WorldWideScience

Sample records for biologically active substances

  1. Biologically active substance usable in organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Šircová, Alena

    2012-01-01

    Organic farming system is a model of continuous agricultural activities, in that no synthetic pesticides, herbicides, growth regulators or GMOs may be used for plant protection. Such biological plant protection is allowed, where different antagonistic relationships between individual micro- and macro-organisms and pests occur. Certain biologically active substances contained in plants have a positive effect in protecting plants from pests and diseases as well as extracts from them functio...

  2. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Makarkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  3. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  4. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Kayshev; N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    A content of biologically active compounds (BAC) with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical ...

  5. DAGESTAN HAWTHORN - A VALUABLE SOURCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omarieva L. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with hawthorn Dagestan. It is noted that the more than 100 species are found 14 species in Dagestan. The most common of them are studied as a source of biologically active substances and nutrients, and they can be used as food additives for various purposes. The content of biologically active substances and nutrients are defined. The high content of phenolic substances in C. pentagyna Waldst. et Kit, which play an important role in the formation of immunity and possessing P-vitamin activity is defined. Amino acid and fatty acid composition of the fruit of the hawthorn Crataegus pentagyna Waldst. et Kit, as the most valuable for using as food additives is defined by ionexchange and gas-liquid chromatography. Sixteen amino acids were identified and quantified in the protein component of hawthorn fruit. The high content of essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine, valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine. The amount of essential amino acids is 296.1 mg / 100 g. Chromatographic separation of fatty acid methyl esters has enabled us to establish the presence of the following fatty acids: palmitic, oleic, stearic, linoleic and linolenic, including established the presence of essential fatty acids - the family of alpha-linolenic acid OMEGA -3 and linoleic acid family of OMEGA -6

  6. Hen's egg as a source of valuable biologically active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Herman, Marta; Starostecka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show current knowledge concerning valuable substances biologically active present in hen eggs and underline important nutritive role of hen eggs. Hen egg is a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins (A, B2, B6, B12, D, E, K), minerals and lipids. The significant part of lipids is a group of unsaturated phospholipids, which are components of cell membranes, act protectively on the cardiovascular system and contribute to a decrease of cholesterol level and blood pressure. Therefore, the consumption of unsaturated phospholipids is recommended especially in patients suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Another important substance is egg cystatin, which has a wide spectrum of biological functions, for example the ability to stimulate cell growth, inhibit inflammatory processes and has antibacterial and antiviral properties. Other substance presented in the egg white which helps fight bacteria is lysozyme. It is used in medicine as an aid in antibiotic therapy and analgesic in the course of infection, as well as in tumor malignancies. Among the components contained in the egg yolk there is also immunoglobulin Y which due to its therapeutic importance deserves special attention. Its use offers the possibility of replacing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of bacterial infections of digestive system, as well as an opportunity for the development of medicine associated with passive immunization of patients. The egg is a rich source of retinol which gradual depletion in the organism causes many eye pathologies. A very important and useful part of the egg, used in medicine is a shell and its membranes, due to the high collagen content relevant in the treatment of connective tissue diseases. PMID:27383572

  7. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  8. [Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perova, I B; Zhogova, A A; Poliakova, A V; Éller, K I; Ramenskaia, G V; Samylina, I A

    2014-01-01

    10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150-400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate-Smith method, varied from 20-25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80-430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg/100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0-80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1-75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130-400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6-94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (cherries was represented by fructose (2,2-3,8%) and glucose (2,5-7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5-932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits. PMID:25816631

  9. Humic substances biological activity at the plant-soil interface: from environmental aspects to molecular factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Sara; Francioso, Ornella; Quaggiotti, Silvia; Nardi, Serenella

    2010-06-01

    Humic substances (HS) represent the organic material mainly widespread in nature. HS have positive effects on plant physiology by improving soil structure and fertility and by influencing nutrient uptake and root architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these events are only partially known. HS have been shown to contain auxin and an "auxin-like" activity of humic substances has been proposed, but support to this hypothesis is fragmentary. In this review article, we are giving an overview of available data concerning molecular structures and biological activities of humic substances, with special emphasis on their hormone-like activities. PMID:20495384

  10. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    OpenAIRE

    Gorash E. Y.; Victorova E. P.; Kupin G. A.; Aleshin V. N.; Lisovoy V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose), possessing antit...

  11. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorash E. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, possessing antitoxic, antioxidant, radiation protective, cholesterol-lowering and lipid correcting qualities, and also a source of vitamins C, B9 (folic acid and P-active substances, possessing antioxidant properties. Due to high content in food red beet of a complex of microelements – iron, zinc, manganese and copper, and a complex of macro elements – potassium and magnesium, it can be recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis and other diseases of heart and vascular system, and for prophylaxis of iron-deficiency anemia. Thus, the research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances showed that food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety are a high quality component ingredient for creation of food products of specialized and functional purpose

  12. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC OF RATS LIVER UNDER PRE-SLAUGHTER STRESS AND USAGE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    OpenAIRE

    Grabovskyi S. S.; Grabovska O. S.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied morphometric parameters of rats’ liver under stress conditions using the biologically active substances of plant and animal origin: spleen, Echinacea and Chinese lemon extracts, sprouted grain. Aerosol introduction of spleen extract to the rats feed for five days before slaughter was caused to liver morphological state moderate deviation, indicating the antistressors properties of polyamines contained in this extract. The results of model experiment on rats can be used ...

  13. THE SEMANTIC INFORMATION MODEL FOR CLUSTER "BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN FEEDING AND COSMETICS"

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Velikov

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a unified data model for cluster "Biologically active substances in feeding and cosmetics”. The basic information components and their relationship are indicated. The information system provides the data in a structured format thereby realize the concept of interoperability and allows the integration of different systems, storages, processing and re-using of information. The best practices for combining and adapting information resources to support semantic interoperabili...

  14. REGULATION OF PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF CHICORY PLANTS BY FOLIAR APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    OpenAIRE

    MAREK KOVÁR; IVAN ČERNÝ

    2012-01-01

    In this study were evaluated both the growth and yield potentials of three chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) varieties ('Fredonia Nova', 'Oesia' a 'Maurane') growing in natural agro-ecological conditions from 2006 to 2008. Regulation of the crop productivity by foliar application of biologically active substances (Atonik, Polybor 150, and Biafit Gold) was also studied. Evaluation of growth-production performance of chicory was realized as: leaf area index (LAI), photosynthetic potentia...

  15. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF LAVANDULA X INTERMEDIA EMERIC EX LOISEL (LAMIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Paliy; V. D. Rabotyagov

    2016-01-01

    Data about qualitative and quantitative composition of biologically active substances (volatile and phenolic compounds) in water- ethanol extract of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel (Lamiaceae) cv. ‘Bora’ bred in Nikitsky Botanical Garden are presented in the article. Concentration of volatile compounds in Lavandin extract was 398 mg/dm3 and 51 components were identified. Main volatiles in Lavandin cv. «Bora» extract were linalyl acetate (36,9%) and linalool (33,5%). Content of phenoli...

  16. Stochastic description of the ligand-receptor interaction of biologically active substances at extremely low doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Konstantin G; Agutter, Paul S; Wheatley, Denys N

    2003-04-01

    Signalling molecules can be effective at extraordinarily low concentrations (down to attomolar levels). To handle such cases, probabilistic methods have been used to describe the formal kinetics of action of biologically active substances in these low doses, although it has been necessary to review what is meant by such a term. The mean numbers of transformed/degraded molecules and their dispersions were calculated for the possible range of ligand-receptor binding schemes. We used both analytical equations and numerical simulations to calculate the coefficients of variation (ratio of standard deviation to mean) and demonstrated that the distribution of the coefficient is highly dependent on the reaction scheme. It may, therefore, be used as an additional factor for discriminating between cooperative and noncooperative models of ligand-receptor interaction over extreme ranges of ligand dilution. The relevance to signalling behaviour is discussed.

  17. SiC nanoparticles as potential carriers for biologically active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Lora, Ibeth; Czosnek, Cezary; Smycz, Aleksandra; Janik, Jerzy F.; Kozik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Silicon carbide SiC thanks to its many advantageous properties has found numerous applications in diverse areas of technology. In this regard, its nanosized forms often with novel properties have been the subject of intense research in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the binding of biologically active substances onto SiC nanopowders as a new approach to biomolecule immobilization in terms of their prospective applications in medicine or for biochemical detection. The SiC nanoparticles were prepared by a two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis from neat hexamethyldisiloxane. The binding of several proteins (bovine serum albumin, high molecular weight kininogen, immunoglobulin G) on SiC particle surfaces was demonstrated at the levels of 1-2 nanograms per mg of SiC. These values were found to significantly increase after suitable chemical modifications of nanoparticle surfaces (by carbodiimide or 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane treatment). The study of SiC biocompatibility showed a lack of cytotoxicity against macrophages-like cells below the concentration of 1 mg nanoparticles per mL. In summary, we demonstrated the successful immobilization of the selected substances on the SiC nanoparticles. These results including the cytotoxicity study make nano-SiC highly attractive for potential applications in medicine, biotechnology or molecular detection.

  18. DIFFERENTIATION OF EXOTOXIN AND OTHER BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOMALLEI FILTRATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HECKLY, R J

    1964-12-01

    Heckly, Robert J. (University of California, Berkeley). Differentiation of exotoxin and other biologically active substances in Pseudomonas pseudomallei filtrates. J. Bacteriol. 88:1730-1736. 1964.-Denaturing agents such as phenol, formaldehyde, and urea reduced lethal toxicity and proteolytic activity of partially purified preparations from Pseudomonas pseudomallei at about the same rate. Neither toxin nor enzyme was stable at pH 11, when the solution was adjusted with sodium hydroxide, but there was a slight difference in their rates of inactivation. However, under certain conditions, ammonium hydroxide destroyed most of the enzymatic activity with only a slight effect on lethality. Conversely, toxin was less stable in acid solutions than was the enzyme. Thus, treatment with ammonium hydroxide or acetic acid yielded preparations with either a low or a high enzyme-to-toxin ratio, indicating that lethality was not dependent on enzyme activity. Although proteolysis of any one of the essential factors in the blood coagulation system can inhibit clotting of blood, the potent anticoagulant activity of culture filtrates was not associated with its proteolytic activity, but was directly correlated with lethal toxicity. It is of considerable interest that the necrotoxicity was, however, associated with enzymatic activity and not with lethality. Serological reactivity of the enzyme, as well as its proteolytic activity, was altered by ammonium hydroxide. Similarly, antigenicity and toxicity of the lethal toxin were reduced by acidification. Each acid- or alkali-treated preparation produced a single precipitin line in double diffusion in agar when reacted with antisera produced by injection of crude filtrate. Partially purified preparations, having both lethal and enzymatic activity, produced two lines, one identifiable with the enzyme preparation, and one with the toxin. Furthermore, specific precipitation with the respective antisera removed either enzyme or toxin from

  19. Humic substances biological activity at the plant-soil interface: From environmental aspects to molecular factors

    OpenAIRE

    Trevisan, Sara; Francioso, Ornella; Quaggiotti, Silvia; Nardi, Serenella

    2010-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) represent the organic material mainly widespread in nature. HS have positive effects on plant physiology by improving soil structure and fertility and by influencing nutrient uptake and root architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these events are only partially known. HS have been shown to contain auxin and an “auxin-like” activity of humic substances has been proposed, but support to this hypothesis is fragmentary. In this review article, we a...

  20. Influence of biologically-active substances on 137Cs and heavy metals uptake by Barley plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: When solving the problem of contaminated agricultural lands rehabilitation, most of attention is concentrated on the effective means which allow the obtaining of ecologically safe production. The minimization of radionuclides and heavy metals (HM) content in farm products on the basis of their migration characteristics in agro-landscapes and with the regard for different factors influencing contaminants behavior in the soil-plant system is of great significance. Our investigation has shown that the effect of biologically active substances (BAS) using for seeds treatment on 137Cs transfer to barley grown on Cd contaminated soil was dependent on their properties and dosage, characteristics of soil contamination and biological peculiarities of plants, including stage of plants development. Seeds treatment by plant growth regulator Zircon resulted in a significant increase in 137Cs activity in harvest (40- 50%), increase in K concentration and significant reduction in Ca concentration. Increased Cd content in soil reduced 137Cs transfer to barley plants by 30-60% (p137Cs uptake by roots and Cd and Pb phyto-toxicity. The experimental data do not make it possible to link the BAS effect on inhibition of 137Cs absorption by plants directly with their influence on HM phyto-toxicity. The dependence of Concentration Ratio of 137Cs on the Ambiol and El dose was not proportional and the most significant decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants was reported with the use of dose showing the most pronounced stimulating effect on the barley growth and development. The pre-sowing seed treatment with Ambiol increased Pb absorption by 35-50% and, on the contrary, decreased Cd uptake by plants by 30-40%. (authors)

  1. Effect of Supercritical Fluids on the Biological Activity of Absidia coerulea for the Hydroxylation of Reichsterin's Substance Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Feng LIU; Hui Ming ZHU; Tuan Wei ZHANG; Bao Quan ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The viability and biological activity of Absidia coerulea in compressed or supercritical CO2 and C2H4 were studied. The specific activity ofAbsidia coerulea in 7.5MPa CO2 and C2H4 at 306K can reach to 23% and 75% respectively, leading to the feasibility of using supercritical C2H4as an alternative to the organic solvent in the hydroxylation of Reichsterin's substance acetate.

  2. First Evaluation of the Biologically Active Substances and Antioxidant Potential of Regrowth Velvet Antler by means of Multiple Biochemical Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biologically active substances contained in RVA (regrowth velvet antler by comparing the composition of biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of different antler segments. RVA was subjected to extraction using DW (distilled water. RVA was divided into 3 segments: T-RVA (top RVA, M-RVA (middle RVA, and B-RVA (base RVA. The T-RVA section possessed the greatest amounts of uronic acid (36.251 mg/g, sulfated GAGs (sulfated glycosaminoglycans (555.76 mg/g, sialic acid (111.276 mg/g, uridine (0.957 mg/g, uracil (1.084 mg/g, and hypoxanthine (1.2631 mg/g. In addition, the T-RVA section possessed the strongest antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH, H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl, and ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate radical scavenging activity as well as FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity. The values of those were 53.44, 23.09, 34.12, 60.31, and 35.81 TE/μM at 1 mg/mL and 113.57 TE/μM at 20 μg/mL. These results indicate that the T-RVA section possesses the greatest amount of biologically active substances and highest antioxidant potential. This is the first report on the biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of RVA.

  3. Biologically active substances-enriched diet regulates gonadotrope cell activation pathway in liver of adult and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszkiel, Hanna; Wilczak, Jacek; Jank, Michał

    2014-09-01

    According to the Hippocrates' theorem "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food", dietary interventions may induce changes in the metabolic and inflammatory state by modulating the expression of important genes involved in the chronic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of long-term (14 months) use of biologically active substances-enriched diet (BASE-diet) on transcriptomic profile of rats' liver. The experiment was conducted on 36 Sprague-Dawley rats divided into two experimental groups (fed with control or BASE-diet, both n = 18). Control diet was a semi-synthetic diet formulated according to the nutritional requirements for laboratory animals. The BASE-diet was enriched with a mixture of polyphenolic compounds, β-carotene, probiotics, and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In total, n = 3,017 differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified, including n = 218 DE genes between control and BASE groups after 3 months of feeding and n = 1,262 after 14 months. BASE-diet influenced the expression of genes involved particularly in the gonadotrope cell activation pathway and guanylate cyclase pathway, as well as in mast cell activation, gap junction regulation, melanogenesis and apoptosis. Especially genes involved in regulation of GnRH were strongly affected by BASE-diet. This effect was stronger with the age of animals and the length of diet use. It may suggest a link between the diet, reproductive system function and aging. PMID:25156242

  4. Influence of some biologically active substances on amount of MGMT and MARP proteins in human cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsarenko K. V.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate an effect of biologically active compounds IFN-α2b, EMAPII, Card medium, fibronectin on the amount of MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and MARP (anti-Methyltransferase Antibody Recognizable Protein proteins in human cells in vitro. Methods. The human cells of 4BL, Hep-2 and A102 lines were treated with growth factors and cytokines. Changes in the amount of MGMT and MARP proteins were studied by Western blot analysis with anti-MGMT mAbs. Results. The treatment of A102 cells with EMAPII, fibronectin, Laferon and Card medium led to a decreased level of the MGMT protein, whereas the amount of MARP was highly increased in these cells. The treatment with the recombinant protein IFN-α2b increased the amount of MGMT and MARP proteins in Hep-2 cells. The treatment with extracts of transgenic plants,containing human IFN-α2b, caused a significant decrease in the content of both proteins in Hep-2 cells and MARP in 4BL cells. Conclusions. Both MGMT and MARP are highly inducible proteins. Their amount in cells can be changed by some growth factors (Card medium, fibronectin, cytokine (IFN-α2b, cytokine-like (EMAPII or cytokine-containing substances (Laferon and IFN-α2b in plant extracts. This regulation depended not only on the type of biologically active substances but on the cell line used in this study as well.

  5. Biologically active substances of edible insects and their use in agriculture, veterinary and human medicine a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Mlcek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of edible insect use in Western countries is now increasingly debated issue. Insects in Asian, African, American and South Central American cultures are mainly nutritional components. In Europe and other developed countries, however, insect is used in different ways, and this issue is viewed from a different angle. Insects are mainly used as feed for animals, in the organic waste recycling systems, in human and veterinary medicine, material production (such as silk etc. This review summarizes up-to-date knowledge about using edible insects in human, veterinary medicine and agriculture, especially from the viewpoint of the biological and chemical content of active substances and the possibilities of further use in these areas.

  6. Effect of heat treatment with biologically active substances on the functioning of low-molecular antioxidant system during the storage of sweet bell pepper fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Priss, Olesia; Zahorko, Nadiya

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact, that combination of heat treatment and treatment with exogenous biologically active substances increases shelf life of sweet bell pepper fruits and facilitates decreasing of metabolism, influence of such treatment on functioning of low-molecular antioxidant system was not studied. Used in this research hybrids of sweet bell pepper Hercules and Nikita were grown in the open-field conditions. Fruits were dipped for 15 min. into the prepared composition of biologically active s...

  7. INNOVATIONS AND MARKET OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN FEEDING AND COSMETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Slaveyka Paneva; Stefan Velikov; Krasimira Markova

    2015-01-01

    This article present a model of the markets for nutritional supplements and cosmetics using as a fundamental processes of efficient coordination of activities, access to innovation, quality management through a systematic approach and strategic goal is the improvement of competitiveness. It is based on the system interoperability, which enables its integration to the common strategy and further developing. Using semantic approach allows for the integration of different systems, storage, proce...

  8. Biologically active antimicrobial and antioxidant substances in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatrcová-Šramková, Katarína; Nôžková, Janka; Máriássyová, Magda; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the content of flavonoids, polyphenols, and carotenoids in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen. It was also to evaluate the ability of the dried, frozen, and freeze-dried extracts of sunflower (H. annuus) pollen, its scavenged free radicals and reducing action. Another aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial in vitro action of the H. annuus pollen extracts against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. All pollen extracts showed medium antiradical activity and reductive ability. The most effective was the freeze-dried extract in both evaluation systems. The evaluation of the protective effects of DNA using a biosensor showed an opposite trending-frozen ˃ dried ˃ freeze-dried pollen. For the evaluation of antiradical activity, the DPPH method was used, and reductive ability was assessed by means of phosphomolybdic complex formation. The comparison of the polyphenols content shows higher values in freeze-dried bee pollen than in the dried and frozen pollen. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the frozen samples and the most carotenoids were present in the dried samples. In our study, the best antibacterial effects of the dried sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best inhibitory properties of the frozen sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paenibacillus larvae. Very good inhibitory effects of freeze-dried sunflower bee pollen were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Brochotrix thermosphacta, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best antifungal activity of the sunflower bee pollen was found in the frozen bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus ochraceus and freeze-dried bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus niger. PMID:26674447

  9. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Martini; José V. Tarazona; M. Victoria Pablos

    2012-01-01

    Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetra...

  10. Influence of some biologically active substances on amount of MGMT and MARP proteins in human cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsarenko K. V.; Lylo V. V.; Macewicz L. L.; Ruban T. P.; Luchakivska Yu. S.; Kuchuk M. V.; Lukash L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To investigate an effect of biologically active compounds IFN-α2b, EMAPII, Card medium, fibronectin on the amount of MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) and MARP (anti-Methyltransferase Antibody Recognizable Protein) proteins in human cells in vitro. Methods. The human cells of 4BL, Hep-2 and A102 lines were treated with growth factors and cytokines. Changes in the amount of MGMT and MARP proteins were studied by Western blot analysis with anti-MGMT mAbs. Results. The treatment...

  11. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger Wolf

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. Results A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of α- and β-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%. The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol, which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. Conclusions The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds.

  12. Biological monitoring of polyfluoroalkyl substances: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Magali; Martin, Jonathan W; Letcher, Robert J; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C G

    2006-06-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFSs) are used in industrial and commercial products and can degrade to persistent perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). Temporal trend studies using human, fish, bird, and marine mammal samples indicate that exposure to PFSs has increased significantly over the past 15-25 years. This review summarizes the biological monitoring of PFCAs, PFSAs, and related PFSs in wildlife and humans, compares concentrations and contamination profiles among species and locations, evaluatesthe bioaccumulation/biomagnification in the environment, discusses possible sources, and identifies knowledge gaps. PFSs can reach elevated concentrations in humans and wildlife inhabiting industrialized areas of North America, Europe, and Asia (2-30,000 ng/ mL or ng/g of wet weight (ww)). PFSs have also been detected in organisms from the Arctic and mid-ocean islands (sentinel species and standardization of analytical methods are recommended. PMID:16786681

  13. Are fish and standardized FETAX assays protective enough for amphibians? A case study on Xenopus laevis larvae assay with biologically active substances present in livestock wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Federica; Tarazona, José V; Pablos, M Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium) that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC(50)) and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians. PMID:22629159

  14. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Federica; Tarazona, José V.; Pablos, M. Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium) that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50) and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians. PMID:22629159

  15. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50 and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians.

  16. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Allison A. (Kennewick, WA); Song, Lin (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphus structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphus structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobal, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflamatory, steriod, nonsteriod anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor the compositions listed above.

  17. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphous structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphous structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobial, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflammatory, steroid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor consisting of the compositions listed above

  18. Fouling of enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactors by humic-like substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorasgari, Eskandar; König, Katja; Fojan, Peter; Keiding, Kristian; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2014-12-01

    Fouling by free extracellular polymeric substances was studied in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor. It was demonstrated that the free extracellular polymeric substances, primarily consisting of humic-like substances, were adsorbed to the membrane used in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor plant. Infrared analyses indicated the presence of the humic-like substances on the membrane's active surface after filtration of the free extracellular polymeric substances suspension. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of a gel layer on the membrane surface after filtration of the free extracellular polymeric substances suspension. The gel layer caused a significant decline in water flux. This layer was not entirely removed by a backwashing, and the membrane's water flux could not be re-established. The membrane used in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor plant showed infrared spectra similar to that fouled by the free extracellular polymeric substances suspension in the laboratory. Thus, the results of this study show the importance of humic-like substances in irreversible fouling of enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor systems. PMID:25014564

  19. [Effect of biologically active substances of animal and plant origin on prooxidant-antioxidant balance in rats with experimental prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotskaia, L I; Nikitchenko, Iu V; Gomon, O N; Chaĭka, L A; Bondar', V V; Dziuba, V N

    2006-01-01

    The effect of biologically active complexes of animal (prostatilen) and plant (permixon) origin on physiological indices of prostate and prooxidant-antioxidant balance in prostate and blood was studied in rats with the hyperprolactinemia-induced prostatic hyperplasia. It was shown that both prostatilen (1 mg of the total peptides per kg) and permixon (100 mg of Serenoa repens extract per kg) prevent increase in the prostate mass and volume, in the content of lipid hydroperoxides, and in the glutathione peroxidase activity in prostate. Prostatilen, in contrast to permixon, normalized the content of lipid hydroperoxides (increased under hyperplazia conditions) and increases glutathione peroxidase activity (reduced under hyperplazia conditions).

  20. Antimycobacterial activity of lichen substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, N K; Pavan, F R; Coelho, R G; de Andrade Leite, S R; Micheletti, A C; Lopes, T I B; Misutsu, M Y; Beatriz, A; Brum, R L; Leite, C Q F

    2010-04-01

    We describe here the extraction and identification of several classes of phenolic compounds from the lichens Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale, Pseudoparmelia sphaerospora (Nyl.) Hale and Usnea subcavata (Motyka) and determined their anti-tubercular activity. The depsides (atranorin, diffractaic and lecanoric acids), depsidones (protocetraric, salazinic, hypostictic and norstictic acids), xanthones (lichexanthone and secalonic acid), and usnic acid, as well seven orsellinic acid esters, five salazinic acid 8',9'-O-alkyl derivatives and four lichexanthone derivatives, were evaluated for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diffractaic acid was the most active compound (MIC value 15.6mug/ml, 41.6 microM), followed by norstictic acid (MIC value 62.5 microg/ml, 168 microM) and usnic acid (MIC value 62.5 microg/ml, 182 microM). Hypostictic acid (MIC value 94.0 microg/ml, 251 microM) and protocetraric acid (MIC value 125 microg/ml, 334 microM) showed moderate inhibitory activity. The other compounds showed lower inhibitory activity on the growth of M. tuberculosis, varying from MIC values of 250 to 1370 microM. PMID:19683421

  1. Managing hazardous activities and substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the process, principles and policies being employed in OECD Member Countries for managing hazardous activities (non-nuclear) and products involving chemicals (non-radioactive). In addition, the author highlights certain areas in the risk management process where certain assumptions and conclusions may be of particular relevance to the goal of a review, reconsideration and restatement of the strategy of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (O.L.)

  2. Research on substances with activity against orthopoxviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kołodziej

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although smallpox was eradicated over 30 years ago, the disease remains a major threat. High mortality, high infectivity and low resistance of the contemporary population make the smallpox virus very attractive to terrorists. The possible presence of illegal stocks of the virus or risk of deliberate genetic modifications cause serious concerns among experts. Hence, it is reasonable to seek effective drugs that could be used in case of smallpox outbreak. This paper reviews studies on compounds with proven in vitro or in vivo antipoxviruses potential, which show various mechanisms of action. Nucleoside analogues, such as cidofovir, can inhibit virus replication. Cidofovir derivatives are developed to improve the bioavailability of the drug. Among the nucleoside analogues under current investigation are: ANO (adenozine N[sub]1[/sub]-oxide and its derivatives, N-methanocarbothymidine [(N-MCT], or derivatitives of aciklovir, peninclovir and brivudin. Recently, ST-246 – which effectively inhibits infection by limiting release of progeny virions – has become an object of attention. It has been also been demonstrated that compounds such as: nigericin, aptamers and peptides may have antiviral potential. An interesting strategy to fight infections was presented in experiments aimed at defining the role of individual genes (E3L, K3L or C6L in the pathogenesis, and looking for their potential blockers. Additionally, among substances considered to be effective in the treatment of smallpox cases, there are factors that can block viral inhibitors of the human complement system, epidermal growth factor inhibitors or immunomodulators. Further studies on compounds with activity against poxviruses are necessary in order to broaden the pool of available means that could be used in the case of a new outbreak of smallpox.

  3. The immersion freezing behavior of mineral dust particles mixed with biological substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Wex, H.; Denjean, C.; Hartmann, S.; Schneider, J.; Schmidt, S.; Ebert, M.; Stratmann, F.

    2015-10-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INM). It has been suggested that these INM maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INM in e.g., soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INM. If particles from such soils which contain biological INM are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above -20 up to almost 0 °C. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a measurement campaign within the research unit INUIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX) with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). To characterize the mixing state of the generated aerosol we used different methods which will also be discussed. We found that internally mixed particles, containing ice active biological material, follow the ice nucleation behavior observed for the purely biological particles, i.e. freezing occurs at temperatures at which mineral dusts themselves are not yet ice active. It can be concluded that INM located on a mineral dust particle determine the freezing behavior of that particle.

  4. The immersion freezing behavior of mineral dust particles mixed with biological substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Augustin-Bauditz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INM. It has been suggested that these INM maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INM in e.g., soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INM. If particles from such soils which contain biological INM are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above −20 up to almost 0 °C. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a measurement campaign within the research unit INUIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS. To characterize the mixing state of the generated aerosol we used different methods which will also be discussed. We found that internally mixed particles, containing ice active biological material, follow the ice nucleation behavior observed for the purely biological particles, i.e. freezing occurs at temperatures at which mineral dusts themselves are not yet ice active. It can be concluded that INM located on a mineral dust particle determine the freezing behavior of that particle.

  5. Production and characterization of antimicrobial active substance from Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M El-Sheekh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to investigate the ability of Spirulina platensis to produce antimicrobial substance against bacteria and fungi.The cells of the cyanobacterium were subjected to different extractions and the purified antagonistic compound proved to be effective against broad spectrum of bacteria and fungi. The antagonistic compound was purified using thin layer chromatography.The results indicated that the IR spectrum showed bands at 1269 cm(-1, 1414 cm(-1 (C-O-C, 1643 cm(-1 (CO of amide,1563 cm(-1 (C = C and broad band 3441 cm(-1 (of OH and NH., (1HNMR showed δ 0.8 (-CH3, δ 1.2 (-CH2, δ 4.2(-OH, δ 7.2(-NH, δ 7.4 and δ 7.7 (aromatic CH., Mass spectrum showed molecular ion beak at m/z = 341 (abundance (0.03%. Also, the elemental analysis gave molecular formula,C15H18NO8.The purified antimicrobial compound produced by S. platensis was more active against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and unicellular fungi, C. albicans. The highest biological activity was recorded against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. The results of this investigation proved that cyanobacteria could be a good source for production of antimicrobial agents which could be effective when compared with contemporary antimicrobial compounds.

  6. Effects of addictive substances during pregnancy and infancy and their analysis in biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka, Justyna; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Polkowska, Zaneta; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The use of addictive substances during pregnancy is a serious social problem, not only because of effects on the health of the woman and child, but also because drug or alcohol dependency detracts from child care and enhances the prospect of child neglect and family breakdown. Developing additive substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women is socially important and can help ensure the health of babies, prevent subsequent developmental and behavioral problems (i.e., from intake of alcohol or other additive substances such as methamphetamine, cocaine,or heroine) and can reduce addiction costs to society. Because women of childbearing age often abuse controlled substances during their pregnancy, it is important to undertake biomonitoring of these substances in biological samples taken from the pregnant or nursing mother (e.g., blood, urine,hair, breast milk, sweat, oral fluids, etc.), from the fetus and newborn (e.g., meconium,cord blood, neonatal hair and urine) and from both the mother and fetus (i.e.,amniotic fluids and placenta). The choice of specimens to be analyzed is determined by many factors; however, the most important is knowledge of the chemical and physical characteristics of a substance and the route of it administration. Maternal and neonatal biological materials reflect exposures that occur over a specific time period, and each of these biological specimens has different advantages and disadvantages,in terms of accuracy, time window of exposure and cost/benefit ratio.Sampling the placenta may be the most important biomonitoring choice for assessing in utero exposure to addictive substances. The use of the placenta in scientific research causes a minimum of ethical problems, partly because its sampling is noninvasive, causes no harm to mother or child, and partly because, in any case,placentas are discarded and incinerated after birth. Such samples, when properly analyzed, may provide key essential information about fetal exposure to toxic

  7. Effects of addictive substances during pregnancy and infancy and their analysis in biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka, Justyna; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Polkowska, Zaneta; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The use of addictive substances during pregnancy is a serious social problem, not only because of effects on the health of the woman and child, but also because drug or alcohol dependency detracts from child care and enhances the prospect of child neglect and family breakdown. Developing additive substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women is socially important and can help ensure the health of babies, prevent subsequent developmental and behavioral problems (i.e., from intake of alcohol or other additive substances such as methamphetamine, cocaine,or heroine) and can reduce addiction costs to society. Because women of childbearing age often abuse controlled substances during their pregnancy, it is important to undertake biomonitoring of these substances in biological samples taken from the pregnant or nursing mother (e.g., blood, urine,hair, breast milk, sweat, oral fluids, etc.), from the fetus and newborn (e.g., meconium,cord blood, neonatal hair and urine) and from both the mother and fetus (i.e.,amniotic fluids and placenta). The choice of specimens to be analyzed is determined by many factors; however, the most important is knowledge of the chemical and physical characteristics of a substance and the route of it administration. Maternal and neonatal biological materials reflect exposures that occur over a specific time period, and each of these biological specimens has different advantages and disadvantages,in terms of accuracy, time window of exposure and cost/benefit ratio.Sampling the placenta may be the most important biomonitoring choice for assessing in utero exposure to addictive substances. The use of the placenta in scientific research causes a minimum of ethical problems, partly because its sampling is noninvasive, causes no harm to mother or child, and partly because, in any case,placentas are discarded and incinerated after birth. Such samples, when properly analyzed, may provide key essential information about fetal exposure to toxic

  8. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE AGENTS ON A STRUCTURAL STATE AND THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF BLACK ORDINARY CARBONATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lychman V. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-term research of the influence of various biologically active agents (a humic preparation Lignogumat and microbiological Baikal EM fertilizer on a structural state and the enzymatic activity of ordinary carbonated black soil are presented. It has been established that biologically active substances contribute to increased enzymatic activity, humus and improve the soil structure

  9. Why do games work? In search of the active substance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Peters, V.; Caluwé, de L.; Martens, D.

    2009-01-01

    During the ISAGA2007 conference in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, the foundation was laid for a book that tries to find answers to the questions "Why do games work? What is the active substance that makes them do what they do?" Now, one year later, over 20 authors from different fields, from different d

  10. Biological activity of ionene polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Ionene polymers are polyammonium salts with positive nitrogens in the backbone, resulting from the polycondensation of diamines with dihalides or from the polycondensation of halo amines. The mechanism of formation of ionene polymers of different structures and their biological activity is reviewed. The antimicrobial and antifungal properties are compared with low molecular weight ammonium salts. Ionenes were found to combine with DNA by means of ionic bonds to yield similar complexes to those obtained with polyamines (spermine and spermidine). They also combine with nerve cell receptors and exercise a more powerful and longer duration ganglionic blocking action than their monomeric analogs. The antiheparin activity of ionenes and the thromboresistance of elastomeric ionene heparin coatings is described. The enhanced biological activity of ionenes as compared with low molecular weight compounds is attributed to a cooperative effect of a large number of positive charges on the polymeric chains.

  11. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  12. A novel substance with allelopathic activity in Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Takeshita, Sayaka; Kimura, Fukiko; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2013-12-15

    Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is one of the oldest living tree species and has been widely used in traditional medicine. Leaf extracts of ginkgo, such as the standardized extract EGb761, have become one of the best-selling herbal products. However, no bioactive compound directed at plants has been reported in this species. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic activity and searched for allelopathically active substances in ginkgo leaves. An aqueous methanol leaf extract inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seedlings. The extract was purified by several chromatographic runs and an allelopathically active substance was isolated and identified by spectral analysis to be the novel compound 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid. The compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and timothy at concentrations greater than 3 μM. The activity of the compound was 10- to 52-fold that of nonanoic acid. These results suggest that 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid may contribute to the allelopathic effect caused by ginkgo leaf extract. The compound may also have potential as a template for the development of new plant control substances.

  13. A review of Spinosyns, a derivative of biological acting substances as a class of insecticides with a broad range of action against many insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    Bacci, L.; D. Lupi; Savoldelli, S.; B. Rossaro

    2016-01-01

    Spinosyns are a class of insecticides with a broad range of action against many insect pests belonging to different orders, noxious to a wide variety of agricultural crops; spinosyns were also used against insects of sanitary interest. Spinosyns are derivative of biological active substances produced by soil Actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa; being of biological origin, they are considered to have a low environmental impact and they are not much aggressive against nontarget species. They...

  14. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  15. Molecular characteristics versus biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Smith, Manning A.; Willeford, Bennett R.

    1967-01-01

    The molecular characteristics of mononitrophenols containing halogens not only play a key role in their biological activity but provide a novel example of selective toxicity among vertebrate animals. It has been reported that efforts to control the parasitic sea lamprey in the Great Lakes are directed at present to the applications of a selective toxicant to streams inhabited by lamprey larvae. Since 1961, the larvicide that has been used almost exclusively in the control program has been 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM). However, this is only one of about 15 closely related compounds, all halogen-containing mononitrophenols, that display a selectively toxic action upon lampreys. Although not all of the halogenated mononitrophenols are selectively toxic to lampreys (in fact, fewer than half of those tested), no other group of related compounds has displayed any useful larvicidal activity except for the substituted nitrosalicylanilides.

  16. Biological activity of selected essential oils of the Lamiaceae family

    OpenAIRE

    Havlová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    The Lamiaceae family (the mints) is one of the large groups of plants. These herbs are important for their biological active substances, such as essential oils, tannins, bitter principles, etc. The properties of selected plants from this family are used in many industries. Many of them have been used long due to their medicinal properties and simultaneously they form an indispensable part of many products used for cosmetic purposes. The important ingredients are first of all essential oils, w...

  17. Aqueous media treatment and decontamination of hazardous chemical and biological substances by contact plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usage of non-equilibrium contact plasma for processes of decontamination and neutralization in conditions of manifestation of chemical, biological and radiation terrorism takes on special significance due to portability of equipment and its mobility in places where toxic liquid media hazardous for people's health are located. Processes of decontamination of aqueous media, seminated with pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, treatment of water containing toxic heavy metals, cyanides, surface-active substances, and heavy radioactive elements, are investigated. Examples of activation processes in infected water and toxic aqueous solutions present convincing evidence of the way, how new quality technological approach for achievement of high enough degree of the said media treatment is used in each specific case. Among new properties of water activated as a result of action of non-equilibrium contact plasma, it is necessary to mention presence of cluster structure, confirmed by well-known spectral and physical-chemical methods, presence of peroxide compounds, active particles and radicals. Anti-microbial activity which is displayed under action of plasma in aqueous media (chemically pure water, drinking water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, as well as other inorganic compounds) towards wide range of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microorganisms allows use them as reliable, accessible and low-cost preparations for increasing the degree of safety of food products. Combination of such processes with known methods of filtration and ultra-filtration gives an efficient and available complex capable of withstanding any threats, which may arise for population and living organisms. Present-day level of machine-building, electrical engineering, and electronics allows predict creation of industrial plasma installations, adapted to conditions of various terrorist threats, with minimized power consumption and optimized technological parameters

  18. Biological Activities of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung-Chul

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 2Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS are continuously produced at a high rate as a by- product of aerobic metabolism. Since tissue damage by free radical increases with age, the reactive oxygen species(ROS such as hydrogen peroxide(H2O2, nitric oxide(NO. Several lines of evidence provided that ROS appears to cause to develop aging-related various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease. Our reserch objective was to examine the in vitro biological activity of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture, including the total poly-phenol content, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, Superoxide dismutase(SOD-like activity, Nitrite scavenging ability. The total poly-phenol contents of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture was 35.859mg/L. Elctron donation ability on DPPH was 36.82%. The 2,2'-azinobis-3-ehtlbezothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid radical decolorization (ABTS was 84.7%. The superoxide dismutase (SOD-like activities of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture was 44.33%. The nitrite scavenging effects were pH dependent, and were highest at pH 1.5(45.2% and lowest at pH 6.0(11.3%. We conclude that Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture may be useful as potential sources of antioxidant.

  19. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Leist, Marcel; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J A M; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of microphysiological systems - microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro - is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various dedicated research programs in Europe and Asia have led recently to the first cutting-edge achievements of human single-organ and multi-organ engineering based on microphysiological systems. The expectation is that test systems established on this basis would model various disease stages, and predict toxicity, immunogenicity, ADME profiles and treatment efficacy prior to clinical testing. Consequently, this technology could significantly affect the way drug substances are developed in the future. Furthermore, microphysiological system-based assays may revolutionize our current global programs of prioritization of hazard characterization for any new substances to be used, for example, in agriculture, food, ecosystems or cosmetics, thus, replacing laboratory animal models used currently. Thirty-six experts from academia, industry and regulatory bodies present here the results of an intensive workshop (held in June 2015, Berlin, Germany). They review the status quo of microphysiological systems available today against industry needs, and assess the broad variety of approaches with fit-for-purpose potential in the drug development cycle. Feasible technical solutions to reach the next levels of human biology in vitro are proposed. Furthermore, key organ-on-a-chip case studies, as well as various national and international programs are highlighted. Finally, a roadmap into the future is outlined, to allow for more predictive and regulatory-accepted substance testing on a global scale. PMID:27180100

  20. Recent Advances in Researches on Physiologically Active Substances in Holothurians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirata Takashi; Zaima Nobuhiro; Yamashita Kyoko; Noguchi Ryoko; XUE Changhu; Sugawara Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we reviewed recent literature on physiologically active substances from sea cucumbers (SCs) and their activities together with results obtained from our study. Preventive properties against lipid metabolism were reported in rats using a whole SC preparation with no particular constituent specified. Administration of the preparation lowered serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and improved the HDL/LDL ratio. These functions may be attributed to the stimulatory effect of the extract on the secretion of cholesterol in feces. Novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCSs) from Ludwigothurea grisea significantly induced fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The proangiogenetic activity seemed attributable to the action of the sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide.SCs contain mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) that are capable of absorbing UV. A biogenetic precursor of MAAs was first reported in SCs. The anti-proliferative effects of a branched chain fatty acid from a sea cucumber on prostate cancer cells was reported with the activity of 5-lipoxygenase. Glycosphingolipid constituents in SCs have been systematically analyzed over the past ten years. The results showed that the gangliosides in several SCs differed from those of mammals in that a sialic acid of SC gangliosides directly binded to glucose of cerebroside. Neuritogenic activity of the glycosphingolipids was demonstrated in vitro experiments and may lead to the development of therapeutic products for neurological disorders. Our study also showed that sphingoid bases, the hydrolyzed products of glycosphingolipids from SCs, induced significant apoptosis in several tumor cell lines.

  1. Chemistry and biology of phototropism-regulating substances in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, S; Hasegawa, K

    2001-01-01

    Most people are familiar with the sight of a young seedling bending towards a window or the brightest source of light to which it is exposed. This directional growth response is known as phototropism, which is caused by a lateral growth-promoting auxin in the bending organ (Cholodny-Went theory, cited in high school textbook). Recently, however, Bruinsma et al., Weiler et al., and Hasegawa et al. independently found that the shaded half did not contain more auxin than the illuminated one. Instead it was found that the even distribution of auxin was accompanied by a lateral gradient of growth inhibiting substances during phototropic curvature (Bruinsma-Hasegawa theory). We have isolated some photo-induced growth inhibitory substances related to phototropism, benzoxazolinones from light-grown maize shoots (Zea mays L.), raphanusanins from radish hypocotyl (Raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus M.), indolyacetonitrile from light-grown shoots (Brassica oleacea L.), 8-epixanthatin from sunflower hypocotyl (Helianthus annus L.), and quite recently uridine from oat coleoptile (Avena sativa L.). Chemical analyses have shown phototropic stimulations to cause curvature by inducing a local unequal distribution of growth-inhibiting substances that antagonize auxin in its cell-elongating activity. Finally, a model is presented for further studies on phototropism.

  2. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    We have developed an assay for a substance from hydra that accelerates foot regeneration in the animal. This substance is specific for the foot as evidenced by the following findings: (1) It is present in the animal as a steep gradient descending from foot to head, paralleling the foot-forming po......We have developed an assay for a substance from hydra that accelerates foot regeneration in the animal. This substance is specific for the foot as evidenced by the following findings: (1) It is present in the animal as a steep gradient descending from foot to head, paralleling the foot...

  3. New Active Organic Substance in Oyster Shell Capable of Scavenging Oxygen Free Radicals with High Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    A light purple organic active substance capable of scavenging hydroxyl radical·OH with a high efficiency was extracted from Oyster shell at an extraction rate of 2.49%.It was found for the first time that this active substance may scavenge ·OH with the efficiency far higher than that of vitamin C.This active substance may scavenge also superoxide radical(O2-·)although the scavenging efficiency is far lower than that of vitamin C.Infrared spectrometry and routine chemical analysis primarily reveal that this active substance belongs to glycoprotein.

  4. Recent advances in researches on physiologically active substances in holothurians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashi, Hirata; Nobuhiro, Zaima; Kyoko, Yamashita; Ryoko, Noguchi; Xue, Changhu; Tatsuya, Sugawara

    2005-07-01

    In this report, we reviewed recent literature on physiologically active substances from sea cucumbers (SCs) and their activities together with results obtained from our study. Preventive properties against lipid metabolism were reported in rats using a whole SC preparation with no particular constituent specified. Administration of the preparation lowered serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and improved the HDL/LDL ratio. These functions may be attributed to the stimulatory effect of the extract on the secretion of cholesterol in feces. Novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCSs) from Ludwigothurea grisea significantly induced fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HU-VECs). The proangiogenetic activity seemed attributable to the action of the sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide. SCs contain mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) that are capable of absorbing UV. A biogenetic precursor of MAAs was first reported in SCs. The anti-proliferative effects of a branched chain fatty acid from a sea cucumber on prostate cancer cells was reported with the activity of 5-lipoxygenase. Glycosphingolipid constituents in SCs have been systematically analyzed over the past ten years. The results showed that the gangliosides in several SCs differed from those of mammals in that a sialic acid of SC gangliosides directly binded to glucose of cerebroside. Neuritogenic activity of the glycosphingolipids was demonstrated in vitro experiments and may lead to the development of therapeutic products for neurological disorders. Our study also showed that sphingoid bases, the hydrolyzed products of glycosphingolipids from SCs, induced significant apoptosis in several tumor cell lines.

  5. The physico-chemical properties and biostimulative activities of humic substances regenerated from lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jan; Smejkalová, Daniela; Hudecová, Sárka; Zmeškal, Oldřich; von Wandruszka, Ray; Gregor, Tomáš; Kučerík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The positive effect of humic acids on the growth of plant roots is well known, however, the mechanisms and role of their physical structure in these processes have not been fully explained yet. In this work, South-Moravian lignite was oxidized by means of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to produce a set of regenerated humic acids. The elemental composition, solid state stability and solution characteristics were determined and correlated in vitro with their biological activity. A modified hydroponic method was applied to determine the effects of their potassium salts on Zea mays seedlings roots with respect to the plant weight, root length, root division, and starch and protein content. The relations between the determined parameters were evaluated through Principal Component Analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicated that the most important factor determining the biological activity of South-Moravian lignite potassium humates is related to the nature of self-assemblies, while the chemical composition had no direct connection with the root growth of Zea mays seedlings. It was demonstrated a controlled processing that provided humic substances with different chemical and physicochemical properties and variable biological activity. PMID:24790812

  6. A data-independent acquisition workflow for qualitative screening of new psychoactive substances in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Juliet; Negreira, Noelia; Ibáñez, María; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Hernández, Félix; Covaci, Adrian; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2015-11-01

    Identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is challenging. Developing targeted methods for their analysis can be difficult and costly due to their impermanence on the drug scene. Accurate-mass mass spectrometry (AMMS) using a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) analyzer can be useful for wide-scope screening since it provides sensitive, full-spectrum MS data. Our article presents a qualitative screening workflow based on data-independent acquisition mode (all-ions MS/MS) on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to QTOFMS for the detection and identification of NPS in biological matrices. The workflow combines and structures fundamentals of target and suspect screening data processing techniques in a structured algorithm. This allows the detection and tentative identification of NPS and their metabolites. We have applied the workflow to two actual case studies involving drug intoxications where we detected and confirmed the parent compounds ketamine, 25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, and several predicted phase I and II metabolites not previously reported in urine and serum samples. The screening workflow demonstrates the added value for the detection and identification of NPS in biological matrices.

  7. Biologically active constituents of leaves and roots of Aloe arborescens var. natalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, T; Suga, T

    1977-01-01

    Several biologically active substances, such as aloenin (1), magnesium lactate, aloe-emodin (4), barbaloin (5), and succinic acid, were found to be contained in the leaf juice of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis Berger, which has widely been used in domestic medicines. Aloenin (1) and magnesium lactate were elucidated to exhibit an inhibitory action on the gastric juice secretion of rats. Various constituents other than the above bioactive substances were found in the leaves and the roots of the plant. PMID:145111

  8. Bacteriocins and other bioactive substances of probiotic lactobacilli as biological weapons against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz, Francisco O; Pascual, Liliana; Giordano, Walter; Barberis, Lucila

    2015-04-01

    In the search of new antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacteriocins-producing probiotic lactobacilli deserve special attention. The inhibitory effects of biosubstances such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and each bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) L23 and L60 on the growth of different gonococcal strains were investigated. Different non-treated and treated cell-free supernatants of two probiotic lactobacilli containing these metabolites were used. The aims of this work were (i) to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the biosubstances produced by two probiotic lactobacilli, estimating the proportion in which each of them is responsible for the inhibitory effect, (ii) to define their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and, (iii) to determine the potential interactions between these biosubstances against N. gonorrhoeae. The main antimicrobial metabolites were the BLIS-es L23 and L60 in comparison with other biosubstances. Proportionally, their contributions to the inhibition on the gonococcal growth were 87.28% and 80.66%, respectively. The MIC values of bacteriocins were promising since these substances, when diluted, showed considerable inhibitory activity for all gonococci. In the interaction between bacteriocins, 100% of synergism was found on the gonococcal growth. In summary, this study indicates that both L23 and L60 could potentially serve to design new bioproducts against N. gonorrhoeae.

  9. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  10. A new biological method for preparing certain sulphurated substances labelled with S35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous investigations have shown that the yolk-sac of embryonic birds' eggs can be used to produce the following reactions: (a) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; (b) fixation of the sulphite on the carbon chain produced by the desulfhydration of l-cysteine, with formation of l-cysteic acid; (c) decarboxylation of the l-cysteic acid into taurine. The enzymatic system which causes reaction (b) has been purified. It also acts as a catalyst in the sulphur-exchange between the cysteine and the mineral sulphide. The authors have utilized these data in preparing sulphurated substances labelled with S35: taurine S35, l-cysteine S35 and l-cysteic acid S35. For each of the three, they discuss the chemical reactions involved, the methods of preparation, the experimental conditions of extraction and purity-control, together with the yields and specific activities obtained. (author)

  11. Understanding the role of extracellular polymeric substances in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal granular sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Randeng; Peng, Yongzhen; Cheng, Zhanli; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-10-01

    The role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process was investigated in a P-accumulating granular sludge system by analyzing the distribution and transfer of P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in the sludge phase, EPS, and the bulk liquid. In the sludge phase, about 30% P, 44.7% K(+), 27.7% Mg(2+), 28% Ca(2+) accumulated in the EPS at the end of aeration. The rate of P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) released from the EPS matrix into the bulk liquid in the anaerobic phase was faster than the rate they were adsorbed from the bulk liquid into the EPS in the aerobic phase. P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were retained in EPS before transferring into the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs). These results suggest that EPS play a critical role in facilitating the accumulation and transfer of P, K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) between PAO cells and bulk liquid. PMID:25063972

  12. Roles of extracellular polymeric substances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is known to mainly rely on the ability of phosphorus-accumulating organisms to take up, transform and store excess amount of phosphorus (P) inside the cells. However, recent studies have revealed considerable accumulation of P also in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of sludge, implying a non-negligible role of EPS in P removal by EBPR sludge. However, the contribution of EPS to P uptake and the forms of accumulated extracellular P vary substantially in different studies, and the underlying mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EPS remains poorly understood. This review provides a new recognition into the P removal process in EBPR system by incorporating the role of EPS. It overviews on the characteristics of P accumulation in EPS, explores the mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EBPR sludge and EPS, summarizes the main influential factors for the P-accumulation properties of EPS, and discusses the remaining knowledge gaps and needed future efforts that may lead to better understanding and use of such an EPS role for maximizing P recovery from wastewater. PMID:26143588

  13. Biological monitoring of organic substances in workers of a hazardous waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agramunt, C.; Domingo, J.L.; Bocio, A.; Nadal, M. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Muller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    In recent years, incineration has been one of the most frequently used technologies for hazardous waste treatment. However, health risks and the potential environmental impact of hazardous waste incinerators (HWI) are still issues of major concern. The reason is the association of stack emissions of semivolatile and volatile compounds from HWI with their potential adverse health effects. Some compounds of special interest are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In relation to this, HWI workers can be potentially exposed to PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other pollutants with a well-known toxicity. Since 1999, the only HWI in Spain has been operating in Constanti (Tarragona, Catalonia). It has a burning furnace that operates at a temperature of 1100 C and can burn 30,000 tons of hazardous waste per year. The purpose of the present survey was to determine after four years of regular operations in the facility, the concentrations in blood and urine of the HWI workers of a number of organic substances directly related with HWI and to which workers could be exposed. Human biological monitoring evaluates the degree of internal exposure to a defined environmental or occupational pollutant of individuals or population groups. The results of the current study have been compared with the baseline levels.

  14. Removal of priority and emerging substances by biological and tertiary treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Mailler, Romain; Gasperi, Johnny; Rocher, Vincent; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2013-01-01

    10 p. International audience My researches are divided in two principal parts. The first part concerns the fate of micropollutants in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) composed by primary and biological treatments. Different studies have been held by OPUR research program on primary treatments, conventional activated sludge (CAS) and biofiltration (BF), the thesis will synthesize them and add data from measurement campaigns on industrial scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) un...

  15. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF FURAN DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Anupam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Furan derivative are an important class of heterocyclic compound that possess important biological properties. From last few decades a considerable amount of attention has been focussed on synthesis of Furan derivatives and screening them for different pharmacological activities.The furan ring system is the basic skeleton of numerous compounds possessing cardiovascular activities. An iodinated lipophilic furan derivative is widely used in the treatment of ventricular and atrial fibrillation. These moieties are widely employed as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antitumor, Antihyperglycemic, Analgesic, Anticonvulsant etc. Slight change in substitution pattern in furan nucleus causes distinguishable difference in their biological activities. In this review we are discussing about synthesis and various biological activities of newly synthesized furan derivatives.

  16. Xanthane sesquiterpenoids: structure, synthesis and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasas, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this review is to survey the naturally occurring xanthanes and xanthanolides, their structures, biological activities, structure–activity relationships and synthesis. There has been no comprehensive review of this topic previously. On the basis of 126 references, 112 compounds are summarized. PMID:21321751

  17. CYTOTOXIC AND DNA-DAMAGE ACTIVITY OF THE PREBIOTIC SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Safronova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the widespread of the ecological disorders and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals there is an increased interest in probiotic products (probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotic, which showed its efficacy and safety in their treatment and prevention. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cell culture of a human larynx cancer НЕр-2 were used to study cyto- and DNA-damage effects of several polysaccharides (arabinogalactan and nanobiocomposite of arabinogalactan with flavonoids, karraginan, galactomannan and their hydrolyzed derivatives, which are new perspective prebiotic substances. Cytotoxic potential of substances was determined from MTT-assay and DNA-damage effects were determined by morphological and structural features of cell nuclei. The synergic action of the polysaccharides with chemical triggers of cellular damages (hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, nitrosomethylurea was evaluated. The studied substances possessed no cyto- and DNA-damage action on the yeast and mammalian cells. It was shown that polysaccharides were able to enhance the effects of hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid and nitrosomethylurea. Nature of the marked effects remains unclear, but it may be assumed that the studied prebiotic substances can be used to enhance the effects of some chemical compounds and appear promising for use in integrated biomedical preparations of varied spectrum.

  18. The Dose-Response Relationship of Adolescent Religious Activity and Substance Use: Variation across Demographic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Kenneth J.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Sahr, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses two inconsistent findings in the literature on adolescent religious activity (RA) and substance use: whether a dose-response relationship characterizes the association of these variables, and whether the association varies by grade, gender, ethnicity, family structure, school type, and type of substance. Multinomial logistic…

  19. New materials and biologically active preparations on the basis of (organilthio) chloroacetylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D'yachkova; S.; G.

    2005-01-01

    (Organylthio)chloroacetylenes [RSC≡CCl, 1], the object of our systematic research, provide a promising source of new classes of polyfunctional compounds of acetylenic and polyheterocyclic seriesamong which biologically active substances, monomers and precursors for the preparation of new materials possessing a whole complex of valuable properties have been recognized.……

  20. New materials and biologically active preparations on the basis of (organilthio) chloroacetylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ (Organylthio)chloroacetylenes [RSC≡CCl, 1], the object of our systematic research, provide a promising source of new classes of polyfunctional compounds of acetylenic and polyheterocyclic seriesamong which biologically active substances, monomers and precursors for the preparation of new materials possessing a whole complex of valuable properties have been recognized.

  1. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  2. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand

    2009-07-01

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  3. THE ROLE OF COMPLEX COMPOST IN THE BIOLOGICAL CYCLE OF ELEMENTS AND SUBSTANCES AND SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Complicated compost with organic and mineral components, has a serious impact on the physical, chemical and biological properties of topsoil significantly modifies its cycles of elements and substances; with the Carboniferous and up to now it has been established the supremacy of the recovery processes in landscapes as compared to oxidation processes through the introduction of complicated compost in their stabilizing factors

  4. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. New biologically active hydrogen sulfide donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Thomas; Raynaud, Francoise; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Ransy, Céline; Simonet, Serge; Crespo, Christine; Bourguignon, Marie-Pierre; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vilaine, Jean-Paul; Artaud, Isabelle; Galardon, Erwan

    2013-11-25

    Generous donors: The dithioperoxyanhydrides (CH3 COS)2 , (PhCOS)2 , CH3 COSSCO2 Me and PhCOSSCO2 Me act as thiol-activated hydrogen sulfide donors in aqueous buffer solution. The most efficient donor (CH3 COS)2 can induce a biological response in cells, and advantageously replace hydrogen sulfide in ex vivo vascular studies. PMID:24115650

  6. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo CAC; LL Leon

    2001-01-01

    There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammator...

  7. BENZIMIDAZOLES: THE LATEST INFORMATION ON BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Gurvinder; Kaur Maninderjit; Chander Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. It is an important pharmacophore and a privileged structure in medicinal chemistry. Benzimidazole and its derivatives play an important role in medical field with large number of Pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiabetic and anticancer activity. This review is summarized to know about the chemistry of different derivatives of benzimidazoles along with their biological actions such as antioxidant, antimi...

  8. Biological effects of high-diluted substances and periodic table of elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloe Taddei-Ferretti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. There are several experimental evidences for the effects of high-diluted substances (see e.g. C. Taddei-Ferretti, A. Cotugno 1997, on effects of high-diluted drugs on the prevention and control of mice teratogenicity induced by purine derivatives; N.C. Sukul, C. Taddei-Ferretti, S.P. Sinha Babu, A. De, B. Nandi, A. Sukul, R. Dutta-Nag 2000, on high-diluted Nux vomica countering alcohol-induced loss of righting reflex in toads. Also the physical characterization and mechanism of action of high-diluted drugs have been studied (see e.g. N.C. Sukul, A. Sukul, High dilution effects: Physical and biochemical basis 2004. However, further experimental researches are needed to clarify how physical characteristics of a drug are linked to its global biological effects. Considerations on some high-diluted mineral remedies will be developer here. Methods. In Organon, sect. 119, S. Hahnemann writes: «As certainly each species of plants is different from every other one with regard to external appearance, way of life and growth, taste and smell, and as certainly each mineral, each salt is different from the others with regard to external, internal, physical and chemical qualities [...], so certainly all these vegetal and mineral substances have pathogenetic – and thus also curative – effects different among themselves [...]». This statement may be taken as basis for considering the characteristics of some elements, as ordered in the periodic table, in relation to those of some high-diluted mineral remedies. Conclusions. The elements were previously ordered in the periodic table according to the atomic weight chemically determined, and later more precisely according to the atomic number (number of protons. Then also the electronic configuration was taken into account: properties depending on atomic mass and deep electrons are not periodical, while chemical and several physical properties

  9. Effect of surface-active substance on nasal mucociliary clearance time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, K E; Svane-Knudsen, V

    1993-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance measured by saccharin clearance time is depending on ciliary function and on the physiological characteristics of mucus. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of surface-active substances changed the mucociliary transport time. Twenty healthy persons...... with surface-active substances. This difference was not found 2 h later. Our assay indicates that surfactant increases the rate of mucociliary transport in the upper respiratory tract....

  10. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae: Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin A. Stonik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  11. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Stonik, Valentin A.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Natalia V. Ivanchina

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  12. Local sensing of biological substances by scanning electrochemical microscopy; Sosagata denki kagaku kenbikyo ni yoru seitai busshitsu no kyokusho sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Tokyo College of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a method for local detection of biological substances by using a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM). The electrochemical detection method is a multipurpose analysis method that can quantify substances in aqueous solution on a real time basis. A micro electrode has made a debut recently and become applied to local zones in biological structures and cells. Capturing surface structures and compositions of substances have become possible with the SECM using the micro electrode as a probe, as does the probe of a scanning tunnel electron microscope (STM). While the STM can recognize microfine structures of smaller than 1 nm, the SECM does it only on {mu} level, but can measure a variety of living organisms as the recognition is possible in aqueous solutions. Antigens are reacted with antibodies on spots of several ten {mu} m oriented on a glass substrate, where oxidizing and reducing reactions by peroxidaze modified on the antibodies are read on the SECM, making quantification of the antibodies possible. Chemical treatment of enzymes and antibodies can also be performed onto the glass substrate by using this micro electrode. Expectation is placed on providing living organism information in multi items and multi dimensions. (NEDO)

  13. Ice-Active Substances from the Infective Juveniles of the Freeze Tolerant Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali

    Full Text Available Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freezing tolerant nematode, that can withstand intracellular ice formation. We investigated recrystallization inhibition, thermal hysteresis and ice nucleation activities in the infective juveniles of S. feltiae. Both the splat cooling assay and optical recrystallometry indicate the presence of ice active substances that inhibit recrystallization in the nematode extract. The substance is relatively heat stable and largely retains the recrystallization inhibition activity after heating. No thermal hysteresis activity was detected but the extract had a typical hexagonal crystal shape when grown from a single seed crystal and weak ice nucleation activity. An ice active substance is present in a low concentration, which may be involved in the freezing survival of this species by inhibiting ice recrystallization.

  14. Ice-Active Substances from the Infective Juveniles of the Freeze Tolerant Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A

    2016-01-01

    Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freezing tolerant nematode, that can withstand intracellular ice formation. We investigated recrystallization inhibition, thermal hysteresis and ice nucleation activities in the infective juveniles of S. feltiae. Both the splat cooling assay and optical recrystallometry indicate the presence of ice active substances that inhibit recrystallization in the nematode extract. The substance is relatively heat stable and largely retains the recrystallization inhibition activity after heating. No thermal hysteresis activity was detected but the extract had a typical hexagonal crystal shape when grown from a single seed crystal and weak ice nucleation activity. An ice active substance is present in a low concentration, which may be involved in the freezing survival of this species by inhibiting ice recrystallization. PMID:27227961

  15. The immersion freezing behavior of mixtures of mineral dust and biological substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Stefanie; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susan; Niedermeier, Dennis; Ebert, Martin; Voigtländer, Jens; Rösch, Michael; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike

    2014-05-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria or pollen are known to be efficient ice nuclei. It is also known that ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, i.e. protein complexes in the case of bacteria (e.g. Wolber et al., 1986), and most likely polysaccharides in the case of pollen (Pummer et al., 2012) are responsible for the freezing. Very recently it was suggested that these INA macromolecules maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers (Hartmann et al., 2013; Augustin et al., 2013). This opens the possibility of accumulation of such INA macromolecules in e.g. soils and the resulting particles could be an internal mixture of mineral dust and INA macromolecules. If such biological IN containing soil particles are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to e.g. wind erosion or agricultural processes they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures higher than -20°C. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a measurement campaign within the research unit INUIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INA macromolecules. Specifically, we mixed pure mineral dust (illite) with INA biological material (SNOMAX and birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). To characterize the mixing state of the produced aerosol we used single mass spectrometry as well as electron microscopy. We found that internally mixed particles which containing ice active biological material show the same ice nucleation behavior as the purely biological particles. That shows that INA macromolecules which are located on a mineral dust particle dominate the freezing process. Acknowledgement: Part of this work was done within the framework of the DFG funded Ice Nucleation research UnIT (INUIT, FOR 1525) under WE 4722/1-1. Augustin, S., Hartmann, S., Pummer, B., Grothe, H

  16. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  17. The monitoring of radioactive substances in biological food chains by the veterinary service in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czechoslovakia has established an environmental monitoring system to protect the hygienic conditions of the environment from the radiation hazard. The control authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food take part in this system in order to collect information on the contamination with radioactive substances of soil, plants, game, food animals, foodstuffs and raw materials, i.e. information on all links of the food chain which extends from animals to man. A radioactive substances detection programme has been launched by the appropriate authorities in agriculture, animal husbandry and veterinary service. The programme includes a two-stage laboratory analysis of radioactive substances. The majority of laboratories covering the programme are already in operation

  18. Litchi Flavonoids: Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangrong Li; Yueming Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The current status of the isolation, identification, biological activity, utilization and development prospects of flavonoids found in litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) tissues is reviewed. LFP tissues account for approximately 15% by weight of the whole fresh fruit and are comprised of significant amount of flavonoids. The major flavonoids in ripe LFP include flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavanols in the LFP are reported to be procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindi...

  19. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS ENRICHED BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE ADDITIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Салкинбаева Г. Т.; Байбалинова Г. М.; Смаилова М. Н.

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with a reliable means of improving the structure of supply and optimum balance of the diet of the population, is the use of biologically active additives in a daily diet of the people to food dietary supplements. Supplements such advantages as an expression of food oriented, high nutritional density, homogeneity, easy preparation and forms of transport, good taste allow us to use them successfully in catering.

  20. Can erythrocytes release biologically active NO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Peter M; Fleming, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, endothelial cells and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) are the main source of NO in the cardiovascular system. However, several other cell types have also been implicated in the NO-dependent regulation of cell function, including erythrocytes. NO derived from red blood cells has been proposed to regulate erythrocyte membrane fluidity, inhibit platelet activation and induce vasodilation in hypoxic areas, but these proposals are highly controversial. In the current issue of Cell Communication and Signaling, an elegant study by Gambaryan et al., assayed NO production by erythrocytes by monitoring the activation of the platelet intracellular NO receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase, and its downstream kinase protein kinase G. After systematically testing different combinations of erythrocyte/platelet suspensions, the authors found no evidence for platelet soluble guanylyl cyclase/protein kinase G activation by erythrocytes and conclude that erythrocytes do not release biologically active NO to inhibit platelet activation. PMID:27639852

  1. Young adolescents' perceived activity space risk, peer networks, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents' lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents.

  2. Adolescent Substance Use with Friends: Moderating and Mediating Effects of Parental Monitoring and Peer Activity Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, François; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of using substances with friends on future individual use was examined in the context of parental monitoring rules and the ecology of peer activities. A one-year longitudinal study design included a combined sample of North Italian and French Canadian adolescents (N = 285, 53% girls, M = 14.25 years). Data analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and multiple regression analyses. As expected, the covariation between parental monitoring and adolescent substance ...

  3. Efficacy Evaluation of a Multifunctional Cosmetic Formulation: The Benefits of a Combination of Active Antioxidant Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela D. Gianeti; Patrícia M. B. G. Maia Campos

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and Phorphyra umbilicalis extracts) was evaluated. This formulation was submitted to a clinical efficacy study using biophysics techniques and skin images analysis (digital photogr...

  4. Effect of radiation and fungal treatment on ligno celluloses and their biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.D.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp

    2000-10-01

    Effects of high-dose irradiation and fungal treatment on some kinds of lignocellulose material were investigated in order to assess the potential effects of bioactive substances on plants. Each treatment and combination of treatments significantly altered the components of lignocellulose materials. Irradiation strongly affected all plant materials, causing a series of changes in physico-chemical parameters such as solubilization during solvent extraction and losses of fibre components. By these degradations, certain biologically active substances formed and acted as antagonists of auxin-induced growth.

  5. Isolation and Structural Identiifcation of Herbicidal Active Substance from Root of Flaveria bident (L.) Kuntze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Jing-qian; XING Ji-hong; ZHANG Li-hui; KANG Zhan-hai; ZHANG Jin-lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the composition and structure of herbicidal active substance from the root of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze, the isolation and structural identiifcation were researched in this paper. The crude extract from the root of F. bidentis (L.) Kuntze was extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and water saturation of n-butyl alcohol, respectively, and the extraction lfuid was separated by using the method of TLC, then the main fraction was separated by HPLC, and the structure of the herbicidal active substance was analyzed by LC-MS, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR. The results showed that the petroleum extraction had the strongest herbicidal activity, and the purple blue stripe separated by TLC had the strongest effect on Digitaria sanguinalis. The herbicidal active substance was identiifed as α-terthienyl according to the data of LC-MS, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR.

  6. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenguţa I. Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  7. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAC Araújo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae, which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.

  8. Multiple Environmental Stressors: Biological Interactions Between Parameters of Climate Change and Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Olufsen, Marianne Opsahl

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic organisms continuously acclimatize to fluctuations in environment parameters and contaminant insult. The aim of this thesis was to investigate effects of combined exposure to quantifiable measures of climate change (hypercapnia and hypoxia) and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) on oxidative stress, lipid homeostasis and endocrine disruption in fish. The thesis consists of four papers (Paper I-IV). In Paper I and II, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) juveniles was expose...

  9. [Biological activity of lipids and photosynthetic pigments of Sargassum pallidum C. Agardh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, N I; Martyias, E A; Logvinov, S V; Busarova, N G

    2014-01-01

    The biological activity of lipids and photosynthetic pigments of the kelp Sargassum pallidum (Turner) C. Agardh has been studied. Free fatty acids and their esters demonstrated considerable antimicrobial activity against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus[ital] and Escherichia coli), yeast-like fungi (Candida albicans), and opportunistic pathogenic (Aspergilius niger) and phytopathogenic (Fusarium oxysporum, and Septoria glycines) fungi. Glyceroglycolipids and neutral lipids demonstrated moderate activity. Fucoxanthin and chlorophylls weakly suppressed the growth of microorganisms. None of the studied substances demonstrated activity against Ehrlich's carcinoma. It was shown that the season of weed harvesting affected both antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of different lipids due to changes in their fatty acid composition. PMID:25272757

  10. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  11. Biological activities of Morus celtidifolia leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; Oranday-Cárdenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Verde-Star, María Julia; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this research were to examine the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antiradical/antioxidant activities of the organic extracts obtained from the leaves of the medicinal plant Morus celtidifolia (Family: Moraceae). To evaluate its antimicrobial properties, M. celtidifolia was tested against the bacteria of medical importance: Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay and also by toxicity screening against human cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma). The free radical-scavenging activity was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay. Results revealed that the hexanic extract has antibacterial activity only against Gram positive strains, while the methanolic extract showed better cytotoxic and antioxidant activities than the non- polar extract with a median lethal dose (LD₅₀) of 125μg/ml, 90μg/ml and 75μg/ml against A. salina, MCF-7 and HeLa cells respectively, and median effective concentration (EC₅₀) of 152μg/ml on radical scavenging assay. This is the first study reporting the biological activities of leaves of Morus celtidifolia.

  12. Does incentive-elicited nucleus accumbens activation differ by substance of abuse? An examination with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Hollis C; Bryan, Angela D; Weiland, Barbara J; Mayer, Andrew; Dodd, Andrew; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2015-12-01

    Numerous questions surround the nature of reward processing in the developing adolescent brain, particularly in regard to polysubstance use. We therefore sought to examine incentive-elicited brain activation in the context of three common substances of abuse (cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol). Due to the role of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in incentive processing, we compared activation in this region during anticipation of reward and loss using a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Adolescents (ages 14-18; 66% male) were matched on age, gender, and frequency of use of any common substances within six distinct groups: cannabis-only (n=14), tobacco-only (n=34), alcohol-only (n=12), cannabis+tobacco (n=17), cannabis+tobacco+alcohol (n=17), and non-using controls (n=38). All groups showed comparable behavioral performance on the MID task. The tobacco-only group showed decreased bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation during reward anticipation as compared to the alcohol-only group, the control group, and both polysubstance groups. Interestingly, no differences emerged between the cannabis-only group and any of the other groups. Results from this study suggest that youth who tend toward single-substance tobacco use may possess behavioral and/or neurobiological characteristics that differentiate them from both their substance-using and non-substance-using peers.

  13. Laboratory-generated mixtures of mineral dust particles with biological substances: characterization of the particle mixing state and immersion freezing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Wex, Heike; Denjean, Cyrielle; Hartmann, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susann; Ebert, Martin; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INMs). It has been suggested that these INMs maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INMs in soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INMs. If particles from such soils which contain biological INMs are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above -20 up to almost 0 °C, while they might be characterized as mineral dust particles due to a possibly low content of biological material. We conducted a study within the research unit INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX) with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). A very important topic concerning the investigations presented here as well as for atmospheric application is the characterization of the mixing state of aerosol particles. In the present study we used different methods like single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (VH-TDMA) to investigate the mixing state of our generated aerosol. Not all applied methods performed similarly well in detecting small amounts of biological material on the mineral dust particles. Measuring the hygroscopicity/volatility of the mixed particles with the VH-TDMA was the most

  14. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  15. Carbon nanomaterials: Biologically active fullerene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Gordana; Djordjević, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene attract significant attention of researches in various scientific fields including biomedicine. Nano-scale size and a possibility for diverse surface modifications allow carbon nanoallotropes to become an indispensable nanostructured material in nanotechnologies, including nanomedicine. Manipulation of surface chemistry has created diverse populations of water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes, which exhibit different behaviors. Both non-derivatized and derivatized fullerenes show various biological activities. Cellular processes that underline their toxicity are oxidative, genotoxic, and cytotoxic responses.The antioxidant/cytoprotective properties of fullerenes and derivatives have been considered in the prevention of organ oxidative damage and treatment. The same unique physiochemical properties of nanomaterials may also be associated with potential health hazards. Non-biodegradability and toxicity of carbon nanoparticles still remain a great concern in the area of biomedical application. In this review, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of carbon nano-clusters--fullerenes, nanotubes, and grapheme--their specificities, activities, and potential application in biological systems. Special emphasis is given to our most important results obtained in vitro and in vivo using polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C₆₀(OH)₂₄. PMID:27483572

  16. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  17. Purification and Activity of Antibacterial Substances Derived from Soil Streptomyces sp.CaiF1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui YANG; Guixiang PENG; Jianmin ZENG; Zhiyuan TAN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to separate and purify antibacterial sub- stances from soil Streptomyces sp. CaiF1, and to explore the activities of this sub- stance. [Method] The antibacterial substances were separated and purified by Ethyl acetate extraction, macroporous adsorptive resin, silica gel chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and powdery mildew were taken as the indicating bacterial to study their activities. [Result] Antibacterial substances were purified and the stability analysis of the extracts from Streptomyces CaiF1 fermentation broth showed very stable at pH 2.0-pH 10.0, 100 ~C and changed very little under UV treatment for 24 h. Inhibition rate of powdery mildew was 69.7%. [Conclusion] The purified antibacterial substances showed good stability, which provided theoretical foundation for their structural identifications and future ap- plications.

  18. General considerations on the use of radio-active substances for the study of lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the numerous substances proposed for the study of lung tumours, three are more commonly used, 67Ga, 57Co labelled bleomycin and 197Hg. With these three substances, the uptake is high on malignant tumours and also on active inflammatory lesions, it is normal in the case of benign tumours and cooled inflammatory lesions. In spite of this lack of specificity in carcinoma, these three radio-active substances are useful in practice for they permit to distinguish benign from malignant tumours, often they permit to make the diagnosis of cancer with a high degree of probability and, finally, they are of use in permitting, for example, to judge the efficiency of treatment. New compounds are under study, they may permit true detection of cancer

  19. Efficacy Evaluation of a Multifunctional Cosmetic Formulation: The Benefits of a Combination of Active Antioxidant Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela D. Gianeti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and Phorphyra umbilicalis extracts was evaluated. This formulation was submitted to a clinical efficacy study using biophysics techniques and skin images analysis (digital photography imaging systems, 20 MHz ultrasound, and reflectance confocal microscopy. The volunteers applied the formulation containing the UV filters and antioxidant substances during the day and the formulation with antioxidant substances and without the UV filters at night, for 90 days. The formulation increased the hydration and protected the skin barrier function after a single application. At the long term assessment the formulation provided an improvement in skin barrier function and skin hydration to the deeper layers of the epidermis, leading to an improvement in skin appearance by reducing wrinkles and skin roughness. The multifunctional cosmetic formulation studied can be suggested to preventing signs of aging and improving skin conditions. In addition, this study presents the benefits of associating different active antioxidants substances in a single cosmetic formulation to prevent skin aging.

  20. Litchi Flavonoids: Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the isolation, identification, biological activity, utilization and development prospects of flavonoids found in litchi fruit pericarp (LFP tissues is reviewed. LFP tissues account for approximately 15% by weight of the whole fresh fruit and are comprised of significant amount of flavonoids. The major flavonoids in ripe LFP include flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavanols in the LFP are reported to be procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindin-3-rutinside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinosde and quercetin-3-glucoside are identified as the important anthocyanins. Litchi flavanols and anthocyanins exhibit good potential antioxidant activity. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of procyanidin B2 are greater than those of procyanidin B4 and epicatechin, while epicatechin has the highest α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH· scavenging activity. In addition to the antioxidant activity, LFP extract displays a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on human breast cancer, which could be attributed, in part, to its inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through upregulation and down-regulation of multiple genes. Furthermore, various anticancer activities are observed for epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction of LFP tissue extracts. Procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction show a stronger inhibitory effect on HELF than MCF-7 proliferation, while epicatechin and procyanidin B2 have lower cytotoxicities towards MCF-7 and HELF than paclitaxel. It is therefore suggested that flavonoids from LFP might be potentially useful components for functional foods and/or anti-breast cancer drugs.

  1. Substance Use, Criminal Activity, and Mental Health among Violent and Nonviolent Rural Probationers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J. Matthew; Dickson, Megan F.; Saman, Daniel M.; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Differences between violent and nonviolent probationers were examined in the growing, yet understudied, rural probation population. Violent rural probationers had higher rates of substance use, criminal activity, and mental health symptoms than did nonviolent rural probationers. Implications for practitioners are discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

  2. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  3. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary test...

  4. Simple Electrochemical Determination of Surface-Active Substances in Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrković-Karloci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple electrochemical determination of surface-active substances by using time-dependent variation of the capacitive current in a.c. voltammetry at the HMDE is described. Surface-active substances were accumulated by stirring solution at the deposition potential of −0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl (sat. NaCl. The capacitive current was recorded for different deposition times in the range 0–120 s, wherefrom the linear calibration plot is constructed. The proposed method was verified for model surfactant TritonX-100 in the concentration range 0.02–0.25 mg/L and for humic acid in the concentration range 1.65–20 mg/L. The application of the method was demonstrated for freshwater samples of the Drava river, Danube river, and the wetland Kopački Rit, Croatia. The shape of the i ac -E curves as well as the obtained concentrations of surface-active substances by using humic acid as the calibration substance are quite well describing the type and the nature of organic matter in the freshwater samples.

  5. Nimbolide B and nimbic acid B, phytotoxic substances in neem leaves with allelopathic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Salam, Md Abdus; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2014-05-26

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been widely used as a traditional medicine and several bioactive compounds have been isolated from this species, but to date no potent allelopathic active substance has been reported. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic property and phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in neem. An aqueous methanol extract of neem leaves inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress, lettuce, alfalfa, timothy, crabgrass, ryegrass, barnyard grass and jungle rice. The extracts were then purified by several chromatographic runs while monitoring the inhibitory activity and two phytotoxic substances were isolated. The chemical structures of the two substances were determined by spectral data to correspond to novel compounds, nimbolide B (1) and nimbic acid B (2). Nimbolide B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.1‒3.0 μM. Nimbic acid B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.3-1.0 μM. These results suggest that nimbolide B and nimbic acid B may contribute to the allelopathic effects caused by neem leaves.

  6. Advances in the analysis of non-allowed pharmacologically active substances in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Manuela; Marchei, Emilia; Pacifici, Roberta; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Pichini, Simona

    2011-06-25

    The state-of-the art analysis of non-allowed pharmacologically active substances in cosmetic products is here presented and a new methodology developed for this type of analysis is proposed. Cosmetic products released on the market should not cause damage to human health when applied under normal conditions of use. With respect to this condition, the definition of "cosmetic product" is reported according to the international and region specific regulatory requirements for the manufacturing and marketing and that of non-allowed substances with particular reference to pharmacologically active substances, with therapeutic indication. The existing methodologies for the analysis of non-allowed products in cosmetic preparations generally include some sort of sample treatment and/or extraction before the analytical step, which always include a separation by liquid chromatography (LC) at ambient temperature followed by detection with ultraviolet spectrophotometric detection or mass spectrometry. A systematic high throughput analysis of non-allowed pharmacologically active substances is finally proposed together with the results of such an analysis performed in the "Drug abuse and doping" Unit of the National Institute of Health in Rome. PMID:21353431

  7. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT): environment and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A

    2004-05-01

    Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expended for everything that is not sleeping, eating, or sports-like exercise. It includes the energy expended walking to work, typing, performing yard work, undertaking agricultural tasks, and fidgeting. NEAT can be measured by one of two approaches. The first is to measure or estimate total NEAT. Here, total daily energy expenditure is measured, and from it "basal metabolic rate-plus-thermic effect of food" is subtracted. The second is the factoral approach, whereby the components of NEAT are quantified, and total NEAT is calculated by summing these components. The amount of NEAT that humans perform represents the product of the amount and types of physical activities and the thermogenic cost of each activity. The factors that impact a human's NEAT are readily divisible into environmental factors, such as occupation or dwelling within a "concrete jungle," and biological factors such as weight, gender, and body composition. The combined impact of these factors explains the substantial variance in human NEAT. The variability in NEAT might be viewed as random, but human and animal data contradict this. It appears that changes in NEAT subtly accompany experimentally induced changes in energy balance and are important in the physiology of weight change. Inadequate modulation of NEAT plus a sedentary lifestyle may thus be important in obesity. It then becomes intriguing to dissect mechanistic studies that delineate how NEAT is regulated into neural, peripheral, and humoral factors. A scheme is described in this review in which NEAT corresponds to a carefully regulated "tank" of physical activity that is crucial for weight control. PMID:15102614

  8. Biological active compounds from Georgian Galanthus shaoricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhadze, M; Kuchukhidze, J; Chincharadze, D; Murtazashvili, T

    2011-10-01

    Amaryllidaceae alkaloids exhibit antitumour, antiviral and anticholinergic activities. Some of them have been used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, myopathy and diseases of the nervous system. In this study, the characterization of these compounds from Amaryllidaceae plants along with some biological activities and some regulations to conserve the native flora will be reviewed. Plants materials: Galanthus shaoricus Kem.-Nath., were collected in 2007-2008 during the flowering period in Georgia. The preparation of extracts and fractions were obtained using methanolic maceration. Crude alkaloidal extracts were typically purified by liquid-liquid partitioning of their basic forms in chloroform. Lycorine, galantamine and tazettine has been found as one of the major alkaloid from Amaryllidaceae plants. Galanthus shaoricus have shown good antimalarial and cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Methanolic extracts from bulbs demonstrated significant growth inhibition on human Hela and HCT-116 cells lines with IC50 (μg/mL) 16.3±1.8; 22.1±2.9 (aerial parts) and 12.8±1.7; 16.5±1.9 (Bulbs), respectively. Concerning the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, lycorine with IC50 (μM) 0.8±0.5 and 2.6±0.2, haemantaimene (IC50=1.1±0.7 and 2.7±0.8 μM), hamaine (IC50=3.4±1.0 and 6.2 ±1.4 μM), homolycorine (IC50=1.4±0.9 and 3.3±1.0 μM), hipeastrine (IC50=2.8±1.0 and 7.5±1.8 μM) were found to be responsible for the cytotoxic activity on HCT-116 and Hela cell lines, respectively.

  9. Potential biological activity of acacia honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Sallau, Abdullahi B; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Aimola, Idown A; Malami, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, antiproliferative and neurological properties at in vitro and in vivo levels. Based on our review, Acacia honey used from various researches is of high purity, contains some bioactive compounds ranging from vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids and fatty acids. It's highly nutritional with strong antioxidant and immuno-modulatory potentials which may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Neurologically, it may be considered as a viable therapeutic agent in the management of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26709666

  10. Biological Activities of Plant Pigments Betalains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2016-04-25

    Betalains are a family of natural pigments present in most plants of the order Caryophyllales. They provide colors ranging from yellow to violet to structures that in other plants are colored by anthocyanins. These include not only edible fruits and roots but also flowers, stems, and bracts. The recent characterization of different bioactivities in experiments with betalain containing extracts and purified pigments has renewed the interest of the research community in these molecules used by the food industry as natural colorants. Studies with multiple cancer cell lines have demonstrated a high chemopreventive potential that finds in vitro support in a strong antiradical and antioxidant activity. Experiments in vivo with model animals and bioavailability studies reinforce the possible role played by betalains in the diet. This work provides a critical review of all the claimed biological activities of betalains, showing that the bioactivities described might be supported by the high antiradical capacity of their structural unit, betalamic acid. Although more investigations with purified compounds are needed, the current evidences suggest a strong health-promoting potential. PMID:25118005

  11. Reward salience and risk aversion underlie differential ACC activity in substance dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex, especially the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, has long been implicated in cognitive control and error processing. Although the association between ACC and behavior has been established, it is less clear how ACC contributes to dysfunctional behavior such as substance dependence. Evidence from neuroimaging studies investigating ACC function in substance users is mixed, with some studies showing disengagement of ACC in substance dependent individuals (SDs, while others show increased ACC activity related to substance use. In this study, we investigate ACC function in SDs and healthy individuals performing a change signal task for monetary rewards. Using a priori predictions derived from a recent computational model of ACC, we find that ACC activity differs between SDs and controls in factors related to reward salience and risk aversion between SDs and healthy individuals. Quantitative fits of a computational model to fMRI data reveal significant differences in best fit parameters for reward salience and risk preferences. Specifically, the ACC in SDs shows greater risk aversion, defined as concavity in the utility function, and greater attention to rewards relative to reward omission. Furthermore, across participants risk aversion and reward salience are positively correlated. The results clarify the role that ACC plays in both the reduced sensitivity to omitted rewards and greater reward valuation in SDs. Clinical implications of applying computational modeling in psychiatry are also discussed.

  12. Polymyxin B antagonizing biological activity of lipopolysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yi-bin; CHEN Li-ping; CAO Hong-wei; WANG Ning; ZHENG Jiang; XIAO Guang-xia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of polymyxin B (PMB) antagonizing the biological activity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: The affinity of PMB for LPS and lipid A was assayed by biosensor, and the neutralization of PMB for LPS(2 ng/ml) was detected by kinetic turbidimetric limulus test. The releases of TNF-α and IL-6 in murine peritoneal macrophages (PMψ) after exposure to LPS (100 ng/ml) were detected, and the expression levels of TLR4, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA in PMψ induced by LPS (100 ng/ml) were measured by RT-PCR. Results: PMB had high-affinity to LPS and lipid A with dissociation equilibrium constants of 18.9 nmol/L and 11.1 nmol/L, respectively, and neutralized LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PMB could markedly inhibit the expressions of TLR4, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA and the release of cycokines in LPS-stimulated murine PMψ.Conclusions: PMB neutralizes LPS and inhibites the expression and release of cycokines in macrophages, in which the affinity of PMB for lipid A plays an important role.

  13. Biological activity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Carbonell

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens cytotoxin was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G100 column. The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens. The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. The cytotoxic assays show that 15 min of treatment with the cytotoxin induced irreversible intoxication of the cells, determined by loss of cell viability. Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 µg/ml of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin is distinct from S. marcescens hemolysin. Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. Moreover, we did not detect gene sequences for any of these toxins in S. marcescens by PCR assay. These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli.

  14. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH2, respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  15. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  16. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium were exposed to surfactants (single and combined in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L−1. The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies.

  17. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Active Substance Production and Antioxidant Activity in Potentilla fruticosa L. and Its Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Dongxue; Li, Na; Hou, Xiaogai; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Dengwu; Liu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors may influence types and contents of active substances. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active substance contents and antioxidant activity of Potentilla fruticosa L. from different regions of China. Also, HPLC fingerprint similarity analysis (SA) coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were further introduced for the accurate classification and quality assessment of P. fruticosa. The results showed that altitude was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of tannin (P antioxidant activity (P temperature was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of total phenolics, while altitude was significantly and positively correlated to the content of total phenolics (P high quality among all samples, therefore, Kangding in Sichuan Province with favorable environmental conditions is recommended as a preferable production location. PMID:27373366

  18. Low intensity ultrasound stimulates biological activity of aerobic activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; YAN Yixin; WANG Wenyan; YU Yongyong

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to explore a procedure to improve biological wastewater treatment efficiency using low intensity ultrasound.The aerobic activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was used as the experimental material.Oxygen uptake rate(OUR)of the activated sludge (AS)was determined to indicate the changes of AS activity stimulated by ultrasound at 35 kHZ for 0-40 min with ultrasonic intensities of 0-1.2 W/cm2.The highest OUR was observed at the ultrasonic intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 and an irradiation period of 10 min;more than 15% increase was achieved immediately after sonication.More significantly,the AS activity stimulated by ultrasound could last 24 h after sonication,and the AS activity achieved its peak value within 8 h after sonication.or nearly 100% higher than the initial level after sonication.Therefore,to improve the wastewater treatment efficiency of bioreactors,ultrasound with an intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 could be employed to irradiate a part of the AS in the bioreactor for 10 min every 8 h.

  19. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Terpenoids from Copaiba (Copaifera spp. Oleoresins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilly Kelly Oliveira Neves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Copaiba oleoresins are exuded from the trunks of trees of the Copaifera species (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae. This oleoresin is a solution of diterpenoids, especially, mono- and di-acids, solubilized by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The sesquiterpenes and diterpenes (labdane, clerodane and kaurane skeletons are different for each Copaifera species and have been linked to several reported biological activities, ranging from anti-tumoral to embriotoxic effects. This review presents all the substances already described in this oleoresin, together with structures and activities of its main terpenoids.

  20. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance ferric phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substance ferric phosphate are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU) No 1141/2010 as amended by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 380/2013. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the represe...

  1. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance sulfoxaflor

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Ireland and the co-rapporteur Member States Czech Republic, France and Poland for the pesticide active substance sulfoxaflor and the assessment of applications for maximum residue levels (MRLs) are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Par...

  2. Social Activity, School-Related Activity, and Anti-Substance Use Media Messages on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the “Monitoring the Future” (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-d...

  3. Biological investigations of Indian phaeophyceae 16. Antibacterial acitivity of phenolic substances, extracted from Sargassum johnstonii Setchell et Gardner collected from Okha, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.P.S.

    Free and hydrolysed phenolic substances were extracted from a dry sample of Sargassum johnstonii using 80% methanol and tested for their antibacterial activity by agar diffusion method. The growth of two gram-positive bacteria tested were inhibited...

  4. Theory-based active ingredients of effective treatments for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H

    2007-05-11

    This paper describes four related theories that specify common social processes that protect individuals from developing substance use disorders and may underlie effective psychosocial treatments for these disorders: social control theory, behavioral economics and behavioral choice theory, social learning theory, and stress and coping theory. It then provides an overview of the rationale and evidence for four effective psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders: motivational interviewing and motivational enhancement therapy, 12-step facilitation treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment and behavioral family counseling, and contingency management and community reinforcement approaches. The presumed active ingredients of these treatments are described in terms of how they exemplify the social processes highlighted by the four theories. The identified common components of effective treatment include support, goal direction, and structure; an emphasis on rewards that compete with substance use, a focus on abstinence-oriented norms and models, and attempts to develop self-efficacy and coping skills. Several issues that need to be addressed to enhance our understanding of the active ingredients involved in effective treatment are discussed, including how to develop measures of these ingredients, how well the ingredients predict outcomes and influence conceptually comparable aspects of clients' life contexts, and how much their influence varies depending upon clients' demographic and personal characteristics. PMID:17129682

  5. Theory-based active ingredients of effective treatments for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H

    2007-05-11

    This paper describes four related theories that specify common social processes that protect individuals from developing substance use disorders and may underlie effective psychosocial treatments for these disorders: social control theory, behavioral economics and behavioral choice theory, social learning theory, and stress and coping theory. It then provides an overview of the rationale and evidence for four effective psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders: motivational interviewing and motivational enhancement therapy, 12-step facilitation treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment and behavioral family counseling, and contingency management and community reinforcement approaches. The presumed active ingredients of these treatments are described in terms of how they exemplify the social processes highlighted by the four theories. The identified common components of effective treatment include support, goal direction, and structure; an emphasis on rewards that compete with substance use, a focus on abstinence-oriented norms and models, and attempts to develop self-efficacy and coping skills. Several issues that need to be addressed to enhance our understanding of the active ingredients involved in effective treatment are discussed, including how to develop measures of these ingredients, how well the ingredients predict outcomes and influence conceptually comparable aspects of clients' life contexts, and how much their influence varies depending upon clients' demographic and personal characteristics.

  6. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  7. The ice nucleation activity of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, H.; Pummer, B.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.

    2012-04-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen may be important for several atmospheric processes. Particularly, the ice nucleation caused by PBAPs is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate is not yet fully understood. In laboratory model studies we investigated the ice nucleation activity of selected PBAPs. We studied the immersion mode freezing using water-oil emulsion, which we observed by optical microscopy. We particularly focused on pollen. We show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behavior. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 K to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen) have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. For comparison the ice nucleation activity of Snomax, fungal spores, and mushrooms will be discussed as well. In the past, pollen have been rejected as important atmospheric IN, as they are not as abundant in the atmosphere as bacteria or mineral dust and are too heavy to reach higher altitudes. However, in our experiments (Pummer et al. 2011) it turned out that water, which had been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. So the ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules (100-300 kDa) located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. It is widely known, that material from the pollen, like allergens and sugars, can indeed leave the pollen body and be distributed independently. The most probable mechanism is the pollen grain bursting by rain, which releases

  8. Substance use, dental hygiene, and physical activity in adult patients with single ventricle physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Schrader, Anne-Marie; Lisby, Karen H;

    2013-01-01

    was mailed to the patients. Nonresponders did not differ significantly from the included participants on age, gender, or physical function. SETTING: The study was conducted at the Heart Center of Copenhagen University Hospital or the Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital. RESULTS...... differences in overall health behaviors between SVP patients and controls, SVP patients are less physically active and are less likely to binge drink.......OBJECTIVES: The study aims to describe substance use, dental hygiene, and physical activity in adult survivors with single ventricle physiology (SVP) and to compare the behaviors with matched controls, while the patients are particularly at risk for general health problems. DESIGN: The present...

  9. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor); Rabolt, John (Inventor); Casper, Cheryl (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A functionalized electrospun matrix for the controlled-release of biologically active agents, such as growth factors, is presented. The functionalized matrix comprises a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin.

  10. Influence of ecological factors on the production of active substances in the anti-cancer plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle T.S. Ying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which plays a very important role in the health system of China, is determined by the active substances produced by the plants. The type, content, and proportion of these substances may vary depending on ecological factors in areas where the plants are grown. Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle T.S. Ying, an endangered plant species with great medical value, was investigated in eight production locations representative of its natural geographical distribution range in China. The correlation between the contents of the active ingredients extracted from the roots and rhizomes of S. hexandrum and the ecological factors were evaluated step-by-step using a series of computational biology methodologies. The results showed that ecological factors had significant effects on the contents but not on the types of the active ingredients in eight production locations. The primary ecological factors influencing the active substances included the annual average precipitation, July mean temperature, frost-free period, sunshine duration, soil pH, soil organic matter, and rapidly available potassium in the soil. The annual average precipitation was the most important determinant factor and was significantly and negatively correlated with the active ingredient contents (P < 0.001. In contrast, organic matter was the most important limiting factor and was significantly and positively correlated with the active substances. These ecological factors caused 98.13% of the total geographical variation of the active ingredient contents. The climate factors contributed more to the active ingredient contents than did the soil factors. It was concluded that from the view of the contents of the secondary metabolites and ecological factors of each growing location, in Jingyuan, Ningxia Province, and Yongdeng, Gansu Province, conditions were favorable to the production of podophyllotoxin and lignans, whereas in Shangri-La, Yunnan

  11. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo eFridlender

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70-95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early 19th century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next 2 decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity.

  12. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlender, Marcelo; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70-95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early nineteenth century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next two decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin, and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity. PMID:26483815

  13. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that compon...

  14. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed.

  15. Neuropeptide Substance-P-Conjugated Chitosan Nanofibers as an Active Modulator of Stem Cell Recruiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sup Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal to successful wound healing is essentially to immobilize and recruit appropriate numbers of host stem or progenitor cells to the wound area. In this study, we developed a chitosan nanofiber-immobilized neuropeptide substance-P (SP, which mediates stem cell mobilization and migration, onto the surfaces of nanofibers using a peptide-coupling agent, and evaluated its biological effects on stem cells. The amount of immobilized SP on chitosan nanofibers was modulated over the range of 5.89 ± 3.27 to 75.29 ± 24.31 ng when reacted with 10 to 500 ng SP. In vitro migration assays showed that SP-incorporated nanofibers induced more rapid migration of human mesenchymal stem cells on nanofibers compared to pristine samples. Finally, the conjugated SP evoked a minimal foreign body reaction and recruited a larger number of CD29- and CD44-positive stem cells into nanofibers in a mouse subcutaneous pocket model.

  16. Increased activity of digoxin-like substance in low-renin hypertension in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynski, P.; Slowinska-Srzednicka, J.; Zgliczynski, S. (Medical Center for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw (Poland))

    1990-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is common in acromegaly, but the pathogenesis of this complication remains unknown. To determine the role of an endogenous Na,K pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance (DLS) in the pathogenesis of hypertension in acromegaly 76 subjects: 28 with acromegaly, 20 with essential hypertension and 28 healthy controls were studied. Serum DLS was measured with the use of radioimmunoassay and bioassay by the inhibition of digoxin-sensitive erythrocyte 86-Rb uptake. In acromegaly, the activity of DLS was significantly increased and plasma renin activity decreased in the hypertensive group, as compared with that of the normotensive group and controls. Moreover, DLS was elevated in the low-renin group of essential hypertension, as compared with that of the normal/high-renin group or controls. The activity of DLS correlated positively with mean arterial pressure and negatively with plasma renin activity, but not with growth hormone levels. In conclusion, an endogenous sodium pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance may play a role in the pathogenesis of low-renin hypertension in acromegaly.

  17. Identification of Antifungal Substances of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. ALI033 and Antifungal Activity against Penicillium brevicompactum Strain FI02

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Chang Ki; Hwang, Tae Yean

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antifungal substances and the antifungal activity against fungi of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi. LAB from kimchi in Imsil showed antifungal activity against Penicillium brevicompactum strain FI02. LAB LI031 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Antifungal substances contained in L. sakei subsp. ALI033 culture media were unstable at high pH levels. Both, the control and proteinase K and protease treated samples showed clear ...

  18. Functions and behaviors of activated sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS): a promising environmental interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yu; ZHENG Lei; SUN De-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are the predominant constituents of activated sludge and represent up to 80% of the mass of activated sludge. They play a crucial role in the flocculation, settling and dewatering of activated sludge. Furthermore,EPS also show great efficiency in binding heavy metals. So EPS are key factors influencing reduction in sludge volume and mass, as well as activity and utilization of sludge. EPS are of considerable environmental interest and hundreds of articles on EPS have been published abroad, while information on EPS in China is limited. In this paper, results of over 60 publications related to constituents and characteristics of EPS and their influences on flocculation, settling and dewatering of sludge are compiled and analyzed.Metal-binding ability of EPS is also discussed, together with a brief consideration of possible research interests in the future.

  19. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  20. Nanosilver – Harmful effects of biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver, also identified as colloidal silver, has been known and used for ages to combat diseases or prolong food freshness. It usually occurs in the form of a suspension consisting of particles of size < 100 nm. Due to its specific properties, silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies to produce medical devices, textiles, conductive materials or photovoltaic cells. The growing popularity of nanosilver applications increases the number of people occupationally exposed to this substance. Potential exposure routes for silver nanoparticles are through dermal, oral and inhalation pathways. Silver nanoparticles may be absorbed through the lungs, intestine, and through the skin into circulation and thus may reach such organs as the liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart and testes. Nanosilver may cause mild eyes and skin irritations. It can also act as a mild skin allergen. Inhalation of silver nanoparticles mainly affects the lungs and liver. It has been demonstrated that silver nanoparticles may be genotoxic to mammalian cells. There are some alarming reports on the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on reproduction of experimental animals. Exposure to silver nanoparticles may exert a neurotoxic effect and affect cognitive functions, causing the impairment of short-term and working memory. Maximum admissible concentration (MAC for the inhalable fraction of silver of 0.05 mg/m3 is currently binding in Poland. In light of toxicological studies of silver nanoparticles it seems reasonable to update the hygiene standards for silver with nanoparticles as a separate fraction. Med Pr 2014;65(6:831–845

  1. John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie

    2016-04-01

    The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources. PMID:26899801

  2. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae: Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukranul Mawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae, its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

  3. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

  4. Biological activities of Juglans regia flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae, flower were investigated. Antidepressant activity was examined by forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice. Antihypoxic activity was investigated in haemic and circulatory models. The effects were pronounced in both models. It produced statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced edema at nearly all doses, compared to control groups. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 674±27.6 µg mL-1. Extract showed good Fe2+ chelating ability (IC50 43±1.5 µg mL-1. It exhibited low antioxidant activity in linoleic acid peroxidation test. Its pharmacological effects may be attributed, in part, to the presence of phenols and ISSN 0102-695X flavonoids in the extract.

  5. The prevalence of new psychoactive substances in biological material - a three-year review of casework in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Gieroń, Joanna; Gil, Dominika; Lechowicz, Wojciech; Skulska, Agnieszka; Tokarczyk, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) pose a challenge for forensic and clinical toxicologists, as well as for legislators. We present our findings from cases where NPS have been detected in biological material. During the three-year period 2012-2014 we found NPS in 112 cases (out of 1058 analyzed), with 75 cases in 2014 alone. The prevalence of all NPS (15.1-17.6%) was similar to amphetamine alone that was detected in 15.1-16.5% of cases. The new drugs found belonged to the following classes: cathinones (88%), synthetic cannabinoids (5%), phenethylamines (3%), piperazines and piperidines (3%), arylalkylamines (1%) and other (1%). The drugs detected were (in the order of decreased frequency): 3-MMC (50), α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) (23), pentedrone (16), 3',4'-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone (MDPBP) (12), synthetic cannabinoid UR-144 (7), ethcathinone (5), mephedrone (5), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) (4), 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) (3), buphedrone (3), desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP) (3), methylone (2) and 2C-B (2). In single cases, 2-methylmethcathinone (2-MMC), 2C-P, eutylone, 25I-NBOMe, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), ephedrone, methiopropamine (MPA), and 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-APB) were found. One NPS was the sole agent in 35% of all cases, and two or more NPS were present in 19% of cases. NPS (one or more) with other conventional drugs (like amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, and benzodiazepines) were detected in most (65%) of the cases. NPS were very often detected in the blood of drivers which was a challenge for toxicologists due to a lack of data on their influence on psychomotor performance. A review of concentrations showed a wide range of values in different types of cases, especially driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) and intoxication.

  6. Antimycobacterial activity of chemically defined natural substances from the Caribbean flora in Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, N; Abaul, J; Goh, K S; Devallois, A; Philogène, E; Bourgeois, P

    1998-04-01

    Eight chemically defined, naturally occurring compounds were extracted from the tropical flora of the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe: pilocarpine, an alkaloid from Pilocarpus racemosus; heraclenol and isomeranzin, coumarins from Triphasia trifolia; lochnerin, an indole alkaloid from Rauwolfia biauriculata; ibogaine and voacangine, indole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana citrifolia; texalin, an oxazole from Amyris elemifera; and canellal, a sesquiterpene dialdehyde from Canella winterana. An essential oil fraction from Canella winterana was also tested. The antimycobacterial activity of these substances was tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium and M. kansasii using the Middlebrook 7H11 agar medium, the Bactec 460-TB radiometric methodology, and determination of bacterial viable counts. Three compounds, namely ibogaine, voacangine and texalin, showed antimycobacterial activity. Investigations on the structure-modification and structure-activity relationships of these compounds may help determine new targets for future drug development. PMID:9626931

  7. The importance of extremophile cyanobacteria in the production of biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobac-Čik Aleksandra V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to endure extreme conditions, terrestrial cyanobacteria belong to a group of organisms known as "extremophiles". Research so far has shown that these organisms posses a great capacity for producing biologically active compounds (BAC. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of 21 cyanobacterial strains belonging to Anabaena and Nostoc genera, previously isolated from different soil types and water resources in Serbia, were evaluated. In general, larger number of cyanobacterial strains showed antifungal activity. In contrast to Nostoc, Anabaena strains showed greater diversity of antibacterial activity (mean value of percentages of sensitive targeted bacterial strains 3% and 25.9% respectively. Larger number of targeted fungi was sensitive to cultural liquid extract (CL, while crude cell extract (CE affected more bacterial strains. According to this investigation, the higher biological activity of terrestrial strains as representatives of extremophiles may present them as significant BAC producers. This kind of investigation creates very general view of cyanobacterial possibility to produce biologically active compounds but it points out the necessity of exploring terrestrial cyanobacterial extremophiles as potentially excellent sources of these substances and reveals the most prospective strains for further investigations.

  8. Identification of Antifungal Substances of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. ALI033 and Antifungal Activity against Penicillium brevicompactum Strain FI02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chang Ki; Hwang, Tae Yean

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antifungal substances and the antifungal activity against fungi of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi. LAB from kimchi in Imsil showed antifungal activity against Penicillium brevicompactum strain FI02. LAB LI031 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Antifungal substances contained in L. sakei subsp. ALI033 culture media were unstable at high pH levels. Both, the control and proteinase K and protease treated samples showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal substances produced by ALI033 were non-protein substances unaffected by protesases. Both, the control and catalase showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal metabolite was not H2O2. The molecular weights of the antifungal substances were ≤3,000 Da. The organic acid content of crude antifungal substances produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 showed high concentrations of lactic acid (502.47 mg/100 g). Therefore, these results suggest that antifungal substance produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 is most likely due to its ability in producing organic acid. PMID:27069906

  9. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferreira Mota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae. Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum.

  10. Molecular catchers for pharmacologically active substances in wastewaters, a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Valencia, P. J.; Pérez Merchancano, S. T.; Paredes, H.; Bolívar Marinez, L. E.

    2016-08-01

    A basic and pressing need in the treatment of residual waste waters for urban and rural centers is the removal of pharmacological active residues from them, these resides are originated in a wide array of domestic, agricultural and industrial sources and can't be removed in the residual waters treatment plants by conventional methods, the result is the incorporation of them into the ecosystem altering the physiology and behavior of living organisms. Among the most active pharmacological substances found in very high concentration in residual waters is paracetamol, an analgesic of very wide excessive use due to its ease of access and low cost [1]. No pharmacological substance is entirely absorbed by the human organism and therefore a wide family of molecular residues is excreted by the urinary tract. In this work we have used the AM1 (Austin Model 1), PM3 (Parametric Method 3) and ZINDO/CI semiempirical methods, from the NDO (Neglect Differential Overlap) family [2] to study and observe the structural, electronic and optical characteristics of paracetamol while immersed in different basic and acidic aqueous environments, either alone or interacting with lignosulphonates. We have previously found that lignosulphonates, a lignin derivatives of wide industrial applications, can be engineered as a binding and flocculant agent and acts as molecular catchers therefore showing the potential to be used as a mean to filter and eliminate molecular residues from the residual waters [3].

  11. Synthetic Approaches and Biological Activities of 4-Hydroxycoumarin Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Oee-Sook Park; Jae-Chul Jung

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this review is to summarize recent chemical syntheses and structural modifications of 4-hydroxycoumarin and its derivatives, of interest due to their characteristic conjugated molecular architecture and biological activities.

  12. Synthetic Approaches and Biological Activities of 4-Hydroxycoumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oee-Sook Park

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review is to summarize recent chemical syntheses and structural modifications of 4-hydroxycoumarin and its derivatives, of interest due to their characteristic conjugated molecular architecture and biological activities.

  13. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, Sandra

    2015-04-14

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  14. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  15. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-05-27

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  16. PHYTOCHEMICALS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FAGONIA INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Manoj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fagonia Indica (family Zygophyllaceae is a small spiny under-shrub, mostly found in the deserts of Asia and Africa. It is widely used is Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions since this plant was antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, astringent, febrifuge and prophylactic against small-pox agents.There are reports providing scientific evidences for antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of this plant. These activities were attributed to the presence of a variety of active ingredients including triterpenoidal saponins , flavonol glycosides, ursolic and oleanolic acids either alone or with their derivatives. A comprehensive account of the morphology, photochemical constituents, ethanobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant.

  17. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Philanthotoxin Analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong An ZHANG; Ke Zhong LIU; Deng Yuan WANG; Yu Zhu WANG; Liang Jian QU; Chang Jin ZHU

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of four analogs of philanthotoxin is described. The preliminary bioassay showed that these compounds all had good insecticidal activities, and the compound 6a had the best killing effect.

  18. Quantification of potential exposure of gray partridge (Perdix perdix) to pesticide active substances in farmlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bro, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.bro@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Millot, Florian, E-mail: florian.millot@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Decors, Anouk, E-mail: anouk.decors@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Devillers, James, E-mail: j.devillers@ctis.fr [Centre de Traitement de l' Information Scientifique (CTIS), 3 chemin de la Gravière, 69140 Rillieux La Pape (France)

    2015-07-15

    Estimating exposure of wild birds to plant protection products is of key importance in the risk assessment process evaluating their harmful potential. In this paper, we propose an ecologically-relevant methodology to estimate potential exposure to active substances (ASs) of a farmland focal bird, the gray partridge Perdix perdix. It is based on bird habitat use of fields at the time of pesticide applications. It accounts for spatio-temporal heterogeneity at population and landscape scales. We identify and quantify the potential exposure to 179 ASs of 140 clutches during pre-laying, laying, and incubation phases, and of 75 coveys. The data come from a large scale field study combining radiotelemetry and a farmer survey. They were collected in 12 different representative sites. The proportion of clutches potentially exposed to a given chemical was ≥ 5% for 32 ASs; prothioconazole and epoxiconazole ranking first. 71% of clutches were potentially exposed to ≥ 1 AS and 67% to ≥ 2 ASs. Mixtures involved 2 to 22 ASs. They emerged from commercial formulations, tank mixtures, bird habitat use, and combinations. ASs were fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) used on a variety of crops in April–June, when ground-nesting birds are breeding. The European Food Safety Authority conclusions report a long-term first-tier toxicity-to-exposure ratio (TER{sub lt}) < 5 for 11 out of 19 documented ASs, and higher-tier TER{sub lt} < 5 for 5 out of 10 ASs. This suggests a potential risk for bird reproduction in farmlands. Globally 13% of coveys were potentially exposed to 18 ASs during the first month (1–4 coveys per AS). The use of our field data in future research and risk assessment is discussed. - Highlights: • 71% of clutches and 13% of coveys are exposed to active substances. • Partridge clutches/coveys are mostly exposed to 32/3 substances. • Fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) dominate. • Some substances have the

  19. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  20. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae) against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D) of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and...

  1. PHYTOCHEMICALS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FAGONIA INDICA

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal Manoj; Pareek Anil; Batra Nikhil; Nagori Badri Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Fagonia Indica (family Zygophyllaceae) is a small spiny under-shrub, mostly found in the deserts of Asia and Africa. It is widely used is Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions since this plant was antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, astringent, febrifuge and prophylactic against small-pox agents.There are reports providing scientific evidences for antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of this plant. These activities w...

  2. Phytochemicals and Their Biological Activities of Plants in Tagetes L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-wei; CHEN Juan; QI Huan-yang; SHI Yan-ping

    2012-01-01

    Tagetes L.,the genus in the family Asteraceae,consists of about 30 species spread in South and Middle America as well as Mexico.More than one hundred secondary metabolites have been obtained in phytochemical investigation on the species,some of which have potent biological activities.The advances in phytochemical studies and biological activities of the plants in Tagetes L.from 1925 to 2011 are summarized in this paper.

  3. Effect of microenvironments and exogenous substance application on 5'-nucleotidase activities in apple peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianguang; DI Bao; LI Yingli; ZHANG Jianqiang; SUN Jianshe; LIU Yufang

    2007-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to examine the effect ofmicroenvironments and exogenous substance application on 5'-nucleotidase activity in apple peel tissue.By enclosing apple fruits in bags,treating them with exogenous active oxygen species and regulative agents or placing them under controlled conditions at different fruit temperatures or relative humidity,the 5'-nucleotidase activities were compared with the corresponding controls.The results indicated that,a considerable effect of the microenvironments was found on 5'-nucleotidase activities in fruit peel tissue.The highest enzymatic activity appeared in fruits on the southwest exposure of canopy,regardless of bagged or non-bagged fruits,significantly higher than those from any other exposures.Fruits with bags had a significantly higher 5'-nucleotidase activity,than the exposed ones.A variation in enzymatic activities was observed in fruits enclosed with different types of bags,which were supposed to alter the microenvironments around them.Within a certain range,gradual or fluctuating rise of fruit temperatures could favor the increase of 5'-nucleotidase activities as a result of heat adaptation,whereas the activity would be inhibited if the temperature-rising period was too short or temperature differential was too large.No matter what temperatures fruits were subjected to,high relative humidity was favorable for stimulating the 5'-nucleotidase activities,which might partly explain why fruit sunburn would not happen in humid climates.Treatments with four kinds of exogenous active oxygen species could reduce the 5'-nucleotidase activities significantly but spraying with CaC12 was able to enhance 5'-nucleotidase activities by 55.39%,reaching a 5% significant level.

  4. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Active Substance Production and Antioxidant Activity in Potentilla fruticosa L. and Its Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Dongxue; Li, Na; Hou, Xiaogai; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Dengwu; Liu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors may influence types and contents of active substances. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active substance contents and antioxidant activity of Potentilla fruticosa L. from different regions of China. Also, HPLC fingerprint similarity analysis (SA) coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were further introduced for the accurate classification and quality assessment of P. fruticosa. The results showed that altitude was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of tannin (P < 0.05). Annual sunshine duration and altitude were significantly and positively correlated to the flavonoids content, rutin content and antioxidant activity (P < 0.05). Annual mean temperature was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of total phenolics, while altitude was significantly and positively correlated to the content of total phenolics (P < 0.05). Eight samples were unambiguously separated into three groups. Two types of discriminant functions with a 100% discrimination ratio were constructed. All data consistently supported the conclusion that P. fruticosa produced from Kangding, Sichuan Province had high quality among all samples, therefore, Kangding in Sichuan Province with favorable environmental conditions is recommended as a preferable production location. PMID:27373366

  5. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Barrientos; Herrera, Christian L.; Gloria Montenegro; Ximena Ortega; Jorge Veloz; Marysol Alvear; Alejandro Cuevas; Nicolás Saavedra; Salazar, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from t...

  6. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production.

  7. Breathing rates and daily activities: parameters of exposure to inhaled substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intake of inhaled toxic substances is based upon the air volumes breathed every day by people under exposure to gases and aerosols. On the occasion of the revision of the respiratory tract model by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), modern standards have been assessed for average inspired air volumes according to age and sex. Recent data of breathing rates as a function of physical activity have been recorded, and economical surveys recently published by the National Institute of Statistics and Economical studies (INSEE) provided time budgets and activities of specific categories of the population. The results were calculated for adults and children, 3 months, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years old. These values are slightly different from those formerly published by ICRP and the United Nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation (UNSCEAR). (author). 27 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with /sup 3/H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled (29-/sup 3/H)-(24-/sup 14/C) fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of /sup 3/H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The (29-/sup 3/H) phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation.

  9. Biologically active cis-cinnamic acid occurs naturally in Brassica parachinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The biologically active cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA) has been perceived as a synthetic plant growth regulator for decades. However, in the present study, we found that cis-CA actually exists as a naturally occurring compound in a Brassica plant. This natural growth- regulating substance presents in both the sunlight-irradiated leaf tissue and the non-irradiated root tissue. The concentrations of cis-CA in both tissues are comparable to the biologically effective levels of those major plant hormones. The presence of cis-CA in root tissue suggests that it may be produced through both light-dependent and -independent path- ways or it can be transported from a plant organ to another.

  10. Isoxanthohumol--Biologically active hop flavonoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żołnierczyk, Anna Katarzyna; Mączka, Wanda Krystyna; Grabarczyk, Małgorzata; Wińska, Katarzyna; Woźniak, Edyta; Anioł, Mirosław

    2015-06-01

    Isoxanthohumol (IXN), apart from xanthohumol (XN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN), is one of the most important prenylflavonoids found in hops. Another natural source of this compound is a shrub Sophora flavescens, used in traditional Chinese medicine. Main dietary source of IXN is beer, and the compound is produced from XN during wort boiling. In the human body, the compound is O-demethylated to 8PN, the strongest known phytoestrogen. This process takes place in the liver and in the intestine, where it is mediated by local microflora. It has been reported in some studies that even though beer contains small amounts of hops and its preparations, these compounds may affect the functioning of the human body. IXN exhibits an antiproliferative activity against human cell lines typical for breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian cancer (A-2780), prostate cancer (DU145 and PC-3), and colon cancer (HT-29 and SW620) cells. It strongly inhibits the activation of the following carcinogens: 2-amino-3-methylimidazol-[4,5-f]quinoline and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) via human cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2). It also inhibits the production of prostate specific antigen (PSA). IXN significantly reduces the expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the case of invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231. It interferes with JAK/STAT signaling pathway and inhibits the expression of pro1inflammatory genes in the monoblastic leukemia cell line (MonoMac6). It activates apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). In addition, IXN shows an antiviral activity towards herpes viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). PMID:25771121

  11. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  12. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R

    2014-07-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary testing. A database of 383 formulated products was compiled from acute toxicity studies conducted with northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) or Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) (unpublished regulatory literature). Of the 383 formulated products studied, 159 contained only active substances considered functionally nontoxic (median lethal dose [LD50] > highest dose tested). Of these, 97% had formulated product LD50 values of >2000 mg formulated product/kg (limit dose), indicating that no new information was obtained in the formulated product study. Furthermore, defined (point estimated) LD50 values for formulated products were compared with LD50 values predicted from toxicity of the active substance(s). This demonstrated that predicted LD50 values were within 2-fold and 5-fold of the measured formulated product LD50 values in 90% and 98% of cases, respectively. This analysis demonstrates that avian acute toxicity testing of formulated products is largely unnecessary and should not be routinely required to assess avian acute toxicity. In particular, when active substances are known to be functionally nontoxic, further formulated product testing adds no further information and unnecessarily increases bird usage in testing. A further analysis highlights the fact that significant reductions (61% in this dataset) could be achieved by using a sequential testing design (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 223), as opposed to established single

  13. Rhodiola plants: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Mei Chiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola is a genus of medicinal plants that originated in Asia and Europe and are used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. Rhodiola plants are rich in polyphenols, and salidroside and tyrosol are the primary bioactive marker compounds in the standardized extracts of Rhodiola rosea. This review article summarizes the bioactivities, including adaptogenic, antifatigue, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinoception, and anticancer activities, and the modulation of immune function of Rhodiola plants and its two constituents, as well as their potential to prevent cardiovascular, neuronal, liver, and skin disorders.

  14. The Effect of Peat and Vermicompost Cavitation Products on the Soil Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinberga Vilhelmine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial products with humic substances have often been recommended for plant growth stimulation and yield improvement. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of two products, containing cavited peat and vermicompost respectively on the soil biological activity. Vegetation experiments with garden cress and cucumbers were arranged in pots with a peat substratum in the greenhouses of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The plants were treated with the preparations once a month. The first treatment was done at sowing. Dose of 20, 2, 0.2 mL per m2 during each treatment time were used. A control variant was without peat or vermicompost preparation. Field experiments with onions were carried out in the organic farming experimental field of the Latvia State Institute of Cereal Breeding. Plant growth and soil (substratum biological activity (respiration and enzymatic activity were tested. Plant growth and response to the different preparations depended on the plant species and its development stage. The effect of preparations decreases during plant development. The impact of peat or vermicompost preparation on soil biological activity depended not only on the concentration of preparation, but was influenced by the soil or growth media type. The decrease of onion yield in field conditions as a result of preparations was observed.

  15. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  16. Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems: Differences in Substance Use Expectancy Organization and Activation in Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    We used multidimensional scaling to model the semantic network of alcohol and marijuana expectancies (N = 897). Preference mapping was used to estimate vectors representing patterns of activation through the network as a function of levels of behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral activation (BAS). Individuals with low BIS combined with high BAS levels exhibited patterns of activation emphasizing behavioral activation similar to heavier drug users in previous research. High BIS, low BAS i...

  17. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  18. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POLYKETONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail A.Alkskas; Altaher M.Alhubge; Faizul Azam

    2013-01-01

    Polyketone resins have been prepared by the Friedel-Crafts polymerization of dithiophenylidenecyclopentanone (Ⅰ),dithiophenylidenecyclohexanone (Ⅱ) and dithiophenylideneacetone (Ⅲ) with adipoyl,sebacoyl and terephthaloyl dichlorides using boron trifluoride as catalyst and carbon disulphide as solvent.Polymers were characterized with IR,1H-NMR,and the results showed the presence of carbonyl of ketonic groups in the main chain.The polyketones have inherent viscosities of 0.40-0.70 dL/g.All the polymers are semicrystalline and most of them are partially soluble in most common organic solvents but freely soluble in aprotic solvents.The temperatures of 50% weight loss are as high as 185℃ to 280℃ in air,indicating that these aromatic polyketones have excellent thermal stability.All the polyketones were tested for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi.

  19. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance ferric phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substance ferric phosphate are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 1141/2010 as amended by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU No 380/2013. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of ferric phosphate as a molluscicide in agriculture and horticulture for control of harmful slug and snail species in all edible and non-edible crops. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. A concern was identified.

  20. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26036232

  1. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance pyrethrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Italy, for the pesticide active substance pyrethrins are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of pyrethrins as an insecticide on tomato, pepper, cucumber, melons, strawberries, potatoes, lettuce and ornamentals. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  2. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltaire Sant'Anna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g-1 previously inoculated with a suspension of 10² cfu g-1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  3. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance spiromesifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance spiromesifen are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of spiromesifen as an insecticide and acaricide on cucumber, courgette, pepper, tomato, eggplant (aubergine, French bean, melon, strawberry and ornamentals in permanent greenhouses. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  4. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance tebuconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Denmark, for the pesticide active substance tebuconazole are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Regulation (EC No 1107/2009. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of tebuconazole as a fungicide on cereals (wheat, barley, oat, rye and grape (wine and table and as a plant growth regulator in oilseed rape. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  5. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance triasulfuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State France and the co-rapporteur Member State Denmark for the pesticide active substance triasulfuron are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 1141/2010 as amended by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU No 380/2013. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of triasulfuron as a herbicide on winter cereals. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  6. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance acequinocyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance acequinocyl are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses as an acaricide on ornamentals, apples and pears. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified for all the outdoor uses assessed.

  7. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Voltaire; Quadros, Deoni A F; Motta, Amanda S; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g(-1)) previously inoculated with a suspension of 10(2) cfu g(-1) of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe) against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  8. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant’Anna, Voltaire; Quadros, Deoni A.F.; Motta, Amanda S.; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g−1) previously inoculated with a suspension of 102 cfu g−1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe) against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products. PMID:24688506

  9. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State The Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance sodium hypochlorite are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004 as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of sodium hypochlorite as a bactericide on mushrooms. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  10. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance valifenalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, Hungary, for the pesticide active substance valifenalate are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of valifenalate as a fungicide on grapes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  11. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance pyridalyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance pyridalyl are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EUNo 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of pyridalyl as an insecticide on field and glasshouse tomato, aubergine, sweet and chilli pepper, and on field cucurbits, lettuce and cotton. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  12. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  13. Phytochemistry and biological activities of Phlomis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limem-Ben Amor, Ilef; Boubaker, Jihed; Ben Sgaier, Mohamed; Skandrani, Ines; Bhouri, Wissem; Neffati, Aicha; Kilani, Soumaya; Bouhlel, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2009-09-01

    The genus Phlomis L. belongs to the Lamiaceae family and encompasses 100 species native to Turkey, North Africa, Europe and Asia. It is a popular herbal tea enjoyed for its taste and aroma. Phlomis species are used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation, and wounds. This review aims to summarize recent research on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the genus Phlomis, with particular emphasis on its ethnobotanical uses. The essential oil of Phomis is composed of four chemotypes dominated by monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, limonene and linalool), sesquiterpenes (germacrene D and beta-caryophyllene), aliphalic compounds (9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester), fatty acids (hexadecanoic acid) and other components (trans-phytol, 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol). Flavonoids, iridoids and phenylethyl alcohol constitute the main compounds isolated from Phlomis extracts. The pharmacological activities of some Phlomis species have been investigated. They are described according to antidiabetic, antinociceptive, antiulcerogenic, protection of the vascular system, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. PMID:19563875

  14. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  15. Photo-activated biological processes as quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Imamoglu, Atac

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for describing photo-activated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit non-equilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.

  16. Biological models for active vision: Towards a unified architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Terzic K.; Lobato D.; Saleiro M.; Martins J; Farrajota M.; Rodrigues J.M.F.; Du Buf J.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Building a general-purpose, real-time active vision system completely based on biological models is a great challenge. We apply a number of biologically plausible algorithms which address different aspects of vision, such as edge and keypoint detection, feature extraction,optical flow and disparity, shape detection, object recognition and scene modelling into a complete system. We present some of the experiments from our ongoing work, where our system leverages a combination of algorithms to ...

  17. The physico-chemical properties and biostimulative activities of humic substances regenerated from lignite

    OpenAIRE

    David, Jan; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Hudecová, Šárka; Zmeškal, Oldřich; von Wandruszka, Ray; Gregor, Tomáš; Kučerík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The positive effect of humic acids on the growth of plant roots is well known, however, the mechanisms and role of their physical structure in these processes have not been fully explained yet. In this work, South-Moravian lignite was oxidized by means of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to produce a set of regenerated humic acids. The elemental composition, solid state stability and solution characteristics were determined and correlated in vitro with their biological activity. A modified h...

  18. Biological activity of diterpenoids isolated from Anatolian Lamiaceae Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülaçtı Topçu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, cytotoxic, antitumor, cardiovascular, antifeedant, insecticidal, antileishmanial and some other single activities of diterpenoids and norditerpenoids isolated from Turkish Lamiaceae plants, are reviewed. The diterpenoids were isolated from species of Salvia, Sideritis, and Ballota species growing in Anatolia. Fifty abietanes, ten kaurenes, seven pimaranes, six labdanes with their biological activities were reported. While twenty five diterpenoids showed antibacterial activity, eight of which showed activity against fungi. The most cytotoxic one was found to be taxodione (44 isolated from species of Salvia. Antifeedant, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of kaurenes, antimycobacterial activity and cardioactivity of abietanes and norabietanes together with labdanes were also reported.

  19. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Oskoueian; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rudi Hendra; Ehsan Oskoueian; Ehsan Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and fla...

  20. In situ activity recovery of aging biofilm in biological aerated filter: Surfactants treatment and mechanisms study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qisheng; Huang, Hui; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Geng, Jinju

    2016-11-01

    In situ activity recovery of aging biofilm in the biological aerated filter (BAF) is an important but underappreciated problem. Lab-scaled BAFs were established in this study and three kinds of surfactants containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and rhamnolipid were employed. Multiple indicators including effluent qualities, dissolved organic matters, biofilm physiology and morphology characteristics were investigated to explore the mechanisms. Results showed that removal rates of effluent COD in test groups significantly recovered to the level before aging. Compared with the control, effluent in SDBS and rhamnolipid-treated groups obtained more protein-like and humic-like substances, respectively. Furthermore, great live cell ratio, smooth surface and low adhesion force of biofilm were observed after rhamnolipid treatment, which was in consistent with good effluent qualities in the same group. This is the first report of applying rhamnolipid for in situ activity recovery of aging biofilm in bioreactors. PMID:27513646

  1. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium of venture business fostering type--Creation of key industries (Development of technologies for manufacturing and utilizing various biological regulatory substances using Hokkaido-produced biomasses as materials); 1998 nendo Dosan biomass wo genryo to shita kakushu seitai chosetsu kino busshitsu no seisan riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The efforts aim to meet consumers' needs for products that will prevent lifestyle diseases or the like. For this purpose, substances answering the purpose are extracted from Hokkaido-produced agricultural and aquatic biomasses, and prepared for testing. Researches are conducted on how they behave in the enzyme, cell, and biological systems, and active substances are isolated and identified. In relation to the aquatic biomass, a technology is established of extracting and separating DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), taurine, etc., which are multivalent unsaturated fatty acids effective in preventing lifestyle diseases, from the unused parts of the squid. In relation to the agricultural biomass, antimicrobial active substances are extracted and separated from small fruit plants such as the chicory. Long-keeping foods are tentatively produced by the addition of dried powder of the chicory root tuber. In the elucidation of various biological regulatory substances contained in the Hokkaido-produced biomasses, they are tested for their abilities to resist microbes and active oxygen. Furthermore, verification tests are conducted by administering the substances to the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM). (NEDO)

  2. Surface-active substances in a laboratory simulated Titan's organic haze: Prebiotic microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagota, Seema; Kawai, Jun; Deamer, David; McKay, Christopher; Khare, Bishun; Beeler, David

    2014-11-01

    Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, is a key planetary body for astrobiological studies due to its active organic chemistry, hydrocarbon lakes and possible subsurface water-ammonia liquids. We have investigated the physicochemical properties of organic compounds synthesized in a simulated Titan atmosphere. A laboratory analog of Titan's aerosols, called tholin, was produced by irradiation of a nitrogen/methane gas mixture. The primary aim was to determine whether tholin represent possible sources of surface-active substances that could have been involved in the formation of prebiotic structures. A tholin sample was extracted with chloroform-methanol and the chloroform soluble material was separated by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Fluorescence excited by UV light was used to identify the major components on the plates. After being scraped from the TLC plate, the components were eluted as specific fractions and investigated by surface chemical methods, FTIR, scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Fractions 1 and 2 were strongly fluorescent and surface active, producing films at air-water interfaces. When exposed to aqueous phases, components in fraction 1 form spherical microstructures resembling prebionts. The prebionts are precursor structures that might have evolved into the first living cells.

  3. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Auger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction.

  4. Biological Activity of Curcuminoids Isolated from Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simay Çıkrıkçı

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is the most important fraction of turmeric which is responsible for its biological activity. In this study, isolation and biological assessment of turmeric and curcumin have been discussed against standard bacterial and mycobacterial strains such as E.coli , S.aureus, E.feacalis, P.aeuroginosa, M.smegmatis, M.simiae, M.kansasii, M. terrae, M.szulgai and the fungi Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity of curcumin and turmeric were also determined by the CUPRAC method.

  5. Modulatory effect of substance P on GABA-activated currents from rat dorsal root ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-qiang SI; Zhi-qin ZHANG; Chun-xia LI; Li-feng WANG; Yun-lei YANG; Zhi-wang LI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated current of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rat. METHODS: The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record SP- and GABAactivated currents in neurons freshly dissociated from rat DRG neurons. Drugs were applied by rapid solution exchange. RESULTS: Application of SP (28/41, 68.5 %) and GABA (36/41, 88.2 %) could induce concentrationdependent inward current in some cells. SP-(10 μmol/L) and GABA (100 μmol/L)-activated inward currents were (244±83) pA (n=9) and (1.8±0.5) nA (n=13), respectively. The majority of GABA-activated current had obvious three processes, the peak value (Ip), the steady state (Iss) and the desensitization (Ia). The desensitization of GABAactivated current was a biphasic process, including fast and slow desensitization. However, pre-application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) could inhibit the GABA-activated inward current which was identified to be GABAA receptormediated current. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent. The inhibitory effect of SP on the peak value of GABA-activated current was more than the steady state of GABA-activated current. The inhibition of GABA-activated current by SP (0.1 μmol/L) was related to the time after application of SP, the inhibition of GABAactivated currents by SP reached the peak at about 4 min (49.8 %±7.2 %, n=7, P<0.01) and took about 12 min to get a full recovery. The inhibition of GABA-activated currents by SP was almost completely removed after blockade of PKC by H-7 with the re-patch clamp. CONCLUSION: Pre-application of SP exerts a more strong inhibitory effect on the peak value of GABA-activated current than the steady state of GABA-activated current.

  6. Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Zulane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds. Methods Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and ethanol (EtOH and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa. Results Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 C. ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL. By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50% with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Conclusions Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine.

  7. Influence of surface active substances on bubble motion and collision with various interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysa, K; Krasowska, M; Krzan, M

    2005-06-30

    Bubble motion as a function of distance from a point of its detachment and phenomena occurring during the bubble approach and collision with liquid/gas and liquid/solid interfaces in pure water and solutions of various surface active substances are described and discussed. It is showed that presence of surface active substance has a profound influence on values of the terminal velocity and profiles of the local velocity. At low solutions concentrations there are three distinct stages in the bubble motion: (i) a rapid acceleration, (ii) a maximum velocity value followed by its monotonic decrease, and (iii) attainment of the terminal velocity, while at high concentrations (and in pure water) there are only stages (i) and (iii). It is showed that the bubble terminal velocity decreases rapidly at low surfactant concentration, but there can be found some characteristic concentrations (adsorption coverage's) above which the velocity almost stopped to decrease. Immobilization of the bubble surface resulting from adsorption of the surface active substances (surface tension gradients inducement) causes over twofold lowering of the bubble velocity. Presence of the maximum on the local velocity profiles is an indication that a stationary non-uniform distribution of adsorption coverage (needed for immobilization the bubble interface) was not established there. When the rising bubble arrives at liquid/gas interface or liquid/solid interface there can be formed either foam or wetting film or three-phase contact (TPC). It is showed that prior to the foam and/or wetting film formation the bubble colliding with the interfaces can bounce backward and simultaneously its shape pulsates rapidly with a frequency over 1000 Hz. It is rather unexpected that even in the case of the free surface the bubble's shape and consequently its surface area can vary so rapidly. It shows straightforward that on such a rapidly distorted interface the adsorption coverage can be very different from that

  8. Antimicrobial activity and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from artisanal Mexican cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus spp. from Mexican Cocido cheese were shown to produce bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) active against Staphylococcus aureus,Listeria innocua,Escherichia coli, andSalmonella typhimurium by using the disk diffusion method. Crude extracts of Lactobacillus fermentum showed strong inhibitory activity against Staph. aureus, L. innocua, E. coli, and Salmonella cholerae. Complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of crude extracts with proteinase K, pronase, papain, trypsin, and lysozyme, confirming their proteinaceous nature. However, antimicrobial activity was partly lost for some of the crude extracts when treated with α-amylase, indicating that carbohydrate moieties were involved. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was stable at 65°C for 30min over a wide pH range (2-8), and addition of potassium chloride, sodium citrate, ethanol, and butanol did not affect antibacterial activity. However, antimicrobial activity was lost after heating at 121°C for 15min, addition of methanol or Tween 80. Fourteen out of 18 Lactobacillus spp. showed antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms, and 12 presented bacteriocin-like substances. Generation time and growth rate parameters indicated that the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from 3 different strains was effective against the 4 indicator microorganisms. One of the crude extracts showed inhibition not only against gram-positive but also against gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by this specific Lactobacillus strain showed potential for application as a food biopreservative.

  9. A Review on Pyrazole chemical entity and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahangir Alam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic organic heterocycle containing pyrimidine scaffolds possesses two nitrogen atoms of Five-membered ring. These Pyrazole skeletons comprise various ranges of pharmacological activities such as analgesic, antipyretic, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anticonvulsant, ant arrhythmic activities. Pyrazole is a multipurpose lead compound developed by chemical architecture for effective molecules which are biologically active. Several synthetic routes are accorded to the development of pyrazole containing reactions to afford a novel molecule which is an enormous opportunity in the field of medicinal chemistry. The existing collection of exertions on research to provide information about the synthesis and innumerable biological activities of pyrazole and their outcomes during the past year.

  10. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  11. Polysaccharies of higher fungi: Biological role, structure and antioxidative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.S.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Vrvic, M.M.; Jakovljevic, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging bio-logical properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypo-lipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application

  12. Polysaccharides of higher fungi: Biological role, structure, and antioxidative activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kozarski Maja S.; Klaus Anita S.; Nikšić Miomir P.; van Griensven Leo J.L.D.; Vrvić Miroslav M.; Jakovljević Dragica M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging biological properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application in many quite distinctive areas, such as food industry, biomedicine, cosmetology, agriculture, environmental protection and waste water management. This article pr...

  13. Occurrence, biological activity and synthesis of drimane sesquiterpenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    In this review the names, structures and occurrence of all new drimanes and rearranged drimanes, which have been published between January 1990 and January 2003 have been collected. Subjects that have been treated are biosynthesis, analysis, biological activities, with special attention to cytotoxic

  14. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...

  15. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  16. Evaluating the Direction of Effects in the Relationship between Religious versus Non-Religious Activities, Academic Success, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the "influence of involvement" and "selection" hypotheses for the association between religious versus non-religious activity involvement and two salient indicators of adolescent psychosocial adjustment (substance use and academic achievement). Participants included 3,993 Canadian adolescents (49.4% girls) who were…

  17. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Heer, C. de

    2005-01-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of repeate

  18. In Vitro Metabolism and Bioavailability Test for Endocrine Active Substances: What is Needed Next for Regulatory Purposes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.N.; Laws, S.C.; Willett, K.; Schmieder, P.; Odum, B.; Bovee, T.F.H.

    2013-01-01

    Legislation and prospective legislative proposals internationally (may) require that chemicals be tested for their ability to disrupt the hormonal systems of mammals. Chemicals found to test positive in vitro are considered to be endocrine active substances (EAS) and may be putative endocrine disrup

  19. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  20. Computer-aided discovery of biological activity spectra for anti-aging and anti-cancer olive oil oleuropeins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Santangelo, Elvira; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Micol, Vicente; Joven, Jorge; Ariza, Xavier; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; García, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with common conditions, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The type of multi-targeted pharmacological approach necessary to address a complex multifaceteddisease such as aging might take advantage of pleiotropic natural polyphenols affecting a wide variety of biological processes. We have recently postulated that the secoiridoids oleuropein aglycone (OA) and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (DOA), two complex polyphenols present in health-promoting extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), might constitute anew family of plant-produced gerosuppressant agents. This paper describes an analysis of the biological activity spectra (BAS) of OA and DOA using PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) software. PASS can predict thousands of biological activities, as the BAS of a compound is an intrinsic property that is largely dependent on the compound's structure and reflects pharmacological effects, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action, and specific toxicities. Using Pharmaexpert, a tool that analyzes the PASS-predicted BAS of substances based on thousands of “mechanism-effect” and “effect-mechanism” relationships, we illuminate hypothesis-generating pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and targets that might underlie the anti-aging/anti-cancer activities of the gerosuppressant EVOO oleuropeins. PMID:25324469

  1. Synthesis, structure and biological properties of active spirohydantoin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Anita M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirohidantoins represent an pharmacologically important class of heterocycles since many derivatives have been recognized that display interesting activities against a wide range of biological targets. First synthesis of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins was performed by Bucherer and Lieb 1934 by the reaction of cycloalkanone, potassium cyanide and ammonium-carbonate at reflux in a mixture of ethanol and water. QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship studies showed that a wide range of biological activities of spirohydantoin derivatives strongly depend upon their structure. This paper describes different methods of synthesis of spirohydantoin derivatives, their physico-chemical properties and biological activity. It emphasizes the importance of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins with anticonvulsant, antiproliferative, antipsychotic, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties as well as their importance in the treatment of diabetes. Numerous spirohydantoin compounds exhibit physiological activity such as serotonin and fibrinogen antagonist, inhibitors of the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor also, antagonist of leukocyte cell adhesion, acting as allosteric inhibitors of the protein-protein interactions. Some spirohydantoin derivatives have been identified as antitumor agents. Their activity depends on the substituent presented at position N-3 of the hydantoin ring and increases in order alkene > ester > ether. Besides that, compounds that contain two electron withdrawing groups (e.g. fluorine or chlorine on the third and fourth position of the phenyl ring are better antitumor agents than compounds with a single electron withdrawing group. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  2. A facile synthesis of arylazonicotinates for dyeing polyester fabrics under microwave irradiation and their biological activity profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mousawi, Saleh M; El-Apasery, Morsy A; Mahmoud, Huda M

    2012-09-27

    A as textile dyes and the fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed very good washing and perspiration fastness and series of 2-hydroxy- and 2-amino-6-substituted-5-arylazonicotinate monoazo compounds 7a-e and 9a-c were prepared via condensation of 3-oxo-3-substituted-2-arylhydrazonals 2a-e with active methylene nitriles 3a-d using microwave irradiation as an energy source. These substances were then tested moderate light fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized compounds against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated.

  3. A Facile Synthesis of Arylazonicotinates for Dyeing Polyester Fabrics under Microwave Irradiation and Their Biological Activity Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh M. Al-Mousawi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A as textile dyes and the fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed very good washing and perspiration fastness and series of 2-hydroxy- and 2-amino-6-substituted-5-arylazonicotinate monoazo compounds 7a–e and 9a–c were prepared via condensation of 3-oxo-3-substituted-2-arylhydrazonals 2a–e with active methylene nitriles 3a–d using microwave irradiation as an energy source. These substances were then tested moderate light fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized compounds against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated.

  4. Chemical and structural features influencing the biological activity of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic natural product, exhibits therapeutic activity against a number of diseases, attributed mainly to its chemical structure and unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. It is a diferuloyl methane molecule [1,7-bis (4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione)] containing two ferulic acid residues joined by a methylene bridge. It has three important functionalities: an aromatic o-methoxy phenolic group, α, β-unsaturated β-diketo moiety and a seven carbon linker. Extensive research in the last two decades has provided evidence for the role of these different functional groups in its crucial biological activities. A few highlights of chemical structural features associated with the biological activity of curcumin are: The o-methoxyphenol group and methylenic hydrogen are responsible for the antioxidant activity of curcumin, and curcumin donates an electron/ hydrogen atom to reactive oxygen species. Curcumin interacts with a number of biomolecules through non-covalent and covalent binding. The hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity of curcumin, arising from the aromatic and tautomeric structures along with the flexibility of the linker group are responsible for the non-covalent interactions. The α, β-unsaturated β-diketone moiety covalently interacts with protein thiols, through Michael reaction. The β-diketo group forms chelates with transition metals, there by reducing the metal induced toxicity and some of the metal complexes exhibit improved antioxidant activity as enzyme mimics. New analogues with improved activity are being developed with modifications on specific functional groups of curcumin. The physico-chemical and structural features associated with some of the biological activities of curcumin and important analogues are summarized in this article. PMID:23116315

  5. Oscillatory Activities in Regulatory Biological Networks and Hopf Bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shi-Wei; WANG Qi; XIE Bai-Song; ZHANG Feng-Shou

    2007-01-01

    Exploiting the nonlinear dynamics in the negative feedback loop, we propose a statistical signal-response model to describe the different oscillatory behaviour in a biological network motif. By choosing the delay as a bifurcation parameter, we discuss the existence of Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the periodic solutions of model equations with the centre manifold theorem and the normal form theory. It is shown that a periodic solution is born in a Hopf bifurcation beyond a critical time delay, and thus the bifurcation phenomenon may be important to elucidate the mechanism of oscillatory activities in regulatory biological networks.

  6. Stereochemical Assignment of Strigolactone Analogues Confirms Their Selective Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuso, Emma; Ghibaudi, Elena; Lace, Beatrice; Marabello, Domenica; Vinciguerra, Daniele; Lombardi, Chiara; Koltai, Hinanit; Kapulnik, Yoram; Novero, Mara; Occhiato, Ernesto G; Scarpi, Dina; Parisotto, Stefano; Deagostino, Annamaria; Venturello, Paolo; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Bier, Ariel; Prandi, Cristina

    2015-11-25

    Strigolactones (SLs) are new plant hormones with various developmental functions. They are also soil signaling chemicals that are required for establishing beneficial mycorrhizal plant/fungus symbiosis. In addition, SLs play an essential role in inducing seed germination in root-parasitic weeds, which are one of the seven most serious biological threats to food security. There are around 20 natural SLs that are produced by plants in very low quantities. Therefore, most of the knowledge on SL signal transduction and associated molecular events is based on the application of synthetic analogues. Stereochemistry plays a crucial role in the structure-activity relationship of SLs, as compounds with an unnatural D-ring configuration may induce biological effects that are unrelated to SLs. We have synthesized a series of strigolactone analogues, whose absolute configuration has been elucidated and related with their biological activity, thus confirming the high specificity of the response. Analogues bearing the R-configured butenolide moiety showed enhanced biological activity, which highlights the importance of this stereochemical motif. PMID:26502774

  7. Enacting Conceptual Metaphor through Blending: Learning activities embodying the substance metaphor for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Hunter G.; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that a particular blended learning space is especially productive in developing understanding of energy transfers and transformations. In this blended space, naturally occurring learner interactions like body movement, gesture, and metaphorical speech are blended with a conceptual metaphor of energy as a substance in a class of activities called Energy Theater. We illustrate several mechanisms by which the blended aspect of the learning environment promotes productive intellectual engagement with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including distinguishing among energy processes, disambiguating matter and energy, identifying energy transfer, and representing energy as a conserved quantity. Conceptual advancement appears to be promoted especially by the symbolic material and social structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants and objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope, and by Energy Theater's embodied action, including body locomotion, gesture, and coordination of speech with symbolic spaces in the Energy Theater arena. Our conclusions are (1) that specific conceptual metaphors can be leveraged to benefit science instruction via the blending of an abstract space of ideas with multiple modes of concrete human action, and (2) that participants' structured improvisation plays an important role in leveraging the blend for their intellectual development.

  8. Investigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-09-15

    The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests.

  9. Environmental risk assessment on capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbing; Shi, Ting; Yang, Xiaoling; Han, Wenya; Zhou, Yunrui

    2014-06-01

    Biodegradation experiments were carried out with capsaicin to evaluate its degradability. The results show that capsaicin was readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions. The values of Kow and the calculated bioconcentration factor indicate that capsaicin have a low potential for bioconcentration. The fish acute toxicity tests conducted with Brachydanio rerio show LC50 for capsaicin was 5.98 mg L(-1). The tests of alga growth inhibition conducted with Selenastrum capricornutum suggest EC50 for capsaicin was 114 mg L(-1). The calculated PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) was 4.9×10(-4) mg L(-1). The average PEC (Predicted Environmental Concentration) for OECD-EU commercial harbor and marina were 3.99×10(-6) and 2.49×10(-5) mg L(-1), respectively. These indicate that the PEC was much less than the PNEC for capsaicin. The low Kp value of capsaicin suggests the data about the risk of capsaicin to sediment organisms can be waived. According to the results from the analysis of the degradation, bioaccumulation, toxicity and accumulation in sediment, it can be concluded that capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships poses relatively low risk to marine environment.

  10. Modeling the development of biofilm density including active bacteria, inert biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laspidou, Chrysi S; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    We present the unified multi-component cellular automaton (UMCCA) model, which predicts quantitatively the development of the biofilm's composite density for three biofilm components: active bacteria, inert or dead biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. The model also describes the concentrations of three soluble organic components (soluble substrate and two types of soluble microbial products) and oxygen. The UMCCA model is a hybrid discrete-differential mathematical model and introduces the novel feature of biofilm consolidation. Our hypothesis is that the fluid over the biofilm creates pressures and vibrations that cause the biofilm to consolidate, or pack itself to a higher density over time. Each biofilm compartment in the model output consolidates to a different degree that depends on the age of its biomass. The UMCCA model also adds a cellular automaton algorithm that identifies the path of least resistance and directly moves excess biomass along that path, thereby ensuring that the excess biomass is distributed efficiently. A companion paper illustrates the trends that the UMCCA model is able to represent and shows a comparison with experimental results. PMID:15276752

  11. Polysaccharides of higher fungi: Biological role, structure, and antioxidative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Maja S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging biological properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application in many quite distinctive areas, such as food industry, biomedicine, cosmetology, agriculture, environmental protection and waste water management. This article presents results with respect to biological properties, structure and procedures related to the isolation and activation of polysaccharides of higher fungi. It is considered and presented along with a review of the critical antioxidative activity and possible influence of the structural composition of polysaccharide extracts (isolated from these higher fungi upon their antioxidative properties.

  12. Biological activity evaluation of dibenzilbutirolactones lignans derivatives against Leishmania braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Royo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the results of the in vitro assay against extracellular forms of Leishmania (viannia braziliensis of eleven dibenzylbutyrolactone derivatives, either isolated from plants or obtained by synthesis. From these, only two showed relative biological activity against the parasite, the raceme mixtures of methylpluviatolide: IC50 = 496 mM and (--6,6'- dinitrocubebin: IC50 = 510,4 μM. Thus, it can be suggested that the metabolic pathway responsible for the biological activity of these compounds against this parasite genera differs from the one related to Trypanosoma cruzi, for which these compounds were quite active. This fact highly also suggests that this class of compounds is more selective against T. cruzi. Nevertheles, other lignans derivatives should be obtained to allow the fully evaluation of this class of lignans against Leishmaniosis.

  13. Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feller, Georges, E-mail: gfeller@ulg.ac.b [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Centre for Protein Engineering, Institute of Chemistry B6a, University of Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2010-08-18

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 {sup 0}C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins. (topical review)

  14. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF OXAZINE AND ITS DERIVATIVES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINDHU T J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxazine derivatives are an important class of heterocycles, which has attracted much synthetic interest due to their wide range of biological activities. Oxazine is a heterocyclic compound can be formally derived from benzene, and its reduction products, by suitable substitution of carbon (and hydrogen atoms by nitrogen and oxygen. In the last few years oxazine derivatives have proved to be valuable synthetic intermediates and also possess important biological activities like sedative, analgesic, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antitumour, antimalarial and antimicrobial. In these days, development of drug resistance is a major problem and to overcome this situation, it is necessary to synthesize new classes of compounds. The aim of the article is to review the generalization of the collected data about the synthesis of oxazine derivatives and their activities. We hope that this work will be a definite interest for researchers concerned with azines in generally and oxazines in particular.

  15. Tracking SERS-active nanoprobe intracellular uptake for chemical and biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregas, Molly K.; Yan, Fei; Scaffidi, Jonathan; Wang, Hsin-Neng; Khoury, Christopher; Zhang, Yan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2007-09-01

    A critical aspect of the use of nanoprobes for intracellular studies in chemical and biological sensing involves a fundamental understanding of their uptake and trajectory in cells. In this study, we describe experiments using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and mapping to track cellular uptake of plasmonics-active labeled nanoparticles. Three different Raman-active labels with positive, negative, and neutral charges were conjugated to silver colloidal nanoparticles with the aim of spatially and temporally profiling intracellular delivery and tracking of nanoprobes during uptake in single mammalian cells. 1-D Raman spectra and 2-D Raman mapping are used to identify and locate the probes via their SERS signal intensities. Because Raman spectroscopy is very specific for identification of chemical and molecular signatures, the development of functionalized plasmonics-active nanoprobes capable of exploring intracellular spaces and processes has the ability to provide specific information on the effects of biological and chemical pollutants in the intracellular environment. The results indicate that this technique will allow study of when, where, and how these substances affect cells and living organisms.

  16. Thyroid Histopathology Assessments for the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay to Detect Thyroid-active Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA) Test Guideline for the detection of substances that interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, a document was developed that provides a standardized appro...

  17. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Koyano, Yuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous 2D fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it has been shown [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)] that such active proteins should in- duce non-thermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxis-like drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  18. Theory-Based Active Ingredients of Effective Treatments for Substance Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    MOOS, RUDOLF H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes four related theories that specify common social processes that protect individuals from developing substance use disorders and may underlie effective psychosocial treatments for these disorders: social control theory, behavioral economics and behavioral choice theory, social learning theory, and stress and coping theory. It then provides an overview of the rationale and evidence for four effective psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders: motivational intervie...

  19. Biological Ice Nucleation Activity in Cloud Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delort, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ice nucleation active (INA) biological particles, in particular microorganisms, were studied in cloud water. Twelve cloud samples were collected over a period of 16 months from the puy de Dôme summit (1465 m, France) using sterile cloud droplet impactors. The samples were characterized through biological (cultures, cell counts) and physico-chemical measurements (pH, ion concentrations, carbon content...), and biological ice nuclei were investigated by droplet-freezing assays from -3°C to -13°C. The concentration of total INA particles within this temperature range typically varied from ~1 to ~100 per mL of cloud water; the concentrations of biological IN were several orders of magnitude higher than the values previously reported for precipitations. At -12°C, at least 76% of the IN were biological in origin, i.e. they were inactivated by heating at 95°C, and at temperatures above -8°C only biological material could induce ice. By culture, 44 Pseudomonas-like strains of bacteria were isolated from cloud water samples; 16% of them were found INA at the temperature of -8°C and they were identified as Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas sp. and Pseudoxanthomonas sp.. Two strains induced freezing at as warm as -2°C, positioning them among the most active ice nucleators described so far. We estimated that, in average, 0.18% and more than 1%.of the bacterial cells present in clouds (~104 mL-1) are INA at the temperatures of -8°C and -12°C, respectively.

  20. Purification, structural characterization, and antioxidant activity of antioxidant substance from the red seaweed Gloiopeltis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byung-Lak; Ryu, Il-Hwan

    2009-04-01

    An antioxidant substance (AOS) obtained from an enzymatic extract of the red seaweed Gloiopeltis tenax was purified by DEAE-Sephadex CL-6B and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The purification yield of AOS was 14.3%. The AOS predominantly contained fucose, mannose, and galactose but also contained a sulfate group. The structure of AOS was investigated by periodate oxidation, desulfation, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. AOS was mainly composed of alternating units of beta-D-Glc(1 --> 2)alpha-D-Man(1 --> 4)beta-D-Gal(1 --> 4)alpha-D-Man(1 --> 4)beta-D-Gal alpha-D-Man (1 --> 4) beta-D-Glc (or Xyl)- and branched linkage of alpha-D-Man(1 --> 3) alpha-D-Fuc. In addition, the fucose residues were shown to be 2-O- and 4-O-sulfated and, therefore, were either terminal or 3-linked. The antioxidative activity of AOS was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the beta-carotene-linoleate assay systems and was compared with those of butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid (AscA). The results showed that AOS exhibited higher antioxidative activity than AscA in the DPPH assay model and in the beta-carotene-linoleate assay system at all of the four concentration levels tested (from 50 to 200 microg/mL). These results suggested that AOS from the red seaweed G. tenax is an efficient novel antioxidant. PMID:19459750

  1. Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

    2014-05-01

    Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and

  2. Biological activities of xanthatin from Xanthium strumarium leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibret, Endalkachew; Youns, Mahamoud; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Wink, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biological activities of the major bioactive compound, xanthatin, and other compounds from Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae) leaves. Inhibition of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and leukaemia HL-60 cell proliferation was assessed using resazurin as a vital stain. Xanthatin was found to be the major and most active compound against T. b. brucei with an IC(50) value of 2.63 µg/mL and a selectivity index of 20. The possible mode of action of xanthatin was further evaluated. Xanthatin showed antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis (24% inhibition) and 5-lipoxygenase activity (92% inhibition) at concentrations of 100 µg/mL and 97 µg/mL, respectively. Xanthatin exhibited weak irreversible inhibition of parasite specific trypanothione reductase. Unlike xanthatin, diminazene aceturate and ethidium bromide showed strong DNA intercalation with IC(50) values of 26.04 µg/mL and 44.70 µg/mL, respectively. Substantial induction of caspase 3/7 activity in MIA PaCa-2 cells was observed after 6 h of treatment with 100 µg/mL of xanthatin. All these data taken together suggest that xanthatin exerts its biological activity by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis and 5-lipoxygenase activity thereby avoiding unwanted inflammation commonly observed in diseases such as trypanosomiasis. PMID:21953905

  3. Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Hoem

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs have been under extensive study for several decades. However, not much attention has been paid to differences of dietary forms, such as triglycerides (TGs versus ethyl esters or phospholipids (PLs. New innovative marine raw materials, like krill and fish by-products, present n-3 FAs mainly in the PL form. With their increasing availability, new evidence has emerged on n-3 PL biological activities and differences to n-3 TGs. In this review, we describe the recently discovered nutritional properties of n-3 PLs on different parameters of metabolic syndrome and highlight their different metabolic bioavailability in comparison to other dietary forms of n-3 FAs.

  4. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L Millsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur (family: Fabaceae is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  5. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  6. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V Rajashekar; E Upender Rao; Srinivas P

    2012-01-01

    Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation.

  7. Marine Sponge Lectins: Actual Status on Properties and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mascena Gomes Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  8. Polyphosphate Kinase from Activated Sludge Performing Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal†

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine D McMahon; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.; Jenkins, David; Keasling, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel polyphosphate kinase (PPK) was retrieved from an uncultivated organism in activated sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Acetate-fed laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors were used to maintain sludge with a high phosphorus content (approximately 11% of the biomass). PCR-based clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to verify that the sludge was enriched in Rhodocyclus-like β-Proteobacteria kn...

  9. Processed Vietnamese ginseng: Preliminary results in chemistry and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thi Hong Van; Lee, Seo Young; Kim, Tae Ryong; Kim, Jae Young; Kwon, Sung Won; NGUYEN, NGOC KHOI; Park, Jeong Hill; Nguyen, Minh Duc

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the steaming process on chemical constituents, free radical scavenging activity, and antiproliferative effect of Vietnamese ginseng. Methods Samples of powdered Vietnamese ginseng were steamed at 120°C for various times and their extracts were subjected to chemical and biological studies. Results Upon steaming, contents of polar ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1, were rapidly decreased, whereas less polar ginsenos...

  10. Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities

    OpenAIRE

    Iasmine A.B.S. Alves; Henrique M. Miranda; Luiz A. L. Soares; Karina P. Randau

    2014-01-01

    The Simaroubaceae family includes 32 genera and more than 170 species of trees and brushes of pantropical distribution. The main distribution hot spots are located at tropical areas of America, extending to Africa, Madagascar and regions of Australia bathed by the Pacific. This family is characterized by the presence of quassinoids, secondary metabolites responsible of a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticide, feeding deterrent, amebicid...

  11. Synthesis,Characterization and Biological Activities of Novel Acrylamide Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; XU Zhong-jie; ZHANG Gong-sheng; ZHOU Kai; ZHAI Zhi-wei

    2008-01-01

    With dimethomorph and flumorph as the leading compounds,four novel acrylamide compounds with two types of structure were designed and synthesized by means of the method of"me too chemistry".The target compounds were characterized by 1H NMR,IR,MS,and elemental analysis.The influences of solvent and raw material on the yield were investigated and optimum processing conditions were determined.The results of preliminary biological tests show that all those compounds exhibit certain antifungal activities.

  12. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Shukranul Mawa; Khairana Husain; Ibrahim Jantan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is l...

  13. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  14. Integrity and Biological Activity of DNA after UV Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Delina Y.; Monier, Jean-Michel; Dupraz, Sébastien; Freissinet, Caroline; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M.

    2010-04-01

    The field of astrobiology lacks a universal marker with which to indicate the presence of life. This study supports the proposal to use nucleic acids, specifically DNA, as a signature of life (biosignature). In addition to its specificity to living organisms, DNA is a functional molecule that can confer new activities and characteristics to other organisms, following the molecular biology dogma, that is, DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated into proteins. Previous criticisms of the use of DNA as a biosignature have asserted that DNA molecules would be destroyed by UV radiation in space. To address this concern, DNA in plasmid form was deposited onto different surfaces and exposed to UVC radiation. The surviving DNA was quantified via the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results demonstrate increased survivability of DNA attached to surfaces versus non-adsorbed DNA. The DNA was also tested for biological activity via transformation into the bacterium Acinetobacter sp. and assaying for antibiotic resistance conferred by genes encoded by the plasmid. The success of these methods to detect DNA and its gene products after UV exposure (254 nm, 3.5 J/m2s) not only supports the use of the DNA molecule as a biosignature on mineral surfaces but also demonstrates that the DNA retained biological activity.

  15. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance sulfoxaflor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Ireland and the co-rapporteur Member States Czech Republic, France and Poland for the pesticide active substance sulfoxaflor and the assessment of applications for maximum residue levels (MRLs are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of sulfoxaflor as an insecticide on fruiting vegetables (field use and glasshouse application; tomato, cherry tomato, pepper (bell and non bell, aubergine, cucurbits (field use and glasshouse application; cucumber, water melon, courgette, spring and winter cereals (wheat, rye, barley, oats, triticale and cotton. MRLs were assessed in almonds, pecans, apples, pears, cherries, peaches including nectarines, apricots, plums, wheat and barley grain, broccoli, cauliflower, mustard greens, cabbage, leaf and head lettuce, spinach, celery, cotton seed, oilseed rape seed, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, melons, squash (winter and summer, cucumbers, potatoes, sugar beet, carrots, soya bean, beans (pulses, fresh beans with and without pods, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, wine and table grapes, and in animal commodities such as milk, eggs, muscle, fat, liver and kidney. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment and the proposed MRLs, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. With the available assessments a high risk to bees was not excluded for field uses and a high long-term risk was indicated for the small herbivorous mammal scenario for field uses in vegetables and in

  16. Structural elucidation and biological activity of acyl-homoserine lactones from the phytopathogen Pantoea ananatis Serrano 1928.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, Armando M; Araújo, Welington L; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2006-08-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) are the main signaling substances employed in cell-to-cell communication systems. This paper describes the chemical characterization of acyl-HSLs produced by the worldwide-spread phytopathogen Pantoea ananatis (Serrano 1928) by using gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the major identified substance, (S)-(--)-N-hexanoyl-HSL, was determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection with a chiral capillary column. Biological activities of extracts, fractions, and synthetic products were evaluated with the specific reporter Agrobacterium tumefaciensNTL4(pZLR4) in beta-galactosidase expression assays. PMID:16900431

  17. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi's productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances. PMID:27023571

  18. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Fouillaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.

  19. Isolation of biologically active nanomaterial (inclusion bodies from bacterial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peternel Špela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs were recognised as highly pure deposits of active proteins inside bacterial cells. Such active nanoparticles are very interesting for further downstream protein isolation, as well as for many other applications in nanomedicine, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. To prepare large quantities of a high quality product, the whole bioprocess has to be optimised. This includes not only the cultivation of the bacterial culture, but also the isolation step itself, which can be of critical importance for the production process. To determine the most appropriate method for the isolation of biologically active nanoparticles, three methods for bacterial cell disruption were analyzed. Results In this study, enzymatic lysis and two mechanical methods, high-pressure homogenization and sonication, were compared. During enzymatic lysis the enzyme lysozyme was found to attach to the surface of IBs, and it could not be removed by simple washing. As this represents an additional impurity in the engineered nanoparticles, we concluded that enzymatic lysis is not the most suitable method for IBs isolation. During sonication proteins are released (lost from the surface of IBs and thus the surface of IBs appears more porous when compared to the other two methods. We also found that the acoustic output power needed to isolate the IBs from bacterial cells actually damages proteins structures, thereby causing a reduction in biological activity. High-pressure homogenization also caused some damage to IBs, however the protein loss from the IBs was negligible. Furthermore, homogenization had no side-effects on protein biological activity. Conclusions The study shows that among the three methods tested, homogenization is the most appropriate method for the isolation of active nanoparticles from bacterial cells.

  20. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL ARYL AND HETROARYL CHALCONE ANALOGUES

    OpenAIRE

    Tribhuvan Singh; R Lavanya; Srikanth Merugu; P.Sudhakar; Syeda Sana Yasmeen

    2012-01-01

    A new series of Heterocyclic chalcones showed diversified biological activities. In view of potential biological activities of Heterocyclic chalcones derivative were prepared by claisen-Schmidt condensation technique. The compound were screened for anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity.

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan, E-mail: yangbq@nwu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, Northwest University, Shaanxi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  2. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertani, Andrea; Pizzeghello, Diego; Francioso, Ornella; Tinti, Anna; Nardi, Serenella

    2016-01-01

    The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT) and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  3. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ertani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  4. PEAR AS A SOURCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES FOR PRODUCTS OF FUNCTIONAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionova L. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical quantitative and qualitative indices of pear fruit have been investigated in six varieties of pears grown in Prikybanskoy horticultural zone of the Krasnodar region. The investigation has been done with pear fruit in the stage of maturity for harvesting and after 90 days after storage in refrigerator. Quantitative content of dry matter, sugars, vitamins C and P and fraction pectin content in fruits and squeezing of fruits as well as changes in the process of storage have been established

  5. Biologically active substances of edible insects and their use in agriculture, veterinary and human medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Mlcek, Jiri; BORKOVCOVA, MARIE; Rop, Otakar; Bednarova, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Possibilities of edible insect use in Western countries is now increasingly debated issue. Insects in Asian, African, American and South Central American cultures are mainly nutritional components. In Europe and other developed countries, however, insect is used in different ways, and this issue is viewed from a different angle. Insects are mainly used as feed for animals, in the organic waste recycling systems, in human and veterinary medicine, material production (such as silk) etc. This re...

  6. On the possibility of biologically active carbonhydrate substances forming during irradiation of vegetable products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether desoxy-derivative sugars can form in fruits subjected to radurization. Tomato and apple fruits and natural apple juices were employed as test-objects, using gamma radiation from Co60 at the dose rate of 260 rad/s. Doses of 200-300 Krad and 1 Mrad were used to irradiate fruits and juices respectively. The data obtained on model systems cannot be used to draw conclusions regarding the appearance or otherwise of cytotoxic products in irradiated test plants. No desoxy sugars were found t form in fruits irradiated with 300 Krad. Tests aimed to detect certain products of carbohydrate radiolysis revealed the presence of these products in quantities which have no cytotoxic effect on the living organism. (E.T.)

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR SELECTION ESTIMATION OF SALIX ACUTIFOLIA FOR THE CONTENT OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolshakova E. E.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have conducted the estimation of breeding population of salix acutifolia. We have studied the following indicators of the measured trees: the percentage of salicylates, bark content in relation to the wood. For these two indices we have calculated the "complex" productivity of the trees. Based on that, the trees are assigned to these breeding categories: Category 1: trees with high productivity - ( 49.7 - 39.9 kg / t of raw materials Category 2 : trees with average productivity - ( 39.1 - 33.8 kg / m raw materials category 3 : trees with low productivity - ( 31.8 - 24.3 kg / t of raw materials

  8. Electromembrane Extraction of Biologically Active Substances – Investigation of Fundamental Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was introduced in 2006 as a fast and selective microextraction technique that offered good recoveries for basic analytes. Since then, more than 90 publications have been presented on the technique in various applications and technical setups. The principle is based on extraction of analytes across a thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) by the use of an electric field. Several key parameters for an efficient EME setup has been described previously, but systemat...

  9. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using {sup 48}V and {sup 62}Zn. (author)

  10. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48V and 62Zn. (author)

  11. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  12. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Substance Use and Related Disorders. Part 2: Opioid dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Soyka; H.R. Kranzler; W. van den Brink; J. Krystal; H.J. Möller; S. Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To develop evidence-based practice guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of opioid abuse and dependence. Methods. An international task force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) developed these practice guidelines after a systematic review of the

  13. The Contribution of a Substance-Oriented Forum to the Study of Human Biology in Science Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilon, Batia; Kliachko, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Today, forums constitute an integral part of almost all online courses in teacher education colleges. In many of these courses the forum serves for sharing opinions, attitudes, and feelings by the learners rather than for scaffolding cognitive processes. The forum in the "Human Biology and Health" course for prospective elementary-school science…

  14. Summary of diamino pyrazoles derived and study their biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work involves the synthesis of new heterocyclic structures diamino pyrazoles derivatives that are present in many natural products and products of pharmacological and therapeutic interests and study their biological activities. In order to develop a radiotracer interest and use in diagnostic nuclear medicine, we are interested to synthesis a pyrazole derivative with the precursor [Re(CO)5Br] and studying the antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3.5-diamino pyrazole and even thioamide complex rhenium. The objectives of our workout: 1/ Synthesis of molecules 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide. 2/ Synthesis of 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium complex. 3/ The in vitro study: Bacteriological Tests (Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide). The first part of this work concerns the chemical synthesis of molecules such as: thioamide, Amp z1 Ampz2 and then we had synthesized the complex 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium. Similarly we determined the physicochemical characteristics of the compounds synthesized by CLHP, CCM and RMN (1H, 13C). The second part is devoted to the study in vitro of biological activities of the synthesized molecules and complex 3,5 diaminopyrazole-rhenium with concentration 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. The results allow us to say that the thioamide and Ampz2 have antibacterial activity against S. enterica and Ampz2 has low activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginossa. Other pyrazole derivatives have no significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results also show that the synthesized compounds of concentration 2 mg/mL in relation to the inhibition zones of amoxicillin and DMSO: 1/ Escherichia coli, there is antibacterial activity for thioamide, and the Amp z1-Re Ampz2 compound. 2/ Staphylococcus aureus, the complex Ampz 1-Re and the thioamide have significant antibacterial activity. 3/ Salmonella, we observe that the thioamide molecules, Ampz2 and Amp z1-Re have significant antibacterial activity while

  15. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Mashino, T [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: mashino-td@pha.keio.ac.jp

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C{sub 60}-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C{sub 60}-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC{sub 50} values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  16. Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mudassir A; Crow, Sidney A

    2005-01-01

    The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined against 12 fungal and 12 bacterial strains by agar well diffusion and disk diffusion assays. The extract of Zygophyllum fabago was found to be highly effective against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The extract of Vincetoxicum stocksii was also found to be significantly active against Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Extracts of Hymenocrater sessilifolius and Grewia erythraea showed good activity only against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance methiocarb

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance methiocarb are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory data on the risk assessment for birds. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the...

  18. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  19. Removal of bacteria from coastal seawater by foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Hanagasaki, Nobuaki; Furukawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo

    2008-04-01

    The removal of bacteria from rearing water and washing water in aquaculture systems, aquariums and fishing port facilities is the most important means of diminishing the risk of fish diseases, improving public health and ensuring high food quality. However, there are few methods of bacterial elimination, e.g., disinfection. Thus, it is necessary to develop a technology for bacterial removal from coastal seawater. In this study, the removal efficiency for several groups of bacteria by foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances was determined using both batch equipment and a continuous-flow unit. By batch processing with only 1 mg/l milk casein added as a surface-active substance and by supplying bubbles, viable bacteria, enterococci, Vibrio, and Salmonella-like bacteria were removed effectively at removal efficiencies of 80% or greater. In addition, suspended solids were also removed from coastal seawater. However, fecal coliforms were difficult to remove by foam separation. The removal efficiency for viable bacteria was greater than 70% using a continuous system. Bacteria were concentrated in a very small amount of generated foam and removed from the water. The foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances is a feasible convenient technology for seawater purification as a treatment prior to membrane filtration or ultraviolet irradiation.

  20. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance fipronil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment for the active substance fipronil and provide conclusions as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA following the peer review of the risk assessment for bees for the active substance fipronil are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the currently authorised uses of fipronil applied on a variety of crops in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and scientific publications including data available at EU and national level, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  1. Perceived causality influences brain activity evoked by biological motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James P; Pelphrey, Kevin A; McCarthy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain activity in an observer who watched the hand and arm motions of an individual when that individual was, or was not, the cause of the motion. Subjects viewed a realistic animated 3D character who sat at a table containing four pistons. On Intended Motion trials, the character raised his hand and arm upwards. On Unintended Motion trials, the piston under one of the character's hands pushed the hand and arm upward with the same motion. Finally, during Non-Biological Motion control trials, a piston pushed a coffee mug upward in the same smooth motion. Hand and arm motions, regardless of intention, evoked significantly more activity than control trials in a bilateral region that extended ventrally from the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) region and which was more spatially extensive in the right hemisphere. The left pSTS near the temporal-parietal junction, robustly differentiated between the Intended Motion and Unintended Motion conditions. Here, strong activity was observed for Intended Motion trials, while Unintended Motion trials evoked similar activity as the coffee mug trials. Our results demonstrate a strong hemispheric bias in the role of the pSTS in the perception of causality of biological motion. PMID:18633843

  2. Bone-inducing Activity of Biological Piezoelectric Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To simulate the piezoelectric effect of nature bone, two kinds of biological piezoelectric composite ceramics consisted of hydroxyapatite ( HA ) and lithium sodium potassium riobate (LNK) ceramic of which the ratio of HA/ LNK was 1: 10 and 5:5( wt/ wt ) were prepared. Their piezoelectric property and growth of apatite crystal in the ceramics surface were investigated. With the increase of LNK amount, piezoelectric activity increased correspondingly. By immersing the poled piezoelectric ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 36.5 ℃ for 7,14, and 21 days, apatite crystal was formed on negatively charged surfaces. After 21 days immersion in SBF,the thickest apatite crystal on the negatively charged surfaces increased to 3.337μm. The novel biological piezoelectric ceramics show an excellent piezoelectric property and superior potential bioactivity.

  3. Mutant p53: multiple mechanisms define biologic activity in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of p53 alterations involve missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may acquire novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in multiple model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  4. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horneck, G. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  5. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(U-/sup 14/C) malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 ..mu..g niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays.

  6. Social Workers in the Substance Abuse Treatment Field: A Snapshot of Service Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mickey J. W.; Whitaker, Tracy; Weismiller, Toby

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the results of the first Practice Research Network (PRN) survey conducted by the National Association of Social Workers, a collaborative project funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. The objectives of the PRN survey were to develop broad knowledge about social work practices and more specific knowledge about…

  7. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  8. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia. Part 3: Update 2015 Management of special circumstances: Depression, Suicidality, substance use disorders and pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Glenthøj, Birte; Gattaz, Wagner F; Thibaut, Florence; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    These updated guidelines are based on the first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in the years 2005 and 2006. For this 2015 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations which are clinically and scientifically relevant. They are intended to be used by all physicians diagnosing and treating patients with schizophrenia. Based on the first version of these guidelines a systematic review, as well as a data extraction from national guidelines have been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its efficacy and subsequently categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5). This third part of the updated guidelines covers the management of the following specific treatment circumstances: comorbid depression, suicidality, various comorbid substance use disorders (legal and illegal drugs), and pregnancy and lactation. These guidelines are primarily concerned with the biological treatment (including antipsychotic medication and other pharmacological treatment options) of patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Soil biological activity at European scale - two calculation concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. To assess the turnover conditions two model concepts are applied: (I) Biological active time (BAT) regression approach derived from CANDY model (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of air temperature, precipitation and soil texture as a timescale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. (II) Re_clim parameter within the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states the soil temperature and soil water to estimate soil biological activity. The modelling includes two strategies to cover the European scale and conditions. BAT was calculated on a 20x20 km grid basis. The European data sets of precipitation and air temperature (time period 1901-2000, monthly resolution), (Mitchell et al. 2004) were used to derive long-term averages. As we focus on agricultural areas we included CORINE data (2006) to extract arable land. The resulting BATs under co-consideration of the main soil textures (clay, silt, sand and loam) were investigated per environmental zone (ENZs, Metzger et al. 2005) that represents similar conditions for precipitation, temperature and relief to identify BAT ranges and hence turnover conditions for each ENZ. Re_clim was quantified by climatic time series of more than 250 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). Daily temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (maximal thermal extent) were used to calculate

  10. Xenicane Natural Products: Biological Activity and Total Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschart, Leo; Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The xenicanes are a large class of mostly bicyclic marine diterpenoids featuring a cyclononane ring as a common structural denominator. After a brief introduction into the characteristic structural features of xenicanes and some biogenetic considerations, the major focus of this review will be on the various biological activities that have been reported for xenicanes and on efforts towards the total synthesis of these structures. Several xenicanes have been shown to be potent antiproliferative agents in vitro, but activities have also been reported in relation to inflammatory processes. However, so far, data on the possible in vivo activity of xenicanes are lacking. The major challenge in the total synthesis of xenicanes is the construction of the nine-membered ring. Different strategies have been pursued to establish this crucial substructure, including Grob fragmentation, ring-closing olefin metathesis, or Suzuki cross coupling as the enabling transformations. PMID:26429717

  11. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  12. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Jordanian Chamomile Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Hassan Al Bahtiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Jordanian chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla has been researched more thoroughly to evaluate its useful properties. It is investigated and found that Jordanian chamomile is rich in phenolic compounds, with beneficial biological activities. By applying the most promising HPLC method, the content of total phenolics in methanolic extract was determined according to the Folin-Clocalteu procedure, and was found (GAE>20 mg/g. The flavonoid types were found as flavones and flavonolos.The minimum inhibitory concentration values for methanolic extracts of Jordanian chamomile were determined for different kinds of bacteria. The extracts have activity against Staphylococcus aurous, candida albicans, Esherichia Coli, Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris. The activity has been observed to be due to the tannins and a pigenin present in the extract. To utilize these significant sources of natural compounds, further characterization of phenolic composition is needed.

  13. Biological activity of trisporoids and trisporoid analogues in Mucor mucedo (-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschabel, Doreen; Schimek, Christine; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Boland, Wilhelm

    2005-06-01

    In the course of their sexual interactions, zygomycete fungi communicate via an elaborate series of carotene-derived compounds, namely trisporic acid and its biosynthetic progenitors. A novel building-block strategy allowed the systematic generation of structurally modified trisporoids along with putative early biosynthetic precursors for physiological tests. The impact of discrete structural elements was documented by the ability of individual compounds to induce sexually committed hyphae in Mucor mucedo. The activity screening contributed to establish general structure-function relationships for trisporoid action. Most crucial for activity were the dimension of the longer side chain, the polarity of functional groups at C(4) and C(13), and the number of conjugated double bonds in the side chain. The presence of an oxygen substituent at the cyclohexene ring is not essential for function. The overall biological activity apparently results from the combination of the various structural elements.

  14. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  15. CANTHARELLUS CIBARIUS - CULINARY-MEDICINAL MUSHROOM CONTENT AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bozena; Kała, Katarzyna; Firlej, Anna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    One of the most frequently harvested mushrooms in Polish forests is Yellow chanterelle (chanterelle) - Cantharellus cibarius Fr. from the Cantharellaceae family. Chanterelle is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom occurring in Poland. Chanterelle lives in symbiosis with pine, spruce, oak and hombeam. In cookery, chanterelle is appreciated because of the aroma, taste, firmness and crunchiness of its fruiting bodies. Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in Asia, Western Europe and Central America. Chanterelle contains a great number of carbohydrates and proteins and a low amount of fat. Actual review presents the main groups of physiologically active primary and secondary metabolites in the fruiting bodies of chanterelle such as indole and phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, free amino acids, sterols, carotenoids, enzymes, vitamins and elements with biological activity. The presence of these compounds and elements conditions the nutrient and therapeutic activity of chanterelle, e.g., immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial and antigenotoxic properties. PMID:27476275

  16. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...... molecules. It is concluded that none of the pertinent laboratory surrogate markers of disease activity in IBD are specific or sensitive enough to replace basic clinical observation such as the number of daily bowel movements, general well-being, and other parameters in parallel. Further studies are highly...

  17. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  18. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder...... molecules. It is concluded that none of the pertinent laboratory surrogate markers of disease activity in IBD are specific or sensitive enough to replace basic clinical observation such as the number of daily bowel movements, general well-being, and other parameters in parallel. Further studies are highly...... warranted to identify and assess the clinical importance and applicability of new laboratory markers for the diagnosis or the disease activity of IBD....

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of CEF Panel deals with the risk assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure to the substance from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the absorption capacity of the active substance is not exceeded and direct contact with food is excluded.

  20. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression. PMID:27598154

  1. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression. PMID:27598154

  2. Synthesis and biological activities of turkesterone 11?-acyl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Dinan

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkesterone is a phytoecdysteroid possessing an 11alpha-hydroxyl group. It is an analogue of the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Previous ecdysteroid QSAR and molecular modelling studies predicted that the cavity of the ligand-binding domain of the ecdysteroid receptor would possess space in the vicinity of C-11/C-12 of the ecdysteroid. We report the regioselective synthesis of a series of turkesterone 11alpha-acyl derivatives in order to explore this possibility. The structures of the analogues have been unambiguously determined by spectroscopic means (NMR and low-resolution mass spectrometry. Purity was verified by HPLC. Biological activities have been determined in Drosophila melanogaster BII cell-based bioassay for ecdysteroid agonists and in an in vitro radioligand-displacement assay using bacterially expressed D. melanogaster EcR/USP receptor proteins. The 11alpha-acyl derivatives do retain a significant amount of biological activity relative to the parent ecdysteroid. Further, although activity initially drops with the extension of the acyl chain length (C2 to C4, it then increases (C6 to C10, before decreasing again (C14 and C20. The implications of these findings for the interaction of ecdysteroids with the ecdysteroid receptor and potential applications in the generation of affinity-labelled and fluorescently-tagged ecdysteroids are discussed.

  3. INFLUENCE OF XENOBIOTICS ON THE BIOLOGICAL SOIL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S JAVOREKOVÁ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The both basic and potential biological soil activity along with a biological degradation capacity of soil microorganisms through their respiratory activity were investigated after the application of polymers with the different degree of degradation in the soil. The CO2 production was measured by the absorption method at standard moisture and temperature under laboratory conditions. Numerous representing changes of major soil microbial groups were determined after the application of the polyethylene. Polyethylene (PE, polyvinylalcohol (PVA, polyvinylalcohol modified by hydrolysed collagen (PVAHC were applied as synthetic polymers into luvisol. The addition of all tested polymers significantly influenced the CO2 production. During 43 days of incubation period, the total amount of produced CO2 was 1271.6 mg.kg-1. The total amount of mineralised carbon in the soil reached 4.55 %. When compared with the soil, the respiratory activity of soil microorganisms increased 3-times, 1.2-times and 1.3-times after addition of starch, PVA and PVAHC, respectively. The addition of granular PE reduced the soil pores size, which resulted in a significant decrease of CO2 production and non-significant rearrangement of the major microbial groups in the soil after three month of incubation.

  4. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance use; Hypnotic - substance ...

  5. Activation Analysis of Biological Samples of Forensic Interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In forensic (crime investigation) studies, samples of a biological origin are frequently used as evidence. Often it is necessary to compare one sample (associated with a victim or the scene of a crime) with another sample of the same general type (associated with a suspect in some way). The purpose of such comparisons is to establish, if possible, that - to a high degree of probability - the two samples have a common origin. Typically, all available relevant methods of comparison are utilized in such cases by the criminalist: microscopic examination; X-ray diffraction; infra-red, visible, and ultra-violet spectrometry; and various methods of elemental analysis. The forensic applications of high-flux thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) have shown great promise and are attracting considerable attention. The authors' laboratory has been engaged in such forensic NAA research and development studies for the past five years. (It also operates a non-profit Forensic Activation Analysis Service, available to all law enforcement agencies, for the NAA comparison of evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases. Samples from many actual cases have been thus examined.) In the United States, NAA results have now been successfully presented in court in some 20 actual cases. Some of the evidence-type materials of interest are non-biological; others are biological. Only the latter will be discussed in this paper. The principal evidence-type materials of a biological nature that have been examined in this laboratory by high-flux thermal-NAA to date are the following: hair, blood, faeces, urine, fingernails, skin, wood, tobacco, whisky, green plants, and marijuana. (In addition, a number of these evidence-type materials have also been studied in this laboratory by high-flux photonuclear activation analysis (PNAA); attention in this paper will be largely devoted to the thermal-NAA forensic studies.) The main topics to be reported upon in this paper are: (1) limits of

  6. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with biologically active fluorescent molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murali Sankar; Subhadeep Saha; K Seeni Meera; Tushar Jana

    2009-10-01

    A biologically active molecule, 2-chloro-4,6-bis(dimethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (CBDT), has been covalently attached at the terminal carbon atoms of the hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) backbone. The modification of HTPB backbone by CBDT molecule does not affect the unique physico-chemical properties such as fluidity, hydroxyl value and microstructure of the parent HTPB. The formation of hydrogen bonding between the terminal hydroxyl groups and the nitrogen atoms of triazine moiety is the driving force for the terminal attachment chemistry. The functionalized HTPB (HTPB–CBDT) shows a strong fluorescence emission at 385 nm.

  7. [The application of electrolaser myostimulation and laserophoresis of biologically active compounds in sports medicine (a review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadartsev, A A; Fudin, N A; Moskvin, S V

    2016-01-01

    This scientific review highlights peculiarities of the delivery of laser radiation to the tissues of the athlete's body by means of laser electrophoresis of biologically active substances and the possibilities for electrolaser myostimulation. The main features of electrical myostimulation based on the application of laser-generated radiation are described. The authors emphasize the necessity of taking into account the neurophysiological dependence of active and passive contractile muscular activity during training. They provide the scientifically grounded rationale for the combined use of coherent laser radiation and electrical stimulation. The list of scientific papers that confirm the effectiveness of the method being considered is presented. The authors compare this method with other techniques for the induced ion transfer. The beneficial influence of laserphoresis of succinic and hyaluronic acids on the athlete's body is reported with special reference to alleviating the pain syndrome. A number of phyto-extracts used for the purpose of laser electrophoresis are characterized. The authors demonstrate the application of the optional versions of this technique in various sports during the training and competition periods. PMID:27347569

  8. 胞外聚合物生物除磷研究进展%Research Progress of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Biological Phosphorus Removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢升; 龙向宇; 周从直; 唐然

    2014-01-01

    胞外聚合物是活性污泥絮体的主要成分,在污水处理中发挥着重要作用。介绍了胞外聚合物的组成结构、提取和分析测定方法,在此基础上综述了胞外聚合物在生物除磷中的研究现状,指出了该领域存在的问题,并对胞外聚合物生物除磷技术进行了展望。%Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS),which plays an important role in wastewater treat-ment,is an essential constituent in the sludge flocculation.In this paper,the composition structure,extraction and determination methods of EPS were introduced.Further,the research progress and the existing problems of EPS in biological phosphorus removal were reviewed.The technology of EPS in biological phosphorus removal was prospected.

  9. Nitrogen-Containing Apigenin Analogs: Preparation and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of nitrogen-containing apigenin analogs 4a–j was synthesized via Mannich reactions to develop anticancer, antibacterial, and antioxidant agents from plant-derived flavonoids. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and ESI-MS. The in vitro biological activities of the analogs were evaluated via assays of their antiproliferative, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities. The prepared apigenin analogs exhibited different antiproliferative activities against four human cancer cell lines, namely human cervical (HeLa, human hepatocellular liver (HepG2, human lung (A549, and human breast (MCF-7 cancer cells. Compound 4i showed the most favorable in vitro antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 40, 40, 223, and 166 μg/mL against HeLa, HepG2, A549, and MCF-7, respectively. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay also showed that 4i had the most potent antioxidant activity, with the smallest IC50 value (334.8 μg/mL. The antibacterial activities of the analogs were determined using a two-fold serial dilution technique against four pathogenic bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the prepared apigenin analogs exhibited more potent activities than the parent apigenin. Compounds 4h and 4j, in particular, exhibited the best inhibitory activities against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values of 3.91 and 1.95 μg/mL, respectively.

  10. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namratha Pai Kotebagilu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%, methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%, and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55% in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r=0.816 and low-density lipoprotein (r=0.948 and Costus speciosus in brain (r=0.977, polyphenols, and r=0.949, flavonoids correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates.

  11. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

    2015-01-01

    Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol) of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%), methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%), and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55%) in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r = 0.816) and low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.948) and Costus speciosus in brain (r = 0.977, polyphenols, and r = 0.949, flavonoids) correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates. PMID:26933511

  12. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  13. Neuropeptide Y, substance P, and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulate human osteoblast osteogenic activity by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z. [The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, The Provincial Key Laboratory for Orthopedic Biomechanics of Hebei, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province (China)

    2015-02-13

    Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation.

  14. Biological activities of an extract from Cleome viscosa L. (Capparaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L A D; Vasques, E; Reid, W; Porter, R; Kraus, W

    2003-10-01

    Electron micrograph examination of the leaf and stem surfaces of Cleome viscosa L (Family Capparaceae) revealed the presence of secretory glandular trichomes with club-cylinder and cylinder morphologies. In the present study, the leaves and stems of C. viscosa were extracted with hexane and the extract was evaluated for the following biological activities: anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, contact insecticidal and nematicidal. The extract was found to be a potent anti-bacterial agent according to the thin layer chromatography autobiographic assay. Activity-directed isolation studies of the anti-bacterially active compounds led to a 14-member ring cembranoid diterpene being identified as one of the effective agents. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (microg/spot) of 5.0 microg/spot and 1.0 microg/spot were found for the diterpene on Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Gram-negative), respectively. The diterpene did not inhibit the growth of the fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. The extract demonstrated a pyrethroid type of contact insecticidal activity on adult Cylas formicarius elegantulus Summer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The extract also had high nematicidal activity with a percentage Abbott's value of 72.69 on the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood; however, the extract lost its potency upon subfractionation. PMID:14564407

  15. The influence comparing of activated biochar and conventional biochar on the soil biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Mykajlo, Irina; Záhora, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    In our experiment we have used biochar. This material is the product of the pyrolysis that has shown a positive effect on numerous physical and chemical soil properties. However, its influence on the biological component of the soil is very variable. A number of toxic substances that inhibit the soil productivity may be produced during pyrolysis process. The experiment dealt with the hypothesis concerning biochar toxicity reduction by simulating natural processes in the soil. Biochar has been exposed to aeration in the aquatic environment, enriched with nutrients and a source of native soil microflora. It has been created 6 variants in total, each with four replications. The soils samples have been placed in a phytotron for 90 days. Variants consisted of the soil with fertilizers adding (compost, biochar, activated biochar) and have been prepared as well as variants containing compost and biochar and activated biochar optionally. The highest aboveground biomass production has been estimated in variants containing compost, while the lowest production - in the variants containing conventional biochar. During production comparing of the variants with the conventional biochar, activated biochar and control samples it has been evident that activated biochar promotes plant growth, and in contradiction conventional biochar inhibits it. We will approach to the same conclusions when comparing variants with a combination of conventional biochar + compost and activated biochar + compost. Mineral nitrogen leaching has been another investigated parameter. The highest leaching has occurred in the control variant, while the lowest - in the variant with activated biochar (the leaching of nitrate nitrogen has been negligeable). Our results suggest that activated biochar has the potential; however, it is necessary to carry out similar experiments in the field conditions.

  16. Biological activity of soil contaminated with cobalt, tin, and molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-07-01

    In this age of intensive industrialization and urbanization, mankind's highest concern should be to analyze the effect of all metals accumulating in the environment, both those considered toxic and trace elements. With this aim in mind, a unique study was conducted to determine the potentially negative impact of Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) in optimal and increased doses on soil biological properties. These metals were applied in the form of aqueous solutions of Sn(2+) (SnCl2 (.)2H2O), Co(2+) (CoCl2 · 6H2O), and Mo(5+) (MoCl5), each in the doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1) soil DM. The activity of dehydrogenases, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and catalase and the counts of twelve microorganism groups were determined on the 25th and 50th day of experiment duration. Moreover, to present the studied problem comprehensively, changes in the biochemical activity and yield of spring barley were shown using soil and plant resistance indices-RS. The study shows that Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) disturb the state of soil homeostasis. Co(2+) and Mo(5+) proved the greatest soil biological activity inhibitors. The residence of these metals in soil, particularly Co(2+), also generated a drastic decrease in the value of spring barley resistance. Only Sn(2+) did not disrupt its yielding. The studied enzymes can be arranged as follows for their sensitivity to Sn(2+), Co(2+), Mo(5+): Deh > Ure > Aryl > Pal > Pac > Cat. Dehydrogenases and urease may be reliable soil health indicators. PMID:27277093

  17. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26887328

  18. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g). PMID:27529211

  19. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  20. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panth, Nisha; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientific attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profile, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of the J. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identification of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as well as screening various solvent extracts or fractions of J. regia in several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientific investigations of J. regia.

  1. Biological and Nonbiological Antioxidant Activity of Some Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2016-06-15

    Fifteen essential oils, four essential oil fractions, and three pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol), characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were investigated for biological and nonbiological antioxidant activity. Clove oil and eugenol showed strong DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 13.2 μg/mL and 11.7 μg/mL, respectively) and powerfully inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils stimulated by PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) (IC50 = 7.5 μg/mL and 1.6 μg/mL) or H2O2 (IC50 = 22.6 μg/mL and 27.1 μg/mL). Nutmeg, ginger, and palmarosa oils were also highly active on this test. Essential oils from clove and ginger, as well as eugenol, carvacrol, and bornyl acetate inhibited NO (nitric oxide) production (IC50 oils of clove, red thyme, and Spanish oregano, together with eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol showed the highest myeloperoxidase inhibitory activity. Isomers carvacrol and thymol displayed a disparate behavior in some tests. All in all, clove oil and eugenol offered the best antioxidant profile. PMID:27214068

  2. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panth, Nisha; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientific attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profile, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of the J. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identification of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as well as screening various solvent extracts or fractions of J. regia in several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientific investigations of J. regia. PMID:27641607

  3. Essential oil components and biological activities of Coleus parvifolius leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinya Tewtrakul

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil distilled from the leaves of Coleus parvifolius Benth. (Labiatae was studied by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main components were found to be (E-phytol (42.77%, followed by eicosatrienoate (16.39%, n-tetradecanoic acid (14.42%, octoil (6.54%, 2-methyl-7- octadecyne (5.97%, nonadecane (3.25%, germacrene-D (2.19% and α-humulene (1.42%, respectively. Regarding biological activities, the ethanolic extract of C. parvifolius showed potent antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus with inhibition zones of 7-11 mm at a concentration of 10 mg/disc and moderate activity against gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, S. enteritidis and Escherichia coli with inhibition zones of 9-11 mm at 100 mg/disc, whereas it was inactive against fungus, Candida albicans at a concentration of 100 mg/disc. The extract also exhibited strong antioxidant activity (ED50 = 5.87±0.03 μg/ml three times higher than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ED50 = 18.08±0.43 μg/ml. Moreover, it was non-toxic to brine shrimp with LC50 value > 1,000 μg/ml.

  4. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  5. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  6. The Balance of Fluid and Osmotic Pressures across Active Biological Membranes with Application to the Corneal Endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Cheng

    Full Text Available The movement of fluid and solutes across biological membranes facilitates the transport of nutrients for living organisms and maintains the fluid and osmotic pressures in biological systems. Understanding the pressure balances across membranes is crucial for studying fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in living systems, and is an area of active research. In this study, a set of enhanced Kedem-Katchalsky (KK equations is proposed to describe fluxes of water and solutes across biological membranes, and is applied to analyze the relationship between fluid and osmotic pressures, accounting for active transport mechanisms that propel substances against their concentration gradients and for fixed charges that alter ionic distributions in separated environments. The equilibrium analysis demonstrates that the proposed theory recovers the Donnan osmotic pressure and can predict the correct fluid pressure difference across membranes, a result which cannot be achieved by existing KK theories due to the neglect of fixed charges. The steady-state analysis on active membranes suggests a new pressure mechanism which balances the fluid pressure together with the osmotic pressure. The source of this pressure arises from active ionic fluxes and from interactions between solvent and solutes in membrane transport. We apply the proposed theory to study the transendothelial fluid pressure in the in vivo cornea, which is a crucial factor maintaining the hydration and transparency of the tissue. The results show the importance of the proposed pressure mechanism in mediating stromal fluid pressure and provide a new interpretation of the pressure modulation mechanism in the in vivo cornea.

  7. Diastereoselective Synthesis of Biologically Active Cyclopenta[b]indoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marilia S; Fernandes, Daniara C; Rodrigues, Manoel T; Regiani, Thais; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; de Carvalho, João E; Eberlin, Marcos N; Coelho, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    The cyclopenta[b]indole motif is present in several natural and synthetic biologically active compounds, being directly responsible for the biological effects some of them present. We described herein a three step sequence for the synthesis of cyclopenta[b]indoles with a great structural diversity. The method is based on an oxidative Michael addition of suitable indoles on the double bond of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts mediated by a hypervalent iodine reagent (IBX) to form β-ketoesters, which were chemoselectively reduced with NaBH4 in THF to give the corresponding β-hydroxy-esters. The diastereoisomeric mixture was then treated with a catalytic amount of triflic acid (20 mol %) to give cyclopenta[b]indoles with overall yields ranging from 8 to 73% (for 2 steps). The acid-catalyzed cyclization step gave the required heterocycles, via an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction, with high diastereoselectivity, where only the trans product was observed. A mechanistic study monitored by ESI-(+)-MS was also conducted to collect evidence about the mechanism of this reaction. The new molecules herein synthesized were also evaluated against a panel of human cancer cells demonstrating a promising antitumoral profile. PMID:27403650

  8. Biological surface-active compounds from marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Nga Phuong; Landfald, Bjarne; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2016-01-01

    Surface-active compounds (SACs) are widely used in different industries as well as in many daily consumption products. However, with the increasing concern for their environmental acceptability, attention has turned towards biological SACs which are biodegradable, less toxic and more environmentally friendly. In this work, 176 marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial isolates from petroleum-contaminated sites along the Norwegian coastline were isolated and screened for their capacity to produce biological SACs. Among them, 18 isolates were capable of reducing the surface tension of the culture medium by at least 20 mN m(-1) and/or capable of maintaining more than 40% of the emulsion volume after 24 h when growing on glucose or kerosene as carbon and energy source. These isolates were members of the genera Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Rhodococcus, Catenovulum, Cobetia, Glaciecola, Serratia, Marinomonas and Psychromonas. Two isolates, Rhodococcus sp. LF-13 and Rhodococcus sp. LF-22, reduced surface tension of culture medium by more than 40 mN m(-1) when growing on kerosene, n-hexadecane or rapeseed oil. The biosurfactants were produced by resting cells of the two Rhodococcus strains suggesting the biosynthesis of the biosurfactants was not necessarily associated with their growth on hydrocarbons. PMID:26506920

  9. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance dimethoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance dimethoate are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory mammalian toxicology, residues and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of dimethoate as an insecticide on sugar beet and protected lettuce. Concerns are identified.

  10. Scientific Opinion on safety assessment of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as a liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods such as meat, poultry, and seafood as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food and placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that non-crosslinked polymer and the crosslinkers do not raise a concern for genotoxicity. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the absorption capacity of the active substance is not exceeded and direct contact with food is excluded.

  11. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites. PMID:26443032

  12. Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmine A.B.S. Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Simaroubaceae family includes 32 genera and more than 170 species of trees and brushes of pantropical distribution. The main distribution hot spots are located at tropical areas of America, extending to Africa, Madagascar and regions of Australia bathed by the Pacific. This family is characterized by the presence of quassinoids, secondary metabolites responsible of a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticide, feeding deterrent, amebicide, antiparasitic and herbicidal. Although the chemical and pharmacological potential of Simaroubaceae family as well as its participation in official compendia; such as British, German, French and Brazilian pharmacopoeias, and patent registration, many of its species have not been studied yet. In order to direct further investigation to approach detailed botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the Simaroubaceae, the present work reviews the information regarding the main genera of the family up to 2013.

  13. Efficient expression and purification of biologically active human cystatin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2016-02-01

    Cystatins are reversible cysteine protease inhibitor proteins. They are known to play important roles in controlling cathepsins, neurodegenerative disease, and in immune system regulation. Production of recombinant cystatin proteins is important for biochemical and function characterization. In this study, we cloned and expressed human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C in Escherichia coli. Human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C were purified from soluble fraction. For cystatin C, we used various chaperone plasmids to make cystatin C soluble, as it is reported to localize in inclusion bodies. Trigger factor, GroES-GroEL, DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperones lead to the presence of cystatin C in the soluble fraction. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography, glutathione sepharose and anion exchange chromatography techniques were employed for efficient purification of these proteins. Their biological activities were tested by inhibition assays against cathepsin L and H3 protease.

  14. Nonoxidized, biologically active parathyroid hormone determines mortality in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Armbruster, Franz Paul; Grön, Hans Jürgen;

    2013-01-01

    Background: It was shown that nonoxidized PTH (n-oxPTH) is bioactive, whereas the oxidation of PTH results in a loss of biological activity. Methods: In this study we analyzed the association of n-oxPTH on mortality in hemodialysis patients using a recently developed assay system. Results......: Hemodialysis patients (224 men, 116 women) had a median age of 66 years. One hundred seventy patients (50%) died during the follow-up period of 5 years. Median n-oxPTH levels were higher in survivors (7.2 ng/L) compared with deceased patients (5.0 ng/L; P = .002). Survival analysis showed an increased survival....... Conclusions: The predictive power of n-oxPTH and iPTH on the mortality of hemodialysis patients differs substantially. Measurements of n-oxPTH may reflect the hormone status more precisely. The iPTH-associated mortality is most likely describing oxidative stress-related mortality....

  15. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed. PMID:27357404

  16. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated. PMID:22165149

  17. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides and induced biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi Keizo; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Relationship between irradiation effect of polysaccharides and induced biological activity for plants has been investigated. Sodium alginate was irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). Measurement of molecular weight and analysis of UV spectra of irradiated sodium alginate have been carried out. The molecular weight was decreased by irradiation in both conditions. New absorbance peak derived from double bond or/and carbonyl group was appeared at close to 267 nm by irradiation in UV spectra. It was found that alginate having molecular weight about 10,000 is most suitable to used as growth promoter in plants. To obtain the molecular weight of 10,000 by irradiation, the necessary doses are 100 kGy in liquid state and 500 kGy in solid state, respectively. (author)

  18. Infrared Spectra and Hydrogen Bonds of Biologically Active Benzaldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Belkov, M. V.; Shimko, A. N.; Shadyro, O. I.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.

    2013-09-01

    IR-Fourier spectra of solutions and crystals of biologically active benzaldehyde derivatives were studied. Specific features of the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds were analyzed. Spectral signatures that characterized participation of the hydroxyl OH group and also the OCH3 and C=O groups in the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the three different types O-H···O-H, O-H···O-CH3, and O-H···O=C were revealed. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the types O-H···O-H and O-H···O-CH3 were absent for benzaldehyde derivatives in the crystal phase. Only hydroxyl and carbonyl groups participated in intermolecular interactions. This resulted in the formation of linear intermolecular dimers. Seven various configurations of the linear dimers were identified in solutions and crystals.

  19. Immobilization biological activated carbon used in advanced drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria separated from a mature filter bed of groundwater treatment plants were incubated in a culture media containing iron and manganese. A consortium of 5 strains of bacteria removing iron and manganese were obtained by repeated enrichment culturing. It was shown from the experiments of effect factors that ironmanganese removal bacteria in the culture media containing both Fe and Mn grew better than in that containing only Fe, however, they were unable to grow in the culture media containing only Mn. When comparing the bacteria biomass in the case ofρ (DO) =2.8 mg/L andρ (DO) =9.0 mg/L, no significant difference was found.The engineering bacteria removing the organic and the bacteria removing iron and manganese were simultaneously inoculated into activated carbon reactor to treat the effluent of distribution network. The experimental results showed that by using IBAC ( Immobilization Biological Activated Carbon) treatment, the removal efficiency of iron, manganese and permanganate index was more than 98% , 96% and 55% , respectively. After the influent with turbidity of 1.5 NTU, color of 25 degree and offensive odor was treated, the turbidity and color of effluence were less than 0.5 NTU and 15 degree, respectively, and it was odorless. It is determined that the cooperation function of engineering bacteria and activated carbon achieved advanced drinking water treatment.

  20. Optimization of hypocrellin B derivative amphiphilicity and biological activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; XIE Jie; ZHANG LuYong; CHEN HongXia; GU Ying; ZHAO JingQuan

    2009-01-01

    To satisfy the dual requirements of the fluent transportation in blood and the affinity to the target tissues of vascular diseases, hypocrellin derivatives with optimized amphiphilicity are expected. In this work, 3-amino-1-propanesulfonic acid and 4-amino-1-butanesulfonic acid substituted hypocrellin B,named compounds 1 and 2, were designed, synthesized in high yields and characterized. Besides greatly strengthened red absorption, the maximum solubility of compound 2 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is 4.2 mg/mL which is just enough to prepare an aqueous solution for intravenous injection in clinically acceptable concentration, while the partition coefficient between n-octanol and PBS,5.6, benefits the cell-uptake and biological activity as well. Furthermore, EPR measurements reveal that the photosensitization activities of the two compounds to generate semiquinone anion radicals, superoxide anion radicals and singlet oxygen are a little bit higher than those of taurine substituted hypocrellin B (THB), but the photodynamic activities to human lung cancer A549 cells are several times that of THB, mainly due to increases in lipophilicity and cell-uptake.

  1. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  2. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  3. The long-term fertilization effect on biological activity of different genesis soils

    OpenAIRE

    Grigaliūnienė, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    The effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on biological activity of different genesis soils in long-term crop rotation trials was determined. Biological activity was diverse in the soils of different genesis and it activity correlated with some soil chemical properties. Organic and mineral fertilizers and their combinations more increased biological activity in the soil than only mineral fertilizers. Mineral fertilizers suppressed dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity (180 kg ha...

  4. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  5. Biological activity of terpene compounds produced by biotechnological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Roman; Trytek, Mariusz; Król, Sylwia K; Kud, Joanna; Frant, Maciej; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Fiedurek, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Context Biotransformation systems are profitable tools for structural modification of bioactive natural compounds into valuable biologically active terpenoids. Objective This study determines the biological effect of (R)-(+)-limonene and (-)-α-pinene, and their oxygenated derivatives, (a) perillyl alcohol and (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-carvone enantiomers and (b) linalool, trans-verbenol and verbenone, respectively, on human colon tumour cells and normal colonic epithelium. Materials and methods Biotransformation procedures and in vitro cell culture tests were used in this work. Cells were incubated for 24 h with terpenes at concentrations of 5-500 μg/mL for NR, MTT, DPPH, and NO assays. IL-6 was determined by ELISA with/without 2 h pre-activation with 10 μg/mL LPS. Results trans-Verbenol and perillyl alcohol, obtained via biotransformation, produced in vitro effect against tumour cells at lower concentrations (IC50 value = 77.8 and 98.8 μg/mL, respectively) than their monoterpene precursors, (R)-(+)-limonene (IC50 value = 171.4 μg/mL) and (-)-α-pinene (IC50 value = 206.3 μg/mL). They also showed lower cytotoxicity against normal cells (IC50 > 500 and > 200 μg/mL, respectively). (S)-(+)-Carvone was 59.4% and 27.1% more toxic to tumour and normal cells, respectively, than the (R)-(-)-enantiomer. (R)-(+)-limonene derivatives decreased IL-6 production from normal cells in media with or without LPS (30.2% and 13.9%, respectively), while (-)-α-pinene derivatives induced IL-6 (verbenone had the strongest effect, 60.2% and 29.1% above control, respectively). None of the terpenes had antioxidative activity below 500 μg/mL. Discussion and conclusions Bioactivity against tumour cells decreased in the following order: alcohols > ketones > hydrocarbons. (R)-(+)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, and their derivatives expressed diverse activity towards normal and tumour cells with noticeable enantiomeric differences. PMID:26808720

  6. Determination of 25-OCH3-PPD and the related substances by UPLC-MS/MS and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Lu, Jingjing; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Sainan; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-06-01

    20(R)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β,12β,20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD) is a promising antitumor compound belonging to triterpenoid saponins isolated from radix notoginseng. A systematic research on the related impurities in raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD has not been conducted. In this study, three impurities obtained by HPLC-ELSD and characterized by (13)C NMR and MS were observed in the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. Cytotoxic activities of the related substances were also evaluated, of which impurity B with 25-OCH3-PPD showed synergistic inhibitory activity against BGC-823 with IC50 values of 8.33μM. Furthermore, a rapid and selective UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of the principal component and three related substances in the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. Multiple reaction monitoring scan mode was used for the quantification of 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD and its three related substances. The four constituents were separated within 11min on a BEH C18 column (100 mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) using a mobile phase comprising methanol and 0.03% formic acid water (82:18, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The proposed UPLC-MS/MS method displayed acceptable levels of linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied for the establishment of a rational quality control standard for the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. PMID:27128861

  7. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  8. A new biological method for preparing certain sulphurated substances labelled with S{sup 35}; Methode nouvelle de preparation par voie biologique de quelques substances soufrees marquees au soufre-35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F.; Maier-Huser, H.; Fromageot, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Previous investigations have shown that the yolk-sac of embryonic bird's eggs can be used to produce the following reactions: (a) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; (b) fixation of the sulphite on the carbon chain produced by the desulf-hydration of l-cysteine, with formation of l-cysteic acid; (c) decarboxylation of the l-cysteine acid into taurine. The enzymatic system which causes reaction (b) has been purified. It also acts as a catalyst in the sulphur-exchange between the cysteine and the mineral sulphide. The authors have utilized these data in preparing sulphurated substances labelled with S{sup 35}: taurine S{sup 35}, l-cysteine S{sup 35} and l-cysteic acid S{sup 35}. For each of the three, they discuss the chemical reactions involved, the methods of preparation, the experimental conditions of extraction and purity-control, together with the yields and specific activities obtained. (authors) [French] Des travaux anterieurs ont montre l'aptitude du sac vitellin d'oeufs embryonn d'oiseaux a realiser les reactions suivantes: a) reduction du sulfate en sulfite, b) fixation du sulfite sur la chaine carbonee issue de la desulfhydration de la L-cysteine avec formation de l'acide L-cysteique. c) decarboxylation de l 'acide L-cysteique en taurine. Le systeme enzymatique responsable de la reaction b a ete purifie; il catalyse aussi l'echange du soufre de la cysteine avec celui du sulfure mineral. Les auteurs ont utilise ces donnees pour la preparation de substances soufrees marquees au {sup 35}S: taurine {sup 35}S, L-cysteine{sup 35} et acide L-cysteique {sup 35}S. Pour chacun de ces trois corps, ils decrivent les reactions chimiques mises en jeu, les modes operatoires de fabrication, les conditions experimentales d'extraction et de controle de la purete, ainsi que les resultats obtenus tant pour les rendements que pour les activites specifiques obtenues. (auteurs)

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Organotin (IV Methylcyclohexyldithiocarbamate Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Awang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growing interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands are due to their encouraging anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as their widespread industrial application. Dithiocarbamates belong to this class and much attention has been paid to them. Approach: Novel organotin compounds with the molecular formula RmSn[S2CN(CH3(C6H11]4-m (where m = 2, R = CH3, C2H5; m = 3, R = C6H5 have been synthesized using in situ method. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Results: Elemental analysis revealed that all compounds were of good purity. Infrared spectra of the compounds showed that the thioureide ν(C-N band was in the region 1450-1500 cm−1. The unsplitting band of ν(C-S in the region 974-979 cm−1 indicated the bidentate nature of the chelated dithiocarbamato legends. The 13C NMR chemical shift of the carbon atom in the N-CS2 group appeared in the range of 196.29-199.82 ppm. Single crystal analysis from one of these compounds showed that the chelating mode of the dithiocarbamate groups was isobidentate. These compounds have been screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Only one of these compounds shows promising results against S. aureus and S. typhi. Cytotoxicity screening on human leukemic promyelocyte HL-60 cells found that two of these compounds were very active with CD50 values of 0.87 and 0.18 µg mL−1. Conclusion: The studied compounds were found to have the potential in biological activity especially in cytotoxicity where this possibly can be used for clinical trials after further research.

  11. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance thiamethoxam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment of neonicotinoids, including thiamethoxam, as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA concerning the risk assessment for bees for the active substance thiamethoxam are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the uses of thiamethoxam applied as a seed treatment on a variety of crops currently authorised in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and literature data as well as the available EU evaluations and monitoring data, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  12. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance clothianidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment of neonicotinoids, including clothianidin, as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA concerning the risk assessment for bees for the active substance clothianidin are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the uses of clothianidin applied as a seed treatment or granules on a variety of crops currently authorised in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and literature data as well as the available EU evaluations and monitoring data, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  13. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment of neonicotinoids, including imidacloprid, as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA concerning the risk assessment for bees for the active substance imidacloprid are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the uses of imidacloprid applied as a seed treatment or granules on a variety of crops currently authorised in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and literature data as well as the available EU evaluations and monitoring data, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  14. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon. PMID:21929331

  15. Pomegranate Fruit as a Rich Source of Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Sreekumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate is a widely used plant having medicinal properties. In this review, we have mainly focused on the already published data from our laboratory pertaining to the effect of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME and have compared it with other relevant literatures on Punica. Earlier, we had shown its antiproliferative effect using human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231, and endometrial (HEC-1A, cervical (SiHa, HeLa, and ovarian (SKOV3 cancer cell lines, and normal breast fibroblasts (MCF-10A at concentration of 20–320 μg/mL. The expressions of selected estrogen responsive genes (PR, pS2, and C-Myc were downregulated by PME. Unlike estradiol, PME did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in bilaterally ovariectomized Swiss-Albino mice models and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. We had further assessed the protective role of PME on skeletal system, using MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicated that PME (80 μg/mL significantly increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase activity, supporting its suggested role in modulating osteoblastic cell differentiation. The antiosteoporotic potential of PME was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX rodent model. The results from our studies and from various other studies support the fact that pomegranate fruit is indeed a source of biologically active compounds.

  16. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  17. Soil organic components distribution in a podzol and the possible relations with the biological soil activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Verstraeten, Arne; Curcio, Elena; Cools, Nathalie; Lozano-Garcia, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Coppola, Elio

    2016-04-01

    This research reports the preliminary results of a study based on the SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) fractionation in a pine forest soil (Pinus nigra). Hyperskeletic Albic Podzol soil (P113005, World Reference Base, 2014), described by the following sequence O-Ah-E-Bh-Bs-Cg, was investigated at Zoniën, Belgium. Total (TOC) and extractable (TEC) soil contents were determined by Italian official method of soil analysis. Different soil C fractions were also determined: Humic Acid Carbon (HAC) and Fulvic Acid Carbon (FAC). Not Humic Carbon (NHC) and Humin Carbon (Huc) fractions were obtained by difference. Along the mineral soil profile, therefore, were also tested some enzymatic activities, such as cellulase, xylanase, laccase and peroxidase, involved in the degradation of the main organic substance components, and dehydrogenase activity, like soil microbial biomass index. The results shows a differential TEC fractions distribution in the soil profile along three fronts of progress: (i) An E leaching horizon of TEC; Bh horizon (humic) of humic acids preferential accumulation, morphologically and analytically recognizable, in which humic are more insoluble that fulvic acids, and predominate over the latter; (ii) horizon Bs (spodic) in which fulvic acids are more soluble that humic acid, and predominate in their turn. All enzyme activities appear to be highest in the most superficial part of the mineral profile and decrease towards the deeper layers with different patterns. It is known that the enzymes production in a soil profile reflects the organic substrates availability, which in turn influences the density and the composition of the microbial population. The deeper soil horizons contain microbial communities adapted and specialized to their environment and, therefore, different from those present on the surface The results suggest that the fractionation technique of TEC is appropriate to interpret the podsolisation phenomenon that is the preferential distribution of

  18. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  19. Syntheses and biological activities of 13-substituted avermectin aglycons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozik, H; Linn, B O; Eskola, P; Lusi, A; Matzuk, A; Preiser, F A; Ostlind, D A; Schaeffer, J M; Fisher, M H

    1989-02-01

    The reactions of sulfonate esters of the allylic/homoallylic 13-alcohol of 5-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a aglycon (1a) were investigated. Nucleophilic substitution gave 13 beta-chloro and 13 beta-iodo derivatives, while solvolytic reaction conditions yielded 13 alpha-methoxy, 13 alpha-fluoro, and 13 alpha-chloro products. A mixture of 13 alpha- and 13 beta-fluorides was obtained upon reaction with DAST. The 13 beta-iodide gave, upon elimination with lutidine, the 8(9),10(11),12(13),14(15)-tetraene. The 13 beta-alcohol and the rearranged 15-ol 13(14)-ene and 15-amino 13(14)-ene derivatives were obtained by substitution via the allylic carbonium ion. MEM ethers 11 and 12 of the two epimeric 13-ols were prepared by alkylation with MEM chloride. In contrast, methylation of 1a with MeI and Ag2O in CH2Cl2 occurred exclusively at the tertiary 7-hydroxy group and not at the secondary 13 alpha-ol. Oxidation of the allylic alcohol 1a proceeded under Swern conditions but not with MnO2 to the 13-oxo aglycon, which was reduced by NaBH4 exclusively to the natural 13 alpha-ol, while reductive amination with NaCNBH3-NH4OAc gave the 13 alpha-amine. The methoxime derivative was obtained in the form of the two geometric isomers. Anthelmintic activities against the sheep nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis, miticidal activities against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), and insecticidal activities against the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) as well as the binding constants to a free living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) derived receptor assay were obtained and compared to avermectin B1a, 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a, and the 13-deoxy-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1 aglycon related to the milbemycins. None of the newly prepared derivatives exceeded the potency of the three reference compounds. Lipophilic 13-substituents such as halogen, alkoxy, and methoxime retained high biological activities in all assays, while the more polar

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the technology to create biological bonding substances utilizing particulates under the industrial and scientific technology research and development theme [university collaborated type]. Research and development of the technology to create biological bonding substances utilizing particulates; 1999 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on development of the technology to create biological bonding substances utilizing particulates. In fixing ligands onto particulates, it is necessary that various compounds be fixed with their receptor bonding specificity maintained. Therefore, carboxylic acid, thiol and bromoacetyl groups were introduced into the particulates. Capping them by using methoxyacetyl was found capable of suppressing non-specific adsorption. Opioid compounds were synthesized for their fixation onto particulates for selection and separation. Carrying particulate bonding precursors in latex beads was realized. Synthesis will continue on opiod compounds in which amide groups are introduced into different positions to provide the particulate carrying ligands with diversity. Biological receptors for different compounds were obtained and refined by using compound fixing particulates. Refinement and acquisition were possible on FK506 bonded protein in a short time from cell extraction liquid by using the fixing particulates for the FK506 bonded protein. The paper also describes analysis of bonded domains, and position-specific fixation of the biological receptors. (NEDO)

  1. Influence of Ecological Factors on the Production of Active Substances in the Anti-Cancer Plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Yin, Dongxue; Zhao, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which plays a very important role in the health system of China, is determined by the active substances produced by the plants. The type, content, and proportion of these substances may vary depending on ecological factors in areas where the plants are grown. Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying, an endangered plant species with great medical value, was investigated in eight production locations representative of its natural geographi...

  2. Actinobacteria from arid and desert habitats: diversity and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim eWink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability.At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria

  3. Results of activated sludge plants applying enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, A.; Pinto, M.; Neder, K.; Hoffmann, H.

    1989-02-01

    To stop the eutrophication in lakes and rivers, the input of nutrient and phosphorus compounds must be limited. The biological elimination of phosphorus describes a possibility, to reduce phosphorus in the biological stage of a treatment plant to a considerable extent. In this paper the process-system and the operation-results of a pilot plant and two municipal treatment plants are presented, where biological phosphorus reduction about 80% takes place without any constructional modifications.

  4. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. [Open questions in the drug therapy of tumors with new active substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Schott, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    At the time of market authorization and/or the expansion of indication of new oncology drugs, it is often not possible to reliably measure the relevant benefit for the patient. The conception of the clinical studies, on which the market authorization and/or expansion of indication is based, orients itself primarily at the regulatory requirements of the regulatory authorities. In addition, their results are frequently published only incompletely or some time after the end of the clinical study. To clarify these outstanding questions regarding the individual treatment of patients, independent,science-initiated clinical studies after the market authorization are required. However, the execution of these studies is obstructed due to insufficient financial means as well as by regulations and the low evaluation of such studies by the academia. Further challenges result from the high costs of innovative oncologic therapies, which burden the resources of the statutory and private health insurance providers(GKV, PKV) who are confronted with an aging population and a rising prevalence of tumor cases. Independent post-market authorization clinical studies need to be completed in order to ensure a need-oriented and efficient treatment with new oncologic substances. New perspectives result by connecting the reimbursement of the costs of innovative therapies by the GKV and PKV to the generation of evidence in the context of clinical studies, thus improving the medical care of tumor patients as well as the efficient handling of limited health resources. PMID:20926907

  6. Substance use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse; Illicit drug abuse; Narcotic abuse; Hallucinogen abuse ... Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  7. STUDIES OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY BY PATTERN RECOGNITION METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attempt to rationalize the connections between the molecular structures of organic compounds and their biological activities comprises the field of structure-activity relations (SAR) studies. Correlations between structure and activity are important for the understanding and ...

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite as oxygen absorber for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite (FCM Substance No 1003 intended to be incorporated in monolayer or multilayer packages or in sachets for absorbing oxygen from the food environment. All starting substances of the oxygen absorber have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. From a toxicological point of view, migration of iron (incorporated and aluminium (naturally present ions from bentonite is of interest. Iron can be estimated to migrate up to 4.5 mg/kg acidic food, which is well below the SML value of 48 mg/kg food set in Regulation EU No 10/2011 based on the PMTDI of 0.8 mg/kg bw established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1983 and the SCF in 1990. The iron (II modified bentonite is intended and expected to be present in the final article as non-nanoform. However, the formation of nanoparticles due to exfoliation cannot be excluded if the substance is incorporated in unpolar polymers with compatibilisers or without such additives in polar polymers. Aluminium can be estimated to migrate up to 0.3 mg /kg acidic food. This value corresponds to 3.5 % of the TWI set in 2008 by the EFSA AFC Panel. Therefore, under the intended conditions of use, the oxygen absorber formulation was considered toxicologically acceptable. The CEF Panel concluded that the substance iron (II modified bentonite does not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as oxygen absorber incorporated without compatibilisers in polyolefin layers of food packages at levels up to 15% w/w. The substance equally does not raise a safety concern when it is used in sachets, placed in the headspace of the packaging, that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food and are not in direct contact with liquid foods, exudates, or foods with external aqueous liquid phase.

  9. Biological activity of harpin produced by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M; Majerczak, D R; Pike, S; Hoyos, M E; Novacky, A; Coplin, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt of sweet corn. A hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) secretion system is needed to produce water-soaking and wilting symptoms in corn and to cause a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. Sequencing of the hrp cluster revealed a putative harpin gene, hrpN. The product of this gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and shown to elicit the HR in tobacco and systemic resistance in radishes. The protein was designated HrpN(Pnss). Like other harpins, it was heat stable and protease sensitive, although it was three- to fourfold less active biologically than Erwinia amylovora harpin. We used antibodies to purified HrpN(Pnss) to verify that hrpN mutants could not produce harpin. This protein was secreted into the culture supernatant and was produced by strains of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes. In order to determine the importance of HrpN(Pnss) in pathogenesis on sweet corn, three hrpN::Tn5 mutants were compared with the wild-type strain with 50% effective dose, disease severity, response time, and growth rate in planta as parameters. In all tests, HrpN(Pnss) was not required for infection, growth, or virulence in corn or endophytic growth in related grasses. PMID:11605962

  10. Solar activity, magnetic storms and their effects on biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the present time much attention is spent on the electromagnetic waves, solar radiation and magnetic storms on biological systems, including on person. However, there are few publications describing the mechanism of these influences on human. First of all it is necessary to point out that electromagnetic waves, the flow of particles in space and magnetic storms, acting on person human-all is connected with biophysical processes. So approach to influence of these factors on organism follows the processes of influence of these waves on bio system. Magnetic storms are phenomena continuously connected with solar activity. Investigation of cosmic space has intensified the practical importance of the problem of interaction with natural factors of external ambience. Much attention deserves the cosmic radiation, geomagnetic field, elements of climate and weathers. However the mechanism of bio tropic action of these factors is not enough studied. Beginning XXI century was already signified the successes in investigation of Mars. The Space shuttles 'Spirit' and 'Opportunity' successfully have carried out some work on examining and finding of water on Mars. A flight of person to Mars is being considered. One of the important mechanisms of influence on human organism is, in our opinion, the rising of the resonance at coincidence of frequencies and their more important factor is a phenomena of electromagnetic induction and forming the radicals in the organism

  11. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  12. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond in Biologically Active o-Carbonyl Hydroquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Martínez-Cifuentes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IHBs play a central role in the molecular structure, chemical reactivity and interactions of biologically active molecules. Here, we study the IHBs of seven related o-carbonyl hydroquinones and one structurally-related aromatic lactone, some of which have shown anticancer and antioxidant activity. Experimental NMR data were correlated with theoretical calculations at the DFT and ab initio levels. Natural bond orbital (NBO and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP calculations were used to study the electronic characteristics of these IHB. As expected, our results show that NBO calculations are better than MEP to describe the strength of the IHBs. NBO energies (∆Eij(2 show that the main contributions to energy stabilization correspond to LPàσ* interactions for IHBs, O1…O2-H2 and the delocalization LPàπ* for O2-C2 = Cα(β. For the O1…O2-H2 interaction, the values of ∆Eij(2 can be attributed to the difference in the overlap ability between orbitals i and j (Fij, instead of the energy difference between them. The large energy for the LP O2àπ* C2 = Cα(β interaction in the compounds 9-Hydroxy-5-oxo-4,8, 8-trimethyl-l,9(8H-anthracenecarbolactone (VIII and 9,10-dihydroxy-4,4-dimethylanthracen-1(4H-one (VII (55.49 and 60.70 kcal/mol, respectively when compared with the remaining molecules (all less than 50 kcal/mol, suggests that the IHBs in VIII and VII are strongly resonance assisted.

  13. Susceptibility of the eggs of the field slug Deroceras reticulatum to contact with pesticides and substances of biological origin on artificial soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iglesias, J.; Castillejo, J.; Ester, A.; Castro, R.; Lombardia, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of 14 substances, including a number of pesticides, to the eggs of the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum was determined in laboratory experiments. Eggs were kept in contact with a precisely defined artificial soil to which a range of concentrations of the test substances had been applied.

  14. Metabolic relationships of the isolated fractions of the pectic substances of actively growing sycamore cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, R W; Northcote, D H

    1967-10-01

    1. d-Glucose and l-arabinose serve as precursors of the pectic polysaccharides of sycamore suspension-callus tissue. 2. The rates and characteristics of the incorporation of radioactive sucrose, glucose and mesoinositol by sycamore callus tissue have been compared and shown to be different. 3. The time-course of the incorporation of radioactive glucose into the major fractions within the cells has been determined. Approx. 7-10% of the radioactivity incorporated is present in the whole pectin of the cells. 4. A study of the continuous incorporation of radioactive glucose showed that the neutral arabinan-galactan fraction of the pectin quickly became saturated with the radioactive label. During the incorporation of radioactivity from a pulse of radioactive glucose the neutral fraction became progressively less labelled, with a corresponding increase in the radioactivity of the weakly acidic pectinic acid, which is known to contain neutral sugars. 5. When the cells were exposed to a pulse of radioactive l-arabinose, the label accumulated first in the neutral fraction and then after 4hr. it passed to the weakly acidic pectinic acid with a corresponding decrease in the radioactivity of the neutral fraction. 6. The product that was initially labelled during the first hour of exposure of the cells in the stationary phase to radioactive glucose was identified as an incompletely methylated galacturonan in which the radioactivity was present in the anhydrogalacturonide residues. This polysaccharide probably acts as the precursor of the polyuronide portions of both the strongly acidic and weakly acidic pectinic acids. 7. The observations are discussed in relation to the structure of the pectic substances and their function in cell growth and development. A tentative model for their metabolic relationship is put forward.

  15. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL ARYL AND HETROARYL CHALCONE ANALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribhuvan Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new series of Heterocyclic chalcones showed diversified biological activities. In view of potential biological activities of Heterocyclic chalcones derivative were prepared by claisen-Schmidt condensation technique. The compound were screened for anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity.

  16. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Isaria fumosorosea strain Apopka 97 (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Apopka strain 97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Belgium, for the pesticide active substance Isaria fumosorosea strain Apopka 97 are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 1141/2010 as amended by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU No 380/2013. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Isaria fumosorosea strain Apopka 97 as an insecticide on cucumbers and tomatoes grown in glasshouses. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. The production of toxins/secondary metabolites cannot be excluded and therefore the risk assessment cannot be finalised for humans and the environment. The surface water exposure assessment and consequently the risk assessment for aquatic organisms are not finalised. The risk assessment for organisms involved in biological methods for sewage treatment is not finalised.

  17. Substance Use, Dental Hygiene, and Physical Activity in Adult Patients with Single Ventricle Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Anne-Marie Voss

    2013-01-01

    % are not flossing their teeth (32% in controls; OR = 1.32; P = 0.239); and 39% are not physically active (24% in controls; OR = 1.63; P = 0.069). CONCLUSIONS: While in general there was no significant differences in overall health behaviors between SVP patients and controls, SVP patients are less physically active...

  18. Adolescents' Time Use: Effects on Substance Use, Delinquency and Sexual Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Grace M.; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Welte, John W.; Farrell, Michael P.; Dintcheff, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    Using an integration of social control theory and the routine activity perspective, adolescent time use was examined for effects on problem behaviors. We examined a wide variety of time use categories, including homework, extracurricular activities, sports time, alone time, paid work, housework, television watching, as well as indices of family…

  19. SUBSTANCE USE AND SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Substance use disorders form a major part of global disease burden. With increasing trend of use of psychoactive substance, the deleterious effects associated with it also increases. These effects may be biological, social or legal. Among the biological consequences of substance use, little is known of its effect on sexual functioning. In common parlance it is said that many substances increase the sexual desire and hence act as an aphrodisiac. To what extent this is true remains a question of debate. The purpose of thi s article is to review and summarize the available literature on the impact of psychoactive substances like alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and others on sexual functioning. Almost all of them are associated with one or other form of sexual dysfunction. The mec hanism by which they exert such deleterious effect also varies. Further, the sexual dysfunction resulting from substance use can itself have bearing on treatment aspects of substance use. The relationship between sexual dysfunction and substance is attribu ted not only to pharmacological effects, but also to psychological and social factors stemming from substance use. This information of sexual consequence of substance will be of interest and may serve as a powerful tool to healthcare providers

  20. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance methiocarb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance methiocarb are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory data on the risk assessment for birds. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of methiocarb as a molluscicide on oilseed rape. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Concerns were identified.

  1. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance kieselgur (diatomaceous earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Greece, for the pesticide active substance kieselgur are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004 as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of kieselgur as an insecticide, acaricide on stored grain, empty rooms, mills, stores and soil treatment in home gardening. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  2. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance L-ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance L-ascorbic acid are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of L-ascorbic acid as a fungicide on potato, glasshouse tomato and field and glasshouse flower bulbs. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  3. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance ethoprophos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance ethoprophos are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of ethoprophos as an insecticide and nematicide on potatoes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Concerns are identified.

  4. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance oryzalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State France, for the pesticide active substance oryzalin are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory mammalian toxicology and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of oryzalin as a herbicide on grape vines. A concern has been identified as regards the assessment of the toxicological relevance of some impurities, which could not be finalised based on the data available.

  5. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substance imidacloprid are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory mammalian toxicology and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of imidacloprid as an insecticide on apples, tomatoes and sugar beet. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. No concerns are identified.

  6. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance diflubenzuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Sweden, for the pesticide active substance diflubenzuron are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory mammalian toxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of diflubenzuron as an insecticide on apples, pears and mushrooms, and in forestry. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Concerns are identified.

  7. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Paecilomyces fumosoroseus strain FE 9901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Belgium for the pesticide active substance Paecilomyces fumosoroseus strain FE 9901 are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as an insecticide in glasshouses on tomatoes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  8. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance beta-cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance beta-cypermethrin are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of beta-cypermethrin as an insecticide on oilseed rape, wheat and maize. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified as regards the risk to aquatic organisms, bees and non-target arthropods.

  9. Microbial Survey of a Full-Scale, Biologically Active Filter for Treatment of Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    White, Colin P.; DeBry, Ronald W.; Lytle, Darren A.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial community of a full-scale, biologically active drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods.

  10. The influence of extraversion on preferences and engagement in pleasant activities in patients with substance use disorders: one size fits all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, H.G.; Evans, B.E.; Wiersma, H.; Meyers, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) is its emphasis on getting individuals to increase their engagement in healthy old and new rewarding activities that can compete with substance use. The personality dimension extraversion seems to be an important mechanism underlying activity

  11. The effects of three commonly used extraction methods on the redox properties of extracellular polymeric substances from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qin; Chang, Ming; Yu, Zhen; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the redox properties of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have attracted the attention of scientists due to their associated environmental significance, such as organic pollutant (e.g. nitroaromatics and substituted nitrobenzenes) degradation and heavy metal (e.g. Cr(VI) and U(VI)) detoxification. Although the separation of EPS from bacterial cells is more often the first step in studies on EPS, and studies have demonstrated that extraction procedures can influence the sorption properties of EPS, few attempts have been made to investigate how separation methods affect the redox properties of the obtained EPS. In this study, three common extraction approaches, that is, centrifugation, formaldehyde+NaOH and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), were employed to extract EPS from activated sludge, and the obtained EPS were evaluated for their redox properties using electrochemical means, including cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. In addition, spectroscopic techniques were utilized to explore the structural characteristics and composition of EPS. The results indicated that EPS extracted by EDTA clearly displayed reversible oxidation-reduction peaks in cyclic voltammograms and significantly higher electron-accepting capacity compared with EPS extracted using the other two approaches. Fourier transform infrared spectra and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectra suggested that the EPS extracted with EDTA presented better redox properties because of the effective and efficient extraction of the humic substances, which are important components of the EPS of activated sludge. Therefore, extraction method has an impact on the composition and redox properties of EPS and should be chosen according to research purpose and EPS source.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro Valera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Material and Methods: Seventy-two human tooth roots were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days. The groups were divided according to the auxiliary chemical substance into: G1 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, G2 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX, G3 castor oil, G4 glycolic Aloe vera extract, G5 glycolic ginger extract, and G6 sterile saline (control. The samples of the root canal were collected at different intervals: confirmation collection, at 21 days after contamination; 1st collection, after instrumentation; and 2nd collection, seven days after instrumentation. Microbiological samples were grown in culture medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Results: The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (5% statistical tests. NaOCl and CHX completely eliminated the microorganisms of the root canals. Castor oil and ginger significantly reduced the number of CFU of the tested bacteria. Reduction of CFU/mL at the 1st and 2nd collections for groups G1, G2, G3 and G4 was greater in comparison to groups G5 and G6. Conclusion: It was concluded that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel were more effective in eliminating C. albicans and E. faecalis, followed by the castor oil and glycolic ginger extract. The Aloe vera extract showed no antimicrobial activity.

  13. Electrodermal screening of biologically active points for upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Jung; Hu, Wen-Long; Hung, I-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hung, Yu-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between the electrical resistance of the skin at biologically active points (BAPs) on the main meridians and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Electrical resistance to direct current at 20 BAPs on the fingers and toes of 100 patients with (38 men, 12 women; mean age [range], 58.20 ± 19.62 [18-83] years) and without (27 men, 23 women; 49.54 ± 12.12 [22-74] years) UGIB was measured through electrodermal screening (EDS), based on the theory of electroacupuncture according to Voll (EAV). Data were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and logistic regression. The initial readings were lower in the UGIB group, indicating blood and energy deficiency due to UGIB. Significant differences in indicator drop values were observed at nine BAPs (p < 0.05) on the bilateral small intestine, bilateral stomach, bilateral circulation, bilateral fibroid degeneration, and right lymph meridians. The area under the ROC curve values of the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians were larger than 0.5, suggesting the diagnostic accuracy of EDS for UGIB on the basis of the indicator drop of these BAPs. Logistic regression revealed that when the indicator drop of the BAP on the left stomach meridian increased by one score, the risk of UGIB increased by about 1.545-3.523 times. In conclusion, the change in the electrical resistance of the skin measured by EDS at the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians provides specific information on UGIB.

  14. Cyclopenta[c]phenanthrenes--chemistry and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuzan, Paweł; Góra, Maciej; Luczyński, Michał K; Woźny, Maciej

    2013-06-25

    Despite cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CP-PAHs) having been detected in the environment, the ability of these compounds to induce cellular and tissue responses remains poorly characterized. In this review, we look at the chemistry and biological activity of the cyclopenta[c]phenanthrenes (CP[c]Phs) as potential chemicals of concern in the process of risk assessment. The first part of the review deals with the environmental occurrence and chemistry of CP-PAHs, focusing on available methods of CP[c]Ph chemical synthesis. The most interesting structural feature of the CP[c]Ph is the presence of a pseudo fjord-region constructed by the cyclopentane ring. This compound can be treated either as a structurally similar one to B[c]Ph, or as a phenanthrene skeleton with an electrodonating alkyl substituent in the bay-region of the molecule. The second thread, providing available data on the adverse effects of CP[c]Ph compounds on cells and tissues of living organisms, mainly fish, improves our understanding of these possible environmental hazards. The data show that CP[c]Ph is less potent at inducing CYP1A gene expression in rainbow trout than benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a well-known Ah-receptor agonist. Interestingly, the CP[c]Ph dependent up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA is positively correlated with the incidences of clastogenic changes in rainbow trout erythrocytes. CP[c]Ph has, comparably to B[a]P, a potential to repress expression of tumor suppressor p53, in the head kidney of rainbow trout. Furthermore, estrogen responsive genes in fish liver, ERα and VTG, are not induced by CP[c]Ph, suggesting that the compound has no endocrine disrupting potential. However, some CP[c]Phs show mutagenic activity when investigated in the Ames test, and exhibit genotoxic properties in in vitro micronucleus assay. The above characteristics suggest that CP-PAHs are chemicals of concern for which potential pathways of exposure should be further identified. PMID:23628509

  15. Mutant p53: Multiple Mechanisms Define Biologic Activity in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Michael Paul; Zhang, Yun; Lozano, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of alterations involve p53 missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may concomitantly gain novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we rev...

  16. Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Activated Sludge Flocs: Extraction, Identification, and Investigation of Their Link with Cations and Fate in Sludge Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul

    2007-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge are known to account for the flocculent nature of activated sludge. Extensive studies over the last few decades have attempted to extract and characterize activated sludge EPS, but a lack of agreement between studies has also been quite common. The molecular makeup of EPS has, however, remained nearly unexplored, leaving their identity, function, and fate over various stages in the activated sludge system mainly unknown. In spite o...

  17. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha, F. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA. In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anticarcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anticarcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the

  18. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo eFridlender; Yoram eKapulnik; Hinanit eKoltai

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70-95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early 19th century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. I...

  19. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fridlender, Marcelo; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70–95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early nineteenth century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from pla...

  20. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  1. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528563

  2. Biologically active polymers from spontaneous carotenoid oxidation: a new frontier in carotenoid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Johnston

    Full Text Available In animals carotenoids show biological activity unrelated to vitamin A that has been considered to arise directly from the behavior of the parent compound, particularly as an antioxidant. However, the very property that confers antioxidant activity on some carotenoids in plants also confers susceptibility to oxidative transformation. As an alternative, it has been suggested that carotenoid oxidative breakdown or metabolic products could be the actual agents of activity in animals. However, an important and neglected aspect of the behavior of the highly unsaturated carotenoids is their potential to undergo addition of oxygen to form copolymers. Recently we reported that spontaneous oxidation of ß-carotene transforms it into a product dominated by ß-carotene-oxygen copolymers. We now report that the polymeric product is biologically active. Results suggest an overall ability to prime innate immune function to more rapidly respond to subsequent microbial challenges. An underlying structural resemblance to sporopollenin, found in the outer shell of spores and pollen, may allow the polymer to modulate innate immune responses through interactions with the pattern recognition receptor system. Oxygen copolymer formation appears common to all carotenoids, is anticipated to be widespread, and the products may contribute to the health benefits of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables.

  3. The costs and effects of post-authorisation safety studies for new active substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvy, J.C.; De Bruin, M.L.; Hoekman, J.; Stolk, P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: At market entry, there usually is uncertainty regarding a new medicine's benefit-risk profile. Therefore, regulatory authorities may request additional pharmacovigilance (PhV) activities. Regulatory Authorities can request a Post- Authorisation Safety Study (PASS) such as a registry, dat

  4. Adhesive Properties and Acid-Forming Activity of Lactobacilli and Streptococci Under Inhibitory Substances, Such as Nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, L; Harutyunyan, K; Harutyunyan, N; Melik-Andreasyan, G; Trchounian, A

    2016-06-01

    One of the main requirements for probiotics is their ability to survive during passage through gastrointestinal tract and to maintain their activity at different adverse conditions. The aim of the study was to look for the strains of lactobacilli and streptococci with high adhesive properties even affected by inhibitory substances, such as nitrates (NO3 (-)). To study the adhesion properties hemagglutination reaction of bacterial cells with red blood cells of different animals and humans was used. The acid formation ability of bacteria was determined by the method of titration after 7 days of incubation in the sterile milk. These properties were investigated at different concentrations of NO3 (-). The high concentration (mostly ≥2.0 %) NO3 (-) inhibited the growth of both lactobacilli and streptococci, but compared with streptococcal cultures lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus acidophilus Ep 317/402, have shown more stability and higher adhesive properties. In addition, the concentrations of NO3 (-) of 0.5-2.0 % decreased the acid-forming activity of the strains, but even under these conditions they coagulated milk and, in comparison to control, formed low acidity in milk. Thus, the L. acidophilus Ep 317/402 with high adhesive properties has demonstrated a higher activity of NO3 (-) transformation.

  5. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  6. Identification and characterization of antifungal active substances of Streptomyces hygroscopicus BS-112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Song, Zhen; Xie, Yuhua; Cui, Ping; Jiang, Hongxia; Yang, Tao; Ju, Ruicheng; Zhao, Yuhua; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Xunli

    2013-08-01

    An antifungal Actinomyces BS-112 strain, with Aspergillus flavus as the target pathogen, was isolated from soil in the forest land of Mountain Tai. This strain showed a strong antagonistic activity against various mold fungi in food and feed. Strain BS-112 was identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus based on its morphologic, cultural, physiological, biochemical characteristics, cell wall components and 16S rDNA sequence. Four active components were separated and purified from strain BS-112. These four antifungal components were identified as tetrins A and B and tetramycins A and B using spectroscopic analysis including mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Tetrins A and B and tetramycins A and B strongly inhibited the growth of A. flavus, A. alutaceus, A. niger, and A. fumigatus in vitro. PMID:23468248

  7. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Jae Shin; Muhammad Abdul Mojid Mondol; Mohammad Tofazzal Islam

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activi...

  8. Biological Activity of Autochthonic Bacterial Community in Oil-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wolińska, Agnieszka; Kuźniar, Agnieszka; Szafranek-Nakonieczna, Anna; Jastrzębska, Natalia; Roguska, Eliza; Stępniewska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in the biodegradation of different petroleum derivates, including hydrocarbons. Also other biological factors such as enzyme and respiration activities and microbial abundance are sensitive to contamination with petroleum derivates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of autochthonic microbial community and biological parameters (respiration, dehydrogenase and catalase activities, total microorganisms count) on contamination wit...

  9. Immunochemical studies on blood groups LXII. Fractionation of hog and human A, H, and AH blood group active substance on insoluble immunoadsorbents of Dolichos and Lotus lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M E; Kabat, E A

    1976-02-01

    The purified lectins from Lotus tetragonolobus and Dolichos biflorus were coupled to Sepharose 2B to make insoluble adsorbents for purification and fractionation of blood group A and H active glycoproteins. With both adsorbents, hog gastric mucin A + H blood substance (HGM), purified by phenol-ethanol precipitation, yielded fractions showing only A, only H, or AH activities. The AH fraction was obtained when the adsorbent column was overloaded with HGM and its A and H specificities seem to be carried on the same molecules since they were not separable by chromatography on either column. However A and H specificities of blood group substance from the stomach of a presumably heterozygous individual hog were both on the same molecules as they too could not be fractionated on either column. Analytical properties of the isolated fractions were generally similar to those of the unfractionated material, the purfied A substances had a higher galactosamine/fucose ratio than did the H substances. Although the original A + H showed very little specific optical rotation, the separated A and H substances rotated positively and negatively, respectively. The lectin-Sepharose adsorbents have also proven useful in isolating A or H substances directly from the crude commercial hog gastric mucin. Blood group A2 substance from a human ovarian cyst yielded two fractions on the Lotus-Sepharose column; the effluent did not interact with the Lotus lectin but precipitated the Ulex and Dolichos lectins and anti-A, and appears to contain type 1 H determinants. The other fraction reacted with Lotus and Ulex lectin as well as with Dolichos and anti-A.

  10. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  11. Determination of biological activity from fluorescence-lifetime measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Hartmann, P.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of fluorescence lifetime measurement as an optical analysis tool is growing. Many applications already exist in order to determine the fluorescence lifetime, but the majority of these require the addition of fluorescence-active substances to enable measurements. Every usage of such foreign materials has an associated risk. This paper investigates the use of auto-fluorescing substances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) as a risk free alternative to fluorescence-active substance enabled measurements. The experimental setup uses a nitrogen laser with a pulse length of 350 ps and a wavelength of 337 nm. The excited sample emits light due to fluorescence of NADH/NADPH and collagen. A fast photodiode collects the light at the output of an appropriate high-pass edge-filter at 400 nm. Fluorescence lifetimes can be determined from the decay of the measurement signals, which in turn characterizes the individual materials and their surrounding environment. Information about the quantity of the fluorescence active substances can also be measured based on the received signal intensity. The correlation between the fluorescence lifetime and the metabolic state of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and is presented here.

  12. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Benzoyl Hydrazines Containing Pyrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫涛; 于淑晶; 刘鹏飞; 刘卓; 王宝雷; 熊丽霞; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign compounds with high biological activity, low toxicity and low resistance, 8 novel benzoyl hydrazines containing pyrazole were designed and synthesized. All compounds were characterized by I H NMR spectra and HRMS. The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicated that most of title compounds exhibited certain insecticidal activities against M),thimna separata Walker at 200 mg L-1 but excellent fungicidal activities against six fungus at 50 mg L-1, which were better than the control.

  13. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms. PMID:26269460

  14. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms.

  15. Insecticidal activities of garlic substances against adults of grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Lian Yang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The angoumois grain moth,Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier),is one of the most serious stored grain pests around the world.In attempts to reduce the losses caused by the moth and to suppress its populations,the fumigant activities,behavioral influence and ovipositional inhibition of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil and its two major components,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,were investigated against the adult grain moth.Their effects on reduction in survival of first instar larvae to adult emergence were also evaluated.Results showed that these three materials (garlic essential oil,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide) had significant fumigant activity with 50% lethal concentration values at 1.33,0.99,and 1.02μL/L air space,respectively; meanwhile,the three materials possessed high behavioral deterrent activities against adults in the Y-tube olfactometer.When applied to rice grains,these materials reduced adult longevity and inhibited oviposition,with ovipositional inhibition above 70% at a concentration of 1.5 tL/25 g in either no-choice or two-choice tests.In short,the study showed that both diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,like garlic essential oil,acted as fumigants,produced behavioral deterfence and inhibited oviposition against angoumois grain moth.Our work here indicates that diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide may serve as potential alternatives for grain protectants since both of them can be prepared easily from readily available chemicals.

  16. Exposure of activated sludge to nanosilver and silver ion: Inhibitory effects and binding to the fractions of extracellular polymeric substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyik, Ayse Gul; Çeçen, Ferhan

    2016-07-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Ag(+) and AgNP (commercial and synthesized) on activated sludge by using respirometry. Along with this aim, also the changes taking place in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were studied. Additionally, the binding of Ag(+) or AgNP to the different fractions in EPS was assessed using voltammetry. Synthesized AgNP led to an obvious inhibition whereas commercial AgNP had no effect on activated sludge. For Ag(+) and AgNP, IC50 values were found between 2.3-3.0mg/L and 3.2-11.1mg/L, respectively. Thus, AgNP was less inhibitory than silver ion, since the release of free silver from AgNP was very small. The protein and carbohydrate content of EPS generally increased when Ag(+) was added. Both tightly- and loosely bound fractions in EPS could bind Ag(+) and AgNP. Silver binding capacity of EPS was seen to depend on the molecular weight of proteins. PMID:27060244

  17. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEMEŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  18. DEET, Active Substance Of Repellent That Effective And Safe For Travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Lestari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Increased flow of tourism to the tropics and the changing patterns of vector-borne diseases require increased protection against insects. To prevent transmission of the disease is done several ways that increase self-protection by using mosquito repellent can protect travelers while outdoor activities. One option is active formula mosquito repellent DEET. The purpose of this paper is to determine the best dosage forms for travelers DEET., To determine the effectiveness and safety of DEET and to know the workings of the active ingredient DEET. The method of writing is the literature search through medical journals and articles. From the search was obtained, the most appropriate anti-mosquito travelers to use while on the move outdoors in the dosage form is DEET lotion applied to the skin as the most secure and durable because it does not easily evaporate. Mosquito repellent containing DEET has been proven effective and safe for use in adults, children, and pregnant women, but should still follow the instructions. The workings of the mosquito repellent DEET mosquito dispel is manipulating 1-Octen-3-ol used by mosquitoes to detect human presence. So ORN (olfactory receptor neurons in the mosquitoes can not respond anymore to the maximum, so that people avoid the bites nyamuk. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New

  19. Protocatechuic acid, a novel active substance against avian influenza virus H9N2 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbo Ou

    Full Text Available Influenza virus H9N2 subtype has triggered co-infection with other infectious agents, resulting in huge economical losses in the poultry industry. Our current study aims to evaluate the antiviral activity of protocatechuic acid (PCA against a virulent H9N2 strain in a mouse model. 120 BALB/c mice were divided into one control group, one untreated group, one 50 mg/kg amantadine hydrochloride-treated group and three PCA groups treated 12 hours post-inoculation with 40, 20 or 10 mg/kg PCA for 7 days. All the infected animals were inoculated intranasally with 0.2 ml of a A/Chicken/Hebei/4/2008(H9N2 inoculum. A significant body weight loss was found in the 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg PCA-treated and amantadine groups as compared to the control group. The 14 day survivals were 94.4%, 100% and 95% in the PCA-treated groups and 94.4% in the amantadine hydrochloride group, compared to less than 60% in the untreated group. Virus loads were less in the PCA-treated groups compared to the amantadine-treated or the untreated groups. Neutrophil cells in BALF were significantly decreased while IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α and IL-6 decreased significantly at days 7 in the PCA-treated groups compared to the untreated group. Furthermore, a significantly decreased CD4+/CD8+ ratio and an increased proportion of CD19 cells were observed in the PCA-treated groups and amantadine-treated group compared to the untreated group. Mice administered with PCA exhibited a higher survival rate and greater viral clearance associated with an inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and activation of CD8+ T cell subsets. PCA is a promising novel agent against bird flu infection in the poultry industry.

  20. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and remission of vital oxidative injury by low dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, K. [Okayama University Medical School, Okayama (Japan); Nomura, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Excessive active oxygen produced in vivo by various causes is toxic. Accumulation of oxidation injuries due to excessive active causes cell and tissue injuries, inducing various pathologic conditions such as aging and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, there are chemical defense mechanisms in the body that eliminate active oxygen or repair damaged molecules, defending against resultant injury. It is interesting reports that appropriate oxidation stress activate the chemical biological defense mechanisms. In this study, to elucidate these phenomena and its mechanism by low dose radiation, we studied on the below subjects. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms by low dose radiation: (1) The effects radiation on lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the organs, membrane fluidity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined in rats and rabbits. Rats were irradiated with low dose X-ray over their entire bodies, and rabbits inhaled vaporized radon spring water, which primarily emitted {alpha}-ray. The following results were obtained. Unlike high dose X-ray, low dose X-ray and radon inhalation both reduced LPO levels and made the state of the SH-group on membrane-bound proteins closer to that of juvenile animals, although the sensitivity to radioactivity varied depending on the age of the animals and among different organs and tissues. The SOD activity was elevated, suggesting that low dose X-ray and radon both activate the host defensive function. Those changes were particularly marked in the organs related to immune functions of the animals which received low dose X-ray, while they were particularly marked in the brain after radon inhalation. It was also found that those changes continued for longer periods after low dose X-irradiation. (2) Since SOD is an enzyme that mediates the dismutation of O{sub 2}- to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the question as to whether the resultant H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is further detoxicated into H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} or not must

  1. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of Test Endpoints for Detecting the Effects of Endocrine Active Substances in Fish Full Life Cycle Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish full life cycle (FFLC) tests are increasingly required in the ecotoxicological assessment of endocrine active substances. However, FFLC tests have not been internationally standardized or validated, and it is currently unclear how such tests should best be designed to provid...

  2. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies. PMID:23574283

  3. TASTE MASKING TECHNOLOGIES: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTY OF PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVE SUBSTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Acceptability of any dosage form are mainly depends over its taste i.e. mouth feel. Drug molecule interacts with taste receptor on the tongue to give bitter, sweet or salty taste sensation, when they dissolve in saliva. This sensation of the taste is the result of signal transduction from the receptor organs for taste, commonly known as taste buds. In market, there are numbers of pharmaceutical preparations available in which actives are bitter in taste. The improved palatability in these products has prompted the development of numerous formulations, which improved performance and acceptability. The bitterness of preparation also leads to patient incompliance. So masking of bitterness becomes essential. To overcome this problem, many techniques have been developed to mask the bitter taste of drugs. These techniques are not only mask the bitter taste of drug but also enhance the bioavailability and performance of drug dosage form. It includes adding sugars, flavors, sweeteners, use of lipoproteins, numbing taste buds, granulation, use of adsorbates ,coating drug, microencapsulation, multiple emulsion, viscosity modifier, vesicles and liposomes, prodrug and salt formation, inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion and Ion Exchange Resins (IERs which have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review article highlights different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

  4. Metabolic activation of lignans to estrogenic and antiestrogenic substances by human intestinal bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, Jiang Jing; Hattori, Masao

    2005-01-01

    ヒト腸内細菌は広く自然界に存在する植物エストロゲンの前駆体の代謝活性化に必須である。本総説ではin vitroの実験に基づいた植物エストロゲン前駆体secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), arctiin, pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG)やそれらのアグリコンの動物リグナン, enterodiol (END), enterolactone (ENL)への変換に関する最近の研究成果を概説している。また, これら関連反応に関与する腸内細菌の単離や性質についても言及している。The role of human intestinal bacteria is indispensable for the metabolic activation of phytoestrogenic precursor lignans. This review summarized recent researches on the in vitro intestinal bacteria transformation of lignan prec...

  5. Risk assessment of hazardous impacts on urbanization and industrialization activities based upon toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

  6. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies.

  7. Physicochemical and porosity characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon polluted with biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lihua; Liu, Wenjun; Jiang, Renfu; Wang, Zhansheng

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon (AC) polluted with biological activated carbon (BAC) process were investigated. The results showed that the true micropore and sub-micropore volume, pH value, bulk density, and hardness of regenerated AC decreased compared to the virgin AC, but the total pore volume increased. XPS analysis displayed that the ash contents of Al, Si, and Ca in the regenerated AC respectively increased by 3.83%, 2.62% and 1.8%. FTIR spectrum showed that the surface functional groups of virgin and regenerated AC did not change significantly. Pore size distributions indicated that the AC regeneration process resulted in the decrease of micropore and macropore (D>10 μm) volume and the increase of mesopore and macropore (0.1 μmbiological waste (spent AC) from BAC process.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  9. Polycyclic Xanthone Natural Products: Structure, Biological Activity and Chemical Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Dana K.; Sloman, David L.; Porco, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic xanthone natural products are a family of polyketides which are characterized by highly oxygenated, angular hexacyclic frameworks. In the last decade, this novel class of molecules has attracted noticeable attention from the synthetic and biological communities due to emerging reports of their potential use as antitumour agents. The aim of this article is to highlight the most recent developments of this subset of the xanthone family by detailing the innate challenges of the constr...

  10. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    OpenAIRE

    Adela NEMEŞ; Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2010-01-01

    We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating id...

  11. Residual matrix from different separation techniques impacts exosome biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Paolini; Andrea Zendrini; Giuseppe Di Noto; Sara Busatto; Elisabetta Lottini; Annalisa Radeghieri; Alessandra Dossi; Andrea Caneschi; Doris Ricotta; Paolo Bergese

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are gaining a prominent role in research due to their intriguing biology and several therapeutic opportunities. However, their accurate purification from body fluids and detailed physicochemical characterization remain open issues. We isolated exosomes from serum of patients with Multiple Myeloma by four of the most popular purification methods and assessed the presence of residual contaminants in the preparations through an ad hoc combination of biochemical and biophysical technique...

  12. Surface-active Substances in the biomass burning and atmospheric particles in the North China Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijun; Bai, Yao; Liu, Yuechen; Wang, Yujue; Qiao, Kai; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min

    2016-04-01

    Surface active materials, such as HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS), play an important role in particle hygroscopicity and activation by taking up water and acting as surfactants. They account for large proportions of water soluble organic carbon. Currently, the information on the chemical composition, hygroscopicity, and surface active properties of HULIS is still very scarce in china, which is suffering from heavy air pollution. Therefore, we promoted this study to investigate the hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of HULIS particles using hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser and condensation cloud nuclei counter and surface tension depression using contact angle meter (KRÜSS GmbH). Two different types of particles were investigated in our study. One is the particles emitted from biomass burning. The wheat and corn straw residuals were burned in a lab burning simulator. The PM2.5 samples were collected onto quartz filters. Another is PM2.5 taken during the heavy hazy days. The HULIS were isolated from PM2.5 samples by water exaction, C18 solid phase extraction (SPE), CH3OH elution, and N2 drying. Then, the water solution of HULIS was generated to particles using TSI atomizer. The hygroscopicity of HULIS particles were detected by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. The temperature dependency of HULIS surface tension was detected using contact angle meter. The primary results showed that PM2.5 consists of a large amount of surface active materials during severe air pollution episodes. A clear temperature dependency of surface tension was observed. At temperature of 20 degree, the surface tension of HULIS exacted from ambient samples is around 50 N/m2, which is much lower than that of pure water. The future investigations will include the effects of burning conditions on the HULIS concentration and surface tensions. In the presentation, a full picture of the hygroscopicity and CCN activity, and surface active properties of HULIS will

  13. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  14. Extracellular polymeric substances, microbial activity and microbial community of biofilm and suspended sludge at different divalent cadmium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zichao; Gao, Mengchun; Wei, Junfeng; Ma, Kedong; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yusuo; Yu, Shuping

    2016-04-01

    The differences between biofilm and suspended sludge (S-sludge) in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), microbial activity, and microbial community in an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) at different concentrations of divalent cadmium (Cd(II)) were investigated. As the increase of Cd(II) concentration from 0 to 50mgL(-1), the specific ammonium oxidation rate (SAOR), specific nitrite oxidation rate (SNOR), and specific nitrate reduction rate (SNRR) of biofilm decreased from 4.85, 5.22 and 45mgNg(-1) VSSh(-1) to 1.54, 2.38 and 26mgNg(-1)VSSh(-1), respectively, and the SAOR, SNOR and SNRR of S-sludge decreased from 4.80, 5.02 and 34mgNg(-1)VSSh(-1) to 1.46, 2.20 and 17mgNg(-1)VSSh(-1), respectively. Biofilm had higher protein (PN) content in EPS than S-sludge. Contrast to S-sludge, biofilm could provide Nitrobacter vulgaris, beta proteobacterium INBAF015, and Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana with the favorable conditions of growth and reproduction. PMID:26829529

  15. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance ethametsulfuron (evaluated variant ethametsulfuron-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance ethametsulfuron (evaluated variant ethametsulfuron-methyl are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011 and Article 56 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of ethametsulfuron-methyl as a herbicide on oilseed rape. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework as well as assessments that could not be finalised based on the available data are listed. Concerns are identified as regards the potential for groundwater contamination by some toxicologically relevant metabolites and the risk assessment for aquatic organisms.

  16. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance S-abscisic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance S-abscisic acid are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of S-abscisic acid as a plant growth regulator on tomato seedlings and grapes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified in the areas of residues and ecotoxicology, as the consumer risk assessment and the risk assessment for higher aquatic plants for some metabolites could not be finalised based on the data available.

  17. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance lenacil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of an initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Belgium, relating to the pesticide active substance lenacil are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory environmental fate and behaviour data and an associated argumentation on the potential for effects / relevance of possible groundwater metabolites. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of lenacil as a herbicide on sugar beet and fodder beet for the control of grass and broad-leaved weeds. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. The concern was identified, that the assessment of the relevance of potential groundwater metabolites, present in the leachate of relevant lysimeter studies, could not be finalised with the available information.

  18. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Straight Chain Lepidopteran Pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Austria, for the pesticide active substance Straight Chain Lepidopteran Pheromones are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004 as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Straight Chain Lepidopteran Pheromones as a semio-chemical on stone fruit, pome fruit, tree nuts corn, vegetables, citrus, olives, rice, grapes, cotton and flowers. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed.There is no agreed technical specification covered by the toxicological and ecotoxicological assessments.

  19. Biological research of Grabia River - fifty years of activity

    OpenAIRE

    Siciński, Jacek; Tończyk, Grzegorz

    2005-01-01

    Grabia, a small still close to natural conditions lowland river, has been an object of special interest for Łódź hydrobiologists for more than 50 years. Over 100 scientific papers and over 100 master theses were produced in the Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection University of Łódź. The initiator was Prof.L.K. Pawłowski who spent many years conducting research into the river. The ground and the first research objective was to recognize the fauna diversity. The checklis...

  20. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chotigeat, W.; Phongdara, A.; Choosawad, D.

    2005-01-01

    Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at ...

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of benzamide DNA minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gul Shahzada; Pilkington, Lisa I; Barker, David

    2016-02-01

    A range of di- and triaryl benzamides were synthesised to investigate the effect of the presence and nature of a polar sidechain, bonding and substitution patterns and functionalisation of benzylic substituents. These compounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity as well as their DNA binding activity. The most active compounds in all assays were unsymmetrical triaryl benzamides with a bulky or alkylating benzylic substituent and a polar amino sidechain.

  2. Accuracy of self-report, biological tests, collateral reports and clinician ratings in identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Van Dorn, Richard A; Sellers, Brian G; Young, M Scott; Swartz, Marvin S

    2013-09-01

    Identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia presents unique challenges but is critical to research and practice. This study examined: (a) the accuracy of assessments completed using various approaches in identifying substance use disorders, (b) their ability to discriminate between disorders of abuse and dependence, and (c) the benefits of using multiple indicators to identify substance use disorders. Data are from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The sample comprised 1,460 community-based adults with schizophrenia, 15.8% (n = 230) of whom were positive for a current (past month) drug or alcohol use disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). Clinician ratings, self-report, collateral reports, and results of hair and urine tests were compared to SCID diagnoses. Congruence with SCID diagnoses was good across approaches and evidence for superiority of one approach over another was limited. No approach discriminated between abuse and dependence. There was limited benefit of using multiple indicators. Findings suggest that the decision regarding the "best" approach for identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia may be made through consideration of practical issues and assessment purpose, rather than selection of the approach that yields the most accurate diagnostic assessment.

  3. Pharmacological influence on processes of adjuvant arthritis: Effect of the combination of an antioxidant active substance with methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drafi, Frantisek; Bauerova, Katarina; Kuncirova, Viera; Ponist, Silvester; Mihalova, Danica; Fedorova, Tatiana; Harmatha, Juraj; Nosal, Radomir

    2012-06-01

    Oxygen metabolism has an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. A certain correlation was observed between oxidative stress, arthritis and the immune system. Reactive oxygen species produced in the course of cellular oxidative phosphorylation and by activated phagocytic cells during oxidative burst, exceed the physiological buffering capacity and result in oxidative stress. The excessive production of ROS can damage protein, lipids, nucleic acids, and matrix components. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have an altered antioxidant defense capacity barrier. In the present study the effect of substances with antioxidative properties, i.e. pinosylvin and carnosine, was determined in monotherapy for the treatment of adjuvant arthritis (AA). Moreover carnosine was evaluated in combination therapy with methotrexate. Rats with AA were administered first pinosylvin (30 mg/kg body mass daily per os), second carnosine (150 mg/kg body mass daily per os) in monotherapy for a period of 28 days. Further, rats with AA were administered methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg body mass 2-times weekly per os), and a combination of methotrexate+carnosine, with the carnosine dose being the same as in the previous experiment. Parameters, i.e. changes in hind paw volume and arthritic score were determined in rats as indicators of destructive arthritis-associated clinical changes. Plasmatic levels of TBARS and lag time of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (tau-FeLP) in plasma and brain were specified as markers of oxidation. Plasmatic level of CRP and activity of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in spleen and joint were used as inflammation markers. In comparison to pinosylvin, administration of carnosine monotherapy led to a significant decrease in the majority of the parameters studied. In the combination treatment with methotrexate+carnosine most parameters monitored were improved more remarkably than by methotrexate alone. Carnosine can increase the disease-modifying effect of

  4. Synthesis, biological activities and structure-activity relationships for new avermectin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Nan, Xiang; Yu, Hai-Tao; Cheng, Pi-Le; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Ying-Qian; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Hu, Guan-Fang; Liu, Huanxiang; Chen, An-Liang

    2016-10-01

    In an effort to discover new molecules with good insecticidal activities, more than 40 new avermectin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities against three species of arachnids, insects and nematodes, namely, Tetranychus Cinnabarinus, Aphis craccivora and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. All the tested compounds showed potent inhibitory activities against three insect species. Notably, the majority of compounds exhibited high selectivity against T. cinnabarinus, some of which were much better in comparison with avermectin. Especially compounds 9j (LC50: 0.005 μM) and 16d (LC50: 0.002 μM) were 2.5- and 4.7-fold more active than avermectin (LC50: 0.013 μM), respectively, against T. cinnabarinus. Moreover, compounds 9b, 9d-f, 9h, 9j, 9l, 9n, 9p, 9r, 9v and 17d showed superior activities with LC50 values of 2.959-5.013 μM compared to that of 1 (LC50: 6.746 μM) against B. xylophilus. Meanwhile, the insecticidal activities of compounds 9f, 9g, 9h, and 9m against A. craccivora were 7-8 times better than that of avermectin, with LC50 values of 7.744, 5.634, 6.809, 7.939 and 52.234 μM, respectively. Furthermore, QSAR analysis showed that the molecular shape, size, connectivity degree and electronic distribution of avermectin analogues had substantial effects on insecticidal potency. These preliminary results provided useful insight in guiding further modifications of avermectin in the development of potential new insecticides. PMID:27318119

  5. CHANGE OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF RENDZINA SOILS OF WESTERN CAUCASUS AT POLLUTION BY ZINC, CADMIUM, MOLYBDENUM AND SELENIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatlok D. R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rendzina soils are very widespread in the Caucasus. Because of their ecological and genetic characteristics Rendzina has significant buffering capacity to chemical pollution. The object of investigation was calcareous leached soil. Location selection - Azishskaya ridge on the border of the Republic of Adygea and the Krasnodar region. As pollutants, we have selected Zn, Cd, Mo, Se, since soil contamination with these elements in the south of Russia is not uncommon. Contamination of zinc, cadmium, molybdenum and selenium causes deterioration in the biological properties of calcareous soils of the Western Caucasus. We have investigated the toxicity of the elements formed following series due to their influence on Rendzina soils: Zn> Se> Cd> = Mo. The study attempted to analyze the entire range of concentrations of the examined elements in the soil, currently occurring in nature. In most cases, all the investigated substances registered direct correlation between the concentration of the pollutant in the soil and the degree of reduction of biological indicators. The activity of catalase and dehydrogenase cellulolytic ability, plenty of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, length of roots of radish can be used to monitor, diagnose and regulation of chemical pollution of soil Zn, Cd, Mo, Se

  6. Harnessing microbial metabolic exchange for the discovery of biologically active molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Microbial metabolic exchange mediates microbial interactions and plays key roles in regulating biology and has shaped modern healthcare, agriculture and other commercial processes. In this thesis, cutting edge mass spectrometry techniques, new genome mining approaches, and innovative bioinformatics tools were coupled and developed into investigating microbial metabolic exchange and led to the identification and characterization of biological active molecules that may have therapeutic values. ...

  7. Studies on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3-Dioxolane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nine title compounds were synthesized. Their strucures were identified by means of IR, EA, 1H NMR and MS. The results from the primary biological test show that all the compounds have some activitiies of fungicide and plant growth regulator. When R group is 2,4-Cl2C6H3, compound 2 or compound 4 shows better biological activities.

  8. An Introduction to Biological Modeling Using Coin Flips to Predict the Outcome of a Diffusion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Greg Q.; Rodriguez, Juan; Chirhart, Scott; Messina, Troy C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase students' awareness for and comfort with mathematical modeling of biological processes, and increase their understanding of diffusion, the following lab was developed for use in 100-level, majors/non-majors biology and neuroscience courses. The activity begins with generation of a data set that uses coin-flips to replicate…

  9. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULOVICSOVÁ B.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  10. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  11. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  12. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  13. Synthesis, Reactivity and Biological Activity of Novel Bisbenzofuran-2-yl-Methanone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavit Kazaz

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of bisbenzofuran-2-yl-methanone (1, the corresponding ketoxime 4, semicarbazone and thiosemicarbazone 3a and 3b, ether derivatives of the ketoximes 5a-j and the alcohol 2 are described. These substances have been prepared in excellent yields. All the synthesized compounds except 5i have been tested against five different microorganisms and some of them were found to be active against some of the species studied.

  14. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  15. Some biologically active oxovanadium(IV) complexes of triazole derived Schiff bases: their synthesis, characterization and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Zahid H; Sumrra, Sajjad H

    2010-10-01

    A series of biologically active oxovanadium(IV) complexes of triazole derived Schiff bases L(1)-L(5) have been synthesized and characterized by their physical, analytical, and spectral data. The synthesized ligands potentially act as bidentate, in which the oxygen of furfural and nitrogen of azomethine coordinate with the oxovanadium atom to give a stoichiometry of vanadyl complexes 1:2 (M:L) in a square-pyramidal geometry. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities on different species of pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, S. flexneri, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, and B. subtilis) and fungi (T. longifusus, C. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis, F. solani, and C. glabrata) have been studied. All compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains and good antifungal activity against most of the fungal strains. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to check the cytotoxicity of coordinated and uncoordinated synthesized compounds. PMID:20429776

  16. Synthesis and Antiplatelet Activity of Antithrombotic Thiourea Compounds: Biological and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenço

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations.

  17. Synthesis and antiplatelet activity of antithrombotic thiourea compounds: biological and structure-activity relationship studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, André Luiz; Saito, Max Seidy; Dorneles, Luís Eduardo Gomes; Viana, Gil Mendes; Sathler, Plínio Cunha; Aguiar, Lúcia Cruz de Sequeira; de Pádula, Marcelo; Domingos, Thaisa Francielle Souza; Fraga, Aline Guerra Manssour; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Castro, Helena Carla; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p) displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations. PMID:25903367

  18. Biodegradability enhancement of a leachate after biological lagooning using a solar driven photo-Fenton reaction, and further combination with an activated sludge biological process, at pre-industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-06-15

    This work proposes an integrated leachate treatment strategy, combining a solar photo-Fenton reaction, to enhance the biodegradability of the leachate from an aerated lagoon, with an activated sludge process, under aerobic and anoxic conditions, to achieve COD target values and nitrogen content according to the legislation. The efficiency and performance of the photo-Fenton reaction, concerning a sludge removal step after acidification, defining the optimum phototreatment time to reach a biodegradable wastewater that can be further oxidized in a biological reactor and, activation sludge biological process, defining the nitrification and denitrification reaction rates, alkalinity balance and methanol dose necessary as external carbon source, was evaluated in the integrated system at a scale close to industrial. The pre-industrial plant presents a photocatalytic system with 39.52 m(2) of compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) and 2 m(3) recirculation tank and, an activated sludge biological reactor with 3 m(3) capacity. Leachate biodegradability enhancement by means of a solar driven photo-Fenton process was evaluated using direct biodegradability tests, as Zahn-Wellens method, and indirect measure according to average oxidation state (AOS), low molecular carboxylic acids content (fast biodegradable character) and humic substances (recalcitrant character) concentration. Due to high variability of leachate composition, UV absorbance on-line measurement was established as a useful parameter for photo-Fenton reaction control.

  19. Biodegradability enhancement of a leachate after biological lagooning using a solar driven photo-Fenton reaction, and further combination with an activated sludge biological process, at pre-industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-06-15

    This work proposes an integrated leachate treatment strategy, combining a solar photo-Fenton reaction, to enhance the biodegradability of the leachate from an aerated lagoon, with an activated sludge process, under aerobic and anoxic conditions, to achieve COD target values and nitrogen content according to the legislation. The efficiency and performance of the photo-Fenton reaction, concerning a sludge removal step after acidification, defining the optimum phototreatment time to reach a biodegradable wastewater that can be further oxidized in a biological reactor and, activation sludge biological process, defining the nitrification and denitrification reaction rates, alkalinity balance and methanol dose necessary as external carbon source, was evaluated in the integrated system at a scale close to industrial. The pre-industrial plant presents a photocatalytic system with 39.52 m(2) of compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) and 2 m(3) recirculation tank and, an activated sludge biological reactor with 3 m(3) capacity. Leachate biodegradability enhancement by means of a solar driven photo-Fenton process was evaluated using direct biodegradability tests, as Zahn-Wellens method, and indirect measure according to average oxidation state (AOS), low molecular carboxylic acids content (fast biodegradable character) and humic substances (recalcitrant character) concentration. Due to high variability of leachate composition, UV absorbance on-line measurement was established as a useful parameter for photo-Fenton reaction control. PMID:23642652

  20. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  1. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  2. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotigeat, W.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT at 4.47 IU/mg.

  3. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  4. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring in Selected Wetlands of Wyoming: Biologically Active Elements Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, water and biota were collected from selected wetlands in Wyoming for the Biologically Active Elements (BAE) Study in 1988, 1989 and 1990 to identify...

  5. Peak purity assessment in a triple-active fixed-dose combination drug product related substances method using a commercial two-dimensional liquid chromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Jonathan G; Kleintop, Brent L

    2014-10-01

    Pharmaceutical formulations containing multiple active components challenge the development of analytical methods, especially as the individual active ingredients diverge in their physicochemical properties. Establishing specificity, especially peak purity, is one of the major evaluation criteria when developing a related substances method for drug substances or products. Fixed-dose combination products may not be amenable to common strategies for assessing peak purity, such as performing orthogonal separations, due to the complexity of the separation and/or diversity of the active ingredients. An alternate approach to evaluating peak purity is demonstrated for a triple-active component fixed-dose combination product under development. A commercially available automated two-dimensional liquid chromatography system was used to perform a selective comprehensive multidimensional separation of an active ingredient peak. The first dimension performed the drug product impurity/degradant profiling method; the second dimension assayed these fractions using the drug substance profiling method, which was pseudo-orthogonal to the first dimension. A total of 14 targeted fractions were sampled across the first dimension main peak, with 11 containing detectable analytes and the remaining fractions bracketing the main peak. This degree of sampling allowed profiling of a coeluting degradant present at a 0.2% w/w level throughout the main peak.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  7. Synthesis and biological activity of novel tiliroside derivants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Li, Chun-Bao; Jin, Mei-Na; Shi, Li-Huan; Duan, Hong-Quan; Niu, Wen-Yan

    2011-10-01

    A series of new tiliroside derivatives were synthesized and characterized by analytical (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry. All of the compounds were evaluated for anti-diabetic properties in vitro using HepG2 cells. Compounds 3c, 3d, and 3i-l caused significant enhancements in glucose consumption by insulin-resistant HepG2 cells compared with control cells and cells that were exposed to metformin (an anti-diabetic drug). Moreover, compound 3l significantly activated adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Thus, the tiliroside derivative 3l offers potential to be developed as a new approach for treating type II diabetes.

  8. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF AMIDE DERIVATIVES OF GINKGOLIDE A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-HONG HU; ZHONG-LIANG CHEN; YU-YUAN XIE

    2001-01-01

    Amide derivatives of ginkgolide A were prepared and evaluated for their in vitro ability to inhibit the PAF-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets. They showed less activities than their parent compound ginkgolide A.

  9. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Camphor Hydrazone and Imine Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson T.; da Silva Araújo, Adriele; Moraes, Adriana M.; de Souza, Leidiane A.; Silva Lourenço, Maria Cristina; de Souza, Marcus V. N.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Both sonochemical and classical methodologies have been employed to convert camphor, 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, C9H16C=O, into a number of derivatives including hydrazones, C9H16C=N-NHAr 3, imines, C9H16C=N-R 7, and the key intermediate nitroimine, C9H16C=N-NO2 6. Reactions of nitroamine 6 with nucleophiles by classical methods provided the desired compounds in a range of yields. In evaluations of activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, compound 7j exhibited the best activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.12 µg/mL), comparable to that of the antitubercular drug ethambutol. The other derivatives displayed modest antimycobacterial activities at 25–50 µg/mL. In in vitro tests against cancer cell lines, none of the synthesized camphor compounds exhibited cytotoxic activities.

  10. Assessing the Biological Activity of the Glucan Phosphatase Laforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Raththagala, Madushi; Gentry, Mathew S; Sanz, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered family of enzymes that dephosphorylate either starch or glycogen and are essential for proper starch metabolism in plants and glycogen metabolism in humans. Mutations in the gene encoding the only human glucan phosphatase, laforin, result in the fatal, neurodegenerative, epilepsy known as Lafora disease. Here, we describe phosphatase assays to assess both generic laforin phosphatase activity and laforin's unique glycogen phosphatase activity. PMID:27514803

  11. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer’s disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods.

  12. Is kinase activity essential for biological functions of BRI1?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihui Xu; Juan Huang; Baohua Li; Jiayang Li; Yonghong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a major group of plant hormones that regulate plant growth and development. BRI1, a protein localized to the plasma membrane, functions as a BR receptor and it has been proposed that its kinase activity has an essential role in BR-regulated plant growth and development. Here we report the isolation and molecular characterization of a new allele of bril, bril-301, which shows moderate morphological phenotypes and a reduced response to BRs under normal growth conditions. Sequence analysis identified a two-base alteration from GG to AT, resulting in a conversion of 989G to 9891 in the BRI1 kinase domain. An in vitro assay of kinase activity showed that bril-301 has no detectable autophosphorylation activity or phosphorylation activity towards the BRI1 substrates TTL and BAK1. Furthermore, our results suggest that bril-301, even with extremely impaired kinase activity, still retains partial function in regulating plant growth and development, which raises the question of whether BRI1 kinase activity is essential for BR-mediated growth and development in higher plants.

  13. ACTIVATION REACTION ON THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM IN SUBSTANCE DEPENDENT PATIENTS: LINKS TO ADDICTION STUDIES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AND CHANGES IN NEUROFEEDBACK TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. e Melnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depth of activation reaction (α-activity suppression during the eyes-opening task is considered to be an important quantitative characteristic of α-band brainwaves. Activation reaction was assessed from O1 and O2 leads in 31 male substance dependent subjects. In 7 cases it was measured twice: before and after α- or β-brainwave biofeedback training. The correlations were found between grade of α suppression in eyes-opening task and attitude towards disease and treatment, personality maturity, and level of pathological personality traits. Activation reaction was significantly improved by α-training and non-significantly diminished after β-1-training.

  14. Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Butnariu Monica; Coradini Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhy...

  15. Traditional Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Biological Activities of Bixa orellana L.: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela de Araújo Vilar; Marina Suênia de Araujo Vilar; Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly de Lima e; Fernanda Nervo Raffin; Márcia Rosa de Oliveira; Camilo Flamarion de Oliveira Franco; Petrônio Filgueiras de Athayde-Filho; Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo Diniz; José Maria Barbosa-Filho

    2014-01-01

    Bixa orellana L., popularly known as “urucum,” has been used by indigenous communities in Brazil and other tropical countries for several biological applications, which indicates its potential use as an active ingredient in pharmaceutical products. The aim of this work was to report the main evidence found in the literature, concerning the ethnopharmacology, the biological activity, and the phytochemistry studies related to Bixa orellana L. Therefore, this work comprises a systematic review a...

  16. Target enhanced 2D similarity search by using explicit biological activity annotations and profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiang; Geer, Lewis Y.; Han, Lianyi; Bryant, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Background The enriched biological activity information of compounds in large and freely-accessible chemical databases like the PubChem Bioassay Database has become a powerful research resource for the scientific research community. Currently, 2D fingerprint based conventional similarity search (CSS) is the most common widely used approach for database screening, but it does not typically incorporate the relative importance of fingerprint bits to biological activity. Results In this study, a ...

  17. Biologically active collagen-based scaffolds: advances in processing and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Yannas, I.V.; Tzeranis, D. S.; Harley, B A; So, P. T. C.

    2010-01-01

    A small number of type I collagen–glycosaminoglycan scaffolds (collagen–GAG scaffolds; CGSs) have unusual biological activity consisting primarily in inducing partial regeneration of organs in the adult mammal. Two of these are currently in use in a variety of clinical settings. CGSs appear to induce regeneration by blocking the adult healing response, following trauma, consisting of wound contraction and scar formation. Several structural determinants of biological activity have been identif...

  18. Using Active Learning in a Studio Classroom to Teach Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…

  19. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  20. Biological activities and chemical composition of lichens from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanic, Marijana; Rankovic, Branislav; Stanojkovic, Tatjana; Vasiljevic, Perica; Manojlovic, Nedeljko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate chemical composition of acetone extracts of the lichens Parmelia arseneana and Acarospora fuscata and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities of these extracts and gyrophoric acid isolated from A. fuscata. The HPLC-UV method was used for the identification of secondary metabolites. Stictic acid, norstictic acid, gyrophoric acid, usnic acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin were identified in the A. fuscata. In P. arseneana, we detected stictic acid, norstictic acid, usnic acid and atranorin, while gyrophoric acid was not identified. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of tested samples on DPPH and superoxide anion radicals, reducing the power of samples and determination of total phenolic compounds in extracts. As a result of the study, gyrophoric acid was found to have the largest DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 105.75 µg/ml. Moreover, the tested samples had an effective superoxide anion radical scavenging and reducing power. The total content of phenol in extracts was determined as pyrocatechol equivalent. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method. The most active was also gyrophoric acid, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.019 to 1.25 mg/ml. Anticancer activity was tested against LS174 (human colon carcinoma cell line), A549 (human lung carcinoma cell line), Fem-x (malignant melanoma cell line), and a chronic myelogeneous leukaemia K562 cell line using the MTT method. Extract of P. arseneana expressed the strongest anticancer activity against all cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 11.61 to 47.06 µg/ml. PMID:26417336