h. Although the FD-NPs only enhanced DOX uptake in FA receptor positive (FR+) cancer cells at pH 7.4, a weak acidic condition promoted FD-NP-facilitated DOX uptake in both FR+ HeLa and FR- A549 cells, as well as significantly improving cellular binding and end/lysosomal escape. In vivo studies in a HeLa cancer model demonstrated that the charge-reversible FD-NPs delivered DOX into tumors more effectively than charge-irreversible nanoparticles. Hence, these multistage responsive FD-NPs would serve as highly efficient drug vectors for targeted cancer chemotherapy.Smart tumor-targeted drug delivery is crucial for improving the effect of chemotherapy and reducing the adverse effects. Here, we synthesized a smart polypeptide copolymer based on n-butylamine-poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-cysteine) (PLL-PLC) with functionalization of folic acid (FA) and 1,2-dicarboxylic-cyclohexene anhydride (DCA) for multistage responsive tumor-targeted drug delivery. The copolymers (FA-PLL(DCA)-PLC) spontaneously crosslinked in situ to form redox and pH dual responsive FA-PLL(DCA)-PLC nanoparticles (FD-NPs), which had a reversible

  16. 'Bootstrap' Configuration for Multistage Pulse-Tube Coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bich; Nguyen, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    A bootstrap configuration has been proposed for multistage pulse-tube coolers that, for instance, provide final-stage cooling to temperatures as low as 20 K. The bootstrap configuration supplants the conventional configuration, in which customarily the warm heat exchangers of all stages reject heat at ambient temperature. In the bootstrap configuration, the warm heat exchanger, the inertance tube, and the reservoir of each stage would be thermally anchored to the cold heat exchanger of the next warmer stage. The bootstrapped configuration is superior to the conventional setup, in some cases increasing the 20 K cooler's coefficient of performance two-fold over that of an otherwise equivalent conventional layout. The increased efficiency could translate into less power consumption, less cooler mass, and/or lower cost for a given amount of cooling.

  17. Multistage CSR microbunching gain development in transport or recirculation arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Cheng-Ying; Li, Rui; Tennant, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) induced microbunching instability has been one of the most challenging issues in the design of modern accelerators. A linear Vlasov solver has been developed [1] and applied to investigate the physical processes of microbunching gain amplification for several example lattices [2]. In this paper, by further extending the concept of stage gain as proposed by Huang and Kim [3], we develop a method to characterize the microbunching development in terms of stage orders that allow the quantitative comparison of optics impacts on microbunching gain for different lattices. We find that the microbunching instability in our demonstrated arcs has a distinguishing feature of multistage amplification (e.g, up to 6th stage amplification for our example transport arcs, in contrast to two-stage amplification for a typical 4-dipole bunch compressor chicane). We also try to connect lattice optics pattern with the obtained stage gain functions by a physical interpretation. This Vlasov analys...

  18. A Challenge for Routing Algorithms in Optical Multistage Interconnection Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Moudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A class of dynamic interconnection networks is Multistage Interconnection Networks (MINs that connects input devices to output devices through a number of switch stages. MINs have assumed importance in recent years; because of their cost-effectiveness. Optical MINs are one type of MINs that have large transmission capacity in the communication networks. There is a major problem in Optical MIN that is crosstalk, which is caused by coupling two signals within a switching element. Approach: To avoid crosstalk in Optical MINs many algorithms have been proposed by many researchers that we review applying five routing algorithms and scheduling them in the Optical MINs. Results: The comparative results of routing algorithms show affective of avoiding crosstalk in number of passes and execution time for different algorithm. Conclusion: The challenge between these routing algorithms is thoroughly investigated, by applying them on Optical MIN and showing which algorithm has better performance to avoid crosstalk.

  19. A Hybrid Structured Multistage Wiener Filter for GPS Interference Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Dong Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To suppress the influence of impulsive noise spikes (outliers from the direction of arrival of the desired GPS signals, a combination of the Householder multistage Wiener filter (HMSWF and the recently introduced Minimum Module Cascaded Canceller (MMCC is employed to compose a hybrid structured HMSWF (HS-HMSWF method. The enhanced algorithm is employed by space-time anti-jamming processing in GPS receiver, with the ability of natural protection against the impulsive noise spikes influence of weights calculation. In space signal processing, it can avoid the zero pitch formed at the direction of target signal, and prevent the desired signal be diminished. Simulation results demonstrated the favorable anti-jamming performance of the proposed algorithm.  

  20. Multistage Hybrid Arabic/Indian Numeral OCR System

    CERN Document Server

    Alginaih, Yasser M

    2010-01-01

    The use of OCR in postal services is not yet universal and there are still many countries that process mail sorting manually. Automated Arabic/Indian numeral Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems for Postal services are being used in some countries, but still there are errors during the mail sorting process, thus causing a reduction in efficiency. The need to investigate fast and efficient recognition algorithms/systems is important so as to correctly read the postal codes from mail addresses and to eliminate any errors during the mail sorting stage. The objective of this study is to recognize printed numerical postal codes from mail addresses. The proposed system is a multistage hybrid system which consists of three different feature extraction methods, i.e., binary, zoning, and fuzzy features, and three different classifiers, i.e., Hamming Nets, Euclidean Distance, and Fuzzy Neural Network Classifiers. The proposed system, systematically compares the performance of each of these methods, and ensures t...

  1. Aber-OWL: a framework for ontology-based data access in biology

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-01-28

    Background: Many ontologies have been developed in biology and these ontologies increasingly contain large volumes of formalized knowledge commonly expressed in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Computational access to the knowledge contained within these ontologies relies on the use of automated reasoning. Results: We have developed the Aber-OWL infrastructure that provides reasoning services for bio-ontologies. Aber-OWL consists of an ontology repository, a set of web services and web interfaces that enable ontology-based semantic access to biological data and literature. Aber-OWL is freely available at http://aber-owl.net. Conclusions: Aber-OWL provides a framework for automatically accessing information that is annotated with ontologies or contains terms used to label classes in ontologies. When using Aber-OWL, access to ontologies and data annotated with them is not merely based on class names or identifiers but rather on the knowledge the ontologies contain and the inferences that can be drawn from it.

  2. Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. This requires experiments in appropriate research facilities in which complete flow field data, not only point measurements, are obtained and analyzed. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows.

  3. 07131 Abstracts Collection -- Similarity-based Clustering and its Application to Medicine and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara; Verleysen, Michel; Villmann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    From 25.03. to 30.03.2007, the Dagstuhl Seminar 07131 ``Similarity-based Clustering and its Application to Medicine and Biology'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. T...

  4. Inquiry-based training improves teaching effectiveness of biology teaching assistants

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, P William; Ellefson, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are used extensively as undergraduate science lab instructors at universities, yet they often have having minimal instructional training and little is known about effective training methods. This blind randomized control trial study assessed the impact of two training regimens on GTA teaching effectiveness. GTAs teaching undergraduate biology labs (n = 52) completed five hours of training in either inquiry-based learning pedagogy or general instructional “b...

  5. Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills In A Marine Biology Class Through Problem-Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Richard M. Magsino

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine students' perspectives of their learning in marine biology in the collaborative group context of Problem-based Learning (PBL). Students’ higher order thinking skills (HOTS) using PBL involves the development of their logical thinking and reasoning abilities which stimulates their curiosity and associative thinking. This study aimed to investigate how critical thinking skills, particularly analysis, synthesis and evaluation were enhanced ...

  6. Biological Significance of Gene Expression Data using Similarity based Biclustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Bagyamani J; Thangavel; Rathipriya R

    2011-01-01

    Unlocking the complexity of a living organism’s biological processes, functionsand genetic network is vital in learning how to improve the health of humankind.Genetic analysis, especially biclustering, is a significant step in this process.Though many biclustering methods exist, only few provide a query basedapproach for biologists to search the biclusters which contain a certain gene ofinterest. This proposed query based biclustering algorithm SIMBIC+ firstidentifies a functionally rich quer...

  7. An ontology-based approach to systems biology literature retrieval and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Anália; Simões, Alberto; Almeida, J. J.; Rocha, Miguel; Rocha, I; Ferreira, E. C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details the SysBio Explorer, a Systems Biology Literature Retrieval and Processing Framework, whose aim relies on the automatic inference of regulatory and metabolic networks based on biomedical literature. The SysBio Explorer does not focus on any organism or problem in particular and encompasses a number of processing and analysis techniques. It works over full-text documents, applying Natural Language Processing techniques and using biomedical dictionaries and ontologies togethe...

  8. Biological performance of titania containing phosphate-based glasses for bone tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Neel, E. A.; W. Chrzanowski; Knowles, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between glass chemistry, structure, degradation kinetics, and biological activity provides flexibility for the development of scaffolds with highly specific cellular response. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the role of titania inclusion into the phosphate-based glass on its ability to stimulate osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to adhere, proliferate and differentiate. In depth morphological and biochemical characterisation was performed on HOS c...

  9. Peptide-Based, Two-Fluorophore, Ratiometric Probe for Quantifying Mobile Zinc in Biological Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Daniel Y.; Azrad, Maria; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Frederickson, Christopher J.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Radford, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Small-molecule fluorescent sensors are versatile agents for detecting mobile zinc in biology. Capitalizing on the abundance of validated mobile zinc probes, we devised a strategy for repurposing existing intensity-based sensors for quantitative applications. Using solid-phase peptide synthesis, we conjugated a zinc-sensitive Zinpyr-1 derivative and a zinc-insensitive 7-hydroxycoumarin derivative onto opposite ends of a rigid P9K peptide scaffold to create HcZ9, a ratiometric fluorescent probe...

  10. COMPARISON OF TWO BIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF RIVER WATER QUALITY BASED ON MACROZOOBENTHOS

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Kerovec; Zlatko Mihaljević

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the results of two macrozoobenthos analysis based indices (Saprobic Index and Extended Biotic Index) are used as biological indicators in the assessment of river water quality. The objective of the paper is to establish the extent to which the results of these methods are comparable. The results indicate that both indices are suitable for assessing the quality of river water in the Croatian hydrographic network. Major deviations were only detected in xenosaprobic waters,...

  11. Human Cancer Classification: A Systems Biology- Based Model Integrating Morphology, Cancer Stem Cells, Proteomics, and Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday A Idikio

    2011-01-01

    Human cancer classification is currently based on the idea of cell of origin, light and electron microscopic attributes of the cancer. What is not yet integrated into cancer classification are the functional attributes of these cancer cells. Recent innovative techniques in biology have provided a wealth of information on the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes in cancer cells. The emergence of the concept of cancer stem cells needs to be included in a classification model to capture...

  12. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  13. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, Lilian; Le-Clech, Pierre; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Ayoub, George M; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  14. Nonlinear resonances in a multi-stage free-electron laser amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, S. [Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Takayama, K. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    A two-beam accelerator (TBA) is a possible candidate of future linear colliders, in which the demanded rf power is provided by a multi-stage free-electron laser (MFEL). After if amplification in each stage, a driving beam is re-accelerated by an induction unit and propagates into the next stage. Recently it has been recognized that the multi-stage character of the MFEL causes resonances between its periodicity and the synchrotron motion in an rf bucket. Since the synchrotron oscillation is strongly modulated by the resonance and at the worst a large fraction of particles is trapped in the resonance islands, the nonlinear resonances in the FEL longitudinal beam dynamics can lead to notable degradation of the MFEL performance, such as output fluctuation and phase modulation which have been big concerns in the accelerator society. The overall efficiency of the MFEL and the quality of the amplified microwave power are key issues for realizing the TBA/FEL Particularly the rf phase and amplitude errors must be maintained within tolerance. One of significant obstacles is an amplification of undesired modes. If a small-size waveguide is employed, the FEL resonance energies for undesired higher order modes shift very far from that for a fundamental mode; so it is possible to prevent higher order modes from evolving. Such a small-size waveguide, however, gives a high power density in the FEL. Simulation results have demonstrated that the nonlinear resonances occur in die FEL longitudinal motion when the power density exceeds some threshold. An analytical method for studying the nonlinear resonance in the TBA/FEL is developed based on the macroparticle model which can describe analytically the drastic behaviors in the evolutions of the phase and amplitude. In the theory the basic 1D-FEL equations are reduced to a nonlinear pendulum equation with respect to the ponderomotive phase.

  15. Participation in introductory biology laboratories: An integrated assessment based on surveys, behavioral observations, and qualitative interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Connie Adelle

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender, major, and prior knowledge of and attitude toward biology on participation in introductory biology laboratories. Subjects for this study were 3,527 students enrolled in college-level introductory biology courses. During the study, three introductory courses were replaced with one mixed-majors course. The new course adopted a different pedagological approach from the previous courses in that an inquiry-based approach was used in lectures and laboratories. All subjects completed a survey that measured content knowledge using the NABT/NSTA High School Biology Examination Version 1990 and attitude using Russell and Hollander's Biology Attitude Scale. I used and discuss the merits of using ethological methods and data collection software, EthoScribeTM (Tima Scientific) to collect behavioral data from 145 students. I also evaluated participation using qualitative interviews of 30 students. I analyzed content knowledge and attitude data using ANOVA and Pearson correlation, and behavioral data using Contingency Table Analysis. I analyzed interviews following methods outlined by Rubin and Rubin. Findings. Course style and gender were the most useful variables in distinguishing differences among groups of students with regard to attitude, content knowledge, and participation in laboratories. Attitude toward biology and achievement measured by the surveys were found to be positively correlated; however, gender, major, class standing, course style and interactions between these variables also had effects on these variables. I found a positive association among attitude, achievement and participation in hands-on activities in laboratories. Differences in participation also were associated group type. In a traditional introductory biology course, females in single-gender groups, gender-equal, or groups in which females were the majority spent more time performing hands-on science

  16. Probability-based model of protein-protein interactions on biological timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bates Paul A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation methods can assist in describing and understanding complex networks of interacting proteins, providing fresh insights into the function and regulation of biological systems. Recent studies have investigated such processes by explicitly modelling the diffusion and interactions of individual molecules. In these approaches, two entities are considered to have interacted if they come within a set cutoff distance of each other. Results In this study, a new model of bimolecular interactions is presented that uses a simple, probability-based description of the reaction process. This description is well-suited to simulations on timescales relevant to biological systems (from seconds to hours, and provides an alternative to the previous description given by Smoluchowski. In the present approach (TFB the diffusion process is explicitly taken into account in generating the probability that two freely diffusing chemical entities will interact within a given time interval. It is compared to the Smoluchowski method, as modified by Andrews and Bray (AB. Conclusion When implemented, the AB & TFB methods give equivalent results in a variety of situations relevant to biology. Overall, the Smoluchowski method as modified by Andrews and Bray emerges as the most simple, robust and efficient method for simulating biological diffusion-reaction processes currently available.

  17. Logarithmic rate based elasto-viscoplastic cyclic constitutive model for soft biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yilin; Kang, Guozheng; Yu, Chao; Poh, Leong Hien

    2016-08-01

    Based on the logarithmic rate and piecewise linearization theory, a thermodynamically consistent elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is developed in the framework of finite deformations to describe the nonlinear time-dependent biomechanical performances of soft biological tissues, such as nonlinear anisotropic monotonic stress-strain responses, stress relaxation, creep and ratchetting. In the proposed model, the soft biological tissue is assumed as a typical composites consisting of an isotropic matrix and anisotropic fiber aggregation. Accordingly, the free energy function and stress tensor are divided into two parts related to the matrix and fiber aggregation, respectively. The nonlinear biomechanical responses of the tissues are described by the piecewise linearization theory with hypo-elastic relations of fiber aggregation. The evolution equations of viscoplasticity are formulated from the dissipation inequalities by the co-directionality hypotheses. The anisotropy is considered in the hypo-elastic relations and viscoplastic flow rules by introducing some material parameters dependent on the loading direction. Then the capability of the proposed model to describe the nonlinear time-dependent deformation of soft biological tissues is verified by comparing the predictions with the corresponding experimental results of three tissues. It is seen that the predicted monotonic stress-strain responses, stress relaxation, creep and ratchetting of soft biological tissues are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones. PMID:27108349

  18. A Knowledge Base for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Brekelmans, Mieke; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2011-10-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge concerning genetic testing and the related consequences for decision-making indicate the societal relevance of such a situated learning approach. What content knowledge do biology teachers need for teaching genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing? This study describes the required content knowledge by exploring the educational practice and clinical genetic practices. Nine experienced teachers and 12 respondents representing the clinical genetic practices (clients, medical professionals, and medical ethicists) were interviewed about the biological concepts and ethical, legal, and social aspects (ELSA) of testing they considered relevant to empowering students as future health care clients. The ELSA suggested by the respondents were complemented by suggestions found in the literature on genetic counselling. The findings revealed that the required teacher knowledge consists of multiple layers that are embedded in specific genetic test situations: on the one hand, the knowledge of concepts represented by the curricular framework and some additional concepts (e.g. multifactorial and polygenic disorder) and, on the other hand, more knowledge of ELSA and generic characteristics of genetic test practice (uncertainty, complexity, probability, and morality). Suggestions regarding how to translate these characteristics, concepts, and ELSA into context-based genetics education are discussed.

  19. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Nyamukondiwa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  20. Emergence of biological markers of musicianship with school-based music instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Strait, Dana L

    2015-03-01

    Musician children and adults demonstrate biological distinctions in auditory processing relative to nonmusicians. For example, musician children and adults have more robust neural encoding of speech harmonics, more adaptive sound processing, and more precise neural encoding of acoustically similar sounds; these enhancements may contribute to musicians' linguistic advantages, such as for hearing speech in noise and reading. Such findings have inspired proposals that the auditory and cognitive stimulation induced by musical practice renders musicians enhanced according to biological metrics germane to communication. Cross-sectional methodologies comparing musicians with nonmusicians, however, are limited by the inability to disentangle training-related effects from demographic and innate qualities that may predistinguish musicians. Over the past several years, our laboratory has addressed this problem by examining the emergence of neural markers of musicianship in children and adolescents using longitudinal approaches to track the development of biological indices of speech processing. This work was conducted in partnership with successful community-based music programs, thus avoiding reliance on a synthetic program for the purposes of laboratory study. Outcomes indicate that many of musicians' auditory-related biological enhancements emerge with training and may promote the acquisition of language skills, including in at-risk populations. PMID:25773631

  1. Synthesis and biological activity evaluation of hydrazone derivatives based on a Tröger's base skeleton

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplánek, R.; Havlík, M.; Dolenský, B.; Rak, J.; Džubák, P.; Konečný, P.; Hajdúch, M.; Králová, Jarmila; Král, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 7 (2015), s. 1651-1659. ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/1291 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0060; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Anticancer agents * Cancer treatment * Complexation studies * Hydrazone * Troger's base Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2014

  2. Investigative strategy for research on biological basis of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome: feature selection-based data mining methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-xin Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to discussing two research patterns of biological basis of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome and presenting a research strategy for data mining methods. It points out that data mining methods which are based on feature selection are better fit for investigating biological basis of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome. Based on such a discussion, the concept of “characteristic pattern” is proposed to bridge the gap between “golden index” and biological basis of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome. This paper presents a novel research avenue for investigating biological basis of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome.

  3. Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation of Schiff Bases of 5-Acyl-1,2,4-Triazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and general method has been developed for the synthesis of various Schiff bases (oximes, hydrazones, semicarbazones and thiosemicarbazones) derived from 5-acyl-1,2,4-triazines. Some of the new synthesized Schiff bases were tested for biological activity but only oximes 2a-c shown poor antiviral activity. The oxime derivatives of 5-acyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1,2,4-triazine were tested with pea-seedling diamine oxidase as the enzyme is known to be inhibited by oxime compounds. However, only weak non-competitive inhibitory effects were observed (Ki of 10 /sup -2/ M). (author)

  4. Multi-stage and multi-orifice throttling analysis for thermal power generating sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭茂林; 王刚; 张瑞

    2002-01-01

    Multi-stage and multi-orifice throttling analysis for bypass valves in thermal power generating sets is important for normal operation of power generating equipment. It is improper to exclude the factor of flow resistance from the expansion coefficient for the flow formula used for analysing the multi-stage and multi-orifice flow of compressible fluid, which means expansion of gas has nothing to do with resistance. The authors put forward an expanded energy equation and related formula to overcome the drawback, and use them for multi-stage and multi-orifice throttling analysis of compressible fluid for thermal power generating sets.

  5. On Stability Problems of Omega and 3-Disjoint Paths Omega Multi-stage Interconnection Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rastogi, Ravi; Chauhan, Durg Singh; Govil, Mahesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    The research paper emphasizes that the Stable Matching problems are the same as the problems of stable configurations of Multi-stage Interconnection Networks (MIN). We have discusses the Stability Problems of Existing Regular Omega Multi-stage Interconnection Network (OMIN) and Proposed 3-Disjoint Paths Omega Multi-stage Interconnection Network (3DON) using the approaches and solutions provided by the Stable Matching Problem. Specifically, Stable Marriage Problem is used as an example of Stable Matching. On application of the concept of the Stable Marriage over the MINs states that OMIN is highly stable in comparison to 3DON.

  6. Machine perception and intelligent control architecture for multirobot coordination based on biological principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Braught, Grant

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent control, inspired by biological and AI (artificial intelligence) principles, has increased the understanding of controlling complex processes without precise mathematical model of the controlled process. Through customized applications, intelligent control has demonstrated that it is a step in the right direction. However, intelligent control has yet to provide a complete solution to the problem of integrated manufacturing systems via intelligent reconfiguration of the robotics systems. The aim of this paper is to present an intelligent control architecture and design methodology based on biological principles that govern self-organization of autonomous agents. Two key structural elements of the proposed control architecture have been tested individually on key pilot applications and shown promising results. The proposed intelligent control design is inspired by observed individual and collective biological behavior in colonies of living organisms that are capable of self-organization into groups of specialized individuals capable of collectively achieving a set of prescribed or emerging objectives. The nervous and brain system in the proposed control architecture is based on reinforcement learning principles and conditioning and modeled using adaptive neurocontrollers. Mathematical control theory (e.g. optimal control, adaptive control, and neurocontrol) is used to coordinate the interactions of multiple robotics agents.

  7. Preparation of ferric-activated sludge-based adsorbent from biological sludge for tetracycline removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Xu, Guoren; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Ferric activation was novelly used to produce sludge-based adsorbent (SBA) from biological sludge through pyrolysis, and the adsorbents were applied to remove tetracycline from aqueous solution. The pyrolysis temperature and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) greatly influenced the surface area and pore characteristics of SBA. Ferric activation could promote the porous structure development of adsorbents, and the optimum preparation conditions were pyrolysis temperature 750°C and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) 0.5. In batch experiments, ferric-activated SBA showed a higher adsorption capacity for tetracycline than non-activated SBA, because the enhanced mesoporous structure favored the diffusion of tetracycline into the pores, the iron oxides and oxygen-containing functional groups in the adsorbents captured tetracycline by surface complexation. The results indicate that ferric activation is an effective approach for preparing adsorbents from biological sludge to remove tetracycline, providing a potential option for waste resource recovery. PMID:27038265

  8. NMR spectroscopy, Hammett correlations and biological activity of some Schiff bases derived from piperonal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, Aurea [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Itaguai, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nascimento, Maria da Graca; Geronimo, Vanilde [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Miller, Joseph [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Giesbrecht, Astrea [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    1999-07-01

    A series of eleven Schiff Bases have been synthesized. They were obtained by condensation of piperonal (3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde) with the corresponding aromatic primary amines. Their {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra have been obtained and the Hammett correlations including chemical shifts and the substituent constants ({sigma}{sub p}, {sigma}R e {sigma}I) were studied. Linear and bilinear significant correlations were observed for iminic carbon (C-{alpha}) and C-1{sup '}, showing a more significant resonance effect on chemical shifts. The chemical shifts for C-4{sup '} were highly affected by substituent effects, especially for halogens in the expected direction. Their biological activity against microorganisms has also been measured and significant activity was showed against Epidermophyton floccosum. The biological activity did not give a reasonable relationship with electronic effects. (author)

  9. NMR spectroscopy, Hammett correlations and biological activity of some Schiff bases derived from piperonal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of eleven Schiff Bases have been synthesized. They were obtained by condensation of piperonal (3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde) with the corresponding aromatic primary amines. Their 1H and 13C-NMR spectra have been obtained and the Hammett correlations including chemical shifts and the substituent constants (σp, σR e σI) were studied. Linear and bilinear significant correlations were observed for iminic carbon (C-α) and C-1', showing a more significant resonance effect on chemical shifts. The chemical shifts for C-4' were highly affected by substituent effects, especially for halogens in the expected direction. Their biological activity against microorganisms has also been measured and significant activity was showed against Epidermophyton floccosum. The biological activity did not give a reasonable relationship with electronic effects. (author)

  10. Biological dosimeter for UV-radiation and alpha particles, based on DNA damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bioluminescence method for determination of biologically relevant (DNA damaging) doses of UV-radiation and alpha particles is developed. The method is based on bacterial luminescence as a bio-marker regulated by the SOS system. Cultures of E. coli cells transformed with the plasmid pPSL1 which carries the lux gene under control of the col promotor, an SOS-controlling gene, is used. The lux gene encode the enzyme luciferase which takes part in the reaction, resulting in the emission of a visible light at 490 nm. The light output is measured by photomultiplier and one channel analyzer. SOS-response kinetic curves of bacteria, UV-irradiated and treated with alpha particles, are obtained. An assessment of the risk from solar UV-radiation is made. The method has the sensitivity required to be used as biological UV-dosimeter (author)

  11. Schiff base triphenylphosphine palladium (II) complexes: Synthesis, structural elucidation, electrochemical and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Safeer; Shafiq, Maryam; Mirza, Bushra; McKee, Vickie; Munawar, Khurram Shahzad; Ashraf, Ahmad Raza

    2016-08-01

    The complexes N-(2-oxidophenyl)salicylideneiminatotriphenylphosphine palladium(II) (1) and N-(2-sulfidophenyl)salicylideneiminato triphenylphosphine palladium(II) (2) of tridentate Schiff bases derived from salicylaldehyde and an amino- or thiophenol, have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic, analytical and electro-analytical techniques. X-ray single crystal analysis of complex 1 has revealed its square planar geometry. The thermal analysis has shown the absence of coordinated water and final degradation product is PdO. The alkaline phosphatase studies have indicated that enzymatic activity is concentration dependent which is inversely proportional to the concentration of the compounds. The biological assays (brine shrimp cytotoxicity, DPPH) have reflected their biologically active and mild antioxidant nature. However, results of DNA protection assay have shown that they possess moderate protective activity against hydroxyl free radicals (rad OH). The voltammetric studies ascertain two-electron reduction of the compounds through purely diffusion controlled process and reveal intercalative mode of drug DNA interactions.

  12. A Biologically-Based Alternative Water Processor for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Meyer, Caitlin; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, Andrew; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    A wastewater recovery system has been developed that combines novel biological and physicochemical components for recycling wastewater on long duration space missions. Functionally, this Alternative Water Processor (AWP) would replace the Urine Processing Assembly on the International Space Station and reduce or eliminate the need for the multifiltration beds of the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). At its center are two unique game changing technologies: 1) a biological water processor (BWP) to mineralize organic forms of carbon and nitrogen and 2) an advanced membrane processor (Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment) for removal of solids and inorganic ions. The AWP is designed for recycling larger quantities of wastewater from multiple sources expected during future exploration missions, including urine, hygiene (hand wash, shower, oral and shave) and laundry. The BWP utilizes a single-stage membrane-aerated biological reactor for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment (FOST) system uses a combination of forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO), is resistant to biofouling and can easily tolerate wastewaters high in non-volatile organics and solids associated with shower and/or hand washing. The BWP was operated continuously for over 300 days. After startup, the mature biological system averaged 85% organic carbon removal and 44% nitrogen removal, close to maximum based on available carbon. The FOST has averaged 93% water recovery, with a maximum of 98%. If the wastewater is slighty acidified, ammonia rejection is optimal. This paper will provide a description of the technology and summarize results from ground-based testing using real wastewater.

  13. Biological Significance of Gene Expression Data using Similarity based Biclustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagyamani J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking the complexity of a living organism’s biological processes, functionsand genetic network is vital in learning how to improve the health of humankind.Genetic analysis, especially biclustering, is a significant step in this process.Though many biclustering methods exist, only few provide a query basedapproach for biologists to search the biclusters which contain a certain gene ofinterest. This proposed query based biclustering algorithm SIMBIC+ firstidentifies a functionally rich query gene. After identifying the query gene, sets ofgenes including query gene that show coherent expression patterns acrosssubsets of experimental conditions is identified. It performs simultaneousclustering on both row and column dimension to extract biclusters using Topdown approach. Since it uses novel ‘ratio’ based similarity measure, biclusterswith more coherence and with more biological meaning are identified. SIMBIC+uses score based approach with an aim of maximizing the similarity of thebicluster. Contribution entropy based condition selection and multiple row /column deletion methods are used to reduce the complexity of the algorithm toidentify biclusters with maximum similarity value. Experiments are conducted onYeast Saccharomyces dataset and the biclusters obtained are compared withbiclusters of popular MSB (Maximum Similarity Bicluster algorithm. Thebiological significance of the biclusters obtained by the proposed algorithm andMSB are compared and the comparison proves that SIMBIC+ identifies biclusterswith more significant GO (Gene Ontology.

  14. Novel fluorescence-based integrated sensor for chemical and biological agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.; Fagan, Steve; Krouse, Justin; Hutchinson, Kira D.

    2004-12-01

    There is a renewed interest in the development of chemical and biological agent sensors due to the increased threat of weapons deployment by terrorist organizations and rogue states. Optically based sensors address the needs of military and homeland security forces in that they are reliable, rapidly deployed, and can provide continuous monitoring with little to no operator involvement. Nomadics has developed optically based chemical weapons sensors that utilize reactive fluorescent chromophores initially developed by Professor Tim Swager at MIT. The chromophores provide unprecedented sensitivity and selectivity toward toxic industrial chemicals and certain chemical weapon agents. The selectivity is based upon the reactivity of the G-class nerve agents (phosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme) that makes them toxic. Because the sensor recognizes the reactivity of strong electrophiles and not molecular weight, chemical affinity or ionizability, our system detects a specific class of reactive agents and will be able to detect newly developed or modified agents that are not currently known. We have recently extended this work to pursue a combined chemical/biological agent sensor system incorporating technologies based upon novel deep ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) developed out of the DARPA Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) program.

  15. AERODYNAMIC AND BLADING DESIGN OF MULTISTAGE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The axial-flow compressor is used for aircraft engines because it has distinct configuration and performance advantages over other compressor types. However, good potential performance is not easily obtained. The designer must be able to model the actual flows well enough to adequately predict aerodynamic performance. This computer program has been developed for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis. The aerodynamic solution gives velocity diagrams on selected streamlines of revolution at the blade row edges. The program yields aerodynamic and blading design results that can be directly used by flow and mechanical analysis codes. Two such codes are TSONIC, a blade-to-blade channel flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-10977), and MERIDL, a more detailed hub-to-shroud flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-12966). The aerodynamic and blading design program can reduce the time and effort required to obtain acceptable multistage axial-flow compressor configurations by generating good initial solutions and by being compatible with available analysis codes. The aerodynamic solution assumes steady, axisymmetric flow so that the problem is reduced to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. The streamline curvature method is used for the iterative aerodynamic solution at stations outside of the blade rows. If a blade design is desired, the blade elements are defined and stacked within the aerodynamic solution iteration. The blade element inlet and outlet angles are established by empirical incidence and deviation angles to the relative flow angles of the velocity diagrams. The blade element centerline is composed of two segments tangentially joined at a transition point. The local blade angle variation of each element can be specified as a fourth-degree polynomial function of path distance. Blade element thickness can also be specified

  16. A multistage mechanism for managing aggressive flows in the next generation internet

    OpenAIRE

    D. Lanzi

    2001-01-01

    In this note, we provide a multistage game form which may be used for managing aggressive flows which may cause network congestion or monopolisation. The mechanism here presented attains economic efficiency, technical efficiency and other desirable properties.

  17. 4 Kelvin Cooling with Innovative Final Stage of Multistage Cryocooler Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed for development is a proof-of-concept prototype for the final stage of a multistage cryocooler. This final stage comprises a high frequency pulse tube cold...

  18. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF METALS TO SINGLE AND MULTISTAGE, CONSTANT STRAIN RATE COMPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Lenard, J

    1985-01-01

    Single and multistage, uniaxial compression tests are conducted on Al-Mg-Si and 0.02% Nb HSLA steel alloys. Rate sensitivity, activation energy and the effect of interruption on the flow strength of the metals are determined.

  19. Chemical and biological sensors based on optically confined birefringent chalcopyrite heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces and discusses the design and application(s) of a new and unique integrated solid-state molecular sensor (SSMS) system. The SSMS is based on optically confined birefringent heterostructure technology, which has the capability of recognizing target chemicals and biological molecules in an ambient environment. The SSMS technology is applicable for miniaturized sensor devices that can be used for quick, remote screening and recognition of chemical hazards in the environment. For example, trace impurities related to air/water pollution can be continuously monitored. Just as important, however, the SSMS technology will have a worldwide impact--economically as well as technologically--when used in the detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as for a variety of medical sensing applications, such as to identify and monitor complex biological structures, test for allergic reactions and screen for common diseases. Moreover, it could hasten the time of development and introduction into the marketplace of critically needed new drugs by the monitoring of biochemical and molecular cellular responses to the candidate drugs. Materials selection criteria, growth parameters and device architecture requirements are given and discussed. In addition, the results of a recent phase matching calculation, substantiating the feasibility of the SSMS, are given and discussed

  20. Organizing Community-Based Data Standards: Lessons from Developing a Successful Open Standard in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, M.

    2015-09-01

    In common with many fields, including astronomy, a vast number of software tools for computational modeling and simulation are available today in systems biology. This wealth of resources is a boon to researchers, but it also presents interoperability problems. Despite working with different software tools, researchers want to disseminate their work widely as well as reuse and extend the models of other researchers. This situation led in the year 2000 to an effort to create a tool-independent, machine-readable file format for representing models: SBML, the Systems Biology Markup Language. SBML has since become the de facto standard for its purpose. Its success and general approach has inspired and influenced other community-oriented standardization efforts in systems biology. Open standards are essential for the progress of science in all fields, but it is often difficult for academic researchers to organize successful community-based standards. I draw on personal experiences from the development of SBML and summarize some of the lessons learned, in the hope that this may be useful to other groups seeking to develop open standards in a community-oriented fashion.

  1. A biologically based neural system coordinates the joints and legs of a tetrapod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Alexander; Schmidt, Manuela; Fischer, Martin; Quinn, Roger

    2015-10-01

    A biologically inspired neural control system has been developed that coordinates a tetrapod trotting gait in the sagittal plane. The developed neuromechanical system is used to explore properties of connections in inter-leg and intra-leg coordination. The neural controller is built with biologically based neurons and synapses, and connections are based on data from literature where available. It is applied to a planar biomechanical model of a rat with 14 joints, each actuated by a pair of antagonistic Hill muscle models. The controller generates tension in the muscles through activation of simulated motoneurons. The hind leg and inter-leg control networks are based on pathways discovered in cat research tuned to the kinematic motions of a rat. The foreleg network was developed by extrapolating analogous pathways from the hind legs. The formulated intra-leg and inter-leg networks properly coordinate the joints and produce motions similar to those of a walking rat. Changing the strength of a single inter-leg connection is sufficient to account for differences in phase timing in different trotting rats. PMID:26351756

  2. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bal-Ram; Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Chen, Aicheng

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH), and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics. PMID:26404304

  3. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  4. Reclaimation of petroleum-based wastewater by noval ozone immobilized biological activated carbon process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation in the petroleum industries in Northern China is important because of the shortage of water resource. Conventional treatment technology used in treating petroleum-based wastewater,namely the 3-phase biological process, typically removes COD, BOD, grease, volatile hydrobenzenes, cyanides, sulfides and suspended solids. However, the process is often ineffective in ammonia-nitrogen removal,and thus the treated effluent quantity can't meet the required standards for reuse. This paper investigated a novel ozone immobilized biological activated carbon (O3-IBAC) process for ammonia nitrogen removal from petroleum-based wastewater. Operated at a HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time) of 15 minutes in IBAC1 and 27 minutes in IBAC2, the O3-IBAC process achieved ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency of 91%. In addition, the removal efficiencies of COD, volatile hydrobenzenes, suspended solids, turbidity and petroleum-based micropollutants were all above 90%. Competition between the autotrophs and heterotrophs was observed, which was indicated by an increase of ammonia nitrogen removal with a decrease of COD removal, and vise versa. Nitrite accumulation in IBAC1 followed by erobic shortcut denitrification in IBAC2 led to 28% of the Total Nitrogen removal efficiency. Pollutant reduction in the IBAC process was achieved by a rapid physical adsorption and biodegradation on the activated carbon, which effectively retained the pollutants in the system despite the short hydraulic retention time.

  5. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Ram Adhikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, reduced graphene oxide (rGO, SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH, and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics.

  6. DeepID-Net: multi-stage and deformable deep convolutional neural networks for object detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Wanli; Luo, Ping; Zeng, Xingyu; Qiu, Shi; Tian, Yonglong; Li, Hongsheng; Yang, Shuo; Wang, Zhe; Xiong, Yuanjun; Qian, Chen; Zhu, Zhenyao; Wang, Ruohui; Loy, Chen-Change; Wang, Xiaogang; Tang, Xiaoou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose multi-stage and deformable deep convolutional neural networks for object detection. This new deep learning object detection diagram has innovations in multiple aspects. In the proposed new deep architecture, a new deformation constrained pooling (def-pooling) layer models the deformation of object parts with geometric constraint and penalty. With the proposed multi-stage training strategy, multiple classifiers are jointly optimized to process samples at different dif...

  7. Can multi-stage production explain the home bias in trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Kei-Mu Yi

    2008-01-01

    A large empirical literature finds that there is too little international trade, and too much intra-national trade to be rationalized by observed international trade costs such as tariffs and transport costs. The literature uses frameworks in which goods are assumed to be produced in just one stage. This paper investigates whether the multi-stage nature of production helps explain the home bias in trade. The author shows that multi-stage production magnifies the effects of trade costs. He the...

  8. Throughput and Collision Analysis of Multi-Channel Multi-Stage Spectrum Sensing Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Gabran, Wesam; Pawełczak, Przemysław; Čabrić, Danijela

    2010-01-01

    Multi-stage sensing is a novel concept that refers to a general class of spectrum sensing algorithms that divide the sensing process into a number of sequential stages. The number of sensing stages and the sensing technique per stage can be used to optimize performance with respect to secondary user throughput and the collision probability between primary and secondary users. So far, the impact of multi-stage sensing on network throughput and collision probability for a realistic network mode...

  9. On use of the multistage dose-response model for assessing laboratory animal carcinogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Nitcheva, Daniella; Piegorsch, Walter W.; West, R. Webster

    2007-01-01

    We explore how well a statistical multistage model describes dose-response patterns in laboratory animal carcinogenicity experiments from a large database of quantal response data. The data are collected from the U.S. EPA’s publicly available IRIS data warehouse and examined statistically to determine how often higher-order values in the multistage predictor yield significant improvements in explanatory power over lower-order values. Our results suggest that the addition of a second-order par...

  10. Theoretical study of the molecular bases that control photochemical processes with biological and nanotechnological interest

    OpenAIRE

    Saurí Peris, Vicenta

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo desarrollado en la tesis doctoral que lleva por título "Theoretical study of the molecular bases that control photochemical processes with biological and nanotechnological interest" se enmarca en las líneas de investigación del grupo QCEXVAL (Quantum Chemistry of the Excited State University of Valencia), que nació en el seno del departamento de Química Física de la Universitat de València en 1993. Se han abordado temas de interés metodológico, biológico y nanotecnológico. La prime...

  11. The use of computer-based assessments in a field biology module

    OpenAIRE

    Baggott, Glenn K.; Rayne, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    Formative computer-based assessments (CBAs) for self-instruction were introduced into a Year-2 field biology module. These CBAs were provided in ‘tutorial’ mode where each question had context-related diagnostic feedback and tutorial pages, and a self-test mode where the same CBA returned only a score. The summative assessments remained unchanged and consisted of an unseen CBA and written reports of field investigations. When compared with the previous three year-cohorts, the mean score for t...

  12. Pressure Transient Analysis and Flux Distribution for Multistage Fractured Horizontal Wells in Triple-Porosity Reservoir Media with Consideration of Stress-Sensitivity Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Jingjing Guo; Haitao Wang; Liehui Zhang; Chengyong Li

    2015-01-01

    Triple-porosity model is usually adopted to describe reservoirs with multiscaled pore spaces, including matrix pores, natural fractures, and vugs. Multiple fractures created by hydraulic fracturing can effectively improve the connectivity between existing natural fractures and thus increase well deliverability. However, little work has been done on pressure transient behavior of multistage fractured horizontal wells in triple-porosity reservoirs. Based on source/sink function method, this pap...

  13. NDDP multi-stage flash desalination process simulator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A majority of large-scale desalination plants all over the world employ multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation process. Many of these MSF desalination plants have been set up near to nuclear power plants (generally called as nuclear desalination plants) to effectively utilize the low-grade steam from the power plants as the source of energy. A computer program called MSFSIM has been developed to simulate the MSF desalination plant operation both for steady state and various transients including start up. This code predicts the effect of number of stages, flashing temperature, velocity of brine flowing through the tubes of brine heater and evaporators, temperature of the condensing thin film etc. on the plant performance ratio. Such a code can be used for the design of a new plant and to predict its operating and startup characteristics. The code has been extensively validated with available start up data from the pilot MSF desalination plant of 425-m3/day capacity at Trombay, Mumbai. A MSF desalination plant of 4500-m3/day capacity is under construction by BARC at Kalpakkam, which will utilize the steam from Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). In this present work extensive parametric study of the 4500-m3/day capacity desalination plant at Kalpakkam has been done using the code MSFSIM for optimizing the operating parameters in order to maximize the performance ratio for stable plant operation. The aim of the work is prediction of plant performance under different operating conditions. (author)

  14. Discontinuous Transition of a Multistage Independent Cascade Model on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Takehisa

    2012-01-01

    We study a multistage independent cascade (MIC) model in complex networks. This model is parameterized by two probabilities: T1 is the probability that a node adopting a fad increases the awareness of a neighboring susceptible node until it abandons the fad, and T2 is the probability that an adopter directly causes a susceptible node to adopt the fad. We formulate a framework of tree approximation for the MIC model on an uncorrelated network with an arbitrary given degree distribution. As an application, we study this model on a random regular network with degree k=6 to show that it has a rich phase diagram including continuous and discontinuous transition lines for the percolation of fads as well as a continuous transition line for the percolation of susceptible nodes. In particular, the percolation transition of fads is discontinuous (continuous) when T1 is larger (smaller) than a certain value. Furthermore, the phase boundaries drastically change by assigning a finite fraction of initial adopters. We discu...

  15. Synthetic Multiple-Imputation Procedure for Multistage Complex Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hanzhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple imputation (MI is commonly used when item-level missing data are present. However, MI requires that survey design information be built into the imputation models. For multistage stratified clustered designs, this requires dummy variables to represent strata as well as primary sampling units (PSUs nested within each stratum in the imputation model. Such a modeling strategy is not only operationally burdensome but also inferentially inefficient when there are many strata in the sample design. Complexity only increases when sampling weights need to be modeled. This article develops a generalpurpose analytic strategy for population inference from complex sample designs with item-level missingness. In a simulation study, the proposed procedures demonstrate efficient estimation and good coverage properties. We also consider an application to accommodate missing body mass index (BMI data in the analysis of BMI percentiles using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III data. We argue that the proposed methods offer an easy-to-implement solution to problems that are not well-handled by current MI techniques. Note that, while the proposed method borrows from the MI framework to develop its inferential methods, it is not designed as an alternative strategy to release multiply imputed datasets for complex sample design data, but rather as an analytic strategy in and of itself.

  16. A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage voltage multiplier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Shahid [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Singh, G K [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Besar, R [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Muhammad, G [Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2006-10-15

    A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (CW-VM) is proposed in this report. It consists of three single-phase symmetrical voltage multipliers, which are connected in series at their smoothing columns like string of batteries and are driven by three-phase ac power source. The smoothing column of each voltage multiplier is charged twice every cycle independently by respective oscillating columns and discharged in series through load. The charging discharging process completes six times a cycle and therefore the output voltage ripple's frequency is of sixth order of the drive signal frequency. Thus the proposed approach eliminates the first five harmonic components of load generated voltage ripples and sixth harmonic is the major ripple component. The proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical voltage multiplier has less than half the voltage ripple, and three times larger output voltage and output power than the conventional single-phase symmetrical CW-VM. Experimental and simulation results of the laboratory prototype are given to show the feasibility of proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical CW-VM.

  17. Design procedure of capsule with multistage heater control (named MUSTAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capsule with electric heaters at multistage (named MUSTAC) is a type of capsule used in JMTR. The heaters are assembled in the capsule. Supply electric current to the heaters can be independently adjusted with a control systems that keeps irradiation specimens to constant temperature. The capsule being used, the irradiation specimen are inserted into specimen holders. Gas-gap size, between outer surface of specimen holders and inner surface of capsule casing, is calculated and determined to be flatten temperature of loaded specimens over the region. The rise or drop of specimen temperature in accordance with reactor power fluctuations is corrected within the target temperature of specimen by using the heaters filled into groove at specimen holder surface. The present report attempts to propose a reasonable design procedure of the capsules by means of compiling experience for designs, works and irradiation data of the capsules and to prepare for useful informations against onward capsule design. The key point of the capsule lies on thermal design. Now design thermal calculations are complicated in case of specimen holder with multihole. Resolving these issues, it is considered from new on that an emphasis have to placed on settling a thermal calculation device, for an example, a computer program on calculation specimen temperature. (author)

  18. Multi-stage Stochastic Programming Models in Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Esmaeili

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Production planing is a key area of operations management. An important methodology for production planing is mathematical programming. Traditonal mathematical programming models for production planing are deterministic, and canot provide robust production plans in the presence of uncertainty. As such, deterministic planing models may yield unsatisfactory decisions. Stochastic programming, an active branch of mathematical programming dealing with optimization problems involving uncertain data, has sen several sucesful aplications in production planing. Unlike alternative aproaches to decision making under uncertainty, such as Markov decision proceses, stochastic programming requires few asumptions on the underlying stochastic proceses and alows for modeling of complicated decision structures. On the other hand, stochastic programming asumes finite number of stages and exogenous uncertainties. With recent increase in computational power and algorithmic developments, the limitations of stochastic programming arising from computational dificulties have ben relieved to a large extent. Nowadays, god production planing is a considered as one of the reason for improvement in production and many studies have ben conducted in order to identify the models of production planing. The main purpose of this research is to study multi-stage stochastic programming models in production planing.

  19. A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage voltage multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (CW-VM) is proposed in this report. It consists of three single-phase symmetrical voltage multipliers, which are connected in series at their smoothing columns like string of batteries and are driven by three-phase ac power source. The smoothing column of each voltage multiplier is charged twice every cycle independently by respective oscillating columns and discharged in series through load. The charging discharging process completes six times a cycle and therefore the output voltage ripple's frequency is of sixth order of the drive signal frequency. Thus the proposed approach eliminates the first five harmonic components of load generated voltage ripples and sixth harmonic is the major ripple component. The proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical voltage multiplier has less than half the voltage ripple, and three times larger output voltage and output power than the conventional single-phase symmetrical CW-VM. Experimental and simulation results of the laboratory prototype are given to show the feasibility of proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical CW-VM

  20. Reduced models of multi-stage cyclic structures using cyclic symmetry reduction and component mode synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duc-Minh

    2014-10-01

    Reduced models of multi-stage cyclic structures such as bladed-disk assemblies are developed by using the multi-stage cyclic symmetry reduction and/or component mode synthesis methods. The multi-stage cyclic symmetry reduction consists in writing the equations of the bladed disks, the inter-disk structures, the inter-disk constraints and the whole multi-stage coupled system in terms of the traveling wave coordinates for all the phase indexes of the reference sectors and for all the bladed disks. Several reduced coupled systems are then solved by selecting at each time only one or a few phase indexes for each bladed disk and by applying the cyclic symmetry boundary conditions. On the other hand, component mode synthesis methods are used either independently or in combination with the multi-stage cyclic symmetry reduction to obtain reduced models of the multi-stage structure. Two of them are particularly efficient, that are firstly component mode synthesis methods with interface modes applied on the bladed disks and secondly component mode synthesis methods with traveling wave coordinates applied on the reference sectors.

  1. Changes of Hematological Markers during a Multi-stage Ultra-marathon Competition in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, L M; Minuzzi, L G; Carvalho, H M; Costa, R J S; Teixeira, A M

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the changes in resting hematological variables in ultra-endurance runners throughout a multi-stage ultra-marathon competition, and compared athletes that completed all stages with those that failed to complete at least one stage within the cut-off time of competition. 19 ultra-endurance runners competing in a 230 km multi-stage ultra-marathon, conducted over 5 consecutive days in hot ambient conditions (32-40°C T(max)), volunteered to participate in the study. Each day, whole blood samples were collected prior to stage commencement and analyzed for full cell counts by Coulter counter. Linear increases were observed for leukocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes; with increases until Stage 3 and a decrease thereafter. Granulocytes showed a cubic growth exponent, indicating decrements to baseline after the significant increments until Stage 3. Hemoglobin and hematocrit showed linear decrements throughout the multi-stage ultra-marathon. No changes in erythrocytes and platelets were observed throughout the multi-stage ultra-marathon. Granulocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit changes along the multi-stage ultra-marathon differed in runners that completed all stages compared to those who failed to complete at least one stage within the cut-off time. Multi-stage ultra-marathon in the heat has a large impact on hematological responses of ultra-endurance runners associated with altered performance. PMID:26509375

  2. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Johanna F.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  3. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Johanna F; van Zyl, Willem H; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  4. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-producing Fusarium species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Francina Alberts

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof or clay minerals pre- and postharvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Postharvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, postharvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP production and storage management

  5. Estimating Escherichia coli loads in streams based on various physical, chemical, and biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2013-05-01

    Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system- or site-specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian neural network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regard to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli load estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (load estimator (LOADEST), U.S. Geological Survey) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli load estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli load estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (threefold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that 6 of 13 factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; and biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that

  6. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps

  7. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L.; Pribbenow, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants (“scholars”) from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010–2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and

  8. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The American Society for Microbiology (ASM established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation Biology Scholars Program (BSP to promote undergraduate education reform by 1 supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2 engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3 participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL to more than 270 participants (“scholars” from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER. To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010­–2014 scholars (n = 127 and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life

  9. Integrated Ecological River Health Assessments, Based on Water Chemistry, Physical Habitat Quality and Biological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yoon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs, based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI, nutrient pollution index (NPI, and index of biological integrity (IBI in four different longitudinal regions (Groups I–IV. For the calculations of IHRs values, multi-metric QHEI, NPI, and IBI models were developed and their criteria for the diagnosis of the health were determined. The longitudinal patterns of the river were analyzed by a self-organizing map (SOM model and the key major stressors in the river were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Our model scores of integrated health responses (IHRs suggested that mid-stream and downstream regions were impaired, and the key stressors were closely associated with nutrient enrichment (N and P and organic matter pollutions from domestic wastewater disposal plants and urban sewage. This modeling approach of IHRs may be used as an effective tool for evaluations of integrative ecological river health..

  10. Potential biological applications of bio-based anacardic acids and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Fatma B; Mubofu, Egid B

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30-35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. PMID:25894225

  11. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma B. Hamad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut shells (CNS, which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported.

  12. Quantifying control effort of biological and technical movements: An information-entropy-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeufle, D. F. B.; Günther, M.; Wunner, G.; Schmitt, S.

    2014-01-01

    In biomechanics and biorobotics, muscles are often associated with reduced movement control effort and simplified control compared to technical actuators. This is based on evidence that the nonlinear muscle properties positively influence movement control. It is, however, open how to quantify the simplicity aspect of control effort and compare it between systems. Physical measures, such as energy consumption, stability, or jerk, have already been applied to compare biological and technical systems. Here a physical measure of control effort based on information entropy is presented. The idea is that control is simpler if a specific movement is generated with less processed sensor information, depending on the control scheme and the physical properties of the systems being compared. By calculating the Shannon information entropy of all sensor signals required for control, an information cost function can be formulated allowing the comparison of models of biological and technical control systems. Exemplarily applied to (bio-)mechanical models of hopping, the method reveals that the required information for generating hopping with a muscle driven by a simple reflex control scheme is only I =32bits versus I =660bits with a DC motor and a proportional differential controller. This approach to quantifying control effort captures the simplicity of a control scheme and can be used to compare completely different actuators and control approaches.

  13. Proteomics-Based Analysis of Protein Complexes in Pluripotent Stem Cells and Cancer Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Putty-Reddy; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    A protein complex consists of two or more proteins that are linked together through protein-protein interactions. The proteins show stable/transient and direct/indirect interactions within the protein complex or between the protein complexes. Protein complexes are involved in regulation of most of the cellular processes and molecular functions. The delineation of protein complexes is important to expand our knowledge on proteins functional roles in physiological and pathological conditions. The genetic yeast-2-hybrid method has been extensively used to characterize protein-protein interactions. Alternatively, a biochemical-based affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach has been widely used to characterize the protein complexes. In the AP-MS method, a protein complex of a target protein of interest is purified using a specific antibody or an affinity tag (e.g., DYKDDDDK peptide (FLAG) and polyhistidine (His)) and is subsequently analyzed by means of MS. Tandem affinity purification, a two-step purification system, coupled with MS has been widely used mainly to reduce the contaminants. We review here a general principle for AP-MS-based characterization of protein complexes and we explore several protein complexes identified in pluripotent stem cell biology and cancer biology as examples. PMID:27011181

  14. Network-based analysis of affected biological processes in type 2 diabetes models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manway Liu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder associated with multiple genetic, epigenetic, developmental, and environmental factors. Animal models of type 2 diabetes differ based on diet, drug treatment, and gene knockouts, and yet all display the clinical hallmarks of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in peripheral tissue. The recent advances in gene-expression microarray technologies present an unprecedented opportunity to study type 2 diabetes mellitus at a genome-wide scale and across different models. To date, a key challenge has been to identify the biological processes or signaling pathways that play significant roles in the disorder. Here, using a network-based analysis methodology, we identified two sets of genes, associated with insulin signaling and a network of nuclear receptors, which are recurrent in a statistically significant number of diabetes and insulin resistance models and transcriptionally altered across diverse tissue types. We additionally identified a network of protein-protein interactions between members from the two gene sets that may facilitate signaling between them. Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of integrating high-throughput microarray studies, together with protein-protein interaction networks, in elucidating the underlying biological processes associated with a complex disorder.

  15. Compression-based classification of biological sequences and structures via the Universal Similarity Metric: experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzini Giovanni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarity of sequences is a key mathematical notion for Classification and Phylogenetic studies in Biology. It is currently primarily handled using alignments. However, the alignment methods seem inadequate for post-genomic studies since they do not scale well with data set size and they seem to be confined only to genomic and proteomic sequences. Therefore, alignment-free similarity measures are actively pursued. Among those, USM (Universal Similarity Metric has gained prominence. It is based on the deep theory of Kolmogorov Complexity and universality is its most novel striking feature. Since it can only be approximated via data compression, USM is a methodology rather than a formula quantifying the similarity of two strings. Three approximations of USM are available, namely UCD (Universal Compression Dissimilarity, NCD (Normalized Compression Dissimilarity and CD (Compression Dissimilarity. Their applicability and robustness is tested on various data sets yielding a first massive quantitative estimate that the USM methodology and its approximations are of value. Despite the rich theory developed around USM, its experimental assessment has limitations: only a few data compressors have been tested in conjunction with USM and mostly at a qualitative level, no comparison among UCD, NCD and CD is available and no comparison of USM with existing methods, both based on alignments and not, seems to be available. Results We experimentally test the USM methodology by using 25 compressors, all three of its known approximations and six data sets of relevance to Molecular Biology. This offers the first systematic and quantitative experimental assessment of this methodology, that naturally complements the many theoretical and the preliminary experimental results available. Moreover, we compare the USM methodology both with methods based on alignments and not. We may group our experiments into two sets. The first one, performed via ROC

  16. Design and Fabrication of Polysilicon-based Piezoresistive Microcantilever For Biological Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzhi, Nina Korlina; Ahmad, Anuar bin; Khuan, Lee Yoot; Rani, Rozina Abd.; Syono, Mohd. Ismahadi; Abdullah, Firdaus

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes the fabrication process of a piezoresistive microcantilever sensor that is used as a platform for biological sensing such as salivary amylase-activity. The 0.5 μm-thick piezoresistive sensors are made on polysilicon-based cantilever beam. This surface micromachined microcantilever is based on silicon wafers and fabricated using 0.5 μm CMOS process technology . The range of microcantilevers is 40-140 μm long, 0.5-1 μm thick, and 40 μm wide. The force sensitivity of implemented sensors ranges from 2-10 Pa is corresponding to salivary amylase-activity adsorbed on the piezoresistive microcantilever.

  17. Flat-topped and low loss silicon-nanowire-type optical MUX/DeMUX employing multi-stage microring resonator assisted delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Tanaka, Shinsuke; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Sekiguchi, Shigeaki; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken

    2012-11-01

    We propose a novel silicon-nanowire-type multiplexer (MUX) / demultiplexer (DeMUX) based on multi-stage microring resonator assisted delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers. It is theoretically shown that spectral flatness of DeMUX spectra can be accomplished by incorporating nonlinear phase behaviors of microring resonators into the multi-stage delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers. We experimentally demonstrate flat-topped 400GHz-spacing 1 × 4Ch demultiplexing operation in the fabricated device with silicon-nanowire waveguides. Furthermore, by integrating the micro-heaters on the top cladding layer of the fabricated device, the DeMUX performance is upgraded in terms of excess loss (flatness at each channel grid. PMID:23187415

  18. General theory of the multistage geminate reactions of the isolated pairs of reactants. II. Detailed balance and universal asymptotes of kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of general (matrix) kinetic equations for the mean survival probabilities of any of the species in a sample (or mean concentrations) has been made for a wide class of the multistage geminate reactions of the isolated pairs. These kinetic equations (obtained in the frame of the kinetic approach based on the concept of “effective” particles in Paper I) take into account various possible elementary reactions (stages of a multistage reaction) excluding monomolecular, but including physical and chemical processes of the change in internal quantum states carried out with the isolated pairs of reactants (or isolated reactants). The general basic principles of total and detailed balance have been established. The behavior of the reacting system has been considered on macroscopic time scales, and the universal long-term kinetics has been determined

  19. Effects of Web Based Inquiry Science Environment on Cognitive Outcomes in Biological Science in Correlation to Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, T. I.; Devanathan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research study is the report of an experiment conducted to find out the effects of web based inquiry science environment on cognitive outcomes in Biological science in correlation to Emotional intelligence. Web based inquiry science environment (WISE) provides a platform for creating inquiry-based science projects for students to work…

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2-3, and 0.5-1 mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

  1. Ramping up to the Biology Workbench: A Multi-Stage Approach to Bioinformatics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kathleen; Donovan, Sam

    2005-01-01

    In the process of designing and field-testing bioinformatics curriculum materials, we have adopted a three-stage, progressive model that emphasizes collaborative scientific inquiry. The elements of the model include: (1) context setting, (2) introduction to concepts, processes, and tools, and (3) development of competent use of technologically…

  2. [Study on action mechanism of Danhong injection based on computational system biology approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan-ni; Wei, Xiao-hua; Xiao, Pin

    2015-02-01

    Danhong injection is a compound preparation of traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius, and has been widely applied in treating coronary heart diseases and ischemic encephalopathy in clinic. Despite the complexity of its chemical compounds and the diversity of targets, especially in system biology, there have not a report for its action mechanism as a whole regulatory biological network. In this study, protein data of S. miltiorrhiza and C. tinctorius were searched in TCMGeneDIT database and agilent literature search (ALS) system to establish the multi-component protein network of S. miltiorrhiza, C. tinctorius and Danhong injection. Besides, the protein interaction network was built based on the protein-protein interaction in Genecards, BIND, BioGRID, IntAct, MINT and other databases. According to the findings, 10 compounds of S. miltiorrhiza and 14 compounds of C. tinctorius were correlated with proteins. The 24 common compounds had interactions with 81 proteins, and formed a protein interaction network with 60 none-isolated nodes. The Cluster ONE module was applied to make an enrichment analysis on the protein interaction network and extract one sub-network with significant difference P <0.05. The sub-network contains 23 key proteins, which involved five signaling pathways, namely Nod-like receptor signaling pathway, epithelial cell signaling in helicobacter pylori infection, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway and neurotrophin signaling pathway through KEGG signaling pathway mapping. In this study, the computational system biology approach was adopted to preliminarily explain the molecular mechanism of main compounds of Danhong injection in preventing and treating diseases and provide reference for systematic studies on traditional Chinese medicine compounds. PMID:26084184

  3. Performance assessment and microbial diversity of two pilot scale multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, A O; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raul; Imtiaz, Mehreen; Zhao, Y Q; Meijer, Wim G

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the performance and diversity of microbial communities in multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs). Our aim was to assess the impact of configuration on treatment performance and microbial diversity in the systems. Results indicate that at loading rates up to 100gBOD5/(m(2)·day), similar treatment performances can be achieved using either a 3 or 4 stage configuration. In the case of phosphorus (P), the impact of configuration was less obvious and a minimum of 80% P removal can be expected for loadings up to 10gP/(m(2)·day) based on the performance results obtained within the first 16months of operation. Microbial analysis showed an increased bacterial diversity in stage four compared to the first stage. These results indicate that the design and configuration of multi-stage constructed wetland systems may have an impact on the treatment performance and the composition of the microbial community in the systems, and such knowledge can be used to improve their design and performance. PMID:27521934

  4. ZeroX Algorithms with Free crosstalk in Optical Multistage Interconnection Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.Al- Shabi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Multistage interconnection networks (MINs have been proposed as interconnecting structures in various types of communication applications ranging from parallel systems, switching architectures, to multicore systems and advances. Optical technologies have drawn the interest for optical implementation in MINs to achieve high bandwidth capacity at the rate of terabits per second. Crosstalk is the major problem with optical interconnections; it not only degrades the performance of network but also disturbs the path of communication signals. To avoid crosstalk in Optical MINs many algorithms have been proposed by many researchers and some of the researchers suppose some solution to improve Zero Algorithm. This paper will be illustrated that is no any crosstalk appears in Zero based algorithms (ZeroX, ZeroY and ZeroXY in using refine and unique case functions. Through simulation modeling, the Zero based algorithm approach yields the best performance in terms of minimal routing time in and number of passes comparison to the previous algorithms tested for comparison in this paper.

  5. Multi-stage identification scheme for detecting damage in structures under ambient excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chunxiao; Hao, Hong; Li, Zhong-Xian

    2013-04-01

    Structural damage identification methods are critical to the successful application of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to civil engineering structures. The dynamic response of civil engineering structures is usually characterized by high nonlinearity and non-stationarity. Accordingly, an improved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method which is adaptive, output-only and applicable to system identification of in-service structures under ambient excitations is developed in this study. Based on this method, a multi-stage damage detection scheme including the detection of damage occurrence, damage existence, damage location and the estimation of damage severity is developed. In this scheme, the improved HHT method is used to analyse the structural acceleration response, the obtained instantaneous frequency detects the instant of damage occurrence, the instantaneous phase is sensitive to minor damage and provides reliable damage indication, and the damage indicator developed based on statistical analysis of the Hilbert marginal spectrum detects damage locations. Finally, the response sampled at the detected damage location is continuously analysed to estimate the damage severity. Numerical and experimental studies of frame structures under ambient excitations are performed. The results demonstrate that this scheme accomplishes the above damage detection functions within one flow. It is robust, time efficient, simply implemented and applicable to the real-time SHM of in-service structures.

  6. Multi-stage identification scheme for detecting damage in structures under ambient excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural damage identification methods are critical to the successful application of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to civil engineering structures. The dynamic response of civil engineering structures is usually characterized by high nonlinearity and non-stationarity. Accordingly, an improved Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) method which is adaptive, output-only and applicable to system identification of in-service structures under ambient excitations is developed in this study. Based on this method, a multi-stage damage detection scheme including the detection of damage occurrence, damage existence, damage location and the estimation of damage severity is developed. In this scheme, the improved HHT method is used to analyse the structural acceleration response, the obtained instantaneous frequency detects the instant of damage occurrence, the instantaneous phase is sensitive to minor damage and provides reliable damage indication, and the damage indicator developed based on statistical analysis of the Hilbert marginal spectrum detects damage locations. Finally, the response sampled at the detected damage location is continuously analysed to estimate the damage severity. Numerical and experimental studies of frame structures under ambient excitations are performed. The results demonstrate that this scheme accomplishes the above damage detection functions within one flow. It is robust, time efficient, simply implemented and applicable to the real-time SHM of in-service structures. (paper)

  7. Multistage Reactive Transmission-Mode Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kevin C; Comi, Troy J; Perry, Richard H

    2015-09-01

    Elucidating reaction mechanisms is important for advancing many areas of science such as catalyst development. It is often difficult to probe fast reactions at ambient conditions with high temporal resolution. In addition, systems involving reagents that cross-react require analytical methods that can minimize interaction time and specify their order of introduction into the reacting system. Here, we explore the utility of transmission mode desorption electrospray ionization (TM-DESI) for reaction monitoring by directing a microdroplet spray towards a series of meshes with micrometer-sized openings coated with reagents, an approach we call multistage reactive TM-DESI (TM (n) -DESI, where n refers to the number of meshes; n = 2 in this report). Various stages of the reaction are initiated at each mesh surface, generating intermediates and products in microdroplet reaction vessels traveling towards the mass spectrometer. Using this method, we investigated the reactivity of iron porphyrin catalytic hydroxylation of propranolol and other substrates. Our experimental results indicate that TM (n) -DESI provides the ability to spatially separate reagents and control their order of introduction into the reacting system, thereby minimizing unwanted reactions that lead to catalyst deactivation and degradation products. In addition, comparison with DESI-MS analyses (the Zare and Latour laboratories published results suggesting accessible reaction times <1 ms) of the reduction of dichlorophenolindophenol by L-ascorbic acid suggest that TM (1) -DESI can access reaction times less than 1 ms. Multiple meshes allow sequential stages of desorption/ionization per MS scan, increasing the number of analytes and reactions that can be characterized in a single experiment. PMID:26091888

  8. Multistage Reactive Transmission-Mode Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kevin C.; Comi, Troy J.; Perry, Richard H.

    2015-09-01

    Elucidating reaction mechanisms is important for advancing many areas of science such as catalyst development. It is often difficult to probe fast reactions at ambient conditions with high temporal resolution. In addition, systems involving reagents that cross-react require analytical methods that can minimize interaction time and specify their order of introduction into the reacting system. Here, we explore the utility of transmission mode desorption electrospray ionization (TM-DESI) for reaction monitoring by directing a microdroplet spray towards a series of meshes with micrometer-sized openings coated with reagents, an approach we call multistage reactive TM-DESI (TM n -DESI, where n refers to the number of meshes; n = 2 in this report). Various stages of the reaction are initiated at each mesh surface, generating intermediates and products in microdroplet reaction vessels traveling towards the mass spectrometer. Using this method, we investigated the reactivity of iron porphyrin catalytic hydroxylation of propranolol and other substrates. Our experimental results indicate that TM n -DESI provides the ability to spatially separate reagents and control their order of introduction into the reacting system, thereby minimizing unwanted reactions that lead to catalyst deactivation and degradation products. In addition, comparison with DESI-MS analyses (the Zare and Latour laboratories published results suggesting accessible reaction times <1 ms) of the reduction of dichlorophenolindophenol by L-ascorbic acid suggest that TM 1 -DESI can access reaction times less than 1 ms. Multiple meshes allow sequential stages of desorption/ionization per MS scan, increasing the number of analytes and reactions that can be characterized in a single experiment.

  9. Dynamic neuronal ensembles: Issues in representing structure change in object-oriented, biologically-based brain models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahie, S.; Zeigler, B.P.; Cho, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the structure of dynamic neuronal ensembles (DNEs). DNEs represent a new paradigm for learning, based on biological neural networks that use variable structures. We present a computational neural element that demonstrates biological neuron functionality such as neurotransmitter feedback absolute refractory period and multiple output potentials. More specifically, we will develop a network of neural elements that have the ability to dynamically strengthen, weaken, add and remove interconnections. We demonstrate that the DNE is capable of performing dynamic modifications to neuron connections and exhibiting biological neuron functionality. In addition to its applications for learning, DNEs provide an excellent environment for testing and analysis of biological neural systems. An example of habituation and hyper-sensitization in biological systems, using a neural circuit from a snail is presented and discussed. This paper provides an insight into the DNE paradigm using models developed and simulated in DEVS.

  10. Bridging cancer biology and the patients' needs with nanotechnology-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Nuno A; Gregório, Ana C; Valério-Fernandes, Angela; Simões, Sérgio; Moreira, João N

    2014-06-01

    Cancer remains as stressful condition and a leading cause of death in the western world. Actual cornerstone treatments of cancer disease rest as an elusive alternative, offering limited efficacy with extensive secondary effects as a result of severe cytotoxic effects in healthy tissues. The advent of nanotechnology brought the promise to revolutionize many fields including oncology, proposing advanced systems for cancer treatment. Drug delivery systems rest among the most successful examples of nanotechnology. Throughout time they have been able to evolve as a function of an increased understanding from cancer biology and the tumor microenvironment. Marketing of Doxil® unleashed a remarkable impulse in the development of drug delivery systems. Since then, several nanocarriers have been introduced, with aspirations to overrule previous technologies, demonstrating increased therapeutic efficacy besides decreased toxicity. Spatial and temporal targeting to cancer cells has been explored, as well as the use of drug combinations co-encapsulated in the same particle as a mean to take advantage of synergistic interactions in vivo. Importantly, targeted delivery of siRNA for gene silencing therapy has made its way to the clinic for a "first in man" trial using lipid-polymeric-based particles. Focusing in state-of-the-art technology, this review will provide an insightful vision on nanotechnology-based strategies for cancer treatment, approaching them from a tumor biology-driven perspective, since their early EPR-based dawn to the ones that have truly the potential to address unmet medical needs in the field of oncology, upon targeting key cell subpopulations from the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24613464

  11. Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and OLED-based chemical and biological sensors: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic photophysics, transport properties, state of the art, and challenges in OLED science and technology, and the major developments in structurally integrated OLED-based luminescent chemical and biological sensors are reviewed briefly. The dramatic advances in OLED performance have resulted in devices with projected continuous operating lifetimes of ∼2 x 105 h (∼23 yr) at ∼150 Cd m-2 (the typical brightness of a computer monitor or TV). Consequently, commercial products incorporating OLEDs, e.g., cell phones, MP3 players, and, most recently, OLED TVs, are rapidly proliferating. The progress in elucidating the photophysics and transport properties, occurring in tandem with the development of OLEDs, has been no less dramatic. It has resulted in a detailed understanding of the dynamics of trapped and mobile negative and positive polarons (to which the electrons and holes, respectively, relax upon injection), and of singlet and triplet excitons. It has also yielded a detailed understanding of the spin dynamics of polarons and triplet excitons, which affects their overall dynamics significantly. Despite the aforementioned progress, there are outstanding challenges in OLED science and technology, notably in improving the efficiency of the devices and their stability at high brightness (>1000 Cd m-2). One of the most recent emerging OLED-based technologies is that of structurally integrated photoluminescence-based chemical and biological sensors. This sensor platform, pioneered by the authors, yields uniquely simple and potentially very low-cost sensor (micro)arrays. The second part of this review describes the recent developments in implementing this platform for gas phase oxygen, dissolved oxygen (DO), anthrax lethal factor, and hydrazine sensors, and for a DO, glucose, lactate, and ethanol multianalyte sensor. (topical review)

  12. Characterization of free radical-induced base damage in DNA at biologically relevant levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA damage induced by oxygen radicals, e.g., hydroxyl radicals generated in living cells either by cellular metabolism or external agents such as ionizing radiations, appears to play an important role in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and aging. Elucidation of the chemical nature of such DNA lesions at biologically significant quantities is required for the assessment of their biological consequences and repair. For this purpose, a sensitive method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the selected-ion-monitoring technique (GC-MS/SIM) was developed in the present work. DNA was exposed to hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms produced by ionizing radiation in N2O-saturated aqueous solution. DNA samples were subsequently hydrolyzed with formic acid, trimethylsilylated, and analyzed by GC-MS/SIM. Characteristic ions from previously known mass spectra of DNA base products as their trimethylsilyl derivatives were recorded and the area counts of each ion were integrated. From these acquired data, a partial mass spectrum of each product was generated and then compared with those of authentic materials. This technique permitted the detection and characterization of a large number of free radical-induced based products of DNA, i.e., 5,6-dihydrothymine, 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, 5-hydroxyuracil, 5-hydroxycytosine, thymine glycol, 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine, 8-hydroxyadenine, 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine, and 8-hydroxyguanine, simultaneously in a single sample after radiation doses from 0.1 to 10 Gy. Detectable amounts of the base products were found to be as low as approximately 10 fmol per injection

  13. Drug side-effect prediction based on the integration of chemical and biological spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Pauwels, Edouard; Kotera, Masaaki

    2012-12-21

    Drug side-effects, or adverse drug reactions, have become a major public health concern and remain one of the main causes of drug failure and of drug withdrawal once they have reached the market. Therefore, the identification of potential severe side-effects is a challenging issue. In this paper, we develop a new method to predict potential side-effect profiles of drug candidate molecules based on their chemical structures and target protein information on a large scale. We propose several extensions of kernel regression model for multiple responses to deal with heterogeneous data sources. The originality lies in the integration of the chemical space of drug chemical structures and the biological space of drug target proteins in a unified framework. As a result, we demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method on the simultaneous prediction of 969 side-effects for approved drugs from their chemical substructure and target protein profiles and show that the prediction accuracy consistently improves owing to the proposed regression model and integration of chemical and biological information. We also conduct a comprehensive side-effect prediction for uncharacterized drug molecules stored in DrugBank and confirm interesting predictions using independent information sources. The proposed method is expected to be useful at many stages of the drug development process. PMID:23157436

  14. BSim: an agent-based tool for modeling bacterial populations in systems and synthetic biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Gorochowski

    Full Text Available Large-scale collective behaviors such as synchronization and coordination spontaneously arise in many bacterial populations. With systems biology attempting to understand these phenomena, and synthetic biology opening up the possibility of engineering them for our own benefit, there is growing interest in how bacterial populations are best modeled. Here we introduce BSim, a highly flexible agent-based computational tool for analyzing the relationships between single-cell dynamics and population level features. BSim includes reference implementations of many bacterial traits to enable the quick development of new models partially built from existing ones. Unlike existing modeling tools, BSim fully considers spatial aspects of a model allowing for the description of intricate micro-scale structures, enabling the modeling of bacterial behavior in more realistic three-dimensional, complex environments. The new opportunities that BSim opens are illustrated through several diverse examples covering: spatial multicellular computing, modeling complex environments, population dynamics of the lac operon, and the synchronization of genetic oscillators. BSim is open source software that is freely available from http://bsim-bccs.sf.net and distributed under the Open Source Initiative (OSI recognized MIT license. Developer documentation and a wide range of example simulations are also available from the website. BSim requires Java version 1.6 or higher.

  15. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Scutellaria Flavone Cyclaneaminol Mannich Base Derivatives as Novel CDK1 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Lisha; Qian, Yuan; Zhang, Shixuan; Ju, Xiulan; Sun, Shiyou; Guo, Hongmin; Wang, Qianru; Li, Kangjian; Fan, Qingyu; Zheng, Yang; Li, Hailiang

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is the only necessary CDK in the cell proliferation process and a new target in the research and development of anti-cancer drugs. Natural flavones are selective CDK1 inhibitors which can suppress the proliferation of cancer cells. However, their bioavailability is poor. To solve these problems, 6 Scutellaria flavones were isolated from hydrolyzed products of Scutellaria baicalensis and used as lead compounds, 18 Scutellaria flavones cyclane-aminol Mannich base derivatives were semi-synthesized and their biological activity as novel CDK1 inhibitors was evaluated. Results indicated that the biological activity of 8-Hydroxypiperidinemethyl-baicalein (BA-j) is the highest among these compounds. BA-j is a selective CDK1 inhibitor, and has broad-spectrum anti-proliferative activity in human cancer cells (IC50 12.3μM). BA-j can capture oxygen free radicals (.O2(-)) and selectively increase intracellular H2O2 level in cancer cells and activated lymphocytes, thus inducing their apoptosis rather than in normal cells. These findings suggest that BA-j selectively induces apoptosis in cancer and activated lymphocyte by controlling intracellular H2O2 level, and can be developed into a novel anti-proliferative agent for the treatment of cancer, AIDS, and some immune diseases. PMID:26411959

  16. Omics-based approaches to understand mechanosensitive endothelial biology and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rachel D; Kumar, Sandeep; Thabet, Salim Raid; Sur, Sanjoli; Jo, Hanjoong

    2016-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that preferentially occurs in arterial regions exposed to d-flow can be used to indicate disturbed flow or disturbed blood flow. The mechanisms by which d-flow induces atherosclerosis involve changes in the transcriptome, methylome, proteome, and metabolome of multiple vascular cells, especially endothelial cells. Initially, we begin with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the changes that occur at multiple levels owing to d-flow, especially in the endothelium. Also, there are a variety of strategies used for the global profiling of the genome, transcriptome, miRNA-ome, DNA methylome, and metabolome that are important to define the biological and pathophysiological mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Finally, systems biology can be used to integrate these 'omics' datasets, especially those that derive data based on a single animal model, in order to better understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis development in a holistic manner and how this integrative approach could be used to identify novel molecular diagnostics and therapeutic targets to prevent or treat atherosclerosis. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:378-401. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1344 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27341633

  17. Biological network module-based model for the analysis of differential expression in shotgun proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Wang, Lily; Li, Jing

    2014-12-01

    Protein differential expression analysis plays an important role in the understanding of molecular mechanisms as well as the pathogenesis of complex diseases. With the rapid development of mass spectrometry, shotgun proteomics using spectral counts has become a prevailing method for the quantitative analysis of complex protein mixtures. Existing methods in differential proteomics expression typically carry out analysis at the single-protein level. However, it is well-known that proteins interact with each other when they function in biological processes. In this study, focusing on biological network modules, we proposed a negative binomial generalized linear model for differential expression analysis of spectral count data in shotgun proteomics. In order to show the efficacy of the model in protein expression analysis at the level of protein modules, we conducted two simulation studies using synthetic data sets generated from theoretical distribution of count data and a real data set with shuffled counts. Then, we applied our method to a colorectal cancer data set and a nonsmall cell lung cancer data set. When compared with single-protein analysis methods, the results showed that module-based statistical model which takes account of the interactions among proteins led to more effective identification of subtle but coordinated changes at the systems level. PMID:25327611

  18. BSim: an agent-based tool for modeling bacterial populations in systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorochowski, Thomas E; Matyjaszkiewicz, Antoni; Todd, Thomas; Oak, Neeraj; Kowalska, Kira; Reid, Stephen; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira T; Savery, Nigel J; Grierson, Claire S; di Bernardo, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale collective behaviors such as synchronization and coordination spontaneously arise in many bacterial populations. With systems biology attempting to understand these phenomena, and synthetic biology opening up the possibility of engineering them for our own benefit, there is growing interest in how bacterial populations are best modeled. Here we introduce BSim, a highly flexible agent-based computational tool for analyzing the relationships between single-cell dynamics and population level features. BSim includes reference implementations of many bacterial traits to enable the quick development of new models partially built from existing ones. Unlike existing modeling tools, BSim fully considers spatial aspects of a model allowing for the description of intricate micro-scale structures, enabling the modeling of bacterial behavior in more realistic three-dimensional, complex environments. The new opportunities that BSim opens are illustrated through several diverse examples covering: spatial multicellular computing, modeling complex environments, population dynamics of the lac operon, and the synchronization of genetic oscillators. BSim is open source software that is freely available from http://bsim-bccs.sf.net and distributed under the Open Source Initiative (OSI) recognized MIT license. Developer documentation and a wide range of example simulations are also available from the website. BSim requires Java version 1.6 or higher. PMID:22936991

  19. Toward the characterization of biological toxins using field-based FT-IR spectroscopic instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiering, David W.; Walton, Robert B.; Brown, Christopher W.; Norman, Mark L.; Brewer, Joseph; Scott, James

    2004-12-01

    IR spectroscopy is a broadly applicable technique for the identification of covalent materials. Recent advances in instrumentation have made Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy available for field characterization of suspect materials. Presently, this instrumentation is broadly deployed and used for the identification of potential chemical hazards. This discussion concerns work towards expanding the analytical utility of field-based FT-IR spectrometry in the characterization of biological threats. Two classes of materials were studied: biologically produced chemical toxins which were non-peptide in nature and peptide toxin. The IR spectroscopic identification of aflatoxin-B1, trichothecene T2 mycotoxin, and strychnine was evaluated using the approach of spectral searching against large libraries of materials. For pure components, the IR method discriminated the above toxins at better than the 99% confidence level. The ability to identify non-peptide toxins in mixtures was also evaluated using a "spectral stripping" search approach. For the mixtures evaluated, this method was able to identify the mixture components from ca. 32K spectral library entries. Castor bean extract containing ricin was used as a representative peptide toxin. Due to similarity in protein spectra, a SIMCA pattern recognition methodology was evaluated for classifying peptide toxins. In addition to castor bean extract the method was validated using bovine serum albumin and myoglobin as simulants. The SIMCA approach was successful in correctly classifying these samples at the 95% confidence level.

  20. Particle-based model to simulate the micromechanics of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Liedekerke, P.; Tijskens, E.; Ramon, H.; Ghysels, P.; Samaey, G.; Roose, D.

    2010-06-01

    This paper is concerned with addressing how biological cells react to mechanical impulse. We propose a particle based model to numerically study the mechanical response of these cells with subcellular detail. The model focuses on a plant cell in which two important features are present: (1) the cell’s interior liquidlike phase inducing hydrodynamic phenomena, and (2) the cell wall, a viscoelastic solid membrane that encloses the protoplast. In this particle modeling framework, the cell fluid is modeled by a standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. For the viscoelastic solid phase (cell wall), a discrete element method (DEM) is proposed. The cell wall hydraulic conductivity (permeability) is built in through a constitutive relation in the SPH formulation. Simulations show that the SPH-DEM model is in reasonable agreement with compression experiments on an in vitro cell and with analytical models for the basic dynamical modes of a spherical liquid filled shell. We have performed simulations to explore more complex situations such as relaxation and impact, thereby considering two cell types: a stiff plant type and a soft animal-like type. Their particular behavior (force transmission) as a function of protoplasm and cell wall viscosity is discussed. We also show that the mechanics during and after cell failure can be modeled adequately. This methodology has large flexibility and opens possibilities to quantify problems dealing with the response of biological cells to mechanical impulses, e.g., impact, and the prediction of damage on a (sub)cellular scale.

  1. Performance Improvement of a Return Channel in a Multistage Centrifugal Compressor Using Multiobjective Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Nishida, Hideo; Sugimura, Kazuyuki

    2013-05-01

    The effect of the design parameters of a return channel on the performance of a multistage centrifugal compressor was numerically investigated, and the shape of the return channel was optimized using a multiobjective optimization method based on a genetic algorithm to improve the performance of the centrifugal compressor. The results of sensitivity analysis using Latin hypercube sampling suggested that the inlet-to-outlet area ratio of the return vane affected the total pressure loss in the return channel, and that the inlet-to-outlet radius ratio of the return vane affected the outlet flow angle from the return vane. Moreover, this analysis suggested that the number of return vanes affected both the loss and the flow angle at the outlet. As a result of optimization, the number of return vane was increased from 14 to 22 and the area ratio was decreased from 0.71 to 0.66. The radius ratio was also decreased from 2.1 to 2.0. Performance tests on a centrifugal compressor with two return channels (the original design and optimized design) were carried out using two-stage test apparatus. The measured flow distribution exhibited a swirl flow in the center region and a reversed swirl flow near the hub and shroud sides. The exit flow of the optimized design was more uniform than that of the original design. For the optimized design, the overall two-stage efficiency and pressure coefficient were increased by 0.7% and 1.5%, respectively. Moreover, the second-stage efficiency and pressure coefficient were respectively increased by 1.0% and 3.2%. It is considered that the increase in the second-stage efficiency was caused by the increased uniformity of the flow, and the rise in the pressure coefficient was caused by a decrease in the residual swirl flow. It was thus concluded from the numerical and experimental results that the optimized return channel improved the performance of the multistage centrifugal compressor. PMID:24891759

  2. Research and Development for Multi-stage and Integrated Approach for Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMSs) Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Sumi, Tomonori; Kadoshima, Kazuyuki; Kose, Masami; Lee, Sangkyun; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Koizumi, Akira; Koizumi, Yukiko; Ikeda, Makoto; Higashi, Michio

    2016-04-01

    The Cabinet Office, Government Japan started the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP) in 2014. "Next-generation Ocean Resource Exploration Techniques" is scheduled under SIP from 2014 to 2018. J-MARES (Research and Development Partnership for Next Generation Technology of Marine Resources Survey) participates this program and aims "Multi-stage and integrated approach for SMSs exploration" through the development of highly efficient and cost-effective geophysical exploration methods mainly on seismic and electric-magnetic methods, and combination of the known exploration tools and systems. J-MARES proposed Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) technique as seismic survey. It is one of reflection seismic methods that uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor. It is useful to delineate detailed structures in a spatially-limited area efficiently. JGI, a member of J-MARES, has developed autonomous VCS systems and carried out several VCS surveys in hydrothermal fields in Okinawa Trough. By the VCS survey, the detailed subsurface structure is revealed and velocity is estimated up to 100m. Then we could recognize the buried sulfide deposit beneath the sediments. As for EM survey, the system has been originally developed by Waseda University. The system is towed closely to seafloor using ROV. It is one of Time Domain EM (TDEM) survey systems that consists of a loop coil and a 3 component high-sensitive magnetometer. By analyzing the decay curve of the transient magnetic field induced by the loop coil, the subsurface resistivity structure is estimated. The exploration depth depends on the measurement time and it is designed up to 100m enough for SMS exploration. We carried out the EM surveys around the north mound along VCS survey lines in Izena Hole, Okinawa-trough. The EM survey detects the highly conductive zone around the north mound. The efficiency is 3 times faster than the conventional TDEM measurement on the ocean bottom. Based on

  3. Implementation of a project-based molecular biology laboratory emphasizing protein structure-function relationships in a large introductory biology laboratory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Daniel J; Sankaran, Saumya M; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Saly, Danielle; Miller, Rebecca; Isaac, Stefan R; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S

    2011-01-01

    In introductory laboratory courses, many universities are turning from traditional laboratories with predictable outcomes to inquiry-inspired, project-based laboratory curricula. In these labs, students are allowed to design at least some portion of their own experiment and interpret new, undiscovered data. We have redesigned the introductory biology laboratory course at Brandeis University into a semester-long project-based laboratory that emphasizes concepts and contains an element of scientific inquiry. In this laboratory, students perform a site-directed mutagenesis experiment on the gene encoding human γD crystallin, a human eye lens protein implicated in cataracts, and assess the stability of their newly created protein with respect to wild-type crystallin. This laboratory utilizes basic techniques in molecular biology to emphasize the importance of connections between DNA and protein. This project lab has helped engage students in their own learning, has improved students' skills in critical thinking and analysis, and has promoted interest in basic research in biology. PMID:21364097

  4. Mode 3 Project-Based O-Level: Part II Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatorex, D.; Lock, R.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a British biology course for the O-level which aims to promote the understanding of broad biological principles through an environmental approach. Results of proper assessment and overall examination performance are also revealed. (HM)

  5. Review for carrageenan-based pharmaceutical biomaterials: favourable physical features versus adverse biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhan, Xiudan; Wan, Jianbo; Wang, Yitao; Wang, Chunming

    2015-05-01

    Carrageenan (CRG) is a family of natural polysaccharides derived from seaweeds and has widely been used as food additives. In the past decade, owing to its attractive physicochemical properties, CRG has been developed into versatile biomaterials vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, studies also emerged to reveal its adverse effects on the biological system. In this review, we critically appraise the latest literature (two thirds since 2008) on the development of CRG-based pharmaceutical vehicles and the perspective of using CRG for broader biomedical applications. We focus on how current strategies exploit the unique gelling mechanisms, strong water absorption and abundant functional groups of the three major CRG varieties. Notably, CRG-based matrices are demonstrated to increase drug loading and drug solubility, enabling release of orally administrated drugs in zero-order or in a significantly prolonged period. Other amazing features, such as pH-sensitivity and adhesive property, of CRG-based formulations are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the adverse influence of CRG on the human body and then suggest some future directions for the development of CRG-based biomaterials for broader applications in biomedicine. PMID:25659668

  6. Comparison and Analysis of Biological Agent Category Lists Based On Biosafety and Biodefense

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Deqiao; Zheng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Biological agents pose a serious threat to human health, economic development, social stability and even national security. The classification of biological agents is a basic requirement for both biosafety and biodefense. We compared and analyzed the Biological Agent Laboratory Biosafety Category list and the defining criteria according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the European Union (EU) and China. We also compared and analyzed the Biologic...

  7. YeastMed: an XML-Based System for Biological Data Integration of Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Briache, Abdelaali; Marrakchi, Kamar; Kerzazi, Amine; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Montes, Jose F Aldana; Hassani, Badr D. Rossi; Lairini, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    A key goal of bioinformatics is to create database systems and software platforms capable of storing and analysing large sets of biological data. Hundreds of biological databases are now available and provide access to huge amount of biological data. SGD, Yeastract, CYGD-MIPS, BioGrid and PhosphoGrid are five of the most visited databases by the yeast community. These sources provide complementary data on biological entities. Biologists are brought systematically to query these data sources i...

  8. Flexible Design and Operation of Multi-Stage Flash (MSF Desalination Process Subject to Variable Fouling and Variable Freshwater Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Alforjani Said

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes how the design and operation parameters of the Multi-Stage Flash (MSF desalination process are optimised when the process is subject to variation in seawater temperature, fouling and freshwater demand throughout the day. A simple polynomial based dynamic seawater temperature and variable freshwater demand correlations are developed based on actual data which are incorporated in the MSF mathematical model using gPROMS models builder 3.0.3. In addition, a fouling model based on stage temperature is considered. The fouling and the effect of noncondensable gases are incorporated into the calculation of overall heat transfer co-efficient for condensers. Finally, an optimisation problem is developed where the total daily operating cost of the MSF process is minimised by optimising the design (no of stages and the operating (seawater rejected flowrate and brine recycle flowrate parameters.

  9. Age Effects and Temporal Trends in HPV-Related and HPV-Unrelated Oral Cancer in the United States: A Multistage Carcinogenesis Modeling Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Brouwer

    Full Text Available Differences in prognosis in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral (oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs and increasing incidence of HPV-related cancers have spurred interest in demographic and temporal trends in OSCC incidence. We leverage multistage clonal expansion (MSCE models coupled with age-period-cohort (APC epidemiological models to analyze OSCC data in the SEER cancer registry (1973-2012. MSCE models are based on the initiation-promotion-malignant conversion paradigm in carcinogenesis and allow for interpretation of trends in terms of biological mechanisms. APC models seek to differentiate between the temporal effects of age, period, and birth cohort on cancer risk. Previous studies have looked at the effect of period and cohort on tumor initiation, and we extend this to compare model fits of period and cohort effects on each of tumor initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion rates. HPV-related, HPV-unrelated except oral tongue, and HPV-unrelated oral tongue sites are best described by placing period and cohort effects on the initiation rate. HPV-related and non-oral-tongue HPV-unrelated cancers have similar promotion rates, suggesting similar tumorigenesis dynamics once initiated. Estimates of promotion rates at oral tongue sites are lower, corresponding to a longer sojourn time; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an etiology distinct from HPV or alcohol and tobacco use. Finally, for the three subsite groups, men have higher initiation rates than women of the same race, and black people have higher promotion than white people of the same sex. These differences explain part of the racial and sex differences in OSCC incidence.

  10. Age Effects and Temporal Trends in HPV-Related and HPV-Unrelated Oral Cancer in the United States: A Multistage Carcinogenesis Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Andrew F; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Meza, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Differences in prognosis in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral (oropharyngeal and oral cavity) squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and increasing incidence of HPV-related cancers have spurred interest in demographic and temporal trends in OSCC incidence. We leverage multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) models coupled with age-period-cohort (APC) epidemiological models to analyze OSCC data in the SEER cancer registry (1973-2012). MSCE models are based on the initiation-promotion-malignant conversion paradigm in carcinogenesis and allow for interpretation of trends in terms of biological mechanisms. APC models seek to differentiate between the temporal effects of age, period, and birth cohort on cancer risk. Previous studies have looked at the effect of period and cohort on tumor initiation, and we extend this to compare model fits of period and cohort effects on each of tumor initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion rates. HPV-related, HPV-unrelated except oral tongue, and HPV-unrelated oral tongue sites are best described by placing period and cohort effects on the initiation rate. HPV-related and non-oral-tongue HPV-unrelated cancers have similar promotion rates, suggesting similar tumorigenesis dynamics once initiated. Estimates of promotion rates at oral tongue sites are lower, corresponding to a longer sojourn time; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an etiology distinct from HPV or alcohol and tobacco use. Finally, for the three subsite groups, men have higher initiation rates than women of the same race, and black people have higher promotion than white people of the same sex. These differences explain part of the racial and sex differences in OSCC incidence. PMID:26963717

  11. Incorporating Biological Mass Spectrometry into Undergraduate Teaching Labs, Part 1: Identifying Proteins Based on Molecular Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2007-01-01

    Biological mass spectrometry is an important analytical technique in drug discovery, proteomics, and research at the biology-chemistry interface. Currently, few hands-on opportunities exist for undergraduate students to learn about this technique. With the 2002 Nobel Prize being awarded, in part, for the development of biological mass…

  12. Feature selection using feature dissimilarity measure and density-based clustering: application to biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Debarka; Aich, Indranil; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2015-10-01

    Reduction of dimensionality has emerged as a routine process in modelling complex biological systems. A large number of feature selection techniques have been reported in the literature to improve model performance in terms of accuracy and speed. In the present article an unsupervised feature selection technique is proposed, using maximum information compression index as the dissimilarity measure and the well-known density-based cluster identification technique DBSCAN for identifying the largest natural group of dissimilar features. The algorithm is fast and less sensitive to the user-supplied parameters. Moreover, the method automatically determines the required number of features and identifies them. We used the proposed method for reducing dimensionality of a number of benchmark data sets of varying sizes. Its performance was also extensively compared with some other well-known feature selection methods. PMID:26564974

  13. Fabrication Effects on Polysilicon-based Micro cantilever Piezo resistivity for Biological Sensing Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In principle, adsorption of biological molecules on a functionalized surface of a micro fabricated cantilever will cause a surface stress and consequently the cantilever bending. In this work, four different type of polysilicon-based piezo resistive micro cantilever sensors were designed to increase the sensitivity of the micro cantilevers sensor because the forces involved is very small. The design and optimization was performed by using finite element analysis to maximize the relative resistance changes of the piezo resistors as a function of the cantilever vertical displacements. The resistivity of the piezo resistivity micro cantilevers was analyzed before and after dicing process. The maximum resistance changes were systematically investigated by varying the piezo resistor length. The results show that although the thickness of piezo resistor was the same at 0.5 μm the resistance value was varied. (author)

  14. Self-optimization, community stability, and fluctuations in two individual-based models of biological coevolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rikvold, Per Arne

    2007-01-01

    We compare and contrast the long-time dynamical properties of two individual-based models of biological coevolution. Selection occurs via multispecies, stochastic population dynamics with reproduction probabilities that depend nonlinearly on the population densities of all species resident in the community. New species are introduced through mutation. Both models are amenable to exact linear stability analysis, and we compare the analytic results with large-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, obtaining the population size as a function of an average interspecies interaction strength. Over time, the models self-optimize through mutation and selection to approximately maximize a community fitness function, subject only to constraints internal to the particular model. If the interspecies interactions are randomly distributed on an interval including positive values, the system evolves toward self-sustaining, mutualistic communities. In contrast, for the predator-prey case the matrix of interactions is antisym...

  15. Nanoporous silicon-based surface patterns fabricated by UV laser interference techniques for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Sánchez, G.; Peláez, R. J.; Vega, F.; Martín-Palma, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    The fabrication of selectively functionalized micropatterns based on nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) by phase mask ultraviolet laser interference is presented here. This single-step process constitutes a flexible method for the fabrication of surface patterns with tailored properties. These surface patterns consist of alternate regions of almost untransformed nanoPS and areas where nanoPS is transformed into Si nanoparticles (Si NPs) as a result of the laser irradiation process. The size of the transformed areas as well as the diameter of the Si NPs can be straightforwardly tailored by controlling the main fabrications parameters including the porosity of the nanoPS layers, the laser interference period areas, and laser fluence. The surface patterns have been found to be appropriate candidates for the development of selectively-functionalized surfaces for biological applications mainly due to the biocompatibility of the untransformed nanoPS regions.

  16. An individual-based predator-prey model for biological coevolution: Fluctuations, stability, and community structure

    CERN Document Server

    Rikvold, Per Arne

    2007-01-01

    We study an individual-based predator-prey model of biological coevolution, using linear stability analysis and large-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The model exhibits approximate 1/f noise in diversity and population-size fluctuations, and it generates a sequence of quasi-steady communities in the form of simple food webs. These communities are quite resilient toward the loss of one or a few species, which is reflected in different power-law exponents for the durations of communities and the lifetimes of species. The exponent for the former is near -1, while the latter is close to -2. Statistical characteristics of the evolving communities, including degree (predator and prey) distributions and proportions of basal, intermediate, and top species, compare reasonably with data for real food webs.

  17. Feature selection using feature dissimilarity measure and density-based clustering: Application to biological data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debarka Sengupta; Indranil Aich; Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay

    2015-10-01

    Reduction of dimensionality has emerged as a routine process in modelling complex biological systems. A large number of feature selection techniques have been reported in the literature to improve model performance in terms of accuracy and speed. In the present article an unsupervised feature selection technique is proposed, using maximum information compression index as the dissimilarity measure and the well-known density-based cluster identification technique DBSCAN for identifying the largest natural group of dissimilar features. The algorithm is fast and less sensitive to the user-supplied parameters. Moreover, the method automatically determines the required number of features and identifies them. We used the proposed method for reducing dimensionality of a number of benchmark data sets of varying sizes. Its performance was also extensively compared with some other well-known feature selection methods.

  18. A biologically motivated signal transmission approach based on stochastic delay differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingdong; Wu, Fan; Leung, Henry

    2009-09-01

    Based on the stochastic delay differential equation (SDDE) modeling of neural networks, we propose an effective signal transmission approach along the neurons in such a network. Utilizing the linear relationship between the delay time and the variance of the SDDE system output, the transmitting side encodes a message as a modulation of the delay time and the receiving end decodes the message by tracking the delay time, which is equivalent to estimating the variance of the received signal. This signal transmission approach turns out to follow the principle of the spread spectrum technique used in wireless and wireline wideband communications but in the analog domain rather than digital. We hope the proposed method might help to explain some activities in biological systems. The idea can further be extended to engineering applications. The error performance of the communication scheme is also evaluated here.

  19. A versatile bacterial expression vector based on the synthetic biology plasmid pSB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrlj, Nives; Erculj, Nina; Dolinar, Marko

    2009-04-01

    We have developed an Escherichia coli expression vector that is particularly useful for construction and production of fusion proteins. Based on the synthetic biology pSB1C3 platform, the resulting vector offers a combination of useful features: the strong T7 promoter combined with lac operator, OmpA signal sequence, a selection of cloning sites located at convenient positions and a 3'-terminal His-10 tag. Each of these regions is flanked by a restriction site that allows for easy vector modification, including removal of the signal sequence without perturbation of the reading frame. All the elements were assembled by stepwise addition of three cassettes for which the design was made de novo. To prove the efficiency of the new vector, named pMD204, we successfully produced a cysteine proteinase inhibitor variant in the periplasm and in the cytoplasm of E. coli, in both cases as a soluble and active protein. PMID:19027858

  20. Perceptron-like computation based on biologically-inspired neurons with heterosynaptic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Urdapilleta, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    Perceptrons are one of the fundamental paradigms in artificial neural networks and a key processing scheme in supervised classification tasks. However, the algorithm they provide is given in terms of unrealistically simple processing units and connections and therefore, its implementation in real neural networks is hard to be fulfilled. In this work, we present a neural circuit able to perform perceptron's computation based on realistic models of neurons and synapses. The model uses Wang-Buzsáki neurons with coupling provided by axodendritic and axoaxonic synapses (heterosynapsis). The main characteristics of the feedforward perceptron operation are conserved, which allows to combine both approaches: whereas the classical artificial system can be used to learn a particular problem, its solution can be directly implemented in this neural circuit. As a result, we propose a biologically-inspired system able to work appropriately in a wide range of frequencies and system parameters, while keeping robust to noise and error.

  1. Investigation of biological effects of some Mannich Bases containing Bis-1,2,4- Triazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, A E; Celik, S; Karatepe, M; Turkoglu, S; Alayunt, N O; Dastan, S D; Ulas, M; Sandal, S; Tekin, S; Koparir, M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of Mannich bases containing bis-1,2,4-triazole on the levels of in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant vitamins (A, E, C) were examined in serum, livers and kidneys of rats. DA and vitamin (A, E, C) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Antioxidant effect was investigated by determining the MDA levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as in vitro. Furthermore, the antitumor effects of compounds were investigated against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Interrelations of results among control and compound groups were evaluated using SPSS statistical software package. As a result, some of the compounds showed effective biological activity when compared to control conditions. The test compounds used in this study may be effective for utilization in the selection and design of model compounds for further studies. PMID:27453272

  2. [Why do so many arts and social scientists have huge difficulties accepting (evolutionary)biologically based opinions for gender differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhard, Hans-Walter

    2005-09-01

    The contribution deals with the wide-spread rejection of (evolutionary) biological founded statements concerning sex differences by social sciences and arts, which are not based on objective objections, but are ideologically justified. The starting point therefore is to be seen in the justified critique of the biological legitimized racism and sexism in the sixties and seventies of the last century. The continuation of this rejecting position, though the modern biology has changed itself essentially, can be explained psychologically by Festinger's "Theory of Cognitive Dissonance". PMID:16176056

  3. BClass: A Bayesian Approach Based on Mixture Models for Clustering and Classification of Heterogeneous Biological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Medrano-Soto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on mixture models, we present a Bayesian method (called BClass to classify biological entities (e.g. genes when variables of quite heterogeneous nature are analyzed. Various statistical distributions are used to model the continuous/categorical data commonly produced by genetic experiments and large-scale genomic projects. We calculate the posterior probability of each entry to belong to each element (group in the mixture. In this way, an original set of heterogeneous variables is transformed into a set of purely homogeneous characteristics represented by the probabilities of each entry to belong to the groups. The number of groups in the analysis is controlled dynamically by rendering the groups as 'alive' and 'dormant' depending upon the number of entities classified within them. Using standard Metropolis-Hastings and Gibbs sampling algorithms, we constructed a sampler to approximate posterior moments and grouping probabilities. Since this method does not require the definition of similarity measures, it is especially suitable for data mining and knowledge discovery in biological databases. We applied BClass to classify genes in RegulonDB, a database specialized in information about the transcriptional regulation of gene expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli. The classification obtained is consistent with current knowledge and allowed prediction of missing values for a number of genes. BClass is object-oriented and fully programmed in Lisp-Stat. The output grouping probabilities are analyzed and interpreted using graphical (dynamically linked plots and query-based approaches. We discuss the advantages of using Lisp-Stat as a programming language as well as the problems we faced when the data volume increased exponentially due to the ever-growing number of genomic projects.

  4. Determination of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents in biological and environmental samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telgmann, Lena [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany); Sperling, Michael [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany); European Virtual Institute for Speciation Analysis (EVISA), Münster (Germany); Karst, Uwe, E-mail: uk@uni-muenster.de [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► All major methods for the analysis of Gd-based MRI contrast agents are discussed. ► Biological and environmental samples are covered. ► Pharmacokinetics and species transformation can be investigated. ► The figures of merit as limit of detection and analysis time are described. -- Abstract: The development of analytical methods and strategies to determine gadolinium and its complexes in biological and environmental matrices is evaluated in this review. Gadolinium (Gd) chelates are employed as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since the 1980s. In general they were considered as safe and well-tolerated, when in 2006, the disease nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was connected to the administration of MRI contrast agents based on Gd. Pathogenesis and etiology of NSF are yet unclear and called for the development of several analytical methods to obtain elucidation in this field. Determination of Gd complex stability in vitro and in vivo, as well as the quantification of Gd in body fluids like blood and urine was carried out. Separation of the Gd chelates was achieved with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). For detection, various methods were employed, including UV–vis absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A second challenge for analysts was the discovery of high concentrations of anthropogenic Gd in surface waters draining populated areas. The source could soon be determined to be the increasing administration of Gd complexes during MRI examinations. Identification and quantification of the contrast agents was carried out in various surface and groundwater samples to determine the behavior and fate of the Gd chelates in the environment. The improvement of limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) was and still is the goal of past and ongoing

  5. Ni-Cr based dental alloys; Ni release, corrosion and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reclaru, L., E-mail: lucien.reclaru@pxgroup.com [PX Holding S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Unger, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, C.J. [Institute for Pathology, REPAIR Lab, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstr.1, D-55101 Mainz (Germany); Susz, C.; Eschler, P.-Y.; Zuercher, M.-H. [PX Holding S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Antoniac, I. [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, Politehnica of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Luethy, H. [Institute of Dental Materials Science and Technology, University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 3, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-08-01

    In the last years the dental alloy market has undergone dramatic changes for reasons of economy and biocompatibility. Nickel based alloys have become widely used substitute for the much more expensive precious metal alloys. In Europe the prevalence of nickel allergy is 10-15% for female adults and 1-3% for male adults. Despite the restrictions imposed by the EU for the protection of the general population in contact dermatitis, the use of Ni-Cr dental alloys is on the increase. Some questions have to be faced regarding the safety risk of nickel contained in dental alloys. We have collected based on many EU markets, 8 Ni-Cr dental alloys. Microstructure characterization, corrosion resistance (generalized, crevice and pitting) in saliva and the quantities of cations released in particular nickel and CrVI have been evaluated. We have applied non parametric classification tests (Kendall rank correlation) for all chemical results. Also cytotoxicity tests and an evaluation specific to TNF-alpha have been conducted. According to the obtained results, it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak but that nickel release was high. The quantities of nickel released are higher than the limits imposed in the EU concerning contact with the skin or piercing. Surprisingly the biological tests did not show any cytotoxic effect on Hela and L929 cells or any change in TNF-alpha expression in monocytic cells. The alloys did not show any proinflammatory response in endothelial cells as demonstrated by the absence of ICAM-1 induction. We note therefore that there is really no direct relationship between the in vitro biological evaluation tests and the physico-chemical characterization of these dental alloys. Clinical and epidemiological studies are required to clarify these aspects. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nickel released was higher than the limits imposed in EU in contact with the skin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No direct relationship between the

  6. Discovering biological connections between experimental conditions based on common patterns of differential gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spira Avrum

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying similarities between patterns of differential gene expression provides an opportunity to identify similarities between the experimental and biological conditions that give rise to these gene expression alterations. The growing volume of gene expression data in open data repositories such as the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO presents an opportunity to identify these gene expression similarities on a large scale across a diverse collection of datasets. We have developed a fast, pattern-based computational approach, named openSESAME (Search of Expression Signatures Across Many Experiments, that identifies datasets enriched in samples that display coordinate differential expression of a query signature. Importantly, openSESAME performs this search without prior knowledge of the phenotypic or experimental groups in the datasets being searched. This allows openSESAME to identify perturbations of gene expression that are due to phenotypic attributes that may not have been described in the sample annotation included in the repository. To demonstrate the utility of openSESAME, we used gene expression signatures of two biological perturbations to query a set of 75,164 human expression profiles that were generated using Affymetrix microarrays and deposited in GEO. The first query, using a signature of estradiol treatment, identified experiments in which estrogen signaling was perturbed and also identified differences in estrogen signaling between estrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancers. The second query, which used a signature of silencing of the transcription factor p63 (a key regulator of epidermal differentiation, identified datasets related to stratified squamous epithelia or epidermal diseases such as melanoma. Conclusions openSESAME is a tool for leveraging the growing body of publicly available microarray data to discover relationships between different biological states based on common patterns of

  7. Ni–Cr based dental alloys; Ni release, corrosion and biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years the dental alloy market has undergone dramatic changes for reasons of economy and biocompatibility. Nickel based alloys have become widely used substitute for the much more expensive precious metal alloys. In Europe the prevalence of nickel allergy is 10–15% for female adults and 1–3% for male adults. Despite the restrictions imposed by the EU for the protection of the general population in contact dermatitis, the use of Ni–Cr dental alloys is on the increase. Some questions have to be faced regarding the safety risk of nickel contained in dental alloys. We have collected based on many EU markets, 8 Ni–Cr dental alloys. Microstructure characterization, corrosion resistance (generalized, crevice and pitting) in saliva and the quantities of cations released in particular nickel and CrVI have been evaluated. We have applied non parametric classification tests (Kendall rank correlation) for all chemical results. Also cytotoxicity tests and an evaluation specific to TNF-alpha have been conducted. According to the obtained results, it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak but that nickel release was high. The quantities of nickel released are higher than the limits imposed in the EU concerning contact with the skin or piercing. Surprisingly the biological tests did not show any cytotoxic effect on Hela and L929 cells or any change in TNF-alpha expression in monocytic cells. The alloys did not show any proinflammatory response in endothelial cells as demonstrated by the absence of ICAM-1 induction. We note therefore that there is really no direct relationship between the in vitro biological evaluation tests and the physico-chemical characterization of these dental alloys. Clinical and epidemiological studies are required to clarify these aspects. - Highlights: ► Nickel released was higher than the limits imposed in EU in contact with the skin. ► No direct relationship between the biological evaluation and chemical degradation.

  8. What Are They Thinking? Automated Analysis of Student Writing about Acid–Base Chemistry in Introductory Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Haudek, Kevin C; Prevost, Luanna B.; Moscarella, Rosa A.; Merrill, John; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Students’ writing can provide better insight into their thinking than can multiple-choice questions. However, resource constraints often prevent faculty from using writing assessments in large undergraduate science courses. We investigated the use of computer software to analyze student writing and to uncover student ideas about chemistry in an introductory biology course. Students were asked to predict acid–base behavior of biological functional groups and to explain their answers. Student e...

  9. Experimental studies on the multistage constant modulus array for the estimation of directions-of-arrival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Jie; SUN Chao

    2004-01-01

    The performance of the multistage Constant Modulus (CM) array, one of the most striking blind beamforming algorithms, for the source Directions-of-Arrival (DOA) estimation was analyzed via computer simulations and water tank experiments, and was compared to that of other DOA estimation algorithms including the ‘non-blind' and the ‘blind'. Firstly, a nominal array model and an array model with gain and phase perturbations were established,respectively. Secondly, the multistage CM array algorithm was described and computer simulations were conducted. Simulation results showed that the multistage CM array could correctly estimate the DOA at the same time when the sources were blindly recovered, and the angle separating ability of the algorithm was beyond the Rayleigh resolution limit. By changing the variance of the array model errors, it was also verified that the multistage CM array was more robust to the errors than some other algorithms mentioned in this paper. Finally, water tank experiments and data processing results were provided. Situations with different array sizes and source angular separations were considered. It was shown that the results were in good agreement with computer simulations. Results of computer simulations and water tank experiments verified that the DOAs of the multiple independent sources could be blindly and robustly estimated with the multistage CM array.

  10. Optimal phasing of district heating network investments using multi-stage stochastic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Stephane Claude Lambert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most design optimisation studies for district heating systems have focused on the optimal sizing of network assets and on the location of production units. However, the strategic value of the flexibility in phasing of the inherently modular heat networks, which is an important aspect in many feasibility studies for district heating schemes in the UK, is almost always neglected in the scientific literature. This paper considers the sequential problem faced by a decision-maker in the phasing of long-term investments into district heating networks and their expansions. The problem is formulated as a multi-stage stochastic programme to determine the annual capital expenditure that maximises the expected net present value of the project. The optimisation approach is illustrated by applying it to the hypothetical case of the UK’s Marston Vale eco town. It was found that the approach is capable of simulating the optimal growth of a network, from both a single heat source or separate islands of growth, as well as the optimal marginal expansion of an existing district heating network. The proposed approach can be used by decision makers as a framework to determine both the optimal phasing and extension of district heating networks and can be adapted simply to various, more complex real-life situations by introducing additional constraints and parameters. The versatility of the base formulation also makes it a powerful approach regardless of the size of the network and also potentially applicable to cooling networks.

  11. 3D segmentation of medical images using a fast multistage hybrid algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a fast multistage hybrid algorithm for 3D segmentation of medical images. We first employ a morphological recursive erosion operation to reduce the connectivity between the object to be segmented and its neighborhood; then the fast marching method is used to greatly accelerate the initial propagation of a surface front from the user defined seed structure to a surface close to the desired boundary; a morphological reconstruction method then operates on this surface to achieve an initial segmentation result; and finally morphological recursive dilation is employed to recover any structure lost in the first stage of the algorithm. This approach is tested on 60 CT or MRI images of the brain, heart and urinary system, to demonstrate the robustness of this technique across a variety of imaging modalities and organ systems. The algorithm is also validated against datasets for which ''truth'' is known. These measurements revealed that the algorithm achieved a mean ''similarity index'' of 0.966 across the three organ systems. The execution time for this algorithm, when run on a 550 MHz Dual PIII-based PC runningWindows NT, and extracting the cortex from brain MRIs, the cardiac surface from dynamic CT, and the kidneys from 3D CT, was 38, 46 and 23 s, respectively. (orig.)

  12. The influence of annular seal clearance to the critical speed of the multistage pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the multistage pump of high head, pressure difference in two ends of annular seal clearance and rotor eccentric would produce the sealing fluid force, the effect of which can be expressed by a damping and stiffness coefficient. It has a great influence on the critical speed of the rotor system. In order to research the influence of the annular seal to the rotor system, this paper used CFD method to conduct the numerical simulation for the flow field of annular seal clearance. The radial and tangential forces were obtained to calculate the annular dynamic coefficients. Also dynamic coefficient were obtained by Matlab. The rotor system was modeled using ANSYS finite software and the critical speed with and without annular seal clearance were calculated. The result shows: annular seal's fluid field is under the comprehensive effect of pressure difference and rotor entrainment. Due to the huge pressure difference in front annular seal, fluid flows under pressure difference; the low pressure difference results in the more obvious effect on the clearance field in back annular seal. The first order critical speed increases greatly with the annular seal clearance; while the average growth rate of the second order critical speed is only 3.2%; the third and fourth critical speed decreases little. Based on the above result, the annular seal has great influence to the first order speed, while has little influence on the rest

  13. Transport line for a multi-staged laser-plasma acceleration: DACTOMUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancé, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.chance@cea.fr [CEA, IRFU, SACM, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Delferrière, Olivier; Schwindling, Jérôme [CEA, IRFU, SACM, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bruni, Christelle; Delerue, Nicolas [LAL, UMR9607, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Specka, Arnd [LLR, UMR7638, CNRS and Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Cros, Brgitte; Maynard, Gillies; Paradkar, Bhooshan S. [LPGP, UMR8578, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Mora, Patrick [CPhT, UMR7644, CNRS and Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2014-03-11

    Laser-plasma acceleration is one of the most promising techniques to reach very high acceleration gradients up to a few hundreds of GeV/m. In order to push this acceleration scheme in the domain of the very high energies, the CILEX project was launched with the laser APOLLON. One of the main topics of this project is to study multi-staged acceleration. It consists in generating and pre-accelerating electrons in a first laser-plasma stage, to transport them up to a second stage where the electrons are accelerated again thanks to another laser pulse. The DACTOMUS project, based on a collaboration CEA-IRFU, CEA-IRAMIS, LAL, LPGP, LULI and LLR, aims at the study and realization of such a transfer line between these two stages. Firstly, a prototype will be developed and tested by the groups of CEA-IRAMIS-SPAM, LPGP, and LULI on the UHI100 facility (CEA-SPAM). This collaboration must enable to realize the first acceleration stage. For the transport line prototype, the main difficulties are to realize a very compact and energy accepting line with diagnostics to characterize the electron beam. We will present here the optics of this line, its performances and the inserted diagnostics.

  14. Transport line for a multi-staged laser-plasma acceleration: DACTOMUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancé, Antoine; Delferrière, Olivier; Schwindling, Jérôme; Bruni, Christelle; Delerue, Nicolas; Specka, Arnd; Cros, Brgitte; Maynard, Gillies; Paradkar, Bhooshan S.; Mora, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Laser-plasma acceleration is one of the most promising techniques to reach very high acceleration gradients up to a few hundreds of GeV/m. In order to push this acceleration scheme in the domain of the very high energies, the CILEX project was launched with the laser APOLLON. One of the main topics of this project is to study multi-staged acceleration. It consists in generating and pre-accelerating electrons in a first laser-plasma stage, to transport them up to a second stage where the electrons are accelerated again thanks to another laser pulse. The DACTOMUS project, based on a collaboration CEA-IRFU, CEA-IRAMIS, LAL, LPGP, LULI and LLR, aims at the study and realization of such a transfer line between these two stages. Firstly, a prototype will be developed and tested by the groups of CEA-IRAMIS-SPAM, LPGP, and LULI on the UHI100 facility (CEA-SPAM). This collaboration must enable to realize the first acceleration stage. For the transport line prototype, the main difficulties are to realize a very compact and energy accepting line with diagnostics to characterize the electron beam. We will present here the optics of this line, its performances and the inserted diagnostics.

  15. Short-Term Multi-Stage Stochastic Optimization of Hydropower Reservoirs Under Meteorological Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanenberg, D.; Naumann, S.; Allen, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hydroelectric power systems are characterized by variability and uncertainty in yield and water resources obligations. Market volatility and the growing number of operational constraints for flood control, navigation, environmental obligations and ancillary services (including load balancing requirements for renewable resources) further the need to quantify sources of uncertainty. This research presents an integrated framework to handle several sources of uncertainty. Main focus is on the meteorological forecast uncertainty based on deterministic and probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP), its consistent propagation through load and streamflow forecasts, and the generation of scenario trees with novel multi-dimensional distance metrics. The scenario trees enable us to extend a deterministic optimization setup to a multi-stage stochastic optimization approach as the mathematical formulation of the short-term system management. The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), managed by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, serves as a large-scale test case for the application of the new framework. We proof the feasibility of the new approach and verify the operational applicability within a real-time environment.

  16. CFD analysis of unsteady cavitation phenomena in multistage pump with inducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the numerical simulation of the cavitating flow phenomena in the suction part of a radial-flow multistage water pump with a high rotational speed. The pump is equipped with an inducer. Besides the usual focus on the cavitation inception or the drop of the pump total head this CFD analysis also studies the possibility of the cavitation surge and attempts to quantify the risk of cavitation erosion for different flow conditions. The ANSYS CFX commercial CFD package was used to solve the URANS equations coupled with the Rayleigh-Plesset Model. The SST-SAS turbulence model was employed to capture unsteady phenomena inside the pump. The model for the prediction of the cavitation erosion risk is based on coupling the CFD analysis of 3D turbulent flow with the analysis of the dynamics of bubbles travelling along selected trajectories using the full Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The model assumes that the water at the pump inlet contains a known number of nuclei with a known size distribution. The erosion potential (or aggressiveness) of the collapse is estimated from the energy dissipated during the collapse. The presented CFD analysis has provided a map of regions endangered by cavitation erosion. The cavitation instability in the backflow vortices has been detected at 60% of the optimal flow coefficient close to the NPSHr value.

  17. 基于伪动态的混沌人工鱼群算法在多阶段输电网络规划中的应用%Multistage transmission network planning based on pseudo-dynamic chaotic artificial fish school algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂宏展; 王毕元

    2011-01-01

    与传统输电网络规划不同,多阶段输电网络规划需要考虑时段因素,在何阶段搭建何种路线使全局规划方案最优.多阶段规划的难点是阶段之间的过渡,后面阶段的决策要根据前面阶段的决策来定,对于大规模输电网规划经典的动态规划方法无法解决.利用伪动态规划的思想处理多阶段问题,这样减少了算法的迭代次数和运算时间.将混沌优化算法和人工鱼群算法相结合,摆脱了混沌搜索的盲目性和人工鱼搜索的局限性,使该混合算法效率高、收敛速度快.对巴西南部46节点系统的计算结果表明,该混合算法具有可行性和高效性.%The traditional transmission network planning is confined to a single-level construction, while the actual transmission network planning needs to take into account the time factor, namely how to build the best route to network planning. The difficulty of the multi-stage planning is the transition between stages, with the later stages of the decision-making depending on earlier stages of decision-making. Classic dynamic programming can not solve largescale transmission network planning program. In this paper, pseudo-dynamic programming deals with the multistage problem, whose objective is to reduce the number of iterations. The combination of Chaotic Optimization Algorithm and Artificial Fish School Algorithm is free from blindness and limitations of the hybrid algorithm search. The hybrid algorithm is efficient and quick in computation. The calculation results of the 46-bus system reveal that applying hybrid algorithm into transmission network planning is not only feasible, but also has a very high computational efficiency.

  18. From Raw Data to Biological Discoveries: A Computational Analysis Pipeline for Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Park, Sung Kyu Robin; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; He, Lin; Yates, John R.

    2015-11-01

    In the last two decades, computational tools for mass spectrometry-based proteomics data analysis have evolved from a few stand-alone software solutions serving specific goals, such as the identification of amino acid sequences based on mass spectrometry spectra, to large-scale complex pipelines integrating multiple computer programs to solve a collection of problems. This software evolution has been mostly driven by the appearance of novel technologies that allowed the community to tackle complex biological problems, such as the identification of proteins that are differentially expressed in two samples under different conditions. The achievement of such objectives requires a large suite of programs to analyze the intricate mass spectrometry data. Our laboratory addresses complex proteomics questions by producing and using algorithms and software packages. Our current computational pipeline includes, among other things, tools for mass spectrometry raw data processing, peptide and protein identification and quantification, post-translational modification analysis, and protein functional enrichment analysis. In this paper, we describe a suite of software packages we have developed to process mass spectrometry-based proteomics data and we highlight some of the new features of previously published programs as well as tools currently under development.

  19. Spectroscopic studies and biological activity of some transition metal complexes of unusual Schiff base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Al-Nasr, Ahmad K.; Ramadan, Ramadan M.

    2013-03-01

    Unusual Schiff base ligand, 4-ethanimidoyl-6-[(1E)-N-(2-hydroxy-4-methylphenyl)ethanimidoyl]benzene-1,3-diol, L, was synthesized via catalytic process involving the interaction of some metal ions with a macrocyclic Schiff base (MSB). The transition metal derivatives [ML(H2O)4](NO3)3, M = Cr(III) and Fe(III), [NiL(H2O)4](NO3)2, [ML(H2O)2](NO3)2, M = Zn(II) and Cd(II), [Cl2Pd(μ-Cl)2PdL], [PtL(Cl)2] and [PtL(Cl)4] were also synthesized from the corresponding metal species with L. The Schiff bases and complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of L was determined by X-ray analysis. The spectroscopic studies revealed a variety of structure arrangements for the complexes. The biological activities of L and metal complexes against the Escherchia coli as Gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria, and the two fungus Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans were screened. The cytotoxicity of [PtL(Cl)2] complex, a cis-platin analogous, was checked as an antitumor agent on two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and T47D) and human liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2).

  20. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics: Biological and Technological Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpievitch, Yuliya V.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Dabney, Alan R.

    2010-12-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has become the tool of choice for identifying and quantifying the proteome of an organism. Though recent years have seen a tremendous improvement in instrument performance and the computational tools used, significant challenges remain, and there are many opportunities for statisticians to make important contributions. In the most widely used "bottom-up" approach to proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are first subjected to enzymatic cleavage, the resulting peptide products are separated based on chemical or physical properties and analyzed using a mass spectrometer. The two fundamental challenges in the analysis of bottom-up MS-based proteomics are: (1) Identifying the proteins that are present in a sample, and (2) Quantifying the abundance levels of the identified proteins. Both of these challenges require knowledge of the biological and technological context that gives rise to observed data, as well as the application of sound statistical principles for estimation and inference. We present an overview of bottom-up proteomics and outline the key statistical issues that arise in protein identification and quantification.

  1. Metal Complexes of Macrocyclic Schiff-Base Ligand: Preparation, Characterisation, and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Riyadh M.; Yousif, Enaam I.; Hasan, Hasan A.; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J.

    2013-01-01

    A new macrocyclic multidentate Schiff-base ligand Na4L consisting of two submacrocyclic units (10,21-bis-iminomethyl-3,6,14,17-tricyclo[17.3.1.18,12]tetracosa-1(23),2,6,8,10,12(24),13,17,19,21,-decaene-23,24-disodium) and its tetranuclear metal complexes with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) are reported. Na4L was prepared via a template approach, which is based on the condensation reaction of sodium 2,4,6-triformyl phenolate with ethylenediamine in mole ratios of 2 : 3. The tetranuclear macrocyclic-based complexes were prepared from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligand. The mode of bonding and overall geometry of the compounds were determined through physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. These studies revealed tetrahedral geometries about Mn, Co, and Zn atoms. However, square planar geometries have been suggested for NiII and CuII complexes. Biological activity of the ligand and its metal complexes against Gram positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli revealed that the metal complexes become more potentially resistive to the microbial activities as compared to the free ligand. However, these metal complexes do not exhibit any effects on the activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. There is therefore no inhibition zone. PMID:23935414

  2. Rule-based multi-level modeling of cell biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maus Carsten

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins, individual cells, and cell populations denote different levels of an organizational hierarchy, each of which with its own dynamics. Multi-level modeling is concerned with describing a system at these different levels and relating their dynamics. Rule-based modeling has increasingly attracted attention due to enabling a concise and compact description of biochemical systems. In addition, it allows different methods for model analysis, since more than one semantics can be defined for the same syntax. Results Multi-level modeling implies the hierarchical nesting of model entities and explicit support for downward and upward causation between different levels. Concepts to support multi-level modeling in a rule-based language are identified. To those belong rule schemata, hierarchical nesting of species, assigning attributes and solutions to species at each level and preserving content of nested species while applying rules. Further necessities are the ability to apply rules and flexibly define reaction rate kinetics and constraints on nested species as well as species that are nested within others. An example model is presented that analyses the interplay of an intracellular control circuit with states at cell level, its relation to cell division, and connections to intercellular communication within a population of cells. The example is described in ML-Rules - a rule-based multi-level approach that has been realized within the plug-in-based modeling and simulation framework JAMES II. Conclusions Rule-based languages are a suitable starting point for developing a concise and compact language for multi-level modeling of cell biological systems. The combination of nesting species, assigning attributes, and constraining reactions according to these attributes is crucial in achieving the desired expressiveness. Rule schemata allow a concise and compact description of complex models. As a result, the presented approach

  3. Animal protein production modules in biological life support systems: Novel combined aquaculture techniques based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Schreibman, M. P.

    Based on the experiences made with the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) which was primarily deveoloped for long-term and multi-generation experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station highly effective fresh water recycling modules were elaborated utilizing a combination of ammonia oxidizing bacteria filters and higher plants. These exhibit a high effectivity to eliminate phosphate and anorganic nitrogen compounds and arc. in addidition. able to contribute to the oxygen supply of the aquatic animals. The C.E.B.A.S. filter system is able to keep a closed artificial aquatic ecosystem containing teleost fishes and water snails biologically stable for several month and to eliminate waste products deriving from degraded dead fishes without a decrease of the oxygen concentration down to less than 3.5 mg/l at 25 °C. More advanced C.E.B.A.S. filter systems, the BIOCURE filters, were also developed for utilization in semiintensive and intensive aquaculture systems for fishes. In fact such combined animal-plant aquaculture systems represent highly effective productions sites for human food if proper plant and fish species are selected The present papers elucidates ways to novel aquaculture systems in which herbivorous fishes are raised by feeding them with plant biomass produced in the BIOCURE filters and presents the scheme of a modification which utilizes a plant species suitable also for human nutrition. Special attention is paid to the benefits of closed aquaculture system modules which may be integrated into bioregenerative life support systems of a higher complexity for, e. g.. lunar or planetary bases including some psychologiccal aspects of the introduction of animal protein production into plant-based life support systems. Moreover, the basic reproductive biological problems of aquatic animal breeding under reduced gravity are explained leading to a disposition of essential research programs in this context.

  4. Multi-stage FEL amplifier with diaphragm focusing line as direct energy driver for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An FEL based energy driver for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is proposed. The key element of the scheme is free electron laser system. Novel technical solutions, namely, using of multichannel, multi-stage FEL amplifier with diaphragm focusing line, reveal a possibility to construct the FEL system operating at radiation wavelength λ = 0.5 μm and providing flush energy E = 1 MJ and brightness 4 x 1022 W cm-2 sr-1 within steering pulse duration τ ∼ 0.1-2 ns. Total energy efficiency of the proposed ICF energy driver is about of 11% and repetition rate is 40 Hz. It is shown that the FEL based ICF energy driver may be constructed at the present level of accelerator technique R ampersand D

  5. Some biological effects of one water based ferrofluid in cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The biological interest in the ferrofluid effect in living organisms represents an important application field, mainly for biotechnological use, since the small ferrophase size allows the penetration through the biological membranes. Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of an aqueous ferrofluid on the assimilatory pigments, the peroxide level, nucleic acid level and on the substance accumulation. Water based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added in various concentrations (10-50-100- 150-200-250 micro L/L) (after vigorous shaking) in the culture medium of Cucurbita pepo plantlets (pumpkin). Spectrophotometric standard assay methods have been applied in order to get experimental data regarding the levels of assimilatory pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenes), nucleic acids and peroxydase like enzymes. JASCO V350 spectrophotometer provided with. The stimulatory effect of relatively high ferrofluid concentrations have been observed in the ratio chlorophyll a/b, known as a measure of photosynthesis ratio. Non-significant changes in the nucleic acid level were noticed. Inhibitory effect upon the enzyme biosynthesis was assigned to the ferrofluid addition. The statistic analysis was accomplished by considering five repetitions of every measurement in ferrofluid samples and control ones. Average values of ferrofluid samples and control ones have been compared by means of t-test. Statistic significance was revealed in comparison to the significance threshold of 0.05. (Also one figure included.) References: [1] C. Gro , K.Buescher, E. Romanus, C,A, Helm, W.Weitschies, European cells and Materials, 2002, 3(2), 163. [2] M.M.Zamfirache, G. Capraru, D. Creanga, M. Racuciu, Gh. Calugaru, Ferrofluid experiment for simulating pollution effect on plant growth, The Annals of University Galati, 2004(XXVII), Fasc.II, 37. [3] A.Goodarzi, Y.Sahoo, M.T.Swihart, P.N. Prasad, Mat.Res.Soc.Symp.Proc., 2004,Vol.789, N6.6.1

  6. Biological performance of titania containing phosphate-based glasses for bone tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali, E-mail: eabouneel@kau.edu.sa [Division of Biomaterials, Conservative Dental Sciences Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Division of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, 256 Gray' s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD (United Kingdom); Chrzanowski, Wojciech [The University of Sydney, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmacy and Bank Building, NSW2006 (Australia); Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Reserch Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Knowles, Jonathan Campbell, E-mail: j.knowles@ucl.ac.uk [Division of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, 256 Gray' s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD (United Kingdom); Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Reserch Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    The interplay between glass chemistry, structure, degradation kinetics, and biological activity provides flexibility for the development of scaffolds with highly specific cellular response. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the role of titania inclusion into the phosphate-based glass on its ability to stimulate osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to adhere, proliferate and differentiate. In depth morphological and biochemical characterisation was performed on HOS cells cultured on the surface of glass discs. Cell proliferation was also studied in the presence of the glass extract. Cell differentiation, through osteoblast phenotype genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production, was carried out using normal or osteogenic media. Both Thermanox® and titania free glass were used as controls. The data demonstrated that titania inclusion provides desired cytocompatible surface that supported initial cell attachment, sustained viability, and increased cell proliferation similar or significantly higher than Thermanox®. The modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation as detected by osteoblast phenotype gene transcription and upregulated ALP and osteocalcin expression. Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on ALP activity and osteocalcin expression. Therefore, titania modified phosphate glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. - Highlights: • This study investigated the role of titania on the biological response of phosphate glasses. • Incorporation of titania improved HOS cell attachment, viability and proliferation. • Titania modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation. • Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on cell differentiation. • Titania modified glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  7. 3D nanoscale imaging of biological samples with laboratory-based soft X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlinger, Aurélie; Blechschmidt, Anne; Grötzsch, Daniel; Jung, Robert; Kanngießer, Birgit; Seim, Christian; Stiel, Holger

    2015-09-01

    In microscopy, where the theoretical resolution limit depends on the wavelength of the probing light, radiation in the soft X-ray regime can be used to analyze samples that cannot be resolved with visible light microscopes. In the case of soft X-ray microscopy in the water-window, the energy range of the radiation lies between the absorption edges of carbon (at 284 eV, 4.36 nm) and oxygen (543 eV, 2.34 nm). As a result, carbon-based structures, such as biological samples, posses a strong absorption, whereas e.g. water is more transparent to this radiation. Microscopy in the water-window, therefore, allows the structural investigation of aqueous samples with resolutions of a few tens of nanometers and a penetration depth of up to 10μm. The development of highly brilliant laser-produced plasma-sources has enabled the transfer of Xray microscopy, that was formerly bound to synchrotron sources, to the laboratory, which opens the access of this method to a broader scientific community. The Laboratory Transmission X-ray Microscope at the Berlin Laboratory for innovative X-ray technologies (BLiX) runs with a laser produced nitrogen plasma that emits radiation in the soft X-ray regime. The mentioned high penetration depth can be exploited to analyze biological samples in their natural state and with several projection angles. The obtained tomogram is the key to a more precise and global analysis of samples originating from various fields of life science.

  8. Biological performance of titania containing phosphate-based glasses for bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interplay between glass chemistry, structure, degradation kinetics, and biological activity provides flexibility for the development of scaffolds with highly specific cellular response. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the role of titania inclusion into the phosphate-based glass on its ability to stimulate osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to adhere, proliferate and differentiate. In depth morphological and biochemical characterisation was performed on HOS cells cultured on the surface of glass discs. Cell proliferation was also studied in the presence of the glass extract. Cell differentiation, through osteoblast phenotype genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production, was carried out using normal or osteogenic media. Both Thermanox® and titania free glass were used as controls. The data demonstrated that titania inclusion provides desired cytocompatible surface that supported initial cell attachment, sustained viability, and increased cell proliferation similar or significantly higher than Thermanox®. The modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation as detected by osteoblast phenotype gene transcription and upregulated ALP and osteocalcin expression. Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on ALP activity and osteocalcin expression. Therefore, titania modified phosphate glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. - Highlights: • This study investigated the role of titania on the biological response of phosphate glasses. • Incorporation of titania improved HOS cell attachment, viability and proliferation. • Titania modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation. • Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on cell differentiation. • Titania modified glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds

  9. Strategies and limits in multi-stage single-point incremental forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, M.B.; Martins, P. A. F.;

    2010-01-01

    Multi-stage single-point incremental forming (SPIF) is a state-of-the-art manufacturing process that allows small-quantity production of complex sheet metal parts with vertical walls. This paper is focused on the application of multi-stage SPIF with the objective of producing cylindrical cups with...... vertical walls. The strategy consists of forming a conical cup with a taper angle in the first stage, followed by three subsequent stages that progressively move the conical shape towards the desired cylindrical geometry. The investigation includes material characterization, determination of forming......-limit curves and fracture forming-limit curves (FFLCs), numerical simulation, and experimentation, namely the evaluation of strain paths and fracture strains in actual multi-stage parts. Assessment of numerical simulation with experimentation shows good agreement between computed and measured strain and strain...

  10. Proceedings First Workshop on Applications of Membrane computing, Concurrency and Agent-based modelling in POPulation biology

    CERN Document Server

    Milazzo, Paolo; 10.4204/EPTCS.33

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the first International Workshop on Applications of Membrane Computing, Concurrency and Agent-based Modelling in Population Biology (AMCA-POP 2010) held in Jena, Germany on August 25th, 2010 as a satellite event of the 11th Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). The aim of the workshop is to investigate whether formal modelling and analysis techniques could be applied with profit to systems of interest for population biology and ecology. The considered modelling notations include membrane systems, Petri nets, agent-based notations, process calculi, automata-based notations, rewriting systems and cellular automata. Such notations enable the application of analysis techniques such as simulation, model checking, abstract interpretation and type systems to study systems of interest in disciplines such as population biology, ecosystem science, epidemiology, genetics, sustainability science, evolution and other disciplines in which population dynamics and interactions...

  11. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2013-03-01

    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  12. Efifciency of Concrete Crack-healing based on Biological Carbonate Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Mian; QIAN Chunxiang; LI Ruiyang; RONG Hui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the capacity for crack-repair in concrete by developing a new way. The self-healing agent based on biological carbonate precipitation was developed. Crack-healing capacity of the cement paste specimens with this biochemical agent was researched. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the precipitation in cracks. The healing efficiency was evaluated by measuring the water permeability after crack healing as well.The experimental results show that the applied biochemical agent can successfully improve the self-healing capacity of the cement paste specimens as larger cracks can be healed. The cracks with a width of 0.48 mm in the specimens with the biochemical agent are nearly fully healed by the precipitation after 80d repair. SEM and XRD analysis results demonstrate that the white precipitation in cracks is calcium carbonate, which displays spherical crystal morphology. Meanwhile, the water permeability test result shows that the biochemical agent can significantly decrease the water permeability of the cement paste specimens, the water permeability of specimens with the biochemical agent respectively decreases by 84%and 96%after 7 d and 28 d immersion in water, however the control specimens only respectively decrease by 41%and 60%, which indicates that the bacteria-based concrete appears to be a promising approach to increase concrete durability.

  13. The semantic metadatabase (SEMEDA): ontology based integration of federated molecular biological data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Jacob; Schulze-Kremer, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    A system for "intelligent" semantic integration and querying of federated databases is being implemented by using three main components: A component which enables SQL access to integrated databases by database federation (MARGBench), an ontology based semantic metadatabase (SEMEDA) and an ontology based query interface (SEMEDA-query). In this publication we explain and demonstrate the principles, architecture and the use of SEMEDA. Since SEMEDA is implemented as 3 tiered web application database providers can enter all relevant semantic and technical information about their databases by themselves via a web browser. SEMEDA' s collaborative ontology editing feature is not restricted to database integration, and might also be useful for ongoing ontology developments, such as the "Gene Ontology" [2]. SEMEDA can be found at http://www-bm.cs.uni-magdeburg.de/semeda/. We explain how this ontologically structured information can be used for semantic database integration. In addition, requirements to ontologies for molecular biological database integration are discussed and relevant existing ontologies are evaluated. We further discuss how ontologies and structured knowledge sources can be used in SEMEDA and whether they can be merged supplemented or updated to meet the requirements for semantic database integration. PMID:12542408

  14. Grades and Withdrawal Rates in Cell Biology and Genetics Based upon Institution Type for General Biology and Implications for Transfer Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Kimberly Fayette

    2016-01-01

    General biology courses (for majors) are often transferred from one institution to another. These courses must prepare students for upper division courses in biology. In Colorado, a Biology Transfer Articulation Agreement that includes general biology has been created across the state. An evaluation was conducted of course grades in two upper…

  15. CellBase, a comprehensive collection of RESTful web services for retrieving relevant biological information from heterogeneous sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleda, Marta; Tarraga, Joaquin; de Maria, Alejandro; Salavert, Francisco; Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Celma, Matilde; Martin, Ainoha; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    During the past years, the advances in high-throughput technologies have produced an unprecedented growth in the number and size of repositories and databases storing relevant biological data. Today, there is more biological information than ever but, unfortunately, the current status of many of these repositories is far from being optimal. Some of the most common problems are that the information is spread out in many small databases; frequently there are different standards among repositories and some databases are no longer supported or they contain too specific and unconnected information. In addition, data size is increasingly becoming an obstacle when accessing or storing biological data. All these issues make very difficult to extract and integrate information from different sources, to analyze experiments or to access and query this information in a programmatic way. CellBase provides a solution to the growing necessity of integration by easing the access to biological data. CellBase implements a set of RESTful web services that query a centralized database containing the most relevant biological data sources. The database is hosted in our servers and is regularly updated. CellBase documentation can be found at http://docs.bioinfo.cipf.es/projects/cellbase. PMID:22693220

  16. Using a Module-Based Laboratory to Incorporate Inquiry into a Large Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David R.; Miskowski, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Because cell biology has rapidly increased in breadth and depth, instructors are challenged not only to provide undergraduate science students with a strong, up-to-date foundation of knowledge, but also to engage them in the scientific process. To these ends, revision of the Cell Biology Lab course at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse was…

  17. A Comprehensive Web-based Platform For Domain-Specific Biological Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klement, M.; Šafránek, D.; Děd, J.; Pejznoch, A.; Nedbal, Ladislav; Steuer, Ralf; Červený, Jan; Müller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 299, 25 Dec (2013), s. 61-67. ISSN 1571-0661 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0256 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : biological models * model annotation * systems biology * simulation * database Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. A knowledge base for teaching biology situated in the context of genetic testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, P.A.M.; Waarlo, A.J.; Brekelmans, M.; Akkerman, S.F.; Vermunt, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testin

  19. PASCAL Data Base File Description and Indexing Rules in Chemistry, Biology and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardin, R.; And Others

    This report on the multidisciplinary PASCAL database describes the files and the indexing rules for chemistry, biology, and medicine. PASCAL deals with all aspects of chemistry within two subfiles whose combined yearly growth is about 100,000 references. The Biopascal file, organized in the two subfiles of Plant Science and Biology and Medicine,…

  20. A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

  1. A Knowledge Base for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Brekelmans, Mieke; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  2. PATIENT-CENTRED SCREENING FOR PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY, A MULTI-STAGE DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOL DESIGNED FOR NONIMMUNOLOGISTS: 2011 UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Vries

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Members of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID and other colleagues have updated themulti-stage expert-opinion-based diagnostic protocol for non-immunologists incorporating newly defined primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs. The protocol presented here aims to increase the awareness of PIDs among doctors working in different fields. Prompt identification of PID is important for prognosis, but this may not be an easy task. The protocol therefore starts from the clinical presentation of the patient. Because PIDs may present at all ages, this protocol is aimed at both adult and paediatric physicians. The multi-stage design allows cost-effective screening for PID of the large number of potential cases in the early phases, with more expensive tests reserved for definitive classification in collaboration with a specialist in the field of immunodeficiency at a later stage.

  3. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  4. A microfluidic chemical/biological sensing system based on membrane dissolution and optical absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharamurthy, Sudheer S.; Dong, Liang; Jiang, Hongrui

    2007-01-01

    A microfluidic system to sense chemical and biological analytes using membranes dissolvable by the analyte is demonstrated. The scheme to detect the dissolution of the membrane is based on the difference in optical absorption of the membrane and the fluidic sample being assayed. The presence of the analyte in the sample chemically cleaves the membrane and causes the sample to flow into the membrane area. This causes a change in the optical absorption of the path between the light source and detector. A device comprising the microfluidic channels and the membrane is microfabricated using liquid-phase photopolymerization. A light emitting diode (LED) and a detector with an integrated amplifier are positioned and aligned on either side of the device. The state of the membrane is continuously monitored after introducing the sample. The temporal dissolution characteristics of the membrane are extracted in terms of the output voltage of the detector as a function of time. This is used to determine the concentration of the analyte. The absorption spectra of the membrane and fluidic sample are studied to determine the optimal wavelength that provides the maximum difference in absorbance between the membrane and the sample. In this work, the dissolution of a poly(acrylamide) hydrogel membrane in the presence of a reducing agent (dithiothreitol—DTT) is used as a model system. For this system, with 1 M DTT, complete membrane dissolution occurred after 65 min.

  5. Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization and Biological Activities of Transition Metal Complexes Derived from a Tridentate Schiff Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Senthil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of Cu (II, Ni (II, Co (II and Zn (II complexes have been synthesized from the Schiff base derived from 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidine-4-aminoantipyrine and 2-aminophenol. The structural features have been determined from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, Mass, IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESR spectral studies. The redox behavior of the copper complex has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The data confirm that the complexes have composition of ML2 type. The electronic absorption spectral data of the complexes propose an octahedral geometry around the central metal ion. All the metal complexes with DNA structure were guided by the presence of inter-molecular C–H⋯O and C–H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The biological activity of the synthesized compounds were tested against the bacterial species such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and fungal species such as Candida albicans by the well-diffusion method.

  6. Silicon carbide based one-dimensional nanostructure growth: towards electronics and biology perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as nanowires or nanotubes have attracted great interest in fundamental research as well as potential breakthrough applications. Among many materials, silicon carbide (SiC) has very interesting physical, chemical and electronic properties. This is why silicon carbide based 1D nanostructures, which combine excellent intrinsic properties with low dimensionality, have great potential. In this topical review, the growth of SiC 1D nanostructures is addressed as well as the potential applications of these peculiar nano-objects. This subject is first introduced by the interest in this material and by a summing up of the state of the art of SiC nanowire growth. In the second part, Si–SiC core–shell nanowire synthesis is described, followed by the growth of SiC nanotubes. In particular, these two kinds of nanostructures can be obtained via Si nanowire carburization. The third part is dedicated to the control of the synthesis from Si–SiC core–shell nanowires to SiC nanotubes using this original technique. Then, an alternative top-down approach to synthesize SiC 1D nanostructures is described. Finally, preliminary results towards integration for biology, energy and electronics are provided. (topical review)

  7. Towards a cumulative biological dosimeter based on chromosome painting and digital image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach for a long-term (cumulative) biological dosimeter is described, based on the idea that stem cells with irradiation-induced reciprocal translocations and their progeny would neither lose nor gain genetic material and thus should retain the same proliferative potential as non-irradiated cells. Rapid detection of chromosome translocations has become possible in irradiated human lymphocytes by a newly developed fluorescent in situ hybridization method called 'chromosome painting'. We have used this approach to score chromosome aberrations, including translocation events, in over 8000 chromosomes painted in lymphocytes from two patients exposed to an X-ray contrast medium containing Th-232 and from two age-matched control persons. The percentage of both the total fraction of aberrant painted chromosomes and of translocations was found significantly higher in exposed patients. A program was developed which can automatically determine the number of normal and aberrant painted chromosomes and classify evaluated cells as 'normal' or 'aberrant' within 1 to 2 seconds. (orig.)

  8. Risk-based objectives for the allocation of chemical, biological, and radiological air emissions sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James H; Farrington, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    This article addresses the problem of allocating devices for localized hazard protection across a region. Each identical device provides only local protection, and the devices serve localities that are exposed to nonidentical intensities of hazard. A method for seeking the optimal allocation Policy Decisions is described, highlighting the potentially competing objectives of maximizing local risk reductions and coverage risk reductions. The metric for local risk reductions is the sum of the local economic risks avoided. The metric for coverage risk reductions is adapted from the p-median problem and equal to the sum of squares of the distances from all unserved localities to their closest associated served locality. Three graphical techniques for interpreting the Policy Decisions are presented. The three linked graphical techniques are applied serially. The first technique identifies Policy Decisions that are nearly Pareto optimal. The second identifies locations where sensor placements are most justified, based on a risk-cost-benefit analysis under uncertainty. The third displays the decision space for any particular policy decision. The method is illustrated in an application to chemical, biological, and/or radiological weapon sensor placement, but has implications for disaster preparedness, transportation safety, and other arenas of public safety. PMID:17184404

  9. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence, imaging and elemental mapping from biological samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D V Rao; M Swapna; R Cesareo; A Brunetti; T Akatsuka; T Yuasa; T Takeda; G E Gigante

    2011-02-01

    The present study utilized the new hard X-ray microspectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at NSLS, BNL, USA, for elemental mapping. This facility provided the primary beam in a small spot of the order of ∼ 10 m, for focussing. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, the synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescent intensities for Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ti and Cu were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The sample is scanned in a `step-and-repeat’ mode for fast elemental mapping measurements and generated elemental maps at 8, 10 and 12 keV, from a small animal shell (snail). The accumulated trace elements, from these biological samples, in small areas have been identified. Analysis of the small areas will be better suited to establish the physiology of metals in specific structures like small animal shell and the distribution of other elements.

  10. Biological performance of titania containing phosphate-based glasses for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Knowles, Jonathan Campbell

    2014-02-01

    The interplay between glass chemistry, structure, degradation kinetics, and biological activity provides flexibility for the development of scaffolds with highly specific cellular response. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the role of titania inclusion into the phosphate-based glass on its ability to stimulate osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to adhere, proliferate and differentiate. In depth morphological and biochemical characterisation was performed on HOS cells cultured on the surface of glass discs. Cell proliferation was also studied in the presence of the glass extract. Cell differentiation, through osteoblast phenotype genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production, was carried out using normal or osteogenic media. Both Thermanox® and titania free glass were used as controls. The data demonstrated that titania inclusion provides desired cytocompatible surface that supported initial cell attachment, sustained viability, and increased cell proliferation similar or significantly higher than Thermanox®. The modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation as detected by osteoblast phenotype gene transcription and upregulated ALP and osteocalcin expression. Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on ALP activity and osteocalcin expression. Therefore, titania modified phosphate glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:24411382

  11. Problem-based learning on cell biology and ecophysiology using integrated laboratory and computational activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since all the known biological systems require water for their basic biochemical processes, one can find several osmoregulation mechanisms on living organisms for adaptation to related environmental challenges. Osmosis is a cellular mechanism of water movement across membranes which is known to be present throughout the tree of life and occurs by either diffusion across the membrane bilayer or by a faster movement mediated by transmembrane channel proteins, called aquaporins. The expression of aquaporins is regulated at, the cellular level, by environment conditions such as hydric stress, therefore allowing the adaptation of organisms to increase salinity in soils, water deprivation and increase beverage intake.  Osmosis and diffusion concepts have been described to be difficult to learn, so, in order to promote meaningfull learning, we used a problem-based learning approach that integrates a laboratory activity and a computer simulation model of osmosis and a two phase conceptual mapping. We observed that high school students developed adequate laboratory skills and were able to communicate their results as text and using scientific drawings; and the learning environment was adequate. Therefore we presented a successful implementation case of integrated PBL, in a public portuguese school, that may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation of active inquiry strategies by other teachers, as well as the basis for future research.

  12. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qili [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Shirinzadeh, Bijan [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Cui, Maosheng [Biotechnology Lab of Animal Reproduction, Tianjin Animal Sciences, Tianjin 300112 (China); Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin, E-mail: zhaoxin@nankai.edu.cn [Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-07-28

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10{sup −15 }kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections.

  13. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10−15 kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections

  14. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6. PMID:23586746

  15. Energy consumption by multi-stage flash and reverse osmosis desalters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, M.A.; Al-Najem, N.M. [Kuwait University, Safat (Kuwait). College of Engineering and Petroleum

    2000-04-01

    Kuwait and most of the Gulf countries, depend mainly on desalted water from the sea for satisfying their fresh water needs. These countries are using the multi-stage flash (MSF) desalting system, as the 'work horse' for their water production. This system is less efficient in energy consumption as compared to the reverse osmosis (RO) system. Moreover, large units based on the MSF system have to be combined with steam or gas turbines power plants for better utilization of steam supplied to the MSF units at moderately low temperature and pressure (as compared to steam produced by large steam generators). The value and the cost of the thermal energy supplied to the MSF desalting system depends on the method of supplying this energy. This steam can be supplied directly from a fuel operated boiler or heat recovery steam generator associated with a gas turbine. It can also be supplied from the exhaust of a steam back pressure turbine or bled from condensed extraction steam turbine at a pressure suitable for the desalting process. Any energy comparison should be based on simple criteria, either how much fuel energy is consumed to produce this energy or how much mechanical energy is needed per unit product. The energy consumed in the light of the practice used in most Gulf countries are discussed here. In this study, reference desalting and power plants are used for comparison purposes. This study shows that shifting from MSF desalting System to the RO system can save up to 66% of the fuel energy used to desalt seawater. (author)

  16. Aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiology of bulimia nervosa: biological bases and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, F

    2001-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by recurrent episodes of binge eating and associated efforts to purge the ingested calories through self-induced vomiting, laxative or diuretic abuse, fasting or intensive exercise. The aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiology of the disorder are currently unclear. Biological bases have been proposed repeatedly, based on several lines of evidence: hunger, satiety and food choice are regulated by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, and impairment of eating habits may be related to alterations in the secretion of these chemicals; genetic studies suggest that these neurotransmitter systems are dysfunctional in individuals with bulimia nervosa; and the frequent comorbidity of bulimia nervosa with major depressive and obsessive-compulsive disorders, conditions in which multiple alterations of brain biochemical functions have been demonstrated. Data in the literature suggest that levels of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) are lower in individuals with bulimia nervosa than in healthy controls. Levels of dopamine are similar to, or lower than, those in controls. After remission of the disorder, noradrenergic function returns to that seen in controls, whereas dopaminergic and serotonergic function rebound to levels higher than in controls. Among the neuropeptides, alterations in the levels of neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, beta-endorphin, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, somatostatin, cholecystokinin and vasopressin have been found in the symptomatic phase of bulimia nervosa, with a return to levels seen in controls after remission. Pharmacological treatment of bulimia nervosa that is directed at correction of the neurochemical alterations observed is difficult because of the complexity of the impairments. However, such treatment is necessary and should be continued long after symptomatic remission to ensure reinstitution of cerebral biochemical homeostasis. PMID:11460890

  17. Trait-based representation of biological nitrification: Model development, testing, and predicted community composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NickBouskill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Trait-based microbial models show clear promise as tools to represent the diversity and activity of microorganisms across ecosystem gradients. These models parameterize specific traits that determine the relative fitness of an ‘organism’ in a given environment, and represent the complexity of biological systems across temporal and spatial scales. In this study we introduce a microbial community trait-based modeling framework (MicroTrait focused on nitrification (MicroTrait-N that represents the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB using traits related to enzyme kinetics and physiological properties. We used this model to predict nitrifier diversity, ammonia (NH3 oxidation rates and nitrous oxide (N2O production across pH, temperature and substrate gradients. Predicted nitrifier diversity was predominantly determined by temperature and substrate availability, the latter was strongly influenced by pH. The model predicted that transient N2O production rates are maximized by a decoupling of the AOB and NOB communities, resulting in an accumulation and detoxification of nitrite to N2O by AOB. However, cumulative N2O production (over six month simulations is maximized in a system where the relationship between AOB and NOB is maintained. When the reactions uncouple, the AOB become unstable and biomass declines rapidly, resulting in decreased NH3 oxidation and N2O production. We evaluated this model against site level chemical datasets from the interior of Alaska and accurately simulated NH3 oxidation rates and the relative ratio of AOA:AOB biomass. The predicted community structure and activity indicate (a parameterization of a small number of traits may be sufficient to broadly characterize nitrifying community structure and (b changing decadal trends in climate and edaphic conditions could impact nitrification rates in ways that are not captured by extant biogeochemical models.

  18. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  19. Development and testing of new biologically-based polymers as advanced biocompatible contact lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2000-06-01

    Nature has evolved complex and elegant materials well suited to fulfill a myriad of functions. Lubricants, structural scaffolds and protective sheaths can all be found in nature, and these provide a rich source of inspiration for the rational design of materials for biomedical applications. Many biological materials are based in some fashion on hydrogels, the crosslinked polymers that absorb and hold water. Biological hydrogels contribute to processes as diverse as mineral nucleation during bone growth and protection and hydration of the cell surface. The carbohydrate layer that coats all living cells, often referred to as the glycocalyx, has hydrogel-like properties that keep cell surfaces well hydrated, segregated from neighboring cells, and resistant to non-specific protein deposition. With the molecular details of cell surface carbohydrates now in hand, adaptation of these structural motifs to synthetic materials is an appealing strategy for improving biocompatibility. The goal of this collaborative project between Prof. Bertozzi's research group, the Center for Advanced Materials at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sunsoft Corporation was the design, synthesis and characterization of novel hydrogel polymers for improved soft contact lens materials. Our efforts were motivated by the urgent need for improved materials that allow extended wear, and essential feature for those whose occupation requires the use of contact lenses rather than traditional spectacles. Our strategy was to transplant the chemical features of cell surface molecules into contact lens materials so that they more closely resemble the tissue in which they reside. Specifically, we integrated carbohydrate molecules similar to those found on cell surfaces, and sulfoxide materials inspired by the properties of the carbohydrates, into hydrogels composed of biocompatible and manufacturable substrates. The new materials were characterized with respect to surface and bulk hydrophilicity

  20. {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Lemire, Bernard D., E-mail: bernard.lemire@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Systems Medicine (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  1. 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  2. The Effectiveness of a Case Study-Based First-Year Biology Class at a Black Women's College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; Benning, Tracy; Woods, Natasha; McGinnis, Gene; Chu, Joanne; Netherton, Josh; Bauerle, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The authors used a case study-based approach in the introductory biology course at Spelman College. The course taught to entering freshmen was divided into three modules--ecology, evolution, and biodiversity, each designed around a case study. They noted that (1) case study teaching was dramatically more effective than the traditional lecture…

  3. Terrestrial Slugs as a Model Organism for Inquiry-Based Experimentation in a Majors General Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brenda J.; Blair, Amy C.

    2013-01-01

    Many biology educators at the undergraduate level are revamping their laboratory curricula to incorporate inquiry-based research experiences so that students can directly participate in the process of science and improve their scientific reasoning skills. Slugs are an ideal organism for use in such a student-directed, hypothesis-driven experience.…

  4. Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose response (BBDR) Model***

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the 1-IPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model...

  5. Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose-response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (BPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the HPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model p...

  6. HIGHLY SELECTIVE SENSORS FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS, INSECTICIDES AND VOCS BASED ON A MOLECULAR SURFACE IMPRINTING TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract was given as an oral platform presentation at the Pittsburgh Conference, Orlando FL (March 5-9, 2006). Research described is the development of sensors based on molecular surface imprinting. Applications include the monitoring of chemical and biological agents and inse...

  7. Humin-based complexes and study of their biological activity under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Several experimental studies have indicated that humin acids has features such as antioxidant activity, antiradiation activity and other. It is known that the humin acids are biologically active organic compounds with characteristics of high polyfunctional and complexing acids. The biological activity of these compounds is connected with presence of phenolic and hydroxyl groups. The main goal of this research is to increase biological activity and sorption properties of humin acids and obtaining of their modified and enriched forms with organic minerals and their analysis on model plant objects. Humin acids solutions can stimulate the life activity of irradiated plants with critical doses and plants growing in the polluted soils with radionuclides

  8. Nanomaterial based detection and degradation of biological and chemical contaminants in a microfluidic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamohan, Harikrishnan

    Monitoring and remediation of environmental contaminants (biological and chemical) form the crux of global water resource management. There is an extant need to develop point-of-use, low-power, low-cost tools that can address this problem effectively with minimal environmental impact. Nanotechnology and microfluidics have made enormous advances during the past decade in the area of biosensing and environmental remediation. The "marriage" of these two technologies can effectively address some of the above-mentioned needs. In this dissertation, nanomaterials were used in conjunction with microfluidic techniques to detect and degrade biological and chemical pollutants. In the first project, a point-of-use sensor was developed for detection of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. A self-organizing nanotubular titanium dioxide (TNA) synthesized by electrochemical anodization and functionalized with photocatalytically deposited platinum (Pt/TNA) was applied to the detection. The morphology and crystallinity of the Pt/TNA sensor was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dis- persive x-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor could detect TCE in the concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 ppm. The room-temperature operation capability of the sensor makes it less power intensive and can potentially be incorporated into a field-based sensor. In the second part, TNA synthesized on a foil was incorporated into a flow-based microfluidic format and applied to degradation of a model pollutant, methylene blue. The system was demonstrated to have enhanced photocatalytic performance at higher flow rates (50-200 muL/min) over the same microfluidic format with TiO2 nanoparticulate (commercial P25) catalyst. The microfluidic format with TNA catalyst was able to achieve 82% fractional conversion of 18 mM methylene blue in comparison to 55% in the case of the TiO2 nanoparticulate layer at a flow rate of 200 L/min. The microfluidic device was

  9. UNDERSTANDING, ACCEPTING AND CONTROLLING RISKS - A MULTISTAGE FRAMEWORK FOR RISK COMMUNICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VLEK, CAJ

    1995-01-01

    The meanings and functions of cc risk communication a (RC, for shea) are specified on the basis of a multistage framework for handling societal risks. After identifying various reasons for RC, essential components of > are briefly discussed : basic risk communicator positions, different levels of ri

  10. Nonlinear model predictive control of a multistage evaporator system using recurrent neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Cao, Y.; Rangaiah, G.P.; Tade, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    The use of multistage evaporators, motivated by the energy economy from reusing the flashed steam is common in a wide range of process industries. Such evaporators however present several control problems which manifest in the form of strong interactions among the many process variables, significant

  11. Research on EMI Reduction of Multi-stage Interleaved Bridgeless Power Factor Corrector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Working as an electronic pollution eliminator, the Power Factor Corrector's (PFC) own Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) problems have been blocking its performance improvement for long. In this paper, a systematic research on EMI generation of a multi-stage Two-Boost-Circuit Interleaved Bridgeless...

  12. Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G;

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results of st...

  13. Tracking fluorescent dissolved organic matter in multistage rivers using EEM-PARAFAC analysis: implications of the secondary tributary remediation for watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zeyu; Wu, Xiaodong; Huang, Haomin; Fang, Xiaomin; Xu, Chen; Wu, Jianyu; Liang, Xinqiang; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-05-01

    Profound understanding of behaviors of organic matter from sources to multistage rivers assists watershed management for improving water quality of river networks in rural areas. Ninety-one water samples were collected from the three orders of receiving rivers in a typical combined polluted subcatchment (diffuse agricultural pollutants and domestic sewage) located in China. Then, the fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) information for these samples was determined by the excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Consequently, two typical humic-like (C1 and C2) and other two protein-like (C3 and C4) components were separated. Their fluorescence peaks were located at λ ex/em = 255(360)/455, 60 %). Principal component analysis (PCA) further demonstrated that, except for the autochthonous produced C4, the allochthonous components (C1 and C2) had the same terrestrial origins, but C3 might possess the separate anthropogenic and biological sources. Moreover, the spatial heterogeneity of contamination levels was noticeable in multistage rivers, and the allochthonous FDOM was gradually homogenized along the migration directions. Interestingly, the average content of the first three PARAFAC components in secondary tributaries and source pollutants had significantly higher levels than that in subsequent receiving rivers, thus suggesting that the supervision and remediation for secondary tributaries would play a prominent role in watershed management works. PMID:26805924

  14. The biology that underpins the therapeutic potential of cannabis-based medicines for the control of spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Pryce, Gareth; Jackson, Samuel J; Bolton, Chris; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2012-04-01

    Cannabis-based medicines have recently been approved for the treatment of pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS). This supports the original perceptions of people with MS, who were using illegal street cannabis for symptom control and pre-clinical testing in animal models of MS. This activity is supported both by the biology of the disease and the biology of the cannabis plant and the endocannabinoid system. MS results from disease that impairs neurotransmission and this is controlled by cannabinoid receptors and endogenous cannabinoid ligands. This can limit spasticity and may also influence the processes that drive the accumulation of progressive disability. PMID:25876933

  15. Biologically active collagen-based scaffolds: advances in processing and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Yannas, I.V.; Tzeranis, D. S.; Harley, B A; So, P. T. C.

    2010-01-01

    A small number of type I collagen–glycosaminoglycan scaffolds (collagen–GAG scaffolds; CGSs) have unusual biological activity consisting primarily in inducing partial regeneration of organs in the adult mammal. Two of these are currently in use in a variety of clinical settings. CGSs appear to induce regeneration by blocking the adult healing response, following trauma, consisting of wound contraction and scar formation. Several structural determinants of biological activity have been identif...

  16. Local buckling analysis of biological nanocomposites based on a beam-spring model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiling Bai; Baohua Ji

    2015-01-01

    Biological materials such as bone, tooth, and nacre are load-bearing nanocomposites composed of mineral and protein. Since the mineral crystals often have slender geometry, the nanocomposites are susceptible to buckle under the compressive load. In this paper, we analyze the local buckling behaviors of the nanocomposite structure of the biological materials using a beam-spring model by which we can consider plenty of mineral crystals and their interaction in our analysis compared with existin...

  17. SEMEDA (Semantic Meta-Database) : ontology based semantic integration of biological databases

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is outlined in the following. The state of the art in the relevant disciplines is introduced and reviewed in chapter 2. This includes on the one hand the current state of molecular biological databases, their heterogeneity and the integration of molecular biological databases. On the other hand the current usage of ontologies in general and with special regard to database integration is described. The principles of semantic database integration as introdu...

  18. Analysis of Boolean Functions based on Interaction Graphs and their influence in System Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Jayanta Kumar; Rout, Ranjeet Kumar; Choudhury, Pabitra Pal

    2014-01-01

    Interaction graphs provide an important qualitative modeling approach for System Biology. This paper presents a novel approach for construction of interaction graph with the help of Boolean function decomposition. Each decomposition part (Consisting of 2-bits) of the Boolean functions has some important significance. In the dynamics of a biological system, each variable or node is nothing but gene or protein. Their regulation has been explored in terms of interaction graphs which are generate...

  19. Estimating Escherichia coli loads in streams based on various physical, chemical, and biological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various mo...

  20. Gene Network Biological Validity Based on Gene-Gene Interaction Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Gómez-Vela; Norberto Díaz-Díaz

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, gene networks have become one of the most useful tools for modeling biological processes. Many inference gene network algorithms have been developed as techniques for extracting knowledge from gene expression data. Ensuring the reliability of the inferred gene relationships is a crucial task in any study in order to prove that the algorithms used are precise. Usually, this validation process can be carried out using prior biological knowledge. The metabolic pathways stored in...