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Sample records for biologically active trail

  1. Sesquiterpenes with TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Utpal K; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-08-01

    The ability of TRAIL to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while sparing normal cells makes it an attractive target for the development of new cancer therapy. In search of bioactive natural products for overcoming TRAIL-resistance from natural resources, we previously reported a number of active compounds. In our screening program on natural resources targeting overcoming TRAIL-resistance, activity-guided fractionations of the extract of Xanthium strumarium led to the isolation of five sesquiterpene compounds (1-5). 11α,13-dihydroxanthinin (2) and 11α,13-dihydroxanthuminol (3) were first isolated from natural resources and xanthinosin (1), desacetylxanthanol (4), and lasidiol p-methoxybenzoate (5) were known compounds. All compounds (1-5) showed potent TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity at 8, 20, 20, 16, and 16 μM, respectively, in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells. Compounds 1 and 5 enhanced the levels of apoptosis inducing proteins DR4, DR5, p53, CHOP, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9 and also decreased the levels of cell survival protein Bcl-2 in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 1 also enhanced the levels of DR4 and DR5 proteins in a time-dependent manner. Thus, compounds 1 and 5 were found to induce both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic cell death. Compound 1 also exhibit TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity in DLD1, DU145, HeLa, and MCF7 cells but did not decrease viability in non-cancer HEK293 cells up to 8 μM. PMID:26081757

  2. Systems Biology Strategy Reveals PKC-delta is Key for Sensitizing TRAIL-Resistant Human Fibrosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro eHayashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells are highly variable and resistant to therapeutic intervention. Recently, the use of the tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL induced treatment is gaining momentum, due to TRAIL’s ability to specifically target cancers with limited effect on normal cells. However, several malignant cancer types still remain non-sensitive to TRAIL. Previously, we developed a dynamic computational model, based on perturbation-response approach, and predicted protein kinase C (PKC as the most effective target, with over 95% capacity to kill human fibrosarcoma (HT1080 in TRAIL stimulation (Piras, V. et al. 2011, Scientific Reports. Here, to validate the model prediction, which has significant implications for cancer treatment, we conducted experiments on two TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines (HT1080 and HT29. Using PKC inhibitor Bisindolylmaleimide I, we first demonstrate, as predicted by our previous model, cell viability is significantly impaired with over 95% death of both cancer types. Next, to identify crucial PKC isoform from 10 known members, we analyzed their mRNA expressions in HT1080 cells and shortlisted 4 isoforms for siRNA knock-down (KD experiments. From these KDs, PKC-delta produced the most cancer cell death in conjunction with TRAIL. Overall, systems biology approach, combining model prediction with experimental validation, holds promise for TRAIL-based cancer therapy.

  3. Resveratrol enhances antitumor activity of TRAIL in prostate cancer xenografts through activation of FOXO transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthakar Ganapathy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resveratrol (3, 4', 5 tri-hydroxystilbene, a naturally occurring polyphenol, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and antitumor activities. We have recently shown that resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells through multiple mechanisms in vitro. Therefore, the present study was designed to validate whether resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in a xenograft model of prostate cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resveratrol and TRAIL alone inhibited growth of PC-3 xenografts in nude mice by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation (PCNA and Ki67 staining and inducing apoptosis (TUNEL staining. The combination of resveratrol and TRAIL was more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than single agent alone. In xenografted tumors, resveratrol upregulated the expressions of TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL-R2/DR5, Bax and p27(/KIP1, and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1. Treatment of mice with resveratrol and TRAIL alone inhibited angiogenesis (as demonstrated by reduced number of blood vessels, and VEGF and VEGFR2 positive cells and markers of metastasis (MMP-2 and MMP-9. The combination of resveratrol with TRAIL further inhibited number of blood vessels in tumors, and circulating endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive endothelial cells than single agent alone. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the cytoplasmic phosphorylation of FKHRL1 resulting in its enhanced activation as demonstrated by increased DNA binding activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL by activating FKHRL1 and its target genes. The ability of resveratrol to inhibit tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis, and enhance the therapeutic potential of TRAIL suggests that resveratrol alone or in combination with TRAIL can be used for the management of prostate cancer.

  4. Potent Systemic Anticancer Activity of Adenovirally Expressed EGFR-Selective TRAIL Fusion Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, Edwin; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; de Bruyn, Marco; van Riezen, Manon; Dijkstra, Marike; Kamps, Gera; Helfrich, Wijnand; Haisma, Hidde

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated potent tumor cell-selective pro-apoptotic activity of scFv425:sTRAIL, a recombinant fusion protein comprised of EGFR-directed antibody fragment (scFv425) genetically fused to human soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL). Here, we report on the promising th

  5. Aerodynamic Characteristic of the Active Compliant Trailing Edge Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Rui; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Li, Dawei

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel Morphing Wing structure known as the Active Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE). ACTE structures are designed using the concept of “distributed compliance” and wing skins of ACTE are fabricated from high-strength fiberglass composites laminates. Through the relative sliding between upper and lower wing skins which are connected by a linear guide pairs, the wing is able to achieve a large continuous deformation. In order to present an investigation about aerodynamics and noise characteristics of ACTE, a series of 2D airfoil analyses are established. The aerodynamic characteristics between ACTE and conventional deflection airfoil are analyzed and compared, and the impacts of different ACTE structure design parameters on aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. The airfoils mentioned above include two types (NACA0012 and NACA64A005.92). The computing results demonstrate that: compared with the conventional plane flap airfoil, the morphing wing using ACTE structures has the capability to improve aerodynamic characteristic and flow separation characteristic. In order to study the noise level of ACTE, flow field analysis using LES model is done to provide noise source data, and then the FW-H method is used to get the far field noise levels. The simulation results show that: compared with the conventional flap/aileron airfoil, the ACTE configuration is better to suppress the flow separation and lower the overall sound pressure level.

  6. ANALYSIS OF AN ELECTROSTRICTIVE STACK ACTUATORFOR ACTIVE TRAILING EDGE FLAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Helicopter is a complex dynamic system with many rotating components. The rotor blades operate in a highly complex aerodynamic environment. The vibratory hub load, which is caused by cyclic variation of centrifugal and aerodynamic load of the rotating blades in flight, is transmitted to the fuselage, resulting in serious vibration and noise of the structure. It is one of the most important exciting sources in helicopters.  There has long been a desire to reduce helicopter vibration and to improve its performance. Control schemes adopted so far can be classified as either passive or active control technologies. The passive technologies include optimization of rotor hub, blade and the fuselage, hub or blade mounted passive vibration absorbers and anti-resonant vibration isolators. One of the major disadvantages with passive technologies is that they are designed to provide maximum vibration reduction at a specific frequency; therefore, their performance is degraded significantly with changes in the operating conditions of the rotor system.  With the development of computer science and active control technology, increasing efforts have been devoted to active control technologies to benefit helicopter vibration suppression in recent years. Earlier studies include Higher Harmonic Control (HHC)[1] and Individual Blade Control (IBC)[2], which is aimed to reduce the vibratory blade load by oscillating the blade in pitch motion using hydraulic actuators. It is successful in suppressing the vibration of the fuselage; however, its application is limited by serious energy consumption.  To overcome these difficulties, a new concept in helicopter vibration control is the smart rotor system. In this scheme, actuators are embedded in composite blades. They are used to activate the trailing edge flaps in higher harmonic pitch motion to adjust the lift force actively. Under the regulation of a control system, the vibratory hub load can be counteracted actively at

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Neighborhood Trail Development on Active Travel Behavior and Overall Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Burbidge, Shaunna Kay

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have examined the impact that the built environment has on physical activity. However, most have used cross-sectional methods which have allowed them to establish correlations but not behavioral causality. This research first uses a longitudinal design to perform a pilot study evaluating the impact neighborhood trail development has on active travel behavior and overall physical activity. A sample of suburban residents in West Valley City, Utah were surveyed both before and after...

  8. Evaluating the Impact of Neighborhood Trail Development on Active Travel Behavior and Overall Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Burbidge, Shaunna K; Goulias, Konstadinos G.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have examined the impact that the built environment has on physical activity, and much of the existing research posits that if communities will provide and improve active infrastructure such as trails, sidewalks, and bike lanes, people will become more physically active. However, most of these studies have used cross-sectional methods which have allowed them to establish correlations but not behavioral causality. In this pilot project a longitudinal design is used to evaluate the...

  9. Effects of methylation status of caspase-8 promoter on antitumor activity of TRAIL to human gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ru-gang; FANG Dian-chun; YANG Liu-qin; LUO Yuan-gang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of the methylation status of caspase-8 promoter on the antitumor activity of TRAIL to the human gastric cancer cells. Methods: The methylation of caspase-8 was measured with methylation specific PCR (MSP) and the antitomor capability of TRAIL to human gastric cancer cells was determined with MTT. Results: No methylation of caspase-8 in the human gastric cancer cells was found. The sensitivity of 5 lines of gastric cancer cells to the antitumor activity of TRAIL was different. The administration of the demethylation agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine ( 5-AzaCdR) increased the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to TRAIL but did not change the methylation status of caspase-8 promoter in gastric cancer cells. Conclusion: 5-Aza-CdR increases the sensitivity of most of gastric cancer cells to TRAIL but caspase-8 is not involved in the antitumor activity of TRAIL.

  10. Identification of Flap Motion Parameters for Vibration Reduction in Helicopter Rotors with Multiple Active Trailing Edge Flaps

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    Uğbreve;ur Dalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active control method utilizing the multiple trailing edge flap configuration for rotorcraft vibration suppression and blade loads control is presented. A comprehensive model for rotor blade with active trailing edge flaps is used to calculate the vibration characteristics, natural frequencies and mode shapes of any complex composite helicopter rotor blade. A computer program is developed to calculate the system response, rotor blade root forces and moments under aerodynamic forcing conditions. Rotor blade system response is calculated using the proposed solution method and the developed program depending on any structural and aerodynamic properties of rotor blades, structural properties of trailing edge flaps and properties of trailing edge flap actuator inputs. Rotor blade loads are determined first on a nominal rotor blade without multiple active trailing edge flaps and then the effects of the active flap motions on the existing rotor blade loads are investigated. Multiple active trailing edge flaps are controlled by using open loop controllers to identify the effects of the actuator signal output properties such as frequency, amplitude and phase on the system response. Effects of using multiple trailing edge flaps on controlling rotor blade vibrations are investigated and some design criteria are determined for the design of trailing edge flap controller that will provide actuator signal outputs to minimize the rotor blade root loads. It is calculated that using the developed active trailing edge rotor blade model, helicopter rotor blade vibrations can be reduced up to 36% of the nominal rotor blade vibrations.

  11. Minnesota State Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — State trails maintained by Minnesota DNR Division of Parks and Trails. These have multiple use status with specific activities supported in designated sections....

  12. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  13. A novel cationic lipid with intrinsic antitumor activity to facilitate gene therapy of TRAIL DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Miao, Lei; Zhao, Yi; Musetti, Sara; Wang, Yuhua; Shi, Kai; Huang, Leaf

    2016-09-01

    Metformin (dimethylbiguanide) has been found to be effective for the treatment of a wide range of cancer. Herein, a novel lipid (1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-biguanide-propane (DOBP)) was elaborately designed by utilizing biguanide as the cationic head group. This novel cationic lipid was intended to act as a gene carrier with intrinsic antitumor activity. When compared with 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), a commercially available cationic lipid with a similar structure, the blank liposomes consisting of DOBP showed much more potent antitumor effects than DOTAP in human lung tumor xenografts, following an antitumor mechanism similar to metformin. Given its cationic head group, biguanide, DOBP could encapsulate TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) plasmids into Lipid-Protamine-DNA (LPD) nanoparticles (NPs) for systemic gene delivery. DOBP-LPD-TRAIL NPs demonstrated distinct superiority in delaying tumor progression over DOTAP-LPD-TRAIL NPs, due to the intrinsic antitumor activity combined with TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the tumor. These results indicate that DOBP could be used as a versatile and promising cationic lipid for improving the therapeutic index of gene therapy in cancer treatment. PMID:27344367

  14. Aeroelastic Optimization of a 10 MW Wind Turbine Blade with Active Trailing Edge Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Athanasios; Tibaldi, Carlo; Zahle, Frederik;

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the aeroelastic optimization of a 10MW wind turbine ‘smart blade’ equipped with active trailing edge flaps. The multi-disciplinary wind turbine analysis and optimization tool HawtOpt2 is utilized, which is based on the open-source framework Open-MDAO. The tool interfaces...... to several state-of-the art simulation codes, allowing for a wide variety of problem formulations and combinations of models. A simultaneous aerodynamic and structural optimization of a 10 MW wind turbine rotor is carried out with respect to material layups and outer shape. Active trailing edge flaps...... are integrated in the design taking into account their achieved fatigue load reduction. The optimized ‘smart blade’ design is compared to an aeroelastically optimized design with no flaps and the baseline design....

  15. Antitumor activities and on-target toxicities mediated by a TRAIL receptor agonist following cotreatment with panobinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ben P; Frew, Ailsa J; Bots, Michael; Fox, Stephen; Long, Fenella; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Yagita, Hideo; Atadja, Peter; Smyth, Mark J; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2011-06-01

    The recent development of novel targeted anticancer therapeutics such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and activators of the TRAIL pathway provide opportunities for the introduction of new treatment regimens in oncology. HDACi and recombinant TRAIL or agonistic anti-TRAIL receptor antibodies have been shown to induce synergistic tumor cell apoptosis and some therapeutic activity in vivo. Herein, we have used syngeneic preclinical models of human solid cancers to demonstrate that the HDACi panobinostat can sensitize tumor cells to apoptosis mediated by the anti-mouse TRAIL receptor antibody MD5-1. We demonstrate that the combination of panobinostat and MD5-1 can eradicate tumors grown subcutaneously and orthotopically in immunocompetent mice, while single agent treatment has minimal effect. However, escalation of the dose of panobinostat to enhance antitumor activity resulted in on-target MD5-1-mediated gastrointestinal toxicities that were fatal to the treated mice. Studies performed in mice with knockout of the TRAIL receptor showed that these mice could tolerate doses of the panobinostat/MD5-1 combination that were lethal in wild type mice resulting in superior tumor clearance. Given that clinical studies using HDACi and activators of the TRAIL pathway have been initiated, our preclinical data highlight the potential toxicities that could limit the use of such a treatment regimen. Our studies also demonstrate the power of using syngeneic in vivo tumor models as physiologically relevant preclinical systems to test the antitumor effects and identify potential side effects of novel anticancer regimens.

  16. Requirement of catalytically active Tyk2 and accessory signals for the induction of TRAIL mRNA by IFN-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M R Sandhya; Pandalai, Sudha; Shrock, Jennifer; Almasan, Alex; Ransohoff, Richard M

    2007-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/Apo2 ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) mRNA was induced preferentially by interferon (IFN)-beta but not IFN-alpha in human fibrosarcoma and primary fibroblast cells. To characterize the signaling components mediating the IFN subtype-specific induction of this gene, we used mutant cell lines lacking individual components involved in signaling by type I IFNs. TRAIL was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, U5A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, IFN regulatory factor-9 (IRF-9), Stat1, Jak1, IFNAR-2.2, and Stat2, indicating transcription factor IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) was essential for the induction of this gene. TRAIL was not induced by IFN-beta in U1A (Tyk2 null) or U1A.R930 cells (that express a kinase-deficient point mutant of Tyk2) but was induced in U1A.wt-5 cells (U1A cells expressing wild-type Tyk2), indicating that Tyk2 protein and kinase activity were both required for induction of the gene. Biochemical and genetic analyses revealed the requirement of transcription factor NF-kappa B and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) for the induction of TRAIL by IFN-beta. Furthermore, the antiproliferative but not antiviral effects of IFN-beta required catalytically active Tyk2, suggesting that expression of genes, such as TRAIL, may play an important role in mediating the biologic effects of IFNs.

  17. Bcl-2 over-expression and activation of protein kinase C suppress the Trail-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Trail,a tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand,is a novel potent endogenous activator of the cell death pathway through the activation of cell surface death receptors Trail-R1 and Trail-R2.Its role,like FasL in activation-induced cell death(AICD),has been demonstrated in immune system.However the mechanism of Trail induced apoptosis remains unclear.In this report,the recombinant Trail protein was expressed and purified.The apoptosis-inducing activity and the regulation mechanism of recombinant Trail on Jurkat T cells were explored in vitro.Trypan blue exclusion assay demonstrated that the recombinant Trail protein actively killed Jurkat T cells in a dose-dependent manner.Trail-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells were remarkably reduced by Bcl-2 over expression in Bcl-2 gene transfected cells.Treatment with PMA(phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate),a PKC activator,suppressed Trail-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells.The inhibition of apoptosis by PMA was abolished by pretreatment with Bis,a PKC inhibitor.Taken together,it was suggested that Bcl-2 over-expression and PMA activated PKC actively down-regulated the Trail-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat T cell.

  18. TRAIL Activates a Caspase 9/7-Dependent Pathway in Caspase 8/10-Defective SK-N-SH Neuroblastoma Cells with Two Functional End Points: Induction of Apoptosis and PGE2 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Zauli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Most neuroblastoma cell lines do not express apical caspases 8 and 10, which play a key role in mediating tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL cytotoxicity in a variety of malignant cell types. In this study, we demonstrated that TRAIL induced a moderate but significant increase of apoptosis in the caspase 8/10-deficient SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell line, through activation of a novel caspase 9/7 pathway. Concomitant to the induction of apoptosis, TRAIL also promoted a significant increase of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 release by SKN-SH cells. Moreover, coadministration of TRAIL plus indomethacin, a pharmacological inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX, showed an additive effect on SKN-SH cell death. In spite of the ability of TRAIL to promote the phosphorylation of both ERKi/2 and p38/MAPK, which have been involved in the control of COX expression/activity, neither PD98059 nor SB203580, pharmacological inhibitors of the ERKi/2 and p38/MAPK pathways, respectively, affected either PGE2 production or apoptosis induced by TRAIL. Finally, both induction of apoptosis and PGE2 release were completely abrogated by the broad caspase inhibitor z-VAD4mk, suggesting that both biologic end points were regulated in SK-N-SH cells through a caspase 9/7-dependent pathway.

  19. Dealing naturally with stumbling blocks on highways and byways of TRAIL induced signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Aamir; Attar, Rukset; Qureshi, Muhammad Zahid; Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Donato, Violante Di; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In-depth analysis of how TRAIL signals through death receptors to induce apoptosis in cancer cells using high throughput technologies has added new layers of knowledge. However, the wealth of information has also highlighted the fact that TRAIL induced apoptosis may be impaired as evidenced by experimental findings obtained from TRAIL resistant cancer cell lines. Overwhelmingly, increasing understanding of TRAIL mediated apoptosis has helped in identifying synthetic and natural compounds which can restore TRAIL induced apoptosis via functionalization of either extrinsic or intrinsic pathways. Increasingly it is being realized that biologically active phytochemicals modulate TRAIL induced apoptosis, as evidenced by cell-based studies. In this review we have attempted to provide an overview of how different phytonutrients have shown efficacy in restoring apoptosis in TRAIL resistant cancer cells. We partition this review into how the TRAIL mediated signaling landscape has broadened over the years and how TRAIL induced signaling machinery crosstalks with autophagic protein networks. Subsequently, we provide a generalized view of considerable biological activity of coumarins against a wide range of cancer cell lines and how coumarins (psoralidin and esculetin) isolated from natural sources have improved TRAIL induced apoptosis in resistant cancer cells. We summarize recent updates on piperlongumine, phenethyl isothiocyanate and luteolin induced activation of TRAIL mediated apoptosis. The data obtained from pre-clinical studies will be helpful in translation of information from benchtop to the bedside. PMID:25338981

  20. Active flow control for reduction of fluctuating aerodynamic forces of a blunt trailing edge profiled body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghib-Lahouti, Arash, E-mail: anaghibl@uwo.c [Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada); Hangan, Horia [Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Vortex shedding in the wake of two-dimensional bluff bodies is usually accompanied by three dimensional instabilities. These instabilities result in streamwise and vertical vorticity components which occur at a certain spanwise wavelength. The spanwise wavelength of the instabilities ({lambda}{sub Z}) depends on several parameters, including profile geometry and Reynolds number. The objective of the present work is to study the three dimensional wake instabilities for a blunt trailing edge profiled body, comprised of an elliptical leading edge and a rectangular trailing edge, and to manipulate these instabilities to control the aerodynamic forces. Results of numerical simulations of flow around the body at Re(d) = 400, 600, and 1000, as well as planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) flow visualizations at Re(d) = 600 and 1000 are analyzed to determine the wake vorticity structure and {lambda}{sub Z}. Based on the findings of these analyses, an active flow control mechanism for attenuation of the fluctuating aerodynamic forces on the body is proposed. The flow control mechanism is comprised of a series of trailing edge injection ports distributed across the span, with a spacing equal to {lambda}{sub Z}. Injection of a secondary flow leads to amplification of the three dimensional instabilities and disorganization of the von Karman vortex street. Numerical simulations indicate that the flow control mechanism can attenuate the fluctuating aerodynamic forces at lower Reynolds numbers (Re(d) = 400 and 600) where {lambda}{sub Z} is constant in time. However, the control mechanism loses its effectiveness at Re(d) = 1000, due to the temporal variations of {lambda}{sub Z}.

  1. Short-hairpin RNA-induced suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 in breast cancer cells restores their susceptibility to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activating JNK and modulating TRAIL receptor expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chul-Woo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL; apo2 ligand induces apoptosis in cancer cells but has little effect on normal cells. However, many cancer cell types are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, limiting the clinical utility of TRAIL as an anti-cancer agent. We previously reported that the suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2 by short-hairpin RNA (shRNA induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells, which frequently express high levels of ANT2. In the present study, we examined the effect of RNA shRNA-induced suppression of ANT2 on the resistance of breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Results ANT2 shRNA treatment sensitized MCF7, T47 D, and BT474 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of TRAIL death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5 and down-regulating the TRAIL decoy receptor 2 (DcR2. In MCF7 cells, ANT2 knockdown activated the stress kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, subsequently stabilizing and increasing the transcriptional activity of p53 by phosphorylating it at Thr81; it also enhanced the expression and activity of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1. ANT2 shRNA-induced overexpression of DR4/DR5 and TRAIL sensitization were blocked by a p53 inhibitor, suggesting that p53 activation plays an important role in the transcriptional up-regulation of DR4/DR5. However, ANT2 knockdown also up-regulated DR4/DR5 in the p53-mutant cell lines BT474 and T47 D. In MCF7 cells, ANT2 shRNA treatment led to DcR2 promoter methylation and concomitant down-regulation of DcR2 expression, consistent with the observed activation of DNMT1. Treatment of the cells with a demethylating agent or JNK inhibitor prevented the ANT2 shRNA-induced down-regulation of DcR2 and activation of both p53 and DNMT1. In in vivo experiments using nude mice, ANT2 shRNA caused TRAIL-resistant MCF7 xenografts to undergo TRAIL-induced cell death, up-regulated DR4/DR5

  2. Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and Low Disease Activity because of Anti-TNF-Alpha Therapy Have Higher TRAIL Levels Than Controls: A Potential Compensatory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Genre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. TRAIL is a potential biomarker of cardiovascular (CV disease. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with metabolic syndrome (MeS and accelerated atherosclerosis. We assessed whether disease activity, systemic inflammation, and MeS features were associated with circulating TRAIL levels in AS patients undergoing TNF-α antagonist infliximab therapy and if infliximab infusion modified TRAIL levels. Methods. We measured TRAIL serum levels in 30 nondiabetic AS patients without CV disease undergoing anti-TNF-α therapy, immediately before and after an infliximab infusion, and in 48 matched controls. Correlations of TRAIL levels with disease activity, systemic inflammation and MeS features, adipokines, and biomarkers of endothelial activation were evaluated. Changes in TRAIL levels following anti-TNF-α infusion were analyzed. Results. TRAIL levels were higher in AS patients than controls. TRAIL levels displayed an inverse correlation with total and LDL cholesterol. We observed an inverse correlation with QUICKI and a marginal association with HOMA-IR. We also found an inverse correlation with resistin and a marginal association with apelin and OPN. Anti-TNF-α infusion did not change TRAIL levels after 120′. Conclusion. Elevated TRAIL levels in AS patients may be the result of a compensatory mechanism to reduce CV risk in these patients.

  3. Structural and mechanism design of an active trailing-edge flap blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Natarajan, Balakumaran; Eun, Won Jong;

    2013-01-01

    , as the blade is able to withstand increased centrifugal force. The cross-section of the active blade is designed first. A stress/strain recovery analysis is then conducted to verify its structural integrity. A one-dimensional beam analysis is also carried out to assist with the construction of the fan diagram...... of the rotor through modification of unsteady aerodynamic loads. Piezoelectric actuators installed inside the blade manipulate the motion of the trailing edge flap. The proposed blade rotates at higher speed and additional structures are included to support the actuators and the flap. This improves the design....... To select the actuator and design the flap actuation region, the flap hinge moment is estimated via a CFD analysis. To obtain the desired flap deflection of ±4°, three actuators are required. The design of the flap actuation region is validated using a test bed with a skin hinge. However, because the skin...

  4. Wind tunnel test on airfoil Riso-B1-18 with an Active Trailing Edge Flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Gaunaa, Mac; Andersen, Peter Bjørn;

    2010-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of the wind turbine airfoil Risø-B1-18 equipped with an Active Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF) was carried out. The ATEF was 9% of the total chord, made of piezo electric actuators attached to the trailing edge of a non-deformable airfoil and actuated using an (electric) amplifier....... The airfoil was tested at Re = 1.66 × 106. Steady state and dynamic tests were carried out with prescribed deflections of the ATEF. The steady state tests showed that deflecting the ATEF towards the pressure side (positive ) translated the lift curve to higher lift values and deflecting the ATEF towards...

  5. Reduced prefrontal cortex activation using the Trail Making Test in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiki R

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ryo Fujiki,1,2 Kiichiro Morita,1,2 Mamoru Sato,1,2 Yuji Kamada,1,2 Yusuke Kato,1,2 Masayuki Inoue,2 Yoshihisa Shoji,1,2 Naohisa Uchimura1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume-City, Japan; 2Cognitive and Molecular Research Institute of Brain Diseases, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume-City, Japan Abstract: Schizophrenia has been associated with a deficit of the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in attention, executive processes, and working memory. The Trail Making Test (TMT is administered in two parts, TMT-A and TMT-B. It is suggested that the difference in performance between part A and part B reflects executive processes. In this study, we compared the characteristics of hemodynamic changes during TMT tasks between 14 outpatients with schizophrenia and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy, we measured relative changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration, which reflects brain activity of the prefrontal cortex during this task. In both tasks, patients showed significantly smaller activation than controls and, in an assessment of executive functions, a subtraction of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb changes during TMT-A from those of TMT-B showed a decrease in cerebral lateralization and hypoactivity in patients. There was a significant negative correlation between oxy-Hb changes and the severity of psychiatric symptoms. These findings may characterize disease-related features, suggesting the usefulness of oxy-Hb change measurement during TMT tasks for assessing functional outcomes in schizophrenic patients. Keywords: Trail Making Test, multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy, schizophrenia, prefrontal cortex, executive function

  6. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling increases apoptosis in melanoma cells treated with trail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary F Zimmerman

    Full Text Available While the TRAIL pathway represents a promising therapeutic target in melanoma, resistance to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis remains a barrier to its successful adoption. Since the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in facilitating melanoma cell apoptosis, we investigated the effect of Wnt/β-catenin signaling on regulating the responses of melanoma cells to TRAIL. Co-treatment of melanoma cell lines with WNT3A-conditioned media and recombinant TRAIL significantly enhanced apoptosis compared to treatment with TRAIL alone. This apoptosis correlates with increased abundance of the pro-apoptotic proteins BCL2L11 and BBC3, and with decreased abundance of the anti-apoptotic regulator Mcl1. We then confirmed the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by demonstrating that siRNA-mediated knockdown of an intracellular β-catenin antagonist, AXIN1, or treating cells with an inhibitor of GSK-3 also enhanced melanoma cell sensitivity to TRAIL. These studies describe a novel regulation of TRAIL sensitivity in melanoma by Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and suggest that strategies to enhance Wnt/β-catenin signaling in combination with TRAIL agonists warrant further investigation.

  7. STI571 reduces TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells: c-Abl activation by the death receptor leads to stress kinase-dependent cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Duen-Yi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to achieve better cancer therapies, we elucidated the combination cancer therapy of STI571 (an inhibitor of Bcr-Abl and clinically used for chronic myelogenous leukemia and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, a developing antitumor agent in leukemia, colon, and prostate cancer cells. Methods Colon cancer (HCT116, SW480, prostate cancer (PC3, LNCaP and leukemia (K562 cells were treated with STI571 and TRAIL. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay and sub-G1 appearance. Protein expression and kinase phosphorylation were determined by Western blotting. c-Abl and p73 activities were inhibited by target-specific small interfering (siRNA. In vitro kinase assay of c-Abl was conducted using CRK as a substrate. Results We found that STI571 exerts opposite effects on the antitumor activity of TRAIL. It enhanced cytotoxicity in TRAIL-treated K562 leukemia cells and reduced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cells, while having no effect on PC3 and LNCaP cells. In colon and prostate cancer cells, TRAIL caused c-Abl cleavage to the active form via a caspase pathway. Interestingly, JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors effectively blocked TRAIL-induced toxicity in the colon, but not in prostate cancer cells. Next, we found that STI571 could attenuate TRAIL-induced c-Abl, JNK and p38 activation in HCT116 cells. In addition, siRNA targeting knockdown of c-Abl and p73 also reduced TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity, rendering HCT116 cells less responsive to stress kinase activation, and masking the cytoprotective effect of STI571. Conclusions All together we demonstrate a novel mediator role of p73 in activating the stress kinases p38 and JNK in the classical apoptotic pathway of TRAIL. TRAIL via caspase-dependent action can sequentially activate c-Abl, p73, and stress kinases, which contribute to apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Through the inhibition of c-Abl-mediated apoptotic p73 signaling, STI571 reduces

  8. 2D CFD Analysis of an Airfoil with Active Continuous Trailing Edge Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksich, Dylan; Shen, Jinwei

    2014-11-01

    Efficient and quieter helicopter rotors can be achieved through on-blade control devices, such as active Continuous Trailing-Edge Flaps driven by embedded piezoelectric material. This project aims to develop a CFD simulation tool to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with CTEF using open source code: OpenFOAM. Airfoil meshes used by OpenFOAM are obtained with MATLAB scripts. Once created it is possible to rotate the airfoil to various angles of attack. When the airfoil is properly set up various OpenFOAM properties, such as kinematic viscosity and flow velocity, are altered to achieve the desired testing conditions. Upon completion of a simulation, the program gives the lift, drag, and moment coefficients as well as the pressure and velocity around the airfoil. The simulation is then repeated across multiple angles of attack to give full lift and drag curves. The results are then compared to previous test data and other CFD predictions. This research will lead to further work involving quasi-steady 2D simulations incorporating NASTRAN to model aeroelastic deformation and eventually to 3D aeroelastic simulations. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  9. The angular structure of ONC201, a TRAIL pathway-inducing compound, determines its potent anti-cancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jessica; Kline, Christina Leah; Pottorf, Richard S.; Nallaganchu, Bhaskara Rao; Olson, Gary L.; Dicker, David T.; Allen, Joshua E.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified TRAIL-inducing compound 10 (TIC10), also known as NSC350625 or ONC201, from a NCI chemical library screen as a small molecule that has potent anti-tumor efficacy and a benign safety profile in preclinical cancer models. The chemical structure that was originally published by Stahle, et. al. in the patent literature was described as an imidazo[1,2-a]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivative. The NCI and others generally accepted this as the correct structure, which was consistent with the mass spectrometry analysis outlined in the publication by Allen et. al. that first reported the molecule's anticancer properties. A recent publication demonstrated that the chemical structure of ONC201 material from the NCI is an angular [3,4-e] isomer of the originally disclosed, linear [4,3-d] structure. Here we confirm by NMR and X-ray structural analysis of the dihydrochloride salt form that the ONC201 material produced by Oncoceutics is the angular [3,4-e] structure and not the linear structure originally depicted in the patent literature and by the NCI. Similarly, in accordance with our biological evaluation, the previously disclosed anti-cancer activity is associated with the angular structure and not the linear isomer. Together these studies confirm that ONC201, produced by Oncoceutics or obtained from the NCI, possesses an angular [3,4-e] structure that represents the highly active anti-cancer compound utilized in prior preclinical studies and now entering clinical trials in advanced cancers. PMID:25587031

  10. Structural and aerodynamic considerations of an active piezoelectric trailing-edge tab on a helicopter rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gabriel Jon

    This dissertation is concerned with an active tab for use on a rotorcraft for noise and vibration reduction. The tab is located at the trailing edge of the airfoil. The tab consists of a shim sandwiched by layers of the piezoelectric actuators, macro fiber composites, of varying length. This configuration is similar to a bimorph. The modus operandi is similar to that of a trailing edge flap. The actuators deform the tab, bending it to achieve a tip displacement. This provides a change in the lift, moment, and drag coefficients of the airfoil. By actuating the system at 3/rev to 5/rev, reductions in noise and vibration can be realized. The system was examined and designed around using the UH-60 Blackhawk as the model rotorcraft. The tab is envisioned to operate between 65% to 85% of the main rotor span. The tab's chordwise dimensions considered were 20% and 15% of the blade chord. In order to assess the potential of the tab to change the lift and moment coefficients of the airfoil-tab system, a steady computational fluid dynamics study was conducted. The results were generated via the University of Maryland's Transonic Unsteady Navier-Stokes code. Various tab deflection angles, Mach numbers, and angle-of-attack values were computed. These results were compared to a trailing edge flap of similar size. The comparison shows that the tab produces lift and moment increments similar to that of the trailing edge flap. The design of the tab---composed of both active piezoelectric actuators and passive materials---was conducted using finite element analysis. The objectives were to maximize the tip deflection due to the actuators, while minimizing the deformation due to inertial and aerodynamic forces and loads. The inertial loads (acceleration terms) come from both blade motion, such as flapping and pitch, as well as the rotation of the rotor (centrifugal force). All of these previously mentioned terms cause the tab to undergo undesirable deflections. The original concept

  11. 可溶性人TRAIL分子的制备及其抗肿瘤活性%Production and Antitumor Activity of Soluble Human TRAIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐蓓; 何凤田; 蔡绍皙

    2004-01-01

    The eDNA encoding human TRAIL extraeellular region(amino acids 41-281) was amplified byreverse transcription(RT)-PCR from total RNA derived from human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60. After sequencing, the cDNA was cloned into the vector pQE-80L and transformed into E.coli DH5aα.By IPTG induction, the soluble TRAIL41-281(sTRAIL41-281) protein was expressed with the 40% of total bacteria protein. Inclusion bodies were dissolved into 8 mol/L urea, purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column, the product with over 90% purity was obtained. After refolding by dialysis, the active trimer form of sTRAIL41-281 was derived from the renatured proteins by gel filtration chromatography. The MTT assay, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assay showed that the refolded sTRAIL41-281 could potently inhibit the growth of Jurkat cells and induce apoptosis, confirmed the apoptosis-inducing activity of sTRAIL41-281 on tumor cells, it will benefit the further research of TRAIL.

  12. Membrane-proximal TRAIL species are incapable of inducing short circuit apoptosis signaling: Implications for drug development and basic cytokine biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatzel, Katharina; Kuroki, Lindsay; Dmitriev, Igor; Kashentseva, Elena; Curiel, David T; Goedegebuure, S Peter; Powell, Matthew A; Mutch, David G; Hawkins, William G; Spitzer, Dirk

    2016-03-03

    TRAIL continues to garner substantial interest as a recombinant cancer therapeutic while the native cytokine itself serves important tumor surveillance functions when expressed in membrane-anchored form on activated immune effector cells. We have recently developed the genetically stabilized TRAIL platform TR3 in efforts to improve the limitations associated with currently available drug variants. While in the process of characterizing mesothelin-targeted TR3 variants using a single chain antibody (scFv) delivery format (SS-TR3), we discovered that the membrane-tethered cytokine had a substantially increased activity profile compared to non-targeted TR3. However, cell death proceeded exclusively via a bystander mechanism and protected the mesothelin-positive targets from apoptosis rather than leading to their elimination. Incorporation of a spacer-into the mesothelin surface antigen or the cancer drug itself-converted SS-TR3 into a cis-acting phenotype. Further experiments with membrane-anchored TR3 variants and the native cytokine confirmed our hypothesis that membrane-proximal TRAIL species lack the capacity to physically engage their cognate receptors coexpressed on the same cell membrane. Our findings not only provide an explanation for the "peaceful" coexistence of ligand and receptor of a representative member of the TNF superfamily but give us vital clues for the design of activity-enhanced TR3-based cancer therapeutics.

  13. A smart rotor configuration with linear quadratic control of adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    . The effects of active flap control are assessed with aeroelastic simulations of the turbine in normal operation conditions, as prescribed by the International Electrotechnical Commission standard. The turbine lifetime fatigue damage equivalent loads provide a convenient summary of the results achieved......The paper proposes a smart rotor configuration where adaptive trailing edge flaps (ATEFs) are employed for active alleviation of the aerodynamic loads on the blades of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine. The flaps extend for 20% of the blade length and are controlled by a linear quadratic (LQ...

  14. Biological activity of ionene polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Ionene polymers are polyammonium salts with positive nitrogens in the backbone, resulting from the polycondensation of diamines with dihalides or from the polycondensation of halo amines. The mechanism of formation of ionene polymers of different structures and their biological activity is reviewed. The antimicrobial and antifungal properties are compared with low molecular weight ammonium salts. Ionenes were found to combine with DNA by means of ionic bonds to yield similar complexes to those obtained with polyamines (spermine and spermidine). They also combine with nerve cell receptors and exercise a more powerful and longer duration ganglionic blocking action than their monomeric analogs. The antiheparin activity of ionenes and the thromboresistance of elastomeric ionene heparin coatings is described. The enhanced biological activity of ionenes as compared with low molecular weight compounds is attributed to a cooperative effect of a large number of positive charges on the polymeric chains.

  15. Dengue virus activates membrane TRAIL relocalization and IFN-α production by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gandini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue displays a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations that may vary from asymptomatic to severe and even fatal features. Plasma leakage/hemorrhages can be caused by a cytokine storm induced by monocytes and dendritic cells during dengue virus (DENV replication. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs are innate immune cells and in response to virus exposure secrete IFN-α and express membrane TRAIL (mTRAIL. We aimed to characterize pDC activation in dengue patients and their function under DENV-2 stimulation in vitro. METHODS FINDINGS: Flow cytometry analysis (FCA revealed that pDCs of mild dengue patients exhibit significantly higher frequencies of mTRAIL compared to severe cases or healthy controls. Plasma levels of IFN-α and soluble TRAIL are increased in mild compared to severe dengue patients, positively correlating with pDC activation. FCA experiments showed that in vitro exposure to DENV-2 induced mTRAIL expression on pDC. Furthermore, three dimension microscopy highlighted that TRAIL was relocalized from intracellular compartment to plasma membrane. Chloroquine treatment inhibited DENV-2-induced mTRAIL relocalization and IFN-α production by pDC. Endosomal viral degradation blockade by chloroquine allowed viral antigens detection inside pDCs. All those data are in favor of endocytosis pathway activation by DENV-2 in pDC. Coculture of pDC/DENV-2-infected monocytes revealed a dramatic decrease of antigen detection by FCA. This viral antigens reduction in monocytes was also observed after exogenous IFN-α treatment. Thus, pDC effect on viral load reduction was mainly dependent on IFN-α production. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation characterizes, during DENV-2 infection, activation of pDCs in vivo and their antiviral role in vitro. Thus, we propose TRAIL-expressing pDCs may have an important role in the outcome of disease.

  16. Associations Between Sociodemographic Characteristics and Perceptions of the Built Environment With the Frequency, Type, and Duration of Physical Activity Among Trail Users

    OpenAIRE

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Reed, Julian A.; Price, Anna E.; Steven P. Hooker

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Rail trails are elements of the built environment that support the Task Force on Community Preventive Services' recommendation to create, or enhance access to, places for physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of the built environment with the frequency, type, and duration of PA among users of an urban, paved rail trail segment. Methods Interviewers conducted intercept surveys with...

  17. Cleavage by Caspase 8 and Mitochondrial Membrane Association Activate the BH3-only Protein Bid during TRAIL-induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Zhang, Jingjing; O'Neill, Katelyn L; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Quadros, Rolen M; Tu, Yaping; Luo, Xu

    2016-05-27

    The BH3-only protein Bid is known as a critical mediator of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis following death receptor activation. However, since full-length Bid possesses potent apoptotic activity, the role of a caspase-mediated Bid cleavage is not established in vivo In addition, due to the fact that multiple caspases cleave Bid at the same site in vitro, the identity of the Bid-cleaving caspase during death receptor signaling remains uncertain. Moreover, as Bid maintains its overall structure following its cleavage by caspase 8, it remains unclear how Bid is activated upon cleavage. Here, Bid-deficient (Bid KO) colon cancer cells were generated by gene editing, and were reconstituted with wild-type or mutants of Bid. While the loss of Bid blocked apoptosis following treatment by TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), this blockade was relieved by re-introduction of the wild-type Bid. In contrast, the caspase-resistant mutant Bid(D60E) and a BH3 defective mutant Bid(G94E) failed to restore TRAIL-induced apoptosis. By generating Bid/Bax/Bak-deficient (TKO) cells, we demonstrated that Bid is primarily cleaved by caspase 8, not by effector caspases, to give rise to truncated Bid (tBid) upon TRAIL treatment. Importantly, despite the presence of an intact BH3 domain, a tBid mutant lacking the mitochondrial targeting helices (α6 and α7) showed diminished apoptotic activity. Together, these results for the first time establish that cleavage by caspase 8 and the subsequent association with the outer mitochondrial membrane are two critical events that activate Bid during death receptor-mediated apoptosis. PMID:27053107

  18. TRAIL-mediated killing of acute lymphoblastic leukemia by plasmacytoid dendritic cell-activated natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelaidier, Martin; Dìaz-Rodriguez, Yildian; Cordeau, Martine; Cordeiro, Paulo; Haddad, Elie; Herblot, Sabine; Duval, Michel

    2015-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) still frequently recurs after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), underscoring the need to improve the graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect. Natural killer (NK) cells reconstitute in the first months following HSCT when leukemia burden is at its lowest, but ALL cells have been shown to be resistant to NK cell-mediated killing. We show here that this resistance is overcome by NK cell stimulation with TLR-9-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). NK cell priming with activated pDCs resulted in TRAIL and CD69 up-regulation on NK cells and IFN-γ production. NK cell activation was dependent on IFN-α produced by pDCs, but was not reproduced by IFN-α alone. ALL killing was further enhanced by inhibition of KIR engagement. We showed that ALL lysis was mainly mediated by TRAIL engagement, while the release of cytolytic granules was involved when ALL expressed NK cell activating receptor ligands. Finally, adoptive transfers of activated-pDCs in ALL-bearing humanized mice delayed the leukemia onset and cure 30% of mice. Our data therefore demonstrate that TLR-9 activated pDCs are a powerful tool to overcome ALL resistance to NK cell-mediated killing and to reinforce the GvL effect of HSCT. These results open new therapeutic avenues to prevent relapse in children with ALL.

  19. Analysis of the impact of recreational trail usage for prioritising management decisions: a regression tree approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Marek; White, Piran; Kasprzak, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    The dual role of many Protected Natural Areas in providing benefits for both conservation and recreation poses challenges for management. Although recreation-based damage to ecosystems can occur very quickly, restoration can take many years. The protection of conservation interests at the same as providing for recreation requires decisions to be made about how to prioritise and direct management actions. Trails are commonly used to divert visitors from the most important areas of a site, but high visitor pressure can lead to increases in trail width and a concomitant increase in soil erosion. Here we use detailed field data on condition of recreational trails in Gorce National Park, Poland, as the basis for a regression tree analysis to determine the factors influencing trail deterioration, and link specific trail impacts with environmental, use related and managerial factors. We distinguished 12 types of trails, characterised by four levels of degradation: (1) trails with an acceptable level of degradation; (2) threatened trails; (3) damaged trails; and (4) heavily damaged trails. Damaged trails were the most vulnerable of all trails and should be prioritised for appropriate conservation and restoration. We also proposed five types of monitoring of recreational trail conditions: (1) rapid inventory of negative impacts; (2) monitoring visitor numbers and variation in type of use; (3) change-oriented monitoring focusing on sections of trail which were subjected to changes in type or level of use or subjected to extreme weather events; (4) monitoring of dynamics of trail conditions; and (5) full assessment of trail conditions, to be carried out every 10-15 years. The application of the proposed framework can enhance the ability of Park managers to prioritise their trail management activities, enhancing trail conditions and visitor safety, while minimising adverse impacts on the conservation value of the ecosystem. A.M.T. was supported by the Polish Ministry of

  20. Adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation in a smart rotor configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergami, L.

    2013-08-15

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D airfoil section is developed, and, considering both attached and separated flow conditions, is validated by comparison against Computational Fluid Dynamic solutions and a panel code method. The aerodynamic model is integrated in the BEM-based aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2, thus providing a tool able to simulate the response of a wind turbine equipped with ATEF. A load analysis of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine in its baseline configuration reveals that the highest contribution to the blade flapwise fatigue damage originates from normal operation above rated wind speed, and from loads characterized by frequencies below 1 Hz. The analysis also reports that periodic load variations on the turbine blade account for nearly 11 % of the blade flapwise lifetime fatigue damage, while the rest is ascribed to load variations from disturbances of stochastic nature. The study proposes a smart rotor configuration with flaps laid out on the outer 20 % of the blade span, from 77 % to 97% of the blade length. The configuration is first tested with a simplified cyclic control approach, which gives a preliminary indication of the load alleviation potential, and also reveals the possibility to enhance the rotor energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first

  1. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  2. The prosurvival activity of ascites against TRAIL is associated with a shorter disease-free interval in patients with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane Denis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of ascites is a common complication of ovarian cancer. Ascites constitute a unique tumor microenvironment that may affect disease progression. In this context, we recently showed that ovarian cancer ascites may protect tumor cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In this study, we sought to determine whether the prosurvival effect of ascites affects disease-free intervals. Methods Peritoneal fluids were obtained from 54 women undergoing intra-abdominal surgery for suspected ovarian cancer (44 cancers and 10 benign diseases. The ability of peritoneal fluids to protect from TRAIL was assessed in the ovarian cancer cell line CaOV3, and IC50 were determined. The anti-apoptotic activity of 6 ascites against cisplatin, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, etoposide and vinorelbine was also assessed in CaOV3 cells, and the prosurvival activity of two ascites was assessed in 9 primary ovarian cancer cultures. Results Among the 54 peritoneal fluids tested, inhibition of TRAIL cytotoxicity was variable. Fluids originating from ovarian cancer were generally more protective than fluids from non-malignant diseases. Most of the 44 ovarian cancer ascites increased TRAIL IC50 and this inhibitory effect did not correlate strongly with the protein concentration in these ascites or the levels of serum CA125, a tumor antigen which is used in the clinic as a marker of tumor burden. The effect of ascites on cisplatin- and paclitaxel-induced cell death was assessed with 4 ascites having inhibitory effect on TRAIL-induced cell death and 2 that do not. The four ascites with prosurvival activity against TRAIL had some inhibitory on cisplatin and/or paclitaxel. Two ovarian cancer ascites, OVC346 and OVC509, also inhibited TRAIL cytotoxicity in 9 primary cultures of ovarian tumor and induced Akt activation in three of these primary cultures. Among a cohort of 35 patients with ascites, a threshold of TRAIL IC50 with ascites/IC50 without ascites > 2 was

  3. MAPK p38 and JNK have opposing activities on TRAIL-induced apoptosis activation in NSCLC H460 cells that involves RIP1 and caspase-8 and is mediated by Mcl-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azijli, Kaamar; Yuvaraj, Saravanan; van Roosmalen, Ingrid; Flach, Koen; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J.; de Jong, Steven; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce both caspase-dependent apoptosis and kinase activation in tumor cells. Here, we examined the consequences and mechanisms of TRAIL-induced MAPKs p38 and JNK in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. In apoptosis sensitive H

  4. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Bergami, Leonardo; Gaunaa, Mac; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Buhl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Denne afhandling omhandler udviklingen af et aktivt smart rotor koncept fra et aeroservoelastisk perspektiv. En aktiv smart rotor er en vindmøllerotor som igennem en kombination af sensorer, reguleringsenhed og aktuatorer, aktivt kan reducere den fluktuerende del af de aerodynamiske kræfter møllen skal modstå. Undersøgelsen omhandler en specifik aktuator type: Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), der består af en kontinuert deformation af den bagerste del af vingeprofilernes tværsnitsform.Der ...

  5. Molecular characteristics versus biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Smith, Manning A.; Willeford, Bennett R.

    1967-01-01

    The molecular characteristics of mononitrophenols containing halogens not only play a key role in their biological activity but provide a novel example of selective toxicity among vertebrate animals. It has been reported that efforts to control the parasitic sea lamprey in the Great Lakes are directed at present to the applications of a selective toxicant to streams inhabited by lamprey larvae. Since 1961, the larvicide that has been used almost exclusively in the control program has been 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM). However, this is only one of about 15 closely related compounds, all halogen-containing mononitrophenols, that display a selectively toxic action upon lampreys. Although not all of the halogenated mononitrophenols are selectively toxic to lampreys (in fact, fewer than half of those tested), no other group of related compounds has displayed any useful larvicidal activity except for the substituted nitrosalicylanilides.

  6. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  7. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  8. Biological Activities of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung-Chul

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 2Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS are continuously produced at a high rate as a by- product of aerobic metabolism. Since tissue damage by free radical increases with age, the reactive oxygen species(ROS such as hydrogen peroxide(H2O2, nitric oxide(NO. Several lines of evidence provided that ROS appears to cause to develop aging-related various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease. Our reserch objective was to examine the in vitro biological activity of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture, including the total poly-phenol content, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, Superoxide dismutase(SOD-like activity, Nitrite scavenging ability. The total poly-phenol contents of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture was 35.859mg/L. Elctron donation ability on DPPH was 36.82%. The 2,2'-azinobis-3-ehtlbezothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid radical decolorization (ABTS was 84.7%. The superoxide dismutase (SOD-like activities of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture was 44.33%. The nitrite scavenging effects were pH dependent, and were highest at pH 1.5(45.2% and lowest at pH 6.0(11.3%. We conclude that Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture may be useful as potential sources of antioxidant.

  9. Skills in Motion: Boys' Trail Motorbiking Activities as Transitions into Working-Class Masculinity in a Post-Industrial Locale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivinson, Gabrielle Mary

    2014-01-01

    During an ethnographic research project exploring young people's perceptions of living in a post-industrial semi-rural place, boys aged 13/14 years revealed their semi-clandestine motorbiking activities across mountains trails. It was found that riding motorbikes and fixing engines were potential resources for young boys' transitions…

  10. EGFR-targeted TRAIL and a Smac mimetic synergize to overcome apoptosis resistance in KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Möller

    Full Text Available TRAIL is a death receptor ligand that induces cell death preferentially in tumor cells. Recombinant soluble TRAIL, however, performs poorly as an anti-cancer therapeutic because oligomerization is required for potent biological activity. We previously generated a diabody format of tumor-targeted TRAIL termed Db(αEGFR-scTRAIL, comprising single-stranded TRAIL molecules (scTRAIL and the variable domains of a humanized variant of the EGFR blocking antibody Cetuximab. Here we define the bioactivity of Db(αEGFR-scTRAIL with regard to both EGFR inhibition and TRAIL receptor activation in 3D cultures of Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells, which express wild-type K-Ras. Compared with conventional 2D cultures, Caco-2 cells displayed strongly enhanced sensitivity toward Db(αEGFR-scTRAIL in these 3D cultures. We show that the antibody moiety of Db(αEGFR-scTRAIL not only efficiently competed with ligand-induced EGFR function, but also determined the apoptotic response by specifically directing Db(αEGFR-scTRAIL to EGFR-positive cells. To address how aberrantly activated K-Ras, which leads to Cetuximab resistance, affects Db(αEGFR-scTRAIL sensitivity, we generated stable Caco-2tet cells inducibly expressing oncogenic K-Ras(G12V. In the presence of doxycycline, these cells showed increased resistance to Db(αEGFR-scTRAIL, associated with the elevated expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins cIAP2, Bcl-xL and FlipS. Co-treatment of cells with the Smac mimetic SM83 restored the Db(αEGFR-scTRAIL-induced apoptotic response. Importantly, this synergy between Db(αEGFR-scTRAIL and SM83 also translated to 3D cultures of oncogenic K-Ras expressing HCT-116 and LoVo colorectal cancer cells. Our findings thus support the notion that Db(αEGFR-scTRAIL therapy in combination with apoptosis-sensitizing agents may be promising for the treatment of EGFR-positive colorectal cancers, independently of their KRAS status.

  11. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has......-MPC requires lower flap activity, and also achieves higher reductions of the tower fatigue loads, thus indicating that a combined control approach that coordinates and integrates all available sensors and actuators has the potential for overall better results than achieved by a series of independent control...

  12. Methanolic extract of white asparagus shoots activates TRAIL apoptotic death pathway in human cancer cells and inhibits colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserouel, Souad; Le Grandois, Julie; Gossé, Francine; Werner, Dalal; Barth, Stephan W; Marchioni, Eric; Marescaux, Jacques; Raul, Francis

    2013-08-01

    Shoots of white asparagus are a popular vegetable dish, known to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals reported to possess antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. We evaluated the anticancer mechanisms of a methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. shoots (Asp) on human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) and their derived metastatic cells (SW620), and Asp chemopreventive properties were also assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis. SW480 and SW620 cell proliferation was inhibited by 80% after exposure to Asp (80 µg/ml). We demonstrated that Asp induced cell death through the activation of TRAIL DR4/DR5 death receptors leading to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and to cell apoptosis. By specific blocking agents of DR4/DR5 receptors we were able to prevent Asp-triggered cell death confirming the key role of DR4/DR5 receptors. We found also that Asp (80 µg/ml) was able to potentiate the effects of the cytokine TRAIL on cell death even in the TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM), once a week for two weeks. One week after (post-initiation) rats received daily Asp (0.01%, 14 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water. After 7 weeks of Asp-treatment the colon of rats exhibited a 50% reduction of the number of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci). In addition Asp induced inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators, in association with an increased expression of host-defense mediators. In the colonic mucosa of Asp-treated rats we also confirmed the pro-apoptotic effects observed in vitro including the activation of the TRAIL death‑receptor signaling pathway. Taken together, our data highlight the chemopreventive effects of Asp on colon carcinogenesis and its ability to promote normal cellular homeostasis.

  13. Methanolic extract of white asparagus shoots activates TRAIL apoptotic death pathway in human cancer cells and inhibits colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserouel, Souad; Le Grandois, Julie; Gossé, Francine; Werner, Dalal; Barth, Stephan W; Marchioni, Eric; Marescaux, Jacques; Raul, Francis

    2013-08-01

    Shoots of white asparagus are a popular vegetable dish, known to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals reported to possess antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. We evaluated the anticancer mechanisms of a methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. shoots (Asp) on human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) and their derived metastatic cells (SW620), and Asp chemopreventive properties were also assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis. SW480 and SW620 cell proliferation was inhibited by 80% after exposure to Asp (80 µg/ml). We demonstrated that Asp induced cell death through the activation of TRAIL DR4/DR5 death receptors leading to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and to cell apoptosis. By specific blocking agents of DR4/DR5 receptors we were able to prevent Asp-triggered cell death confirming the key role of DR4/DR5 receptors. We found also that Asp (80 µg/ml) was able to potentiate the effects of the cytokine TRAIL on cell death even in the TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM), once a week for two weeks. One week after (post-initiation) rats received daily Asp (0.01%, 14 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water. After 7 weeks of Asp-treatment the colon of rats exhibited a 50% reduction of the number of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci). In addition Asp induced inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators, in association with an increased expression of host-defense mediators. In the colonic mucosa of Asp-treated rats we also confirmed the pro-apoptotic effects observed in vitro including the activation of the TRAIL death‑receptor signaling pathway. Taken together, our data highlight the chemopreventive effects of Asp on colon carcinogenesis and its ability to promote normal cellular homeostasis. PMID:23754197

  14. Biologically active substance usable in organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Šircová, Alena

    2012-01-01

    Organic farming system is a model of continuous agricultural activities, in that no synthetic pesticides, herbicides, growth regulators or GMOs may be used for plant protection. Such biological plant protection is allowed, where different antagonistic relationships between individual micro- and macro-organisms and pests occur. Certain biologically active substances contained in plants have a positive effect in protecting plants from pests and diseases as well as extracts from them functio...

  15. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  16. Simulations of a rotor with active deformable trailing edge flaps in half-wake inflow: Comparison of EllipSys 3D with HAWC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Thanasis K.; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.;

    2012-01-01

    . In this study, a comparison between aerodynamic predictions of the aeroelastic code HAWC2 and the Navier-Stokes code EllipSys3D for the NREL 5MW reference wind turbine rotor in a stiff configuration equipped with a deformable trailing edge flap is performed. A case where the half rotor plane experiences......Various research projects have focused on active aerodynamic load control of wind turbines using control devices on the blades, for example flaps. The aerodynamic load predictions of utilized aeroelastic codes have not yet been fully validated with full rotor CFD or experimental results...... an inflow resembling the wake from an upstream wind turbine is investigated, which is appropriate for comparing the predictions of the two codes related to the abrupt aerodynamic response and the influence of the controllable flap. The trailing edge flap is actuated to alleviate the added loads from a non...

  17. Does HPA-axis activity mediate the relationship between obstetric complications and externalizing behavior problems? The TRAILS study : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Rianne; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    To examine whether HPA-axis activity mediates the relationship between obstetric complications (OCs) and externalizing behavior problems, and to investigate whether this model is different for boys and girls. In a population-based cohort of 1,768 10- to 12-year-old early adolescents, we assessed the

  18. Fast Rotation and Trailing Fragments of the Active Asteroid P/2012 F5 (Gibbs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahus, Michał; Waniak, Wacław; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2015-03-01

    While having a comet-like appearance, P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) has an orbit native to the Main Asteroid Belt, and physically is a km-sized asteroid which recently (mid 2011) experienced an impulsive mass ejection event. Here we report new observations of this object obtained with the Keck II telescope on UT 2014 August 26. The data show previously undetected 200 m scale fragments of the main nucleus, and reveal a rapid nucleus spin with a rotation period of 3.24 ± 0.01 hr. The existence of large fragments and the fast nucleus spin are both consistent with rotational instability and partial disruption of the object. To date, many fast rotators have been identified among the minor bodies, which, however, do not eject detectable fragments at the present-day epoch, and also fragmentation events have been observed, but with no rotation period measured. P/2012 F5 is unique in that for the first time we detected fragments and quantified the rotation rate of one and the same object. The rapid spin rate of P/2012 F5 is very close to the spin rates of two other active asteroids in the Main Belt, 133P/Elst-Pizarro and (62412), confirming the existence of a population of fast rotators among these objects. But while P/2012 F5 shows impulsive ejection of dust and fragments, the mass loss from 133P is prolonged and recurrent. We believe that these two types of activity observed in the rapidly rotating active asteroids have a common origin in the rotational instability of the nucleus. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  19. ANALYSIS OF AN ELECTROSTRICTIVE STACK ACTUATOR FOR ACTIVE TRAILING EDGE FLAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Stack actuator is a solid-state driving component of Active Tailing Edge Flap in smart rotor systems. It is a multi-layer serial structure of basic units composed of electrostrictive and adhesive layers. In this paper, a dynamic model of the actuator is derived based on the constitutive equation of electrostrictive material and the equation of motion. Theoretical analysis is made on the factors involved in the design of the actuator, which reveals that the electrostrictive layer and the adhesive layer should be optimized to compromise between displacement and frequency requirements. In the final part of the paper, the experiment of an ATEF system is introduced. The results show that the model is reasonable. It also suggests that the bending stiffness of elastic mechanism is an important factor in design, which should be carefully studied to provide satisfactory dynamic response of the ATEF system.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF FURAN DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Anupam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Furan derivative are an important class of heterocyclic compound that possess important biological properties. From last few decades a considerable amount of attention has been focussed on synthesis of Furan derivatives and screening them for different pharmacological activities.The furan ring system is the basic skeleton of numerous compounds possessing cardiovascular activities. An iodinated lipophilic furan derivative is widely used in the treatment of ventricular and atrial fibrillation. These moieties are widely employed as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antitumor, Antihyperglycemic, Analgesic, Anticonvulsant etc. Slight change in substitution pattern in furan nucleus causes distinguishable difference in their biological activities. In this review we are discussing about synthesis and various biological activities of newly synthesized furan derivatives.

  1. Xanthane sesquiterpenoids: structure, synthesis and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasas, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this review is to survey the naturally occurring xanthanes and xanthanolides, their structures, biological activities, structure–activity relationships and synthesis. There has been no comprehensive review of this topic previously. On the basis of 126 references, 112 compounds are summarized. PMID:21321751

  2. Improved Asteroid Astrometry and Photometry with Trail Fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Vereš, Peter; Denneau, Larry; Wainscoat, Richard; Holman, Matthew J; Lin, Hsing-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Asteroid detections in astronomical images may appear as trails due to a combination of their apparent rate of motion and exposure duration. Nearby asteroids in particular typically have high apparent rates of motion and acceleration. Their recovery, especially on their discovery apparition, depends upon obtaining good astrometry from the trailed detections. We present an analytic function describing a trailed detection under the assumption of a Gaussian point spread function (PSF) and constant rate of motion. We have fit the function to both synthetic and real trailed asteroid detections from the Pan-STARRS1 survey telescope to obtain accurate astrometry and photometry. For short trails our trailing function yields the same astrometric and photometry accuracy as a functionally simpler 2-d Gaussian but the latter underestimates the length of the trail - a parameter that can be important for measuring the object's rate of motion and assessing its cometary activity. For trails longer than about 10 pixels (> 3xP...

  3. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand

    2009-07-01

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  4. TRAIL regulates normal erythroid maturation through an ERK-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchiero, Paola; Melloni, Elisabetta; Heikinheimo, Markku; Mannisto, Susanna; Di Pietro, Roberta; Iacone, Antonio; Zauli, Giorgio

    2004-01-15

    In order to investigate the biologic activity of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on human erythropoiesis, glycophorin A (GPA)+ erythroid cells were generated in serum-free liquid phase from human cord blood (CB) CD34+ progenitor cells. The surface expression of TRAIL-R1 was weakly detectable in the early-intermediate phase of erythroid differentiation (days 4-6; dim-intermediate GPA expression), whereas a clear-cut expression of TRAIL-R2 was observed through the entire course of erythroid differentiation (up to days 12-14; bright GPA expression). On the other hand, surface TRAIL-R3 and -R4 were not detected at any culture time. Besides inducing a rapid but small increase of apoptotic cell death, which was abrogated by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, the addition of recombinant TRAIL at day 6 of culture inhibited the generation of morphologically mature erythroblasts. Among the intracellular pathways investigated, TRAIL significantly stimulated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) but not the p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Consistently with a key role of ERK1/2 in mediating the negative effects of TRAIL on erythroid maturation, PD98059, a pharmacologic inhibitor of the ERK pathway, but not z-VAD-fmk or SB203580, a pharmacologic inhibitor of p38/MAPK, reverted the antidifferentiative effect of TRAIL on CB-derived erythroblasts. PMID:12969966

  5. New biologically active hydrogen sulfide donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Thomas; Raynaud, Francoise; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Ransy, Céline; Simonet, Serge; Crespo, Christine; Bourguignon, Marie-Pierre; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vilaine, Jean-Paul; Artaud, Isabelle; Galardon, Erwan

    2013-11-25

    Generous donors: The dithioperoxyanhydrides (CH3 COS)2 , (PhCOS)2 , CH3 COSSCO2 Me and PhCOSSCO2 Me act as thiol-activated hydrogen sulfide donors in aqueous buffer solution. The most efficient donor (CH3 COS)2 can induce a biological response in cells, and advantageously replace hydrogen sulfide in ex vivo vascular studies. PMID:24115650

  6. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo CAC; LL Leon

    2001-01-01

    There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammator...

  7. BENZIMIDAZOLES: THE LATEST INFORMATION ON BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Gurvinder; Kaur Maninderjit; Chander Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. It is an important pharmacophore and a privileged structure in medicinal chemistry. Benzimidazole and its derivatives play an important role in medical field with large number of Pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiabetic and anticancer activity. This review is summarized to know about the chemistry of different derivatives of benzimidazoles along with their biological actions such as antioxidant, antimi...

  8. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Kayshev; N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    A content of biologically active compounds (BAC) with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical ...

  9. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Makarkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  10. Modulation of TRAIL resistance in colon carcinoma cells : Different contributions of DR4 and DR5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geelen, Caroline M. M.; Pennarun, Bodvael; Le, Phuong T. K.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; de Jong, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Background: rhTRAIL is a therapeutic agent, derived from the TRAIL cytokine, which induces apoptosis in cancer cells by activating the membrane death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5). Here, we investigated each receptor's contribution to rhTRAIL sensitivity and rhTRAIL resistance. We assessed whether

  11. TRAIL sensitize MDR cells to MDR-related drugs by down-regulation of P-glycoprotein through inhibition of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and activation of caspases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong-Wan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of new modulator possessing high efficacy, low toxicity and high selectivity is a pivotal approach to overcome P-glycoprotein (P-gp mediated multidrug resistance (MDR in cancer treatment. In this study, we suggest a new molecular mechanism that TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand down-regulates P-glycoprotein (P-gp through inhibition of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and activation of caspases and thereby sensitize MDR cells to MDR-related drugs. Results MDR variants, CEM/VLB10-2, CEM/VLB55-8 and CEM/VLB100 cells, with gradually increased levels of P-gp derived from human lymphoblastic leukemia CEM cells, were gradually more susceptible to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity than parental CEM cells. The P-gp level of MDR variants was positively correlated with the levels of DNA-PKcs, pAkt, pGSK-3β and c-Myc as well as DR5 and negatively correlated with the level of c-FLIPs. Hypersensitivity of CEM/VLB100 cells to TRAIL was accompanied by the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway as well as the activation of initiator caspases. In addition, TRAIL-induced down-regulation of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and c-FLIP and up-regulation of cell surface expression of death receptors were associated with the increased susceptibility to TRAIL of MDR cells. Moreover, TRAIL inhibited P-gp efflux function via caspase-3-dependent degradation of P-gp as well as DNA-PKcs and subsequently sensitized MDR cells to MDR-related drugs such as vinblastine and doxorubicin. We also found that suppression of DNA-PKcs by siRNA enhanced the susceptibility of MDR cells to vincristine as well as TRAIL via down-regulation of c-FLIP and P-gp expression and up-regulation of DR5. Conclusion This study showed for the first time that the MDR variant of CEM cells was hypersensitive to TRAIL due to up-regulation of DR5 and concomitant down-regulation of c-FLIP, and degradation of P-gp and DNA-PKcs by

  12. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae: Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin A. Stonik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  13. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Stonik, Valentin A.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Natalia V. Ivanchina

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  14. Possible novel therapy for malignant gliomas with secretable trimeric TRAIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonsup Jeong

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite intensive clinical investigation and many novel therapeutic approaches, average survival for the patients with malignant gliomas is only about 1 year. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL has shown potent and cancer-selective killing activity and drawn considerable attention as a promising therapy for cancers, but concerns over delivery and toxicity have limited progress. We have developed a secretable trimeric TRAIL (stTRAIL and here evaluated the therapeutic potential of this stTRAIL-based gene therapy in brain tumors. An adenovirus (Ad-stTRAIL delivering stTRAIL was injected into intra-cranial human glioma tumors established in nude mice and tumor growth monitored using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ad-stTRAIL gene therapy showed potent tumor suppressor activity with no toxic side effects at therapeutically effective doses. When compared with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, a conventional therapy for malignant gliomas, Ad-stTRAIL suppressed tumor growth more potently. The combination of Ad-stTRAIL and BCNU significantly increased survival compared to the control mice or mice receiving Ad-stTRAIL alone. Our data indicate that Ad-stTRAIL, either alone or combined with BCNU, has promise as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas.

  15. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  16. Litchi Flavonoids: Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangrong Li; Yueming Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The current status of the isolation, identification, biological activity, utilization and development prospects of flavonoids found in litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) tissues is reviewed. LFP tissues account for approximately 15% by weight of the whole fresh fruit and are comprised of significant amount of flavonoids. The major flavonoids in ripe LFP include flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavanols in the LFP are reported to be procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindi...

  17. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS ENRICHED BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE ADDITIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Салкинбаева Г. Т.; Байбалинова Г. М.; Смаилова М. Н.

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with a reliable means of improving the structure of supply and optimum balance of the diet of the population, is the use of biologically active additives in a daily diet of the people to food dietary supplements. Supplements such advantages as an expression of food oriented, high nutritional density, homogeneity, easy preparation and forms of transport, good taste allow us to use them successfully in catering.

  18. Can erythrocytes release biologically active NO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Peter M; Fleming, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, endothelial cells and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) are the main source of NO in the cardiovascular system. However, several other cell types have also been implicated in the NO-dependent regulation of cell function, including erythrocytes. NO derived from red blood cells has been proposed to regulate erythrocyte membrane fluidity, inhibit platelet activation and induce vasodilation in hypoxic areas, but these proposals are highly controversial. In the current issue of Cell Communication and Signaling, an elegant study by Gambaryan et al., assayed NO production by erythrocytes by monitoring the activation of the platelet intracellular NO receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase, and its downstream kinase protein kinase G. After systematically testing different combinations of erythrocyte/platelet suspensions, the authors found no evidence for platelet soluble guanylyl cyclase/protein kinase G activation by erythrocytes and conclude that erythrocytes do not release biologically active NO to inhibit platelet activation. PMID:27639852

  19. DIRBE Comet Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2014-12-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of \\lt 0.1 and \\lt 0.15 MJy sr-1, respectively, which is \\lt 1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  20. DIRBE Comet Trails

    CERN Document Server

    Arendt, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    Re-examination of the COBE DIRBE data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke, and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 micron surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy/sr, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals one additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  1. DRBE comet trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.G.Arendt@nasa.gov [CREST/UMBC, Code 665, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr{sup −1}, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  2. The Tourism Carrying Capacity of Underwater Trails in Isabel Island National Park, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; López-Uriarte, Ernesto; Muñoz-Fernández, Vicente Teófilo

    2013-08-01

    The popularity of ecotourism in the marine protected areas of Mexico has increased over the last 10 years; in particular there is a large development of a SCUBA diving industry in the Mexican Pacific including Isabel Island. Given the risks associated with human activity in the marine environments around this island, we propose two ecotourism management strategies: (1) the creation and use of underwater trails, and (2) the estimation of the specific tourism carrying capacity (TCC) for each trail. Six underwater trails were selected in sites that presented elements of biological, geological, and scenic interest, using information obtained during field observations. The methodology used to estimate the TCC was based upon the physical and biological conditions of each site, the infrastructure and equipment available, and the characteristics of the service providers and the administrators of the park. Correction factors of the TCC included elements of the quality of the visit and the threat and vulnerability of the marine environment of each trail (e.g., divers' expertise, size and distance between groups of divers, accessibility, wind, coral coverage). The TCC values ranged between 1,252 and 1,642 dives/year/trail, with a total of 8,597 dives/year for all six trails. Although these numbers are higher than the actual number of recreational visitors to the island (~1,000 dives per year), there is a need for adequate preventive management if the diving sites are to maintain their esthetic appeal and biological characteristics. Such management might be initially directed toward using only the sites and the TCC proposed here.

  3. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenguţa I. Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  4. TRAIL-coated lipid-nanoparticles overcome resistance to soluble recombinant TRAIL in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Diego; Gallego-Lleyda, Ana; María Ayuso, José; Erviti-Ardanaz, Sandra; Pazo-Cid, Roberto; del Agua, Celia; José Fernández, Luis; Ochoa, Ignacio; Anel, Alberto; Martinez-Lostao, Luis

    2016-05-01

    Purpose. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one the types of cancer with higher prevalence and mortality. Apo2-Ligand/TRAIL is a TNF family member able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells. It has been tested in clinical trials against different types of human cancer including NSCLC. However, results of clinical trials have shown a limited efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies. Recently we have demonstrated that artificial lipid nanoparticles coated with bioactive Apo2L/TRAIL (LUV-TRAIL) greatly improved TRAIL cytotoxic ability being capable of killing chemoresistant hematological cancer cells. In the present work we have extended the study to NSCLC. Methods/patients. LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity was assessed on different NSCLC cell lines with different sensitivity to soluble TRAIL and on primary human tumor cells from three patients suffering from NSCLC cancer. We also tested LUV-TRAIL-cytotoxic ability in combination with several anti-tumor agents. Results. LUV-TRAIL exhibited a greater cytotoxic effect compared to soluble TRAIL both in A549 cells and primary human NSCLC cells. LUV-TRAIL-induced cell death was dependent on caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. Moreover, combination of LUV-TRAIL with other anti-tumor agents such as flavopiridol, and SNS-032 clearly enhanced LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity against NSCLC cancer cells. Conclusion. The novel formulation of TRAIL based on displaying it on the surface of lipid nanoparticles greatly increases its anti-tumor activity and has clinical potential in cancer treatment.

  5. TourismTrails_GMNFTRAILS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of the public roads...

  6. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  7. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  8. Minnesota Water Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile describes water trails in the State of Minnesota as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department of Natural Resources. The...

  9. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAC Araújo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae, which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.

  10. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  11. Biological activities of Morus celtidifolia leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; Oranday-Cárdenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Verde-Star, María Julia; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this research were to examine the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antiradical/antioxidant activities of the organic extracts obtained from the leaves of the medicinal plant Morus celtidifolia (Family: Moraceae). To evaluate its antimicrobial properties, M. celtidifolia was tested against the bacteria of medical importance: Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay and also by toxicity screening against human cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma). The free radical-scavenging activity was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay. Results revealed that the hexanic extract has antibacterial activity only against Gram positive strains, while the methanolic extract showed better cytotoxic and antioxidant activities than the non- polar extract with a median lethal dose (LD₅₀) of 125μg/ml, 90μg/ml and 75μg/ml against A. salina, MCF-7 and HeLa cells respectively, and median effective concentration (EC₅₀) of 152μg/ml on radical scavenging assay. This is the first study reporting the biological activities of leaves of Morus celtidifolia.

  12. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  13. Carbon nanomaterials: Biologically active fullerene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Gordana; Djordjević, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene attract significant attention of researches in various scientific fields including biomedicine. Nano-scale size and a possibility for diverse surface modifications allow carbon nanoallotropes to become an indispensable nanostructured material in nanotechnologies, including nanomedicine. Manipulation of surface chemistry has created diverse populations of water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes, which exhibit different behaviors. Both non-derivatized and derivatized fullerenes show various biological activities. Cellular processes that underline their toxicity are oxidative, genotoxic, and cytotoxic responses.The antioxidant/cytoprotective properties of fullerenes and derivatives have been considered in the prevention of organ oxidative damage and treatment. The same unique physiochemical properties of nanomaterials may also be associated with potential health hazards. Non-biodegradability and toxicity of carbon nanoparticles still remain a great concern in the area of biomedical application. In this review, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of carbon nano-clusters--fullerenes, nanotubes, and grapheme--their specificities, activities, and potential application in biological systems. Special emphasis is given to our most important results obtained in vitro and in vivo using polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C₆₀(OH)₂₄. PMID:27483572

  14. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  15. Down-regulation of HSP27 sensitizes TRAIL-resistant tumor cell to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Hongqin; Jiang, Weiwei; Cheng, Wei;

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has recently emerged as a cancer therapeutic agent because it preferentially induces apoptosis in human cancer over normal cells. Most tumor cells, including lung cancer cell line A549, unfortunately, are resistant to TRAIL...... siRNA on drug sensitization of A549 cells to TRAIL treatment. The results showed that treatment of A549 cells with HSP27 siRNA down-regulated HSP27 expression but did not induce significant apoptosis. However, combination of HSP27 siRNA with TRAIL-induced significant apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant A549...... cells. In addition to inducing caspases activation and apoptosis, combined treatment with HSP27 siRNA and TRAIL also increased JNK and p53 expression and activity. Collectively, these findings provide a conclusion that siRNA targeting of the HSP27 gene specifically down-regulated HSP27 expression in A...

  16. Evolution of the Total Lightning Activity in a Leading-Line and Trailing Stratiform Mesoscale Convective System over Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dongxia; QIE Xiushu; XIONG Yajun; FENG Guili

    2011-01-01

    Data from the Beijing SAFIR 3000 lightning detection system and Doppler radar provided some insights into the three-dimensional lightning structure and evolution of a leading-line and trailing-stratiform (LLTS) mesoscale convective system (MCS) over Beijing on 31 July 2007. Most of the lightning in the LLTS-MCSwas intracloud (IC) lightning, while the mean ratio of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning to -CG lightning was 1:4, which was higher than the average value from previous studies. The majority of CG limhtning occurred in the convective region of the radar echo, particularly at the leading edge of the front.Little IC lightning and little +CG lightning occurred in the stratiform region. The distribution of the CG lightning indicated that the storm had a tilted dipole structure given the wind shear or the tripole charge structure. During the storm's development, most of the IC lightning occurred at an altitude of ~9.5 km;the lightning rate reached its maximum at 10.5 kmn, the altitude of IC lightning in the mature stage of the storm. When the thunderstorm began to dissipate, the altitude of the IC lightning decreased gradually. The spatial distribution of lightning was well correlated with the rainfall on the ground, although the peak value of rainfall appeared 75 min later than the peak lightning rate.

  17. Litchi Flavonoids: Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the isolation, identification, biological activity, utilization and development prospects of flavonoids found in litchi fruit pericarp (LFP tissues is reviewed. LFP tissues account for approximately 15% by weight of the whole fresh fruit and are comprised of significant amount of flavonoids. The major flavonoids in ripe LFP include flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavanols in the LFP are reported to be procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindin-3-rutinside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinosde and quercetin-3-glucoside are identified as the important anthocyanins. Litchi flavanols and anthocyanins exhibit good potential antioxidant activity. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of procyanidin B2 are greater than those of procyanidin B4 and epicatechin, while epicatechin has the highest α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH· scavenging activity. In addition to the antioxidant activity, LFP extract displays a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on human breast cancer, which could be attributed, in part, to its inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through upregulation and down-regulation of multiple genes. Furthermore, various anticancer activities are observed for epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction of LFP tissue extracts. Procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction show a stronger inhibitory effect on HELF than MCF-7 proliferation, while epicatechin and procyanidin B2 have lower cytotoxicities towards MCF-7 and HELF than paclitaxel. It is therefore suggested that flavonoids from LFP might be potentially useful components for functional foods and/or anti-breast cancer drugs.

  18. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  19. The confining trailing string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); Mazzanti, Liuba [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Nitti, Francesco [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France)

    2014-02-19

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  20. The confining trailing string

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F

    2014-01-01

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  1. Salinomycin potentiates the cytotoxic effects of TRAIL on glioblastoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Calzolari

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL has been reported to exhibit therapeutic activity in cancer. However, many tumors remain resistant to treatment with TRAIL. Therefore, small molecules that potentiate the cytotoxic effects of TRAIL could be used for combinatorial therapy. Here we found that the ionophore antibiotic salinomycin acts in synergism with TRAIL, enhancing TRAIL-induced apoptosis in glioma cells. Treatment with low doses of salinomycin in combination with TRAIL augmented the activation of caspase-3 and increased TRAIL-R2 cell surface expression. TRAIL-R2 upmodulation was required for mediating the stimulatory effect of salinomycin on TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, since it was abrogated by siRNA-mediated TRAIL-R2 knockdown. Salinomycin in synergism with TRAIL exerts a marked anti-tumor effect in nude mice xenografted with human glioblastoma cells. Our results suggest that the combination of TRAIL and salinomycin may be a useful tool to overcome TRAIL resistance in glioma cells and may represent a potential drug for treatment of these tumors. Importantly, salinomycin+TRAIL were able to induce cell death of well-defined glioblastoma stem-like lines.

  2. 9th TRAIL Congress 2006, TRAIL in MOTION

    OpenAIRE

    TRAIL RESEARCH SCHOOL

    2006-01-01

    TRAIL is a Research School on Transport, Infrastructure and Logistics. TRAIL trains Ph.D. candidates and performs scientific and applied scientific research in the fields of mobility, transport, logistics, traffic, infrastructure and transport systems. TRAIL is a collaborative initiative of five Dutch universities, and is accredited as research school since 1997

  3. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT): environment and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A

    2004-05-01

    Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expended for everything that is not sleeping, eating, or sports-like exercise. It includes the energy expended walking to work, typing, performing yard work, undertaking agricultural tasks, and fidgeting. NEAT can be measured by one of two approaches. The first is to measure or estimate total NEAT. Here, total daily energy expenditure is measured, and from it "basal metabolic rate-plus-thermic effect of food" is subtracted. The second is the factoral approach, whereby the components of NEAT are quantified, and total NEAT is calculated by summing these components. The amount of NEAT that humans perform represents the product of the amount and types of physical activities and the thermogenic cost of each activity. The factors that impact a human's NEAT are readily divisible into environmental factors, such as occupation or dwelling within a "concrete jungle," and biological factors such as weight, gender, and body composition. The combined impact of these factors explains the substantial variance in human NEAT. The variability in NEAT might be viewed as random, but human and animal data contradict this. It appears that changes in NEAT subtly accompany experimentally induced changes in energy balance and are important in the physiology of weight change. Inadequate modulation of NEAT plus a sedentary lifestyle may thus be important in obesity. It then becomes intriguing to dissect mechanistic studies that delineate how NEAT is regulated into neural, peripheral, and humoral factors. A scheme is described in this review in which NEAT corresponds to a carefully regulated "tank" of physical activity that is crucial for weight control. PMID:15102614

  4. Biological active compounds from Georgian Galanthus shaoricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhadze, M; Kuchukhidze, J; Chincharadze, D; Murtazashvili, T

    2011-10-01

    Amaryllidaceae alkaloids exhibit antitumour, antiviral and anticholinergic activities. Some of them have been used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, myopathy and diseases of the nervous system. In this study, the characterization of these compounds from Amaryllidaceae plants along with some biological activities and some regulations to conserve the native flora will be reviewed. Plants materials: Galanthus shaoricus Kem.-Nath., were collected in 2007-2008 during the flowering period in Georgia. The preparation of extracts and fractions were obtained using methanolic maceration. Crude alkaloidal extracts were typically purified by liquid-liquid partitioning of their basic forms in chloroform. Lycorine, galantamine and tazettine has been found as one of the major alkaloid from Amaryllidaceae plants. Galanthus shaoricus have shown good antimalarial and cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Methanolic extracts from bulbs demonstrated significant growth inhibition on human Hela and HCT-116 cells lines with IC50 (μg/mL) 16.3±1.8; 22.1±2.9 (aerial parts) and 12.8±1.7; 16.5±1.9 (Bulbs), respectively. Concerning the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, lycorine with IC50 (μM) 0.8±0.5 and 2.6±0.2, haemantaimene (IC50=1.1±0.7 and 2.7±0.8 μM), hamaine (IC50=3.4±1.0 and 6.2 ±1.4 μM), homolycorine (IC50=1.4±0.9 and 3.3±1.0 μM), hipeastrine (IC50=2.8±1.0 and 7.5±1.8 μM) were found to be responsible for the cytotoxic activity on HCT-116 and Hela cell lines, respectively.

  5. Sustainable Trail Management in Costa Rica National Parks: The use of photography for trail surfacing decisions under tropical rainforest conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre G., Juan A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcan Poas National Park (VPNP is Costa Rica’s most visited park. Its facilities, accessibility, and proximity to the major cities of the country make VPNP a preferred destination for local and foreigner visitors. Aside from its active volcanic cone, the park trails are a major asset. The extremely wet conditions prevailing throughout the year and heavy visitation made it essential to determine visitor’s trail surface preferences to guarantee park trail sustainability. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of using photos in combination with a regular survey to identify the socio-demographic characteristics and other trail related variables that affect trail surface selection to guide management decisions and resource allocation related to trail design, construction, and maintenance. The study was conducted during May, June and July of 2005.

  6. Potential biological activity of acacia honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Sallau, Abdullahi B; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Aimola, Idown A; Malami, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, antiproliferative and neurological properties at in vitro and in vivo levels. Based on our review, Acacia honey used from various researches is of high purity, contains some bioactive compounds ranging from vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids and fatty acids. It's highly nutritional with strong antioxidant and immuno-modulatory potentials which may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Neurologically, it may be considered as a viable therapeutic agent in the management of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26709666

  7. Biological Activities of Plant Pigments Betalains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2016-04-25

    Betalains are a family of natural pigments present in most plants of the order Caryophyllales. They provide colors ranging from yellow to violet to structures that in other plants are colored by anthocyanins. These include not only edible fruits and roots but also flowers, stems, and bracts. The recent characterization of different bioactivities in experiments with betalain containing extracts and purified pigments has renewed the interest of the research community in these molecules used by the food industry as natural colorants. Studies with multiple cancer cell lines have demonstrated a high chemopreventive potential that finds in vitro support in a strong antiradical and antioxidant activity. Experiments in vivo with model animals and bioavailability studies reinforce the possible role played by betalains in the diet. This work provides a critical review of all the claimed biological activities of betalains, showing that the bioactivities described might be supported by the high antiradical capacity of their structural unit, betalamic acid. Although more investigations with purified compounds are needed, the current evidences suggest a strong health-promoting potential. PMID:25118005

  8. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  9. Polymyxin B antagonizing biological activity of lipopolysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yi-bin; CHEN Li-ping; CAO Hong-wei; WANG Ning; ZHENG Jiang; XIAO Guang-xia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of polymyxin B (PMB) antagonizing the biological activity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: The affinity of PMB for LPS and lipid A was assayed by biosensor, and the neutralization of PMB for LPS(2 ng/ml) was detected by kinetic turbidimetric limulus test. The releases of TNF-α and IL-6 in murine peritoneal macrophages (PMψ) after exposure to LPS (100 ng/ml) were detected, and the expression levels of TLR4, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA in PMψ induced by LPS (100 ng/ml) were measured by RT-PCR. Results: PMB had high-affinity to LPS and lipid A with dissociation equilibrium constants of 18.9 nmol/L and 11.1 nmol/L, respectively, and neutralized LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PMB could markedly inhibit the expressions of TLR4, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA and the release of cycokines in LPS-stimulated murine PMψ.Conclusions: PMB neutralizes LPS and inhibites the expression and release of cycokines in macrophages, in which the affinity of PMB for lipid A plays an important role.

  10. Biological activity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Carbonell

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens cytotoxin was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G100 column. The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens. The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. The cytotoxic assays show that 15 min of treatment with the cytotoxin induced irreversible intoxication of the cells, determined by loss of cell viability. Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 µg/ml of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin is distinct from S. marcescens hemolysin. Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. Moreover, we did not detect gene sequences for any of these toxins in S. marcescens by PCR assay. These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli.

  11. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH2, respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  12. Smac mimetic SM-164 potentiates APO2L/TRAIL- and doxorubicin-mediated anticancer activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuijun Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The members of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs family are key negative regulators of apoptosis. Overexpression of IAPs are found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and can contribute to chemotherapy resistance and recurrence of HCC. Small-molecule Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac mimetics have recently emerged as novel anticancer drugs through targeting IAPs. The specific aims of this study were to 1 examine the anticancer activity of Smac mimetics as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy in HCC cells, and 2 investigate the mechanism of anticancer action of Smac mimetics. METHODS: Four HCC cell lines, including SMMC-7721, BEL-7402, HepG2 and Hep3B, and 12 primary HCC cells were used in this study. Smac mimetic SM-164 was used to treat HCC cells. Cell viability, cell death induction and clonal formation assays were used to evaluate the anticancer activity. Western blotting analysis and a pancaspase inhibitor were used to investigate the mechanisms. RESULTS: Although SM-164 induced complete cIAP-1 degradation, it displayed weak inhibitory effects on the viability of HCC cells. Nevertheless, SM-164 considerably potentiated Apo2 ligand or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (APO2L/TRAIL- and Doxorubicin-mediated anticancer activity in HCC cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that SM-164 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents resulted in enhanced activation of caspases-9, -3 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, and also led to decreased AKT activation. CONCLUSIONS: Smac mimetics can enhance chemotherapeutic-mediated anticancer activity by enhancing apoptosis signaling and suppressing survival signaling in HCC cells. This study suggests Smac mimetics are potential therapeutic agents for HCC.

  13. Low intensity ultrasound stimulates biological activity of aerobic activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; YAN Yixin; WANG Wenyan; YU Yongyong

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to explore a procedure to improve biological wastewater treatment efficiency using low intensity ultrasound.The aerobic activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was used as the experimental material.Oxygen uptake rate(OUR)of the activated sludge (AS)was determined to indicate the changes of AS activity stimulated by ultrasound at 35 kHZ for 0-40 min with ultrasonic intensities of 0-1.2 W/cm2.The highest OUR was observed at the ultrasonic intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 and an irradiation period of 10 min;more than 15% increase was achieved immediately after sonication.More significantly,the AS activity stimulated by ultrasound could last 24 h after sonication,and the AS activity achieved its peak value within 8 h after sonication.or nearly 100% higher than the initial level after sonication.Therefore,to improve the wastewater treatment efficiency of bioreactors,ultrasound with an intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 could be employed to irradiate a part of the AS in the bioreactor for 10 min every 8 h.

  14. The ice nucleation activity of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, H.; Pummer, B.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.

    2012-04-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen may be important for several atmospheric processes. Particularly, the ice nucleation caused by PBAPs is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate is not yet fully understood. In laboratory model studies we investigated the ice nucleation activity of selected PBAPs. We studied the immersion mode freezing using water-oil emulsion, which we observed by optical microscopy. We particularly focused on pollen. We show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behavior. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 K to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen) have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. For comparison the ice nucleation activity of Snomax, fungal spores, and mushrooms will be discussed as well. In the past, pollen have been rejected as important atmospheric IN, as they are not as abundant in the atmosphere as bacteria or mineral dust and are too heavy to reach higher altitudes. However, in our experiments (Pummer et al. 2011) it turned out that water, which had been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. So the ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules (100-300 kDa) located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. It is widely known, that material from the pollen, like allergens and sugars, can indeed leave the pollen body and be distributed independently. The most probable mechanism is the pollen grain bursting by rain, which releases

  15. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor); Rabolt, John (Inventor); Casper, Cheryl (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A functionalized electrospun matrix for the controlled-release of biologically active agents, such as growth factors, is presented. The functionalized matrix comprises a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin.

  16. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that compon...

  17. Does HPA-axis activity mediate the relationship between obstetric complications and externalizing behavior problems? The TRAILS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, R.; Rosmalen, J.G.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    To examine whether HPA-axis activity mediates the relationship between obstetric complications (OCs) and externalizing behavior problems, and to investigate whether this model is different for boys and girls. In a population-based cohort of 1,768 10- to 12-year-old early adolescents, we assessed the

  18. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  19. Comparison of the effectiveness of real and virtual field trips in biology and ecology classes in lower secondary school based on the example of the Maribor island natural educational trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhek, Miro

    The present doctoral thesis presents a case study within the scope of which real and virtual field trips have been compared. The emphasis of the study was on determining the levels of knowledge gain effectiveness in the fields of biology and ecology in the final triad (third) of lower secondary school education. The analysis included students completing various tasks along the Maribor Island natural education trail, which had been digitized and inserted into Geopedia. The study was conducted in autumn of 2011 and included 464 students (enrolled in grades from 6 to 9) from 11 lower secondary schools located in the Maribor area. The results have generally shown minute differences between the levels of knowledge acquisition effectiveness between both field trips. During the real field trip, the majority of the students included in the study achieved better results particularly at tasks where they were able to benefit from first-hand experience. During the virtual field trip, individual students were more successful at tasks where they were allowed to access a computer in order to obtain additional information. Within the scope of the study, we had also surveyed lower secondary and secondary school teachers on the frequency of including field trips in the curriculum, on the obstacles that the teachers faced with regard to including field work in it, and on their views on real and virtual field trips. The survey included a total of 386 teachers, the majority whom were teaching the subjects of biology, geography, and natural science. The results have shown that the surveyed teachers regard field trips as a very important educational method that particularly encourages experience-based learning in nature. The views of the teachers on virtual field trips were generally positive, but only when regarded and applied as a supplemental teaching tool and not as a substitute for real field trips.

  20. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae: Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukranul Mawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae, its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

  1. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

  2. Biological activities of Juglans regia flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae, flower were investigated. Antidepressant activity was examined by forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice. Antihypoxic activity was investigated in haemic and circulatory models. The effects were pronounced in both models. It produced statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced edema at nearly all doses, compared to control groups. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 674±27.6 µg mL-1. Extract showed good Fe2+ chelating ability (IC50 43±1.5 µg mL-1. It exhibited low antioxidant activity in linoleic acid peroxidation test. Its pharmacological effects may be attributed, in part, to the presence of phenols and ISSN 0102-695X flavonoids in the extract.

  3. On Entropy Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Saeed; Taghavi, Ray; Keshmiri, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Stealth technology is developed for military aircraft to minimize their signatures. The primary attention was focused on radar signature, followed by the thermal and noise signatures of the vehicle. For radar evasion, advanced configuration designs, extensive use of carbon composites and radar-absorbing material, are developed. On thermal signature, mainly in the infra-red (IR) bandwidth, the solution was found in blended rectangular nozzles of high aspect ratio that are shielded from ground detectors. For noise, quiet and calm jets are integrated into vehicles with low-turbulence configuration design. However, these technologies are totally incapable of detecting new generation of revolutionary aircraft. These shall use all electric, distributed, propulsion system that are thermally transparent. In addition, composite skin and non-emitting sensors onboard the aircraft will lead to low signature. However, based on the second-law of thermodynamics, there is no air vehicle that can escape from leaving an entropy trail. Entropy is thus the only inevitable signature of any system, that once measured, can detect the source. By characterizing the entropy field based on its statistical properties, the source may be recognized, akin to face recognition technology. Direct measurement of entropy is cumbersome, however as a derived property, it can be easily measured. The measurement accuracy depends on the probe design and the sensors onboard. One novel air data sensor suite is introduced with promising potential to capture the entropy trail.

  4. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferreira Mota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae. Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum.

  5. Synthetic Approaches and Biological Activities of 4-Hydroxycoumarin Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Oee-Sook Park; Jae-Chul Jung

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this review is to summarize recent chemical syntheses and structural modifications of 4-hydroxycoumarin and its derivatives, of interest due to their characteristic conjugated molecular architecture and biological activities.

  6. Synthetic Approaches and Biological Activities of 4-Hydroxycoumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oee-Sook Park

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review is to summarize recent chemical syntheses and structural modifications of 4-hydroxycoumarin and its derivatives, of interest due to their characteristic conjugated molecular architecture and biological activities.

  7. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, Sandra

    2015-04-14

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  8. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  9. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-05-27

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  10. PHYTOCHEMICALS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FAGONIA INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Manoj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fagonia Indica (family Zygophyllaceae is a small spiny under-shrub, mostly found in the deserts of Asia and Africa. It is widely used is Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions since this plant was antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, astringent, febrifuge and prophylactic against small-pox agents.There are reports providing scientific evidences for antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of this plant. These activities were attributed to the presence of a variety of active ingredients including triterpenoidal saponins , flavonol glycosides, ursolic and oleanolic acids either alone or with their derivatives. A comprehensive account of the morphology, photochemical constituents, ethanobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant.

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Philanthotoxin Analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong An ZHANG; Ke Zhong LIU; Deng Yuan WANG; Yu Zhu WANG; Liang Jian QU; Chang Jin ZHU

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of four analogs of philanthotoxin is described. The preliminary bioassay showed that these compounds all had good insecticidal activities, and the compound 6a had the best killing effect.

  12. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  13. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae) against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D) of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and...

  14. PHYTOCHEMICALS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FAGONIA INDICA

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal Manoj; Pareek Anil; Batra Nikhil; Nagori Badri Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Fagonia Indica (family Zygophyllaceae) is a small spiny under-shrub, mostly found in the deserts of Asia and Africa. It is widely used is Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions since this plant was antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, astringent, febrifuge and prophylactic against small-pox agents.There are reports providing scientific evidences for antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of this plant. These activities w...

  15. Phytochemicals and Their Biological Activities of Plants in Tagetes L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-wei; CHEN Juan; QI Huan-yang; SHI Yan-ping

    2012-01-01

    Tagetes L.,the genus in the family Asteraceae,consists of about 30 species spread in South and Middle America as well as Mexico.More than one hundred secondary metabolites have been obtained in phytochemical investigation on the species,some of which have potent biological activities.The advances in phytochemical studies and biological activities of the plants in Tagetes L.from 1925 to 2011 are summarized in this paper.

  16. Aplysin Sensitizes Cancer Cells to TRAIL by Suppressing P38 MAPK/Survivin Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a tumor-selective apoptosis inducer and has been shown to be promising for treating various types of cancers. However, the application of TRAIL is greatly impeded by the resistance of cancer cells to its action. Studies show that overexpression of some critical pro-survival proteins, such as survivin, is responsible for TRAIL resistance. In this study, we found that Aplysin, a brominated compound from marine organisms, was able to restore the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL both in vitro and in vivo. Aplysin was found to enhance the tumor-suppressing capacity of TRAIL on several TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines. TRAIL-induced apoptosis was also potentiated in A549 and MCF7 cells treated with Aplysin. Survivin downregulation was identified as a mechanism by which Aplysin-mediated TRAIL sensitization of cancer cells. Furthermore, the activation of p38 MAPK was revealed in Aplysin-treated cancer cells, and its inhibitor SB203580 was able to abrogate the promoting effect of Aplysin on the response of cancer cells to TRAIL action, as evidenced by restored survivin expression, elevated cell survival and reduced apoptotic rates. In conclusion, we provided evidence that Aplysin acts as a sensitizer for TRAIL and its effect on p38 MAPK/survivin pathway may partially account for this activity. Considering its low cytotoxicity to normal cells, Aplysin may be a promising agent for cancer treatment in combination with TRAIL.

  17. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with /sup 3/H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled (29-/sup 3/H)-(24-/sup 14/C) fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of /sup 3/H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The (29-/sup 3/H) phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation.

  18. Piperlongumine and immune cytokine TRAIL synergize to promote tumor death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahe; Sharkey, Charles C; King, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation results in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Adaption to this toxic stress allows cancer cells to proliferate. Recently, piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid, was identified to exhibit novel anticancer effects by targeting ROS signaling. PL induces apoptosis specifically in cancer cells by downregulating several anti-apoptotic proteins. Notably, the same anti-apoptotic proteins were previously found to reduce tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Therefore, we reasoned that PL would synergize with TRAIL to stimulate potent apoptosis in cancer cells. We demonstrate for the first time that PL and TRAIL exhibit a synergistic anti-cancer effect in cancer cell lines of various origins. PL resulted in the upregulation of TRAIL receptor DR5, which potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Furthermore, such upregulation was found to be dependent on ROS and the activation of JNK and p38 kinases. Treatment with combined PL and TRAIL demonstrated significant anti-proliferative effects in a triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. This work provides a novel therapeutic approach for inducing cancer cell death. Combination of PL and TRAIL may suggest a novel paradigm for treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:25984950

  19. Doxorubicin potentiates TRAIL cytotoxicity and apoptosis and can overcome TRAIL-resistance in rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, R; Meijer, C; Van Zweeden, M; De Jong, S; Wesseling, J; Hoekstra, HJ; van der Graaf, WTA

    2004-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) and ifosfamide (IFO) are the most active single agents in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is used for STS in the setting of isolated limb perfusions. Like TNF-alpha, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis. In contrast to

  20. Isoxanthohumol--Biologically active hop flavonoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żołnierczyk, Anna Katarzyna; Mączka, Wanda Krystyna; Grabarczyk, Małgorzata; Wińska, Katarzyna; Woźniak, Edyta; Anioł, Mirosław

    2015-06-01

    Isoxanthohumol (IXN), apart from xanthohumol (XN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN), is one of the most important prenylflavonoids found in hops. Another natural source of this compound is a shrub Sophora flavescens, used in traditional Chinese medicine. Main dietary source of IXN is beer, and the compound is produced from XN during wort boiling. In the human body, the compound is O-demethylated to 8PN, the strongest known phytoestrogen. This process takes place in the liver and in the intestine, where it is mediated by local microflora. It has been reported in some studies that even though beer contains small amounts of hops and its preparations, these compounds may affect the functioning of the human body. IXN exhibits an antiproliferative activity against human cell lines typical for breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian cancer (A-2780), prostate cancer (DU145 and PC-3), and colon cancer (HT-29 and SW620) cells. It strongly inhibits the activation of the following carcinogens: 2-amino-3-methylimidazol-[4,5-f]quinoline and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) via human cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2). It also inhibits the production of prostate specific antigen (PSA). IXN significantly reduces the expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the case of invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231. It interferes with JAK/STAT signaling pathway and inhibits the expression of pro1inflammatory genes in the monoblastic leukemia cell line (MonoMac6). It activates apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). In addition, IXN shows an antiviral activity towards herpes viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). PMID:25771121

  1. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  2. Fiscal Year 2013 Trails Management Program Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report, October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pava, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-25

    This Trails Management Program Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report (Trails MAPAR) has been prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) as part of implementing the 2003 Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Trails Management Program (DOE 2003). The Trails Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) is now a part of the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (DOE/EIS 0380) Mitigation Action Plan (2008 SWEIS MAP) (DOE 2008). The MAP provides guidance for the continued implementation of the Trails Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and integration of future mitigation actions into the 2008 SWEIS MAP to decrease impacts associated with recreational trails use at LANL. This eighth MAPAR includes a summary of Trails Management Program activities and actions during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013, from October 2012 through September 2013.

  3. Rhodiola plants: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Mei Chiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola is a genus of medicinal plants that originated in Asia and Europe and are used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. Rhodiola plants are rich in polyphenols, and salidroside and tyrosol are the primary bioactive marker compounds in the standardized extracts of Rhodiola rosea. This review article summarizes the bioactivities, including adaptogenic, antifatigue, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinoception, and anticancer activities, and the modulation of immune function of Rhodiola plants and its two constituents, as well as their potential to prevent cardiovascular, neuronal, liver, and skin disorders.

  4. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  5. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  6. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POLYKETONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail A.Alkskas; Altaher M.Alhubge; Faizul Azam

    2013-01-01

    Polyketone resins have been prepared by the Friedel-Crafts polymerization of dithiophenylidenecyclopentanone (Ⅰ),dithiophenylidenecyclohexanone (Ⅱ) and dithiophenylideneacetone (Ⅲ) with adipoyl,sebacoyl and terephthaloyl dichlorides using boron trifluoride as catalyst and carbon disulphide as solvent.Polymers were characterized with IR,1H-NMR,and the results showed the presence of carbonyl of ketonic groups in the main chain.The polyketones have inherent viscosities of 0.40-0.70 dL/g.All the polymers are semicrystalline and most of them are partially soluble in most common organic solvents but freely soluble in aprotic solvents.The temperatures of 50% weight loss are as high as 185℃ to 280℃ in air,indicating that these aromatic polyketones have excellent thermal stability.All the polyketones were tested for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi.

  7. Coal Discovery Trail officially opens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinger, C. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Sparwood, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    The opening of the 30-kilometre Coal Discovery Trail in August is described. The trail, through a pine, spruce, and larch forest, extends from Sparwood to Fernie and passes through Hosmer, a historic mining site. The trail, part of the Elk Valley Coal Discovery Centre, will be used for hiking, bicycling, horseback riding, and cross-country skiing. The Coal Discovery Centre will provide an interpretive centre that concentrates on history of coal mining and miners, preservation of mining artifacts and sites, and existing technology. 3 figs.

  8. Phytochemistry and biological activities of Phlomis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limem-Ben Amor, Ilef; Boubaker, Jihed; Ben Sgaier, Mohamed; Skandrani, Ines; Bhouri, Wissem; Neffati, Aicha; Kilani, Soumaya; Bouhlel, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2009-09-01

    The genus Phlomis L. belongs to the Lamiaceae family and encompasses 100 species native to Turkey, North Africa, Europe and Asia. It is a popular herbal tea enjoyed for its taste and aroma. Phlomis species are used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation, and wounds. This review aims to summarize recent research on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the genus Phlomis, with particular emphasis on its ethnobotanical uses. The essential oil of Phomis is composed of four chemotypes dominated by monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, limonene and linalool), sesquiterpenes (germacrene D and beta-caryophyllene), aliphalic compounds (9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester), fatty acids (hexadecanoic acid) and other components (trans-phytol, 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol). Flavonoids, iridoids and phenylethyl alcohol constitute the main compounds isolated from Phlomis extracts. The pharmacological activities of some Phlomis species have been investigated. They are described according to antidiabetic, antinociceptive, antiulcerogenic, protection of the vascular system, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. PMID:19563875

  9. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  10. Photo-activated biological processes as quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Imamoglu, Atac

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for describing photo-activated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit non-equilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.

  11. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, T.; Erbslöh, S.; Carolus, T.

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length.

  12. Biological models for active vision: Towards a unified architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Terzic K.; Lobato D.; Saleiro M.; Martins J; Farrajota M.; Rodrigues J.M.F.; Du Buf J.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Building a general-purpose, real-time active vision system completely based on biological models is a great challenge. We apply a number of biologically plausible algorithms which address different aspects of vision, such as edge and keypoint detection, feature extraction,optical flow and disparity, shape detection, object recognition and scene modelling into a complete system. We present some of the experiments from our ongoing work, where our system leverages a combination of algorithms to ...

  13. Differences in the impacts of formal and informal recreational trails on urban forest loss and tree structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-08-15

    Recreational trails are one of the most common types of infrastructure used for nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking worldwide. Depending on their design, location, construction, maintenance and use, these trails differ in their environmental impacts. There are few studies, however, comparing the impacts of different trail types including between formal management-created trails and informal visitor-created trails. Although both types of trails can be found in remote natural areas, dense networks of them often occur in forests close to cities where they experience intense visitor use. To assess the relative impacts of different recreational trails in urban forests, we compared the condition of the trail surface, loss of forest strata and changes in tree structure caused by seven types of trails (total network 46.1 km) traversing 17 remnants of an endangered urban forest in Australia. After mapping and classifying all trails, we assessed their impact on the forest condition at 125 sites (15 sites per trail type, plus 15 control sites within undisturbed forest). On the trail sites, the condition of the trail surface, distance from the trail edge to four forest strata (litter, understory, midstorey and tree cover) and structure of the tree-line were assessed. Informal trails generally had poorer surface conditions and were poorly-designed and located. Per site, formal and informal trails resulted in similar loss of forest strata, with wider trails resulting in greater loss of forest. Because there were more informal trails, however, they accounted for the greatest cumulative forest loss. Structural impacts varied, with the widest informal trails and all formal hardened trails resulting in similar reductions in canopy cover and tree density but an increase in saplings. These structural impacts are likely a function of the unregulated and intense use of large informal trails, and disturbance from the construction and maintenance of formal trails

  14. Biological activity of diterpenoids isolated from Anatolian Lamiaceae Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülaçtı Topçu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, cytotoxic, antitumor, cardiovascular, antifeedant, insecticidal, antileishmanial and some other single activities of diterpenoids and norditerpenoids isolated from Turkish Lamiaceae plants, are reviewed. The diterpenoids were isolated from species of Salvia, Sideritis, and Ballota species growing in Anatolia. Fifty abietanes, ten kaurenes, seven pimaranes, six labdanes with their biological activities were reported. While twenty five diterpenoids showed antibacterial activity, eight of which showed activity against fungi. The most cytotoxic one was found to be taxodione (44 isolated from species of Salvia. Antifeedant, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of kaurenes, antimycobacterial activity and cardioactivity of abietanes and norabietanes together with labdanes were also reported.

  15. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brandolini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

  16. TRAIL restores DCA/metformin-mediated cell death in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang Soon; An, Sungkwan; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Song, Jie-Young; Lee, Jin Kyung; Hong, Jungil; Kim, Jong-Il; Noh, Woo Chul; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Park, In-Chul

    2016-09-23

    Previous studies have shown that hypoxia can reverse DCA/metformin-induced cell death in breast cancer cells. Therefore, targeting hypoxia is necessary for therapies targeting cancer metabolism. In the present study, we found that TRAIL can overcome the effect of hypoxia on the cell death induced by treatment of DCA and metformin in breast cancer cells. Unexpectedly, DR5 is upregulated in the cells treated with DCA/metformin, and sustained under hypoxia. Blocking DR5 by siRNA inhibited DCA/metformin/TRAIL-induced cell death, indicating that DR5 upregulation plays an important role in sensitizing cancer cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. Furthermore, we found that activation of JNK and c-Jun is responsible for upregulation of DR5 induced by DCA/metformin. These findings support the potential application of combining TRAIL and metabolism-targeting drugs in the treatment of cancers under hypoxia. PMID:27569287

  17. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, P.; Faccini, F.; Piccazzo, M.

    2006-06-01

    The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

  18. Non-canonical kinase signaling by the death ligand TRAIL in cancer cells : discord in the death receptor family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azijli, K.; Weyhenmeyer, B.; Peters, G. J.; de Jong, S.; Kruyt, F. A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-based therapy is currently evaluated in clinical studies as a tumor cell selective pro-apoptotic approach. However, besides activating canonical caspase-dependent apoptosis by binding to TRAIL-specific death receptors, the TRAIL ligand

  19. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Oskoueian; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rudi Hendra; Ehsan Oskoueian; Ehsan Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and fla...

  20. Access Control Based on Trail Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBARELO, P. C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Professionals are constantly seeking qualification and consequently increasing their knowledge in their area of expertise. Thus, it is interesting to develop a computer system that knows its users and their work history. Using this information, even in the case of professional role change, the system could allow the renewed authorization for activities, based on previously authorized use. This article proposes a model for user access control that is embedded in a context-aware environment. The model applies the concept of trails to manage access control, recording activities usage in contexts and applying this history as a criterion to grant new accesses. Despite the fact that previous related research works consider contexts, none of them uses the concept of trails. Hence, the main contribution of this work is the use of a new access control criterion, namely, the history of previous accesses (trails. A prototype was implemented and applied in an evaluation based on scenarios. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal, allowing for access control systems to use an alternative way to support access rights.

  1. 旅游活动对九华山风景区游道附近植物群落的影响%Effects of Tourism Activities on Plants Communities of Trail Neighborhool in Mount. Jiuhua Scenic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋秀龙; 陆林; 郝朝运; 王立龙; 巩劼

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation is one of the most sensitive environmental factors in the scenic area ecosystem influenced by tourism activities, and also the focus of the ecological environment research. 6 main trails have been chosen and 21 investigation belt transects have been set up in Mount. Jiuhua scenic area. Each sampling belt from near to far in the direction of trails is followed by four consecutive quadrats, and each quadrat area is set to 1 m2. Targets of the vegetation have been recorded, such as types, quantities, heights, and coverages. Index of plant community impact, plant diversity and importance values of anthropochory have been used for analyzing and counting the obtained investigation targets.Besides, multiple comparisons and Pearson correlation of SPSS13 were prepared for testing significances and correlation on the results. The results are as follows: 1 ) The coverage and the average height of plant community increase gradually as the distance increases along the tour roads, and the differences are significant ( P < 0. 05 ); the more distant that is from the trails, the smaller the changes of floristic dissimilarity are; index of plant community impact decreases from near to far in the direction of tour roads; 2)Index of plant community diversity, evenness and dominance have relation with the intensity of tourism activities. The greater the intensity is, the more significant the changes are; 3 ) Among all species of the investigated plant, the species of anthropochory account for 19. 49%, large quantities of anthropochory appear in the quadrats near trails, and reduced significantly in quadrats away from the trails, anthropochory important value distribution reduce gradually along the trails to the internal; 4) The number of tourists showed a positive correlation with the degree of impacts on plant communities, the degree of which decline as the distance increases along the tour roads, but the differences are not significant(P > 0. 05); 5) The impacts of

  2. Biological Activity of Curcuminoids Isolated from Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simay Çıkrıkçı

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is the most important fraction of turmeric which is responsible for its biological activity. In this study, isolation and biological assessment of turmeric and curcumin have been discussed against standard bacterial and mycobacterial strains such as E.coli , S.aureus, E.feacalis, P.aeuroginosa, M.smegmatis, M.simiae, M.kansasii, M. terrae, M.szulgai and the fungi Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity of curcumin and turmeric were also determined by the CUPRAC method.

  3. Cytotoxicity of CD56bright NK cells towards autologous activated CD4+ T cells is mediated through NKG2D, LFA-1 and TRAIL and dampened via CD94/NKG2A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Natasja; Ødum, Niels; Ursø, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    In mouse models of chronic inflammatory diseases, Natural Killer (NK) cells can play an immunoregulatory role by eliminating chronically activated leukocytes. Indirect evidence suggests that NK cells may also be immunoregulatory in humans. Two subsets of human NK cells can be phenotypically...... distinguished as CD16(+)CD56(dim) and CD16(dim/-)CD56(bright). An expansion in the CD56(bright) NK cell subset has been associated with clinical responses to therapy in various autoimmune diseases, suggesting an immunoregulatory role for this subset in vivo. Here we compared the regulation of activated human CD......4(+) T cells by CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) autologous NK cells in vitro. Both subsets efficiently killed activated, but not resting, CD4(+) T cells. The activating receptor NKG2D, as well as the integrin LFA-1 and the TRAIL pathway, played important roles in this process. Degranulation by NK cells...

  4. A Review on Pyrazole chemical entity and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahangir Alam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic organic heterocycle containing pyrimidine scaffolds possesses two nitrogen atoms of Five-membered ring. These Pyrazole skeletons comprise various ranges of pharmacological activities such as analgesic, antipyretic, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anticonvulsant, ant arrhythmic activities. Pyrazole is a multipurpose lead compound developed by chemical architecture for effective molecules which are biologically active. Several synthetic routes are accorded to the development of pyrazole containing reactions to afford a novel molecule which is an enormous opportunity in the field of medicinal chemistry. The existing collection of exertions on research to provide information about the synthesis and innumerable biological activities of pyrazole and their outcomes during the past year.

  5. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  6. Polysaccharies of higher fungi: Biological role, structure and antioxidative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.S.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Vrvic, M.M.; Jakovljevic, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging bio-logical properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypo-lipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application

  7. Polysaccharides of higher fungi: Biological role, structure, and antioxidative activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kozarski Maja S.; Klaus Anita S.; Nikšić Miomir P.; van Griensven Leo J.L.D.; Vrvić Miroslav M.; Jakovljević Dragica M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging biological properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application in many quite distinctive areas, such as food industry, biomedicine, cosmetology, agriculture, environmental protection and waste water management. This article pr...

  8. Occurrence, biological activity and synthesis of drimane sesquiterpenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    In this review the names, structures and occurrence of all new drimanes and rearranged drimanes, which have been published between January 1990 and January 2003 have been collected. Subjects that have been treated are biosynthesis, analysis, biological activities, with special attention to cytotoxic

  9. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...

  10. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  11. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  12. Cryptolepine, isolated from Sida acuta, sensitizes human gastric adenocarcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Firoj; Toume, Kazufumi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sadhu, Samir Kumar; Ishibashi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay guided separation of Sida acuta whole plants led to the isolation of an alkaloid, cryptolepine (1), along with two kaempferol glycosides (2-3). Compound 1 showed strong activity in overcoming TRAIL-resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells at 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μm. Combined treatment of 1 and TRAIL sensitized AGS cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis at the aforementioned concentrations.

  13. Synthesis, structure and biological properties of active spirohydantoin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Anita M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirohidantoins represent an pharmacologically important class of heterocycles since many derivatives have been recognized that display interesting activities against a wide range of biological targets. First synthesis of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins was performed by Bucherer and Lieb 1934 by the reaction of cycloalkanone, potassium cyanide and ammonium-carbonate at reflux in a mixture of ethanol and water. QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship studies showed that a wide range of biological activities of spirohydantoin derivatives strongly depend upon their structure. This paper describes different methods of synthesis of spirohydantoin derivatives, their physico-chemical properties and biological activity. It emphasizes the importance of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins with anticonvulsant, antiproliferative, antipsychotic, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties as well as their importance in the treatment of diabetes. Numerous spirohydantoin compounds exhibit physiological activity such as serotonin and fibrinogen antagonist, inhibitors of the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor also, antagonist of leukocyte cell adhesion, acting as allosteric inhibitors of the protein-protein interactions. Some spirohydantoin derivatives have been identified as antitumor agents. Their activity depends on the substituent presented at position N-3 of the hydantoin ring and increases in order alkene > ester > ether. Besides that, compounds that contain two electron withdrawing groups (e.g. fluorine or chlorine on the third and fourth position of the phenyl ring are better antitumor agents than compounds with a single electron withdrawing group. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  14. Decoy receptors block TRAIL sensitivity at a supracellular level: the role of stromal cells in controlling tumour TRAIL sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, L; van der Sloot, A M; Reis, C R; Deegan, S; Ryan, A E; Dhami, S P S; Murillo, L S; Cool, R H; Correa de Sampaio, P; Thompson, K; Murphy, G; Quax, W J; Serrano, L; Samali, A; Szegezdi, E

    2016-03-10

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand cytokine known for its cytotoxic activity against malignantly transformed cells. TRAIL induces cell death through binding to death receptors DR4 and DR5. The inhibitory decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2) co-expressed with death receptor 4 (DR4)/DR5 on the same cell can block the transmission of the apoptotic signal. Here, we show that DcRs also regulate TRAIL sensitivity at a supracellular level and thus represent a mechanism by which the microenvironment can diminish tumour TRAIL sensitivity. Mathematical modelling and layered or spheroid stroma-extracellular matrix-tumour cultures were used to model the tumour microenvironment. By engineering TRAIL to escape binding by DcRs, we found that DcRs do not only act in a cell-autonomous or cis-regulatory manner, but also exert trans-cellular regulation originating from stromal cells and affect tumour cells, highlighting the potent inhibitory effect of DcRs in the tumour tissue and the necessity of selective targeting of the two death-inducing TRAIL receptors to maximise efficacy. PMID:26050621

  15. Chemical and structural features influencing the biological activity of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic natural product, exhibits therapeutic activity against a number of diseases, attributed mainly to its chemical structure and unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. It is a diferuloyl methane molecule [1,7-bis (4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione)] containing two ferulic acid residues joined by a methylene bridge. It has three important functionalities: an aromatic o-methoxy phenolic group, α, β-unsaturated β-diketo moiety and a seven carbon linker. Extensive research in the last two decades has provided evidence for the role of these different functional groups in its crucial biological activities. A few highlights of chemical structural features associated with the biological activity of curcumin are: The o-methoxyphenol group and methylenic hydrogen are responsible for the antioxidant activity of curcumin, and curcumin donates an electron/ hydrogen atom to reactive oxygen species. Curcumin interacts with a number of biomolecules through non-covalent and covalent binding. The hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity of curcumin, arising from the aromatic and tautomeric structures along with the flexibility of the linker group are responsible for the non-covalent interactions. The α, β-unsaturated β-diketone moiety covalently interacts with protein thiols, through Michael reaction. The β-diketo group forms chelates with transition metals, there by reducing the metal induced toxicity and some of the metal complexes exhibit improved antioxidant activity as enzyme mimics. New analogues with improved activity are being developed with modifications on specific functional groups of curcumin. The physico-chemical and structural features associated with some of the biological activities of curcumin and important analogues are summarized in this article. PMID:23116315

  16. Oscillatory Activities in Regulatory Biological Networks and Hopf Bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shi-Wei; WANG Qi; XIE Bai-Song; ZHANG Feng-Shou

    2007-01-01

    Exploiting the nonlinear dynamics in the negative feedback loop, we propose a statistical signal-response model to describe the different oscillatory behaviour in a biological network motif. By choosing the delay as a bifurcation parameter, we discuss the existence of Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the periodic solutions of model equations with the centre manifold theorem and the normal form theory. It is shown that a periodic solution is born in a Hopf bifurcation beyond a critical time delay, and thus the bifurcation phenomenon may be important to elucidate the mechanism of oscillatory activities in regulatory biological networks.

  17. Stereochemical Assignment of Strigolactone Analogues Confirms Their Selective Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuso, Emma; Ghibaudi, Elena; Lace, Beatrice; Marabello, Domenica; Vinciguerra, Daniele; Lombardi, Chiara; Koltai, Hinanit; Kapulnik, Yoram; Novero, Mara; Occhiato, Ernesto G; Scarpi, Dina; Parisotto, Stefano; Deagostino, Annamaria; Venturello, Paolo; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Bier, Ariel; Prandi, Cristina

    2015-11-25

    Strigolactones (SLs) are new plant hormones with various developmental functions. They are also soil signaling chemicals that are required for establishing beneficial mycorrhizal plant/fungus symbiosis. In addition, SLs play an essential role in inducing seed germination in root-parasitic weeds, which are one of the seven most serious biological threats to food security. There are around 20 natural SLs that are produced by plants in very low quantities. Therefore, most of the knowledge on SL signal transduction and associated molecular events is based on the application of synthetic analogues. Stereochemistry plays a crucial role in the structure-activity relationship of SLs, as compounds with an unnatural D-ring configuration may induce biological effects that are unrelated to SLs. We have synthesized a series of strigolactone analogues, whose absolute configuration has been elucidated and related with their biological activity, thus confirming the high specificity of the response. Analogues bearing the R-configured butenolide moiety showed enhanced biological activity, which highlights the importance of this stereochemical motif. PMID:26502774

  18. Polysaccharides of higher fungi: Biological role, structure, and antioxidative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Maja S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging biological properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application in many quite distinctive areas, such as food industry, biomedicine, cosmetology, agriculture, environmental protection and waste water management. This article presents results with respect to biological properties, structure and procedures related to the isolation and activation of polysaccharides of higher fungi. It is considered and presented along with a review of the critical antioxidative activity and possible influence of the structural composition of polysaccharide extracts (isolated from these higher fungi upon their antioxidative properties.

  19. Biological activity evaluation of dibenzilbutirolactones lignans derivatives against Leishmania braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Royo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the results of the in vitro assay against extracellular forms of Leishmania (viannia braziliensis of eleven dibenzylbutyrolactone derivatives, either isolated from plants or obtained by synthesis. From these, only two showed relative biological activity against the parasite, the raceme mixtures of methylpluviatolide: IC50 = 496 mM and (--6,6'- dinitrocubebin: IC50 = 510,4 μM. Thus, it can be suggested that the metabolic pathway responsible for the biological activity of these compounds against this parasite genera differs from the one related to Trypanosoma cruzi, for which these compounds were quite active. This fact highly also suggests that this class of compounds is more selective against T. cruzi. Nevertheles, other lignans derivatives should be obtained to allow the fully evaluation of this class of lignans against Leishmaniosis.

  20. Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feller, Georges, E-mail: gfeller@ulg.ac.b [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Centre for Protein Engineering, Institute of Chemistry B6a, University of Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2010-08-18

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 {sup 0}C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins. (topical review)

  1. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF OXAZINE AND ITS DERIVATIVES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINDHU T J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxazine derivatives are an important class of heterocycles, which has attracted much synthetic interest due to their wide range of biological activities. Oxazine is a heterocyclic compound can be formally derived from benzene, and its reduction products, by suitable substitution of carbon (and hydrogen atoms by nitrogen and oxygen. In the last few years oxazine derivatives have proved to be valuable synthetic intermediates and also possess important biological activities like sedative, analgesic, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antitumour, antimalarial and antimicrobial. In these days, development of drug resistance is a major problem and to overcome this situation, it is necessary to synthesize new classes of compounds. The aim of the article is to review the generalization of the collected data about the synthesis of oxazine derivatives and their activities. We hope that this work will be a definite interest for researchers concerned with azines in generally and oxazines in particular.

  2. Nimbolide Sensitizes Human Colon Cancer Cells to TRAIL through Reactive Oxygen Species- and ERK-dependent Up-regulation of Death Receptors, p53, and Bax*

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Subash C.; Reuter, Simone; Phromnoi, Kanokkarn; Park, Byoungduck; Hema, Padmanabhan S.; Nair, Mangalam; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2010-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) shows promise as a cancer treatment, but acquired tumor resistance to TRAIL is a roadblock. Here we investigated whether nimbolide, a limonoid, could sensitize human colon cancer cells to TRAIL. As indicated by assays that measure esterase activity, sub-G1 fractions, mitochondrial activity, and activation of caspases, nimbolide potentiated the effect of TRAIL. This limonoid also enhanced expression of death receptors (DRs) DR5 and DR4 in cancer ce...

  3. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant sTRAIL Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xia XIA; Ya-Ling SHEN; Dong-Zhi WEI

    2004-01-01

    As a potential anti-tumor protein, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand(TRAIL) has drawn considerable attention. This report presented the purification and characterization ofsoluble TRAIL, expressed as inclusion bodies in E. coli sTRAIL inclusion bodies were solubilized andrefolded at a high concentration up to 0.9g/L by a simple dilution method. Refolded protein was purifiedto electrophoretic homogeneity by a single-step immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The purifiedsTRAIL had a strong cytotoxic activity against human pancreatic tumor cell line 1990, with ED50 about1.5mg/L. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectrum analysis showed that the refolded sTRAIL had astructure similar to that of native protein with β-sheet secondary structure. This efficient procedure ofsTRAIL renaturation may be useful for the mass production of this therapeutically important protein.

  4. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Koyano, Yuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous 2D fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it has been shown [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)] that such active proteins should in- duce non-thermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxis-like drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  5. Biological Ice Nucleation Activity in Cloud Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delort, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ice nucleation active (INA) biological particles, in particular microorganisms, were studied in cloud water. Twelve cloud samples were collected over a period of 16 months from the puy de Dôme summit (1465 m, France) using sterile cloud droplet impactors. The samples were characterized through biological (cultures, cell counts) and physico-chemical measurements (pH, ion concentrations, carbon content...), and biological ice nuclei were investigated by droplet-freezing assays from -3°C to -13°C. The concentration of total INA particles within this temperature range typically varied from ~1 to ~100 per mL of cloud water; the concentrations of biological IN were several orders of magnitude higher than the values previously reported for precipitations. At -12°C, at least 76% of the IN were biological in origin, i.e. they were inactivated by heating at 95°C, and at temperatures above -8°C only biological material could induce ice. By culture, 44 Pseudomonas-like strains of bacteria were isolated from cloud water samples; 16% of them were found INA at the temperature of -8°C and they were identified as Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas sp. and Pseudoxanthomonas sp.. Two strains induced freezing at as warm as -2°C, positioning them among the most active ice nucleators described so far. We estimated that, in average, 0.18% and more than 1%.of the bacterial cells present in clouds (~104 mL-1) are INA at the temperatures of -8°C and -12°C, respectively.

  6. Expression of TRAIL and its receptors in primary hepatic carcinoma and apoptosis-inducing effect of HrsTRAIL on hepatoma cell line HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingbing Xiao; Jiefei Huang; Runzhou Ni; Jing Zhu; Hong Zhang; Qun Wei; Feng Jiang; Baijun Bao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand(TRAIL)and its receptors in primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) and the apoptosis-inducing effect on hepatoma cell line HepG2. Methods:TRAIL and its receptors were detected by semiquantitive RT-PCR in 30 PHC and para-carcinoma tissues and two hepatoma cell lines of HepG2 and SMMC-7721. HepG2 cells were treated with human recombinant soluble TRAIL protein (HrsTRAIL) and then the viability of HepG2 cells was measured by microculture tetrazolium dye(MTT) assay and apoptosis index was demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting(FACS). Results :TRAIL and its receptors were detectable in all PHC and para-carcinoma tissues and hepatoma cell line HepG2. TRAIL, death receptor 4 (DR4), DR5, and decoy receptor 2 (DcR2) but not DcRI were detectable in hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721. The expression patterns of TRAIL receptors in HepG2 were quite similar to PHC specimens. The semiquantitive results showed that the expression level of TRAIL and DcR were lower but DR was higher in hepatoma tissues than in para-carcinoma tissues. In PHC tissues, the expressions of DR were higher than DcR, while there was no difference in para-carcinoma tissues. HrsTRAIL had potent antitumor activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After co-incubations of the HepG2 cells in the presence of HrsTRAIL at concentration 1 000 ng/ml for 24 hours, the viability of HepG2 cells decreased to 45% and the apoptosis index reached 51%. Conclusion:TRAIL and its receptors were expressed in both PHC tissues and para-carcinoma tissues but the expression levels were different. The lower expression of TRAIL in PHC tissues suggested that insufficient apoptosis occured in the development of PHC. High expression of DR in PHC tissues may be a self-defense mechanism and may afford a theory of HrsTRAIL therapy for PHC. HrsTRAIL may be a potential cytotoxic drug for PHC, and it can kill majority of HepG2 cells, but

  7. Biological activities of xanthatin from Xanthium strumarium leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibret, Endalkachew; Youns, Mahamoud; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Wink, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biological activities of the major bioactive compound, xanthatin, and other compounds from Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae) leaves. Inhibition of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and leukaemia HL-60 cell proliferation was assessed using resazurin as a vital stain. Xanthatin was found to be the major and most active compound against T. b. brucei with an IC(50) value of 2.63 µg/mL and a selectivity index of 20. The possible mode of action of xanthatin was further evaluated. Xanthatin showed antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis (24% inhibition) and 5-lipoxygenase activity (92% inhibition) at concentrations of 100 µg/mL and 97 µg/mL, respectively. Xanthatin exhibited weak irreversible inhibition of parasite specific trypanothione reductase. Unlike xanthatin, diminazene aceturate and ethidium bromide showed strong DNA intercalation with IC(50) values of 26.04 µg/mL and 44.70 µg/mL, respectively. Substantial induction of caspase 3/7 activity in MIA PaCa-2 cells was observed after 6 h of treatment with 100 µg/mL of xanthatin. All these data taken together suggest that xanthatin exerts its biological activity by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis and 5-lipoxygenase activity thereby avoiding unwanted inflammation commonly observed in diseases such as trypanosomiasis. PMID:21953905

  8. Full-scale test of trailing edge flaps on a Vestas V27 wind turbine: active load reduction and system identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien; Barlas, Thanasis K.; Buhl, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    predictive control was tested successfully on this demonstrator turbine. An average flapwise blade root load reduction of 14% was achieved during a 38 minute test, and a reduction of 20% of the amplitude of the 1P loads was measured. A system identification test was also performed, and an identified linear...... model, from trailing edge flap angle to flapwise blade root moment, was derived and compared with the linear analytical model used in the model predictive control design model. Flex5 simulations run with the same model predictive control showed a good correlation between the simulations...... and the measurements in terms of flapwise blade root moment spectral densities, in spite of significant differences between the identified linear model and the model predictive control design model....

  9. Alaska gold rush trails study: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary study draft, with maps, of seven gold rush trails in Alaska, to determine suitability for inclusion in the National Scenic Trails system and their...

  10. Recreational Trails in the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This file represents the locations of trails in Iowa. The original trail file was created by the Iowa Department of Transportation (IDOT), and included developed...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Aransas [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  12. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Hoem

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs have been under extensive study for several decades. However, not much attention has been paid to differences of dietary forms, such as triglycerides (TGs versus ethyl esters or phospholipids (PLs. New innovative marine raw materials, like krill and fish by-products, present n-3 FAs mainly in the PL form. With their increasing availability, new evidence has emerged on n-3 PL biological activities and differences to n-3 TGs. In this review, we describe the recently discovered nutritional properties of n-3 PLs on different parameters of metabolic syndrome and highlight their different metabolic bioavailability in comparison to other dietary forms of n-3 FAs.

  14. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L Millsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur (family: Fabaceae is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  15. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  16. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  17. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V Rajashekar; E Upender Rao; Srinivas P

    2012-01-01

    Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation.

  18. Marine Sponge Lectins: Actual Status on Properties and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mascena Gomes Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  19. Polyphosphate Kinase from Activated Sludge Performing Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal†

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine D McMahon; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.; Jenkins, David; Keasling, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel polyphosphate kinase (PPK) was retrieved from an uncultivated organism in activated sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Acetate-fed laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors were used to maintain sludge with a high phosphorus content (approximately 11% of the biomass). PCR-based clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to verify that the sludge was enriched in Rhodocyclus-like β-Proteobacteria kn...

  20. Processed Vietnamese ginseng: Preliminary results in chemistry and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thi Hong Van; Lee, Seo Young; Kim, Tae Ryong; Kim, Jae Young; Kwon, Sung Won; NGUYEN, NGOC KHOI; Park, Jeong Hill; Nguyen, Minh Duc

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the steaming process on chemical constituents, free radical scavenging activity, and antiproliferative effect of Vietnamese ginseng. Methods Samples of powdered Vietnamese ginseng were steamed at 120°C for various times and their extracts were subjected to chemical and biological studies. Results Upon steaming, contents of polar ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1, were rapidly decreased, whereas less polar ginsenos...

  1. Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities

    OpenAIRE

    Iasmine A.B.S. Alves; Henrique M. Miranda; Luiz A. L. Soares; Karina P. Randau

    2014-01-01

    The Simaroubaceae family includes 32 genera and more than 170 species of trees and brushes of pantropical distribution. The main distribution hot spots are located at tropical areas of America, extending to Africa, Madagascar and regions of Australia bathed by the Pacific. This family is characterized by the presence of quassinoids, secondary metabolites responsible of a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticide, feeding deterrent, amebicid...

  2. Synthesis,Characterization and Biological Activities of Novel Acrylamide Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; XU Zhong-jie; ZHANG Gong-sheng; ZHOU Kai; ZHAI Zhi-wei

    2008-01-01

    With dimethomorph and flumorph as the leading compounds,four novel acrylamide compounds with two types of structure were designed and synthesized by means of the method of"me too chemistry".The target compounds were characterized by 1H NMR,IR,MS,and elemental analysis.The influences of solvent and raw material on the yield were investigated and optimum processing conditions were determined.The results of preliminary biological tests show that all those compounds exhibit certain antifungal activities.

  3. Biological activity of selected essential oils of the Lamiaceae family

    OpenAIRE

    Havlová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    The Lamiaceae family (the mints) is one of the large groups of plants. These herbs are important for their biological active substances, such as essential oils, tannins, bitter principles, etc. The properties of selected plants from this family are used in many industries. Many of them have been used long due to their medicinal properties and simultaneously they form an indispensable part of many products used for cosmetic purposes. The important ingredients are first of all essential oils, w...

  4. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Shukranul Mawa; Khairana Husain; Ibrahim Jantan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is l...

  5. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  6. Trail formation based on directed pheromone deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Boissard, Emmanuel; Degond, Pierre; Motsch, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    We propose an Individual-Based Model of ant-trail formation. The ants are modeled as self-propelled particles which deposit directed pheromones and interact with them through alignment interaction. The directed pheromones intend to model pieces of trails, while the alignment interaction translates the tendency for an ant to follow a trail when it meets it. Thanks to adequate quantitative descriptors of the trail patterns, the existence of a phase transition as the ant-pheromone interaction fr...

  7. Integrity and Biological Activity of DNA after UV Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Delina Y.; Monier, Jean-Michel; Dupraz, Sébastien; Freissinet, Caroline; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M.

    2010-04-01

    The field of astrobiology lacks a universal marker with which to indicate the presence of life. This study supports the proposal to use nucleic acids, specifically DNA, as a signature of life (biosignature). In addition to its specificity to living organisms, DNA is a functional molecule that can confer new activities and characteristics to other organisms, following the molecular biology dogma, that is, DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated into proteins. Previous criticisms of the use of DNA as a biosignature have asserted that DNA molecules would be destroyed by UV radiation in space. To address this concern, DNA in plasmid form was deposited onto different surfaces and exposed to UVC radiation. The surviving DNA was quantified via the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results demonstrate increased survivability of DNA attached to surfaces versus non-adsorbed DNA. The DNA was also tested for biological activity via transformation into the bacterium Acinetobacter sp. and assaying for antibiotic resistance conferred by genes encoded by the plasmid. The success of these methods to detect DNA and its gene products after UV exposure (254 nm, 3.5 J/m2s) not only supports the use of the DNA molecule as a biosignature on mineral surfaces but also demonstrates that the DNA retained biological activity.

  8. Isolation of biologically active nanomaterial (inclusion bodies from bacterial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peternel Špela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs were recognised as highly pure deposits of active proteins inside bacterial cells. Such active nanoparticles are very interesting for further downstream protein isolation, as well as for many other applications in nanomedicine, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. To prepare large quantities of a high quality product, the whole bioprocess has to be optimised. This includes not only the cultivation of the bacterial culture, but also the isolation step itself, which can be of critical importance for the production process. To determine the most appropriate method for the isolation of biologically active nanoparticles, three methods for bacterial cell disruption were analyzed. Results In this study, enzymatic lysis and two mechanical methods, high-pressure homogenization and sonication, were compared. During enzymatic lysis the enzyme lysozyme was found to attach to the surface of IBs, and it could not be removed by simple washing. As this represents an additional impurity in the engineered nanoparticles, we concluded that enzymatic lysis is not the most suitable method for IBs isolation. During sonication proteins are released (lost from the surface of IBs and thus the surface of IBs appears more porous when compared to the other two methods. We also found that the acoustic output power needed to isolate the IBs from bacterial cells actually damages proteins structures, thereby causing a reduction in biological activity. High-pressure homogenization also caused some damage to IBs, however the protein loss from the IBs was negligible. Furthermore, homogenization had no side-effects on protein biological activity. Conclusions The study shows that among the three methods tested, homogenization is the most appropriate method for the isolation of active nanoparticles from bacterial cells.

  9. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL ARYL AND HETROARYL CHALCONE ANALOGUES

    OpenAIRE

    Tribhuvan Singh; R Lavanya; Srikanth Merugu; P.Sudhakar; Syeda Sana Yasmeen

    2012-01-01

    A new series of Heterocyclic chalcones showed diversified biological activities. In view of potential biological activities of Heterocyclic chalcones derivative were prepared by claisen-Schmidt condensation technique. The compound were screened for anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan, E-mail: yangbq@nwu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, Northwest University, Shaanxi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  11. Perceptual Geography through Urban Trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Describes a project whereby geography students were charged with designing an urban trail (city walk with informational markers) that would accommodate specific groups. Chosen groups included people with physical disabilities, 10-year olds, and those interested in local street art. Discusses the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective objectives of…

  12. Carving a New Assessment Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriston, Terry

    2007-01-01

    TRAILS (Tool for Real-Time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills), is a free online test of student information-handling skills. It was formulated by the Institute for Library and Information Literacy Education and Kent State University Libraries. Based on the Ohio Academic Content Standards and the philosophy of Information Power, it assesses…

  13. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using {sup 48}V and {sup 62}Zn. (author)

  14. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48V and 62Zn. (author)

  15. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  16. Summary of diamino pyrazoles derived and study their biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work involves the synthesis of new heterocyclic structures diamino pyrazoles derivatives that are present in many natural products and products of pharmacological and therapeutic interests and study their biological activities. In order to develop a radiotracer interest and use in diagnostic nuclear medicine, we are interested to synthesis a pyrazole derivative with the precursor [Re(CO)5Br] and studying the antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3.5-diamino pyrazole and even thioamide complex rhenium. The objectives of our workout: 1/ Synthesis of molecules 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide. 2/ Synthesis of 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium complex. 3/ The in vitro study: Bacteriological Tests (Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide). The first part of this work concerns the chemical synthesis of molecules such as: thioamide, Amp z1 Ampz2 and then we had synthesized the complex 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium. Similarly we determined the physicochemical characteristics of the compounds synthesized by CLHP, CCM and RMN (1H, 13C). The second part is devoted to the study in vitro of biological activities of the synthesized molecules and complex 3,5 diaminopyrazole-rhenium with concentration 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. The results allow us to say that the thioamide and Ampz2 have antibacterial activity against S. enterica and Ampz2 has low activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginossa. Other pyrazole derivatives have no significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results also show that the synthesized compounds of concentration 2 mg/mL in relation to the inhibition zones of amoxicillin and DMSO: 1/ Escherichia coli, there is antibacterial activity for thioamide, and the Amp z1-Re Ampz2 compound. 2/ Staphylococcus aureus, the complex Ampz 1-Re and the thioamide have significant antibacterial activity. 3/ Salmonella, we observe that the thioamide molecules, Ampz2 and Amp z1-Re have significant antibacterial activity while

  17. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Mashino, T [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: mashino-td@pha.keio.ac.jp

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C{sub 60}-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C{sub 60}-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC{sub 50} values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  18. Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mudassir A; Crow, Sidney A

    2005-01-01

    The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined against 12 fungal and 12 bacterial strains by agar well diffusion and disk diffusion assays. The extract of Zygophyllum fabago was found to be highly effective against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The extract of Vincetoxicum stocksii was also found to be significantly active against Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Extracts of Hymenocrater sessilifolius and Grewia erythraea showed good activity only against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  19. Oregon trails revisted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. J.; Alexander, C. J.; Hall, M. J.; Isaacson, D. L.; Murray, R. J.; Schrumpf, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Oregon State University's Environmental Remote Sensing Applications Laboratory (ERSAL) has six full-time researchers with expertise in a variety of biological, Earth, atmospheric and computer sciences as well as image interpretation and statistical techniques. The primary emphasis of the ERSAL research and demonstration program is the development and application of remote sensing technology in operational resource management programs. LANDSAT multi-spectral, multi-date digital data and imagery are utilized in concert with high altitude NASA-acquired photography, low altitude ERSAL-acquired photography, and field observations and data to provide customized, inexpensive and useful final products. Synopses are given of 9 applications projects conducted in Oregon.

  20. Perceived causality influences brain activity evoked by biological motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James P; Pelphrey, Kevin A; McCarthy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain activity in an observer who watched the hand and arm motions of an individual when that individual was, or was not, the cause of the motion. Subjects viewed a realistic animated 3D character who sat at a table containing four pistons. On Intended Motion trials, the character raised his hand and arm upwards. On Unintended Motion trials, the piston under one of the character's hands pushed the hand and arm upward with the same motion. Finally, during Non-Biological Motion control trials, a piston pushed a coffee mug upward in the same smooth motion. Hand and arm motions, regardless of intention, evoked significantly more activity than control trials in a bilateral region that extended ventrally from the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) region and which was more spatially extensive in the right hemisphere. The left pSTS near the temporal-parietal junction, robustly differentiated between the Intended Motion and Unintended Motion conditions. Here, strong activity was observed for Intended Motion trials, while Unintended Motion trials evoked similar activity as the coffee mug trials. Our results demonstrate a strong hemispheric bias in the role of the pSTS in the perception of causality of biological motion. PMID:18633843

  1. Bone-inducing Activity of Biological Piezoelectric Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To simulate the piezoelectric effect of nature bone, two kinds of biological piezoelectric composite ceramics consisted of hydroxyapatite ( HA ) and lithium sodium potassium riobate (LNK) ceramic of which the ratio of HA/ LNK was 1: 10 and 5:5( wt/ wt ) were prepared. Their piezoelectric property and growth of apatite crystal in the ceramics surface were investigated. With the increase of LNK amount, piezoelectric activity increased correspondingly. By immersing the poled piezoelectric ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 36.5 ℃ for 7,14, and 21 days, apatite crystal was formed on negatively charged surfaces. After 21 days immersion in SBF,the thickest apatite crystal on the negatively charged surfaces increased to 3.337μm. The novel biological piezoelectric ceramics show an excellent piezoelectric property and superior potential bioactivity.

  2. Mutant p53: multiple mechanisms define biologic activity in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of p53 alterations involve missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may acquire novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in multiple model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  3. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horneck, G. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  4. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(U-/sup 14/C) malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 ..mu..g niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays.

  5. Soil biological activity at European scale - two calculation concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. To assess the turnover conditions two model concepts are applied: (I) Biological active time (BAT) regression approach derived from CANDY model (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of air temperature, precipitation and soil texture as a timescale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. (II) Re_clim parameter within the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states the soil temperature and soil water to estimate soil biological activity. The modelling includes two strategies to cover the European scale and conditions. BAT was calculated on a 20x20 km grid basis. The European data sets of precipitation and air temperature (time period 1901-2000, monthly resolution), (Mitchell et al. 2004) were used to derive long-term averages. As we focus on agricultural areas we included CORINE data (2006) to extract arable land. The resulting BATs under co-consideration of the main soil textures (clay, silt, sand and loam) were investigated per environmental zone (ENZs, Metzger et al. 2005) that represents similar conditions for precipitation, temperature and relief to identify BAT ranges and hence turnover conditions for each ENZ. Re_clim was quantified by climatic time series of more than 250 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). Daily temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (maximal thermal extent) were used to calculate

  6. Xenicane Natural Products: Biological Activity and Total Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschart, Leo; Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The xenicanes are a large class of mostly bicyclic marine diterpenoids featuring a cyclononane ring as a common structural denominator. After a brief introduction into the characteristic structural features of xenicanes and some biogenetic considerations, the major focus of this review will be on the various biological activities that have been reported for xenicanes and on efforts towards the total synthesis of these structures. Several xenicanes have been shown to be potent antiproliferative agents in vitro, but activities have also been reported in relation to inflammatory processes. However, so far, data on the possible in vivo activity of xenicanes are lacking. The major challenge in the total synthesis of xenicanes is the construction of the nine-membered ring. Different strategies have been pursued to establish this crucial substructure, including Grob fragmentation, ring-closing olefin metathesis, or Suzuki cross coupling as the enabling transformations. PMID:26429717

  7. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  8. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Jordanian Chamomile Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Hassan Al Bahtiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Jordanian chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla has been researched more thoroughly to evaluate its useful properties. It is investigated and found that Jordanian chamomile is rich in phenolic compounds, with beneficial biological activities. By applying the most promising HPLC method, the content of total phenolics in methanolic extract was determined according to the Folin-Clocalteu procedure, and was found (GAE>20 mg/g. The flavonoid types were found as flavones and flavonolos.The minimum inhibitory concentration values for methanolic extracts of Jordanian chamomile were determined for different kinds of bacteria. The extracts have activity against Staphylococcus aurous, candida albicans, Esherichia Coli, Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris. The activity has been observed to be due to the tannins and a pigenin present in the extract. To utilize these significant sources of natural compounds, further characterization of phenolic composition is needed.

  9. Biological activity of trisporoids and trisporoid analogues in Mucor mucedo (-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschabel, Doreen; Schimek, Christine; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Boland, Wilhelm

    2005-06-01

    In the course of their sexual interactions, zygomycete fungi communicate via an elaborate series of carotene-derived compounds, namely trisporic acid and its biosynthetic progenitors. A novel building-block strategy allowed the systematic generation of structurally modified trisporoids along with putative early biosynthetic precursors for physiological tests. The impact of discrete structural elements was documented by the ability of individual compounds to induce sexually committed hyphae in Mucor mucedo. The activity screening contributed to establish general structure-function relationships for trisporoid action. Most crucial for activity were the dimension of the longer side chain, the polarity of functional groups at C(4) and C(13), and the number of conjugated double bonds in the side chain. The presence of an oxygen substituent at the cyclohexene ring is not essential for function. The overall biological activity apparently results from the combination of the various structural elements.

  10. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  11. CANTHARELLUS CIBARIUS - CULINARY-MEDICINAL MUSHROOM CONTENT AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bozena; Kała, Katarzyna; Firlej, Anna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    One of the most frequently harvested mushrooms in Polish forests is Yellow chanterelle (chanterelle) - Cantharellus cibarius Fr. from the Cantharellaceae family. Chanterelle is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom occurring in Poland. Chanterelle lives in symbiosis with pine, spruce, oak and hombeam. In cookery, chanterelle is appreciated because of the aroma, taste, firmness and crunchiness of its fruiting bodies. Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in Asia, Western Europe and Central America. Chanterelle contains a great number of carbohydrates and proteins and a low amount of fat. Actual review presents the main groups of physiologically active primary and secondary metabolites in the fruiting bodies of chanterelle such as indole and phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, free amino acids, sterols, carotenoids, enzymes, vitamins and elements with biological activity. The presence of these compounds and elements conditions the nutrient and therapeutic activity of chanterelle, e.g., immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial and antigenotoxic properties. PMID:27476275

  12. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...... molecules. It is concluded that none of the pertinent laboratory surrogate markers of disease activity in IBD are specific or sensitive enough to replace basic clinical observation such as the number of daily bowel movements, general well-being, and other parameters in parallel. Further studies are highly...

  13. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  14. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder...... molecules. It is concluded that none of the pertinent laboratory surrogate markers of disease activity in IBD are specific or sensitive enough to replace basic clinical observation such as the number of daily bowel movements, general well-being, and other parameters in parallel. Further studies are highly...... warranted to identify and assess the clinical importance and applicability of new laboratory markers for the diagnosis or the disease activity of IBD....

  15. TRAIL protein localization in human primary T cells by 3D microscopy using 3D interactive surface plot: a new method to visualize plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Christophe; Smith, Nikaïa; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Gandini, Mariana; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-31

    The apoptotic ligand TNF-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL) is expressed on the membrane of immune cells during HIV infection. The intracellular stockade of TRAIL in human primary CD4(+) T cells is not known. Here we investigated whether primary CD4(+) T cells expressed TRAIL in their intracellular compartment and whether TRAIL is relocalized on the plasma membrane under HIV activation. We found that TRAIL protein was stocked in intracellular compartment in non activated CD4(+) T cells and that the total level of TRAIL protein was not increased under HIV-1 stimulation. However, TRAIL was massively relocalized on plasma membrane when cells were cultured with HIV. Using three dimensional (3D) microscopy we localized TRAIL protein in human T cells and developed a new method to visualize plasma membrane without the need of a membrane marker. This method used the 3D interactive surface plot and bright light acquired images.

  16. TRAIL protein localization in human primary T cells by 3D microscopy using 3D interactive surface plot: a new method to visualize plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Christophe; Smith, Nikaïa; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Gandini, Mariana; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-31

    The apoptotic ligand TNF-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL) is expressed on the membrane of immune cells during HIV infection. The intracellular stockade of TRAIL in human primary CD4(+) T cells is not known. Here we investigated whether primary CD4(+) T cells expressed TRAIL in their intracellular compartment and whether TRAIL is relocalized on the plasma membrane under HIV activation. We found that TRAIL protein was stocked in intracellular compartment in non activated CD4(+) T cells and that the total level of TRAIL protein was not increased under HIV-1 stimulation. However, TRAIL was massively relocalized on plasma membrane when cells were cultured with HIV. Using three dimensional (3D) microscopy we localized TRAIL protein in human T cells and developed a new method to visualize plasma membrane without the need of a membrane marker. This method used the 3D interactive surface plot and bright light acquired images. PMID:23085529

  17. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression. PMID:27598154

  18. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression. PMID:27598154

  19. DAGESTAN HAWTHORN - A VALUABLE SOURCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omarieva L. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with hawthorn Dagestan. It is noted that the more than 100 species are found 14 species in Dagestan. The most common of them are studied as a source of biologically active substances and nutrients, and they can be used as food additives for various purposes. The content of biologically active substances and nutrients are defined. The high content of phenolic substances in C. pentagyna Waldst. et Kit, which play an important role in the formation of immunity and possessing P-vitamin activity is defined. Amino acid and fatty acid composition of the fruit of the hawthorn Crataegus pentagyna Waldst. et Kit, as the most valuable for using as food additives is defined by ionexchange and gas-liquid chromatography. Sixteen amino acids were identified and quantified in the protein component of hawthorn fruit. The high content of essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine, valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine. The amount of essential amino acids is 296.1 mg / 100 g. Chromatographic separation of fatty acid methyl esters has enabled us to establish the presence of the following fatty acids: palmitic, oleic, stearic, linoleic and linolenic, including established the presence of essential fatty acids - the family of alpha-linolenic acid OMEGA -3 and linoleic acid family of OMEGA -6

  20. Synthesis and biological activities of turkesterone 11?-acyl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Dinan

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkesterone is a phytoecdysteroid possessing an 11alpha-hydroxyl group. It is an analogue of the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Previous ecdysteroid QSAR and molecular modelling studies predicted that the cavity of the ligand-binding domain of the ecdysteroid receptor would possess space in the vicinity of C-11/C-12 of the ecdysteroid. We report the regioselective synthesis of a series of turkesterone 11alpha-acyl derivatives in order to explore this possibility. The structures of the analogues have been unambiguously determined by spectroscopic means (NMR and low-resolution mass spectrometry. Purity was verified by HPLC. Biological activities have been determined in Drosophila melanogaster BII cell-based bioassay for ecdysteroid agonists and in an in vitro radioligand-displacement assay using bacterially expressed D. melanogaster EcR/USP receptor proteins. The 11alpha-acyl derivatives do retain a significant amount of biological activity relative to the parent ecdysteroid. Further, although activity initially drops with the extension of the acyl chain length (C2 to C4, it then increases (C6 to C10, before decreasing again (C14 and C20. The implications of these findings for the interaction of ecdysteroids with the ecdysteroid receptor and potential applications in the generation of affinity-labelled and fluorescently-tagged ecdysteroids are discussed.

  1. INFLUENCE OF XENOBIOTICS ON THE BIOLOGICAL SOIL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S JAVOREKOVÁ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The both basic and potential biological soil activity along with a biological degradation capacity of soil microorganisms through their respiratory activity were investigated after the application of polymers with the different degree of degradation in the soil. The CO2 production was measured by the absorption method at standard moisture and temperature under laboratory conditions. Numerous representing changes of major soil microbial groups were determined after the application of the polyethylene. Polyethylene (PE, polyvinylalcohol (PVA, polyvinylalcohol modified by hydrolysed collagen (PVAHC were applied as synthetic polymers into luvisol. The addition of all tested polymers significantly influenced the CO2 production. During 43 days of incubation period, the total amount of produced CO2 was 1271.6 mg.kg-1. The total amount of mineralised carbon in the soil reached 4.55 %. When compared with the soil, the respiratory activity of soil microorganisms increased 3-times, 1.2-times and 1.3-times after addition of starch, PVA and PVAHC, respectively. The addition of granular PE reduced the soil pores size, which resulted in a significant decrease of CO2 production and non-significant rearrangement of the major microbial groups in the soil after three month of incubation.

  2. Activation Analysis of Biological Samples of Forensic Interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In forensic (crime investigation) studies, samples of a biological origin are frequently used as evidence. Often it is necessary to compare one sample (associated with a victim or the scene of a crime) with another sample of the same general type (associated with a suspect in some way). The purpose of such comparisons is to establish, if possible, that - to a high degree of probability - the two samples have a common origin. Typically, all available relevant methods of comparison are utilized in such cases by the criminalist: microscopic examination; X-ray diffraction; infra-red, visible, and ultra-violet spectrometry; and various methods of elemental analysis. The forensic applications of high-flux thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) have shown great promise and are attracting considerable attention. The authors' laboratory has been engaged in such forensic NAA research and development studies for the past five years. (It also operates a non-profit Forensic Activation Analysis Service, available to all law enforcement agencies, for the NAA comparison of evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases. Samples from many actual cases have been thus examined.) In the United States, NAA results have now been successfully presented in court in some 20 actual cases. Some of the evidence-type materials of interest are non-biological; others are biological. Only the latter will be discussed in this paper. The principal evidence-type materials of a biological nature that have been examined in this laboratory by high-flux thermal-NAA to date are the following: hair, blood, faeces, urine, fingernails, skin, wood, tobacco, whisky, green plants, and marijuana. (In addition, a number of these evidence-type materials have also been studied in this laboratory by high-flux photonuclear activation analysis (PNAA); attention in this paper will be largely devoted to the thermal-NAA forensic studies.) The main topics to be reported upon in this paper are: (1) limits of

  3. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with biologically active fluorescent molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murali Sankar; Subhadeep Saha; K Seeni Meera; Tushar Jana

    2009-10-01

    A biologically active molecule, 2-chloro-4,6-bis(dimethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (CBDT), has been covalently attached at the terminal carbon atoms of the hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) backbone. The modification of HTPB backbone by CBDT molecule does not affect the unique physico-chemical properties such as fluidity, hydroxyl value and microstructure of the parent HTPB. The formation of hydrogen bonding between the terminal hydroxyl groups and the nitrogen atoms of triazine moiety is the driving force for the terminal attachment chemistry. The functionalized HTPB (HTPB–CBDT) shows a strong fluorescence emission at 385 nm.

  4. Quercetin sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through JNK-mediated cFLIP turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Min Joo; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Son, Jaekyoung

    2016-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent that can selectively kill cancer cells. Nonetheless, many cancers are resistant to TRAIL, and the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL resistance in cancer, particularly pancreatic cancer, are still unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that quercetin, a flavonoid, induces apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Although quercetin alone had no significant cytotoxic effect, when combined with TRAIL, it promoted TRAIL-induced apoptosis that required mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. A BH3-only protein BID knockdown dramatically attenuated TRAIL/quercetin-induced apoptosis. The expression levels of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP) decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of quercetin, and overexpression of cFLIP was able to robustly rescue pancreatic cancer cells from TRAIL/quercetin-induced apoptosis. Additionally, quercetin activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in a dose-dependent manner, which in turn induced the proteasomal degradation of cFLIP, and JNK activation also sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus, our results suggest that quercetin induces TRAIL-induced apoptosis via JNK activation-mediated cFLIP turnover. PMID:27477310

  5. Nitrogen-Containing Apigenin Analogs: Preparation and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of nitrogen-containing apigenin analogs 4a–j was synthesized via Mannich reactions to develop anticancer, antibacterial, and antioxidant agents from plant-derived flavonoids. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and ESI-MS. The in vitro biological activities of the analogs were evaluated via assays of their antiproliferative, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities. The prepared apigenin analogs exhibited different antiproliferative activities against four human cancer cell lines, namely human cervical (HeLa, human hepatocellular liver (HepG2, human lung (A549, and human breast (MCF-7 cancer cells. Compound 4i showed the most favorable in vitro antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 40, 40, 223, and 166 μg/mL against HeLa, HepG2, A549, and MCF-7, respectively. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay also showed that 4i had the most potent antioxidant activity, with the smallest IC50 value (334.8 μg/mL. The antibacterial activities of the analogs were determined using a two-fold serial dilution technique against four pathogenic bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the prepared apigenin analogs exhibited more potent activities than the parent apigenin. Compounds 4h and 4j, in particular, exhibited the best inhibitory activities against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values of 3.91 and 1.95 μg/mL, respectively.

  6. The science of trail surveys: Recreation ecology provides new tools for managing wilderness trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Wimpey, Jeremy F.; Park, Logan O.

    2011-01-01

    Recreation ecology examines the effects of recreation on protected area ecosystems. One core focus of recreation ecology research is trail science, including the development of efficient protocols to assess and monitor the type and severity of resource impacts, analyses to improve knowledge of factors that influence trail conditions, and studies to assist land managers in improving trail design, maintenance, and visitor management. This article reviews alternative trail survey methodologies most useful for the management of wilderness and backcountry trail networks. Illustrations and implications from survey data for trail planning, design, and management are included.

  7. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  8. [Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perova, I B; Zhogova, A A; Poliakova, A V; Éller, K I; Ramenskaia, G V; Samylina, I A

    2014-01-01

    10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150-400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate-Smith method, varied from 20-25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80-430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg/100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0-80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1-75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130-400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6-94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (cherries was represented by fructose (2,2-3,8%) and glucose (2,5-7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5-932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits. PMID:25816631

  9. Biological activities of an extract from Cleome viscosa L. (Capparaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L A D; Vasques, E; Reid, W; Porter, R; Kraus, W

    2003-10-01

    Electron micrograph examination of the leaf and stem surfaces of Cleome viscosa L (Family Capparaceae) revealed the presence of secretory glandular trichomes with club-cylinder and cylinder morphologies. In the present study, the leaves and stems of C. viscosa were extracted with hexane and the extract was evaluated for the following biological activities: anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, contact insecticidal and nematicidal. The extract was found to be a potent anti-bacterial agent according to the thin layer chromatography autobiographic assay. Activity-directed isolation studies of the anti-bacterially active compounds led to a 14-member ring cembranoid diterpene being identified as one of the effective agents. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (microg/spot) of 5.0 microg/spot and 1.0 microg/spot were found for the diterpene on Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Gram-negative), respectively. The diterpene did not inhibit the growth of the fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. The extract demonstrated a pyrethroid type of contact insecticidal activity on adult Cylas formicarius elegantulus Summer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The extract also had high nematicidal activity with a percentage Abbott's value of 72.69 on the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood; however, the extract lost its potency upon subfractionation. PMID:14564407

  10. 放疗联合TRAIL治疗在肿瘤治疗中的应景前景%Prospect of Radiotherapy Combined with TRAIL for Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽梅; 欧阳学农; 余宗阳; 李捷

    2013-01-01

    肿瘤坏死因子相关诱导凋亡配体(TRAIL)是肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)家族的新成员,具有广谱、高效、安全的抗肿瘤作用.在临床前的体外实验及移植瘤中,其与放疗联合显示出协同抗肿瘤效应和良好的安全性,具有广阔的临床应用前景.文章就TRAIL的分子生物学特性、放疗与TRAIL联合模式及其优势作一综述.%Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a new member of TNF super family,with broad,efficient and safe antitumor activity. It has showed synergistic and safe antitumor effect while TRAIL combined with radiotherapy in the preclinical experiment in vitro and in vivo,with a wide prospect in clinic. The molecular biological characteristics of TRAIL,the combination mode of radiotherapy and the superiority were reviewed in this paper.

  11. Biological activity of soil contaminated with cobalt, tin, and molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-07-01

    In this age of intensive industrialization and urbanization, mankind's highest concern should be to analyze the effect of all metals accumulating in the environment, both those considered toxic and trace elements. With this aim in mind, a unique study was conducted to determine the potentially negative impact of Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) in optimal and increased doses on soil biological properties. These metals were applied in the form of aqueous solutions of Sn(2+) (SnCl2 (.)2H2O), Co(2+) (CoCl2 · 6H2O), and Mo(5+) (MoCl5), each in the doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1) soil DM. The activity of dehydrogenases, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and catalase and the counts of twelve microorganism groups were determined on the 25th and 50th day of experiment duration. Moreover, to present the studied problem comprehensively, changes in the biochemical activity and yield of spring barley were shown using soil and plant resistance indices-RS. The study shows that Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) disturb the state of soil homeostasis. Co(2+) and Mo(5+) proved the greatest soil biological activity inhibitors. The residence of these metals in soil, particularly Co(2+), also generated a drastic decrease in the value of spring barley resistance. Only Sn(2+) did not disrupt its yielding. The studied enzymes can be arranged as follows for their sensitivity to Sn(2+), Co(2+), Mo(5+): Deh > Ure > Aryl > Pal > Pac > Cat. Dehydrogenases and urease may be reliable soil health indicators. PMID:27277093

  12. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26887328

  13. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g). PMID:27529211

  14. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  15. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panth, Nisha; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientific attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profile, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of the J. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identification of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as well as screening various solvent extracts or fractions of J. regia in several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientific investigations of J. regia.

  16. Biological and Nonbiological Antioxidant Activity of Some Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2016-06-15

    Fifteen essential oils, four essential oil fractions, and three pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol), characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were investigated for biological and nonbiological antioxidant activity. Clove oil and eugenol showed strong DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 13.2 μg/mL and 11.7 μg/mL, respectively) and powerfully inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils stimulated by PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) (IC50 = 7.5 μg/mL and 1.6 μg/mL) or H2O2 (IC50 = 22.6 μg/mL and 27.1 μg/mL). Nutmeg, ginger, and palmarosa oils were also highly active on this test. Essential oils from clove and ginger, as well as eugenol, carvacrol, and bornyl acetate inhibited NO (nitric oxide) production (IC50 oils of clove, red thyme, and Spanish oregano, together with eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol showed the highest myeloperoxidase inhibitory activity. Isomers carvacrol and thymol displayed a disparate behavior in some tests. All in all, clove oil and eugenol offered the best antioxidant profile. PMID:27214068

  17. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panth, Nisha; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientific attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profile, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of the J. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identification of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as well as screening various solvent extracts or fractions of J. regia in several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientific investigations of J. regia. PMID:27641607

  18. Essential oil components and biological activities of Coleus parvifolius leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinya Tewtrakul

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil distilled from the leaves of Coleus parvifolius Benth. (Labiatae was studied by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main components were found to be (E-phytol (42.77%, followed by eicosatrienoate (16.39%, n-tetradecanoic acid (14.42%, octoil (6.54%, 2-methyl-7- octadecyne (5.97%, nonadecane (3.25%, germacrene-D (2.19% and α-humulene (1.42%, respectively. Regarding biological activities, the ethanolic extract of C. parvifolius showed potent antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus with inhibition zones of 7-11 mm at a concentration of 10 mg/disc and moderate activity against gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, S. enteritidis and Escherichia coli with inhibition zones of 9-11 mm at 100 mg/disc, whereas it was inactive against fungus, Candida albicans at a concentration of 100 mg/disc. The extract also exhibited strong antioxidant activity (ED50 = 5.87±0.03 μg/ml three times higher than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ED50 = 18.08±0.43 μg/ml. Moreover, it was non-toxic to brine shrimp with LC50 value > 1,000 μg/ml.

  19. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  20. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  1. Advances in Viral Vector-Based TRAIL Gene Therapy for Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous biologic approaches are being investigated as anti-cancer therapies in an attempt to induce tumor regression while circumventing the toxic side effects associated with standard chemo- or radiotherapies. Among these, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has shown particular promise in pre-clinical and early clinical trials, due to its preferential ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells and its minimal toxicity. One limitation of TRAIL use is the fact that many tumor types display an inherent resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. To circumvent this problem, researchers have explored a number of strategies to optimize TRAIL delivery and to improve its efficacy via co-administration with other anti-cancer agents. In this review, we will focus on TRAIL-based gene therapy approaches for the treatment of malignancies. We will discuss the main viral vectors that are being used for TRAIL gene therapy and the strategies that are currently being attempted to improve the efficacy of TRAIL as an anti-cancer therapeutic

  2. Diastereoselective Synthesis of Biologically Active Cyclopenta[b]indoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marilia S; Fernandes, Daniara C; Rodrigues, Manoel T; Regiani, Thais; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; de Carvalho, João E; Eberlin, Marcos N; Coelho, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    The cyclopenta[b]indole motif is present in several natural and synthetic biologically active compounds, being directly responsible for the biological effects some of them present. We described herein a three step sequence for the synthesis of cyclopenta[b]indoles with a great structural diversity. The method is based on an oxidative Michael addition of suitable indoles on the double bond of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts mediated by a hypervalent iodine reagent (IBX) to form β-ketoesters, which were chemoselectively reduced with NaBH4 in THF to give the corresponding β-hydroxy-esters. The diastereoisomeric mixture was then treated with a catalytic amount of triflic acid (20 mol %) to give cyclopenta[b]indoles with overall yields ranging from 8 to 73% (for 2 steps). The acid-catalyzed cyclization step gave the required heterocycles, via an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction, with high diastereoselectivity, where only the trans product was observed. A mechanistic study monitored by ESI-(+)-MS was also conducted to collect evidence about the mechanism of this reaction. The new molecules herein synthesized were also evaluated against a panel of human cancer cells demonstrating a promising antitumoral profile. PMID:27403650

  3. Biological surface-active compounds from marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Nga Phuong; Landfald, Bjarne; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2016-01-01

    Surface-active compounds (SACs) are widely used in different industries as well as in many daily consumption products. However, with the increasing concern for their environmental acceptability, attention has turned towards biological SACs which are biodegradable, less toxic and more environmentally friendly. In this work, 176 marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial isolates from petroleum-contaminated sites along the Norwegian coastline were isolated and screened for their capacity to produce biological SACs. Among them, 18 isolates were capable of reducing the surface tension of the culture medium by at least 20 mN m(-1) and/or capable of maintaining more than 40% of the emulsion volume after 24 h when growing on glucose or kerosene as carbon and energy source. These isolates were members of the genera Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Rhodococcus, Catenovulum, Cobetia, Glaciecola, Serratia, Marinomonas and Psychromonas. Two isolates, Rhodococcus sp. LF-13 and Rhodococcus sp. LF-22, reduced surface tension of culture medium by more than 40 mN m(-1) when growing on kerosene, n-hexadecane or rapeseed oil. The biosurfactants were produced by resting cells of the two Rhodococcus strains suggesting the biosynthesis of the biosurfactants was not necessarily associated with their growth on hydrocarbons. PMID:26506920

  4. The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_trail)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 4 arcs representing The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The Rim Trail was collected by a Trimble...

  5. Trails, Other, Trails, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Other dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Trails'....

  6. Trails at LANL - Public Meeting and Forum - July 26, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pava, Daniel Seth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-26

    These are the slides of a meeting about trails at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The meeting goals are the folllowing: to inform and educate citizens about LANL trails management issues that include resource protection, safety, security and trails etiquette; to explain how and why LANL trails can be closed and reopened; and to understand your concerns and ideas about LANL trails use.

  7. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable...

  8. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites. PMID:26443032

  9. Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmine A.B.S. Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Simaroubaceae family includes 32 genera and more than 170 species of trees and brushes of pantropical distribution. The main distribution hot spots are located at tropical areas of America, extending to Africa, Madagascar and regions of Australia bathed by the Pacific. This family is characterized by the presence of quassinoids, secondary metabolites responsible of a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticide, feeding deterrent, amebicide, antiparasitic and herbicidal. Although the chemical and pharmacological potential of Simaroubaceae family as well as its participation in official compendia; such as British, German, French and Brazilian pharmacopoeias, and patent registration, many of its species have not been studied yet. In order to direct further investigation to approach detailed botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the Simaroubaceae, the present work reviews the information regarding the main genera of the family up to 2013.

  10. Efficient expression and purification of biologically active human cystatin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2016-02-01

    Cystatins are reversible cysteine protease inhibitor proteins. They are known to play important roles in controlling cathepsins, neurodegenerative disease, and in immune system regulation. Production of recombinant cystatin proteins is important for biochemical and function characterization. In this study, we cloned and expressed human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C in Escherichia coli. Human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C were purified from soluble fraction. For cystatin C, we used various chaperone plasmids to make cystatin C soluble, as it is reported to localize in inclusion bodies. Trigger factor, GroES-GroEL, DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperones lead to the presence of cystatin C in the soluble fraction. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography, glutathione sepharose and anion exchange chromatography techniques were employed for efficient purification of these proteins. Their biological activities were tested by inhibition assays against cathepsin L and H3 protease.

  11. Nonoxidized, biologically active parathyroid hormone determines mortality in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Armbruster, Franz Paul; Grön, Hans Jürgen;

    2013-01-01

    Background: It was shown that nonoxidized PTH (n-oxPTH) is bioactive, whereas the oxidation of PTH results in a loss of biological activity. Methods: In this study we analyzed the association of n-oxPTH on mortality in hemodialysis patients using a recently developed assay system. Results......: Hemodialysis patients (224 men, 116 women) had a median age of 66 years. One hundred seventy patients (50%) died during the follow-up period of 5 years. Median n-oxPTH levels were higher in survivors (7.2 ng/L) compared with deceased patients (5.0 ng/L; P = .002). Survival analysis showed an increased survival....... Conclusions: The predictive power of n-oxPTH and iPTH on the mortality of hemodialysis patients differs substantially. Measurements of n-oxPTH may reflect the hormone status more precisely. The iPTH-associated mortality is most likely describing oxidative stress-related mortality....

  12. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed. PMID:27357404

  13. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated. PMID:22165149

  14. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides and induced biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi Keizo; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Relationship between irradiation effect of polysaccharides and induced biological activity for plants has been investigated. Sodium alginate was irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). Measurement of molecular weight and analysis of UV spectra of irradiated sodium alginate have been carried out. The molecular weight was decreased by irradiation in both conditions. New absorbance peak derived from double bond or/and carbonyl group was appeared at close to 267 nm by irradiation in UV spectra. It was found that alginate having molecular weight about 10,000 is most suitable to used as growth promoter in plants. To obtain the molecular weight of 10,000 by irradiation, the necessary doses are 100 kGy in liquid state and 500 kGy in solid state, respectively. (author)

  15. Infrared Spectra and Hydrogen Bonds of Biologically Active Benzaldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Belkov, M. V.; Shimko, A. N.; Shadyro, O. I.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.

    2013-09-01

    IR-Fourier spectra of solutions and crystals of biologically active benzaldehyde derivatives were studied. Specific features of the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds were analyzed. Spectral signatures that characterized participation of the hydroxyl OH group and also the OCH3 and C=O groups in the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the three different types O-H···O-H, O-H···O-CH3, and O-H···O=C were revealed. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the types O-H···O-H and O-H···O-CH3 were absent for benzaldehyde derivatives in the crystal phase. Only hydroxyl and carbonyl groups participated in intermolecular interactions. This resulted in the formation of linear intermolecular dimers. Seven various configurations of the linear dimers were identified in solutions and crystals.

  16. Paclitaxel sensitizes gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) holds promise for cancer therapy as it has unique capacity to selectively trigger apoptosis in cancer cells. We reported here that paclitaxel sensitized gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.Methods: After drug exposure, apoptosis rate and caspase activation were examined. Various proteins were detected by western blot. Several interventions, including pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA transfection were used. hTe growth inhibition of tumors was evaluated in SGC-7901-implanted nude mice model.Results:We found gastric cancer cellsshowed a mixed response to TRAIL. Combined treatment with paclitaxel markedly enhanced TARIL-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanisms involved in synergistical activation of caspase proteins, up-regulation of receptors, down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins and inactivation of MAPKs.Conclusion:TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis can be synergistically enhanced by paclitaxel, suggesting the therapeutic potential of combining TARIL plus paclitaxel in gastric cancer treatment.

  17. Deterring off-trail hiking in protected natural areas: Evaluating options with surveys and unobtrusive observation: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, K.A.; Clark, Y.F.; Leung, J.L.; ,; Park, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of research conducted on the 96-acre Bear Island along the Billy Goat Trail, Section A (BGT) that evaluated visitor motivations for off-trail hiking and the efficacy of four treatments designed to reduce this activity. This research was prompted by concerns about the impact of an extensive informal (visitor-created) trail network on Bear Island, because it provides habitat for more than 50 species of rare, threatened or endangered plant and animal species.

  18. Immobilization biological activated carbon used in advanced drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria separated from a mature filter bed of groundwater treatment plants were incubated in a culture media containing iron and manganese. A consortium of 5 strains of bacteria removing iron and manganese were obtained by repeated enrichment culturing. It was shown from the experiments of effect factors that ironmanganese removal bacteria in the culture media containing both Fe and Mn grew better than in that containing only Fe, however, they were unable to grow in the culture media containing only Mn. When comparing the bacteria biomass in the case ofρ (DO) =2.8 mg/L andρ (DO) =9.0 mg/L, no significant difference was found.The engineering bacteria removing the organic and the bacteria removing iron and manganese were simultaneously inoculated into activated carbon reactor to treat the effluent of distribution network. The experimental results showed that by using IBAC ( Immobilization Biological Activated Carbon) treatment, the removal efficiency of iron, manganese and permanganate index was more than 98% , 96% and 55% , respectively. After the influent with turbidity of 1.5 NTU, color of 25 degree and offensive odor was treated, the turbidity and color of effluence were less than 0.5 NTU and 15 degree, respectively, and it was odorless. It is determined that the cooperation function of engineering bacteria and activated carbon achieved advanced drinking water treatment.

  19. Optimization of hypocrellin B derivative amphiphilicity and biological activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; XIE Jie; ZHANG LuYong; CHEN HongXia; GU Ying; ZHAO JingQuan

    2009-01-01

    To satisfy the dual requirements of the fluent transportation in blood and the affinity to the target tissues of vascular diseases, hypocrellin derivatives with optimized amphiphilicity are expected. In this work, 3-amino-1-propanesulfonic acid and 4-amino-1-butanesulfonic acid substituted hypocrellin B,named compounds 1 and 2, were designed, synthesized in high yields and characterized. Besides greatly strengthened red absorption, the maximum solubility of compound 2 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is 4.2 mg/mL which is just enough to prepare an aqueous solution for intravenous injection in clinically acceptable concentration, while the partition coefficient between n-octanol and PBS,5.6, benefits the cell-uptake and biological activity as well. Furthermore, EPR measurements reveal that the photosensitization activities of the two compounds to generate semiquinone anion radicals, superoxide anion radicals and singlet oxygen are a little bit higher than those of taurine substituted hypocrellin B (THB), but the photodynamic activities to human lung cancer A549 cells are several times that of THB, mainly due to increases in lipophilicity and cell-uptake.

  20. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  1. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  2. The long-term fertilization effect on biological activity of different genesis soils

    OpenAIRE

    Grigaliūnienė, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    The effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on biological activity of different genesis soils in long-term crop rotation trials was determined. Biological activity was diverse in the soils of different genesis and it activity correlated with some soil chemical properties. Organic and mineral fertilizers and their combinations more increased biological activity in the soil than only mineral fertilizers. Mineral fertilizers suppressed dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity (180 kg ha...

  3. Cytotoxicity of CD56(bright NK cells towards autologous activated CD4+ T cells is mediated through NKG2D, LFA-1 and TRAIL and dampened via CD94/NKG2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasja Nielsen

    Full Text Available In mouse models of chronic inflammatory diseases, Natural Killer (NK cells can play an immunoregulatory role by eliminating chronically activated leukocytes. Indirect evidence suggests that NK cells may also be immunoregulatory in humans. Two subsets of human NK cells can be phenotypically distinguished as CD16(+CD56(dim and CD16(dim/-CD56(bright. An expansion in the CD56(bright NK cell subset has been associated with clinical responses to therapy in various autoimmune diseases, suggesting an immunoregulatory role for this subset in vivo. Here we compared the regulation of activated human CD4(+ T cells by CD56(dim and CD56(bright autologous NK cells in vitro. Both subsets efficiently killed activated, but not resting, CD4(+ T cells. The activating receptor NKG2D, as well as the integrin LFA-1 and the TRAIL pathway, played important roles in this process. Degranulation by NK cells towards activated CD4(+ T cells was enhanced by IL-2, IL-15, IL-12+IL-18 and IFN-α. Interestingly, IL-7 and IL-21 stimulated degranulation by CD56(bright NK cells but not by CD56(dim NK cells. NK cell killing of activated CD4(+ T cells was suppressed by HLA-E on CD4(+ T cells, as blocking the interaction between HLA-E and the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A NK cell receptor enhanced NK cell degranulation. This study provides new insight into CD56(dim and CD56(bright NK cell-mediated elimination of activated autologous CD4(+ T cells, which potentially may provide an opportunity for therapeutic treatment of chronic inflammation.

  4. Cytotoxicity of CD56(bright) NK cells towards autologous activated CD4+ T cells is mediated through NKG2D, LFA-1 and TRAIL and dampened via CD94/NKG2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Natasja; Ødum, Niels; Ursø, Birgitte; Lanier, Lewis L; Spee, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    In mouse models of chronic inflammatory diseases, Natural Killer (NK) cells can play an immunoregulatory role by eliminating chronically activated leukocytes. Indirect evidence suggests that NK cells may also be immunoregulatory in humans. Two subsets of human NK cells can be phenotypically distinguished as CD16(+)CD56(dim) and CD16(dim/-)CD56(bright). An expansion in the CD56(bright) NK cell subset has been associated with clinical responses to therapy in various autoimmune diseases, suggesting an immunoregulatory role for this subset in vivo. Here we compared the regulation of activated human CD4(+) T cells by CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) autologous NK cells in vitro. Both subsets efficiently killed activated, but not resting, CD4(+) T cells. The activating receptor NKG2D, as well as the integrin LFA-1 and the TRAIL pathway, played important roles in this process. Degranulation by NK cells towards activated CD4(+) T cells was enhanced by IL-2, IL-15, IL-12+IL-18 and IFN-α. Interestingly, IL-7 and IL-21 stimulated degranulation by CD56(bright) NK cells but not by CD56(dim) NK cells. NK cell killing of activated CD4(+) T cells was suppressed by HLA-E on CD4(+) T cells, as blocking the interaction between HLA-E and the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A NK cell receptor enhanced NK cell degranulation. This study provides new insight into CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) NK cell-mediated elimination of activated autologous CD4(+) T cells, which potentially may provide an opportunity for therapeutic treatment of chronic inflammation. PMID:22384114

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  6. Biological activity of terpene compounds produced by biotechnological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Roman; Trytek, Mariusz; Król, Sylwia K; Kud, Joanna; Frant, Maciej; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Fiedurek, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Context Biotransformation systems are profitable tools for structural modification of bioactive natural compounds into valuable biologically active terpenoids. Objective This study determines the biological effect of (R)-(+)-limonene and (-)-α-pinene, and their oxygenated derivatives, (a) perillyl alcohol and (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-carvone enantiomers and (b) linalool, trans-verbenol and verbenone, respectively, on human colon tumour cells and normal colonic epithelium. Materials and methods Biotransformation procedures and in vitro cell culture tests were used in this work. Cells were incubated for 24 h with terpenes at concentrations of 5-500 μg/mL for NR, MTT, DPPH, and NO assays. IL-6 was determined by ELISA with/without 2 h pre-activation with 10 μg/mL LPS. Results trans-Verbenol and perillyl alcohol, obtained via biotransformation, produced in vitro effect against tumour cells at lower concentrations (IC50 value = 77.8 and 98.8 μg/mL, respectively) than their monoterpene precursors, (R)-(+)-limonene (IC50 value = 171.4 μg/mL) and (-)-α-pinene (IC50 value = 206.3 μg/mL). They also showed lower cytotoxicity against normal cells (IC50 > 500 and > 200 μg/mL, respectively). (S)-(+)-Carvone was 59.4% and 27.1% more toxic to tumour and normal cells, respectively, than the (R)-(-)-enantiomer. (R)-(+)-limonene derivatives decreased IL-6 production from normal cells in media with or without LPS (30.2% and 13.9%, respectively), while (-)-α-pinene derivatives induced IL-6 (verbenone had the strongest effect, 60.2% and 29.1% above control, respectively). None of the terpenes had antioxidative activity below 500 μg/mL. Discussion and conclusions Bioactivity against tumour cells decreased in the following order: alcohols > ketones > hydrocarbons. (R)-(+)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, and their derivatives expressed diverse activity towards normal and tumour cells with noticeable enantiomeric differences. PMID:26808720

  7. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE AGENTS ON A STRUCTURAL STATE AND THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF BLACK ORDINARY CARBONATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lychman V. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-term research of the influence of various biologically active agents (a humic preparation Lignogumat and microbiological Baikal EM fertilizer on a structural state and the enzymatic activity of ordinary carbonated black soil are presented. It has been established that biologically active substances contribute to increased enzymatic activity, humus and improve the soil structure

  8. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

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    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  9. Spatially Characterizing Visitor Use and Its Association with Informal Trails in Yosemite Valley Meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2013-07-01

    Ecological impacts associated with nature-based recreation and tourism can compromise park and protected area goals if left unrestricted. Protected area agencies are increasingly incorporating indicator-based management frameworks into their management plans to address visitor impacts. Development of indicators requires empirical evaluation of indicator measures and examining their ecological and social relevance. This study addresses the development of the informal trail indicator in Yosemite National Park by spatially characterizing visitor use in open landscapes and integrating use patterns with informal trail condition data to examine their spatial association. Informal trail and visitor use data were collected concurrently during July and August of 2011 in three, high-use meadows of Yosemite Valley. Visitor use was clustered at statistically significant levels in all three study meadows. Spatial data integration found no statistically significant differences between use patterns and trail condition class. However, statistically significant differences were found between the distance visitors were observed from informal trails and visitor activity type with active activities occurring closer to trail corridors. Gender was also found to be significant with male visitors observed further from trail corridors. Results highlight the utility of integrated spatial analysis in supporting indicator-based monitoring and informing management of open landscapes. Additional variables for future analysis and methodological improvements are discussed.

  10. The emphysematous lung is abnormally sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis

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    Milot Julie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar apoptosis is increased in the emphysematous lung. However, mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that levels of TRAIL receptor 1 and 2, levels of p53, and Bax/Bcl-xL ratio were elevated in the lung of subjects with emphysema, despite smoking cessation. Thus, we postulate that due to chronic pulmonary oxidative stress, the emphysematous lung would be abnormally sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Methodology A549 cells were exposed to rTRAIL, cigarette smoke extract, and/or H2O2 prior to caspase-3 activity measurement and annexin V staining assessment. In addition, freshly resected lung samples were obtained from non-emphysematous and emphysematous subjects and exposed ex vivo to rTRAIL for up to 18 hours. Lung samples were harvested and levels of active caspase-3 and caspase-8 were measured from tissue lysates. Results Both cigarette smoke extract and H2O2 were able to sensitize A549 cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, following exposure to rTRAIL, caspase-3 and -8 were activated in lung explants from emphysematous subjects while being decreased in lung explants from non-emphysematous subjects. Significance of the study Alveolar sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis is strongly increased in the emphysematous lung due to the presence of oxidative stress. This might be a new mechanism leading to increased alveolar apoptosis and persistent alveolar destruction following smoking cessation.

  11. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden Ralph [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Yuan, Zongwei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Organotin (IV Methylcyclohexyldithiocarbamate Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Awang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growing interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands are due to their encouraging anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as their widespread industrial application. Dithiocarbamates belong to this class and much attention has been paid to them. Approach: Novel organotin compounds with the molecular formula RmSn[S2CN(CH3(C6H11]4-m (where m = 2, R = CH3, C2H5; m = 3, R = C6H5 have been synthesized using in situ method. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Results: Elemental analysis revealed that all compounds were of good purity. Infrared spectra of the compounds showed that the thioureide ν(C-N band was in the region 1450-1500 cm−1. The unsplitting band of ν(C-S in the region 974-979 cm−1 indicated the bidentate nature of the chelated dithiocarbamato legends. The 13C NMR chemical shift of the carbon atom in the N-CS2 group appeared in the range of 196.29-199.82 ppm. Single crystal analysis from one of these compounds showed that the chelating mode of the dithiocarbamate groups was isobidentate. These compounds have been screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Only one of these compounds shows promising results against S. aureus and S. typhi. Cytotoxicity screening on human leukemic promyelocyte HL-60 cells found that two of these compounds were very active with CD50 values of 0.87 and 0.18 µg mL−1. Conclusion: The studied compounds were found to have the potential in biological activity especially in cytotoxicity where this possibly can be used for clinical trials after further research.

  14. Roscovitine sensitizes breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through a pleiotropic mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Ferrón; Rosario Yerbes; Adriana Eramo; Ana I López-Pérez; Ruggero De Maria; Abelardo López-Rivas

    2008-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/APO2L) is a member of the TNF gene superfamily that induces apoptosis upon engagement of cognate death receptors.While TRAIL is relatively non-toxic to normal cells,it selectively induces apoptosis in many transformed cells.Nevertheless,breast tumor cells are particularly resistant to the effects of TRAIL.Here we report that,in combination with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine,exposure to TRAIL induced marked apoptosis in the majority of TRAIL-resistant breast cancer cell Iines examined.Roscovitine facilitated TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex formation and the activation of caspase-8.The cFLIPL and eFLIPs FLICE-inhibitory proteins were significantly down-regulated following exposure to roscovitine and,indeed,the knockdown of cFLIP isoforms by siRNA sensitized breast tumor cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.In addition,we demonstrate that roscovitine strongly suppressed Mcl-1 expression and up-regulated E2F1 protein levels in breast tumor cells.Significantly,the silencing of Mcl-1 by siRNA sensitized breast tumor cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.Furthermore,the knockdown of E2F1 protein by siRNA reduced the sensitizing effect of roscovitine in TRAIL-induced apoptosis.In summary,our results reveal a pleitropic mechanism for the pro-apoptotic influence of roscovitine,highlighting its potential as an antitumor agent in breast cancer in combination with TRAIL.

  15. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  16. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon. PMID:21929331

  17. Pomegranate Fruit as a Rich Source of Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Sreekumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate is a widely used plant having medicinal properties. In this review, we have mainly focused on the already published data from our laboratory pertaining to the effect of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME and have compared it with other relevant literatures on Punica. Earlier, we had shown its antiproliferative effect using human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231, and endometrial (HEC-1A, cervical (SiHa, HeLa, and ovarian (SKOV3 cancer cell lines, and normal breast fibroblasts (MCF-10A at concentration of 20–320 μg/mL. The expressions of selected estrogen responsive genes (PR, pS2, and C-Myc were downregulated by PME. Unlike estradiol, PME did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in bilaterally ovariectomized Swiss-Albino mice models and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. We had further assessed the protective role of PME on skeletal system, using MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicated that PME (80 μg/mL significantly increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase activity, supporting its suggested role in modulating osteoblastic cell differentiation. The antiosteoporotic potential of PME was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX rodent model. The results from our studies and from various other studies support the fact that pomegranate fruit is indeed a source of biologically active compounds.

  18. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  19. Hen's egg as a source of valuable biologically active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Herman, Marta; Starostecka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show current knowledge concerning valuable substances biologically active present in hen eggs and underline important nutritive role of hen eggs. Hen egg is a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins (A, B2, B6, B12, D, E, K), minerals and lipids. The significant part of lipids is a group of unsaturated phospholipids, which are components of cell membranes, act protectively on the cardiovascular system and contribute to a decrease of cholesterol level and blood pressure. Therefore, the consumption of unsaturated phospholipids is recommended especially in patients suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Another important substance is egg cystatin, which has a wide spectrum of biological functions, for example the ability to stimulate cell growth, inhibit inflammatory processes and has antibacterial and antiviral properties. Other substance presented in the egg white which helps fight bacteria is lysozyme. It is used in medicine as an aid in antibiotic therapy and analgesic in the course of infection, as well as in tumor malignancies. Among the components contained in the egg yolk there is also immunoglobulin Y which due to its therapeutic importance deserves special attention. Its use offers the possibility of replacing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of bacterial infections of digestive system, as well as an opportunity for the development of medicine associated with passive immunization of patients. The egg is a rich source of retinol which gradual depletion in the organism causes many eye pathologies. A very important and useful part of the egg, used in medicine is a shell and its membranes, due to the high collagen content relevant in the treatment of connective tissue diseases. PMID:27383572

  20. Riding a Trail of Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the comet Encke riding along its pebbly trail of debris (long diagonal line) between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. This material actually encircles the solar system, following the path of Encke's orbit. Twin jets of material can also be seen shooting away from the comet in the short, fan-shaped emission, spreading horizontally from the comet. Encke, which orbits the Sun every 3.3 years, is well traveled. Having exhausted its supply of fine particles, it now leaves a long trail of larger more gravel-like debris, about one millimeter in size or greater. Every October, Earth passes through Encke's wake, resulting in the well-known Taurid meteor shower. This image was captured by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer when Encke was 2.6 times farther away than Earth is from the Sun. It is the best yet mid-infrared view of the comet at this great distance. The data are helping astronomers understand how rotating comets eject particles as they circle the Sun.

  1. Syntheses and biological activities of 13-substituted avermectin aglycons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozik, H; Linn, B O; Eskola, P; Lusi, A; Matzuk, A; Preiser, F A; Ostlind, D A; Schaeffer, J M; Fisher, M H

    1989-02-01

    The reactions of sulfonate esters of the allylic/homoallylic 13-alcohol of 5-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a aglycon (1a) were investigated. Nucleophilic substitution gave 13 beta-chloro and 13 beta-iodo derivatives, while solvolytic reaction conditions yielded 13 alpha-methoxy, 13 alpha-fluoro, and 13 alpha-chloro products. A mixture of 13 alpha- and 13 beta-fluorides was obtained upon reaction with DAST. The 13 beta-iodide gave, upon elimination with lutidine, the 8(9),10(11),12(13),14(15)-tetraene. The 13 beta-alcohol and the rearranged 15-ol 13(14)-ene and 15-amino 13(14)-ene derivatives were obtained by substitution via the allylic carbonium ion. MEM ethers 11 and 12 of the two epimeric 13-ols were prepared by alkylation with MEM chloride. In contrast, methylation of 1a with MeI and Ag2O in CH2Cl2 occurred exclusively at the tertiary 7-hydroxy group and not at the secondary 13 alpha-ol. Oxidation of the allylic alcohol 1a proceeded under Swern conditions but not with MnO2 to the 13-oxo aglycon, which was reduced by NaBH4 exclusively to the natural 13 alpha-ol, while reductive amination with NaCNBH3-NH4OAc gave the 13 alpha-amine. The methoxime derivative was obtained in the form of the two geometric isomers. Anthelmintic activities against the sheep nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis, miticidal activities against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), and insecticidal activities against the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) as well as the binding constants to a free living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) derived receptor assay were obtained and compared to avermectin B1a, 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a, and the 13-deoxy-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1 aglycon related to the milbemycins. None of the newly prepared derivatives exceeded the potency of the three reference compounds. Lipophilic 13-substituents such as halogen, alkoxy, and methoxime retained high biological activities in all assays, while the more polar

  2. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  3. Actinobacteria from arid and desert habitats: diversity and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim eWink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability.At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria

  4. The probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii as a new adjuvant for TRAIL-based therapy in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Jouan-Lanhouet, Sandrine; Théret, Nathalie; Brenner, Catherine; Jouan, Elodie; Le Moigne-Muller, Gwénaëlle; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Jan, Gwénaël

    2016-02-01

    TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a well-known apoptosis inducer, which activates the extrinsic death pathway. TRAIL is pro-apoptotic on colon cancer cells, while not cytotoxic towards normal healthy cells. However, its clinical use is limited by cell resistance to cell death which occurs in approximately 50% of cancer cells. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) are also known to specifically induce apoptosis of cancer cells. In accordance, we have shown that food grade dairy propionibacteria induce intrinsic apoptosis of colon cancer cells, via the production and release of SCFA (propionate and acetate) acting on mitochondria. Here, we investigated possible synergistic effect between Propionibacterium freudenreichii and TRAIL. Indeed, we hypothesized that acting on both extrinsic and intrinsic death pathways may exert a synergistic pro-apoptotic effect. Whole transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that propionibacterial supernatant or propionibacterial metabolites (propionate and acetate), in combination with TRAIL, increased pro-apoptotic gene expression (TRAIL-R2/DR5) and decreased anti-apoptotic gene expression (FLIP, XIAP) in HT29 human colon cancer cells. The revealed synergistic pro-apoptotic effect, depending on both death receptors (TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL-R2/DR5) and caspases (caspase-8, -9 and -3) activation, was lethal on cancer cells but not on normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC), and was inhibited by Bcl-2 expression. Finally, milk fermented by P. freudenreichii induced HT29 cells apoptosis and enhanced TRAIL cytotoxic activity, as did P. freudenreichii DMEM culture supernatants or its SCFA metabolites. These results open new perspectives for food grade P. freudenreichii-containing products in order to potentiate TRAIL-based cancer therapy in colorectal cancer.

  5. NF-κB targeting by way of IKK inhibition sensitizes lung cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer causes the highest rate of cancer-related deaths both in men and women. As many current treatment modalities are inadequate in increasing patient survival, new therapeutic strategies are required. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells, prompting its current evaluation in a number of clinical trials. The successful therapeutic employment of TRAIL is restricted by the fact that many tumor cells are resistant to TRAIL. The goal of the present study was to test a novel combinatorial gene therapy modality involving adenoviral delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL) and IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA) to overcome TRAIL resistance in lung cancer cells. Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect optimum doses of adenovirus vectors to transduce lung cancer cells. Cell viability was assessed via a live/dead cell viability assay. Luciferase assays were employed to monitor cellular NF-κB activity. Apoptosis was confirmed using Annexin V binding. Neither Ad5hTRAIL nor AdIKKβKA infection alone induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells, but the combined use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA significantly increased the amount of A549 apoptosis. Luciferase assays demonstrated that both endogenous and TRAIL-induced NF-κB activity was down-regulated by AdIKKβKA expression. Combination treatment with Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA induced significant apoptosis of TRAIL-resistant A549 cells, suggesting that dual gene therapy strategy involving exogenous TRAIL gene expression with concurrent IKK inhibition may be a promising novel gene therapy modality to treat lung cancer

  6. NF-κB targeting by way of IKK inhibition sensitizes lung cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karacay Bahri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer causes the highest rate of cancer-related deaths both in men and women. As many current treatment modalities are inadequate in increasing patient survival, new therapeutic strategies are required. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells, prompting its current evaluation in a number of clinical trials. The successful therapeutic employment of TRAIL is restricted by the fact that many tumor cells are resistant to TRAIL. The goal of the present study was to test a novel combinatorial gene therapy modality involving adenoviral delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL and IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA to overcome TRAIL resistance in lung cancer cells. Methods Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect optimum doses of adenovirus vectors to transduce lung cancer cells. Cell viability was assessed via a live/dead cell viability assay. Luciferase assays were employed to monitor cellular NF-κB activity. Apoptosis was confirmed using Annexin V binding. Results Neither Ad5hTRAIL nor AdIKKβKA infection alone induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells, but the combined use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA significantly increased the amount of A549 apoptosis. Luciferase assays demonstrated that both endogenous and TRAIL-induced NF-κB activity was down-regulated by AdIKKβKA expression. Conclusions Combination treatment with Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA induced significant apoptosis of TRAIL-resistant A549 cells, suggesting that dual gene therapy strategy involving exogenous TRAIL gene expression with concurrent IKK inhibition may be a promising novel gene therapy modality to treat lung cancer.

  7. In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Algorithm Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this document is to provide a detailed description of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) algorithm, which is part of the Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness In-Trail Procedure (ATSA-ITP) application. To this end, the document presents a high level description of the ITP Algorithm and a prototype implementation of this algorithm in the programming language C.

  8. Bradford routes to peace heritage trail

    OpenAIRE

    Chalcraft, Ben; Hadwen, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Mini-guide book to support a trail around BD1, exploring the City’s peace and social reform heritage through the built environment; content to be researched and delivered by young people and then ‘passed on’ by them to others in the community who follow the trail.

  9. Results of activated sludge plants applying enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, A.; Pinto, M.; Neder, K.; Hoffmann, H.

    1989-02-01

    To stop the eutrophication in lakes and rivers, the input of nutrient and phosphorus compounds must be limited. The biological elimination of phosphorus describes a possibility, to reduce phosphorus in the biological stage of a treatment plant to a considerable extent. In this paper the process-system and the operation-results of a pilot plant and two municipal treatment plants are presented, where biological phosphorus reduction about 80% takes place without any constructional modifications.

  10. STUDIES OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY BY PATTERN RECOGNITION METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attempt to rationalize the connections between the molecular structures of organic compounds and their biological activities comprises the field of structure-activity relations (SAR) studies. Correlations between structure and activity are important for the understanding and ...

  11. Biological activity of harpin produced by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M; Majerczak, D R; Pike, S; Hoyos, M E; Novacky, A; Coplin, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt of sweet corn. A hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) secretion system is needed to produce water-soaking and wilting symptoms in corn and to cause a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. Sequencing of the hrp cluster revealed a putative harpin gene, hrpN. The product of this gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and shown to elicit the HR in tobacco and systemic resistance in radishes. The protein was designated HrpN(Pnss). Like other harpins, it was heat stable and protease sensitive, although it was three- to fourfold less active biologically than Erwinia amylovora harpin. We used antibodies to purified HrpN(Pnss) to verify that hrpN mutants could not produce harpin. This protein was secreted into the culture supernatant and was produced by strains of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes. In order to determine the importance of HrpN(Pnss) in pathogenesis on sweet corn, three hrpN::Tn5 mutants were compared with the wild-type strain with 50% effective dose, disease severity, response time, and growth rate in planta as parameters. In all tests, HrpN(Pnss) was not required for infection, growth, or virulence in corn or endophytic growth in related grasses. PMID:11605962

  12. Solar activity, magnetic storms and their effects on biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the present time much attention is spent on the electromagnetic waves, solar radiation and magnetic storms on biological systems, including on person. However, there are few publications describing the mechanism of these influences on human. First of all it is necessary to point out that electromagnetic waves, the flow of particles in space and magnetic storms, acting on person human-all is connected with biophysical processes. So approach to influence of these factors on organism follows the processes of influence of these waves on bio system. Magnetic storms are phenomena continuously connected with solar activity. Investigation of cosmic space has intensified the practical importance of the problem of interaction with natural factors of external ambience. Much attention deserves the cosmic radiation, geomagnetic field, elements of climate and weathers. However the mechanism of bio tropic action of these factors is not enough studied. Beginning XXI century was already signified the successes in investigation of Mars. The Space shuttles 'Spirit' and 'Opportunity' successfully have carried out some work on examining and finding of water on Mars. A flight of person to Mars is being considered. One of the important mechanisms of influence on human organism is, in our opinion, the rising of the resonance at coincidence of frequencies and their more important factor is a phenomena of electromagnetic induction and forming the radicals in the organism

  13. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  14. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond in Biologically Active o-Carbonyl Hydroquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Martínez-Cifuentes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IHBs play a central role in the molecular structure, chemical reactivity and interactions of biologically active molecules. Here, we study the IHBs of seven related o-carbonyl hydroquinones and one structurally-related aromatic lactone, some of which have shown anticancer and antioxidant activity. Experimental NMR data were correlated with theoretical calculations at the DFT and ab initio levels. Natural bond orbital (NBO and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP calculations were used to study the electronic characteristics of these IHB. As expected, our results show that NBO calculations are better than MEP to describe the strength of the IHBs. NBO energies (∆Eij(2 show that the main contributions to energy stabilization correspond to LPàσ* interactions for IHBs, O1…O2-H2 and the delocalization LPàπ* for O2-C2 = Cα(β. For the O1…O2-H2 interaction, the values of ∆Eij(2 can be attributed to the difference in the overlap ability between orbitals i and j (Fij, instead of the energy difference between them. The large energy for the LP O2àπ* C2 = Cα(β interaction in the compounds 9-Hydroxy-5-oxo-4,8, 8-trimethyl-l,9(8H-anthracenecarbolactone (VIII and 9,10-dihydroxy-4,4-dimethylanthracen-1(4H-one (VII (55.49 and 60.70 kcal/mol, respectively when compared with the remaining molecules (all less than 50 kcal/mol, suggests that the IHBs in VIII and VII are strongly resonance assisted.

  15. Trail impacts and trail impact management related to ecotourism visitation at Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America are largely dependent upon a relatively undisturbed quality of natural resources. However, visitation may impact vegetation, soil, water and wildlife resources, and degrade visitor facilities such as recreation sites and trails. Findings are reported from trail impact research conducted at Torres del Paine National Park in Patagonia, Chile. The frequency and magnitude of selected trail impacts and the relative effect of the amount of use, vegetation type, trail position and trail grade are investigated. Findings differed from previous studies in that amount of use was significantly related to both trail width increases and trail erosion. Management actions to minimize trail impacts are offered.

  16. Potential prognostic significance of decreased serum levels of TRAIL after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Secchiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since soluble TRAIL exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities both in vitro and in animal models, this study was designed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of TRAIL and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Levels of TRAIL were measured by ELISA in serial serum samples obtained from 60 patients admitted for AMI, both during hospitalization and in a follow-up of 12 months, as well as in 60 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of TRAIL were significantly decreased in patients with AMI at baseline (within 24 hours from admission, compared with healthy controls, and showed a significant inverse correlation with a series of negative prognostic markers, such as CK, CK-MB and BNP. TRAIL serum levels progressively increased at discharge, but normalized only at 6-12 months after AMI. Of note, low TRAIL levels at the patient discharge were associated with increased incidence of cardiac death and heart failure in the 12-month follow-up, even after adjustment for demographic and clinical risk parameters (hazard ratio [HR] of 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.97]; p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the number of patients studied was limited, our findings indicate for the first time that circulating TRAIL might represent an important predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of conventional risk markers.

  17. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL ARYL AND HETROARYL CHALCONE ANALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribhuvan Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new series of Heterocyclic chalcones showed diversified biological activities. In view of potential biological activities of Heterocyclic chalcones derivative were prepared by claisen-Schmidt condensation technique. The compound were screened for anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity.

  18. RNA interference-mediated hTERT inhibition enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru-Gang; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Yang, Liu-Qin; Yang, Shi-Ming; Wang, Rong-Quan; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Peng, Gui-Yong; Fang, Dian-Chun

    2010-04-01

    TRAIL has been reported to induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cell types including hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. However, considerable numbers of HCC cells, especially some highly malignant tumors, show resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms that regulate sensitivity versus resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis remain poorly defined. It has been shown that human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) is overexpressed in human HCCs. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanisms of hTERT RNAi on the TRAIL-induced apoptosis of HCC cells that exhibit resistance to TRAIL. Our results indicate that hTERT RNAi sensitizes TRAIL-resistant HCC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. hTERT RNAi-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is accompanied up-regulation of procaspases-8 and -9, inhibition of telomerase activity and loss of telomere length. Our results suggest that hTERT RNAi overcame the resistance of the HCC cells against TRAIL, at least in part, via the mitochondrial type II apoptosis pathway and telomerase-dependent pathway. PMID:20204286

  19. Microbial Survey of a Full-Scale, Biologically Active Filter for Treatment of Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    White, Colin P.; DeBry, Ronald W.; Lytle, Darren A.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial community of a full-scale, biologically active drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods.

  20. Efficient refolding of the bifunctional therapeutic fusion protein VAS-TRAIL by a triple agent solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiying; Wang, Zhanqing; Huang, Liying; Shen, Yaling

    2016-09-01

    VAS-TRAIL is a bifunctional fusion protein that combines anti-angiogenic activity with tumor-selective apoptotic activity for enhanced anti-tumor efficacy. VAS-TRAIL is expressed as inclusion body in Escherichia coli, but protein refolding is difficult to achieve and results in low yields of bioactive protein. In this study, we describe an efficient method for VAS-TRAIL refolding. The solubilization of aggregated VAS-TRAIL was achieved by a triple agent solution, which consists of an alkaline solution (pH 11.5) containing 0.4M l-arginine and 2M urea. The solubilized protein showed high purity and preserved secondary structure according to fluorescence properties. VAS-TRAIL refolding was performed through stepwise dialysis and resulted in more than 50% recovery of the soluble protein. The function of l-arginine was additive with alkaline pH, as shown by the significant improvement in refolding yield (≈30%) by l-arginine-containing solubilization solutions compared with alkaline solubilization solutions without l-arginine. The refolded VAS-TRAIL also showed β-sheet structures and the propensity for oligomerization. Bioassays showed that the refolded fusion protein exhibited the expected activities, including its apoptotic activities toward tumor and endothelial cells, which proposed its promising therapeutic potential. PMID:26358405

  1. Interleukin-15-activated natural killer cells kill autologous osteoclasts via LFA-1, DNAM-1 and TRAIL, and inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone erosion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shan; Madsen, Suzi H; Viller, Natasja N; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Geisler, Carsten; Karlsson, Lars; Söderström, Kalle

    2015-07-01

    Osteoclasts reside on bone and are the main bone resorbing cells playing an important role in bone homeostasis, while natural killer (NK) cells are bone-marrow-derived cells known to play a crucial role in immune defence against viral infections. Although mature NK cells traffic through bone marrow as well as to inflammatory sites associated with enhanced bone erosion, including the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, little is known about the impact NK cells may have on mature osteoclasts and bone erosion. We studied the interaction between human NK cells and autologous monocyte-derived osteoclasts from healthy donors in vitro. We show that osteoclasts express numerous ligands for receptors present on activated NK cells. Co-culture experiments revealed that interleukin-15-activated, but not resting, NK cells trigger osteoclast apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in drastically decreased bone erosion. Suppression of bone erosion requires contact between NK cells and osteoclasts, but soluble factors also play a minor role. Antibodies masking leucocyte function-associated antigen-1, DNAX accessory molecule-1 or tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand enhance osteoclast survival when co-cultured with activated NK cells and restore the capacity of osteoclasts to erode bone. These results suggest that interleukin-15-activated NK cells may directly affect bone erosion under physiological and pathological conditions.

  2. HPA-axis activity and externalizing behavior problems in early adolescents from the general population : the role of comorbidity and gender The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Rianne; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Contradictory findings on the relationship between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and externalizing behavior problems could be due to studies not accounting for issues of comorbidity and gender. In a population-based cohort of 1768 (10- to 12-year-old) early adolescents, we used

  3. HPA-axis activity and externalizing behavior problems in early adolescents from the general population: the role of comorbidity and gender The TRAILS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, R.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Rosmalen, J.G.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Contradictory findings on the relationship between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and externalizing behavior problems could be due to studies not accounting for issues of comorbidity and gender. In a population-based cohort of 1768 (10- to 12-year-old) early adolescents, we used

  4. Electrodermal screening of biologically active points for upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Jung; Hu, Wen-Long; Hung, I-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hung, Yu-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between the electrical resistance of the skin at biologically active points (BAPs) on the main meridians and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Electrical resistance to direct current at 20 BAPs on the fingers and toes of 100 patients with (38 men, 12 women; mean age [range], 58.20 ± 19.62 [18-83] years) and without (27 men, 23 women; 49.54 ± 12.12 [22-74] years) UGIB was measured through electrodermal screening (EDS), based on the theory of electroacupuncture according to Voll (EAV). Data were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and logistic regression. The initial readings were lower in the UGIB group, indicating blood and energy deficiency due to UGIB. Significant differences in indicator drop values were observed at nine BAPs (p < 0.05) on the bilateral small intestine, bilateral stomach, bilateral circulation, bilateral fibroid degeneration, and right lymph meridians. The area under the ROC curve values of the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians were larger than 0.5, suggesting the diagnostic accuracy of EDS for UGIB on the basis of the indicator drop of these BAPs. Logistic regression revealed that when the indicator drop of the BAP on the left stomach meridian increased by one score, the risk of UGIB increased by about 1.545-3.523 times. In conclusion, the change in the electrical resistance of the skin measured by EDS at the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians provides specific information on UGIB.

  5. Recreational trails as corridors for alien plants in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Floye H.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Alien plant species often use areas of heavy human activity for habitat and dispersal. Roads and utility corridors have been shown to harbor more alien species than the surrounding vegetation and are therefore believed to contribute to alien plant persistence and spread. Recreational trails represent another corridor that could harbor alien species and aid their spread. Effective management of invasive species requires understanding how alien plants are distributed at trailheads and trails and how their dispersal may be influenced by native vegetation. Our overall goal was to investigate the distribution of alien plants at trailheads and trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. At trailheads, we found that although the number of alien species was less than the number of native species, alien plant cover ( x̄=50%) did not differ from native plant cover, and we observed a large number of alien seedlings in the soil seed bank, suggesting that alien plants are a large component of trailhead communities and will continue to be so in the future. Along trails, we found higher alien species richness and cover on trail (as opposed to 4 m from the trail) in 3 out of 4 vegetation types, and we observed higher alien richness and cover in meadows than in other vegetation types. Plant communities at both trailheads and trails, as well as seed banks at trailheads, contain substantial diversity and abundance of alien plants. These results suggest that recreational trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado may function as corridors that facilitate the spread of alien species into wildlands. Our results suggest that control of alien plants should begin at trailheads where there are large numbers of aliens and that control efforts on trails should be prioritized by vegetation type.

  6. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Brandolini, P.; F. Faccini; Piccazzo, M.

    2006-01-01

    International audience The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are con...

  8. Measurement and Scaling of Trailing-Edge Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Herr, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    The presentation provides an overview on DLR’s research activity in trailing-edge (TE) noise source description. Current efforts aim at establish-ing the necessary data quality required for CAA validation. The specific challenges with regard to farfield TE noise measurements in open-jet wind-tunnels are pinpointed for the example of elliptic mirror measurements in the Acoustic Wind Tunnel Braunschweig (AWB) the results of which are compared to corresponding free-field microphone data. Th...

  9. Novel HTS strategy identifies TRAIL-sensitizing compounds acting specifically through the caspase-8 apoptotic axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Finlay

    Full Text Available Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL is potentially a very important therapeutic as it shows selectivity for inducing apoptosis in cancer cells whilst normal cells are refractory. TRAIL binding to its cognate receptors, Death Receptors-4 and -5, leads to recruitment of caspase-8 and classical activation of downstream effector caspases, leading to apoptosis. As with many drugs however, TRAIL's usefulness is limited by resistance, either innate or acquired. We describe here the development of a novel 384-well high-throughput screening (HTS strategy for identifying potential TRAIL-sensitizing agents that act solely in a caspase-8 dependent manner. By utilizing a TRAIL resistant cell line lacking caspase-8 (NB7 compared to the same cells reconstituted with the wild-type protein, or with a catalytically inactive point mutant of caspase-8, we are able to identify compounds that act specifically through the caspase-8 axis, rather than through general toxicity. In addition, false positive hits can easily be "weeded out" in this assay due to their activity in cells lacking caspase-8-inducible activity. Screening of the library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC was performed as both proof-of-concept and to discover potential unknown TRAIL sensitizers whose mechanism is caspase-8 mediated. We identified known TRAIL sensitizers from the library and identified new compounds that appear to sensitize specifically through caspase-8. In sum, we demonstrate proof-of-concept and discovery of novel compounds with a screening strategy optimized for the detection of caspase-8 pathway-specific TRAIL sensitizers. This screen was performed in the 384-well format, but could easily be further miniaturized, allows easy identification of artifactual false positives, and is highly scalable to accommodate diverse libraries.

  10. Expression of osteoprotegerin and its ligands, RANKL and TRAIL, in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Remuzgo-Martínez; Fernanda Genre; Raquel López-Mejías; Begoña Ubilla; Verónica Mijares; Trinitario Pina; Alfonso Corrales; Ricardo Blanco; Javier Martín; Javier Llorca; Miguel A. González-Gay

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-ΚB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) have been involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathophysiology. In this study, we assessed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these molecules by qPCR in peripheral blood from 26 patients with RA (12 of them with ischemic heart disease –IHD) and 10 healthy controls. Correlation coefficients between OPG, RANKL and TRAIL expression levels in RA patien...

  11. The probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii as a new adjuvant for TRAIL-based therapy in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cousin, Fabien J.; Jouan-Lanhouet, Sandrine; Théret, Nathalie; Brenner, Catherine; Jouan, Elodie; Le Moigne-Muller, Gwénaëlle; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Jan, Gwénaël

    2016-01-01

    TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a well-known apoptosis inducer, which activates the extrinsic death pathway. TRAIL is pro-apoptotic on colon cancer cells, while not cytotoxic towards normal healthy cells. However, its clinical use is limited by cell resistance to cell death which occurs in approximately 50% of cancer cells. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) are also known to specifically induce apoptosis of cancer cells. In accordance, we have shown that food grade dairy propion...

  12. Cyclopenta[c]phenanthrenes--chemistry and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuzan, Paweł; Góra, Maciej; Luczyński, Michał K; Woźny, Maciej

    2013-06-25

    Despite cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CP-PAHs) having been detected in the environment, the ability of these compounds to induce cellular and tissue responses remains poorly characterized. In this review, we look at the chemistry and biological activity of the cyclopenta[c]phenanthrenes (CP[c]Phs) as potential chemicals of concern in the process of risk assessment. The first part of the review deals with the environmental occurrence and chemistry of CP-PAHs, focusing on available methods of CP[c]Ph chemical synthesis. The most interesting structural feature of the CP[c]Ph is the presence of a pseudo fjord-region constructed by the cyclopentane ring. This compound can be treated either as a structurally similar one to B[c]Ph, or as a phenanthrene skeleton with an electrodonating alkyl substituent in the bay-region of the molecule. The second thread, providing available data on the adverse effects of CP[c]Ph compounds on cells and tissues of living organisms, mainly fish, improves our understanding of these possible environmental hazards. The data show that CP[c]Ph is less potent at inducing CYP1A gene expression in rainbow trout than benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a well-known Ah-receptor agonist. Interestingly, the CP[c]Ph dependent up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA is positively correlated with the incidences of clastogenic changes in rainbow trout erythrocytes. CP[c]Ph has, comparably to B[a]P, a potential to repress expression of tumor suppressor p53, in the head kidney of rainbow trout. Furthermore, estrogen responsive genes in fish liver, ERα and VTG, are not induced by CP[c]Ph, suggesting that the compound has no endocrine disrupting potential. However, some CP[c]Phs show mutagenic activity when investigated in the Ames test, and exhibit genotoxic properties in in vitro micronucleus assay. The above characteristics suggest that CP-PAHs are chemicals of concern for which potential pathways of exposure should be further identified. PMID:23628509

  13. Interleukin-15-activated natural killer cells kill autologous osteoclasts via LFA-1, DNAM-1 and TRAIL, and inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone erosion in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Shan; Madsen, Suzi H; Viller, Natasja N;

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts reside on bone and are the main bone resorbing cells playing an important role in bone homeostasis, while natural killer (NK) cells are bone-marrow-derived cells known to play a crucial role in immune defence against viral infections. Although mature NK cells traffic through bone marrow...... as well as to inflammatory sites associated with enhanced bone erosion, including the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, little is known about the impact NK cells may have on mature osteoclasts and bone erosion. We studied the interaction between human NK cells and autologous monocyte......-derived osteoclasts from healthy donors in vitro. We show that osteoclasts express numerous ligands for receptors present on activated NK cells. Co-culture experiments revealed that interleukin-15-activated, but not resting, NK cells trigger osteoclast apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in drastically...

  14. TRIPPy: Python-based Trailed Source Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Alexandersen, Mike; Schwamb, Megan E.; Marsset, Michael E.; Pike, Rosemary E.; Kavelaars, JJ; Bannister, Michele T.; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey

    2016-05-01

    TRIPPy (TRailed Image Photometry in Python) uses a pill-shaped aperture, a rectangle described by three parameters (trail length, angle, and radius) to improve photometry of moving sources over that done with circular apertures. It can generate accurate model and trailed point-spread functions from stationary background sources in sidereally tracked images. Appropriate aperture correction provides accurate, unbiased flux measurement. TRIPPy requires numpy, scipy, matplotlib, Astropy (ascl:1304.002), and stsci.numdisplay; emcee (ascl:1303.002) and SExtractor (ascl:1010.064) are optional.

  15. Mutant p53: Multiple Mechanisms Define Biologic Activity in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Michael Paul; Zhang, Yun; Lozano, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of alterations involve p53 missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may concomitantly gain novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we rev...

  16. Surface TRAIL decoy receptor-4 expression is correlated with TRAIL resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Despite this promising feature, TRAIL resistance observed in cancer cells seriously challenged the use of TRAIL as a death ligand in gene therapy. The current dispute concerns whether or not TRAIL receptor expression pattern is the primary determinant of TRAIL sensitivity in cancer cells. This study investigates TRAIL receptor expression pattern and its connection to TRAIL resistance in breast cancer cells. In addition, a DcR2 siRNA approach and a complementary gene therapy modality involving IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA) were also tested to verify if these approaches could sensitize MCF7 breast cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL). TRAIL sensitivity assays were conducted using Molecular Probe's Live/Dead Cellular Viability/Cytotoxicity Kit following the infection of breast cancer cells with Ad5hTRAIL. The molecular mechanism of TRAIL induced cell death under the setting of IKK inhibition was revealed by Annexin V binding. Novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis were performed to disclose TRAIL receptor composition in breast cancer cells. MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells displayed strong resistance to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL. Only the combinatorial use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA infection sensitized MCF7 breast cancer cells to TRAIL induced cell death. Moreover, novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR assays suggested that while the level of TRAIL Decoy Receptor-4 (TRAIL-R4) expression was the highest in MCF7 cells, it was the lowest TRAIL receptor expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, conventional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that TRAIL resistant MCF7 cells exhibited substantial levels of TRAIL-R4 expression but not TRAIL decoy receptor-3 (TRAIL-R3) on surface. On the contrary, TRAIL sensitive MDA-MB-231 cells displayed very low levels of surface TRAIL-R4

  17. Surface TRAIL decoy receptor-4 expression is correlated with TRAIL resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Cigdem

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Despite this promising feature, TRAIL resistance observed in cancer cells seriously challenged the use of TRAIL as a death ligand in gene therapy. The current dispute concerns whether or not TRAIL receptor expression pattern is the primary determinant of TRAIL sensitivity in cancer cells. This study investigates TRAIL receptor expression pattern and its connection to TRAIL resistance in breast cancer cells. In addition, a DcR2 siRNA approach and a complementary gene therapy modality involving IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA were also tested to verify if these approaches could sensitize MCF7 breast cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL. Methods TRAIL sensitivity assays were conducted using Molecular Probe's Live/Dead Cellular Viability/Cytotoxicity Kit following the infection of breast cancer cells with Ad5hTRAIL. The molecular mechanism of TRAIL induced cell death under the setting of IKK inhibition was revealed by Annexin V binding. Novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis were performed to disclose TRAIL receptor composition in breast cancer cells. Results MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells displayed strong resistance to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL. Only the combinatorial use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA infection sensitized MCF7 breast cancer cells to TRAIL induced cell death. Moreover, novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR assays suggested that while the level of TRAIL Decoy Receptor-4 (TRAIL-R4 expression was the highest in MCF7 cells, it was the lowest TRAIL receptor expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, conventional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that TRAIL resistant MCF7 cells exhibited substantial levels of TRAIL-R4 expression but not TRAIL decoy receptor-3 (TRAIL-R3 on surface. On the contrary, TRAIL sensitive MDA-MB-231 cells

  18. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha, F. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA. In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anticarcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anticarcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the

  19. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  20. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528563

  1. Biologically active polymers from spontaneous carotenoid oxidation: a new frontier in carotenoid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Johnston

    Full Text Available In animals carotenoids show biological activity unrelated to vitamin A that has been considered to arise directly from the behavior of the parent compound, particularly as an antioxidant. However, the very property that confers antioxidant activity on some carotenoids in plants also confers susceptibility to oxidative transformation. As an alternative, it has been suggested that carotenoid oxidative breakdown or metabolic products could be the actual agents of activity in animals. However, an important and neglected aspect of the behavior of the highly unsaturated carotenoids is their potential to undergo addition of oxygen to form copolymers. Recently we reported that spontaneous oxidation of ß-carotene transforms it into a product dominated by ß-carotene-oxygen copolymers. We now report that the polymeric product is biologically active. Results suggest an overall ability to prime innate immune function to more rapidly respond to subsequent microbial challenges. An underlying structural resemblance to sporopollenin, found in the outer shell of spores and pollen, may allow the polymer to modulate innate immune responses through interactions with the pattern recognition receptor system. Oxygen copolymer formation appears common to all carotenoids, is anticipated to be widespread, and the products may contribute to the health benefits of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables.

  2. The impacts of trail infrastructure on vegetation and soils: Current literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-12-01

    Reflecting the popularity of nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking, there are thousands of kilometres of recreational trails worldwide traversing a range of natural areas. These trails have environmental impacts on soils and vegetation, but where has there been research, what impacts have been found and how were they measured? Using a systematic quantitative literature review methodology, we assessed the impacts of trails on vegetation and soils, highlighting what is known, but also key knowledge gaps. Of the 59 original research papers identified on this topic that have been published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals, most were for research conducted in protected areas (71%), with few from developing countries (17%) or threatened ecosystems (14%). The research is concentrated in a few habitats and biodiversity hotspots, mainly temperate woodland, alpine grassland and Mediterranean habitats, often in the USA (32%) or Australia (20%). Most examined formal trails, with just 15% examining informal trails and 11% assessing both types. Nearly all papers report the results of observational surveys (90%), collecting quantitative data (66%) with 24% using geographic information systems. There was an emphasis on assessing trail impacts at a local scale, either on the trail itself and/or over short gradients away from the trail edge. Many assessed changes in composition and to some degree, structure, of vegetation and soils with the most common impacts documented including reduced vegetation cover, changes in plant species composition, trail widening, soil loss and soil compaction. There were 14 papers assessing how these local impacts can accumulate at the landscape scale. Few papers assessed differences in impacts among trails (7 papers), changes in impacts over time (4), species-specific responses (3) and only one assessed effects on plant community functioning. This review provides evidence that there are key research gaps

  3. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ► Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ► Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ► Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  4. The quantitative assessing of trail impacts on giant panda activity based on field track points and GIS%基于野外痕迹点和GIS技术定量评估步道对大熊猫活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚明昊; 侯盟; 蔺琛; 宋延龄; 欧阳志云

    2012-01-01

    Trails have been shown to have impacts on wildlife, which may include injury, death, habitat hindrance, and then cause small population or population isolation and increase species extinction risk. Road effect zone was widely used to examine the wildlife responses to roads and trails, but had shortages in quantifying the changes of causative factors, and meeting the data requirements for habitat evaluation. In this research, we evaluated the impacts of trails on giant panda activity based on giant panda tracking data. The study sites were centered in Foping and Changqing natural reserves, and 1,042 giant panda tracking points were collected in association with three major trails. By aids of GIS, the distance of every track point to the trails was obtained, and then the amount and frequencies of track points every 20 m from trail were calculated. To identify the impact threshold of trails on giant panda activity, we established the testing points every 100 m from the trail for analysis of the activity frequency pattern. The results showed that within 1,000 m from the trails, the giant panda activity frequencies increased with the distance. The tracking point frequency showed significant changes at 500 meters and 1,000 meters from the trails, which represent impact threshold of trails on giant panda activity. The method based on track points and impact threshold can provide a more feasible and a quantitative evaluation for disturbances of trails and other infrastructure on wildlife activity.%道路建设不仅直接导致野生动物死亡,还能对栖息地形成阻碍效应,导致小种群出现或隔离,增加物种灭绝的风险.生态学家在道路对野生动物影响研究中的一个重要进展是道路影响域(road-effect zone)的提出,但影响域既不能反映道路影响的变化性,也难以满足栖息地评估对数据的要求.为此,我们以大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)为例来探讨道路影响的定量评估方法.在佛坪

  5. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  6. Trails, Other, This would include horse trails, ATV Trails & cross country ski trails., Published in 2012, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Other dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2012. It is described as 'This...

  7. Minnesota State Park Trails and Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile covers the trails in the State of Minnesota Parks, Recreation Areas, and Waysides as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department...

  8. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. This service is used internally and...

  9. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Jae Shin; Muhammad Abdul Mojid Mondol; Mohammad Tofazzal Islam

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activi...

  10. Biological Activity of Autochthonic Bacterial Community in Oil-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wolińska, Agnieszka; Kuźniar, Agnieszka; Szafranek-Nakonieczna, Anna; Jastrzębska, Natalia; Roguska, Eliza; Stępniewska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in the biodegradation of different petroleum derivates, including hydrocarbons. Also other biological factors such as enzyme and respiration activities and microbial abundance are sensitive to contamination with petroleum derivates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of autochthonic microbial community and biological parameters (respiration, dehydrogenase and catalase activities, total microorganisms count) on contamination wit...

  11. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Benzoyl Hydrazines Containing Pyrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫涛; 于淑晶; 刘鹏飞; 刘卓; 王宝雷; 熊丽霞; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign compounds with high biological activity, low toxicity and low resistance, 8 novel benzoyl hydrazines containing pyrazole were designed and synthesized. All compounds were characterized by I H NMR spectra and HRMS. The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicated that most of title compounds exhibited certain insecticidal activities against M),thimna separata Walker at 200 mg L-1 but excellent fungicidal activities against six fungus at 50 mg L-1, which were better than the control.

  12. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms. PMID:26269460

  13. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms.

  14. Parallel screening of FDA-approved antineoplastic drugs for identifying sensitizers of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor David J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to death receptor 4 and 5 are promising candidates for cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis selectively in a variety of human cancer cells, while demonstrating little cytotoxicity in normal cells. Although TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 and DR5 are considered safe and promising candidates in cancer therapy, many malignant cells are resistant to DR-mediated, TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In the current work, we screened a small library of fifty-five FDA and foreign-approved anti-neoplastic drugs in order to identify candidates that sensitized resistant prostate and pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods FDA-approved drugs were screened for their ability to sensitize TRAIL resistant prostate cancer cells to TRAIL using an MTT assay for cell viability. Analysis of variance was used to identify drugs that exhibited synergy with TRAIL. Drugs demonstrating the highest synergy were selected as leads and tested in different prostate and pancreatic cancer cell lines, and one immortalized human pancreatic epithelial cell line. Sequential and simultaneous dosing modalities were investigated and the annexin V/propidium iodide assay, in concert with fluorescence microscopy, was employed to visualize cells undergoing apoptosis. Results Fourteen drugs were identified as having synergy with TRAIL, including those whose TRAIL sensitization activities were previously unknown in either prostate or pancreatic cancer cells or both. Five leads were tested in additional cancer cell lines of which, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and mithramycin demonstrated synergy in all lines. In particular, mitoxantrone and mithramycin demonstrated significant synergy with TRAIL and led to reduction of cancer cell viability at concentrations lower than 1 μM. At these low concentrations, mitoxantrone demonstrated selectivity toward

  15. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEMEŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  16. Managing Recreational Trail Environments for Mountain Bike User Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmonds; Hammitt; Quisenberry

    2000-05-01

    / The carrying capacity model is an effective tool for the management of a wildland recreation resource. Within the model are four primary subcapacities, namely, physical capacity, biological capacity, social capacity, and facility capacity; combined, they are essential to the appropriate management of wildland recreation resource environments. This study focuses on environmental factors of recreational environments that are primarily used by mountain bikers. Little research has been conducted on the social carrying capacity of mountain biking environments, relative to the amount of physical and biological capacity research that has been conducted. The objective of this study was to further resource management knowledge of the mountain bike user in order to better incorporate social carrying capacity into the management of bike use environments. An email survey was used to identify such issues as mountain biker preference of soil erosion management techniques and to measure the effect on experience of resultant factors of soil erosion and trail design. Other issues, such as environmental concern, biker perception of other users, and biker commitment, were also measured. A 58% response rate was achieved. Data gathered from bikers in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand (N = 406), highlight some important issues concerning the design and management of wildland recreation environments that are primarily used for mountain biking. For example, bikers were found to significantly prefer water bars above all other tested soil erosion management techniques; trail erosion factors, including the presence of rocks, roots, and gullies, all added to biking experiences on average; trail design factors, such as the presence of turns, bumps, jumps, and obstacles, all added to biking experiences in general. These findings were used to address questions that resource managers should consider when striving to effectively manage wildland recreation areas

  17. Hepatitis B virus X protein modulates the apoptosis of hepatoma cell line induced by TRAIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiaohong; SUN Wensheng; GAO Lifen; MA Chunhong; HAN Lihui; CHEN Youhai

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of HBx on the apoptosis of hepatoma cells induced by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and to study preliminary molecular mechanisms for its effects. In order to set up a model in vitro, BEL7402-HBx cell line, stably expressing HBx mRNA, was established by stable transfection of pcDNA-HBx, which contains HBx gene, into hepatoma cell line BEL7402. Control cell line BEL7402-cDNA3, stably transfected with pcDNA3, was set up simultaneously as a control. Trypan blue exclusion test,caspase 3 activity detection and TUNEL assay were performed to detect the apoptosis of BEL7402, BEL7402-cDNA3, BEL7402-HBx induced by TRAIL. The expression of TRAIL receptors in three groups was analyzed by Flow cytometry. In addition, phosphorothioated antisense oligonucleotide against the translation initial region of HBx gene (PS-asODNs/HBx) was used to block the expression of HBx in HepG2.2.15 cells and to further confirm the effects of HBx on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Trypan blue exclusion test indicated that TRAIL had a dose-dependent cytotoxicity on BEL7402, BEL7402-cDNA3 and BEL7402-HBx cells. Under treatment of the same concentration of TRAIL, BEL7402-HBx had a higher apoptosis rate and a higher level of Caspase 3 activation than BEL7402 and BEL7402-cDNA3. TUENL assay showed that the apoptosis rate of BEL7402-HBx induced by 10 μg/L TRAIL was 41.4%±7.2%, significantly higher than that of BEL7402 and BEL7402-cDNA3 cells. Blockade of HBx expression in Hep G2.2.15 cells partly inhibited the apoptosis induced by TRAIL. The introduction or blockade of HBx did not change the expression pattern of TRAIL receptors. The present study firstly confirms the effects of HBx on TRAIL- induced apoptosis from two different points and it is not related with the expression level of TRAIL receptors. This would be useful to further clarify the roles of imbalanced apoptosis in pathogenesis of Hepatitis B and related hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Expression of TRAIL and TRAIL receptors in normal and malignant tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raymond A DANIELS; Gavin R SCREATON; Helen TURLEY; Fiona C KIMBERLEY; Xue Song LIU; Juthathip MONGKOLSAPAYA; Paul CH'EN; Xiao Ning XU; Boquan JIN; Francesco PEZZELLA

    2005-01-01

    TRAIL, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, is a member of the TNF family of proteins.Tumour cells were initially found to have increased sensitivity to TRAIL compared with normal cells, raising hopes that TRAIL would prove useful as an anti-tumor agent. The production of reliable monoclonal antibodies against TRAIL and its receptors that can stain fixed specimens will allow a thorough analysis of their expression on normal and malignant tissues. Here we report the generation of monoclonal antibodies against TRAIL and its four membrane-bound receptors (TR1-4), which have been used to stain a range of normal and malignant cells, as routinely fixed specimens. Low levels of TRAIL expression were found to be limited mostly to smooth muscle in lung and spleen as well as glial cells in the cerebellum and follicular cells in the thyroid. Expression of the TRAIL decoy receptors (TR3 and 4) was not as widespread as indicated by Northern blotting, suggesting that they may be less important for the control of TRAIL cytotoxicity than previously thought. TR1 and TR2 expression increases significantly in a number of malignant tissues,but in some common malignancies their expression was low, or patchy, which may limit the therapeutic role of TRAIL.Taken together, we have a panel of monoclonal antibodies that will allow a better assessment of the normal role of TRAIL and allow assessment of biopsy material, possibly allowing the identification of tumors that may be amenable to TRAIL therapy.

  19. Physicochemical and porosity characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon polluted with biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lihua; Liu, Wenjun; Jiang, Renfu; Wang, Zhansheng

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon (AC) polluted with biological activated carbon (BAC) process were investigated. The results showed that the true micropore and sub-micropore volume, pH value, bulk density, and hardness of regenerated AC decreased compared to the virgin AC, but the total pore volume increased. XPS analysis displayed that the ash contents of Al, Si, and Ca in the regenerated AC respectively increased by 3.83%, 2.62% and 1.8%. FTIR spectrum showed that the surface functional groups of virgin and regenerated AC did not change significantly. Pore size distributions indicated that the AC regeneration process resulted in the decrease of micropore and macropore (D>10 μm) volume and the increase of mesopore and macropore (0.1 μmbiological waste (spent AC) from BAC process.

  20. Combination therapy of established cancer using a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a TRAIL receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Ailsa J; Lindemann, Ralph K; Martin, Ben P; Clarke, Christopher J P; Sharkey, Janelle; Anthony, Desiree A; Banks, Kellie-Marie; Haynes, Nicole M; Gangatirkar, Pradnya; Stanley, Kym; Bolden, Jessica E; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Yagita, Hideo; Secrist, J Paul; Smyth, Mark J; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2008-08-12

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and agents such as recombinant tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and agonistic anti-TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) antibodies are anticancer agents that have shown promise in preclinical settings and in early phase clinical trials as monotherapies. Although HDACi and activators of the TRAIL pathway have different molecular targets and mechanisms of action, they share the ability to induce tumor cell-selective apoptosis. The ability of HDACi to induce expression of TRAIL-R death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4/DR5), and induce tumor cell death via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway provides a molecular rationale to combine these agents with activators of the TRAIL pathway that activate the alternative (death receptor) apoptotic pathway. Herein, we demonstrate that the HDACi vorinostat synergizes with the mouse DR5-specific monoclonal antibody MD5-1 to induce rapid and robust tumor cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, using a preclinical mouse breast cancer model, we show that the combination of vorinostat and MD5-1 is safe and induces regression of established tumors, whereas single agent treatment had little or no effect. Functional analyses revealed that rather than mediating enhanced tumor cell apoptosis via the simultaneous activation of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, vorinostat augmented MD5-1-induced apoptosis concomitant with down-regulation of the intracellular apoptosis inhibitor cellular-FLIP (c-FLIP). These data demonstrate that combination therapies involving HDACi and activators of the TRAIL pathway can be efficacious for the treatment of cancer in experimental mouse models.

  1. Polycyclic Xanthone Natural Products: Structure, Biological Activity and Chemical Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Dana K.; Sloman, David L.; Porco, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic xanthone natural products are a family of polyketides which are characterized by highly oxygenated, angular hexacyclic frameworks. In the last decade, this novel class of molecules has attracted noticeable attention from the synthetic and biological communities due to emerging reports of their potential use as antitumour agents. The aim of this article is to highlight the most recent developments of this subset of the xanthone family by detailing the innate challenges of the constr...

  2. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    OpenAIRE

    Adela NEMEŞ; Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2010-01-01

    We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating id...

  3. Residual matrix from different separation techniques impacts exosome biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Paolini; Andrea Zendrini; Giuseppe Di Noto; Sara Busatto; Elisabetta Lottini; Annalisa Radeghieri; Alessandra Dossi; Andrea Caneschi; Doris Ricotta; Paolo Bergese

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are gaining a prominent role in research due to their intriguing biology and several therapeutic opportunities. However, their accurate purification from body fluids and detailed physicochemical characterization remain open issues. We isolated exosomes from serum of patients with Multiple Myeloma by four of the most popular purification methods and assessed the presence of residual contaminants in the preparations through an ad hoc combination of biochemical and biophysical technique...

  4. Low-Speed Fan Noise Reduction With Trailing Edge Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Tweedt, Daniel L.; Fite, E. Brian; Envia, Edmane

    2002-01-01

    An experimental proof-of-concept test was conducted to demonstrate reduction of rotor-stator interaction noise through rotor-trailing edge blowing. The velocity deficit from the viscous wake of the rotor blades was reduced by injecting air into the wake from a trailing edge slot. Composite hollow rotor blades with internal flow passages were designed based on analytical codes modeling the internal flow. The hollow blade with interior guide vanes creates flow channels through which externally supplied air flows from the root of the blade to the trailing edge. The impact of the rotor wake-stator interaction on the acoustics was also predicted analytically. The Active Noise Control Fan, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, was used as the proof- of-concept test bed. In-duct mode and farfield directivity acoustic data were acquired at blowing rates (defined as mass supplied to trailing edge blowing system divided by fan mass flow) ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 percent. The first three blade passing frequency harmonics at fan rotational speeds of 1700 to 1900 rpm were analyzed. The acoustic tone power levels (PWL) in the inlet and exhaust were reduced 11.5 and -0.1, 7.2 and 11.4, 11.8 and 19.4 PWL dB, respectively. The farfield tone power levels at the first three harmonics were reduced 5.4, 10.6, and 12.4 dB PWL. At selected conditions, two-component hotwire and stator vane unsteady surface pressures were acquired. These measurements illustrate the physics behind the noise reduction.

  5. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  6. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  7. Interferon-α and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor cooperatively mediates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Chaohui, E-mail: zuochaohui@vip.sina.com [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Shands Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Qiu, Xiaoxin [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); Liu, Nianli; Yang, Darong [Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); Xia, Man [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Shands Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Liu, Jingshi [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Wang, Xiaohong [Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); and others

    2015-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) has recently been recognized to harbor therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment of HCC, but it remains controversial as to whether IFN-α exerts direct cytotoxicity against HCC. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in HCC and is considered to play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the combined effect of a COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, and IFN-α on in vitro growth suppression of HCC using the hepatoma cell line HLCZ01 and the in vivo nude mouse xenotransplantation model using HLCZ01 cells. Treatment with celecoxib and IFN-α synergistically inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis was identified by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride and fluorescent staining. IFN-α upregulated the expression of TRAIL, while celecoxib increased the expression of TRAIL receptors. The combined regimen with celecoxib and IFN-α reduced the growth of xenotransplanted HCCs in nude mice. The regulation of IFN-α- and COX-2 inhibitor-induced cell death is impaired in a subset of TRAIL-resistant cells. The molecular mechanisms of HCC cells resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis were explored using molecular biological and immunological methods. Interferon-α and the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib synergistically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. These data suggest that IFN-α and celecoxib may offer a novel role with important implications in designing new therapeutics for TRAIL-resistant tumors. - Highlights: ●The cytotoxic effect of TRAIL on a developed HCC HLCZ01 cells infected with HBV. ●IFN-α and celecoxib induced apoptosis in HLCZ01 cells infected with HBV. ●The combined regime reduced the growth of xenotransplanted HCCs in nude mice model.

  8. β-Sitosterol sensitizes MDA-MB-231 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheol PARK; Dong-oh MOON; Chung-ho RYU; Byung tae CHOI; Won ho LEE; Gi-young KIM; Yung hyun CHOI

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To investigate whether subtoxic concentration of β-sitosterol (SITO) com-bined with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.Methods:Cell viability and growth were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphnyl-2H-tetrazolim bromide assays,chromatin condensation,release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),and Annexin V+ cells.The apoptosis-related proteins were detected by Western blotting.Results:Treatment with TRAIL in combination with subtoxic concen-trations of SITO sensitized MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.The synergistic treatment induced chromatin condensation,DNA fragmentation,the release of LDH,and Annexin V cells.The indicators of apoptosis are correlated to the induction of caspase activities,which results in the cleavage ofpoly(ADP-ribose)polymerase.Both the cytotoxic effects and apoptotic characteristics induced by the synergistic treatment were significantly inhibited by a pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk,demonstrating the important role of caspases.These results indicate that caspases are crucial regulators of apoptosis induced by the combined treatment of SITO and TRAIL in MDA-MB-231 cells.Conclusion:The synergistic treatment of SITO and TRAIL induces apoptosis,which can serve as a potential preventive and therapeutic agent.

  9. Avaliação de atividade de Educação Ambiental em trilha interpretativa, dois a três anos após sua realização - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.174 Evaluation of environmental education activity in the interpretative trail, two to three years after its implementation - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.174

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Angelini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho conduzir uma avaliação de crianças que, nos anos de 2002 e 2003, foram submetidas a uma prática de Educação Ambiental (EA na Trilha Interpretativa da UEG. Essas crianças (grupo teste foram contatadas em suas escolas e juntamente com outras crianças, que nunca participaram da atividade (grupo controle, percorreram a trilha e responderam a um questionário. Os resultados dos questionários do grupo teste, em comparação com o desempenho da atividade anterior, evidenciaram ganhos cognitivos nesse intervalo de um ou dois anos da primeira exposição à atividade. Todavia, quando comparado com o grupo controle, essa diferença não foi estatisticamente significativa (pThe objective of this work was to carry out a re-evaluation of children which participated in an environmental education (EE activity in the Interpretative Trail of the UEG, during 2002 and 2003. These children (test group were contacted in their schools and together with other children, who had never participated in the activity (control group, they had to go through the trail and answer a questionnaire, which was compared with the after-trail questionnaire of the previous activity. Results show that: questionnaires of the test group evidenced cognitive profits in this interval of one or two years of the first exposition to the EE program; however, when compared with the control group, this difference was not significant (p<0.05. This shows that a punctual activity of EE could not be effective in knowledge upgrading. In this sense, many authors recognize the difficulties to evaluate and analyze the repercussions of EE activities.

  10. Biological research of Grabia River - fifty years of activity

    OpenAIRE

    Siciński, Jacek; Tończyk, Grzegorz

    2005-01-01

    Grabia, a small still close to natural conditions lowland river, has been an object of special interest for Łódź hydrobiologists for more than 50 years. Over 100 scientific papers and over 100 master theses were produced in the Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection University of Łódź. The initiator was Prof.L.K. Pawłowski who spent many years conducting research into the river. The ground and the first research objective was to recognize the fauna diversity. The checklis...

  11. A New Player in the Development of TRAIL Based Therapies for Hepatocarcinoma Treatment: ATM Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagni, Venturina; Santini, Simonetta; Barilà, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.barila@uniroma2.it [Department of Biology, University of Tor Vergata, Rome 00133 (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Santa Lucia Foundation-IRCCS, Rome 00179 (Italy)

    2012-04-05

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. HCCs are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous tumors characterized by very poor prognosis, mainly due to the lack, at present, of effective therapeutic options, as these tumors are rarely suitable for radiotherapy and often resistant to chemotherapy protocols. In the last years, agonists targeting the Tumor Necrosis Factor Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) death receptor, has been investigated as a valuable promise for cancer therapy, based on their selectivity for malignant cells and low toxicity for healthy cells. However, many cancer models display resistance to death receptor induced apoptosis, pointing to the requirement for the development of combined therapeutic approaches aimed to selectively sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL. Recently, we identified ATM kinase as a novel modulator of the ability of chemotherapeutic agents to enhance TRAIL sensitivity. Here, we review the biological determinants of HCC responsiveness to TRAIL and provide an exhaustive and updated analysis of the molecular mechanisms exploited for combined therapy in this context. The role of ATM kinase as potential novel predictive biomarker for combined therapeutic approaches based on TRAIL and chemotherapeutic drugs will be closely discussed.

  12. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chotigeat, W.; Phongdara, A.; Choosawad, D.

    2005-01-01

    Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at ...

  13. Synthesis and biological activity of benzamide DNA minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gul Shahzada; Pilkington, Lisa I; Barker, David

    2016-02-01

    A range of di- and triaryl benzamides were synthesised to investigate the effect of the presence and nature of a polar sidechain, bonding and substitution patterns and functionalisation of benzylic substituents. These compounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity as well as their DNA binding activity. The most active compounds in all assays were unsymmetrical triaryl benzamides with a bulky or alkylating benzylic substituent and a polar amino sidechain.

  14. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  15. TRIPPy: Trailed Image Photometry in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Wesley; Alexandersen, Mike; Schwamb, Megan E.; Marsset, Michaël; Pike, Rosemary E.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Bannister, Michele T.; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Photometry of moving sources typically suffers from a reduced signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) or flux measurements biased to incorrect low values through the use of circular apertures. To address this issue, we present the software package, TRIPPy: TRailed Image Photometry in Python. TRIPPy introduces the pill aperture, which is the natural extension of the circular aperture appropriate for linearly trailed sources. The pill shape is a rectangle with two semicircular end-caps and is described by three parameters, the trail length and angle, and the radius. The TRIPPy software package also includes a new technique to generate accurate model point-spread functions (PSFs) and trailed PSFs (TSFs) from stationary background sources in sidereally tracked images. The TSF is merely the convolution of the model PSF, which consists of a moffat profile, and super-sampled lookup table. From the TSF, accurate pill aperture corrections can be estimated as a function of pill radius with an accuracy of 10 mmag for highly trailed sources. Analogous to the use of small circular apertures and associated aperture corrections, small radius pill apertures can be used to preserve S/Ns of low flux sources, with appropriate aperture correction applied to provide an accurate, unbiased flux measurement at all S/Ns.

  16. Synthesis, biological activities and structure-activity relationships for new avermectin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Nan, Xiang; Yu, Hai-Tao; Cheng, Pi-Le; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Ying-Qian; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Hu, Guan-Fang; Liu, Huanxiang; Chen, An-Liang

    2016-10-01

    In an effort to discover new molecules with good insecticidal activities, more than 40 new avermectin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities against three species of arachnids, insects and nematodes, namely, Tetranychus Cinnabarinus, Aphis craccivora and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. All the tested compounds showed potent inhibitory activities against three insect species. Notably, the majority of compounds exhibited high selectivity against T. cinnabarinus, some of which were much better in comparison with avermectin. Especially compounds 9j (LC50: 0.005 μM) and 16d (LC50: 0.002 μM) were 2.5- and 4.7-fold more active than avermectin (LC50: 0.013 μM), respectively, against T. cinnabarinus. Moreover, compounds 9b, 9d-f, 9h, 9j, 9l, 9n, 9p, 9r, 9v and 17d showed superior activities with LC50 values of 2.959-5.013 μM compared to that of 1 (LC50: 6.746 μM) against B. xylophilus. Meanwhile, the insecticidal activities of compounds 9f, 9g, 9h, and 9m against A. craccivora were 7-8 times better than that of avermectin, with LC50 values of 7.744, 5.634, 6.809, 7.939 and 52.234 μM, respectively. Furthermore, QSAR analysis showed that the molecular shape, size, connectivity degree and electronic distribution of avermectin analogues had substantial effects on insecticidal potency. These preliminary results provided useful insight in guiding further modifications of avermectin in the development of potential new insecticides. PMID:27318119

  17. Harnessing microbial metabolic exchange for the discovery of biologically active molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Microbial metabolic exchange mediates microbial interactions and plays key roles in regulating biology and has shaped modern healthcare, agriculture and other commercial processes. In this thesis, cutting edge mass spectrometry techniques, new genome mining approaches, and innovative bioinformatics tools were coupled and developed into investigating microbial metabolic exchange and led to the identification and characterization of biological active molecules that may have therapeutic values. ...

  18. Studies on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3-Dioxolane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nine title compounds were synthesized. Their strucures were identified by means of IR, EA, 1H NMR and MS. The results from the primary biological test show that all the compounds have some activitiies of fungicide and plant growth regulator. When R group is 2,4-Cl2C6H3, compound 2 or compound 4 shows better biological activities.

  19. An Introduction to Biological Modeling Using Coin Flips to Predict the Outcome of a Diffusion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Greg Q.; Rodriguez, Juan; Chirhart, Scott; Messina, Troy C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase students' awareness for and comfort with mathematical modeling of biological processes, and increase their understanding of diffusion, the following lab was developed for use in 100-level, majors/non-majors biology and neuroscience courses. The activity begins with generation of a data set that uses coin-flips to replicate…

  20. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULOVICSOVÁ B.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  1. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  2. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  3. Study on enhanced expression and anti-tumor effect of soluble TRAIL induced by 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To construct pEgr-sTRAIL expression vector and investigate the apoptotic effect and survival level of its transient transfer on cervical cancer cell line HeLa followed by different doses of 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation. Methods: Human soluble TRAIL was cloned by SOEing method and then was linked with T-vector for sequencing. The correct fragment was inserted into pcDNA-Egr to construct pEgr-sTRAIL recombinant vector which can be activated and induced by ionizing irradiation. Then pEgr-sTRAIL recombinant vector was transferred into HeLa cells under mediation of GeneCompanionTM in vitro. After different doses of 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation, the expression of TRAIL was detected by RT-PCR, the early apoptosis of transfected cells was measured by FACScan and the cell survival level was determined by colony formation assay. Results: The expression vector pEgr-sTRAIL was successfully constructed. 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation could enhance the expression of pEgr-sTRAIL at mRNA level. After irradiated by 12C6+ heavy ion , the percentage of apoptotic cells in pEgr-sTRAIL transfected cells was significantly higher than that of non-transfected cells. The rate of colony formation of pEgr-sTRAIL transfected cells was significantly lower. Conclusion: 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation combined with pEgr-sTRAIL gene transfer can significantly induce the apoptosis of tumor cells and have strong anti-tumor effect in vitro. (authors)

  4. Combination of TRAIL and actinomycin D liposomes enhances antitumor effect in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liangran; Fan, Li; Ren, Jinfeng; Pang, Zhiqing; Ren, Yulong; Li, Jingwei; Wen, Ziyi; Qian, Yong; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Hang; Jiang, Xinguo

    2012-01-01

    The intractability of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to multimodality treatments plays a large part in its extremely poor prognosis. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cytokine for selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells; however, many NSCLC cell lines are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The therapeutic effect can be restored by treatments combining TRAIL with chemotherapeutic agents. Actinomycin D (ActD) can sensitize NSCLC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulation of death receptor 4 (DR4) or 5 (DR5). However, the use of ActD has significant drawbacks due to the side effects that result from its nonspecific biodistribution in vivo. In addition, the short half-life of TRAIL in serum also limits the antitumor effect of treatments combining TRAIL and ActD. In this study, we designed a combination treatment of long-circulating TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes with the aim of resolving these problems. The combination of TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes had a synergistic cytotoxic effect against A-549 cells. The mechanism behind this combination treatment includes both increased expression of DR5 and caspase activation. Moreover, systemic administration of the combination of TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes suppressed both tumor formation and growth of established subcutaneous NSCLC xenografts in nude mice, inducing apoptosis without causing significant general toxicity. These results provide preclinical proof-of-principle for a novel therapeutic strategy in which TRAIL liposomes are safely combined with ActD liposomes.

  5. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  6. Some biologically active oxovanadium(IV) complexes of triazole derived Schiff bases: their synthesis, characterization and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Zahid H; Sumrra, Sajjad H

    2010-10-01

    A series of biologically active oxovanadium(IV) complexes of triazole derived Schiff bases L(1)-L(5) have been synthesized and characterized by their physical, analytical, and spectral data. The synthesized ligands potentially act as bidentate, in which the oxygen of furfural and nitrogen of azomethine coordinate with the oxovanadium atom to give a stoichiometry of vanadyl complexes 1:2 (M:L) in a square-pyramidal geometry. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities on different species of pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, S. flexneri, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, and B. subtilis) and fungi (T. longifusus, C. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis, F. solani, and C. glabrata) have been studied. All compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains and good antifungal activity against most of the fungal strains. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to check the cytotoxicity of coordinated and uncoordinated synthesized compounds. PMID:20429776

  7. Synthesis and Antiplatelet Activity of Antithrombotic Thiourea Compounds: Biological and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenço

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations.

  8. Synthesis and antiplatelet activity of antithrombotic thiourea compounds: biological and structure-activity relationship studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, André Luiz; Saito, Max Seidy; Dorneles, Luís Eduardo Gomes; Viana, Gil Mendes; Sathler, Plínio Cunha; Aguiar, Lúcia Cruz de Sequeira; de Pádula, Marcelo; Domingos, Thaisa Francielle Souza; Fraga, Aline Guerra Manssour; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Castro, Helena Carla; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p) displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations. PMID:25903367

  9. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  10. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  11. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotigeat, W.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT at 4.47 IU/mg.

  12. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  13. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring in Selected Wetlands of Wyoming: Biologically Active Elements Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, water and biota were collected from selected wetlands in Wyoming for the Biologically Active Elements (BAE) Study in 1988, 1989 and 1990 to identify...

  14. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    -Stokes equations. It provides us possibilities to study details about noise generation mechanism. The formulation of the semi-empirical model is based on acoustic analogy and then curve-fitted with experimental data. Due to its high efficiency, such empirical relation is used for purpose of low noise airfoil......This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc....

  15. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of novel tiliroside derivants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Li, Chun-Bao; Jin, Mei-Na; Shi, Li-Huan; Duan, Hong-Quan; Niu, Wen-Yan

    2011-10-01

    A series of new tiliroside derivatives were synthesized and characterized by analytical (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry. All of the compounds were evaluated for anti-diabetic properties in vitro using HepG2 cells. Compounds 3c, 3d, and 3i-l caused significant enhancements in glucose consumption by insulin-resistant HepG2 cells compared with control cells and cells that were exposed to metformin (an anti-diabetic drug). Moreover, compound 3l significantly activated adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Thus, the tiliroside derivative 3l offers potential to be developed as a new approach for treating type II diabetes.

  17. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF AMIDE DERIVATIVES OF GINKGOLIDE A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-HONG HU; ZHONG-LIANG CHEN; YU-YUAN XIE

    2001-01-01

    Amide derivatives of ginkgolide A were prepared and evaluated for their in vitro ability to inhibit the PAF-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets. They showed less activities than their parent compound ginkgolide A.

  18. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Camphor Hydrazone and Imine Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson T.; da Silva Araújo, Adriele; Moraes, Adriana M.; de Souza, Leidiane A.; Silva Lourenço, Maria Cristina; de Souza, Marcus V. N.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Both sonochemical and classical methodologies have been employed to convert camphor, 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, C9H16C=O, into a number of derivatives including hydrazones, C9H16C=N-NHAr 3, imines, C9H16C=N-R 7, and the key intermediate nitroimine, C9H16C=N-NO2 6. Reactions of nitroamine 6 with nucleophiles by classical methods provided the desired compounds in a range of yields. In evaluations of activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, compound 7j exhibited the best activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.12 µg/mL), comparable to that of the antitubercular drug ethambutol. The other derivatives displayed modest antimycobacterial activities at 25–50 µg/mL. In in vitro tests against cancer cell lines, none of the synthesized camphor compounds exhibited cytotoxic activities.

  19. Assessing the Biological Activity of the Glucan Phosphatase Laforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Raththagala, Madushi; Gentry, Mathew S; Sanz, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered family of enzymes that dephosphorylate either starch or glycogen and are essential for proper starch metabolism in plants and glycogen metabolism in humans. Mutations in the gene encoding the only human glucan phosphatase, laforin, result in the fatal, neurodegenerative, epilepsy known as Lafora disease. Here, we describe phosphatase assays to assess both generic laforin phosphatase activity and laforin's unique glycogen phosphatase activity. PMID:27514803

  20. Therapeutic applications of TRAIL receptor agonists in cancer and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P; Griffith, Thomas S

    2015-11-01

    TRAIL/Apo-2L is a member of the TNF superfamily first described as an apoptosis-inducing cytokine in 1995. Similar to TNF and Fas ligand, TRAIL induces apoptosis in caspase-dependent manner following TRAIL death receptor trimerization. Because tumor cells were shown to be particularly sensitive to this cytokine while normal cells/tissues proved to be resistant along with being able to synthesize and release TRAIL, it was rapidly appreciated that TRAIL likely served as one of our major physiologic weapons against cancer. In line with this, a number of research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies have attempted to exploit the ability of TRAIL to kill cancer cells by developing recombinant forms of TRAIL or TRAIL receptor agonists (e.g., receptor-specific mAb) for therapeutic purposes. In this review article we will describe the biochemical pathways used by TRAIL to induce different cell death programs. We will also summarize the clinical trials related to this pathway and discuss possible novel uses of TRAIL-related therapies. In recent years, the physiological importance of TRAIL has expanded beyond being a tumoricidal molecule to one critical for a number of clinical settings - ranging from infectious disease and autoimmunity to cardiovascular anomalies. We will also highlight some of these conditions where modulation of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system may be targeted in the future. PMID:26343199

  1. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer’s disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods.

  2. Is kinase activity essential for biological functions of BRI1?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihui Xu; Juan Huang; Baohua Li; Jiayang Li; Yonghong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a major group of plant hormones that regulate plant growth and development. BRI1, a protein localized to the plasma membrane, functions as a BR receptor and it has been proposed that its kinase activity has an essential role in BR-regulated plant growth and development. Here we report the isolation and molecular characterization of a new allele of bril, bril-301, which shows moderate morphological phenotypes and a reduced response to BRs under normal growth conditions. Sequence analysis identified a two-base alteration from GG to AT, resulting in a conversion of 989G to 9891 in the BRI1 kinase domain. An in vitro assay of kinase activity showed that bril-301 has no detectable autophosphorylation activity or phosphorylation activity towards the BRI1 substrates TTL and BAK1. Furthermore, our results suggest that bril-301, even with extremely impaired kinase activity, still retains partial function in regulating plant growth and development, which raises the question of whether BRI1 kinase activity is essential for BR-mediated growth and development in higher plants.

  3. Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Butnariu Monica; Coradini Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhy...

  4. Traditional Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Biological Activities of Bixa orellana L.: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela de Araújo Vilar; Marina Suênia de Araujo Vilar; Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly de Lima e; Fernanda Nervo Raffin; Márcia Rosa de Oliveira; Camilo Flamarion de Oliveira Franco; Petrônio Filgueiras de Athayde-Filho; Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo Diniz; José Maria Barbosa-Filho

    2014-01-01

    Bixa orellana L., popularly known as “urucum,” has been used by indigenous communities in Brazil and other tropical countries for several biological applications, which indicates its potential use as an active ingredient in pharmaceutical products. The aim of this work was to report the main evidence found in the literature, concerning the ethnopharmacology, the biological activity, and the phytochemistry studies related to Bixa orellana L. Therefore, this work comprises a systematic review a...

  5. Target enhanced 2D similarity search by using explicit biological activity annotations and profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiang; Geer, Lewis Y.; Han, Lianyi; Bryant, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Background The enriched biological activity information of compounds in large and freely-accessible chemical databases like the PubChem Bioassay Database has become a powerful research resource for the scientific research community. Currently, 2D fingerprint based conventional similarity search (CSS) is the most common widely used approach for database screening, but it does not typically incorporate the relative importance of fingerprint bits to biological activity. Results In this study, a ...

  6. Biologically active collagen-based scaffolds: advances in processing and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Yannas, I.V.; Tzeranis, D. S.; Harley, B A; So, P. T. C.

    2010-01-01

    A small number of type I collagen–glycosaminoglycan scaffolds (collagen–GAG scaffolds; CGSs) have unusual biological activity consisting primarily in inducing partial regeneration of organs in the adult mammal. Two of these are currently in use in a variety of clinical settings. CGSs appear to induce regeneration by blocking the adult healing response, following trauma, consisting of wound contraction and scar formation. Several structural determinants of biological activity have been identif...

  7. Using Active Learning in a Studio Classroom to Teach Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…

  8. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  9. Biological activities and chemical composition of lichens from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanic, Marijana; Rankovic, Branislav; Stanojkovic, Tatjana; Vasiljevic, Perica; Manojlovic, Nedeljko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate chemical composition of acetone extracts of the lichens Parmelia arseneana and Acarospora fuscata and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities of these extracts and gyrophoric acid isolated from A. fuscata. The HPLC-UV method was used for the identification of secondary metabolites. Stictic acid, norstictic acid, gyrophoric acid, usnic acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin were identified in the A. fuscata. In P. arseneana, we detected stictic acid, norstictic acid, usnic acid and atranorin, while gyrophoric acid was not identified. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of tested samples on DPPH and superoxide anion radicals, reducing the power of samples and determination of total phenolic compounds in extracts. As a result of the study, gyrophoric acid was found to have the largest DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 105.75 µg/ml. Moreover, the tested samples had an effective superoxide anion radical scavenging and reducing power. The total content of phenol in extracts was determined as pyrocatechol equivalent. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method. The most active was also gyrophoric acid, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.019 to 1.25 mg/ml. Anticancer activity was tested against LS174 (human colon carcinoma cell line), A549 (human lung carcinoma cell line), Fem-x (malignant melanoma cell line), and a chronic myelogeneous leukaemia K562 cell line using the MTT method. Extract of P. arseneana expressed the strongest anticancer activity against all cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 11.61 to 47.06 µg/ml. PMID:26417336

  10. Biologic therapy improves psoriasis by decreasing the activity of monocytes and neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Keiichi; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Yamagiwa, Akisa; Saeki, Hidehisa; Kondo, Makoto; Gabazza, Esteban C; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Therapy with monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the interleukin (IL)-12/23 p40 subunit has significantly improved the clinical outcome of patients with psoriasis. These antibodies inhibit the effects of the target cytokines and thus the major concern during their use is the induction of excessive immunosuppression. Recent studies evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of biologic therapy in psoriasis have shown no significant appearance of serious adverse effects including infections and malignancies. However, the immunological consequence and the mechanism by which the blockade of a single cytokine by biologics can successfully control the activity of psoriasis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of biologic therapy on cytokine production of various lymphocytes and on the activity of monocytes and neutrophils in psoriatic patients. Neutrophils, monocytes and T cells were purified from heparinized peripheral venous blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, and γ-interferon, TNF-α and IL-17 production from lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometer. The activation maker of neutrophils and the activated subsets of monocytes were also analyzed. Biologic therapy induced no significant changes in the cytokine production by lymphocytes from the skin and gut-homing T cells. However, neutrophil activity and the ratio of activated monocyte population increased in severely psoriatic patients were normalized in psoriatic patients receiving biologic therapy. The present study showed that biologic therapy ameliorates clinical symptoms and controls the immune response in patients with psoriasis. PMID:25099154

  11. Study on biological activities of Mansao hymenaea (DC.) A. Gentry leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Arunporn Itharat; Benjaporn Chisorn; Natemata Junkong; Sopa Kummee; Rugkeart Chirunthorn; Tanomjit Supavita; Niwan Intaraksa

    2005-01-01

    Petroleum ether extract (1) and ethanolic extract (2) of garlic vine leaves [Mansoa hymenaea (DC.) A. Gentry] were investigated for biological activities using the following tests : brine shrimp toxicity test, pediculicidal activity (in vitro) test, cytotoxicity test against COR L-23 (large cell lung carcinoma) using the SRB assay, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity by the DPPH radical scavenging assay. The cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp and headlice as well as the EC50 ...

  12. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity

  13. Biological activity of alkaloids from Solanum dulcamara L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Padma; Sharma, Bindu; Bakshi, Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known for their antimicrobial activity. Though all natural alkaloids come from plants, not all plants produce alkaloids. Plants of the Solanaceae family are known for their high alkaloid content. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. In the present study, those plant parts of Solanum dulcamara were selected which have been reported to produce a high content of a specific alkaloid: solanine (from unripe fruits), solasodine (from flowers) and beta-solamarine (from roots). These alkaloids were extracted from various parts of S. dulcamara by well-established methods and were screened for their antibacterial activity. Human pathogenic bacteria, viz., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, were selected for the study. All three alkaloids inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. However, no significant activity was observed against E. aerogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were also evaluated.

  14. Synthesis and biological activities of some benzimidazolone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Karale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 5-nitrobenzimidazolone with phenoxyethyl bromide in presence of potassium carbonate in dimethyl formamide obtained 6-nitro-1,3-bis(2-phenoxyethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one. It was reduced using stannous chloride to get 6-amino -1,3-bis(2-phenoxyethyl-1, 3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol -2-one, which was further treated with aromatic sulphonyl chloride to obtain benzimidazolone derivatives, 6a-k. These compounds were tested for antibacterial, antituberculosis and antifungal activity. Most of them have shown very good activity against some gram positive and gram negative microorganisms and fungal strains. Some of them have shown moderate activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  15. Synthesis and biological activity of nifuroxazide and analogs. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, L C; Chisté, J J; Santos, M G; Penna, T C

    1999-09-01

    Nifuroxazyde and six analogs were synthesized by varying the substitute from the para-position of the benzenic ring and the heteroatom of the heterocyclic ring. The MIC of seven resultant compounds was determined by serial dilutions, testing the ATCC 25923 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. A significant increase in the anti-microbial activity of thyophenic analogs, as compared with furanic and pyrrholic analogs, was observed. In addition, unlike the cyano and hydroxyl groups, the acetyl group promoted anti-microbial activity. PMID:10622109

  16. Activation methods of retrospective dosimetry using biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    23Na and 32S are stable isotopes which are present in humans - 23Na in blood and other tissues, 32S in hair. When human body is irradiated by neutrons, nuclear reactions 23Na(n,γ)24Na and 32S(n,p)32P occur, the products, 24Na and 32P, being radioactive. The induced activity can be used for retrospective assessment of the neutron dose. The principle of this dosimetry application is described. As a particular case, the relations between the activity and neutron dose were derived for irradiation of a human by the fission neutron spectrum. (orig.)

  17. The Trail Inventory of Lake Ilo NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Lake Ilo NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Mountain Longleaf NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Ruby Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Ruby Lake NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. The Trail Inventory of McNary NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on McNary National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Welaka NFH [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Welaka National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Alaska Maritime NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  6. The Trail Inventory of William L. Finley NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Bill Williams River NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all nonmotorized trails on Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory...

  8. The Trail Inventory of William L. Finley NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all nonmotorized trails on William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Kellys Slough NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Kellys Slough National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Kellys Slough NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Kellys Slough National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  11. Honeymoon Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (honeytrl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 1 arc that represents the Honeymoon Trail inside of Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The Honeymoon Trail was...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Umatilla NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Huron WMD [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all nonmotorized trails on Huron Wetland Management District. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Imperial NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all nonmotorized trails on Imperial National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Attwater Prairie Chicken NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this...

  16. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails With Data Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. It also depicts the availability of trails...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Berkshire National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Berkshire Trout Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Berkshire NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Berkshire Trout Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Berkshire NFH [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Berkshire Trout Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Cabo Rojo NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Humboldt Bay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Cameron Prairie NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Valentine NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Valentine National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Back Bay NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Back Bay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Oxbow National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Oxbow National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Oxbow NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Oxbow National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Banks Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Detroit Lakes WMD [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Detroit Lakes Wetland Management District. Trails in this inventory are...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Detroit Lakes WMD [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Detroit Lakes Wetland Management District. Trails in this inventory are...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Detroit River IWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Santee National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Santee NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Santee NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Kenai NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all nonmotorized trails on Kenai National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Middle Mississippi River NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Little Pend Oreille NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Merced National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Merced National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Leavenworth NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Alamosa NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  2. The Trail Inventory of St. Marks NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Mandalay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Boyer Chute NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Lee Metcalf NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Alaska Maritime NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Little White Salmon NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Mason Neck NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Mackay Island NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mackay Island National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Las Vegas NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Las Vegas National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  12. The Trail Inventory of John H. Chafee NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on John H. Chafee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Lower Hatchie NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lower Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Aroostook NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Ankeny NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Mattamuskeet NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Lake Ophelia NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lake Ophelia National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Seal Beach NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Piedmont NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Alaska Peninsula NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Bosque Del Apache NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Bosque Del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Little River NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Little River National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Lostwood NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Leadville National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leadville National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Toppenish National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Toppenish National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Leslie Canyon NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Steigerwald Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Steigerwald Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Pendills Creek NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Pendills Creek National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Madison WMD [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Madison Wetland Management District. Trails in this inventory are...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Lake Woodruff NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Swan Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Maxwell NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...