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Sample records for biologically active substances

  1. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Makarkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  2. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

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    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  3. Biologically Active Substances from Higher Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jikai

    2007-01-01

    As a part of our search for naturally occurring bioactive metabolites of mushrooms, we have investigated the chemical constituents of more than 100 Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes fungi, and isolated over 300 including 150 new terpenoids,phenolics and nitrogen-containing compounds. The isolation, structural elucidation and biologically activity of the natural products from the higher fungi are briefly discussed.

  4. Biologically active substances produced by antarctic cryptoendolithic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Friedmann, R; Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Researchers report results of laboratory studies of over 200 microbial strains of fungi, algae, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophic bacteria collected in the Ross Desert region of Antarctica. All of the 35 fungal strains produced substances that inhibited the growth of cyanobacteria and algae. The inhibitory effect of the biologically active substance was evident in crushed cell extract but less in spent broth.

  5. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus

    OpenAIRE

    O. O. Frolova; E. V. Kompantseva; T. M. Dementieva

    2016-01-01

    The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  6. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus

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    O. O. Frolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  7. DAGESTAN HAWTHORN - A VALUABLE SOURCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

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    Omarieva L. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with hawthorn Dagestan. It is noted that the more than 100 species are found 14 species in Dagestan. The most common of them are studied as a source of biologically active substances and nutrients, and they can be used as food additives for various purposes. The content of biologically active substances and nutrients are defined. The high content of phenolic substances in C. pentagyna Waldst. et Kit, which play an important role in the formation of immunity and possessing P-vitamin activity is defined. Amino acid and fatty acid composition of the fruit of the hawthorn Crataegus pentagyna Waldst. et Kit, as the most valuable for using as food additives is defined by ionexchange and gas-liquid chromatography. Sixteen amino acids were identified and quantified in the protein component of hawthorn fruit. The high content of essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine, valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine. The amount of essential amino acids is 296.1 mg / 100 g. Chromatographic separation of fatty acid methyl esters has enabled us to establish the presence of the following fatty acids: palmitic, oleic, stearic, linoleic and linolenic, including established the presence of essential fatty acids - the family of alpha-linolenic acid OMEGA -3 and linoleic acid family of OMEGA -6

  8. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  9. Chromatography methods in investigation of lipophilicity of the biological active substances

    OpenAIRE

    Odović Jadranka V.; Trbojević-Stanković Jasna B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the review of the methods used in research of the biological active substances hydrophobicity, a very important property. The biological activity of some substances depends on their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These processes depend on the molecule's capability to interact with two different media: aqueous (cells interior) and non-aqueous (cells membrane), or on the molecule lipophilicity. Today, great attention is given to investigation and systematic determina...

  10. Synthesize of biological active substances on base carbom oxides

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    Kh. Suerbaev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New effective method of obtaining of drugs on basice hydroxybenzoic acids and esters of isovaleric acid (drug substances «Ethylic ether of α-bromisovaleric acid», «Salycilic acid», «p-Hydroxybenzoic acid» and drugs «Validolum», «Korvalolum», «p-Aminosalycilic acid» had been worked out. The methods based on catalytical isobutylene hydroalkoxycarbonylation reaction with carbon monoxide and alcohols and phenol carboxylation reaction with alkaline salts of ethylcarbonic acid, easily obtained from carbon dioxide.

  11. Chromatography methods in investigation of lipophilicity of the biological active substances

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    Odović Jadranka V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the review of the methods used in research of the biological active substances hydrophobicity, a very important property. The biological activity of some substances depends on their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These processes depend on the molecule's capability to interact with two different media: aqueous (cells interior and non-aqueous (cells membrane, or on the molecule lipophilicity. Today, great attention is given to investigation and systematic determination of drugs lipophilicity. In these researches chromatography methods have an important role.

  12. Biologically active substances of hydrophytes Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Zostera noltii: composition, properties, applications

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    O. V. Novichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary, the author places special emphasis on the study of traditional technologies for processing of geophytes. Modern development trends in biotechnology demand of expansion of the raw material base. The increase in needs medicine, food and feed industries in biologically active substances pay attention to new unconventional sources of renewable raw materials. From this perspective, higher aquatic plants Zostera noltii and Potamogeton perfoliatus L. can be considered as a perspective object due to its high content of unique biologically active substances with different properties. Rationale of choosing of plant material and identifications of optimum performance and operational conditions for the production of biologically active substances: alcohol extraction in the mixer at room temperature limited to 7-10 days. Studied the organoleptic, physicochemical and microbial properties of end products – aqueous-alcoholic extracts of hydrophytes. Experimentations (UV spectrophotometric analysis, thin layer chromatography, mass spectrometry indicate that the composition of plants and extracts contains different biologically active substances. The high content of quercetin and pigments in the extracts of Z. noltii and Potamogeton perfoliatus L. shows the future use of hydrophytes in the Volga river and the Northern Caspian sea as an additional natural source of flavonoids and antioxidants. Therefore, plant preparations (aqueousalcoholic extracts of zostera and pondweed are combinations of various compounds, which have a high biological activity with different properties: adsorptive capacity, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Products of studied plants after extraction with water-alcohol can be used in the food industry as a source-native with minerals, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alcohols, aliphatic acids and etc. Find an opportunity of use of biologically active substances from eelgrass and pondweed

  13. Bioactive cotton fabrics containing chitosan and biologically active substances extracted from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, G; Nichifor, M; Mihai, D; Oproiu, L C

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies the obtaining of bioactive textiles using chitosan-coated fabrics, in which biologically active substances contained by Viola Tricolor (VT) - an extract of three Viola species (Violaceae) - were immobilized. Chitosan was applied on cotton fabric or on chemically modified cotton (having reactive -CHO or carboxymethyl groups), as tripolyphosphate (TPP) crosslinked fine particles, or by use of glutaraldehyde crosslinking agent. The amount of VT retained on the fabrics was found to depend on the procedure of chitosan application on the cotton. The obtained bioactive textiles are expected to have antioxidant activity due to the biologically active substances from VT; they can be used for obtaining clothes for people with allergies or other skin problems, assuring a controlled release of biomolecules. The study focuses on the in vitro release of VT retained on the fabrics, as well as on its antioxidant activity.

  14. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

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    Gorash E. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, possessing antitoxic, antioxidant, radiation protective, cholesterol-lowering and lipid correcting qualities, and also a source of vitamins C, B9 (folic acid and P-active substances, possessing antioxidant properties. Due to high content in food red beet of a complex of microelements – iron, zinc, manganese and copper, and a complex of macro elements – potassium and magnesium, it can be recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis and other diseases of heart and vascular system, and for prophylaxis of iron-deficiency anemia. Thus, the research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances showed that food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety are a high quality component ingredient for creation of food products of specialized and functional purpose

  15. Biologically active substances of hydrophytes Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Zostera noltii: composition, properties, applications

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Novichenko

    2016-01-01

    Primary, the author places special emphasis on the study of traditional technologies for processing of geophytes. Modern development trends in biotechnology demand of expansion of the raw material base. The increase in needs medicine, food and feed industries in biologically active substances pay attention to new unconventional sources of renewable raw materials. From this perspective, higher aquatic plants Zostera noltii and Potamogeton perfoliatus L. can be considered as a perspective objec...

  16. Amphibian skin secretions as a new source of antibiotics and biologically active substances

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    Ireneusz Całkosiński

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available So far, the main sources of biologically active substances used in medicine have been plants, molds, and propolis. The obtained compounds have either therapeutic features or require additional modification. They are sometimes combined with other pharmacological substances to intensify their therapeutic effect. However, the effectiveness of many drugs has been rapidly decreasing. The overuse of antibiotics in the treatment and prophylaxis of human infections (especially in hospitals as well as their widespread and often unjustified use in the treatment and prophylaxis of farm animal illnesses contribute to the development of a variety of resistance mechanisms by microorganisms. Because of the increasing ineffectiveness of antibiotics used so far and difficulties in obtaining new drugs, it is necessary to find new sources of these compounds, for example in animal organisms. Research has demonstrated that amphibian skin secretions are rich in a variety of active substances which have strong pharmacological properties. In these compounds we can distinguish, for example, toxins, antimicrobial peptides, opioid peptides, steroids, and alkaloids. These compounds show cytotoxic, antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and even antiviral activities (including anti-HIV. These substances can be used in cell receptor studies and in transmembrane ion transport analysis. Because these compounds are secreted by skin glands, they can be easy obtained without injuring these animals. It is probable that amphibian skin constitutes a potential source of modern drugs.

  17. [Amphibian skin secretions as a new source of antibiotics and biologically active substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Całkosiński, Ireneusz; Zasadowski, Arkadiusz; Bronowicka-Szydełko, Agnieszka; Dzierzba, Katarzyna; Seweryn, Ewa; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2009-11-12

    So far, the main sources of biologically active substances used in medicine have been plants, molds, and propolis. The obtained compounds have either therapeutic features or require additional modification. They are sometimes combined with other pharmacological substances to intensify their therapeutic effect. However, the effectiveness of many drugs has been rapidly decreasing.The overuse of antibiotics in the treatment and prophylaxis of human infections (especially in hospitals) as well as their widespread and often unjustified use in the treatment and prophylaxis of farm animal illnesses contribute to the development of a variety of resistance mechanisms by microorganisms. Because of the increasing ineffectiveness of antibiotics used so far and difficulties in obtaining new drugs, it is necessary to find new sources of these compounds, for example in animal organisms. Research has demonstrated that amphibian skin secretions are rich in a variety of active substances which have strong pharmacological properties. In these compounds we can distinguish, for example, toxins, antimicrobial peptides, opioid peptides, steroids, and alkaloids.These compounds show cytotoxic, antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and even antiviral activities (including anti-HIV). These substances can be used in cell receptor studies and in transmembrane ion transport analysis. Because these compounds are secreted by skin glands,they can be easy obtained without injuring these animals. It is probable that amphibian skin constitutes a potential source of modern drugs.

  18. Stochastic description of the ligand-receptor interaction of biologically active substances at extremely low doses.

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    Gurevich, Konstantin G; Agutter, Paul S; Wheatley, Denys N

    2003-04-01

    Signalling molecules can be effective at extraordinarily low concentrations (down to attomolar levels). To handle such cases, probabilistic methods have been used to describe the formal kinetics of action of biologically active substances in these low doses, although it has been necessary to review what is meant by such a term. The mean numbers of transformed/degraded molecules and their dispersions were calculated for the possible range of ligand-receptor binding schemes. We used both analytical equations and numerical simulations to calculate the coefficients of variation (ratio of standard deviation to mean) and demonstrated that the distribution of the coefficient is highly dependent on the reaction scheme. It may, therefore, be used as an additional factor for discriminating between cooperative and noncooperative models of ligand-receptor interaction over extreme ranges of ligand dilution. The relevance to signalling behaviour is discussed.

  19. The impact of ozone treatment on changes in biologically active substances of cardamom seeds.

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    Joanna Brodowska, Agnieszka; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Nowak, Agnieszka; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Catthoor, Rik; Czyżowska, Agata

    2014-09-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop a decontamination method against microorganisms in cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton) seeds using ozone as a decontaminating agent. Ozone treatment was conducted 3 times, at 24-h intervals, and the parameters of the process were determined assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols): ozone concentration 160 to 165.0 g/m(3) ; flow rate 0.1 L/min; pressure 0.5 atm; time 30 min. After each step of decontamination, the microbiological profile of the cardamom seeds was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the total polyphenol content (TPC), composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were determined. This study shows that extract from cardamom seeds after ozone treatment is characterized by a better radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 24.18 ± 0.04 mg/mL) than the control sample (IC(50) = 31.94 ± 0.05 mg/mL). The extract from cardamom seeds after ozone treatment showed an improved FRAP activity as well (613.64 ± 49.79 mmol TE/g compared to 480.29 ± 30.91 mmol TE/g of control sample). The TPC and the total antioxidant capacity were negatively affected, respectively, 41.2% and 16.2%, compared to the control sample.

  20. Effect of Supercritical Fluids on the Biological Activity of Absidia coerulea for the Hydroxylation of Reichsterin's Substance Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Feng LIU; Hui Ming ZHU; Tuan Wei ZHANG; Bao Quan ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The viability and biological activity of Absidia coerulea in compressed or supercritical CO2 and C2H4 were studied. The specific activity ofAbsidia coerulea in 7.5MPa CO2 and C2H4 at 306K can reach to 23% and 75% respectively, leading to the feasibility of using supercritical C2H4as an alternative to the organic solvent in the hydroxylation of Reichsterin's substance acetate.

  1. First Evaluation of the Biologically Active Substances and Antioxidant Potential of Regrowth Velvet Antler by means of Multiple Biochemical Assays

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    Yujiao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biologically active substances contained in RVA (regrowth velvet antler by comparing the composition of biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of different antler segments. RVA was subjected to extraction using DW (distilled water. RVA was divided into 3 segments: T-RVA (top RVA, M-RVA (middle RVA, and B-RVA (base RVA. The T-RVA section possessed the greatest amounts of uronic acid (36.251 mg/g, sulfated GAGs (sulfated glycosaminoglycans (555.76 mg/g, sialic acid (111.276 mg/g, uridine (0.957 mg/g, uracil (1.084 mg/g, and hypoxanthine (1.2631 mg/g. In addition, the T-RVA section possessed the strongest antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH, H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl, and ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate radical scavenging activity as well as FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity. The values of those were 53.44, 23.09, 34.12, 60.31, and 35.81 TE/μM at 1 mg/mL and 113.57 TE/μM at 20 μg/mL. These results indicate that the T-RVA section possesses the greatest amount of biologically active substances and highest antioxidant potential. This is the first report on the biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of RVA.

  2. "New drug" designations for new therapeutic entities: new active substance, new chemical entity, new biological entity, new molecular entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Sarah K; Agranat, Israel

    2014-11-13

    This Perspective addresses ambiguities in designations of "new drugs" intended as new therapeutic entities (NTEs). Designation of an NTE as a new drug is significant, as it may confer regulatory exclusivity, an important incentive for development of novel compounds. Such designations differ between jurisdictions according to their drug laws and drug regulations. Chemical, biological, and innovative drugs are addressed in turn. The terms new chemical entity (NCE), new molecular entity (NME), new active substance (NAS), and new biological entity (NBE) as applied in worldwide jurisdictions are clarified. Differences between them are explored through case studies showing why new drugs have different periods of exclusivity in different jurisdictions or none at all. Finally, this Perspective recommends that in future, for the purpose of new drug compilations, NME is used for a new chemical drug, NBE for a new biological drug, and the combined designation NTE should refer to either an NME or an NBE.

  3. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : II. EFFECT OF DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE ON THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M; Avery, O T

    1946-01-31

    It has been shown that extremely minute amounts of purified preparations of desoxyribonuclease are capable of bringing about the complete and irreversible inactivation of the transforming substance of Pneumococcus Type III. The significance of the effect of the enzyme, and its bearing on the chemical nature of the transforming substance, together with certain considerations concerning the biological specificity of desoxyribonucleic acids in general, are discussed.

  4. Biologically active substances of edible insects and their use in agriculture, veterinary and human medicine a review

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    Jiri Mlcek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of edible insect use in Western countries is now increasingly debated issue. Insects in Asian, African, American and South Central American cultures are mainly nutritional components. In Europe and other developed countries, however, insect is used in different ways, and this issue is viewed from a different angle. Insects are mainly used as feed for animals, in the organic waste recycling systems, in human and veterinary medicine, material production (such as silk etc. This review summarizes up-to-date knowledge about using edible insects in human, veterinary medicine and agriculture, especially from the viewpoint of the biological and chemical content of active substances and the possibilities of further use in these areas.

  5. An analogy between effects of ultra-low doses of biologically active substances on biological objects and properties of spin supercurrents in superfluid 3He-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyreva, Liudmila B

    2011-07-01

    The effects of ultra-low doses (ULDs) of biologically active substances (BASs) (with concentrations of 10(-13)M or lower) on biological objects (BOs), such as cells, organisms, etc., and the properties of spin supercurrents in superfluid (3)He-B are discussed. It is shown that the effects of ULDs of BASs on biologic objects can be specified by the same set of physical characteristics and described by the same mathematical relations as those used for the specification and description of the properties of spin supercurrents between spin structures in superfluid (3)He-B. This is based on the up-to-date physical concepts: 1) the physical vacuum has the properties of superfluid (3)He-B; 2) all quantum entities (hence, the BAS and the BO, which consist of such entities) produce spin structures in the physical vacuum. The photon being a quantum entity, the features of the effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on BOs can be explained using the same approach.

  6. Biologically active antimicrobial and antioxidant substances in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatrcová-Šramková, Katarína; Nôžková, Janka; Máriássyová, Magda; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the content of flavonoids, polyphenols, and carotenoids in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen. It was also to evaluate the ability of the dried, frozen, and freeze-dried extracts of sunflower (H. annuus) pollen, its scavenged free radicals and reducing action. Another aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial in vitro action of the H. annuus pollen extracts against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. All pollen extracts showed medium antiradical activity and reductive ability. The most effective was the freeze-dried extract in both evaluation systems. The evaluation of the protective effects of DNA using a biosensor showed an opposite trending-frozen ˃ dried ˃ freeze-dried pollen. For the evaluation of antiradical activity, the DPPH method was used, and reductive ability was assessed by means of phosphomolybdic complex formation. The comparison of the polyphenols content shows higher values in freeze-dried bee pollen than in the dried and frozen pollen. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the frozen samples and the most carotenoids were present in the dried samples. In our study, the best antibacterial effects of the dried sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best inhibitory properties of the frozen sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paenibacillus larvae. Very good inhibitory effects of freeze-dried sunflower bee pollen were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Brochotrix thermosphacta, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best antifungal activity of the sunflower bee pollen was found in the frozen bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus ochraceus and freeze-dried bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus niger.

  7. The Impact of Ozone Treatment in Dynamic Bed Parameters on Changes in Biologically Active Substances of Juniper Berries.

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    Agnieszka Joanna Brodowska

    Full Text Available The development of the parameters of ozone decontamination method assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols and their activity in common juniper (Juniperus communis (L. berries was studied. Ozone treatment in dynamic bed was conducted 9 times. The process was conducted under different ozone concentrations (100.0; 130.0; 160.0 g O3/m3 and times (30, 60, 90 min. After each decontamination, the microbiological profile of the juniper berries was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the phenolic profile, as well as antioxidant activity of extracts and essential oils were determined. The total polyphenol content (TPC, composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, beta-carotene bleaching test (BCB and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were carried out. The study reveals that during short ozone contact times, higher amounts of TPC, 15.47 and 12.91 mg CE/g of extract, for samples 100/30 and 130/30, respectively, were demonstrated. Whereas samples 100/60, 130/60, 100/90, and 160/90 exhibited the lowest amount of phenolics. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the methanol extract obtained from ozonated berries which exhibited the lowest IC50 in all the antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, FRAP, and BCB assays. Ozone treatment showed noteworthy potential and its usage in food manufacturing and as an alternative decontamination method should be considered.

  8. The Impact of Ozone Treatment in Dynamic Bed Parameters on Changes in Biologically Active Substances of Juniper Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodowska, Agnieszka Joanna; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyżowska, Agata; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The development of the parameters of ozone decontamination method assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols) and their activity in common juniper (Juniperus communis (L.)) berries was studied. Ozone treatment in dynamic bed was conducted 9 times. The process was conducted under different ozone concentrations (100.0; 130.0; 160.0 g O3/m3) and times (30, 60, 90 min). After each decontamination, the microbiological profile of the juniper berries was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the phenolic profile, as well as antioxidant activity of extracts and essential oils were determined. The total polyphenol content (TPC), composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching test (BCB) and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were carried out. The study reveals that during short ozone contact times, higher amounts of TPC, 15.47 and 12.91 mg CE/g of extract, for samples 100/30 and 130/30, respectively, were demonstrated. Whereas samples 100/60, 130/60, 100/90, and 160/90 exhibited the lowest amount of phenolics. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the methanol extract obtained from ozonated berries which exhibited the lowest IC50 in all the antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, FRAP, and BCB assays. Ozone treatment showed noteworthy potential and its usage in food manufacturing and as an alternative decontamination method should be considered.

  9. Comparison of some chemical and physico-chemical properties of natural and model sodium humates and of the biological activity of both substances in tomato water cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gumiński

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural humate from compost and the model sunstance obtained from p-benzoquinone were dissolved in an acetone-water mixture and subjected to chromatography on a column of aluminium oxide. Similar fractions were obtained which were chemically and spectrophotometrically investigated for the content of functional groups. The particle size of these substances was determined by filtration on Sephadex molecular sieves. Experiments were performed with tomato in water cultures on stagnant nutrient solution. The biological activity of the corresponding fractions of natural and model humates was found to be analogous. The results are discussed and confronted with functional groups content and particle size of the respective substances.

  10. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger Wolf

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. Results A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of α- and β-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%. The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol, which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. Conclusions The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds.

  11. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50 and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians.

  12. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.A.; Song, L.

    1999-09-28

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphous structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphous structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobial, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflammatory, steroid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor consisting of the compositions listed above.

  13. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Allison A. (Kennewick, WA); Song, Lin (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphus structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphus structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobal, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflamatory, steriod, nonsteriod anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor the compositions listed above.

  14. [Biological activity of Spirulina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P

    2001-01-01

    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  15. [Effect of biologically active substances of animal and plant origin on prooxidant-antioxidant balance in rats with experimental prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotskaia, L I; Nikitchenko, Iu V; Gomon, O N; Chaĭka, L A; Bondar', V V; Dziuba, V N

    2006-01-01

    The effect of biologically active complexes of animal (prostatilen) and plant (permixon) origin on physiological indices of prostate and prooxidant-antioxidant balance in prostate and blood was studied in rats with the hyperprolactinemia-induced prostatic hyperplasia. It was shown that both prostatilen (1 mg of the total peptides per kg) and permixon (100 mg of Serenoa repens extract per kg) prevent increase in the prostate mass and volume, in the content of lipid hydroperoxides, and in the glutathione peroxidase activity in prostate. Prostatilen, in contrast to permixon, normalized the content of lipid hydroperoxides (increased under hyperplazia conditions) and increases glutathione peroxidase activity (reduced under hyperplazia conditions).

  16. Highly Selective Molecular Recognition of Biologically Active Substances Using Liquid Phase Separation%液相分离法对生物活性材料的高选择性分子识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MANO Nariyasu; ASAKAWA Naoki; GOTO Junichi

    2003-01-01

    The development of new chiral stationary phases has been very important in the accurate analysis of drug enantiomers and their metabolites in biological samples during drug discovery and development. New chiral stationary phases have been developed using conalbumin and flavoprotein from chicken egg whites, which have been applied to a broad range of drug enantiomers. The application and characterization of these two chiral columns for high-performance liquid chromatography have been documented. Both specific and non-specific interactions, based on the silica gel surface and linker moiety, influenced retention and chiral separation of solutes. Interactions between drug enantiomers and proteins, as a pseudo chiral stationary phase, were investigated with affinity capillary electrophoresis, in order to avoid the effects of non-specific interactions. The chiral discrimination region for ketoprofen on the flavoprotein surface was concluded to consist of an α-helix structure. Studies with chemically modified flavoprotein indicated that two types of interactions at the chiral discrimination region were required for chiral separation: a π-π interaction between a tryptophan residue and the aromatic ring of ketoprofen, and an ionic interaction between the carboxyl group of ketoprofen and an amino and carboxyl group of the protein. In the body, drugs and biologically active substances having a carboxyl group have been known to transform various metabolites such as acyl glucuronide. The acyl adenylate has also been noted as a chemically active intermediate of coenzyme A ligation. Both the acyl adenylate and the acyl glucuronide produced protein adducts by reacting with nucleophilic groups such as amino groups on protein molecules. To characterize both active intermediates and protein adducts, analytical techniques conferring highly selective molecular recognition, such as high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, were required.

  17. Multifunctional Modification of Biologically Active Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskvicheva Yana Borisovna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the interracting of oxidized cyclic cyclodextrin dextrans (CD with the protein - bacterial streptokinase. The oxidation was carried out with potassium periodate; free aldehyde groups were formed in CD molecule during this process. Excess of potassium periodate was removed on a column using ion – exchange resin (anionite APA with acetate ion. Reaction between streptokinase and oxidized cyclic dextran was monitored by gel-permation chromatography (sephadex G-200. The mass of complex of streptokinase with exciding cyclodextrin goes up to 65 kDa (the ratio by moles is 1-3. One streptokinase macromolecule is bound to 14 molecules of CD. It was shown that the chemical reaction between streptokinase and cyclodextrin proceeded in a way which is similar to its reaction with oxidized linear dextrans. It was found that protein-bound CD retained the ability to absorb small molecules like adenosine in its inner shell. The complex of streptokinase with CD absorbs the molecule of adenosine and forms a new complex with adenosine intercalated in cyclodextrin part of the new complex.

  18. Research on substances with activity against orthopoxviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kołodziej

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although smallpox was eradicated over 30 years ago, the disease remains a major threat. High mortality, high infectivity and low resistance of the contemporary population make the smallpox virus very attractive to terrorists. The possible presence of illegal stocks of the virus or risk of deliberate genetic modifications cause serious concerns among experts. Hence, it is reasonable to seek effective drugs that could be used in case of smallpox outbreak. This paper reviews studies on compounds with proven in vitro or in vivo antipoxviruses potential, which show various mechanisms of action. Nucleoside analogues, such as cidofovir, can inhibit virus replication. Cidofovir derivatives are developed to improve the bioavailability of the drug. Among the nucleoside analogues under current investigation are: ANO (adenozine N[sub]1[/sub]-oxide and its derivatives, N-methanocarbothymidine [(N-MCT], or derivatitives of aciklovir, peninclovir and brivudin. Recently, ST-246 – which effectively inhibits infection by limiting release of progeny virions – has become an object of attention. It has been also been demonstrated that compounds such as: nigericin, aptamers and peptides may have antiviral potential. An interesting strategy to fight infections was presented in experiments aimed at defining the role of individual genes (E3L, K3L or C6L in the pathogenesis, and looking for their potential blockers. Additionally, among substances considered to be effective in the treatment of smallpox cases, there are factors that can block viral inhibitors of the human complement system, epidermal growth factor inhibitors or immunomodulators. Further studies on compounds with activity against poxviruses are necessary in order to broaden the pool of available means that could be used in the case of a new outbreak of smallpox.

  19. The immersion freezing behavior of mineral dust particles mixed with biological substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Wex, H.; Denjean, C.; Hartmann, S.; Schneider, J.; Schmidt, S.; Ebert, M.; Stratmann, F.

    2015-10-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INM). It has been suggested that these INM maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INM in e.g., soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INM. If particles from such soils which contain biological INM are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above -20 up to almost 0 °C. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a measurement campaign within the research unit INUIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX) with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). To characterize the mixing state of the generated aerosol we used different methods which will also be discussed. We found that internally mixed particles, containing ice active biological material, follow the ice nucleation behavior observed for the purely biological particles, i.e. freezing occurs at temperatures at which mineral dusts themselves are not yet ice active. It can be concluded that INM located on a mineral dust particle determine the freezing behavior of that particle.

  20. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    We have developed an assay for a substance from hydra that accelerates foot regeneration in the animal. This substance is specific for the foot as evidenced by the following findings: (1) It is present in the animal as a steep gradient descending from foot to head, paralleling the foot-forming po...... be extracted from hydra tissue with methanol and separated from other known morphogens of hydra by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. A substance with similar biological and physicochemical properties can be isolated from sea anemones....

  1. [Bio-active substances derived from marine microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanyong; Hu, Jiangchun; Xue, Delin; Ma, Chengxin; Wang, Shujin

    2002-07-01

    Marine microorganisms, which are taxonomically diverse and genetically special, have powerful potential in producing novel bio-active substances. This article summarized research progress in this respect. The results showed that marine bacteria which are main marine microorganism flora can produce rich kinds of bio-active substances and that even though marine actinomycetes and marine fungi are not as many as marine bacteria in species and quantity, they should be paid no less attention about their bio-active substances. Besides, present research are limited to those marine microorganisms which are easily cultured. One of the future research trends will be focused on bio-active substances derived from non-culturable marine microorganisms.

  2. Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Güniz Küçükgüzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antischistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new hydrazones that possess varied biological activities.

  3. Biological activities of alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Mikinori; Oda, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into the structure-activity relationship of alginate, we examined the effect of alginates with varying molecular weights and M/G ratio on murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells in terms of induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion. Among the alginates tested, alginate with the highest molecular weight (MW 38,000, M/G 2.24) showed the most potent TNF-α-inducing activity. Alginates having higher M/G ratio tended to show higher activity. These results suggest that molecular size and M/G ratio are important structural parameters influencing the TNF-α-inducing activity. Interestingly, enzymatic depolymerization of alginate with bacterial alginate lyase resulted in dramatic increase in the TNF-α-inducing activity. The higher activity of enzymatically digested alginate oligomers to induce nitric oxide production from RAW264.7 cells than alginate polymer was also observed. On the other hand, alginate polymer and oligomer showed nearly equal hydroxyl radical scavenging activities.

  4. Biologic activity of digoxin-specific antisera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J F; Butler, V P

    1972-03-01

    Digoxin-specific antibodies are capable of removing essentially all intracellular digoxin from rat renal cortical slices or from human erythrocytes. In removing digoxin from erythrocytes, these antibodies are capable of reversing an effect of the drug on cellular potassium transport. This study provides direct evidence that antibodies are capable of removing, and thereby reversing the biological effect of, physiologically active low molecular weight substances after they have been taken up by mammalian cells. This biologic property of digoxin-specific antibodies suggests that autidigoxin sera may prove useful in the reversal of digoxin toxicity. Rapid and essentially quantitative removal of digoxin from red cells by antibody is not accompanied by an immediate restoration of patassium influx to normal levels. Identification of the mechanism of this phenomenon may provide useful information concerning the mode of action not only of digoxin, but also of the cation transport system of human erythrocytes.

  5. Effects of addictive substances during pregnancy and infancy and their analysis in biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka, Justyna; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Polkowska, Zaneta; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The use of addictive substances during pregnancy is a serious social problem, not only because of effects on the health of the woman and child, but also because drug or alcohol dependency detracts from child care and enhances the prospect of child neglect and family breakdown. Developing additive substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women is socially important and can help ensure the health of babies, prevent subsequent developmental and behavioral problems (i.e., from intake of alcohol or other additive substances such as methamphetamine, cocaine,or heroine) and can reduce addiction costs to society. Because women of childbearing age often abuse controlled substances during their pregnancy, it is important to undertake biomonitoring of these substances in biological samples taken from the pregnant or nursing mother (e.g., blood, urine,hair, breast milk, sweat, oral fluids, etc.), from the fetus and newborn (e.g., meconium,cord blood, neonatal hair and urine) and from both the mother and fetus (i.e.,amniotic fluids and placenta). The choice of specimens to be analyzed is determined by many factors; however, the most important is knowledge of the chemical and physical characteristics of a substance and the route of it administration. Maternal and neonatal biological materials reflect exposures that occur over a specific time period, and each of these biological specimens has different advantages and disadvantages,in terms of accuracy, time window of exposure and cost/benefit ratio.Sampling the placenta may be the most important biomonitoring choice for assessing in utero exposure to addictive substances. The use of the placenta in scientific research causes a minimum of ethical problems, partly because its sampling is noninvasive, causes no harm to mother or child, and partly because, in any case,placentas are discarded and incinerated after birth. Such samples, when properly analyzed, may provide key essential information about fetal exposure to toxic

  6. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  7. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE AGENTS ON A STRUCTURAL STATE AND THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF BLACK ORDINARY CARBONATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lychman V. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-term research of the influence of various biologically active agents (a humic preparation Lignogumat and microbiological Baikal EM fertilizer on a structural state and the enzymatic activity of ordinary carbonated black soil are presented. It has been established that biologically active substances contribute to increased enzymatic activity, humus and improve the soil structure

  8. Why do games work? In search of the active substance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Peters, V.; Caluwé, de L.; Martens, D.

    2009-01-01

    During the ISAGA2007 conference in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, the foundation was laid for a book that tries to find answers to the questions "Why do games work? What is the active substance that makes them do what they do?" Now, one year later, over 20 authors from different fields, from different d

  9. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment.

  10. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  11. A novel substance with allelopathic activity in Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Takeshita, Sayaka; Kimura, Fukiko; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2013-12-15

    Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is one of the oldest living tree species and has been widely used in traditional medicine. Leaf extracts of ginkgo, such as the standardized extract EGb761, have become one of the best-selling herbal products. However, no bioactive compound directed at plants has been reported in this species. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic activity and searched for allelopathically active substances in ginkgo leaves. An aqueous methanol leaf extract inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seedlings. The extract was purified by several chromatographic runs and an allelopathically active substance was isolated and identified by spectral analysis to be the novel compound 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid. The compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and timothy at concentrations greater than 3 μM. The activity of the compound was 10- to 52-fold that of nonanoic acid. These results suggest that 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid may contribute to the allelopathic effect caused by ginkgo leaf extract. The compound may also have potential as a template for the development of new plant control substances.

  12. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  13. Molecular characteristics versus biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Smith, Manning A.; Willeford, Bennett R.

    1967-01-01

    The molecular characteristics of mononitrophenols containing halogens not only play a key role in their biological activity but provide a novel example of selective toxicity among vertebrate animals. It has been reported that efforts to control the parasitic sea lamprey in the Great Lakes are directed at present to the applications of a selective toxicant to streams inhabited by lamprey larvae. Since 1961, the larvicide that has been used almost exclusively in the control program has been 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM). However, this is only one of about 15 closely related compounds, all halogen-containing mononitrophenols, that display a selectively toxic action upon lampreys. Although not all of the halogenated mononitrophenols are selectively toxic to lampreys (in fact, fewer than half of those tested), no other group of related compounds has displayed any useful larvicidal activity except for the substituted nitrosalicylanilides.

  14. AhR-mediated and antiestrogenic activity of humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosek, J; Bittner, M; Hilscherová, K; Bláha, L; Giesy, J P; Holoubek, I

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances (HS) were for decades regarded as inert in the ecosystems with respect to their possible toxicity. However, HS have been recently shown to elicit various adverse effects generally attributed to xenobiotics. In our study, we used MVLN and H4IIE-luc cell lines stably transfected with luciferase gene under control of estrogen receptor (ER) and Ah receptor (AhR; receptor connected with so-called dioxin-like toxicity) for assessment of anti/estrogenic and AhR-mediated effects of 12 commercially available humic substances. Out of those, five humic acids were shown to induce AhR-mediated activity with relative potencies related to TCDD 2.6 x 10(-8)-7.4 x 10(-8). Organic extracts of HS solutions also elicited high activities what means that lipophilic molecules are responsible for a great part of effect. However, relatively high activity remaining in extracted solution suggests also presence of polar AhR-agonists. Contribution of persistent organic compounds to the observed effects was ruled out by H(2)SO(4) treatment. Eight out of twelve HS elicited significant antiestrogenic effects with IC(50) ranging from 40 to 164 mg l(-1). The possible explanations of the antiestrogenic effect include sorption of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) on HS, changes in membrane permeability for E2 or another specific mechanism.

  15. Effect of wet oxidation on the fingerprints of polymeric substances from an activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrea, José Luis; Collado, Sergio; Oulego, Paula; Díaz, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Thermal pre-treatments of activated sludge involve the release of a high amount of polymeric substances into the bulk medium. The molecular size of these polymers will largely define the subsequent biological treatment of the liquid effluent generated. In this work, the effects of wet oxidation treatment (WO) on the fingerprints of the polymeric substances which compose the activated sludge, were analysed. For a better understanding of these transformations, the sludge was separated into its main fractions: soluble microbial products (SMP), loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS) and naked cells, and then each one was subjected to WO separately (190 °C and 65 bar), determining the fingerprints evolution by size exclusion technique. Results revealed a fast degradation of larger molecules (over 500 kDa) during the first minutes of treatment (40 min). WO also increases the absorptive properties of proteins (especially for 30 kDa), which is possibly due to the hydroxylation of phenylalanine amino acids in their structure. WO of naked cells involved the formation of molecules between 23 and 190 kDa, which are related to the release of cytoplasmic polymers, and more hydrophobic polymers, probably from the cell membrane. The results allowed to establish a relationship between the location of polymeric material and its facility to become oxidised; thus, the more internal the polymeric material in the cell, the easier its oxidation. When working directly with the raw sludge, hydrolysis mechanisms played a key role during the starting period. Once a high degree of solubilisation was reached, the molecules were rapidly oxidised into other compounds with refractory characteristics. The final effluent after WO showed almost 90% of low molecular weight solubilised substances (0-35 kDa).

  16. Biological Activity of Masked Endotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Harald; Gornicec, Jan; Neuper, Theresa; Parigiani, Maria Alejandra; Wallner, Michael; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2017-01-01

    Low endotoxin recovery (LER) is a recently discovered phenomenon describing the inability of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) because of a “masking effect” caused by chelators or detergents commonly used in buffer formulations for medical products and recombinant proteins. This study investigates the masking capacities of different buffer formulations and whether masked endotoxin is biologically active. We show that both naturally occurring endotoxin as well as control standard endotoxin can be affected by LER. Furthermore, whereas masked endotoxin cannot be detected in Factor C based assays, it is still detectable in a cell-based TLR4-NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene assay. Moreover, in primary human monocytes, masked LPS induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and surface activation markers even at very low concentrations. We therefore conclude that masked LPS is a potent trigger of immune responses, which emphasizes the potential danger of masked LPS, as it may pose a health threat in pharmaceutical products or compromise experimental results. PMID:28317862

  17. Monascus secondary metabolites: production and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patakova, Petra

    2013-02-01

    The genus Monascus, comprising nine species, can reproduce either vegetatively with filaments and conidia or sexually by the formation of ascospores. The most well-known species of genus Monascus, namely, M. purpureus, M. ruber and M. pilosus, are often used for rice fermentation to produce red yeast rice, a special product used either for food coloring or as a food supplement with positive effects on human health. The colored appearance (red, orange or yellow) of Monascus-fermented substrates is produced by a mixture of oligoketide pigments that are synthesized by a combination of polyketide and fatty acid synthases. The major pigments consist of pairs of yellow (ankaflavin and monascin), orange (rubropunctatin and monascorubrin) and red (rubropunctamine and monascorubramine) compounds; however, more than 20 other colored products have recently been isolated from fermented rice or culture media. In addition to pigments, a group of monacolin substances and the mycotoxin citrinin can be produced by Monascus. Various non-specific biological activities (antimicrobial, antitumor, immunomodulative and others) of these pigmented compounds are, at least partly, ascribed to their reaction with amino group-containing compounds, i.e. amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Monacolins, in the form of β-hydroxy acids, inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis in animals and humans.

  18. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Leist, Marcel; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J A M; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of microphysiological systems - microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro - is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various dedicated research programs in Europe and Asia have led recently to the first cutting-edge achievements of human single-organ and multi-organ engineering based on microphysiological systems. The expectation is that test systems established on this basis would model various disease stages, and predict toxicity, immunogenicity, ADME profiles and treatment efficacy prior to clinical testing. Consequently, this technology could significantly affect the way drug substances are developed in the future. Furthermore, microphysiological system-based assays may revolutionize our current global programs of prioritization of hazard characterization for any new substances to be used, for example, in agriculture, food, ecosystems or cosmetics, thus, replacing laboratory animal models used currently. Thirty-six experts from academia, industry and regulatory bodies present here the results of an intensive workshop (held in June 2015, Berlin, Germany). They review the status quo of microphysiological systems available today against industry needs, and assess the broad variety of approaches with fit-for-purpose potential in the drug development cycle. Feasible technical solutions to reach the next levels of human biology in vitro are proposed. Furthermore, key organ-on-a-chip case studies, as well as various national and international programs are highlighted. Finally, a roadmap into the future is outlined, to allow for more predictive and regulatory-accepted substance testing on a global scale.

  19. A review exploring biological activities of hydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel compounds, hydrazones has shown that they possess a wide variety of biological activities viz. antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalarial, anticancer, antifungal, antitubercular, antiviral, cardio protective etc., Hydrazones/azomethines/imines possess-NHN = CH- and constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. A number of researchers have synthesized and evaluated the biological activities of hydrazones. This review aims at highlighting the diverse biological activities of hydrazones.

  20. Short communication: Biochemically active humic substances in contrasting agricultural managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, E.; Nogales, R.; Doni, S.; Masciandaro, G.; Moreno, B.

    2016-11-01

    Because their crucial role in several soil biochemical cycles and their fast response to changes in soil management, extracellular enzymes activities are widely used as sensitive indicators of ecological change and soil quality. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of soil management on the stable pool of soil carbon cycling enzymes as indicators of essential functions. For this, extracellular β-glucosidase enzymes bounded by humic acids (C higher than 104 Da) were used to compare four long-term contrasting agricultural managements in a rainfed olive orchard representative of semi-arid Mediterranean habitats. The study was conducted for 30 years by designing a random-block of four treatments (nude vs. covered soils) and four replicates. Maintaining cover crops through fall, winter and early spring provoked a more stable and active pool of extracellular β-glucosidase in soils only if spontaneous vegetation was managed with mechanical methods. When herbicides were used during 30 years, the pattern of the molecular composition and activity of humus β-glucosidase complexes were similar in covered and nude soils, although higher activity was retrieved in the former. Tillage management increased carbon mineralization and the level of humic substances and the activity of β-glucosidase humic-bound were quite lower than in the rest of treatments. Given the ecological role of extracellular soil carbon cycling enzymes, the characterization of humus β-glucosidase complexes could be an adequate indicator of sustainability of agricultural management systems. (Author)

  1. Short communication: Biochemically active humic substances in contrasting agricultural managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Benitez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Because their crucial role in several soil biochemical cycles and their fast response to changes in soil management, extracellular enzymes activities are widely used as sensitive indicators of ecological change and soil quality. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of soil management on the stable pool of soil carbon cycling enzymes as indicators of essential functions. For this, extracellular β-glucosidase enzymes bounded by humic acids (C higher than 104 Da were used to compare four long-term contrasting agricultural managements in a rainfed olive orchard representative of semi-arid Mediterranean habitats. The study was conducted for 30 years by designing a random-block of four treatments (nude vs. covered soils and four replicates. Maintaining cover crops through fall, winter and early spring provoked a more stable and active pool of extracellular β-glucosidase in soils only if spontaneous vegetation was managed with mechanical methods. When herbicides were used during 30 years, the pattern of the molecular composition and activity of humus β-glucosidase complexes were similar in covered and nude soils, although higher activity was retrieved in the former. Tillage management increased carbon mineralization and the level of humic substances and the activity of β-glucosidase humic-bound were quite lower than in the rest of treatments. Given the ecological role of extracellular soil carbon cycling enzymes, the characterization of humus β-glucosidase complexes could be an adequate indicator of sustainability of agricultural management systems.

  2. Recent Advances in Researches on Physiologically Active Substances in Holothurians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirata Takashi; Zaima Nobuhiro; Yamashita Kyoko; Noguchi Ryoko; XUE Changhu; Sugawara Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we reviewed recent literature on physiologically active substances from sea cucumbers (SCs) and their activities together with results obtained from our study. Preventive properties against lipid metabolism were reported in rats using a whole SC preparation with no particular constituent specified. Administration of the preparation lowered serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and improved the HDL/LDL ratio. These functions may be attributed to the stimulatory effect of the extract on the secretion of cholesterol in feces. Novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCSs) from Ludwigothurea grisea significantly induced fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The proangiogenetic activity seemed attributable to the action of the sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide.SCs contain mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) that are capable of absorbing UV. A biogenetic precursor of MAAs was first reported in SCs. The anti-proliferative effects of a branched chain fatty acid from a sea cucumber on prostate cancer cells was reported with the activity of 5-lipoxygenase. Glycosphingolipid constituents in SCs have been systematically analyzed over the past ten years. The results showed that the gangliosides in several SCs differed from those of mammals in that a sialic acid of SC gangliosides directly binded to glucose of cerebroside. Neuritogenic activity of the glycosphingolipids was demonstrated in vitro experiments and may lead to the development of therapeutic products for neurological disorders. Our study also showed that sphingoid bases, the hydrolyzed products of glycosphingolipids from SCs, induced significant apoptosis in several tumor cell lines.

  3. Chemistry and biology of phototropism-regulating substances in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, S; Hasegawa, K

    2001-01-01

    Most people are familiar with the sight of a young seedling bending towards a window or the brightest source of light to which it is exposed. This directional growth response is known as phototropism, which is caused by a lateral growth-promoting auxin in the bending organ (Cholodny-Went theory, cited in high school textbook). Recently, however, Bruinsma et al., Weiler et al., and Hasegawa et al. independently found that the shaded half did not contain more auxin than the illuminated one. Instead it was found that the even distribution of auxin was accompanied by a lateral gradient of growth inhibiting substances during phototropic curvature (Bruinsma-Hasegawa theory). We have isolated some photo-induced growth inhibitory substances related to phototropism, benzoxazolinones from light-grown maize shoots (Zea mays L.), raphanusanins from radish hypocotyl (Raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus M.), indolyacetonitrile from light-grown shoots (Brassica oleacea L.), 8-epixanthatin from sunflower hypocotyl (Helianthus annus L.), and quite recently uridine from oat coleoptile (Avena sativa L.). Chemical analyses have shown phototropic stimulations to cause curvature by inducing a local unequal distribution of growth-inhibiting substances that antagonize auxin in its cell-elongating activity. Finally, a model is presented for further studies on phototropism.

  4. Structure-activity studies on the C-terminal amide of substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, E; Couture, R; Poulos, C; Pinas, N; Mizrahi, J; Theodoropoulos, D; Regoli, D

    1982-11-01

    Twelve C-terminal heptapeptide analogues of substance P have been synthesized by solid phase and by the classical solution method. The modifications concerned all the C-terminal primary amide of SP and should therefore help to understand the biological significance of this carboxamide, as evaluated by in vivo and in vitro bioassays. From the results it can be seen that not the slightest change of the two amide protons is tolerated without an important loss of activity: replacement of one or two amide protons with alkyl groups, extension of the amide to the hydrazide and its alkyl analogues, and exchange of the amide with an ester or a carboxylic acid all reduce the relative activity/affinity at least by 2-fold. It is not clear for what reason all these modifications produce such a drastic activity reduction.

  5. New Active Organic Substance in Oyster Shell Capable of Scavenging Oxygen Free Radicals with High Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    A light purple organic active substance capable of scavenging hydroxyl radical·OH with a high efficiency was extracted from Oyster shell at an extraction rate of 2.49%.It was found for the first time that this active substance may scavenge ·OH with the efficiency far higher than that of vitamin C.This active substance may scavenge also superoxide radical(O2-·)although the scavenging efficiency is far lower than that of vitamin C.Infrared spectrometry and routine chemical analysis primarily reveal that this active substance belongs to glycoprotein.

  6. Recent advances in researches on physiologically active substances in holothurians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashi, Hirata; Nobuhiro, Zaima; Kyoko, Yamashita; Ryoko, Noguchi; Xue, Changhu; Tatsuya, Sugawara

    2005-07-01

    In this report, we reviewed recent literature on physiologically active substances from sea cucumbers (SCs) and their activities together with results obtained from our study. Preventive properties against lipid metabolism were reported in rats using a whole SC preparation with no particular constituent specified. Administration of the preparation lowered serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and improved the HDL/LDL ratio. These functions may be attributed to the stimulatory effect of the extract on the secretion of cholesterol in feces. Novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCSs) from Ludwigothurea grisea significantly induced fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HU-VECs). The proangiogenetic activity seemed attributable to the action of the sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide. SCs contain mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) that are capable of absorbing UV. A biogenetic precursor of MAAs was first reported in SCs. The anti-proliferative effects of a branched chain fatty acid from a sea cucumber on prostate cancer cells was reported with the activity of 5-lipoxygenase. Glycosphingolipid constituents in SCs have been systematically analyzed over the past ten years. The results showed that the gangliosides in several SCs differed from those of mammals in that a sialic acid of SC gangliosides directly binded to glucose of cerebroside. Neuritogenic activity of the glycosphingolipids was demonstrated in vitro experiments and may lead to the development of therapeutic products for neurological disorders. Our study also showed that sphingoid bases, the hydrolyzed products of glycosphingolipids from SCs, induced significant apoptosis in several tumor cell lines.

  7. Identification of Physiologically Active Substances as Novel Ligands for MRGPRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Uno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member D (MRGPRD is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR which belongs to the Mas-related GPCRs expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG. In this study, we investigated two novel ligands in addition to beta-alanine: (1 beta-aminoisobutyric acid, a physiologically active substance, with which possible relation to tumors has been seen together with beta-alanine; (2 diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic estrogen hormone. In addition to the novel ligands, we found that transfection of MRGPRD leads fibroblast cells to form spheroids, which would be related to oncogenicity. To understand the MRGPRD novel character, oncogenicity, a large chemical library was screened in order to obtain MRGPRD antagonists to utilize in exploring the character. The antagonist in turn inhibited the spheroid proliferation that is dependent on MRGPRD signaling as well as MRGPRD signals activated by beta-alanine. The antagonist, a small-molecule compound we found in this study, is a potential anticancer agent.

  8. A data-independent acquisition workflow for qualitative screening of new psychoactive substances in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Juliet; Negreira, Noelia; Ibáñez, María; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Hernández, Félix; Covaci, Adrian; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2015-11-01

    Identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is challenging. Developing targeted methods for their analysis can be difficult and costly due to their impermanence on the drug scene. Accurate-mass mass spectrometry (AMMS) using a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) analyzer can be useful for wide-scope screening since it provides sensitive, full-spectrum MS data. Our article presents a qualitative screening workflow based on data-independent acquisition mode (all-ions MS/MS) on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to QTOFMS for the detection and identification of NPS in biological matrices. The workflow combines and structures fundamentals of target and suspect screening data processing techniques in a structured algorithm. This allows the detection and tentative identification of NPS and their metabolites. We have applied the workflow to two actual case studies involving drug intoxications where we detected and confirmed the parent compounds ketamine, 25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, and several predicted phase I and II metabolites not previously reported in urine and serum samples. The screening workflow demonstrates the added value for the detection and identification of NPS in biological matrices.

  9. Bacteriocins and other bioactive substances of probiotic lactobacilli as biological weapons against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz, Francisco O; Pascual, Liliana; Giordano, Walter; Barberis, Lucila

    2015-04-01

    In the search of new antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacteriocins-producing probiotic lactobacilli deserve special attention. The inhibitory effects of biosubstances such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and each bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) L23 and L60 on the growth of different gonococcal strains were investigated. Different non-treated and treated cell-free supernatants of two probiotic lactobacilli containing these metabolites were used. The aims of this work were (i) to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the biosubstances produced by two probiotic lactobacilli, estimating the proportion in which each of them is responsible for the inhibitory effect, (ii) to define their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and, (iii) to determine the potential interactions between these biosubstances against N. gonorrhoeae. The main antimicrobial metabolites were the BLIS-es L23 and L60 in comparison with other biosubstances. Proportionally, their contributions to the inhibition on the gonococcal growth were 87.28% and 80.66%, respectively. The MIC values of bacteriocins were promising since these substances, when diluted, showed considerable inhibitory activity for all gonococci. In the interaction between bacteriocins, 100% of synergism was found on the gonococcal growth. In summary, this study indicates that both L23 and L60 could potentially serve to design new bioproducts against N. gonorrhoeae.

  10. [Biologically active substances in grated cocoa and cocoa butter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, V M; Stankevich, N M; Makarov, V G; Tikhonov, V P

    2007-01-01

    In the article results of comparative analysis of grated cocoa and cocoa butter samples are presented. The investigation was done by modern instrumental methods such as HPLC, GC, UV- VIS-spectroscopy, and also with application of titrimetric and grarimetric methods. In the analyzed samples contents of total phenolics changes in an interval 1,0-3,2%, including monomeric proantocyanidins 0,6-1,35%; pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) 0,34-0,76 microg/g; phenyl ethylamine from 2,79 to 14,97 microg/g, tyramine from 9,56 to 71,68 microg/g, dopamine from 5,3 to 25,85 microg/g; theobromine from 3,3 to 8%, caffeine from 0,49 to 0,70%; among the amino acids at the greatest quantities were presented glutaminic and asparaginic acids, arginin and leucin; three main fatty acids were determined - palmitinic (31+/-2% rel.), oleinic (35+/-2% rel.) and stearinic (35+/-2% rel.); the main phytosterins were sytosterin (up to 192 mg%) and obtusifoliol (up to 198,5 mg%).

  11. A chemical-biological similarity-based grouping of complex substances as a prototype approach for evaluating chemical alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Fabian A; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Chappell, Grace A; Wright, Fred A; Reif, David M; Braisted, John; Gerhold, David L; Yeakley, Joanne M; Shepard, Peter; Seligmann, Bruce; Roy, Tim; Boogaard, Peter J; Ketelslegers, Hans B; Rohde, Arlean M; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-08-21

    Comparative assessment of potential human health impacts is a critical step in evaluating both chemical alternatives and existing products on the market. Most alternatives assessments are conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis and it is seldom acknowledged that humans are exposed to complex products, not individual substances. Indeed, substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products, and Biological materials (UVCBs) are ubiquitous in commerce yet they present a major challenge for registration and health assessments. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and computational approach to categorize UVCBs according to global similarities in their bioactivity using a suite of in vitro models. We used petroleum substances, an important group of UVCBs which are grouped for regulatory approval and read-across primarily on physico-chemical properties and the manufacturing process, and only partially based on toxicity data, as a case study. We exposed induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes to DMSO-soluble extracts of 21 petroleum substances from five product groups. Concentration-response data from high-content imaging in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, as well as targeted high-throughput transcriptomic analysis of the hepatocytes, revealed distinct groups of petroleum substances. Data integration showed that bioactivity profiling affords clustering of petroleum substances in a manner similar to the manufacturing process-based categories. Moreover, we observed a high degree of correlation between bioactivity profiles and physico-chemical properties, as well as improved groupings when chemical and biological data were combined. Altogether, we demonstrate how novel in vitro screening approaches can be effectively utilized in combination with physico-chemical characteristics to group complex substances and enable read-across. This approach allows for rapid and scientifically-informed evaluation of health impacts of

  12. Biological monitoring of organic substances in workers of a hazardous waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agramunt, C.; Domingo, J.L.; Bocio, A.; Nadal, M. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Muller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    In recent years, incineration has been one of the most frequently used technologies for hazardous waste treatment. However, health risks and the potential environmental impact of hazardous waste incinerators (HWI) are still issues of major concern. The reason is the association of stack emissions of semivolatile and volatile compounds from HWI with their potential adverse health effects. Some compounds of special interest are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In relation to this, HWI workers can be potentially exposed to PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other pollutants with a well-known toxicity. Since 1999, the only HWI in Spain has been operating in Constanti (Tarragona, Catalonia). It has a burning furnace that operates at a temperature of 1100 C and can burn 30,000 tons of hazardous waste per year. The purpose of the present survey was to determine after four years of regular operations in the facility, the concentrations in blood and urine of the HWI workers of a number of organic substances directly related with HWI and to which workers could be exposed. Human biological monitoring evaluates the degree of internal exposure to a defined environmental or occupational pollutant of individuals or population groups. The results of the current study have been compared with the baseline levels.

  13. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  14. Biologically active sesquiterpene coumarins from Ferula species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Zeinab Esmail; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2011-03-01

    Extracts from different species of the genus Ferula (Apiaceae) have had various biomedical applications for many centuries. Many biological features of this genus such as cytotoxicity, antibacterial, antiviral, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory and antiinflammatory activity have been attributed to sesquiterpene coumarins; structures containing a common coumarin group and a sesquiterpene moiety. This both highlights the importance of sesquiterpene coumarins as biologically active natural products and necessitates further studies on these compounds. Taking into account the versatile biological properties of compounds isolated from Ferula and the unprecedented interest in the application of natural products as a new generation of therapeutics, the present review will discuss reports on biological activities of sesquiterpene coumarins of the genus Ferula, from 1990 onwards.

  15. Regulation of sperm flagellar motility activation and chemotaxis caused by egg-derived substance(s) in sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Masaya; Kitamura, Makoto; Nakajima, Ayako; Sri Susilo, Endang; Takemura, Akihiro; Okuno, Makoto

    2009-04-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria atra is a broadcast spawner. Among broadcast spawners, fertilization occurs by means of an egg-derived substance(s) that induces sperm flagellar motility activation and chemotaxis. Holothuria atra sperm were quiescent in seawater, but exhibited flagellar motility activation near eggs with chorion (intact eggs). In addition, they moved in a helical motion toward intact eggs as well as a capillary filled with the water layer of the egg extracts, suggesting that an egg-derived compound(s) causes motility activation and chemotaxis. Furthermore, demembranated sperm flagella were reactivated in high pH (> 7.8) solution without cAMP, and a phosphorylation assay using (gamma-32P)ATP showed that axonemal protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation also occurred in a pH-dependent manner. These results suggest that the activation of sperm motility in holothurians is controlled by pH-sensitive changes in axonemal protein phosphorylation. Ca2+ concentration affected the swimming trajectory of demembranated sperm, indicating that Ca2+-binding proteins present at the flagella may be associated with regulation of flagellar waveform. Moreover, the phosphorylation states of several axonemal proteins were Ca2+-sensitive, indicating that Ca2+ impacts both kinase and phosphatase activities. In addition, in vivo sperm protein phosphorylation occurred after treatment with a water-soluble egg extract. Our results suggest that one or more egg-derived compounds activate motility and subsequent chemotactic behavior via Ca2+-sensitive flagellar protein phosphorylation.

  16. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  17. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  18. New materials and biologically active preparations on the basis of (organilthio) chloroacetylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ (Organylthio)chloroacetylenes [RSC≡CCl, 1], the object of our systematic research, provide a promising source of new classes of polyfunctional compounds of acetylenic and polyheterocyclic seriesamong which biologically active substances, monomers and precursors for the preparation of new materials possessing a whole complex of valuable properties have been recognized.

  19. New materials and biologically active preparations on the basis of (organilthio) chloroacetylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D'yachkova; S.; G.

    2005-01-01

    (Organylthio)chloroacetylenes [RSC≡CCl, 1], the object of our systematic research, provide a promising source of new classes of polyfunctional compounds of acetylenic and polyheterocyclic seriesamong which biologically active substances, monomers and precursors for the preparation of new materials possessing a whole complex of valuable properties have been recognized.……

  20. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  1. Biological activity of acetylated phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Apostolakis, Constantinos; Pliakis, Emmanuel; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi

    2007-01-10

    In recent years an effort has been made to isolate and identify biologically active compounds that are included in the Mediterranean diet. The existence of naturally occurring acetylated phenolics, as well as studies with synthetic ones, provide evidence that acetyl groups could be correlated with their biological activity. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is implicated in atherosclerosis, whereas its inhibitors seem to play a protective role against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the biological activity of resveratrol and tyrosol and their acetylated derivatives as inhibitors of PAF-induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Acetylation of resveratrol and tyrosol was performed, and separation was achieved by HPLC. Acetylated derivatives were identified by negative mass spectrometry. The data showed that tyrosol and its monoacetylated derivatives act as PAF inhibitors, whereas diacetylated derivatives induce platelet aggregation. Resveratrol and its mono- and triacetylated derivatives exert similar inhibitory activity, whereas the diacetylated ones are more potent inhibitors. In conclusion, acetylated phenolics exert the same or even higher antithrombotic activity compared to the biological activity of the initial one.

  2. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand

    2009-07-01

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  3. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. Biological effects of high-diluted substances and periodic table of elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloe Taddei-Ferretti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. There are several experimental evidences for the effects of high-diluted substances (see e.g. C. Taddei-Ferretti, A. Cotugno 1997, on effects of high-diluted drugs on the prevention and control of mice teratogenicity induced by purine derivatives; N.C. Sukul, C. Taddei-Ferretti, S.P. Sinha Babu, A. De, B. Nandi, A. Sukul, R. Dutta-Nag 2000, on high-diluted Nux vomica countering alcohol-induced loss of righting reflex in toads. Also the physical characterization and mechanism of action of high-diluted drugs have been studied (see e.g. N.C. Sukul, A. Sukul, High dilution effects: Physical and biochemical basis 2004. However, further experimental researches are needed to clarify how physical characteristics of a drug are linked to its global biological effects. Considerations on some high-diluted mineral remedies will be developer here. Methods. In Organon, sect. 119, S. Hahnemann writes: «As certainly each species of plants is different from every other one with regard to external appearance, way of life and growth, taste and smell, and as certainly each mineral, each salt is different from the others with regard to external, internal, physical and chemical qualities [...], so certainly all these vegetal and mineral substances have pathogenetic – and thus also curative – effects different among themselves [...]». This statement may be taken as basis for considering the characteristics of some elements, as ordered in the periodic table, in relation to those of some high-diluted mineral remedies. Conclusions. The elements were previously ordered in the periodic table according to the atomic weight chemically determined, and later more precisely according to the atomic number (number of protons. Then also the electronic configuration was taken into account: properties depending on atomic mass and deep electrons are not periodical, while chemical and several physical properties

  5. Detection of Extremely Low Concentrations of Biological Substances Using Near-Field Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuura, Masato; Fujimaki, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    An external force-assisted near-field illumination biosensor (EFA-NI biosensor) detects a target substance that is propelled through an evanescent field by an external force. The target substance is sandwiched between an antibody coupled to a magnetic bead and an antibody coupled to a polystyrene bead. The external force is supplied by a magnetic field. The magnetic bead propels the target substance and the polystyrene bead emits an optical signal. The detection protocol includes only two steps; mixing the sample solution with a detection reagent containing the antibody-coated beads and injecting the sample mixture into a liquid cell. Because the system detects the motion of the beads, the sensor allows detection of trace amounts of target substances without a washing step. The detection capability of the sensor was demonstrated by the detection of norovirus virus-like particles at a concentration of ~40 particles per 100 μl in contaminated water.

  6. Effect of surface-active substance on nasal mucociliary clearance time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, K E; Svane-Knudsen, V

    1993-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance measured by saccharin clearance time is depending on ciliary function and on the physiological characteristics of mucus. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of surface-active substances changed the mucociliary transport time. Twenty healthy persons...... were manually sprayed with surface-active substance in one of their nose cavities. The saccharin clearance time was measured before spraying and statistically compared with saccharin clearance time after spraying. Saccharin clearance time was significantly shortened immediately after spraying...

  7. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo CAC; LL Leon

    2001-01-01

    There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammator...

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF BIRCH FAMILY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  9. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus.

  10. Ice-Active Substances from the Infective Juveniles of the Freeze Tolerant Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali

    Full Text Available Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freezing tolerant nematode, that can withstand intracellular ice formation. We investigated recrystallization inhibition, thermal hysteresis and ice nucleation activities in the infective juveniles of S. feltiae. Both the splat cooling assay and optical recrystallometry indicate the presence of ice active substances that inhibit recrystallization in the nematode extract. The substance is relatively heat stable and largely retains the recrystallization inhibition activity after heating. No thermal hysteresis activity was detected but the extract had a typical hexagonal crystal shape when grown from a single seed crystal and weak ice nucleation activity. An ice active substance is present in a low concentration, which may be involved in the freezing survival of this species by inhibiting ice recrystallization.

  11. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae: Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin A. Stonik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  12. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  13. The immersion freezing behavior of mixtures of mineral dust and biological substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Stefanie; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susan; Niedermeier, Dennis; Ebert, Martin; Voigtländer, Jens; Rösch, Michael; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike

    2014-05-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria or pollen are known to be efficient ice nuclei. It is also known that ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, i.e. protein complexes in the case of bacteria (e.g. Wolber et al., 1986), and most likely polysaccharides in the case of pollen (Pummer et al., 2012) are responsible for the freezing. Very recently it was suggested that these INA macromolecules maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers (Hartmann et al., 2013; Augustin et al., 2013). This opens the possibility of accumulation of such INA macromolecules in e.g. soils and the resulting particles could be an internal mixture of mineral dust and INA macromolecules. If such biological IN containing soil particles are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to e.g. wind erosion or agricultural processes they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures higher than -20°C. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a measurement campaign within the research unit INUIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INA macromolecules. Specifically, we mixed pure mineral dust (illite) with INA biological material (SNOMAX and birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). To characterize the mixing state of the produced aerosol we used single mass spectrometry as well as electron microscopy. We found that internally mixed particles which containing ice active biological material show the same ice nucleation behavior as the purely biological particles. That shows that INA macromolecules which are located on a mineral dust particle dominate the freezing process. Acknowledgement: Part of this work was done within the framework of the DFG funded Ice Nucleation research UnIT (INUIT, FOR 1525) under WE 4722/1-1. Augustin, S., Hartmann, S., Pummer, B., Grothe, H

  14. Using synthetic biology to increase nitrogenase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin-Xin; Liu, Qi; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Shi, Hao-Wen; Chen, San-feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Nitrogen fixation has been established in protokaryotic model Escherichia coli by transferring a minimal nif gene cluster composed of 9 genes (nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, hesA and nifV) from Paenibacillus sp. WLY78. However, the nitrogenase activity in the recombinant E. coli 78-7 is only 10 % of that observed in wild-type Paenibacillus. Thus, it is necessary to increase nitrogenase activity through synthetic biology. Results In order to increase nitrogenase activity ...

  15. Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksicek, R J

    1995-01-01

    A systematic survey of polycyclic phenols has been performed to identify members of this chemical group with estrogenic activity. Twelve compounds were found to be able to stimulate the transcriptional activity of the human estrogen receptor expressed in cultured cells by transient transfection. These natural estrogens belong to several distinct, but chemically related classes including chalcones, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones. Selected examples of estrogenic flavonoids were further analyzed to determine their biological potencies and their relative affinities for binding to the estrogen receptor. These data are interpreted with respect to the molecular structure of polycyclic phenols required for hormonal activity as nonsteroidal estrogens.

  16. Young adolescents' perceived activity space risk, peer networks, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents' lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents.

  17. Spilanthol: occurrence, extraction, chemistry and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Barbosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spilanthol (C14H23NO, 221.339 g/mol is a bioactive compound that is found in many different plants that are used as traditional remedies throughout the world. It is present in Heliopsis longipes and several species in the genus Acmella, including A. oleracea L., also known as paracress and jambu. Its leaves and flowers have sensory properties (pungency, tingling, numbing, mouth-watering that make it a popular spice and ingredient in several Brazilian dishes. Spilanthol can exert a variety of biological and pharmacological effects including analgesic, neuroprotective, antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antilarvicidal and insecticidal activities. So, the aim of this review is to present a literature review on the spilanthol that describes its occurrence, chemistry, extraction and biological activities.

  18. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  19. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Hua-Bin Li; Ya-Jun Guo; Gui-Fang Deng; En-Qin Xia

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial proper...

  20. Effect of radiation and fungal treatment on ligno celluloses and their biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.D.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp

    2000-10-01

    Effects of high-dose irradiation and fungal treatment on some kinds of lignocellulose material were investigated in order to assess the potential effects of bioactive substances on plants. Each treatment and combination of treatments significantly altered the components of lignocellulose materials. Irradiation strongly affected all plant materials, causing a series of changes in physico-chemical parameters such as solubilization during solvent extraction and losses of fibre components. By these degradations, certain biologically active substances formed and acted as antagonists of auxin-induced growth.

  1. Isolation and Structural Identiifcation of Herbicidal Active Substance from Root of Flaveria bident (L.) Kuntze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Jing-qian; XING Ji-hong; ZHANG Li-hui; KANG Zhan-hai; ZHANG Jin-lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the composition and structure of herbicidal active substance from the root of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze, the isolation and structural identiifcation were researched in this paper. The crude extract from the root of F. bidentis (L.) Kuntze was extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and water saturation of n-butyl alcohol, respectively, and the extraction lfuid was separated by using the method of TLC, then the main fraction was separated by HPLC, and the structure of the herbicidal active substance was analyzed by LC-MS, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR. The results showed that the petroleum extraction had the strongest herbicidal activity, and the purple blue stripe separated by TLC had the strongest effect on Digitaria sanguinalis. The herbicidal active substance was identiifed as α-terthienyl according to the data of LC-MS, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR.

  2. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenguţa I. Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  3. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAC Araújo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae, which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.

  4. Does incentive-elicited nucleus accumbens activation differ by substance of abuse? An examination with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Hollis C; Bryan, Angela D; Weiland, Barbara J; Mayer, Andrew; Dodd, Andrew; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2015-12-01

    Numerous questions surround the nature of reward processing in the developing adolescent brain, particularly in regard to polysubstance use. We therefore sought to examine incentive-elicited brain activation in the context of three common substances of abuse (cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol). Due to the role of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in incentive processing, we compared activation in this region during anticipation of reward and loss using a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Adolescents (ages 14-18; 66% male) were matched on age, gender, and frequency of use of any common substances within six distinct groups: cannabis-only (n=14), tobacco-only (n=34), alcohol-only (n=12), cannabis+tobacco (n=17), cannabis+tobacco+alcohol (n=17), and non-using controls (n=38). All groups showed comparable behavioral performance on the MID task. The tobacco-only group showed decreased bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation during reward anticipation as compared to the alcohol-only group, the control group, and both polysubstance groups. Interestingly, no differences emerged between the cannabis-only group and any of the other groups. Results from this study suggest that youth who tend toward single-substance tobacco use may possess behavioral and/or neurobiological characteristics that differentiate them from both their substance-using and non-substance-using peers.

  5. Laboratory-generated mixtures of mineral dust particles with biological substances: characterization of the particle mixing state and immersion freezing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Wex, Heike; Denjean, Cyrielle; Hartmann, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susann; Ebert, Martin; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INMs). It has been suggested that these INMs maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INMs in soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INMs. If particles from such soils which contain biological INMs are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above -20 up to almost 0 °C, while they might be characterized as mineral dust particles due to a possibly low content of biological material. We conducted a study within the research unit INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX) with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). A very important topic concerning the investigations presented here as well as for atmospheric application is the characterization of the mixing state of aerosol particles. In the present study we used different methods like single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (VH-TDMA) to investigate the mixing state of our generated aerosol. Not all applied methods performed similarly well in detecting small amounts of biological material on the mineral dust particles. Measuring the hygroscopicity/volatility of the mixed particles with the VH-TDMA was the most

  6. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  7. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunghoon Cho

    Full Text Available Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs, which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments.

  8. Participation in Organized Activities Protects Against Adolescents' Risky Substance Use, Even Beyond Development in Conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kira O; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are at a significant risk for binge drinking and illicit drug use. One way to protect against these behaviors is through participation in extracurricular activities. However, there is a debate about whether highly conscientious adolescents are more likely to participate in activities, which raises the concern of a confound. To disentangle these relationships, we tested the latent trajectories of substance use and personality across 3 years, with participation in activities and sports as time-varying predictors. We surveyed 687 adolescents (55 % female, 85.4 % Caucasian) in Western Australia schools across 3 years. At Time 1, the students were in Year 10 1 (mean age 15 years). The results showed that participation in activities and conscientiousness are related, but each uniquely predicts slower growth in substance use. Across waves, participation in activities predicted less risky substance use a year later, over and above conscientiousness development. These results suggest that there may be unique benefits of participation in activities that protect against risky substance use.

  9. Purification and Activity of Antibacterial Substances Derived from Soil Streptomyces sp.CaiF1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui YANG; Guixiang PENG; Jianmin ZENG; Zhiyuan TAN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to separate and purify antibacterial sub- stances from soil Streptomyces sp. CaiF1, and to explore the activities of this sub- stance. [Method] The antibacterial substances were separated and purified by Ethyl acetate extraction, macroporous adsorptive resin, silica gel chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and powdery mildew were taken as the indicating bacterial to study their activities. [Result] Antibacterial substances were purified and the stability analysis of the extracts from Streptomyces CaiF1 fermentation broth showed very stable at pH 2.0-pH 10.0, 100 ~C and changed very little under UV treatment for 24 h. Inhibition rate of powdery mildew was 69.7%. [Conclusion] The purified antibacterial substances showed good stability, which provided theoretical foundation for their structural identifications and future ap- plications.

  10. Activation and modulation of recombinantly expressed serotonin receptor type 3A by terpenes and pungent substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Paul M; Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Flegel, Caroline; Herbrechter, Robin; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-11-27

    Serotonin receptor type 3 (5-HT3 receptor) is a ligand-gated ion channel that is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The receptor plays an important role in regulating peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract and in functions such as emesis, cognition and anxiety. Therefore, a variety of pharmacologically active substances target the 5-HT3 receptor to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The 5-HT3 receptors are activated, antagonized, or modulated by a wide range of chemically different substances, such as 2-methyl-serotonin, phenylbiguanide, setrones, or cannabinoids. Whereas the action of all of these substances is well described, less is known about the effect of terpenoids or fragrances on 5-HT3A receptors. In this study, we screened a large number of natural odorous and pungent substances for their pharmacological action on recombinantly expressed human 5-HT3A receptors. The receptors were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized by electrophysiological recordings using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. A screening of two odorous mixes containing a total of 200 substances revealed that the monoterpenes, thymol and carvacrol, act as both weak partial agonists and positive modulators on the 5-HT3A receptor. In contrast, the most effective blockers were the terpenes, citronellol and geraniol, as well as the pungent substances gingerol, capsaicin and polygodial. In our study, we identified new modulators of 5-HT3A receptors out of the classes of monoterpenes and vanilloid substances that frequently occur in various plants.

  11. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-09-29

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies.

  12. Efficacy Evaluation of a Multifunctional Cosmetic Formulation: The Benefits of a Combination of Active Antioxidant Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela D. Gianeti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and Phorphyra umbilicalis extracts was evaluated. This formulation was submitted to a clinical efficacy study using biophysics techniques and skin images analysis (digital photography imaging systems, 20 MHz ultrasound, and reflectance confocal microscopy. The volunteers applied the formulation containing the UV filters and antioxidant substances during the day and the formulation with antioxidant substances and without the UV filters at night, for 90 days. The formulation increased the hydration and protected the skin barrier function after a single application. At the long term assessment the formulation provided an improvement in skin barrier function and skin hydration to the deeper layers of the epidermis, leading to an improvement in skin appearance by reducing wrinkles and skin roughness. The multifunctional cosmetic formulation studied can be suggested to preventing signs of aging and improving skin conditions. In addition, this study presents the benefits of associating different active antioxidants substances in a single cosmetic formulation to prevent skin aging.

  13. Behavioural activation as predictor of substance use: mediating and moderating role of attitudes and social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennadij G

    2004-09-06

    Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use were investigated in 4,501 Russian youths aged 14-25 years. The participants also filled out the short forms of the Gray-Wilson Personality Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire along with questions about attitudes and social relationships. Behavioural Activation (BAS) was the best personality predictor of substance use. Its influence was mediated by disobedience to adults, affiliation with peers (Outings) and tolerant attitude toward illegal activity. BAS was negatively associated with subjective well-being and educational aspiration (Learn). Extraversion was the second strongest predictor of substance use with its influence being mostly mediated by Outings. Besides, Extraversion was positively associated with some protective factors such as subjective well-being, Learn and good relationship with parents. Effects of Neuroticism and Behavioural Inhibition (BIS) on substance use were weak and gender-specific. In females BIS provided a degree of protection while in males it increased the risk of substance use. The personality factors interacted so that BAS and Extraversion tended to mutually increase the impact of each other, while BIS diminished the effect of BAS. Among attitude variables, Outings acted as the most potent predictor of substance use. Relationship with parents was a protective factor, which acted most strongly in adolescents with higher Psychoticism and Extraversion.

  14. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.130 - If hazardous substance activity took place on the property, what specific information must an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activity took place on the property, what specific information must an agency include in the title report... substance activity took place on the property, the reporting agency must include information on the type and... Utilization of Excess Real Property Title Report § 102-75.130 If hazardous substance activity took place...

  16. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T.; Biever, Ronald C

    2017-01-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop(®) "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and...

  17. Peer Groups and Substance Use: Examining the Direct and Interactive Effect of Leisure Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic…

  18. The effects of humic substances on the activity of metalaxyl+mancozeb, fungicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Li, S.; Li, B.; Zhang, Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion

    1999-07-01

    The effects of three dissolved humic substances on the activity of the fungicide metalaxy+mancozeb against the phytophthora were studied. The zone of inhibition technique was used. A synergistic effect was observed and the mechanism of the interaction is discussed. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Leist, Marcel; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J A M; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of microphysiological systems - microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro - is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various dedicat

  20. Litchi Flavonoids: Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the isolation, identification, biological activity, utilization and development prospects of flavonoids found in litchi fruit pericarp (LFP tissues is reviewed. LFP tissues account for approximately 15% by weight of the whole fresh fruit and are comprised of significant amount of flavonoids. The major flavonoids in ripe LFP include flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavanols in the LFP are reported to be procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindin-3-rutinside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinosde and quercetin-3-glucoside are identified as the important anthocyanins. Litchi flavanols and anthocyanins exhibit good potential antioxidant activity. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of procyanidin B2 are greater than those of procyanidin B4 and epicatechin, while epicatechin has the highest α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH· scavenging activity. In addition to the antioxidant activity, LFP extract displays a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on human breast cancer, which could be attributed, in part, to its inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through upregulation and down-regulation of multiple genes. Furthermore, various anticancer activities are observed for epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction of LFP tissue extracts. Procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction show a stronger inhibitory effect on HELF than MCF-7 proliferation, while epicatechin and procyanidin B2 have lower cytotoxicities towards MCF-7 and HELF than paclitaxel. It is therefore suggested that flavonoids from LFP might be potentially useful components for functional foods and/or anti-breast cancer drugs.

  1. The biological activities and chemical composition of Pereskia species (Cactaceae)--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Scio, Elita

    2014-09-01

    The exploration of nature as a source of sustainable, novel bioactive substances continues to grow as natural products play a significant role in the search for new therapeutic and agricultural agents. In this context, plants of the genus Pereskia (Cactaceae) have been studied for their biological activities, and are evolving as an interesting subject in the search for new, bioactive compounds. These species are commonly used as human foodstuffs and in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. This review focuses on the bioactivity and chemical composition of the genus Pereskia, and aims to stimulate further studies on the chemistry and biological potential of the genus.

  2. Nimbolide B and nimbic acid B, phytotoxic substances in neem leaves with allelopathic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Salam, Md Abdus; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2014-05-26

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been widely used as a traditional medicine and several bioactive compounds have been isolated from this species, but to date no potent allelopathic active substance has been reported. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic property and phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in neem. An aqueous methanol extract of neem leaves inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress, lettuce, alfalfa, timothy, crabgrass, ryegrass, barnyard grass and jungle rice. The extracts were then purified by several chromatographic runs while monitoring the inhibitory activity and two phytotoxic substances were isolated. The chemical structures of the two substances were determined by spectral data to correspond to novel compounds, nimbolide B (1) and nimbic acid B (2). Nimbolide B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.1‒3.0 μM. Nimbic acid B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.3-1.0 μM. These results suggest that nimbolide B and nimbic acid B may contribute to the allelopathic effects caused by neem leaves.

  3. Simple Electrochemical Determination of Surface-Active Substances in Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrković-Karloci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple electrochemical determination of surface-active substances by using time-dependent variation of the capacitive current in a.c. voltammetry at the HMDE is described. Surface-active substances were accumulated by stirring solution at the deposition potential of −0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl (sat. NaCl. The capacitive current was recorded for different deposition times in the range 0–120 s, wherefrom the linear calibration plot is constructed. The proposed method was verified for model surfactant TritonX-100 in the concentration range 0.02–0.25 mg/L and for humic acid in the concentration range 1.65–20 mg/L. The application of the method was demonstrated for freshwater samples of the Drava river, Danube river, and the wetland Kopački Rit, Croatia. The shape of the i ac -E curves as well as the obtained concentrations of surface-active substances by using humic acid as the calibration substance are quite well describing the type and the nature of organic matter in the freshwater samples.

  4. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  5. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  6. The terminal structure plays an important role in the biological activity of cecropin CMIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦非; 谢维; 董雪吟; 徐贤秀

    1999-01-01

    Antibacterial peptides have received increasing attention as a new pharmaceutical substance. But the molecular mechanism of lysis is still poorly understood. CMIV gene and mutant CMIV gene in GST fusion system were expressed. After cleaving with different cleavage reagents, the peptide with an excess of N-terminus and with an un-amidated C-terminus stopped the activity while the peptide with an excess Asn at the C-terminus had the activity level the same as natural CMIV. The results showed that the terminal structure of cecropin CMIV played an important role in its biological activity.

  7. A phytotoxic active substance in the decomposing litter of the fern Gleichenia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2015-03-15

    The fern Gleichenia japonica often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific stands throughout the temperate to tropical Asia. The objective of this study was the investigation of allelopathic property and substances of the decomposing litter of the fern to evaluate the possible involvement of its allelopathy in the domination. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica litter inhibited the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). This result suggests that G. japonica litter contains growth inhibitory substances. The extract was purified by chromatography while monitoring the inhibitory activity, and a growth inhibitory substance was isolated. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by spectral data to be a novel compound, 13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool. This compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and barnyard grass at concentrations ranging from 89.7 to 271 μM for 50% inhibition. In addition, the compound had potent growth inhibitory activity with the soil taken from near the colony. The concentration of the compound in soil under a pure colony of G. japonica was 790 μM, suggesting that the compound may contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this fern.

  8. Reward salience and risk aversion underlie differential ACC activity in substance dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex, especially the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, has long been implicated in cognitive control and error processing. Although the association between ACC and behavior has been established, it is less clear how ACC contributes to dysfunctional behavior such as substance dependence. Evidence from neuroimaging studies investigating ACC function in substance users is mixed, with some studies showing disengagement of ACC in substance dependent individuals (SDs, while others show increased ACC activity related to substance use. In this study, we investigate ACC function in SDs and healthy individuals performing a change signal task for monetary rewards. Using a priori predictions derived from a recent computational model of ACC, we find that ACC activity differs between SDs and controls in factors related to reward salience and risk aversion between SDs and healthy individuals. Quantitative fits of a computational model to fMRI data reveal significant differences in best fit parameters for reward salience and risk preferences. Specifically, the ACC in SDs shows greater risk aversion, defined as concavity in the utility function, and greater attention to rewards relative to reward omission. Furthermore, across participants risk aversion and reward salience are positively correlated. The results clarify the role that ACC plays in both the reduced sensitivity to omitted rewards and greater reward valuation in SDs. Clinical implications of applying computational modeling in psychiatry are also discussed.

  9. Biological active compounds from Georgian Galanthus shaoricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhadze, M; Kuchukhidze, J; Chincharadze, D; Murtazashvili, T

    2011-10-01

    Amaryllidaceae alkaloids exhibit antitumour, antiviral and anticholinergic activities. Some of them have been used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, myopathy and diseases of the nervous system. In this study, the characterization of these compounds from Amaryllidaceae plants along with some biological activities and some regulations to conserve the native flora will be reviewed. Plants materials: Galanthus shaoricus Kem.-Nath., were collected in 2007-2008 during the flowering period in Georgia. The preparation of extracts and fractions were obtained using methanolic maceration. Crude alkaloidal extracts were typically purified by liquid-liquid partitioning of their basic forms in chloroform. Lycorine, galantamine and tazettine has been found as one of the major alkaloid from Amaryllidaceae plants. Galanthus shaoricus have shown good antimalarial and cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Methanolic extracts from bulbs demonstrated significant growth inhibition on human Hela and HCT-116 cells lines with IC50 (μg/mL) 16.3±1.8; 22.1±2.9 (aerial parts) and 12.8±1.7; 16.5±1.9 (Bulbs), respectively. Concerning the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, lycorine with IC50 (μM) 0.8±0.5 and 2.6±0.2, haemantaimene (IC50=1.1±0.7 and 2.7±0.8 μM), hamaine (IC50=3.4±1.0 and 6.2 ±1.4 μM), homolycorine (IC50=1.4±0.9 and 3.3±1.0 μM), hipeastrine (IC50=2.8±1.0 and 7.5±1.8 μM) were found to be responsible for the cytotoxic activity on HCT-116 and Hela cell lines, respectively.

  10. Sulfation and biological activities of konjac glucomannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Surina; Muschin, Tegshi; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-05-15

    The sulfation of konjac glucomannan and its anti-HIV and blood anticoagulant activities were investigated. Konjac glucomannan is a polysaccharide occurring naturally in konjac plant tubers and has high molecular weights. Solubility in water is very low, and the aqueous solutions at low concentrations have high viscosity. Before sulfation, hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid was carried out to decrease the molecular weights of M¯n=19.2 × 10(4)-0.2 × 10(4). Sulfation with piperidine-N-sulfonic acid or SO3-pyridine complex gave sulfated konjac glucomannans with molecular weights of M¯n=1.0 × 10(4)-0.4 × 10(4) and degrees of sulfation (DS) of 1.3-1.4. It was found that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had potent anti-HIV activity at a 50% effective concentration, (EC50) of 1.2-1.3 μg/ml, which was almost as high as that of an AIDS drug, ddC, whose EC50=3.2 μg/ml, and moderate blood anticoagulant activity, AA=0.8-22.7 units/mg, compared to those of standard sulfated polysaccharides, curdlan (10 units/mg) and dextran (22.7 units/mg) sulfates. Structural analysis of sulfated konjac glucomannans with negatively charged sulfated groups was performed by high resolution NMR, and the interaction between poly-l-lysine with positively charged amino groups as a model compound of proteins and peptides was measured by surface plasmon resonance measurement, suggesting that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had a high binding stability on immobilized poly-l-lysine. The binding of sulfated konjac glucomannan was concentration-dependent, and the biological activity of the sulfated konjac glucomannans may be due to electrostatic interaction between the sulfate and amino groups.

  11. Active-learning Strategies for Legal Topics and Substance Abuse in a Pharmacy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John E.; Kelly, William N.; Hill, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To implement active-learning strategies to engage students in learning, applying, and teaching legal and substance abuse topics. Design. Medication Safety course student groups created films on a National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) using a movie genre and presented them in film festival format. Pharmacogenomics course student groups taught ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) topics through presentation of short stories about comic book characters with genetic mutations. Students in the Drugs of Abuse course composed and performed dances depicting the mechanism of action of a drug in an in-class rave dance format. Assessment. Course evaluations revealed student engagement with subject material and enjoyment of the creative applications, critical thinking, and collaborative aspects of the activities. Students performed well on examination questions and graded assignments. Conclusion. These active-learning strategies facilitated students’ abilities to learn, apply, and teach material in medication safety, pharmacogenomics, and substance abuse courses. PMID:28289294

  12. Carbon nanotubes – Characteristic of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a diverse group of nano-objects in terms of structure, size (length, diameter, shape and characteristics. The growing interest in these structures is due to the increasing number of people working in exposure to CNTs. Occupational exposure to carbon nanotubes may occur in research laboratories, as well as in plants producing CNTs and their nanocomposites. Carbon nanotubes concentration at the emission source may reach 107 particles/cm3. These values, however, are considerably reduced after the application of adequate ventilation. Animal studies suggest that the main route of exposure is inhalation. Carbon nanotubes administered orally are largely excreted in the feces. In animals exposed by inhalation, CNTs caused mainly inflammation, as a result of oxidative stress, leading above all to changes in the lungs. The main effect of animal dermal exposure is oxidative stress causing local inflammation. In animals exposed by ingestion the mild or no toxicity was observed. Carbon nanotubes did not induce mutations in the bacterial tests, but they were genotoxic in a series of tests on cells in vitro, as well as in exposed mice in vivo. Embryotoxicity of nanotubes depends mainly on their modifications and carcinogenicity – primarily on the CNT size and its rigidity. Occupational exposure limits for CNTs proposed by world experts fall within the range of 1–80 μg/m3. The different effects of various kinds of CNT, leads to the conclusion that each type of nanotube should be treated as a separate substance with individual estimation of hygienic normative. Med Pr 2017;68(2:259–276

  13. Toxicological effects of the different substances in tobacco smoke on human embryonic development by a systems chemo-biology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno César Feltes

    Full Text Available The physiological and molecular effects of tobacco smoke in adult humans and the development of cancer have been well described. In contrast, how tobacco smoke affects embryonic development remains poorly understood. Morphological studies of the fetuses of smoking pregnant women have shown various physical deformities induced by constant fetal exposure to tobacco components, especially nicotine. In addition, nicotine exposure decreases fetal body weight and bone/cartilage growth in addition to decreasing cranial diameter and tibia length. Unfortunately, the molecular pathways leading to these morphological anomalies are not completely understood. In this study, we applied interactome data mining tools and small compound interaction networks to elucidate possible molecular pathways associated with the effects of tobacco smoke components during embryonic development in pregnant female smokers. Our analysis showed a relationship between nicotine and 50 additional harmful substances involved in a variety of biological process that can cause abnormal proliferation, impaired cell differentiation, and increased oxidative stress. We also describe how nicotine can negatively affect retinoic acid signaling and cell differentiation through inhibition of retinoic acid receptors. In addition, nicotine causes a stress reaction and/or a pro-inflammatory response that inhibits the agonistic action of retinoic acid. Moreover, we show that the effect of cigarette smoke on the developing fetus could represent systemic and aggressive impacts in the short term, causing malformations during certain stages of development. Our work provides the first approach describing how different tobacco constituents affect a broad range of biological process in human embryonic development.

  14. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium were exposed to surfactants (single and combined in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L−1. The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies.

  15. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Paula A; Lemos, Madalena; Mergulhão, Filipe; Melo, Luís; Simões, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium) were exposed to surfactants (single and combined) in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium) with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L(-1). The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies.

  16. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  17. Biological investigations of Indian phaeophyceae 16. Antibacterial acitivity of phenolic substances, extracted from Sargassum johnstonii Setchell et Gardner collected from Okha, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.P.S.

    Free and hydrolysed phenolic substances were extracted from a dry sample of Sargassum johnstonii using 80% methanol and tested for their antibacterial activity by agar diffusion method. The growth of two gram-positive bacteria tested were inhibited...

  18. Biological activity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Carbonell

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens cytotoxin was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G100 column. The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens. The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. The cytotoxic assays show that 15 min of treatment with the cytotoxin induced irreversible intoxication of the cells, determined by loss of cell viability. Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 µg/ml of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin is distinct from S. marcescens hemolysin. Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. Moreover, we did not detect gene sequences for any of these toxins in S. marcescens by PCR assay. These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli.

  19. Biological activity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, G V; Amorim, C R N; Furumura, M T; Darini, A L C; Fonseca, B A L; Yano, T

    2003-03-01

    Serratia marcescens cytotoxin was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G100 column. The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens. The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. The cytotoxic assays show that 15 min of treatment with the cytotoxin induced irreversible intoxication of the cells, determined by loss of cell viability. Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 g/ml) of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin is distinct from S. marcescens hemolysin. Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. Moreover, we did not detect gene sequences for any of these toxins in S. marcescens by PCR assay. These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli.

  20. Prediction of biological activity spectra of a few phytoconstituents of Azadirachta indicia A. Juss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pramely

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The use of drug substances derived from plants, fungi, bacteria, and marine organisms are ‘‘Mother Nature Gift’’ for diseases of mankind. Many of these are discovered serendipitously and have a long tradition in medicine. Till date, the use of natural products, their semi synthetic and synthetic derivatives have been mostly confined to their ethnic use. But it has been well known that each substance has a wide spectrum of biological activities as evident from some new uses of many old drugs. PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances has been employed as a strong potential tool to predict the biological activity spectrum of synthetic substances for the discovery of new drugs. But the potential of PASS to predict the biological activity spectra of natural products is still underestimated. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate and correlate the biological activity spectrum of the main phytoconstituent of Azadirachta indica with their reported biological activities in order to evaluate the applicability of PASS. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  1. [Influence of n-hexane on vascular endothelial active substances in brain tissue in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Zhang, Z Q; Zhang, C Z

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the influence of n-hexane on vascular endothelial active substances in brain tissue in mice and its significance. Methods: A total of 48 healthy Kunming mice were randomly divided into high-dose exposure group, middle-dose exposure group, low-dose exposure group, and control group, with 12 mice in each group. All groups except the control group were exposed to n-hexane via static inhalation (0.035 g/L, 0.018 g/L, and 0.009 g/L for the high-, middle-, and low-dose exposure groups, respectively) 4 hours a day for 21 days. the mice in the control groups were not exposed to n-hexane. After the exposure, the lev-els of endothelin-1 (ET-1) , nitric oxide (NO) , and angiotensin II (Ang II) in brain tissue were measured in all groups. Results: There were significant differences in the levels of ET-1, NO, and Ang II between the three ex-posure groups and the control group (PHexane can affect the vascular endothe-lial active substances in brain tissue in mice, and the changes and imbalance in vascular endothelial active sub-stances may be one of the reasons for central nervous system impairment caused by n-hexane.

  2. Activation of non-sensitizing or low-sensitizing fragrance substances into potent sensitizers - prehaptens and prohaptens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Börje, Anna; Duus Johansen, Jeanne;

    2013-01-01

    the risk of sensitization. In the present review a series of fragrance substances with well documented abiotic and/or biotic activation are given as indicative and illustrative examples of the general problem. Commonly used fragrance substances, also found in essential oils, autoxidize on contact with air...

  3. Low intensity ultrasound stimulates biological activity of aerobic activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; YAN Yixin; WANG Wenyan; YU Yongyong

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to explore a procedure to improve biological wastewater treatment efficiency using low intensity ultrasound.The aerobic activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was used as the experimental material.Oxygen uptake rate(OUR)of the activated sludge (AS)was determined to indicate the changes of AS activity stimulated by ultrasound at 35 kHZ for 0-40 min with ultrasonic intensities of 0-1.2 W/cm2.The highest OUR was observed at the ultrasonic intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 and an irradiation period of 10 min;more than 15% increase was achieved immediately after sonication.More significantly,the AS activity stimulated by ultrasound could last 24 h after sonication,and the AS activity achieved its peak value within 8 h after sonication.or nearly 100% higher than the initial level after sonication.Therefore,to improve the wastewater treatment efficiency of bioreactors,ultrasound with an intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 could be employed to irradiate a part of the AS in the bioreactor for 10 min every 8 h.

  4. Designing and testing a classroom curriculum to teach preschoolers about the biology of physical activity: The respiration system as an underlying biological causal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tracy S.

    The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.

  5. Composition of thermodestruction products of biologically active compounds polluting the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriyev, M.T.; Rastyannikov, Y.G.; Sotnikov, Y.Y.; Volkov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising method of removal of biologically active compounds such as microorganisms, antibiotics, food and other household waste from industrial waste gases is to destroy them by thermal destruction including burning. In this case, products of thermodestruction enter into the atmosphere along with carbon dioxide and steam and can unfavorably affect the population. Thus, mass spectrometric analyses have determined in the waste gases of antibiotics production aldehydes and ketones (croton- and adipalaldehydes, acetone), alcohols (propanol and butanol), amines, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The composition of thermodestruction products of biologically active compounds was identified by their pyrolysis at 700/sup 0/C for 2 min. in the presence of air. The main components were proteins and amino acids. The products of pyrolysis were analyzed by chromato-mass-spectrometric and gas-chromatographic methods by means of a two-flame thermionic detector. No significant difference between the thermodestruction products of proteins and amino acids was found. Many of detected substances can be not only toxic but also emit strong unpleasant odors. The studies revealed toxic substances that pollute the atmospheric air during removal of biologically-active compounds from waste gases.

  6. Exercise and Physical Activity in the Therapy of Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Zschucke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and physical activity are constantly gaining attention as adjuvant treatment for substance use disorders, supplementing classical pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. The present work reviews studies addressing the therapeutic effects of exercise in alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine abuse/dependence, and illicit drug abuse/dependence. In the field of smoking cessation, evidence is strong for exercise as an effective adjuvant treatment, whereas no generalizable and methodologically strong studies have been published for alcohol and drug treatment so far, allowing only preliminary conclusions about the effectiveness of exercise in these disorders. A couple of potential mechanisms are discussed, by which exercise may act as an effective treatment, as well as future directions for studies investigating exercise as a treatment strategy for substance use disorders.

  7. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  8. The ice nucleation activity of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, H.; Pummer, B.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.

    2012-04-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen may be important for several atmospheric processes. Particularly, the ice nucleation caused by PBAPs is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate is not yet fully understood. In laboratory model studies we investigated the ice nucleation activity of selected PBAPs. We studied the immersion mode freezing using water-oil emulsion, which we observed by optical microscopy. We particularly focused on pollen. We show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behavior. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 K to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen) have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. For comparison the ice nucleation activity of Snomax, fungal spores, and mushrooms will be discussed as well. In the past, pollen have been rejected as important atmospheric IN, as they are not as abundant in the atmosphere as bacteria or mineral dust and are too heavy to reach higher altitudes. However, in our experiments (Pummer et al. 2011) it turned out that water, which had been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. So the ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules (100-300 kDa) located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. It is widely known, that material from the pollen, like allergens and sugars, can indeed leave the pollen body and be distributed independently. The most probable mechanism is the pollen grain bursting by rain, which releases

  9. Influence of ecological factors on the production of active substances in the anti-cancer plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle T.S. Ying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which plays a very important role in the health system of China, is determined by the active substances produced by the plants. The type, content, and proportion of these substances may vary depending on ecological factors in areas where the plants are grown. Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle T.S. Ying, an endangered plant species with great medical value, was investigated in eight production locations representative of its natural geographical distribution range in China. The correlation between the contents of the active ingredients extracted from the roots and rhizomes of S. hexandrum and the ecological factors were evaluated step-by-step using a series of computational biology methodologies. The results showed that ecological factors had significant effects on the contents but not on the types of the active ingredients in eight production locations. The primary ecological factors influencing the active substances included the annual average precipitation, July mean temperature, frost-free period, sunshine duration, soil pH, soil organic matter, and rapidly available potassium in the soil. The annual average precipitation was the most important determinant factor and was significantly and negatively correlated with the active ingredient contents (P < 0.001. In contrast, organic matter was the most important limiting factor and was significantly and positively correlated with the active substances. These ecological factors caused 98.13% of the total geographical variation of the active ingredient contents. The climate factors contributed more to the active ingredient contents than did the soil factors. It was concluded that from the view of the contents of the secondary metabolites and ecological factors of each growing location, in Jingyuan, Ningxia Province, and Yongdeng, Gansu Province, conditions were favorable to the production of podophyllotoxin and lignans, whereas in Shangri-La, Yunnan

  10. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlender, Marcelo; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70-95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early nineteenth century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next two decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin, and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity.

  11. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor); Rabolt, John (Inventor); Casper, Cheryl (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A functionalized electrospun matrix for the controlled-release of biologically active agents, such as growth factors, is presented. The functionalized matrix comprises a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin.

  12. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed.

  13. The Effect of Deployment on the Rate of Major Depression and Substance Abuse in Active Duty Military from 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    DEFINITIONS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT Substance abuse, the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances , is a psychological...continued drinking despite recognition that an ulcer was made worse by alcohol consumption ). 12 An important component of the epidemiology of substance ...DEPLOYMENT ON THE RATE OF MAJOR DEPRESSION AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY FROM 2001–2006 by Melissa K. Burke March 2011 Thesis

  14. Increased activity of digoxin-like substance in low-renin hypertension in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynski, P.; Slowinska-Srzednicka, J.; Zgliczynski, S. (Medical Center for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw (Poland))

    1990-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is common in acromegaly, but the pathogenesis of this complication remains unknown. To determine the role of an endogenous Na,K pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance (DLS) in the pathogenesis of hypertension in acromegaly 76 subjects: 28 with acromegaly, 20 with essential hypertension and 28 healthy controls were studied. Serum DLS was measured with the use of radioimmunoassay and bioassay by the inhibition of digoxin-sensitive erythrocyte 86-Rb uptake. In acromegaly, the activity of DLS was significantly increased and plasma renin activity decreased in the hypertensive group, as compared with that of the normotensive group and controls. Moreover, DLS was elevated in the low-renin group of essential hypertension, as compared with that of the normal/high-renin group or controls. The activity of DLS correlated positively with mean arterial pressure and negatively with plasma renin activity, but not with growth hormone levels. In conclusion, an endogenous sodium pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance may play a role in the pathogenesis of low-renin hypertension in acromegaly.

  15. Targeting Platinum Compounds: synthesis and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    VAN ZUTPHEN, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by cisplatin, the inorganic drug discovered by Barnett Rosenberg in 1965, the research described in this thesis uses targeting ligands, or ligands varied in a combinatorial fashion, to find platinum complexes with more specific modes of action. These studies have lead to the development of novel (solid-phase) synthetic methods and to the discovery of several compounds with promising biological properties.

  16. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that compon...

  17. Functions and behaviors of activated sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS): a promising environmental interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yu; ZHENG Lei; SUN De-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are the predominant constituents of activated sludge and represent up to 80% of the mass of activated sludge. They play a crucial role in the flocculation, settling and dewatering of activated sludge. Furthermore,EPS also show great efficiency in binding heavy metals. So EPS are key factors influencing reduction in sludge volume and mass, as well as activity and utilization of sludge. EPS are of considerable environmental interest and hundreds of articles on EPS have been published abroad, while information on EPS in China is limited. In this paper, results of over 60 publications related to constituents and characteristics of EPS and their influences on flocculation, settling and dewatering of sludge are compiled and analyzed.Metal-binding ability of EPS is also discussed, together with a brief consideration of possible research interests in the future.

  18. John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie

    2016-04-01

    The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources.

  19. Adsorption of ultra-low concentration malodorous substances using coal-derived granular activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urano, K.; Maeda, T.; Yamashita, H.; Hagio, S.; Arioka, A.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental adsorption is reported of diosmin and 2-methylisoborneol using two types of coal-derived granular activated carbon and one derived from coconut husk. It was discovered that carbons with more pores below 15 angstroms in size gave a higher equilibrium adsorption of malodorous substances at mg/l concentrations. It was also found that the coal-derived materials, which contained more pores larger than 15 angstroms, gave faster adsorption. Given that the coal-derived carbons have a longer service life, it is concluded that they are suitable for use in full-scale adsorption plant where contact times are short. 3 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  20. The prevalence of new psychoactive substances in biological material - a three-year review of casework in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Gieroń, Joanna; Gil, Dominika; Lechowicz, Wojciech; Skulska, Agnieszka; Tokarczyk, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) pose a challenge for forensic and clinical toxicologists, as well as for legislators. We present our findings from cases where NPS have been detected in biological material. During the three-year period 2012-2014 we found NPS in 112 cases (out of 1058 analyzed), with 75 cases in 2014 alone. The prevalence of all NPS (15.1-17.6%) was similar to amphetamine alone that was detected in 15.1-16.5% of cases. The new drugs found belonged to the following classes: cathinones (88%), synthetic cannabinoids (5%), phenethylamines (3%), piperazines and piperidines (3%), arylalkylamines (1%) and other (1%). The drugs detected were (in the order of decreased frequency): 3-MMC (50), α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) (23), pentedrone (16), 3',4'-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone (MDPBP) (12), synthetic cannabinoid UR-144 (7), ethcathinone (5), mephedrone (5), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) (4), 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) (3), buphedrone (3), desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP) (3), methylone (2) and 2C-B (2). In single cases, 2-methylmethcathinone (2-MMC), 2C-P, eutylone, 25I-NBOMe, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), ephedrone, methiopropamine (MPA), and 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-APB) were found. One NPS was the sole agent in 35% of all cases, and two or more NPS were present in 19% of cases. NPS (one or more) with other conventional drugs (like amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, and benzodiazepines) were detected in most (65%) of the cases. NPS were very often detected in the blood of drivers which was a challenge for toxicologists due to a lack of data on their influence on psychomotor performance. A review of concentrations showed a wide range of values in different types of cases, especially driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) and intoxication.

  1. Nanosilver – Harmful effects of biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver, also identified as colloidal silver, has been known and used for ages to combat diseases or prolong food freshness. It usually occurs in the form of a suspension consisting of particles of size < 100 nm. Due to its specific properties, silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies to produce medical devices, textiles, conductive materials or photovoltaic cells. The growing popularity of nanosilver applications increases the number of people occupationally exposed to this substance. Potential exposure routes for silver nanoparticles are through dermal, oral and inhalation pathways. Silver nanoparticles may be absorbed through the lungs, intestine, and through the skin into circulation and thus may reach such organs as the liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart and testes. Nanosilver may cause mild eyes and skin irritations. It can also act as a mild skin allergen. Inhalation of silver nanoparticles mainly affects the lungs and liver. It has been demonstrated that silver nanoparticles may be genotoxic to mammalian cells. There are some alarming reports on the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on reproduction of experimental animals. Exposure to silver nanoparticles may exert a neurotoxic effect and affect cognitive functions, causing the impairment of short-term and working memory. Maximum admissible concentration (MAC for the inhalable fraction of silver of 0.05 mg/m3 is currently binding in Poland. In light of toxicological studies of silver nanoparticles it seems reasonable to update the hygiene standards for silver with nanoparticles as a separate fraction. Med Pr 2014;65(6:831–845

  2. Understanding the risks associated with the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS): high variability of active ingredients concentration, mislabelled preparations, multiple psychoactive substances in single products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-08-17

    New psychoactive substances (NPS), are now a large group of substances of abuse not yet completely controlled by international drug conventions, which may pose a public health threat. Anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, seizures, hyperthermia and cardiotoxicity are some of the common adverse effects associated with these compounds. In this paper, three case reports taken from the archive of processed cases of the authors' laboratory are presented and discussed to stress the risks of possible adverse consequences for NPS users: in particular, (i) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual consumed dose, due to variability of active ingredients concentration in consumed products, (ii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual active ingredients present in consumed products, as opposed to those claimed by the manufacturer, and (iii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual pharmacological and toxicological effects related to the simultaneous consumption of different psychoactive ingredients contained in single products, whose interactions are mostly unknown. Each of them individually provide a source of concern for possible serious health related consequences. However, they should be considered in conjunction with each others, with the worldwide availability of NPS through the web and also with the incessantly growing business derived from the manipulation and synthesis of new substances. The resulting scenario is that of a cultural challenge which demands a global approach from different fields of knowledge.

  3. Substance use, dental hygiene, and physical activity in adult patients with single ventricle physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Schrader, Anne-Marie; Lisby, Karen H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study aims to describe substance use, dental hygiene, and physical activity in adult survivors with single ventricle physiology (SVP) and to compare the behaviors with matched controls, while the patients are particularly at risk for general health problems. DESIGN: The present...... differences in overall health behaviors between SVP patients and controls, SVP patients are less physically active and are less likely to binge drink........596); 20% have had no dental visits during the last year (25% in controls; OR = 1.07; P = 0.684); 46% are not flossing their teeth (32% in controls; OR = 1.32; P = 0.239); and 39% are not physically active (24% in controls; OR = 1.63; P = 0.069). CONCLUSIONS: While in general there was no significant...

  4. Matricryptins and matrikines: biologically active fragments of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Salza, Romain

    2014-07-01

    Numerous extracellular proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) undergo limited enzymatic cleavage resulting in the release of fragments exerting biological activities, which are usually different from those of the full-length molecules. In this review, we define matrikines and matricryptins, which are bioactive fragments released from the extracellular matrix proteins, proteoglycans and GAGs and report their major biological activities. These fragments regulate a number of physiopathological processes including angiogenesis, cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and wound healing. The challenges to translate these fragments from molecules biologically active in vitro and in experimental models to potential drugs are discussed in the last part of the review.

  5. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae: Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukranul Mawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae, its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

  6. Molecular catchers for pharmacologically active substances in wastewaters, a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Valencia, P. J.; Pérez Merchancano, S. T.; Paredes, H.; Bolívar Marinez, L. E.

    2016-08-01

    A basic and pressing need in the treatment of residual waste waters for urban and rural centers is the removal of pharmacological active residues from them, these resides are originated in a wide array of domestic, agricultural and industrial sources and can't be removed in the residual waters treatment plants by conventional methods, the result is the incorporation of them into the ecosystem altering the physiology and behavior of living organisms. Among the most active pharmacological substances found in very high concentration in residual waters is paracetamol, an analgesic of very wide excessive use due to its ease of access and low cost [1]. No pharmacological substance is entirely absorbed by the human organism and therefore a wide family of molecular residues is excreted by the urinary tract. In this work we have used the AM1 (Austin Model 1), PM3 (Parametric Method 3) and ZINDO/CI semiempirical methods, from the NDO (Neglect Differential Overlap) family [2] to study and observe the structural, electronic and optical characteristics of paracetamol while immersed in different basic and acidic aqueous environments, either alone or interacting with lignosulphonates. We have previously found that lignosulphonates, a lignin derivatives of wide industrial applications, can be engineered as a binding and flocculant agent and acts as molecular catchers therefore showing the potential to be used as a mean to filter and eliminate molecular residues from the residual waters [3].

  7. Biological activities of Juglans regia flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae, flower were investigated. Antidepressant activity was examined by forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice. Antihypoxic activity was investigated in haemic and circulatory models. The effects were pronounced in both models. It produced statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced edema at nearly all doses, compared to control groups. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 674±27.6 µg mL-1. Extract showed good Fe2+ chelating ability (IC50 43±1.5 µg mL-1. It exhibited low antioxidant activity in linoleic acid peroxidation test. Its pharmacological effects may be attributed, in part, to the presence of phenols and ISSN 0102-695X flavonoids in the extract.

  8. The importance of extremophile cyanobacteria in the production of biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobac-Čik Aleksandra V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to endure extreme conditions, terrestrial cyanobacteria belong to a group of organisms known as "extremophiles". Research so far has shown that these organisms posses a great capacity for producing biologically active compounds (BAC. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of 21 cyanobacterial strains belonging to Anabaena and Nostoc genera, previously isolated from different soil types and water resources in Serbia, were evaluated. In general, larger number of cyanobacterial strains showed antifungal activity. In contrast to Nostoc, Anabaena strains showed greater diversity of antibacterial activity (mean value of percentages of sensitive targeted bacterial strains 3% and 25.9% respectively. Larger number of targeted fungi was sensitive to cultural liquid extract (CL, while crude cell extract (CE affected more bacterial strains. According to this investigation, the higher biological activity of terrestrial strains as representatives of extremophiles may present them as significant BAC producers. This kind of investigation creates very general view of cyanobacterial possibility to produce biologically active compounds but it points out the necessity of exploring terrestrial cyanobacterial extremophiles as potentially excellent sources of these substances and reveals the most prospective strains for further investigations.

  9. Quantification of potential exposure of gray partridge (Perdix perdix) to pesticide active substances in farmlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bro, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.bro@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Millot, Florian, E-mail: florian.millot@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Decors, Anouk, E-mail: anouk.decors@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Devillers, James, E-mail: j.devillers@ctis.fr [Centre de Traitement de l' Information Scientifique (CTIS), 3 chemin de la Gravière, 69140 Rillieux La Pape (France)

    2015-07-15

    Estimating exposure of wild birds to plant protection products is of key importance in the risk assessment process evaluating their harmful potential. In this paper, we propose an ecologically-relevant methodology to estimate potential exposure to active substances (ASs) of a farmland focal bird, the gray partridge Perdix perdix. It is based on bird habitat use of fields at the time of pesticide applications. It accounts for spatio-temporal heterogeneity at population and landscape scales. We identify and quantify the potential exposure to 179 ASs of 140 clutches during pre-laying, laying, and incubation phases, and of 75 coveys. The data come from a large scale field study combining radiotelemetry and a farmer survey. They were collected in 12 different representative sites. The proportion of clutches potentially exposed to a given chemical was ≥ 5% for 32 ASs; prothioconazole and epoxiconazole ranking first. 71% of clutches were potentially exposed to ≥ 1 AS and 67% to ≥ 2 ASs. Mixtures involved 2 to 22 ASs. They emerged from commercial formulations, tank mixtures, bird habitat use, and combinations. ASs were fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) used on a variety of crops in April–June, when ground-nesting birds are breeding. The European Food Safety Authority conclusions report a long-term first-tier toxicity-to-exposure ratio (TER{sub lt}) < 5 for 11 out of 19 documented ASs, and higher-tier TER{sub lt} < 5 for 5 out of 10 ASs. This suggests a potential risk for bird reproduction in farmlands. Globally 13% of coveys were potentially exposed to 18 ASs during the first month (1–4 coveys per AS). The use of our field data in future research and risk assessment is discussed. - Highlights: • 71% of clutches and 13% of coveys are exposed to active substances. • Partridge clutches/coveys are mostly exposed to 32/3 substances. • Fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) dominate. • Some substances have the

  10. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferreira Mota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae. Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum.

  11. High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, J.

    2007-01-01

    High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites Jeroen Kool Biotransformation enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Usually, the detoxication of these compounds by biotransformation enzymes results in harmless metab

  12. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production.

  13. Decreasing toxic and mutagenic activity of soils through the application of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorova Alla, I.; Pavlichenko Artem, 2.; Klimkina Iryna, 3.

    2009-04-01

    Based on an example of conditions on mining industry land adjacent to the Dnepr River in the Dnepropetrovsk Region (Ukraine), the ecological quality of the soils was evaluated by cytogenetic methods and, in parallel, the efficiency of using humates obtained from brown coal of the Alexandria deposit was also researched. During an ecological monitoring programme from 1997 to 2007, the genetic characteristics of soils at 12 locations in Dnepropetrovsk, and at 33 locations in four other industrial mining areas in the region, was studied. A theoretical basis for the use of humic substances for blocking the migration paths of ecological toxic-matter within a soil-to-plant system was reasoned, namely that introducing natrium humate into the soil would promote a normalization of the cell division processes and a reduction in the chromosome aberration rate in the root meristem of the biological indicators. Laboratory tests involved growing seeds of an indicator plant (Pisum sativum L.) in the different soils, to some of which humic substances had been added. The data showed evidence that the soils of the region display a rather patchy picture in terms of toxic and mutagen features. This was obvious from the variety of levels on the mitotic index, as well as from the increase of 5 to 24 times the frequency of aberrant chromosomes. Introducing 0.01per cent of a Christecol water solution into a substratum for growing the indicator plant apparently reduced (Pmutagenic rates of the soils during the test was reduced by 1.5 to 4 times and, at the same time, a reduction of the soil toxic rates was also observed. The reduction in chromosome aberration levels in the cells of the tested materials for the soils in the different city districts, varied from 2.9 to 12.4 times. Importantly, a reliable reduction in the genetic damage under the influence of humic substances was observed in all test variants. The tests showed that there is good potential for achieving significant improvements

  14. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Philanthotoxin Analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong An ZHANG; Ke Zhong LIU; Deng Yuan WANG; Yu Zhu WANG; Liang Jian QU; Chang Jin ZHU

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of four analogs of philanthotoxin is described. The preliminary bioassay showed that these compounds all had good insecticidal activities, and the compound 6a had the best killing effect.

  15. Total synthesis and biological activity of natural product Urukthapelstatin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Tantisantisom, Worawan; McAlpine, Shelli R

    2013-07-19

    Herein we report the first total synthesis of the natural product Urkuthaplestatin A (Ustat A) utilizing a convergent synthetic strategy. The characterization and biological activity match those of the previously published natural product. Interestingly, several intermediates, including the linear and serine cyclized precursors, show a 100-fold decrease in cytotoxicity, with IC50's in the low micromolar range. These data indicate that the rigidity and the consecutive aromatic heterocyclic system are responsible for the biological activity.

  16. Phytochemicals and Their Biological Activities of Plants in Tagetes L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-wei; CHEN Juan; QI Huan-yang; SHI Yan-ping

    2012-01-01

    Tagetes L.,the genus in the family Asteraceae,consists of about 30 species spread in South and Middle America as well as Mexico.More than one hundred secondary metabolites have been obtained in phytochemical investigation on the species,some of which have potent biological activities.The advances in phytochemical studies and biological activities of the plants in Tagetes L.from 1925 to 2011 are summarized in this paper.

  17. Biologically active cis-cinnamic acid occurs naturally in Brassica parachinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The biologically active cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA) has been perceived as a synthetic plant growth regulator for decades. However, in the present study, we found that cis-CA actually exists as a naturally occurring compound in a Brassica plant. This natural growth- regulating substance presents in both the sunlight-irradiated leaf tissue and the non-irradiated root tissue. The concentrations of cis-CA in both tissues are comparable to the biologically effective levels of those major plant hormones. The presence of cis-CA in root tissue suggests that it may be produced through both light-dependent and -independent path- ways or it can be transported from a plant organ to another.

  18. [Relation between oxygen uptake rate and biosorption of activated sludge against chemical substance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Yuichi; Inoue, Tatsuaki; Yokota, Katsushi

    2005-02-01

    In this study, the elucidation of the toxicity mechanism was undertaken regarding the IC(50) of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) with relevance to the biosorption as a toxicity evaluation of chemical substances for activated sludge (AS). At the IC(50) oflinear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS), alkyl ethoxy sulfonate (AES), alpha-olefine sulfonate (AOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), formaldehyde (FA), benzalkonium chloride (BZaC), benzethonium chloride (BZeC), rhodamine 6G (R-6G) and fuchsine (Fuc) in which the IC(50) belonged to the 100-1000 mg/l group, when it was compared with CV and MG. In ethanol (EtOH), isopropanol (PrOH), nile blue (NB), evans blue (EB), methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), paraquat (PQ), chlorophyllin (Chl) and auramine (Aur), the IC(50) was large, and the biosorption of AS was weak at 0-15%. The biosorption of MG for AS followed the adsorption isotherm equation Y=0.002X(0.511) of Freundrich. The correlation coefficient was gamma=0.998 (n=8), and a very high correlation was obtained. In the qualitative OUR curve by AS pretreated with MG or CV which belonged to the IC(50) small group, the inhibition of remarkable OUR was observed. Therefore, the findings of the present investigation suggest that the inhibition of the OUR for AS by the tested chemical substances was markedly affected by the biosorption.

  19. Biological Activities of a Thai Luminescent Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraporn BURAKORN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruit bodies of luminescent mushrooms were collected from wood stumps over a period covering August to October 2011 in the Kosumpisai forest, Mahasarakham province, in the Northeast of Thailand. A study of the morphological and genetic characteristics of the luminescent mushroom suggested that it was Neonothopanus nimbi KS. The fruiting bodies and mycelium of Neonothopanus nimbi KS were assayed for their antimicrobial activities, antifungal activity, inhibitory activity against avian influenza H5N1 neuraminidase (NA, and anticancer activity, using organic solvent extracts. The results showed that only the methanol extract of mycelia was effective against Bacillus sphaericus, with the widest inhibition zone of 11.66±2.71 mm, but this was not effective against the other 3 bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Escherichia coli. On the other hand, all of the fruit body extracts were inactive against all four bacteria. The ethylacetate extract of mycelia inhibited the NCI-H187 small lung cancer cell line, KB oral cavity cancer cell line, and the MCF7 breast cancer cell line, including Magnaporthe grisea and Curvularia lunata. The methanol extract of mycelia inhibited the KB oral cavity cell cancer cell line, Magnaporthe grisea, and Curvularia lunata at 96.66, 95.32 and 95.41 %, respectively. The results imply that polar extracts of mycelia are a resource of bioactive compounds, whereas extracts of fruit bodies have less inhibitory activity against cancer, phytopathogenic-fungi and H5N1 neuraminidase.

  20. Activation of vagus nerve by semapimod alters substance P levels and decreases breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin, Nuray; Duymuş, Ozlem; Oztürk, Saffet; Demir, Necdet

    2012-11-10

    Chronic inflammation is involved in initiation as well as in progression of cancer. Semapimod, a tetravalent guanylhydrazon and formerly known as CNI-1493, inhibits the release of inflammatory cytokines from activated macrophages and this effect is partly mediated by the vagus nerve. Our previous findings demonstrated that inactivation of vagus nerve activity as well sensory neurons enhanced visceral metastasis of 4THM breast carcinoma. Hence semapimod by activating vagus nerve may inhibit breast cancer metastasis. Here, effects of semapimod on breast cancer metastasis, the role of vagal sensory neurons on this effect and changes in mediators of the neuroimmune connection, such as substance P (SP) as well as neprilysin-like activity, were examined. Vagotomy was performed on half of the control animals that were treated with semapimod following orthotopic injection of 4THM breast carcinoma cells. Semapimod decreased lung and liver metastases in control but not in vagotomized animals with an associated increased SP levels in sensory nerve endings. Semapimod also increased neprilysin-like activity in lung tissue of control animals but not in tumor-bearing animals. This is the first report demonstrating that semapimod enhances vagal sensory nerve activity and may have anti-tumoral effects under in-vivo conditions. Further studies, however, are required to elucidate the conditions and the mechanisms involved in anti-tumoral effects of semapimod.

  1. Biologically active secondary metabolites from Asphodelus microcarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Ma, Guoyi; El-Hela, Atef A; Mohammad, Abd-Elsalam I; Kottob, Saeid; El-Ghaly, Sayed; Cutler, Stephen J; Ross, Samir A

    2013-08-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm.et Vivi (Asphodelaceae) resulted in the isolation of one new metabolite, 1,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-2-naphthoic acid (1) as well as nine known compounds: asphodelin (2), chrysophanol (3), 8-methoxychrysophanol (4), emodin (5), 2-acetyl-1,8-dimethoxy-3-methylnaphthalene (6), 10-(chrysophanol-7'-yl)-10-hydroxychrysophanol-9-anthrone (7), aloesaponol-III-8-methyl ether (8), ramosin (9) and aestivin (10). The compounds were identified by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Compounds 3, 6 and 10 were isolated for the first time from this species. Compounds 3 and 4 showed moderate to weak antileishmanial activity with IC50 values of 14.3 and 35.1 microg/mL, respectively. Compound 4 exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 15.0 microg/mL, while compounds 5, 7 and 10 showed good to potent activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with IC50 values of 6.6, 9.4 microg/mL and 1.4 microg/mL respectively. Compounds 5, 8 and 9 displayed good activity against S. aureus with IC50 values of 3.2, 7.3 and 8.5 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 7 and 9 exhibited a potent cytotoxic activity against leukemia LH60 and K562 cell lines. Compound 10 showed potent antimalarial activities against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values in the range of 0.8-0.7 microg/mL without showing any cytotoxicity to mammalian cells.

  2. Transport and biological activities of bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Brittnee L; Agellon, Luis B

    2013-07-01

    Bile acids have emerged as important biological molecules that support the solubilization of various lipids and lipid-soluble compounds in the gut, and the regulation of gene expression and cellular function. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and eventually released into the small intestine. The majority of bile acids are recovered in the distal end of the small intestine and then returned to the liver for reuse. The components of the mechanism responsible for the recycling of bile acids within the enterohepatic circulation have been identified whereas the mechanism for intracellular transport is less understood. Recently, the ileal lipid binding protein (ILBP; human gene symbol FABP6) was shown to be needed for the efficient transport of bile acids from the apical side to the basolateral side of enterocytes in the distal intestine. This review presents an overview of the transport of bile acids between the liver and the gut as well as within hepatocytes and enterocytes. A variety of pathologies is associated with the malfunction of the bile acid transport system.

  3. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  4. D-Aspartate--an important bioactive substance in mammals: a review from an analytical and biological point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katane, Masumi; Homma, Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    It was long believed that D-amino acids were either unnatural isomers or laboratorial artifacts and that the important functions of amino acids were exerted only by l-amino acids. However, recent investigations have shown that a variety of D-amino acids are present in mammals and that they play important roles in physiological functions in the body. Among the free d-amino acids that have been identified in mammals, D-aspartate (D-Asp) has been shown to play a crucial role in the neuroendocrine and endocrine systems as well as in the central nervous system. Here, we present an overview of recent studies of free D-Asp, focusing on the analytical methods in real biological matrices, expression and localization in tissues and cells, biological and physiological activities, biosynthesis, degradation, cellular transport, and possible relevance to disease. In addition to frequently used techniques for the enantiomeric determination of amino acids, including high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic methods, the recent development of analytical methods is also described.

  5. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Voltaire; Quadros, Deoni A F; Motta, Amanda S; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g(-1)) previously inoculated with a suspension of 10(2) cfu g(-1) of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe) against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  6. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltaire Sant'Anna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g-1 previously inoculated with a suspension of 10² cfu g-1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  7. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance pyrethrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Italy, for the pesticide active substance pyrethrins are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of pyrethrins as an insecticide on tomato, pepper, cucumber, melons, strawberries, potatoes, lettuce and ornamentals. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  8. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance spiromesifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance spiromesifen are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of spiromesifen as an insecticide and acaricide on cucumber, courgette, pepper, tomato, eggplant (aubergine, French bean, melon, strawberry and ornamentals in permanent greenhouses. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  9. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance pyridalyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance pyridalyl are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EUNo 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of pyridalyl as an insecticide on field and glasshouse tomato, aubergine, sweet and chilli pepper, and on field cucurbits, lettuce and cotton. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  10. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance valifenalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, Hungary, for the pesticide active substance valifenalate are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of valifenalate as a fungicide on grapes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  11. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant’Anna, Voltaire; Quadros, Deoni A.F.; Motta, Amanda S.; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g−1) previously inoculated with a suspension of 102 cfu g−1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe) against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products. PMID:24688506

  12. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State The Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance sodium hypochlorite are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004 as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of sodium hypochlorite as a bactericide on mushrooms. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  13. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance potassium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance potassium iodide are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of potassium iodide as a fungicide on tomatoes, sweet peppers, cucumber, eggplant, strawberries and ornamental flowers in greenhouse and field applications on strawberries. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  14. Extracellular polymeric substances and dewaterability of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fenxia; Liu, Xinwen; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge was conducted to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying change in sludge dewaterability during its anaerobic digestion. Unexpectedly, the results indicated that sludge dewatering properties measured by capillary suction time only deteriorated after 10 days of anaerobic digestion, after which dewaterability recovered and remained stable. The loosely bound extracellular polymeric substance (LB-EPS) content increased three-fold after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, and did not change significantly during the remaining 30 days. The tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) content reduced slightly after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, and stabilized during the last 30 days. Polysaccharides (PS) and proteins (PN) content in LB-EPS increased after 10 days of anaerobic digestion. However, PS and PN contents in TB-EPS decreased slightly. The relationship analysis showed that only LB-EPS correlated with dewaterability of the sludge during anaerobic digestion.

  15. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  16. Rhodiola plants: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Mei Chiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola is a genus of medicinal plants that originated in Asia and Europe and are used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. Rhodiola plants are rich in polyphenols, and salidroside and tyrosol are the primary bioactive marker compounds in the standardized extracts of Rhodiola rosea. This review article summarizes the bioactivities, including adaptogenic, antifatigue, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinoception, and anticancer activities, and the modulation of immune function of Rhodiola plants and its two constituents, as well as their potential to prevent cardiovascular, neuronal, liver, and skin disorders.

  17. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  18. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  19. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POLYKETONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail A.Alkskas; Altaher M.Alhubge; Faizul Azam

    2013-01-01

    Polyketone resins have been prepared by the Friedel-Crafts polymerization of dithiophenylidenecyclopentanone (Ⅰ),dithiophenylidenecyclohexanone (Ⅱ) and dithiophenylideneacetone (Ⅲ) with adipoyl,sebacoyl and terephthaloyl dichlorides using boron trifluoride as catalyst and carbon disulphide as solvent.Polymers were characterized with IR,1H-NMR,and the results showed the presence of carbonyl of ketonic groups in the main chain.The polyketones have inherent viscosities of 0.40-0.70 dL/g.All the polymers are semicrystalline and most of them are partially soluble in most common organic solvents but freely soluble in aprotic solvents.The temperatures of 50% weight loss are as high as 185℃ to 280℃ in air,indicating that these aromatic polyketones have excellent thermal stability.All the polyketones were tested for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi.

  20. Influences of influent carbon source on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and physicochemical properties of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fenxia; Peng, Ge; Li, Ying

    2011-08-01

    It is necessary to understand the bioflocculation, settling and dewatering characteristics in the activated sludge process in order to establish more efficient operational strategies. The influences of carbon source on the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and flocculation, settling and dewatering properties of the activated sludge were investigated. Laboratory-scale completely mixed activated sludge processes were used to grow the activated sludge with different carbon sources of starch, glucose and sodium acetate. The sludge fed with acetate had highest loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and that fed with starch lowest. The amount of tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS), protein content in LB-EPS, polysaccharide content and protein contents in TB-EPS, were independent of the influent carbon source. The polysaccharide content in LB-EPS of the activated sludge fed with sodium acetate was lower slightly than those of starch and glucose. The sludge also had a nearly consistent flocs size and the sludge volume index (SVI) value. ESS content of the sludge fed with sodium acetate was higher initially, although it was similar to those fed with glucose and starch finally. However, the specific resistance to filtration and normalized capillary suction time fluctuated first, but finally were stable at around 5.0×10(8)mkg(-1) and 3.5 s Lg(-1) SS, respectively. Only the protein content in LB-EPS weakly correlated with the flocs size and SVI of the activated sludge. But there was no correlation between any other EPS contents or components and the physicochemical properties of the activated sludge.

  1. Photo-activated biological processes as quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Imamoglu, Atac

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for describing photo-activated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit non-equilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.

  2. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  3. Surface-active substances in a laboratory simulated Titan's organic haze: Prebiotic microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagota, Seema; Kawai, Jun; Deamer, David; McKay, Christopher; Khare, Bishun; Beeler, David

    2014-11-01

    Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, is a key planetary body for astrobiological studies due to its active organic chemistry, hydrocarbon lakes and possible subsurface water-ammonia liquids. We have investigated the physicochemical properties of organic compounds synthesized in a simulated Titan atmosphere. A laboratory analog of Titan's aerosols, called tholin, was produced by irradiation of a nitrogen/methane gas mixture. The primary aim was to determine whether tholin represent possible sources of surface-active substances that could have been involved in the formation of prebiotic structures. A tholin sample was extracted with chloroform-methanol and the chloroform soluble material was separated by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Fluorescence excited by UV light was used to identify the major components on the plates. After being scraped from the TLC plate, the components were eluted as specific fractions and investigated by surface chemical methods, FTIR, scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Fractions 1 and 2 were strongly fluorescent and surface active, producing films at air-water interfaces. When exposed to aqueous phases, components in fraction 1 form spherical microstructures resembling prebionts. The prebionts are precursor structures that might have evolved into the first living cells.

  4. Biological activity of diterpenoids isolated from Anatolian Lamiaceae Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülaçtı Topçu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, cytotoxic, antitumor, cardiovascular, antifeedant, insecticidal, antileishmanial and some other single activities of diterpenoids and norditerpenoids isolated from Turkish Lamiaceae plants, are reviewed. The diterpenoids were isolated from species of Salvia, Sideritis, and Ballota species growing in Anatolia. Fifty abietanes, ten kaurenes, seven pimaranes, six labdanes with their biological activities were reported. While twenty five diterpenoids showed antibacterial activity, eight of which showed activity against fungi. The most cytotoxic one was found to be taxodione (44 isolated from species of Salvia. Antifeedant, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of kaurenes, antimycobacterial activity and cardioactivity of abietanes and norabietanes together with labdanes were also reported.

  5. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Auger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction.

  6. Biological activities and phytochemical profiles of extracts from different parts of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akinobu; Zhu, Qinchang; Tan, Hui; Horiba, Hiroki; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Mori, Yasuhiro; Yamauchi, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Iwamoto, Akira; Kawahara, Hiroharu; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-06-18

    Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  7. Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  8. Modulatory effect of substance P on GABA-activated currents from rat dorsal root ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-qiang SI; Zhi-qin ZHANG; Chun-xia LI; Li-feng WANG; Yun-lei YANG; Zhi-wang LI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated current of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rat. METHODS: The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record SP- and GABAactivated currents in neurons freshly dissociated from rat DRG neurons. Drugs were applied by rapid solution exchange. RESULTS: Application of SP (28/41, 68.5 %) and GABA (36/41, 88.2 %) could induce concentrationdependent inward current in some cells. SP-(10 μmol/L) and GABA (100 μmol/L)-activated inward currents were (244±83) pA (n=9) and (1.8±0.5) nA (n=13), respectively. The majority of GABA-activated current had obvious three processes, the peak value (Ip), the steady state (Iss) and the desensitization (Ia). The desensitization of GABAactivated current was a biphasic process, including fast and slow desensitization. However, pre-application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) could inhibit the GABA-activated inward current which was identified to be GABAA receptormediated current. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent. The inhibitory effect of SP on the peak value of GABA-activated current was more than the steady state of GABA-activated current. The inhibition of GABA-activated current by SP (0.1 μmol/L) was related to the time after application of SP, the inhibition of GABAactivated currents by SP reached the peak at about 4 min (49.8 %±7.2 %, n=7, P<0.01) and took about 12 min to get a full recovery. The inhibition of GABA-activated currents by SP was almost completely removed after blockade of PKC by H-7 with the re-patch clamp. CONCLUSION: Pre-application of SP exerts a more strong inhibitory effect on the peak value of GABA-activated current than the steady state of GABA-activated current.

  9. Biological Activity of Curcuminoids Isolated from Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simay Çıkrıkçı

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is the most important fraction of turmeric which is responsible for its biological activity. In this study, isolation and biological assessment of turmeric and curcumin have been discussed against standard bacterial and mycobacterial strains such as E.coli , S.aureus, E.feacalis, P.aeuroginosa, M.smegmatis, M.simiae, M.kansasii, M. terrae, M.szulgai and the fungi Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity of curcumin and turmeric were also determined by the CUPRAC method.

  10. Biological Activity of Aminophosphonic Acids and Their Short Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejczak, Barbara; Kafarski, Pawel

    The biological activity and natural occurrence of the aminophosphonic acids were described half a century ago. Since then the chemistry and biology of this class of compounds have developed into the separate field of phosphorus chemistry. Today it is well acknowledged that these compounds possess a wide variety of promising, and in some cases commercially useful, physiological activities. Thus, they have found applications ranging from agrochemical (with the herbicides glyphosate and bialaphos being the most prominent examples) to medicinal (with the potent antihypertensive fosinopril and antiosteoporetic bisphosphonates being examples).

  11. Recent progress in biological activities of synthesized phenothiazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, Krystian; Morak-Młodawska, Beata; Jeleń, Małgorzata

    2011-08-01

    This review summarizes recent medicinal chemistry investigations in vitro and in vivo in search for new phenothiazines of promising biological activities. New phenothiazine derivatives (over 50 main structures) contain dialkylaminoalkyl, cycloaminoalkyl and aminoalkyl substituents and their acyl and sulfonyl derivatives, and other substituents with varied the monocyclic (pyrazole, thiazole, oxadiazole, thiadiazole, tetrazole) and bicyclic (quinolizine, pyrazolopyrimidine, thiazolopyridine, azabicyclononane and spiro[chromanpyrimidine] heterocycles linked directly or via the alkyl chain with the thiazine nitrogen atom or with the benzene ring. The modifications of the tricyclic ring system with the bicyclic homoaromatic ring (naphthalene) and monocyclic and bicyclic azine rings (pyridine, pyrimidine, pyrazine and quinoline) led to compounds of significant biological activities. Recently obtained phenothiazines exhibit promising antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antifilarial, trypanocidal, anticonvulsant, analgesic, immunosuppressive and multidrug resistance reversal properties. These activities were the results of the actions of phenothiazines on biological systems via the interaction of the pharmacophoric substituent (in some cases of strict length), via the interaction of the multicyclic ring system (π-π interaction, intercalation in DNA) and via the lipophilic character allowing the penetration through the biological membranes. The activities were examined by using various biological systems such as cell lines, bacteria, viruses, parasites, laboratory mice, rats and rabbits, and monolayer and bilayer membranes. Some mechanisms of the actions are discussed. This review shows current tendency in the phenothiazine synthesis (without synthetic routes) and reveals the phenothiazine core to be very potent pharmacophoric moiety which can be a rich source of new compounds having desirable biological activities.

  12. Antimicrobial activity and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from artisanal Mexican cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus spp. from Mexican Cocido cheese were shown to produce bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) active against Staphylococcus aureus,Listeria innocua,Escherichia coli, andSalmonella typhimurium by using the disk diffusion method. Crude extracts of Lactobacillus fermentum showed strong inhibitory activity against Staph. aureus, L. innocua, E. coli, and Salmonella cholerae. Complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of crude extracts with proteinase K, pronase, papain, trypsin, and lysozyme, confirming their proteinaceous nature. However, antimicrobial activity was partly lost for some of the crude extracts when treated with α-amylase, indicating that carbohydrate moieties were involved. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was stable at 65°C for 30min over a wide pH range (2-8), and addition of potassium chloride, sodium citrate, ethanol, and butanol did not affect antibacterial activity. However, antimicrobial activity was lost after heating at 121°C for 15min, addition of methanol or Tween 80. Fourteen out of 18 Lactobacillus spp. showed antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms, and 12 presented bacteriocin-like substances. Generation time and growth rate parameters indicated that the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from 3 different strains was effective against the 4 indicator microorganisms. One of the crude extracts showed inhibition not only against gram-positive but also against gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by this specific Lactobacillus strain showed potential for application as a food biopreservative.

  13. Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Zulane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds. Methods Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and ethanol (EtOH and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa. Results Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 C. ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL. By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50% with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Conclusions Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine.

  14. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Heer, C. de

    2005-01-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of repeate

  15. Introduction to the special issue on organizational dynamics within substance abuse treatment: a complex human activity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Patrick M; Knight, Danica K; Godley, Mark D; Knudsen, Hannah K

    2012-03-01

    Substance abuse treatment programs represent complex human activity systems in which multiple actors, including clients, counselors, and managers, are nested. Furthermore, treatment programs are nested within the broader environmental context of resource allocation and regulatory enforcement. This special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment presents 12 empirical papers that address organizational dynamics within specialty treatment programs. In this introduction to the special issue, the guest editors describe a conceptual framework of organizational dynamics, offer an overview of the articles within this issue, and discuss future prospects for research.

  16. Gemini ester quat surfactants and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyński, Jacek; Frąckowiak, Renata; Włoch, Aleksandra; Kleszczyńska, Halina; Witek, Stanisław

    2013-03-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants are an important class of surface-active compounds that exhibit much higher surface activity than their monomeric counterparts. This type of compound architecture lends itself to the compound being easily adsorbed at interfaces and interacting with the cellular membranes of microorganisms. Conventional cationic surfactants have high chemical stability but poor chemical and biological degradability. One of the main approaches to the design of readily biodegradable and environmentally friendly surfactants involves inserting a bond with limited stability into the surfactant molecule to give a cleavable surfactant. The best-known example of such a compound is the family of ester quats, which are cationic surfactants with a labile ester bond inserted into the molecule. As part of this study, a series of gemini ester quat surfactants were synthesized and assayed for their biological activity. Their hemolytic activity and changes in the fluidity and packing order of the lipid polar heads were used as the measures of their biological activity. A clear correlation between the hemolytic activity of the tested compounds and their alkyl chain length was established. It was found that the compounds with a long hydrocarbon chain showed higher activity. Moreover, the compounds with greater spacing between their alkyl chains were more active. This proves that they incorporate more easily into the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and affect its properties to a greater extent. A better understanding of the process of cell lysis by surfactants and of their biological activity may assist in developing surfactants with enhanced selectivity and in widening their range of application.

  17. Computer-aided discovery of biological activity spectra for anti-aging and anti-cancer olive oil oleuropeins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Santangelo, Elvira; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Micol, Vicente; Joven, Jorge; Ariza, Xavier; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; García, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A

    2014-09-01

    Aging is associated with common conditions, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The type of multi-targeted pharmacological approach necessary to address a complex multifaceted disease such as aging might take advantage of pleiotropic natural polyphenols affecting a wide variety of biological processes. We have recently postulated that the secoiridoids oleuropein aglycone (OA) and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (DOA), two complex polyphenols present in health-promoting extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), might constitute a new family of plant-produced gerosuppressant agents. This paper describes an analysis of the biological activity spectra (BAS) of OA and DOA using PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) software. PASS can predict thousands of biological activities, as the BAS of a compound is an intrinsic property that is largely dependent on the compound's structure and reflects pharmacological effects, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action, and specific toxicities. Using Pharmaexpert, a tool that analyzes the PASS-predicted BAS of substances based on thousands of "mechanism-effect" and "effect-mechanism" relationships, we illuminate hypothesis-generating pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and targets that might underlie the anti-aging/anti-cancer activities of the gerosuppressant EVOO oleuropeins.

  18. Computer-aided discovery of biological activity spectra for anti-aging and anti-cancer olive oil oleuropeins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Santangelo, Elvira; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Micol, Vicente; Joven, Jorge; Ariza, Xavier; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; García, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with common conditions, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The type of multi-targeted pharmacological approach necessary to address a complex multifaceteddisease such as aging might take advantage of pleiotropic natural polyphenols affecting a wide variety of biological processes. We have recently postulated that the secoiridoids oleuropein aglycone (OA) and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (DOA), two complex polyphenols present in health-promoting extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), might constitute anew family of plant-produced gerosuppressant agents. This paper describes an analysis of the biological activity spectra (BAS) of OA and DOA using PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) software. PASS can predict thousands of biological activities, as the BAS of a compound is an intrinsic property that is largely dependent on the compound's structure and reflects pharmacological effects, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action, and specific toxicities. Using Pharmaexpert, a tool that analyzes the PASS-predicted BAS of substances based on thousands of “mechanism-effect” and “effect-mechanism” relationships, we illuminate hypothesis-generating pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and targets that might underlie the anti-aging/anti-cancer activities of the gerosuppressant EVOO oleuropeins. PMID:25324469

  19. TRIAZOLE: A POTENTIAL BIOACTIVE AGENT (SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY)

    OpenAIRE

    Pandeya Surendra Nath; Pathak Ashish; Mishra Rupesh

    2011-01-01

    Azoles belong to very important class of Antimicrobial drugs. Triazole is very important Azole which exists in two isomeric forms namely 1, 2, 3-Triazole and 1, 2, 4-Triazole. This Review Article covers the Different approaches to synthesize Triazoles having different substitution and their different biological activity. This Review article can be useful to synthesize new compounds having Triazole nucleolus.

  20. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  1. Polysaccharies of higher fungi: Biological role, structure and antioxidative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.S.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Vrvic, M.M.; Jakovljevic, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging bio-logical properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypo-lipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application

  2. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  3. Occurrence, biological activity and synthesis of drimane sesquiterpenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    In this review the names, structures and occurrence of all new drimanes and rearranged drimanes, which have been published between January 1990 and January 2003 have been collected. Subjects that have been treated are biosynthesis, analysis, biological activities, with special attention to cytotoxic

  4. Brain Activity Classifies Adolescents with and without a Familial History of Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping eQiao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to uncover differences in brain circuits of adolescents with parental positive or negative histories of substance use disorders (SUD, when performing a task that elicits emotional conflict, testing whether the brain circuits could serve as endophenotype markers to distinguish these adolescents. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 11 adolescents with a positive familial history of SUD (FH+ group and 7 adolescents with a negative familial history of SUD (FH- group when performing an emotional stroop task. We extracted brain features from the conflict-related contrast images in group level analyses and granger causality indices (GCIs that measure the causal interactions among regions. Support vector machine was applied to classify the FH+ and FH- adolescents. Adolescents with FH+ showed greater activity and weaker connectivity related to emotional conflict, decision making and reward system including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, prefrontal cortex (PFC and ventral tegmental area (VTA. High classification accuracies were achieved with leave-one-out cross validation (89.75% for the maximum conflict, 96.71% when combining maximum conflict and general conflict contrast, 97.28% when combining activity of the two contrasts and GCIs. Individual contributions of the brain features to the classification were further investigated, indicating that activation in PFC, ACC, VTA and effective connectivity from PFC to ACC play the most important roles. We concluded that fundamental differences of neural substrates underlying cognitive behaviors of adolescents with parental positive or negative histories of SUD provide new insight into potential neurobiological mechanisms contributing to the elevated risk of FH+ individuals for developing SUD.

  5. A facile synthesis of arylazonicotinates for dyeing polyester fabrics under microwave irradiation and their biological activity profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mousawi, Saleh M; El-Apasery, Morsy A; Mahmoud, Huda M

    2012-09-27

    A as textile dyes and the fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed very good washing and perspiration fastness and series of 2-hydroxy- and 2-amino-6-substituted-5-arylazonicotinate monoazo compounds 7a-e and 9a-c were prepared via condensation of 3-oxo-3-substituted-2-arylhydrazonals 2a-e with active methylene nitriles 3a-d using microwave irradiation as an energy source. These substances were then tested moderate light fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized compounds against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated.

  6. A Facile Synthesis of Arylazonicotinates for Dyeing Polyester Fabrics under Microwave Irradiation and Their Biological Activity Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh M. Al-Mousawi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A as textile dyes and the fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed very good washing and perspiration fastness and series of 2-hydroxy- and 2-amino-6-substituted-5-arylazonicotinate monoazo compounds 7a–e and 9a–c were prepared via condensation of 3-oxo-3-substituted-2-arylhydrazonals 2a–e with active methylene nitriles 3a–d using microwave irradiation as an energy source. These substances were then tested moderate light fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized compounds against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated.

  7. Chemical composition and biological activity of the plum seed extract

    OpenAIRE

    Savić, Ivan M.; Nikolić, Vesna D.; Savić-Gajić, Ivana M.; Kundaković, Tatjana D.; Stanojković, Tatjana P.; Najman, Stevo J.; id_orcid 0000-0002-2411-9802

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the biological activity of the plum seed extract and to define the chemical composition by using the ESI-MS method. During the investigation of the antioxidant activity, the extract showed a better ability to inhibit DPPH radicals compared with amygdalin standard. The results of the antimicrobial study indicate that the extract has a greater effect on Gram-negative bacteria compared with amygdalin. Gram-positive bacteria and fungi remained resistant in bo...

  8. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  9. Improved PVDF membrane performance by doping extracellular polymeric substances of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yan-Fang; Huang, Bao-Cheng; Qian, Chen; Wang, Long-Fei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-04-15

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has been widely applied in water and wastewater treatment because of its high mechanical strength, thermal stability and chemical resistance. However, the hydrophobic nature of PVDF membrane makes it readily fouled, substantially reducing water flux and overall membrane rejection ability. In this work, an in-situ blending modifier, i.e., extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from activated sludge, was used to enhance the anti-fouling ability of PVDF membrane. Results indicate that the pure water flux of the membrane and its anti-fouling performance were substantially improved by blending 8% EPS into the membrane. By introducing EPS, the membrane hydrophilicity was increased and the cross section morphology was changed when it interacted with polyvinl pyrrolidone, resulting in the formation of large cavities below the finger-like pores. In addition, the fraction of pores with a size of 100-500 nm increased, which was also beneficial to improving membrane performance. Surface thermodynamic calculations indicate the EPS-functionalized membrane had a higher cohesion free energy, implying its good pollutant rejection and anti-fouling ability. This work provides a simple, efficient and cost-effective method to improve membrane performance and also extends the applications of EPS.

  10. Lauroyl polyoxylglycerides, functionalized coconut oil, enhancing the bioavailability of poorly soluble active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannin Vincent

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Gelucire® 44/14, a lauroyl polyoxylglycerides obtained by polyglycolysis of hydrogenated coconut oil with PEG-32, is used to increase the oral bioavailability of poorly-water soluble drugs. It is a solid dispersion composed of a PEG ester fraction under a lamellar phase of 120 Å with a helical conformation and an acylglycerol fraction under a hexagonal packing. This excipient spontaneously evolves to its most stable phase of 120 Å after storage at 25 °C for 21 hours leading to physically stable formulations. Gelucire® 44/14 is a hydrophilic system that hydrates and swells in contact with water and forms cubic mesophases before complete erosion/emulsification. It is also lipolyzed by various enzymes such as gastric lipase or carboxyl ester hydrolase. After an in vitro gastrointestinal lipolysis simulation, the main components remaining are mono and diesters of PEG-32. These amphiphilic metabolites can explain the beneficial role of Gelucire® 44/14 on the solubility of poorly-water soluble drugs such as cinnarizine even after partial lipolysis of the lipid-based system. Finally that excipient can also increase the bioavailability of active substances by interacting with enterocyte-based proteins like P-glycoprotein or cytochromes P450.

  11. Investigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-09-15

    The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests.

  12. Enacting Conceptual Metaphor through Blending: Learning activities embodying the substance metaphor for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Hunter G.; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that a particular blended learning space is especially productive in developing understanding of energy transfers and transformations. In this blended space, naturally occurring learner interactions like body movement, gesture, and metaphorical speech are blended with a conceptual metaphor of energy as a substance in a class of activities called Energy Theater. We illustrate several mechanisms by which the blended aspect of the learning environment promotes productive intellectual engagement with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including distinguishing among energy processes, disambiguating matter and energy, identifying energy transfer, and representing energy as a conserved quantity. Conceptual advancement appears to be promoted especially by the symbolic material and social structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants and objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope, and by Energy Theater's embodied action, including body locomotion, gesture, and coordination of speech with symbolic spaces in the Energy Theater arena. Our conclusions are (1) that specific conceptual metaphors can be leveraged to benefit science instruction via the blending of an abstract space of ideas with multiple modes of concrete human action, and (2) that participants' structured improvisation plays an important role in leveraging the blend for their intellectual development.

  13. Environmental risk assessment on capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbing; Shi, Ting; Yang, Xiaoling; Han, Wenya; Zhou, Yunrui

    2014-06-01

    Biodegradation experiments were carried out with capsaicin to evaluate its degradability. The results show that capsaicin was readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions. The values of Kow and the calculated bioconcentration factor indicate that capsaicin have a low potential for bioconcentration. The fish acute toxicity tests conducted with Brachydanio rerio show LC50 for capsaicin was 5.98 mg L(-1). The tests of alga growth inhibition conducted with Selenastrum capricornutum suggest EC50 for capsaicin was 114 mg L(-1). The calculated PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) was 4.9×10(-4) mg L(-1). The average PEC (Predicted Environmental Concentration) for OECD-EU commercial harbor and marina were 3.99×10(-6) and 2.49×10(-5) mg L(-1), respectively. These indicate that the PEC was much less than the PNEC for capsaicin. The low Kp value of capsaicin suggests the data about the risk of capsaicin to sediment organisms can be waived. According to the results from the analysis of the degradation, bioaccumulation, toxicity and accumulation in sediment, it can be concluded that capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships poses relatively low risk to marine environment.

  14. Synthesis, structure and biological properties of active spirohydantoin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Anita M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirohidantoins represent an pharmacologically important class of heterocycles since many derivatives have been recognized that display interesting activities against a wide range of biological targets. First synthesis of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins was performed by Bucherer and Lieb 1934 by the reaction of cycloalkanone, potassium cyanide and ammonium-carbonate at reflux in a mixture of ethanol and water. QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship studies showed that a wide range of biological activities of spirohydantoin derivatives strongly depend upon their structure. This paper describes different methods of synthesis of spirohydantoin derivatives, their physico-chemical properties and biological activity. It emphasizes the importance of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins with anticonvulsant, antiproliferative, antipsychotic, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties as well as their importance in the treatment of diabetes. Numerous spirohydantoin compounds exhibit physiological activity such as serotonin and fibrinogen antagonist, inhibitors of the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor also, antagonist of leukocyte cell adhesion, acting as allosteric inhibitors of the protein-protein interactions. Some spirohydantoin derivatives have been identified as antitumor agents. Their activity depends on the substituent presented at position N-3 of the hydantoin ring and increases in order alkene > ester > ether. Besides that, compounds that contain two electron withdrawing groups (e.g. fluorine or chlorine on the third and fourth position of the phenyl ring are better antitumor agents than compounds with a single electron withdrawing group. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  15. Search for biological activities from an invasive shrub species rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRAWAN WIJAYA KUSUMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Kusuma IW, Ainiyati N, Suwinarti W. 2016. Search for biological activities from an invasive shrub species rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 55-59. Research into the potential of diversity, ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology and bioactivity of Indonesia plants is essential. In continuation of our search into biologically-active substances from plant sources, the ethanol extract of fruit, leaves, twig and stem of masisin or rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and toxicity. Antioxidant property was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Antimicrobial activity was examined by agar well diffusion against Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus, Propionibacterium acnes and Candida albicans. Toxicity of the plant was determined by brine shrimp lethality test. The plant ethanolic extracts showed the occurrences of flavonoid, triterpenoid and carbohydrate in the phytochemical analysis. In the antioxidant assay, the plant extracts exhibited 90-93% of DPPH radical scavenging activity at 50 ppm. Ascorbic acid, a standard compound showed 96-98% activity at the same concentration tested. In the antimicrobial assay, the activities against B. cereus and C. albicans were displayed by the fruit and leaves of R. tomentosa with activity index (AI of 0.42 and 0.35, respectively. Leaves, stem, twig and fruit of the plant showed activity against S. typhi and P. acnes with AI of 0.19-0.50 in comparison to that of reference compound, chloramphenicol. In the brine shrimp lethality test, leaves and fruit showed cytotoxicity with LD50 of 43.4 and 8.5 μg/mL. The stem and twig ethanolic extracts were shown to be cytotoxic inactive. The present results showed potential of R. tomentosa extracts as natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  16. [The influence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 surface-active substances on the efficiency of microbial destruction of oil pollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyroh, T P; Antoniuk, S I; Sorokina, A I

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of the use of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 surface-active substances (SAS) for water purification from oil was shown. The efficiency of oil degradation (2.6 g/l) in the presence of SAS preparations (5-15 %) in the form of postfermentation of cultural liquid or its supernatant was established to be 81-95 %. Intensification of oil destruction was determined by SAS affecting the activity of oil-oxidizing microbial population.

  17. Thyroid Histopathology Assessments for the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay to Detect Thyroid-active Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA) Test Guideline for the detection of substances that interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, a document was developed that provides a standardized appro...

  18. Oscillatory Activities in Regulatory Biological Networks and Hopf Bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shi-Wei; WANG Qi; XIE Bai-Song; ZHANG Feng-Shou

    2007-01-01

    Exploiting the nonlinear dynamics in the negative feedback loop, we propose a statistical signal-response model to describe the different oscillatory behaviour in a biological network motif. By choosing the delay as a bifurcation parameter, we discuss the existence of Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the periodic solutions of model equations with the centre manifold theorem and the normal form theory. It is shown that a periodic solution is born in a Hopf bifurcation beyond a critical time delay, and thus the bifurcation phenomenon may be important to elucidate the mechanism of oscillatory activities in regulatory biological networks.

  19. 41 CFR 102-75.135 - If no hazardous substance activity took place on the property, what specific information must an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... substance activity took place on the property, what specific information must an agency include in the title... DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Title Report § 102-75.135 If no hazardous substance activity took place on the property, what specific information must an agency include in the title report? If...

  20. Tracking SERS-active nanoprobe intracellular uptake for chemical and biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregas, Molly K.; Yan, Fei; Scaffidi, Jonathan; Wang, Hsin-Neng; Khoury, Christopher; Zhang, Yan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2007-09-01

    A critical aspect of the use of nanoprobes for intracellular studies in chemical and biological sensing involves a fundamental understanding of their uptake and trajectory in cells. In this study, we describe experiments using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and mapping to track cellular uptake of plasmonics-active labeled nanoparticles. Three different Raman-active labels with positive, negative, and neutral charges were conjugated to silver colloidal nanoparticles with the aim of spatially and temporally profiling intracellular delivery and tracking of nanoprobes during uptake in single mammalian cells. 1-D Raman spectra and 2-D Raman mapping are used to identify and locate the probes via their SERS signal intensities. Because Raman spectroscopy is very specific for identification of chemical and molecular signatures, the development of functionalized plasmonics-active nanoprobes capable of exploring intracellular spaces and processes has the ability to provide specific information on the effects of biological and chemical pollutants in the intracellular environment. The results indicate that this technique will allow study of when, where, and how these substances affect cells and living organisms.

  1. Noribogaine (12-hydroxyibogamine): a biologically active metabolite of the antiaddictive drug ibogaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, M H; Pablo, J P; Ali, S F; Rothman, R B; Mash, D C

    2000-09-01

    Ibogaine (IBO) is a plant-derived alkaloid that is being evaluated as a possible medication for substance use disorders. When administered peripherally to monkeys and humans, IBO is rapidly converted to an o-demethylated metabolite, 12-hydroxyibogamine (NORIBO). We have found in rats that peak blood levels of NORIBO can exceed those of the parent compound, and NORIBO persists in the bloodstream for at least 24 h. Surprisingly few studies have examined the in vivo biological activity of NORIBO. In the present series of experiments, we compared the effects of intravenous (i.v.) administration of IBO and NORIBO (1 and 10 mg/kg) on unconditioned behaviors, circulating stress hormones, and extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens of male rats. IBO caused dose-related increases in tremors and forepaw treading, whereas NORIBO did not. Both IBO and NORIBO produced significant elevations in plasma corticosterone and prolactin, but IBO was more potent as a stimulator of corticosterone secretion. Neither drug affected extracellular DA levels in the nucleus accumbens. However, both IBO and NORIBO increased extracellular 5-HT levels, and NORIBO was more potent in this regard. The present data demonstrate that NORIBO is biologically active and undoubtedly contributes to the in vivo pharmacological profile of IBO in rats. Most importantly, NORIBO appears less likely to produce the adverse effects associated with IBO (i.e., tremors and stress-axis activation), suggesting that the metabolite may be a safer alternative for medication development.

  2. Synthesis of Lactosylated Piperazinyl Porphyrins and Their Biological Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,He-Ping; CAO,Zhong; XIAO,Hua-Wu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to synthesize of a new family of lactosylated piperazinly porphyrins, in which the galactoside piperazine moieties are linked to the tetra- and mono-phenyl rings of tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP).5,10,15,20-Tetrakis[4-(4-lactobionylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]porphyrin (TLPP) and 5-mono[4-(4-lactobionylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin (MLPP) have been synthesized. A detailed 1H NMR study gave their complete structural elucidation. The UV-Visible, mass spectra and elemental analysis are also presented. The biological activity on cancer cells and the pharmacokinetics have also been evaluated, showing a better biological activity, a very high liver to skin ratio and short retention time in tissues. It was suggested that such novel lactosylated piperazinly porphyrins, as potential hepatocyte-selective targeting drugs, exhibit a promising activity in photodynamic therapy (PDT).

  3. Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feller, Georges, E-mail: gfeller@ulg.ac.b [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Centre for Protein Engineering, Institute of Chemistry B6a, University of Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2010-08-18

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 {sup 0}C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins. (topical review)

  4. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF OXAZINE AND ITS DERIVATIVES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINDHU T J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxazine derivatives are an important class of heterocycles, which has attracted much synthetic interest due to their wide range of biological activities. Oxazine is a heterocyclic compound can be formally derived from benzene, and its reduction products, by suitable substitution of carbon (and hydrogen atoms by nitrogen and oxygen. In the last few years oxazine derivatives have proved to be valuable synthetic intermediates and also possess important biological activities like sedative, analgesic, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antitumour, antimalarial and antimicrobial. In these days, development of drug resistance is a major problem and to overcome this situation, it is necessary to synthesize new classes of compounds. The aim of the article is to review the generalization of the collected data about the synthesis of oxazine derivatives and their activities. We hope that this work will be a definite interest for researchers concerned with azines in generally and oxazines in particular.

  5. Polysaccharides of higher fungi: Biological role, structure, and antioxidative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Maja S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging biological properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application in many quite distinctive areas, such as food industry, biomedicine, cosmetology, agriculture, environmental protection and waste water management. This article presents results with respect to biological properties, structure and procedures related to the isolation and activation of polysaccharides of higher fungi. It is considered and presented along with a review of the critical antioxidative activity and possible influence of the structural composition of polysaccharide extracts (isolated from these higher fungi upon their antioxidative properties.

  6. Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

    2014-05-01

    Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and

  7. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Koyano, Yuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous 2D fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it has been shown [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)] that such active proteins should in- duce non-thermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxis-like drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  8. Amazon acai: chemistry and biological activities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy Kazumy de Lima; Pereira, Luiz Felipe Ravazi; Lamarão, Carlos Victor; Lima, Emerson Silva; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio

    2015-07-15

    Acai (acai or assai) is one of the Amazon's most popular functional foods and widely used in the world. There are many benefits to its alleged use in the growing market for nutraceuticals. The acai extracts have a range of polyphenolic components with antioxidant properties, some of those present in greater quantity are orientin, isoorientin and vanillic acid, as well as anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The presence of these substances is linked mainly to the antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cardioprotective activities. Importantly, there are two main species of the Euterpe genus which produce acai. There are several differences between them but they are still quite unknown, from literature to producers and consumers. In this review are highlighted the chemical composition, botanical aspects, pharmacological, marketing and nutrition of these species based on studies published in the last five years in order to unify the current knowledge and dissimilarities between them.

  9. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance sulfoxaflor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Ireland and the co-rapporteur Member States Czech Republic, France and Poland for the pesticide active substance sulfoxaflor and the assessment of applications for maximum residue levels (MRLs are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of sulfoxaflor as an insecticide on fruiting vegetables (field use and glasshouse application; tomato, cherry tomato, pepper (bell and non bell, aubergine, cucurbits (field use and glasshouse application; cucumber, water melon, courgette, spring and winter cereals (wheat, rye, barley, oats, triticale and cotton. MRLs were assessed in almonds, pecans, apples, pears, cherries, peaches including nectarines, apricots, plums, wheat and barley grain, broccoli, cauliflower, mustard greens, cabbage, leaf and head lettuce, spinach, celery, cotton seed, oilseed rape seed, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, melons, squash (winter and summer, cucumbers, potatoes, sugar beet, carrots, soya bean, beans (pulses, fresh beans with and without pods, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, wine and table grapes, and in animal commodities such as milk, eggs, muscle, fat, liver and kidney. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment and the proposed MRLs, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. With the available assessments a high risk to bees was not excluded for field uses and a high long-term risk was indicated for the small herbivorous mammal scenario for field uses in vegetables and in

  10. Marine Sponge Lectins: Actual Status on Properties and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mascena Gomes Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  11. Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Hoem

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs have been under extensive study for several decades. However, not much attention has been paid to differences of dietary forms, such as triglycerides (TGs versus ethyl esters or phospholipids (PLs. New innovative marine raw materials, like krill and fish by-products, present n-3 FAs mainly in the PL form. With their increasing availability, new evidence has emerged on n-3 PL biological activities and differences to n-3 TGs. In this review, we describe the recently discovered nutritional properties of n-3 PLs on different parameters of metabolic syndrome and highlight their different metabolic bioavailability in comparison to other dietary forms of n-3 FAs.

  12. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  13. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V Rajashekar; E Upender Rao; Srinivas P

    2012-01-01

    Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation.

  14. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  15. Fucoidans from brown alga Fucus evanescens: structure and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Menshova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Fucus evanescens, widespread in the Far Eastern seas of Russia, is valuable source of sulfated polysaccharides – fucoidans with beneficial biological activities. The most homogenous fraction of fucoidan from F. evanescens was shown to be molecule containing linear main chain of alternating 2-sulfated 1,3- and 1,4-linked α-L-fucose residues. Few sulfate groups were found in position 4 of some 1,3-linked fucose residues. Acetyl groups occupied free C-3 of 1,4-linked residues and/or the C-4 of 1,3-linked fucose residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis, mild acid hydrolysis and autohydrolysis of native fucoidan were used for elucidation of the fine structural characteristics of fucoidan from F. evanescens. The aim of this review to summarize published data on biological activities of fucoidan from F. evanescens: antiviral, anticoagulant, thrombolytic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anticancer, and their practical application.

  16. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L Millsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur (family: Fabaceae is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  17. Synthesis,Characterization and Biological Activities of Novel Acrylamide Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; XU Zhong-jie; ZHANG Gong-sheng; ZHOU Kai; ZHAI Zhi-wei

    2008-01-01

    With dimethomorph and flumorph as the leading compounds,four novel acrylamide compounds with two types of structure were designed and synthesized by means of the method of"me too chemistry".The target compounds were characterized by 1H NMR,IR,MS,and elemental analysis.The influences of solvent and raw material on the yield were investigated and optimum processing conditions were determined.The results of preliminary biological tests show that all those compounds exhibit certain antifungal activities.

  18. Protein folding activity and the central dogma of molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi, Ghosh; Dipankar, Chatterji

    2003-01-01

    Biological systems, in general, can function effectively when the products of the system are in proper configuration and harmful effects due to misaggregation are avoided. Folding of proteins and their functional consequences have been a subject of active research since several years now. However it is not clear whether during protein synthesis from genetic message, the same set of rules are employed or participation of new efforts take place. In this review we show that at least in the case ...

  19. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Shashank Kumar; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about...

  20. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  1. Current status of pyrazole and its biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, Mohd Javed; Alam, Ozair; Nawaz, Farah; Alam, Md Jahangir; Alam, Perwaiz

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazole are potent medicinal scaffolds and exhibit a full spectrum of biological activities. This review throws light on the detailed synthetic approaches which have been applied for the synthesis of pyrazole. This has been followed by an in depth analysis of the pyrazole with respect to their medical significance. This follow-up may help the medicinal chemists to generate new leads possessing pyrazole nucleus with high efficacy.

  2. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  3. The Contribution of a Substance-Oriented Forum to the Study of Human Biology in Science Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilon, Batia; Kliachko, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Today, forums constitute an integral part of almost all online courses in teacher education colleges. In many of these courses the forum serves for sharing opinions, attitudes, and feelings by the learners rather than for scaffolding cognitive processes. The forum in the "Human Biology and Health" course for prospective elementary-school science…

  4. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Fouillaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.

  5. Expression of biologically active murine interleukin-18 in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Andalib, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    The food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L. lactis to secrete murine IL-18. The mature murine IL-18 gene was inserted downstream of a nisin promoter in pNZ8149 plasmid and the construct was used to transform L. lactis NZ3900. The transformants were selected on Elliker agar and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The expression and secretion of IL-18 protein was verified by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. The biological activity of recombinant IL-18 was determined by its ability to induce interferon (IFN)-γ production in L. lactis co-cultured with murine splenic T cells. The amounts of IL-18 in bacterial lysates and supernatants were 3-4 μg mL(-1) and 0.6-0.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. The successfully generated L. lactis strain that expressed biologically active murine IL-18 can be used to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of IL-18 on mucosal surfaces.

  6. Comparison of methods for extraction of biologically active substances from hawthorn fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trapeznikova

    2016-02-01

    Extraction was performed by infusion, GM = 1: 10 (raw materials: extractant, heated in different conditions: 1 in an incubator at 60 ° C for 1.5 hours; duration of 1st extraction stage 1 h, a second - 30 minutes; 2 in a microwave oven at 300 W power for 5 min (1st extraction step; 3 in an oven with simultaneous sonication (ultrasound mode in the 1st embodiment. In extracts of the fruit and extract the content of ascorbic acid is determined, the free organic acids and sugars, calculated yield of extractives (EV.

  7. PEAR AS A SOURCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES FOR PRODUCTS OF FUNCTIONAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionova L. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical quantitative and qualitative indices of pear fruit have been investigated in six varieties of pears grown in Prikybanskoy horticultural zone of the Krasnodar region. The investigation has been done with pear fruit in the stage of maturity for harvesting and after 90 days after storage in refrigerator. Quantitative content of dry matter, sugars, vitamins C and P and fraction pectin content in fruits and squeezing of fruits as well as changes in the process of storage have been established

  8. [Biologically active substances in patients with hypervolemic congenital heart defects undergoing general multicomponent anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, N M; Guliamov, D S; Karimova, T Z; Belova, O A; Ivanova, L S; Nam, L N

    1994-01-01

    In 95 patients with hypervolemic congenital heart diseases (42 with interventricular and interatrial septal defects, and 53 with patent ductus arteriosus) mixed venous blood levels of serotonin, histamine, adrenalin, noradrenaline, total 11-hydroxycorticosteroids were studied using spectrofluorimetry, cyclic adenosine- and guanosine-monophosphate (cAMP and cGMP), prostaglandins E+A and F2 alpha and their interaction were assessed using radioimmunoassay and correlation analysis, respectively. Before surgical treatment the patients showed higher (than in the control) concentrations of histamine, adrenalin, noradrenaline, cAMP, and cGMP, prostaglandins E+A. During anesthesia including fentanyl, morphine, diazepam, N2O:O2 in patients with heart valve defects cGMP level was increased and in patients with patent ductus arteriosus cAMP level was increased during analogous anesthesia with morphine replaced by halothane.

  9. Isolation of biologically active nanomaterial (inclusion bodies from bacterial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peternel Špela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs were recognised as highly pure deposits of active proteins inside bacterial cells. Such active nanoparticles are very interesting for further downstream protein isolation, as well as for many other applications in nanomedicine, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. To prepare large quantities of a high quality product, the whole bioprocess has to be optimised. This includes not only the cultivation of the bacterial culture, but also the isolation step itself, which can be of critical importance for the production process. To determine the most appropriate method for the isolation of biologically active nanoparticles, three methods for bacterial cell disruption were analyzed. Results In this study, enzymatic lysis and two mechanical methods, high-pressure homogenization and sonication, were compared. During enzymatic lysis the enzyme lysozyme was found to attach to the surface of IBs, and it could not be removed by simple washing. As this represents an additional impurity in the engineered nanoparticles, we concluded that enzymatic lysis is not the most suitable method for IBs isolation. During sonication proteins are released (lost from the surface of IBs and thus the surface of IBs appears more porous when compared to the other two methods. We also found that the acoustic output power needed to isolate the IBs from bacterial cells actually damages proteins structures, thereby causing a reduction in biological activity. High-pressure homogenization also caused some damage to IBs, however the protein loss from the IBs was negligible. Furthermore, homogenization had no side-effects on protein biological activity. Conclusions The study shows that among the three methods tested, homogenization is the most appropriate method for the isolation of active nanoparticles from bacterial cells.

  10. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE MOLECULES ISOLATED FROM OBLIGATE MARINE FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KRISHNA SATYA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is a tremendous source of natural products. Marine microorganisms have become an important source of pharmacologically active metabolites Fungi are well known for their vast diversity of secondary metabolites that include many life-saving drugs and highly toxic mycotoxins. In general, fungal cultures producing such metabolites are immune to their toxic effects. However, some are known to produce self-toxic compounds that can pose production optimization challenges if the metabolites are needed in large amounts for chemical modification. Objective: The main objective of the present study was the isolation of new and preferably biologically active secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms, especially marine-derived fungi. Method: Marine fungi had isolated from marine soil by serial dilution method from Rose Bengal medium. Single colony was isolated by microscopic and macroscopic observation. Secondary metabolites are produced by marine fungi. Biological evaluation was performed by microbial studies. TLC is performed to identify the number of sub compounds in the crude extract. Further species level identification and structure elucidation of the compound are to be done. Results: The isolated marine fungi Aspergillus sp, showed maximum activity against the Candida rugosa with a zone diameter of 16mm at a concentration of 200μg and for bacterial strains it showed maximum activity against the E.coli with a diameter of 24mm at a concentration of 200μg. From the thin layer chromatography it has nearly 2-3 compounds to be purified. Conclusion: The selected organism which produces the compounds contains the biological activities which include anti-bacterial and anti fungal activities.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan, E-mail: yangbq@nwu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, Northwest University, Shaanxi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  12. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  13. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  14. [Comparative study of the estrogenic activity of modified estrogens based on data of competitive binding analysis and biological assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskaia, E V; Ivanenko, T I

    1981-01-01

    A series of bromo- and silyl-derivatives was studied in experiments on immature female rats in vivo and in vitro. All the estrogens studied were conventionally divided into 4 groups according to their ability for concurrent binding with the rat uterus cytosol receptors and their specific bioeffect: equally concurrent and bioeffective compounds (estrone, ethynyl estradiol); slightly concurrent substances with a pronounced uterotropic action (4-silyl estrogens, mestranol); little effective compounds with 4 to 8% of estradiol concurrent activity (2- and 4-bromo-and silyl estradiols, estriol); compounds, not having concurrent and biological effects (2-silyl estrones, 4-bromoestradiol diacetate).

  15. The Chemistry and Biological Activities of Mimosine: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-08-01

    Mimosine [β-[N-(3-hydroxy-4-oxypyridyl)]-α-aminopropionic acid] is a non-protein amino acid found in the members of Mimosoideae family. There are a considerable number of reports available on the chemistry, methods for estimation, biosynthesis, regulation, and degradation of this secondary metabolite. On the other hand, over the past years of active research, mimosine has been found to have various biological activities such as anti-cancer, antiinflammation, anti-fibrosis, anti-influenza, anti-virus, herbicidal and insecticidal activities, and others. Mimosine is a leading compound of interest for use in the development of RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-specific inhibitors for the treatment of various diseases/disorders, because PAK1 is not essential for the growth of normal cells. Interestingly, the new roles of mimosine in malignant glioma treatment, regenerative dentistry, and phytoremediation are being emerged. These identified properties indicate an exciting future for this amino acid. The present review is focused on the chemistry and recognized biological activities of mimosine in an attempt to draw a link between these two characteristics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  17. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  18. Removal of bacteria from coastal seawater by foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Hanagasaki, Nobuaki; Furukawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo

    2008-04-01

    The removal of bacteria from rearing water and washing water in aquaculture systems, aquariums and fishing port facilities is the most important means of diminishing the risk of fish diseases, improving public health and ensuring high food quality. However, there are few methods of bacterial elimination, e.g., disinfection. Thus, it is necessary to develop a technology for bacterial removal from coastal seawater. In this study, the removal efficiency for several groups of bacteria by foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances was determined using both batch equipment and a continuous-flow unit. By batch processing with only 1 mg/l milk casein added as a surface-active substance and by supplying bubbles, viable bacteria, enterococci, Vibrio, and Salmonella-like bacteria were removed effectively at removal efficiencies of 80% or greater. In addition, suspended solids were also removed from coastal seawater. However, fecal coliforms were difficult to remove by foam separation. The removal efficiency for viable bacteria was greater than 70% using a continuous system. Bacteria were concentrated in a very small amount of generated foam and removed from the water. The foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances is a feasible convenient technology for seawater purification as a treatment prior to membrane filtration or ultraviolet irradiation.

  19. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance fipronil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment for the active substance fipronil and provide conclusions as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA following the peer review of the risk assessment for bees for the active substance fipronil are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the currently authorised uses of fipronil applied on a variety of crops in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and scientific publications including data available at EU and national level, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  20. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  1. Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mudassir A; Crow, Sidney A

    2005-01-01

    The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined against 12 fungal and 12 bacterial strains by agar well diffusion and disk diffusion assays. The extract of Zygophyllum fabago was found to be highly effective against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The extract of Vincetoxicum stocksii was also found to be significantly active against Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Extracts of Hymenocrater sessilifolius and Grewia erythraea showed good activity only against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  2. [Influence of biological activated carbon dosage on landfill leachate treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan-Rui; Guo, Yan; Wu, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC) dosage on COD removal in landfill leachate treatment were compared. The COD removal efficiency of reactors with 0, 100 and 300 g activated carbon dosage per litre activated sludge was 12.9%, 19.6% and 27.7%, respectively. The results indicated that BAC improved the refractory organic matter removal efficiency and there was a positive correlation between COD removal efficiency and BAC dosage. The output of carbon dioxide after 8h of aeration in reactors was 109, 193 and 306 mg corresponding to the activated carbon dosages mentioned above, which indicated the amount of biodegradation and BAC dosage also had a positive correlation. The combination of adsorption and bioregeneration of BAC resulted in the positive correlation betweem organic matter removal efficiency and BAC dosage, and bioregeneration was the root cause for the microbial decomposition of refractory organics.

  3. Biological activities of triazine derivatives. Combining DFT and QSAR results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdouline Larif

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the relationship between activities and structures, a 3D-QSAR study is applied to a set of 43 molecules based on triazines. This study was conducted using the principal component analysis (PCA method, the multiple linear regression method (MLR and the artificial neural network (ANN. The predicted values of activities are in good agreement with the experimental results. The artificial neural network (ANN techniques, considering the relevant descriptors obtained from the MLR, showed a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with an 8-3-1 ANN model which is a good result. As a result of quantitative structure–activity relationships, we found that the model proposed in this study is constituted of major descriptors used to describe these molecules. The obtained results suggested that the proposed combination of several calculated parameters could be useful to predict the biological activity of triazine derivatives.

  4. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Mashino, T [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: mashino-td@pha.keio.ac.jp

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C{sub 60}-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C{sub 60}-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC{sub 50} values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  5. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  6. Enacting Conceptual Metaphor through Blending: Learning Activities Embodying the Substance Metaphor for Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Hunter G.; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a particular blended learning space is especially productive in developing understanding of energy transfers and transformations. In this blended space, naturally occurring learner interactions like body movement, gesture, and metaphorical speech are blended with a conceptual metaphor of energy as a substance in a class of…

  7. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia. Part 3: Update 2015 Management of special circumstances: Depression, Suicidality, substance use disorders and pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Glenthøj, Birte; Gattaz, Wagner F; Thibaut, Florence; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    These updated guidelines are based on the first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in the years 2005 and 2006. For this 2015 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations which are clinically and scientifically relevant. They are intended to be used by all physicians diagnosing and treating patients with schizophrenia. Based on the first version of these guidelines a systematic review, as well as a data extraction from national guidelines have been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its efficacy and subsequently categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5). This third part of the updated guidelines covers the management of the following specific treatment circumstances: comorbid depression, suicidality, various comorbid substance use disorders (legal and illegal drugs), and pregnancy and lactation. These guidelines are primarily concerned with the biological treatment (including antipsychotic medication and other pharmacological treatment options) of patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., an Indian medicinal herb: traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Giovanni; Romanucci, Valeria; Di Marino, Cinzia; Pisanti, Antonio; Zarrelli, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. is one of the most important medicinal plants that grows in tropical forests in India and South East Asia. Its active ingredients and extracts of leaves and roots are used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments and they are present in the market for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products. Commercial products based on substances of plant origin that are generally connoted as natural have to be subjected to monitoring and evaluation by health authorities for their potential impacts on public health. The monitoring and evaluation of these products are critical because the boundary between a therapeutic action and a functional or healthy activity has not yet been defined in a clear and unambiguous way. Therefore, these products are considered borderline products, and they require careful and rigorous studies, in order to use them as complement and/or even replacement of synthetic drugs that are characterized by side effects and high economic costs. This review explores the traditional uses, chemical composition and biological activity of G. sylvestre extracts, providing a general framework on the most interesting extracts and what are the necessary studies for a complete definition of the range of activities.

  9. Mutant p53: multiple mechanisms define biologic activity in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of p53 alterations involve missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may acquire novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in multiple model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  10. Bone-inducing Activity of Biological Piezoelectric Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To simulate the piezoelectric effect of nature bone, two kinds of biological piezoelectric composite ceramics consisted of hydroxyapatite ( HA ) and lithium sodium potassium riobate (LNK) ceramic of which the ratio of HA/ LNK was 1: 10 and 5:5( wt/ wt ) were prepared. Their piezoelectric property and growth of apatite crystal in the ceramics surface were investigated. With the increase of LNK amount, piezoelectric activity increased correspondingly. By immersing the poled piezoelectric ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 36.5 ℃ for 7,14, and 21 days, apatite crystal was formed on negatively charged surfaces. After 21 days immersion in SBF,the thickest apatite crystal on the negatively charged surfaces increased to 3.337μm. The novel biological piezoelectric ceramics show an excellent piezoelectric property and superior potential bioactivity.

  11. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(U-/sup 14/C) malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 ..mu..g niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of CEF Panel deals with the risk assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure to the substance from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the absorption capacity of the active substance is not exceeded and direct contact with food is excluded.

  13. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  14. Soil biological activity at European scale - two calculation concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. To assess the turnover conditions two model concepts are applied: (I) Biological active time (BAT) regression approach derived from CANDY model (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of air temperature, precipitation and soil texture as a timescale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. (II) Re_clim parameter within the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states the soil temperature and soil water to estimate soil biological activity. The modelling includes two strategies to cover the European scale and conditions. BAT was calculated on a 20x20 km grid basis. The European data sets of precipitation and air temperature (time period 1901-2000, monthly resolution), (Mitchell et al. 2004) were used to derive long-term averages. As we focus on agricultural areas we included CORINE data (2006) to extract arable land. The resulting BATs under co-consideration of the main soil textures (clay, silt, sand and loam) were investigated per environmental zone (ENZs, Metzger et al. 2005) that represents similar conditions for precipitation, temperature and relief to identify BAT ranges and hence turnover conditions for each ENZ. Re_clim was quantified by climatic time series of more than 250 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). Daily temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (maximal thermal extent) were used to calculate

  15. Biological activity of trisporoids and trisporoid analogues in Mucor mucedo (-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschabel, Doreen; Schimek, Christine; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Boland, Wilhelm

    2005-06-01

    In the course of their sexual interactions, zygomycete fungi communicate via an elaborate series of carotene-derived compounds, namely trisporic acid and its biosynthetic progenitors. A novel building-block strategy allowed the systematic generation of structurally modified trisporoids along with putative early biosynthetic precursors for physiological tests. The impact of discrete structural elements was documented by the ability of individual compounds to induce sexually committed hyphae in Mucor mucedo. The activity screening contributed to establish general structure-function relationships for trisporoid action. Most crucial for activity were the dimension of the longer side chain, the polarity of functional groups at C(4) and C(13), and the number of conjugated double bonds in the side chain. The presence of an oxygen substituent at the cyclohexene ring is not essential for function. The overall biological activity apparently results from the combination of the various structural elements.

  16. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  17. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Jordanian Chamomile Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Hassan Al Bahtiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Jordanian chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla has been researched more thoroughly to evaluate its useful properties. It is investigated and found that Jordanian chamomile is rich in phenolic compounds, with beneficial biological activities. By applying the most promising HPLC method, the content of total phenolics in methanolic extract was determined according to the Folin-Clocalteu procedure, and was found (GAE>20 mg/g. The flavonoid types were found as flavones and flavonolos.The minimum inhibitory concentration values for methanolic extracts of Jordanian chamomile were determined for different kinds of bacteria. The extracts have activity against Staphylococcus aurous, candida albicans, Esherichia Coli, Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris. The activity has been observed to be due to the tannins and a pigenin present in the extract. To utilize these significant sources of natural compounds, further characterization of phenolic composition is needed.

  18. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder...... molecules. It is concluded that none of the pertinent laboratory surrogate markers of disease activity in IBD are specific or sensitive enough to replace basic clinical observation such as the number of daily bowel movements, general well-being, and other parameters in parallel. Further studies are highly...... warranted to identify and assess the clinical importance and applicability of new laboratory markers for the diagnosis or the disease activity of IBD....

  19. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  20. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  1. Activating and inhibiting connections in biological network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of biochemical networks have analyzed network topology. Such work has suggested that specific types of network wiring may increase network robustness and therefore confer a selective advantage. However, knowledge of network topology does not allow one to predict network dynamical behavior – for example, whether deleting a protein from a signaling network would maintain the network's dynamical behavior, or induce oscillations or chaos. Results Here we report that the balance between activating and inhibiting connections is important in determining whether network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. We use a simple dynamical model of a network of interacting genes or proteins. Using the model, we study random networks, networks selected for robust dynamics, and examples of biological network topologies. The fraction of activating connections influences whether the network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. Conclusion The activating fraction may predispose a network to oscillate or reach steady state, and neutral evolution or selection of this parameter may affect the behavior of biological networks. This principle may unify the dynamics of a wide range of cellular networks. Reviewers Reviewed by Sergei Maslov, Eugene Koonin, and Yu (Brandon Xia (nominated by Mark Gerstein. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  2. Synthesis and biological activities of turkesterone 11?-acyl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Dinan

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkesterone is a phytoecdysteroid possessing an 11alpha-hydroxyl group. It is an analogue of the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Previous ecdysteroid QSAR and molecular modelling studies predicted that the cavity of the ligand-binding domain of the ecdysteroid receptor would possess space in the vicinity of C-11/C-12 of the ecdysteroid. We report the regioselective synthesis of a series of turkesterone 11alpha-acyl derivatives in order to explore this possibility. The structures of the analogues have been unambiguously determined by spectroscopic means (NMR and low-resolution mass spectrometry. Purity was verified by HPLC. Biological activities have been determined in Drosophila melanogaster BII cell-based bioassay for ecdysteroid agonists and in an in vitro radioligand-displacement assay using bacterially expressed D. melanogaster EcR/USP receptor proteins. The 11alpha-acyl derivatives do retain a significant amount of biological activity relative to the parent ecdysteroid. Further, although activity initially drops with the extension of the acyl chain length (C2 to C4, it then increases (C6 to C10, before decreasing again (C14 and C20. The implications of these findings for the interaction of ecdysteroids with the ecdysteroid receptor and potential applications in the generation of affinity-labelled and fluorescently-tagged ecdysteroids are discussed.

  3. Isolation of biologically-active exosomes from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Laurent; Hong, Chang-Sook; Stolz, Donna B; Watkins, Simon C; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of exosomes present in human plasma on immune cells have not been examined in detail. Immunological studies with plasma-derived exosomes require their isolation by procedures involving ultracentrifugation. These procedures were largely developed using supernatants of cultured cells. To test biologic activities of plasma-derived exosomes, methods are necessary that ensure adequate recovery of exosome fractions free of contaminating larger vesicles, cell fragments and protein/nucleic acid aggregates. Here, an optimized method for exosome isolation from human plasma/serum specimens of normal controls (NC) or cancer patients and its advantages and pitfalls are described. To remove undesirable plasma-contaminating components, ultrafiltration of differentially-centrifuged plasma/serum followed by size-exclusion chromatography prior to ultracentrifugation facilitated the removal of contaminants. Plasma or serum was equally acceptable as a source of exosomes based on the recovered protein levels (in μg protein/mL plasma) and TEM image quality. Centrifugation on sucrose density gradients led to large exosome losses. Fresh plasma was the best source of morphologically-intact exosomes, while the use of frozen/thawed plasma decreased exosome purity but not their biologic activity. Treatments of frozen plasma with DNAse, RNAse or hyaluronidase did not improve exosome purity and are not recommended. Cancer patients' plasma consistently yielded more isolated exosomes than did NCs' plasma. Cancer patients' exosomes also mediated higher immune suppression as evidenced by decreased CD69 expression on responder CD4+ T effector cells. Thus, the described procedure yields biologically-active, morphologically-intact exosomes that have reasonably good purity without large protein losses and can be used for immunological, biomarker and other studies.

  4. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with biologically active fluorescent molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murali Sankar; Subhadeep Saha; K Seeni Meera; Tushar Jana

    2009-10-01

    A biologically active molecule, 2-chloro-4,6-bis(dimethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (CBDT), has been covalently attached at the terminal carbon atoms of the hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) backbone. The modification of HTPB backbone by CBDT molecule does not affect the unique physico-chemical properties such as fluidity, hydroxyl value and microstructure of the parent HTPB. The formation of hydrogen bonding between the terminal hydroxyl groups and the nitrogen atoms of triazine moiety is the driving force for the terminal attachment chemistry. The functionalized HTPB (HTPB–CBDT) shows a strong fluorescence emission at 385 nm.

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-08-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we present a framework to design biology instruction that incorporates all active learning strategies. We review active learning research in undergraduate biology courses, present a framework for organizing active learning strategies, and provide clear implications and future research for designing instruction in introductory undergraduate biology courses.

  6. Elucidating GPR Response to Biological Activity: Field and Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Schillig, P. C.; McGlashan, M. A.; Roberts, J. A.; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of “biogeophysics”. The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present field and laboratory experiments that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to further assess radar response to biomass growth. The first experiment monitored GPR wave transmission through a water-saturated quartz-sand reactor during the course of enhanced biostimulation. Radar wave velocity initially decreased as a result of bacterial activity and subsequently increased rapidly as biogenic gas formed in the pore space. Radar signal attenuation increased during the course of the experiment as a result of an

  7. Neuropeptide Y, substance P, and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulate human osteoblast osteogenic activity by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z. [The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, The Provincial Key Laboratory for Orthopedic Biomechanics of Hebei, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province (China)

    2015-02-13

    Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation.

  8. Contingent reinforcement of personal goal activities for adolescents with substance use disorders during post-residential continuing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Susan H; Godley, Mark D; Wright, Kelli L; Funk, Rodney R; Petry, Nancy M

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is efficacious in improving outcomes of substance-abusing patients, but CM studies are relatively rare in adolescents. CM approaches can reinforce both abstinence and adherence to treatment-related goal areas. This paper describes 1,739 different activities in 10 goal areas (e.g., education, family/friends, and social/recreational) chosen by 86 adolescents who were participating in a multiple week CM study that reinforced both abstinence and adherence with goal-related activities. The mean activities selected was 20, and the mean completed was 13. Overall, 1,114 or 64% of chosen activities were completed. The clinical feasibility of activity incentive programs for adolescents is discussed.

  9. Binding of dicamba to soluble and bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from aerobic activated sludge: a fluorescence quenching study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiangliang; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daoyong; Chen, Xi; Song, Wenjuan; Wu, Fengchang

    2010-05-15

    Binding of dicamba to soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) from aerobic activated sludge was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. Two protein-like fluorescence peaks (peak A with Ex/Em=225 nm/342-344 nm and peak B with Ex/Em=275/340-344 nm) were identified in SEPS and BEPS. Humic-like fluorescence peak C (Ex/Em=270-275 nm/450-460 nm) was only found in BEPS. Fluorescence of the peaks A and B for SEPS and peak A for BEPS were markedly quenched by dicamba at all temperatures whereas fluorescence of peaks B and C for BEPS was quenched only at 298 K. A dynamic process dominated the fluorescence quenching of peak A of both SEPS and BEPS. Fluorescence quenching of peak B and C was governed a static process. The effective quenching constants (logK(a)) were 4.725-5.293 for protein-like fluorophores of SEPS and 4.23-5.190 for protein-like fluorophores of BEPS, respectively. LogK(a) for humic-like substances was 3.85. Generally, SEPS had greater binding capacity for dicamba than BEPS, and protein-like substances bound dicamba more strongly than humic-like substances. Binding of dicamba to SEPS and BEPS was spontaneous and exothermic. Electrostatic force and hydrophobic interaction forces play a crucial role in binding of dicamba to EPS.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  11. The influence comparing of activated biochar and conventional biochar on the soil biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Mykajlo, Irina; Záhora, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    In our experiment we have used biochar. This material is the product of the pyrolysis that has shown a positive effect on numerous physical and chemical soil properties. However, its influence on the biological component of the soil is very variable. A number of toxic substances that inhibit the soil productivity may be produced during pyrolysis process. The experiment dealt with the hypothesis concerning biochar toxicity reduction by simulating natural processes in the soil. Biochar has been exposed to aeration in the aquatic environment, enriched with nutrients and a source of native soil microflora. It has been created 6 variants in total, each with four replications. The soils samples have been placed in a phytotron for 90 days. Variants consisted of the soil with fertilizers adding (compost, biochar, activated biochar) and have been prepared as well as variants containing compost and biochar and activated biochar optionally. The highest aboveground biomass production has been estimated in variants containing compost, while the lowest production - in the variants containing conventional biochar. During production comparing of the variants with the conventional biochar, activated biochar and control samples it has been evident that activated biochar promotes plant growth, and in contradiction conventional biochar inhibits it. We will approach to the same conclusions when comparing variants with a combination of conventional biochar + compost and activated biochar + compost. Mineral nitrogen leaching has been another investigated parameter. The highest leaching has occurred in the control variant, while the lowest - in the variant with activated biochar (the leaching of nitrate nitrogen has been negligeable). Our results suggest that activated biochar has the potential; however, it is necessary to carry out similar experiments in the field conditions.

  12. Enhanced biological activity of carotenoids stabilized by phenyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji Suk; Jeon, Sunhwa; Byun, Youn Jung; Koo, Sangho; Choi, Shin Sik

    2015-06-15

    Carotenoids are lipid soluble food ingredients with multifunction including antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, carotenoids are destructively oxidized upon reaction with radicals resulting in toxic effects on biological systems. Two synthetic carotenoids (BAS and BTS) containing the aromatic phenyl groups with a para-substituent (OMe and Me, respectively) at C-13 and C-13' position were prepared in order to overcome a structural instability of carotenoid. Both BAS and BTS exerted stronger radical scavenging activity than β-carotene in DPPH and ABTS assays. In particular, BTS significantly reduced in vivo ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and improved body growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditiselegans. BTS has a great potential for the advanced and modified carotenoid material with stability leading to enhanced bioavailability.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of Rhein-cyclodextrin conjugate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Manshuo; Lv, Pin; Liao, Rongqiang; Zhao, Yulin; Yang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclodextrin conjugate complexation is a useful method to enhance the solubility and absorption of poorly soluble drugs. A series of new Rhein-β-cyclodextrin conjugates (Rh-CD conjugates) have been synthesized and examined. Rhein is covalently linked with the β-CD by amido linkage in a 1:1 molar ratio. The conjugates were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HRMS, powder X-ray diffraction (powder XRD) as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results reveal that incorporation of β-CD could improve the aqueous solubility of Rhein and the cytotoxicity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line as well as antibacterial activity against three organisms. The improved biological activity and the satisfactory water solubility of the conjugates will be potentially useful for developing novel drug-cyclodextrin conjugates, such as herbal medicine.

  14. Posttranslational modulation on the biological activities of molecular chaperones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are a family of proteins that were first noticed to exist about 45 years ago from their increased transcription under heat shock conditions.As a result,the regulation of their encoding genes has been subject to extensive studies.Recent studies revealed that the biological activities of molecular chaperones can also be effectively modulated at the protein level.The ways of modulation so far elucidated include allosteric effect,covalent modification,protein-protein interaction,and con-formational alteration induced by such macro-environmental conditions as temperature and pH.These latter aspects were reviewed here.Emphasized here is the importance of such immediate structural alterations that lead to an immediate activity increase,providing the immediate protection needed for the cells to survive the stress conditions.

  15. Posttranslational modulation on the biological activities of molecular chaperones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG ZengYi

    2009-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are a family of proteins that were first noticed to exist about 45 years ago from their increased transcription under heat shock conditions. As a result, the regulation of their encoding genes has been subject to extensive studies. Recent studies revealed that the biological activities of molecular chaperones can also be effectively modulated at the protein level. The ways of modulation so far elucidated include allosteric effect, covalent modification, protein-protein interaction, and con-formational alteration induced by such macro-environmental conditions as temperature and pH. These latter aspects were reviewed here. Emphasized here is the importance of such immediate structural alterations that lead to an immediate activity increase, providing the immediate protection needed for the cells to survive the stress conditions.

  16. Current limitations and a path forward to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K.; Biever, Ronald C.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    issue of significant concern to for current EACS screening/testing programs involves resources in regard such as to cost, time, trained personnel, and animal use. This is especially problematic when considering the number of chemicals that some regulatory authorities need to assess. One way to address......, statistical power to detect biologically significant adverse effects, delivery and analytical measurement of test substances, availability of technical expertise, and study interpretation, including linking mechanistic and apical effects. Some of these areas can be addressed by the lessons learned and best...... screening/testing. Finally, a number of recommendations are provided for longer term research to address areas of uncertainty, including identifying potentially sensitive species for which test methods currently do not exist (e.g., invertebrates) and key endocrine pathways in addition to estrogen, androgen...

  17. Distribution and biological activity of obestatin in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Siok L; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Brailoiu, Eugen; Yang, Jun; Chang, Jaw Kang; Dun, Nae J

    2006-11-01

    Obestatin, a 23 amino acid peptide recently isolated from the rat stomach, is encoded by the same gene that encodes ghrelin. With the use of an antiserum directed against the mouse/rat obestatin, obestatin immunoreactivity (irOBS) was detected in cells of the gastric mucosa, myenteric plexus, and in Leydig cells of the testis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Double labeling the myenteric plexus with obestatin antiserum and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) antiserum revealed that nearly all irOBS neurons were ChAT positive and vice versa. For comparative purposes, myenteric ganglion cells, cells in the gastric mucosa, and Leydig cells of the testis were shown to be immunoreactive to preproghrelin. The biological activity of obestatin on rat central neurons was assessed by the calcium microfluorimetric Fura-2 method. Obestatin (100 nM) administered to dissociated and cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in a population of cortical neurons. The result provides the first immunohistochemical evidence that obestatin is expressed in cells of the gastric mucosa and myenteric ganglion cells, and also in Leydig cells of the testis; the peptide is biologically active on central neurons.

  18. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  19. Combining Coagulation/MIEX with Biological Activated Carbon Treatment to Control Organic Fouling in the Microfiltration of Secondary Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2016-07-30

    Coagulation, magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX) and biological activated carbon (BAC) were examined at lab scale as standalone, and sequential pre-treatments for controlling the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane by biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) using a multi-cycle approach. MIEX gave slightly greater enhancement in flux than coagulation due to greater removal of high molecular weight (MW) humic substances, although it was unable to remove high MW biopolymers. BAC treatment was considerably more effective for improving the flux than coagulation or MIEX. This was due to the biodegradation of biopolymers and/or their adsorption by the biofilm, and adsorption of humic substances by the activated carbon, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography. Coagulation or MIEX followed by BAC treatment further reduced the problematic foulants and significantly improved the flux performance. The unified membrane fouling index showed that the reduction of membrane fouling by standalone BAC treatment was 42%. This improved to 65%, 70%, and 93% for alum, ferric chloride and MIEX pre-treatment, respectively, when followed by BAC treatment. This study showed the potential of sequential MIEX and BAC pre-treatment for controlling organic fouling and thus enhancing the performance of microfiltration in the reclamation of BTSE.

  20. [Heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of the primordial organic substance as an initial stage of biological evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, Iu N; Tuzinkevich, A V; Frisman, E Ia

    2011-01-01

    An approach to describe the emergence of the primordial evolving system has been developed. The dynamics of polymerization/depolymerization of some spatially distributed prebiological structures has been analyzed, and two phases of the development of the system have been identified. In the first phase, the polymerization of organic monomers occurs by the influence of external factors, and in the second one depolymerization takes place. Both processes are accompanied by "diffuse mixing" of reaction products. The dynamic equations of the system are presented. The numerical examination of the space nonuniform solution of model equations has shown that, in conditions of low stability of uniform space distribution, these solutions resolve into a number of discrete peaks of non-zero density, which are isolated from each other by free space. Such nonuniform distributions are stable when being close to the bifurcation point; yet in other conditions, they can lose their stability, which entails a more pronounced nonuniformity of space dynamics. Thus, interaction of polymerization/depolymerization processes results in the chaotic self-organization and leads to the origination of complex and nomhomogeneous (putchy) spatial structures. These structures can reflect the emergency of the spatial nonuniformity in primordial associations, in physical space, in the distributive space of characters can correspond to the initial steps of individualization of the first discrete domains fixed in the biological evolution.

  1. Inhalable DNase I microparticles engineered with biologically active excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Rihab; Al Jamal, Khuloud T; Kan, Pei-Lee; Awad, Gehanne; Mortada, Nahed; El-Shamy, Abd-Elhameed; Alpar, Oya

    2013-12-01

    Highly viscous mucus poses a big challenge for the delivery of particulates carrying therapeutics to patients with cystic fibrosis. In this study, surface modifying DNase I loaded particles using different excipients to achieve better lung deposition, higher enzyme stability or better biological activity had been exploited. For the purpose, controlled release microparticles (MP) were prepared by co-spray drying DNase I with the polymer poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and the biocompatible lipid surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) using various hydrophilic excipients. The effect of the included modifiers on the particle morphology, size, zeta potential as well as enzyme encapsulation efficiency, biological activity and release had been evaluated. Powder aerosolisation performance and particle phagocytosis by murine macrophages were also investigated. The results showed that more than 80% of enzyme activity was recovered after MP preparation and that selected surface modifiers greatly increased the enzyme encapsulation efficiency. The particle morphology was greatly modified altering in turn the powders inhalation indices where dextran, ovalbumin and chitosan hydrochloride increased considerably the respirable fraction compared to the normal hydrophilic carriers lactose and PVP. Despite of the improved aerosolisation caused by chitosan hydrochloride, yet retardation of chitosan coated particles in artificial mucus samples discouraged its application. On the other hand, dextran and polyanions enhanced DNase I effect in reducing cystic fibrosis mucus viscosity. DPPC proved good ability to reduce particles phagocytic uptake even in the presence of the selected adjuvants. The prepared MP systems were biocompatible with lung epithelial cells. To conclude, controlled release DNase I loaded PLGA-MP with high inhalation indices and enhanced mucolytic activity on CF sputum could be obtained by surface modifying the particles with PGA or dextran.

  2. Comparison of biological activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra and G. uralensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chun-Geon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of Glycyrrhiza (GLs extracts (GL-1, Glycyrrhiza glabra from Eumseong, Korea; GL-2, G. uralensis from Eumseong, Korea; GL-3, G. uralensis from Yeongcheon, Korea; GL-4, G. uralensis from Neimenggu, China: GL-5, G. uralensis purchased from Korea Medicine Herbal Association, Korea were investigated. G. uralensis (GLs-2, -3, -4, and -5 extracts exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity against DPPH and OH radicals than G. glabra (GL-1. In addition, all GLs had antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and H. pylori. GL-3 inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus, while GL-1 had antibacterial activity against H. pylori. All GL extracts tested inhibited the lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-induced inflammatory activity of RAW 264.7 cells. G. glabra and G. uralensis reduced NO generation. GL-3 also inhibited the growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. GLs-3 and -4 showed the inhibition of rat lens aldose reductase. GL-4 had a higher total content of glycyrrhizin (1, glycyrrhetinic acid (2, glabridin (3, and isoliquiritigenin (4. G. uralensis (GLs-2, -3, -4, and -5 is thus more effective than G. glabra (GL-1.

  3. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gamb...

  4. The origin and use of the terms competitive and non-competitive in interactions among chemical substances in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwain, H

    1986-01-01

    The terms competition and competitive were in use for appropriate types of interaction in human and animal behaviour from the seventeenth century. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries they reached more technical uses in biology, especially in darwinian studies; and in chemistry in describing competing reactions, surface phenomena and the influence of substituent groupings in reactant molecules. Use of competitive and non-competitive to describe enzyme inhibitors had a specific beginning when J. B. S. Haldane (following premonitory work of others) applied the terms in 1927 and 1930 to types of inhibition already differentiated by Michaelis and co-workers. The theoretical background in kinetics and stereochemistry so acquired gave a firmness to the application of the terms in biochemistry. The first examples concerned glycosidases, especially beta-D-fructofuranosidase or invertase, and interactions of carbon monoxide and oxygen at iron-porphyrin systems. They were thus of interest in toxicology and in enzyme and carrier studies. The sphere of application of the biochemically-defined terms expanded greatly when, following investigation of sulphonamide action, it was realized that concepts of enzyme inhibition by structurally related compounds offered a route to understanding the action of existing medicaments and to the production of new ones. Ideas and terminology based on competitive and non-competitive enzyme inhibition and receptor occupancy have subsequently been applied in many ways. Examples include application to the analysis of feedback inhibition and other processes of metabolic control; to receptor relationships among neurotransmitters and medicaments; and to understanding interactions at sensory receptors.

  5. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance dimethoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance dimethoate are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory mammalian toxicology, residues and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of dimethoate as an insecticide on sugar beet and protected lettuce. Concerns are identified.

  6. Fluorinated alkyl substances and technical mixtures used in food paper-packaging exhibit endocrine-related activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Taxvig, Camilla; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    Migration of chemicals from packaging materials to foods may lead to human exposure. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) can be used in technical mixtures (TMs) for use in food packaging of paper and board, and PFAS have been detected in human serum and umbilical cord blood. The specific structures...... of the PFAS in TMs are often unknown, but polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) have been characterized in TMs, food packaging, and in food. PAPs can be metabolized into fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Some PFAS have endocrine activities, highlighting...

  7. Scientific Opinion on safety assessment of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as a liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods such as meat, poultry, and seafood as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food and placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that non-crosslinked polymer and the crosslinkers do not raise a concern for genotoxicity. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the absorption capacity of the active substance is not exceeded and direct contact with food is excluded.

  8. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panth, Nisha; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientific attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profile, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of the J. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identification of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as well as screening various solvent extracts or fractions of J. regia in several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientific investigations of J. regia.

  9. Synthesis and biological activity of hydroxycinnamoyl containing antiviral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chochkova Maya G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven N-hydroxycinnamoyl amides were synthesized by EDC/HOBt coupling of the corresponding substituted cinnamic acids (p-coumaric-, ferulic-, sinapic- and caffeic acids with influenza antivirals (amantadine, rimantadine and oseltamivir. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging abilities and the inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase activity (using L-tyrosine as the substrate were investigated in vitro. Amongst the synthesized compounds, N-[(E-3-(3’,4’-dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoyl]oseltamivir (1 and N-[(E-3-(3’,4’-dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoyl]rimantadine (4, containing catechol moiety, exhibited the most potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Amide (1 displayed also tyrosinase inhibitory effect toward L-tyrosine as the substrate (~50%. Due to its biological activities revealed so far compound (1 can be considered as a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. The synthesized compounds were also investigated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against the replication of influenza virus A (H3N2.

  10. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  12. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  13. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  14. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

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    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  15. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  16. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  17. Phytochemical profi le and biological activity of Juglans regia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisha Panth; Keshav Raj Paudel; Rajendra Karki

    2016-01-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part ofJ. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes melitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientifi c attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profi le, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of theJ. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identifi cation of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as wel as screening various solvent extracts or fractions ofJ. regiain several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefi ts. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientifi c investigations ofJ. regia.

  18. The Balance of Fluid and Osmotic Pressures across Active Biological Membranes with Application to the Corneal Endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Cheng

    Full Text Available The movement of fluid and solutes across biological membranes facilitates the transport of nutrients for living organisms and maintains the fluid and osmotic pressures in biological systems. Understanding the pressure balances across membranes is crucial for studying fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in living systems, and is an area of active research. In this study, a set of enhanced Kedem-Katchalsky (KK equations is proposed to describe fluxes of water and solutes across biological membranes, and is applied to analyze the relationship between fluid and osmotic pressures, accounting for active transport mechanisms that propel substances against their concentration gradients and for fixed charges that alter ionic distributions in separated environments. The equilibrium analysis demonstrates that the proposed theory recovers the Donnan osmotic pressure and can predict the correct fluid pressure difference across membranes, a result which cannot be achieved by existing KK theories due to the neglect of fixed charges. The steady-state analysis on active membranes suggests a new pressure mechanism which balances the fluid pressure together with the osmotic pressure. The source of this pressure arises from active ionic fluxes and from interactions between solvent and solutes in membrane transport. We apply the proposed theory to study the transendothelial fluid pressure in the in vivo cornea, which is a crucial factor maintaining the hydration and transparency of the tissue. The results show the importance of the proposed pressure mechanism in mediating stromal fluid pressure and provide a new interpretation of the pressure modulation mechanism in the in vivo cornea.

  19. Prebiotics and bioactive natural substances induce changes of composition and metabolic activities of the colonic microflora in cancerous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijová, Emília; Bomba, Alojz; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Szabadosová, Viktória; Šoltésová, Alena

    2012-01-01

    Prebiotics are defined as selectively fermented food ingredients that induce specific changes in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota beneficial to the host well-being and health. The aim of the presented experiment was to investigate the effect of a prebiotic applied alone or in combination with Hyppocastani extractum siccum, and Lini oleum virginale in rats with dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer. Wistar albino rats were fed high fat diet supplemented with the prebiotic alone or in combination with Horse chestnut and flaxseed oil. The activity of faecal glycolytic enzymes, lipid parameters, bile acids, short chain fatty acids and counts of coliforms and lactobacilli were determined. Treatment with the prebiotic alone and in combination with selected substances significantly decreased the activity of glycolytic bacterial enzyme β-glucuronidase (Pprebiotic with Horse chestnut. The prebiotic alone decreased the lipid parameters (Pprebiotic and bioactive natural substances significantly reduced number of coliforms (PPrebiotic alone significantly increased the count of lactobacilli (Pprebiotics have a protective effect and may be the useful for colon cancer prevention and treatment.

  20. Novel biological activity of ameloblastin in enamel matrix derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko KURAMITSU-FUJIMOTO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Enamel matrix derivative (EMD is used clinically to promote periodontal tissue regeneration. However, the effects of EMD on gingival epithelial cells during regeneration of periodontal tissues are unclear. In this in vitro study, we purified ameloblastin from EMD and investigated its biological effects on epithelial cells. Material and Methods Bioactive fractions were purified from EMD by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using hydrophobic support with a C18 column. The mouse gingival epithelial cell line GE-1 and human oral squamous cell carcinoma line SCC-25 were treated with purified EMD fraction, and cell survival was assessed with a WST-1 assay. To identify the proteins in bioactive fractions of EMD, we used proteome analysis with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. Results Purified fractions from EMD suppressed proliferation of GE-1 and SCC-25. LC-MS/MS revealed that ameloblastin in EMD is the component responsible for inhibiting epithelial cell proliferation. The inhibitory effect of ameloblastin on the proliferation of GE-1 and SCC-25 was confirmed using recombinant protein. Conclusion The inhibitory effects of EMD on epithelial cell proliferation are caused by the biological activities of ameloblastin, which suggests that ameloblastin is involved in regulating epithelial downgrowth in periodontal tissues.

  1. A new biological method for preparing certain sulphurated substances labelled with S{sup 35}; Methode nouvelle de preparation par voie biologique de quelques substances soufrees marquees au soufre-35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F.; Maier-Huser, H.; Fromageot, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Previous investigations have shown that the yolk-sac of embryonic bird's eggs can be used to produce the following reactions: (a) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; (b) fixation of the sulphite on the carbon chain produced by the desulf-hydration of l-cysteine, with formation of l-cysteic acid; (c) decarboxylation of the l-cysteine acid into taurine. The enzymatic system which causes reaction (b) has been purified. It also acts as a catalyst in the sulphur-exchange between the cysteine and the mineral sulphide. The authors have utilized these data in preparing sulphurated substances labelled with S{sup 35}: taurine S{sup 35}, l-cysteine S{sup 35} and l-cysteic acid S{sup 35}. For each of the three, they discuss the chemical reactions involved, the methods of preparation, the experimental conditions of extraction and purity-control, together with the yields and specific activities obtained. (authors) [French] Des travaux anterieurs ont montre l'aptitude du sac vitellin d'oeufs embryonn d'oiseaux a realiser les reactions suivantes: a) reduction du sulfate en sulfite, b) fixation du sulfite sur la chaine carbonee issue de la desulfhydration de la L-cysteine avec formation de l'acide L-cysteique. c) decarboxylation de l 'acide L-cysteique en taurine. Le systeme enzymatique responsable de la reaction b a ete purifie; il catalyse aussi l'echange du soufre de la cysteine avec celui du sulfure mineral. Les auteurs ont utilise ces donnees pour la preparation de substances soufrees marquees au {sup 35}S: taurine {sup 35}S, L-cysteine{sup 35} et acide L-cysteique {sup 35}S. Pour chacun de ces trois corps, ils decrivent les reactions chimiques mises en jeu, les modes operatoires de fabrication, les conditions experimentales d'extraction et de controle de la purete, ainsi que les resultats obtenus tant pour les rendements que pour les activites specifiques obtenues. (auteurs)

  2. Relationships between the stereochemistry and biological activity of fungal phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Toxins produced by phytopathogenic fungi assume great importance because of their involvement in several plant diseases. Although such pathogens are known to have seriously damaged crops, forest, and environmental resources, they represent a very important tool to develop new environmentally friendly herbicides and fungicides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for major forest plants and for damaging weeds and their stereochemistry. In particular, the methods used to determine their relative and/or absolute configuration will be illustrated. These include the application of Mosher's and Murata's methods, X-ray diffractometric analysis, circular dichroism, and the use of computational methods to determine the theoretical optical rotatory power as well as the CD spectrum. The importance of determining the absolute configuration to achieve the total synthesis of some phytotoxins, interesting for their potential practical application, is also discussed.

  3. Efficient expression and purification of biologically active human cystatin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2016-02-01

    Cystatins are reversible cysteine protease inhibitor proteins. They are known to play important roles in controlling cathepsins, neurodegenerative disease, and in immune system regulation. Production of recombinant cystatin proteins is important for biochemical and function characterization. In this study, we cloned and expressed human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C in Escherichia coli. Human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C were purified from soluble fraction. For cystatin C, we used various chaperone plasmids to make cystatin C soluble, as it is reported to localize in inclusion bodies. Trigger factor, GroES-GroEL, DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperones lead to the presence of cystatin C in the soluble fraction. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography, glutathione sepharose and anion exchange chromatography techniques were employed for efficient purification of these proteins. Their biological activities were tested by inhibition assays against cathepsin L and H3 protease.

  4. Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ao Duan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX, the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae, is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX’s use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.

  5. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  6. Infrared Spectra and Hydrogen Bonds of Biologically Active Benzaldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Belkov, M. V.; Shimko, A. N.; Shadyro, O. I.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.

    2013-09-01

    IR-Fourier spectra of solutions and crystals of biologically active benzaldehyde derivatives were studied. Specific features of the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds were analyzed. Spectral signatures that characterized participation of the hydroxyl OH group and also the OCH3 and C=O groups in the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the three different types O-H···O-H, O-H···O-CH3, and O-H···O=C were revealed. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the types O-H···O-H and O-H···O-CH3 were absent for benzaldehyde derivatives in the crystal phase. Only hydroxyl and carbonyl groups participated in intermolecular interactions. This resulted in the formation of linear intermolecular dimers. Seven various configurations of the linear dimers were identified in solutions and crystals.

  7. Optimization of hypocrellin B derivative amphiphilicity and biological activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; XIE Jie; ZHANG LuYong; CHEN HongXia; GU Ying; ZHAO JingQuan

    2009-01-01

    To satisfy the dual requirements of the fluent transportation in blood and the affinity to the target tissues of vascular diseases, hypocrellin derivatives with optimized amphiphilicity are expected. In this work, 3-amino-1-propanesulfonic acid and 4-amino-1-butanesulfonic acid substituted hypocrellin B,named compounds 1 and 2, were designed, synthesized in high yields and characterized. Besides greatly strengthened red absorption, the maximum solubility of compound 2 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is 4.2 mg/mL which is just enough to prepare an aqueous solution for intravenous injection in clinically acceptable concentration, while the partition coefficient between n-octanol and PBS,5.6, benefits the cell-uptake and biological activity as well. Furthermore, EPR measurements reveal that the photosensitization activities of the two compounds to generate semiquinone anion radicals, superoxide anion radicals and singlet oxygen are a little bit higher than those of taurine substituted hypocrellin B (THB), but the photodynamic activities to human lung cancer A549 cells are several times that of THB, mainly due to increases in lipophilicity and cell-uptake.

  8. Immobilization biological activated carbon used in advanced drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria separated from a mature filter bed of groundwater treatment plants were incubated in a culture media containing iron and manganese. A consortium of 5 strains of bacteria removing iron and manganese were obtained by repeated enrichment culturing. It was shown from the experiments of effect factors that ironmanganese removal bacteria in the culture media containing both Fe and Mn grew better than in that containing only Fe, however, they were unable to grow in the culture media containing only Mn. When comparing the bacteria biomass in the case ofρ (DO) =2.8 mg/L andρ (DO) =9.0 mg/L, no significant difference was found.The engineering bacteria removing the organic and the bacteria removing iron and manganese were simultaneously inoculated into activated carbon reactor to treat the effluent of distribution network. The experimental results showed that by using IBAC ( Immobilization Biological Activated Carbon) treatment, the removal efficiency of iron, manganese and permanganate index was more than 98% , 96% and 55% , respectively. After the influent with turbidity of 1.5 NTU, color of 25 degree and offensive odor was treated, the turbidity and color of effluence were less than 0.5 NTU and 15 degree, respectively, and it was odorless. It is determined that the cooperation function of engineering bacteria and activated carbon achieved advanced drinking water treatment.

  9. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  10. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  11. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  12. Studies of the electronic structure and biological activity of chosen 1,4-benzodiazepines by {sup 35}Cl NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronisz, K. [Department of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Ostafin, M. [Department of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)], E-mail: ostifnqr@amu.edu.pl; Poleshchuk, O. Kh. [Department of Chemistry, Tomsk Pedagogical University, Komsomolskii 75, 634041 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Mielcarek, J. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medical Sciences, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Nogaj, B. [Department of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2006-11-08

    Selected derivatives of 1,4-benzodiazepine: lorazepam, lormetazepam, oxazepam and temazepam, used as active substances in anxiolytic drugs, have been studied by {sup 35}Cl NQR method in order to find the correlation between electronic structure and biological activity. The {sup 35}Cl NQR resonance frequencies ({nu} {sub Q}) measured at 77 K have been correlated with the following parameters characterising their biological activity: biological half-life period (t {sub 0.5}), affinity to benzodiazepine receptor (IC{sub 50}) and mean dose equivalent. The results of experimental study of some benzodiazepine derivatives by nuclear quadrupole resonance of {sup 35}Cl nuclei are compared with theoretical results based on DFT calculations which were carried out by means of Gaussian'98 W software.

  13. Studies of the electronic structure and biological activity of chosen 1,4-benzodiazepines by 35Cl NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronisz, K.; Ostafin, M.; Poleshchuk, O. Kh.; Mielcarek, J.; Nogaj, B.

    2006-11-01

    Selected derivatives of 1,4-benzodiazepine: lorazepam, lormetazepam, oxazepam and temazepam, used as active substances in anxiolytic drugs, have been studied by 35Cl NQR method in order to find the correlation between electronic structure and biological activity. The 35Cl NQR resonance frequencies ( νQ) measured at 77 K have been correlated with the following parameters characterising their biological activity: biological half-life period ( t0.5), affinity to benzodiazepine receptor (IC 50) and mean dose equivalent. The results of experimental study of some benzodiazepine derivatives by nuclear quadrupole resonance of 35Cl nuclei are compared with theoretical results based on DFT calculations which were carried out by means of Gaussian'98 W software.

  14. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment of neonicotinoids, including imidacloprid, as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA concerning the risk assessment for bees for the active substance imidacloprid are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the uses of imidacloprid applied as a seed treatment or granules on a variety of crops currently authorised in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and literature data as well as the available EU evaluations and monitoring data, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  15. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance thiamethoxam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment of neonicotinoids, including thiamethoxam, as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA concerning the risk assessment for bees for the active substance thiamethoxam are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the uses of thiamethoxam applied as a seed treatment on a variety of crops currently authorised in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and literature data as well as the available EU evaluations and monitoring data, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  16. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance clothianidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment of neonicotinoids, including clothianidin, as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA concerning the risk assessment for bees for the active substance clothianidin are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the uses of clothianidin applied as a seed treatment or granules on a variety of crops currently authorised in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and literature data as well as the available EU evaluations and monitoring data, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  17. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  19. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the technology to create biological bonding substances utilizing particulates under the industrial and scientific technology research and development theme [university collaborated type]. Research and development of the technology to create biological bonding substances utilizing particulates; 1999 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on development of the technology to create biological bonding substances utilizing particulates. In fixing ligands onto particulates, it is necessary that various compounds be fixed with their receptor bonding specificity maintained. Therefore, carboxylic acid, thiol and bromoacetyl groups were introduced into the particulates. Capping them by using methoxyacetyl was found capable of suppressing non-specific adsorption. Opioid compounds were synthesized for their fixation onto particulates for selection and separation. Carrying particulate bonding precursors in latex beads was realized. Synthesis will continue on opiod compounds in which amide groups are introduced into different positions to provide the particulate carrying ligands with diversity. Biological receptors for different compounds were obtained and refined by using compound fixing particulates. Refinement and acquisition were possible on FK506 bonded protein in a short time from cell extraction liquid by using the fixing particulates for the FK506 bonded protein. The paper also describes analysis of bonded domains, and position-specific fixation of the biological receptors. (NEDO)

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Organotin (IV Methylcyclohexyldithiocarbamate Compounds

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    Normah Awang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growing interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands are due to their encouraging anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as their widespread industrial application. Dithiocarbamates belong to this class and much attention has been paid to them. Approach: Novel organotin compounds with the molecular formula RmSn[S2CN(CH3(C6H11]4-m (where m = 2, R = CH3, C2H5; m = 3, R = C6H5 have been synthesized using in situ method. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Results: Elemental analysis revealed that all compounds were of good purity. Infrared spectra of the compounds showed that the thioureide ν(C-N band was in the region 1450-1500 cm−1. The unsplitting band of ν(C-S in the region 974-979 cm−1 indicated the bidentate nature of the chelated dithiocarbamato legends. The 13C NMR chemical shift of the carbon atom in the N-CS2 group appeared in the range of 196.29-199.82 ppm. Single crystal analysis from one of these compounds showed that the chelating mode of the dithiocarbamate groups was isobidentate. These compounds have been screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Only one of these compounds shows promising results against S. aureus and S. typhi. Cytotoxicity screening on human leukemic promyelocyte HL-60 cells found that two of these compounds were very active with CD50 values of 0.87 and 0.18 µg mL−1. Conclusion: The studied compounds were found to have the potential in biological activity especially in cytotoxicity where this possibly can be used for clinical trials after further research.

  1. Oat Phytochrome Is Biologically Active in Transgenic Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, M. T.; Quail, P. H.

    1989-08-01

    To determine the functional homology between phytochromes from evolutionarily divergent species, we used the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter to express a monocot (oat) phytochrome cDNA in a dicot plant (tomato). Immunoblot analysis shows that more than 50% of the transgenic tomato plants synthesize the full-length oat phytochrome polypeptide. Moreover, leaves of light-grown transgenic plants contain appreciably less oat phytochrome than leaves from dark-adapted plants, and etiolated R1 transgenic seedlings have higher levels of spectrally active phytochrome than wild-type tomato seedlings in direct proportion to the level of immunochemically detectable oat polypeptide present. These data suggest that the heterologous oat polypeptide carries a functional chromophore, allowing reversible photoconversion between the two forms of the molecule, and that the far-red absorbing form (Pfr) is recognized and selectively degraded by the Pfr-specific degradative machinery in the dicot cell. The overexpression of oat phytochrome has pleiotropic, phenotypic consequences at all major phases of the life cycle. Adult transgenic tomato plants expressing high levels of the oat protein tend to be dwarfed, with dark green foliage and fruits. R1 transgenic seedlings have short hypocotyls with elevated anthocyanin contents. We conclude that a monocot phytochrome can be synthesized and correctly processed to a biologically active form in a dicot cell, and that the transduction pathway components that interact with the photoreceptor are evolutionarily conserved.

  2. Biological Activities of Phosphocitrate: A Potential Meniscal Protective Agent

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    Yubo Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphocitrate (PC inhibited meniscal calcification and the development of calcium crystal-associated osteoarthritis (OA in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the mechanisms remain elusive. This study sought to examine the biological activities of PC in the absence of calcium crystals and test the hypothesis that PC is potentially a meniscal protective agent. We found that PC downregulated the expression of many genes classified in cell proliferation, ossification, prostaglandin metabolic process, and wound healing, including bloom syndrome RecQ helicase-like, cell division cycle 7 homolog, cell division cycle 25 homolog C, ankylosis progressive homolog, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases-1/cyclooxygenase-1, and plasminogen activator urokinase receptor. In contrast, PC stimulated the expression of many genes classified in fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway, collagen fibril organization, and extracellular structure organization, including fibroblast growth factor 7, collagen type I, alpha 1, and collagen type XI, alpha 1. Consistent with its effect on the expression of genes classified in cell proliferation, collagen fibril organization, and ossification, PC inhibited the proliferation of OA meniscal cells and meniscal cell-mediated calcification while stimulating the production of collagens. These findings indicate that PC is potentially a meniscal-protective agent and a disease-modifying drug for arthritis associated with severe meniscal degeneration.

  3. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Estimates of iodine in biological materials by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T. (Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neurosciences, Fuchu (Japan)); Kato, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Coll. of General Education)

    1982-01-01

    Iodine abundances in NBS biological SRMs and various organs of rats were evaluated by epithermal neutron activation analysis with a boron carbide filter. The detectability of iodine in different biological materials by this method is discussed.

  5. Shape changes induced by biologically active peptides and nerve growth factor in blood platelets of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudat, F; Laubscher, A; Otten, U; Pletscher, A

    1981-11-01

    1 Nerve growth factor (NGF), substance P (SP) and thymopoietin all caused shape change reactions of rapid onset in rabbit platelets. NGF had the highest maximal effect, and SP the lowest EC50 (concentration causing half maximal shape change). The action of SP was reversible within 5 min, whereas that of NGF lasted for at least 1 h. A series of other peptides were inactive. 2 After preincubation of platelets with SP, a second application of SP no longer caused a shape change reaction, whereas the effect of NGF was not influenced. 3 An oxidized NGF-derivative without biological activity did not cause a shape change reaction, neither did epidermal growth factor. 4 Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and pretreatment of the platelets with 3% butanol, which counteract the shape changes caused by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate, also antagonized those induced by NGF and SP. Neither heparin nor methysergide, an antagonist of 5-HT-receptors, influenced the shape change induced by NGF or SP. The action of NGF was also antagonized by a specific antibody to NGF. 5 Thymopoietin, like the basic polypeptide polyornithine (mol. wt. 40,000) was not antagonized by PGE1 and butanol. Heparin, which counteracted the effect of polyornithine, did not influence that of thymopoietin. 6 In conclusion, different modes of action are involved in the shape change of blood platelets induced by polypeptides and proteins. SP and NGF may act by stimulating specific membrane receptors.

  6. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  7. Effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, bound extracellular polymeric substances and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xun; Wang, Peifang; Chen, Bin; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have occurred in various water bodies during recent decades and made serious health hazards to plants, animals and humans. Iron is an important micronutrient for algal growth and recently, the concentration of which has increased remarkably in freshwaters. In this paper, the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 was cultivated under non-iron (0μM), iron-limited (10μM) and iron-replete (100μM) conditions to investigate the effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, EPS and microcystin production. The results showed that algal cell density and chlorophyll-a content were maximal at the highest iron concentration. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased notably under all three conditions in the early stage of experiment, of which the SOD activity recovered soon from oxidative stress in 10μM group. The productions of some protein-like substances and humic acid-like substances of bound EPS were inhibited in iron-containing groups in the early stage of experiment while promoted after the adaptation period of Microcystis aeruginosa. Iron addition is a factor affecting the formation of cyanobacterial blooms through its impact on the content of LB-EPS and the composition of TB-EPS. The intracellular MC-LR concentration and the productivity potential of MC-LR were the lowest in 0μM group and highest in 10μM group. No obvious extracellular release of MC-LR was observed during the cultivation time. Therefore, iron addition can promote the physiological activities of M. aeruginosa, but a greater harm could be brought into environment under iron-limited (10μM) condition than under iron-replete (100μM) condition.

  8. Substance use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse; Illicit drug abuse; Narcotic abuse; Hallucinogen abuse ... Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  9. 海洋微生物抗肿瘤活性物质的研究进展%The Study Progress of Anti-Tumor Activity Substance for Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建柳; 陈育; 袁学丈

    2009-01-01

    The marine microorganism have considerable potential to produce new type of biologically active substances because of their special environment. It should be a new research field to find and develop anticancer medicament from marine microorganisms. Many new anti-tumor active substances been separated and identified from marine organisms such as marine actinomycetes, fungi and bacteria In recent years, these compounds showed a high anti-tumor biological activity level. This article reviewed the study progress of anti-tumor material separated from marine microorganisms during the nearest few years.%海洋微生物因其特殊的生存环境而具有产生新型生物活性物质的巨大潜力,从海洋微生物中寻找和开发抗肿瘤药物是一个前途广阔的新领域.近年来,从海洋微生物(海洋放线菌、真菌和细菌)分离鉴定了许多结构新颖的抗肿瘤活性物质,这些化合物显示了良好的抗肿瘤生物活性.本文就近几年从海洋微生物中分离得到的抗肿瘤活性物质的研究进展作了综述.

  10. Actinobacteria from arid and desert habitats: diversity and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim eWink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability.At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria

  11. [Studies on acetylspiramycin. II. Biological activities of spiramycin components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, A; Sato, K; Shuto, K; Yamashita, K; Ichikawa, S; Takahashi, K; Kita, K; Nishiie, Y; Sano, H; Yamaguchi, K

    1990-09-01

    Acetylspiramycin (ASPM) was fractionated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peak fractions were named F1 to F7 successively in order of increasing retention times (Rt), i.e., increasing hydrophobicity, and studied for 1) antibacterial activities (MIC), 2) antibacterial potency against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, 3) therapeutic effect on mice infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae III, Staphylococcus aureus Smith, 4) acute toxicity by i.p. administration to mice (LD50) and 5) cytotoxicities to fibroblasts derived from Chinese-hamster lung (CHL), cow pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAE) and rat hepatic cells. The results obtained are summarized below. 1. Components F1 and 4'-acetylspiramycin F2 had significantly different biological activities from those of other components: F1 showed the lowest antibacterial potency of 492 micrograms (potency)/mg, F2 showed the highest antibacterial potency of 2,040 micrograms (potency)/mg and correspondingly the lowest LD50 value of 692 mg/kg (the highest toxicity). The therapeutic effect of F2 on infections in mice was found to be the second smallest and was superior only to that of F1. The LD50 value of F1 was 1,200 mg/kg and similar to that of ASPM. 2. Antibacterial potencies of F3, F4, F5 and F6 were 1,165, 1,266, 1,374 and 1,530 micrograms (potency)/mg, respectively; fraction with the higher antibacterial activities corresponded to the longer retention times, i.e., the greater hydrophobicities. The most hydrophobic component, F7, 3-propionyl-3",4"-diacetylspiramycin, however, showed a low antibacterial potency of 1,085 micrograms (potency)/mg, next to the lowest one, F1, a fact which was in contradiction to with the sequential relation between hydrophobicities and potencies from F3 to F6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite as oxygen absorber for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite (FCM Substance No 1003 intended to be incorporated in monolayer or multilayer packages or in sachets for absorbing oxygen from the food environment. All starting substances of the oxygen absorber have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. From a toxicological point of view, migration of iron (incorporated and aluminium (naturally present ions from bentonite is of interest. Iron can be estimated to migrate up to 4.5 mg/kg acidic food, which is well below the SML value of 48 mg/kg food set in Regulation EU No 10/2011 based on the PMTDI of 0.8 mg/kg bw established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1983 and the SCF in 1990. The iron (II modified bentonite is intended and expected to be present in the final article as non-nanoform. However, the formation of nanoparticles due to exfoliation cannot be excluded if the substance is incorporated in unpolar polymers with compatibilisers or without such additives in polar polymers. Aluminium can be estimated to migrate up to 0.3 mg /kg acidic food. This value corresponds to 3.5 % of the TWI set in 2008 by the EFSA AFC Panel. Therefore, under the intended conditions of use, the oxygen absorber formulation was considered toxicologically acceptable. The CEF Panel concluded that the substance iron (II modified bentonite does not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as oxygen absorber incorporated without compatibilisers in polyolefin layers of food packages at levels up to 15% w/w. The substance equally does not raise a safety concern when it is used in sachets, placed in the headspace of the packaging, that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food and are not in direct contact with liquid foods, exudates, or foods with external aqueous liquid phase.

  13. Metabolic relationships of the isolated fractions of the pectic substances of actively growing sycamore cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, R W; Northcote, D H

    1967-10-01

    1. d-Glucose and l-arabinose serve as precursors of the pectic polysaccharides of sycamore suspension-callus tissue. 2. The rates and characteristics of the incorporation of radioactive sucrose, glucose and mesoinositol by sycamore callus tissue have been compared and shown to be different. 3. The time-course of the incorporation of radioactive glucose into the major fractions within the cells has been determined. Approx. 7-10% of the radioactivity incorporated is present in the whole pectin of the cells. 4. A study of the continuous incorporation of radioactive glucose showed that the neutral arabinan-galactan fraction of the pectin quickly became saturated with the radioactive label. During the incorporation of radioactivity from a pulse of radioactive glucose the neutral fraction became progressively less labelled, with a corresponding increase in the radioactivity of the weakly acidic pectinic acid, which is known to contain neutral sugars. 5. When the cells were exposed to a pulse of radioactive l-arabinose, the label accumulated first in the neutral fraction and then after 4hr. it passed to the weakly acidic pectinic acid with a corresponding decrease in the radioactivity of the neutral fraction. 6. The product that was initially labelled during the first hour of exposure of the cells in the stationary phase to radioactive glucose was identified as an incompletely methylated galacturonan in which the radioactivity was present in the anhydrogalacturonide residues. This polysaccharide probably acts as the precursor of the polyuronide portions of both the strongly acidic and weakly acidic pectinic acids. 7. The observations are discussed in relation to the structure of the pectic substances and their function in cell growth and development. A tentative model for their metabolic relationship is put forward.

  14. Biological aerosol detection with combined passive-active infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifarraguerri, Agustin I.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Ben-David, Avishai

    2004-12-01

    A data collection experiment was performed in November of 2003 to measure aerosol signatures using multiple sensors, all operating in the long-wave infrared. The purpose of this data collection experiment was to determine whether combining passive hyperspectral and LIDAR measurements can substantially improve biological aerosol detection performance. Controlled releases of dry aerosols, including road dust, egg albumin and two strains of Bacillus Subtilis var. Niger (BG) spores were performed using the ECBC/ARTEMIS open-path aerosol test chamber located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD. The chamber provides a ~ 20' path without optical windows. Ground truth devices included 3 aerodynamic particle sizers, an optical particle size spectrometer, 6 nephelometers and a high-volume particle sampler. Two sensors were used to make measurements during the test: the AIRIS long-wave infrared imaging spectrometer and the FAL CO2 LIDAR. The AIRIS and FAL data sets were analyzed for detection performance relative to the ground truth. In this paper we present experimental results from the individual sensors as well as results from passive-active sensor fusion. The sensor performance is presented in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  15. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond in Biologically Active o-Carbonyl Hydroquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Martínez-Cifuentes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IHBs play a central role in the molecular structure, chemical reactivity and interactions of biologically active molecules. Here, we study the IHBs of seven related o-carbonyl hydroquinones and one structurally-related aromatic lactone, some of which have shown anticancer and antioxidant activity. Experimental NMR data were correlated with theoretical calculations at the DFT and ab initio levels. Natural bond orbital (NBO and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP calculations were used to study the electronic characteristics of these IHB. As expected, our results show that NBO calculations are better than MEP to describe the strength of the IHBs. NBO energies (∆Eij(2 show that the main contributions to energy stabilization correspond to LPàσ* interactions for IHBs, O1…O2-H2 and the delocalization LPàπ* for O2-C2 = Cα(β. For the O1…O2-H2 interaction, the values of ∆Eij(2 can be attributed to the difference in the overlap ability between orbitals i and j (Fij, instead of the energy difference between them. The large energy for the LP O2àπ* C2 = Cα(β interaction in the compounds 9-Hydroxy-5-oxo-4,8, 8-trimethyl-l,9(8H-anthracenecarbolactone (VIII and 9,10-dihydroxy-4,4-dimethylanthracen-1(4H-one (VII (55.49 and 60.70 kcal/mol, respectively when compared with the remaining molecules (all less than 50 kcal/mol, suggests that the IHBs in VIII and VII are strongly resonance assisted.

  16. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  17. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepecka-Stojko, Anna; Stojko, Jerzy; Kurek-Górecka, Anna; Górecki, Michał; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Kubina, Robert; Moździerz, Aleksandra; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-12-04

    Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3' and C4' positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  18. [The comparative characteristics of antibacterial properties of the peptides of the active site of GM-CSF, and substances delivered from supernatants of hematopoietic progenitor CD34+45- cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurochka, A V; Zurochka, V A; Kostolomova, E G; Dobrynina, M A; Sykhoveĭ, Iu G; Gritsenko, V A

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of synthetic peptides of the active site of GM-CSF and supernatants of CD34+45- hematopoietic progenitor cells has been investigated GM-CSF peptides and cell supernatants were found to possess pronounced antibacterial activity, at that a combination of these substances has a more pronounced activity in comparison with the single substances. Possible mechanisms of the identified effects of synthetic peptides and substances from the supernatants of CD34+5- cells are discussed.

  19. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance oryzalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State France, for the pesticide active substance oryzalin are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory mammalian toxicology and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of oryzalin as a herbicide on grape vines. A concern has been identified as regards the assessment of the toxicological relevance of some impurities, which could not be finalised based on the data available.

  20. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance ethoprophos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance ethoprophos are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of ethoprophos as an insecticide and nematicide on potatoes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Concerns are identified.

  1. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Paecilomyces fumosoroseus strain FE 9901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Belgium for the pesticide active substance Paecilomyces fumosoroseus strain FE 9901 are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as an insecticide in glasshouses on tomatoes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  2. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substance imidacloprid are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory mammalian toxicology and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of imidacloprid as an insecticide on apples, tomatoes and sugar beet. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. No concerns are identified.

  3. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance L-ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance L-ascorbic acid are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of L-ascorbic acid as a fungicide on potato, glasshouse tomato and field and glasshouse flower bulbs. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  4. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance kieselgur (diatomaceous earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Greece, for the pesticide active substance kieselgur are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004 as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of kieselgur as an insecticide, acaricide on stored grain, empty rooms, mills, stores and soil treatment in home gardening. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  5. [Preclinical study of immunocorrection action of the sum of active substances of Coluria geoides (Pall.) Ledeb. (Rosaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutova, S V; Karpova, M R; Myadelets, M A; Myasnaya, N V; Sherstoboev, E Yu

    2015-01-01

    A preclinical study of the immunocorrection action of the sum of active substances isolated from ethereal-oil plants Coluria geoides (Pall.) Ledeb. (Rosaceae family) with respect to experimental immunodeficiency showed that preparations relieve symptoms of immunodeficiency caused by the administration of cyclophosphan: suppressed synthesis of anti-erythrocyte antibodies (agglutinine) and proliferative processes in the spleen. Under the influence of C. geoides preparations, the absolute numbers of cariocytes and antibody forming cells in spleen significantly increased (compared to the group of animals with experimental immunodeficiency) and in some cases reached the background level. The drugs studied produced a more pronounced stimulating effect on the synthesis of specific immunoglobulins and proliferation of antibody forming cells of spleen as compared to the effect of Echinacea tincture. Preparation C-2 (extract from underground organs and grass of C. geoides obtained by percolation method with 70% ethanol) is most promising for in-depth research and the development of new effective drugs with immunocorrecting properties.

  6. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance beta-cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance beta-cypermethrin are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of beta-cypermethrin as an insecticide on oilseed rape, wheat and maize. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified as regards the risk to aquatic organisms, bees and non-target arthropods.

  7. The influence of extraversion on preferences and engagement in pleasant activities in patients with substance use disorders: one size fits all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, H.G.; Evans, B.E.; Wiersma, H.; Meyers, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) is its emphasis on getting individuals to increase their engagement in healthy old and new rewarding activities that can compete with substance use. The personality dimension extraversion seems to be an important mechanism underlying activity

  8. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL ARYL AND HETROARYL CHALCONE ANALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribhuvan Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new series of Heterocyclic chalcones showed diversified biological activities. In view of potential biological activities of Heterocyclic chalcones derivative were prepared by claisen-Schmidt condensation technique. The compound were screened for anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity.

  9. The effects of three commonly used extraction methods on the redox properties of extracellular polymeric substances from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qin; Chang, Ming; Yu, Zhen; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the redox properties of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have attracted the attention of scientists due to their associated environmental significance, such as organic pollutant (e.g. nitroaromatics and substituted nitrobenzenes) degradation and heavy metal (e.g. Cr(VI) and U(VI)) detoxification. Although the separation of EPS from bacterial cells is more often the first step in studies on EPS, and studies have demonstrated that extraction procedures can influence the sorption properties of EPS, few attempts have been made to investigate how separation methods affect the redox properties of the obtained EPS. In this study, three common extraction approaches, that is, centrifugation, formaldehyde+NaOH and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), were employed to extract EPS from activated sludge, and the obtained EPS were evaluated for their redox properties using electrochemical means, including cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. In addition, spectroscopic techniques were utilized to explore the structural characteristics and composition of EPS. The results indicated that EPS extracted by EDTA clearly displayed reversible oxidation-reduction peaks in cyclic voltammograms and significantly higher electron-accepting capacity compared with EPS extracted using the other two approaches. Fourier transform infrared spectra and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectra suggested that the EPS extracted with EDTA presented better redox properties because of the effective and efficient extraction of the humic substances, which are important components of the EPS of activated sludge. Therefore, extraction method has an impact on the composition and redox properties of EPS and should be chosen according to research purpose and EPS source.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro Valera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Material and Methods: Seventy-two human tooth roots were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days. The groups were divided according to the auxiliary chemical substance into: G1 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, G2 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX, G3 castor oil, G4 glycolic Aloe vera extract, G5 glycolic ginger extract, and G6 sterile saline (control. The samples of the root canal were collected at different intervals: confirmation collection, at 21 days after contamination; 1st collection, after instrumentation; and 2nd collection, seven days after instrumentation. Microbiological samples were grown in culture medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Results: The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (5% statistical tests. NaOCl and CHX completely eliminated the microorganisms of the root canals. Castor oil and ginger significantly reduced the number of CFU of the tested bacteria. Reduction of CFU/mL at the 1st and 2nd collections for groups G1, G2, G3 and G4 was greater in comparison to groups G5 and G6. Conclusion: It was concluded that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel were more effective in eliminating C. albicans and E. faecalis, followed by the castor oil and glycolic ginger extract. The Aloe vera extract showed no antimicrobial activity.

  11. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  12. Current Limitations and Recommendations to Improve Testing for the Environmental Assessment of Endocrine Active Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K; Biever, Ronald C; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-01-01

    evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect...... apical data to detect possible adverse effects. These test systems are currently designed to robustly assess endocrine activity and/or adverse effects in the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways; however, there are some limitations of current test systems for evaluating endocrine...... existing test methods are resource intensive in regard to time, cost, and use of animals. However, based on recent experiences, there are opportunities to improve approaches to, and guidance for existing test methods, and reduce uncertainty. For example, in vitro high throughput screening could be used...

  13. Current limitations and recommendations to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine-active chemicals are described, and associated challenges discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across organizatio...

  14. Investigating the Use of Inquiry & Web-Based Activities with Inclusive Biology Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Waller, Patricia L.; Edwards, Lana; Darlene Kale, Santoro

    2007-01-01

    A Web-integrated biology program is used to explore how to best assist inclusive high school students to learn biology with inquiry-based activities. Classroom adaptations and instructional strategies teachers may use to assist in promoting biology learning with inclusive learners are discussed.

  15. Electrodermal screening of biologically active points for upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Jung; Hu, Wen-Long; Hung, I-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hung, Yu-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between the electrical resistance of the skin at biologically active points (BAPs) on the main meridians and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Electrical resistance to direct current at 20 BAPs on the fingers and toes of 100 patients with (38 men, 12 women; mean age [range], 58.20 ± 19.62 [18-83] years) and without (27 men, 23 women; 49.54 ± 12.12 [22-74] years) UGIB was measured through electrodermal screening (EDS), based on the theory of electroacupuncture according to Voll (EAV). Data were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and logistic regression. The initial readings were lower in the UGIB group, indicating blood and energy deficiency due to UGIB. Significant differences in indicator drop values were observed at nine BAPs (p < 0.05) on the bilateral small intestine, bilateral stomach, bilateral circulation, bilateral fibroid degeneration, and right lymph meridians. The area under the ROC curve values of the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians were larger than 0.5, suggesting the diagnostic accuracy of EDS for UGIB on the basis of the indicator drop of these BAPs. Logistic regression revealed that when the indicator drop of the BAP on the left stomach meridian increased by one score, the risk of UGIB increased by about 1.545-3.523 times. In conclusion, the change in the electrical resistance of the skin measured by EDS at the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians provides specific information on UGIB.

  16. Adhesive Properties and Acid-Forming Activity of Lactobacilli and Streptococci Under Inhibitory Substances, Such as Nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, L; Harutyunyan, K; Harutyunyan, N; Melik-Andreasyan, G; Trchounian, A

    2016-06-01

    One of the main requirements for probiotics is their ability to survive during passage through gastrointestinal tract and to maintain their activity at different adverse conditions. The aim of the study was to look for the strains of lactobacilli and streptococci with high adhesive properties even affected by inhibitory substances, such as nitrates (NO3 (-)). To study the adhesion properties hemagglutination reaction of bacterial cells with red blood cells of different animals and humans was used. The acid formation ability of bacteria was determined by the method of titration after 7 days of incubation in the sterile milk. These properties were investigated at different concentrations of NO3 (-). The high concentration (mostly ≥2.0 %) NO3 (-) inhibited the growth of both lactobacilli and streptococci, but compared with streptococcal cultures lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus acidophilus Ep 317/402, have shown more stability and higher adhesive properties. In addition, the concentrations of NO3 (-) of 0.5-2.0 % decreased the acid-forming activity of the strains, but even under these conditions they coagulated milk and, in comparison to control, formed low acidity in milk. Thus, the L. acidophilus Ep 317/402 with high adhesive properties has demonstrated a higher activity of NO3 (-) transformation.

  17. The costs and effects of post-authorisation safety studies for new active substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvy, J.C.; De Bruin, M.L.; Hoekman, J.; Stolk, P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: At market entry, there usually is uncertainty regarding a new medicine's benefit-risk profile. Therefore, regulatory authorities may request additional pharmacovigilance (PhV) activities. Regulatory Authorities can request a Post- Authorisation Safety Study (PASS) such as a registry, dat

  18. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  19. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  20. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha, F. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA. In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anticarcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anticarcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the

  1. Immunochemical studies on blood groups LXII. Fractionation of hog and human A, H, and AH blood group active substance on insoluble immunoadsorbents of Dolichos and Lotus lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M E; Kabat, E A

    1976-02-01

    The purified lectins from Lotus tetragonolobus and Dolichos biflorus were coupled to Sepharose 2B to make insoluble adsorbents for purification and fractionation of blood group A and H active glycoproteins. With both adsorbents, hog gastric mucin A + H blood substance (HGM), purified by phenol-ethanol precipitation, yielded fractions showing only A, only H, or AH activities. The AH fraction was obtained when the adsorbent column was overloaded with HGM and its A and H specificities seem to be carried on the same molecules since they were not separable by chromatography on either column. However A and H specificities of blood group substance from the stomach of a presumably heterozygous individual hog were both on the same molecules as they too could not be fractionated on either column. Analytical properties of the isolated fractions were generally similar to those of the unfractionated material, the purfied A substances had a higher galactosamine/fucose ratio than did the H substances. Although the original A + H showed very little specific optical rotation, the separated A and H substances rotated positively and negatively, respectively. The lectin-Sepharose adsorbents have also proven useful in isolating A or H substances directly from the crude commercial hog gastric mucin. Blood group A2 substance from a human ovarian cyst yielded two fractions on the Lotus-Sepharose column; the effluent did not interact with the Lotus lectin but precipitated the Ulex and Dolichos lectins and anti-A, and appears to contain type 1 H determinants. The other fraction reacted with Lotus and Ulex lectin as well as with Dolichos and anti-A.

  2. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  3. Comparative Solid-State Stability of Perindopril Active Substance vs. Pharmaceutical Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Valentina; Andor, Minodora; Ledeti, Adriana; Ledeti, Ionut; Vlase, Gabriela; Vlase, Titus; Cristescu, Carmen; Voicu, Mirela; Suciu, Liana; Tomescu, Mirela Cleopatra

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained after studying the thermal stability and decomposition kinetics of perindopril erbumine as a pure active pharmaceutical ingredient as well as a solid pharmaceutical formulation containing the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Since no data were found in the literature regarding the spectroscopic description, thermal behavior, or decomposition kinetics of perindopril, our goal was the evaluation of the compatibility of this antihypertensive agent with the excipients in the tablet under ambient conditions and to study the effect of thermal treatment on the stability of perindopril erbumine. ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy, thermal analysis (thermogravimetric mass curve (TG—thermogravimetry), derivative thermogravimetric mass curve (DTG), and heat flow (HF)) and model-free kinetics were chosen as investigational tools. Since thermal behavior is a simplistic approach in evaluating the thermal stability of pharmaceuticals, in-depth kinetic studies were carried out by classical kinetic methods (Kissinger and ASTM E698) and later with the isoconversional methods of Friedman, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa. It was shown that the main thermal degradation step of perindopril erbumine is characterized by activation energy between 59 and 69 kJ/mol (depending on the method used), while for the tablet, the values were around 170 kJ/mol. The used excipients (anhydrous colloidal silica, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and magnesium stearate) should be used in newly-developed generic solid pharmaceutical formulations, since they contribute to an increased thermal stability of perindopril erbumine. PMID:28098840

  4. Comparative Solid-State Stability of Perindopril Active Substance vs. Pharmaceutical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Buda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained after studying the thermal stability and decomposition kinetics of perindopril erbumine as a pure active pharmaceutical ingredient as well as a solid pharmaceutical formulation containing the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Since no data were found in the literature regarding the spectroscopic description, thermal behavior, or decomposition kinetics of perindopril, our goal was the evaluation of the compatibility of this antihypertensive agent with the excipients in the tablet under ambient conditions and to study the effect of thermal treatment on the stability of perindopril erbumine. ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis (thermogravimetric mass curve (TG—thermogravimetry, derivative thermogravimetric mass curve (DTG, and heat flow (HF and model-free kinetics were chosen as investigational tools. Since thermal behavior is a simplistic approach in evaluating the thermal stability of pharmaceuticals, in-depth kinetic studies were carried out by classical kinetic methods (Kissinger and ASTM E698 and later with the isoconversional methods of Friedman, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa. It was shown that the main thermal degradation step of perindopril erbumine is characterized by activation energy between 59 and 69 kJ/mol (depending on the method used, while for the tablet, the values were around 170 kJ/mol. The used excipients (anhydrous colloidal silica, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and magnesium stearate should be used in newly-developed generic solid pharmaceutical formulations, since they contribute to an increased thermal stability of perindopril erbumine.

  5. Insecticidal activities of garlic substances against adults of grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Lian Yang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The angoumois grain moth,Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier),is one of the most serious stored grain pests around the world.In attempts to reduce the losses caused by the moth and to suppress its populations,the fumigant activities,behavioral influence and ovipositional inhibition of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil and its two major components,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,were investigated against the adult grain moth.Their effects on reduction in survival of first instar larvae to adult emergence were also evaluated.Results showed that these three materials (garlic essential oil,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide) had significant fumigant activity with 50% lethal concentration values at 1.33,0.99,and 1.02μL/L air space,respectively; meanwhile,the three materials possessed high behavioral deterrent activities against adults in the Y-tube olfactometer.When applied to rice grains,these materials reduced adult longevity and inhibited oviposition,with ovipositional inhibition above 70% at a concentration of 1.5 tL/25 g in either no-choice or two-choice tests.In short,the study showed that both diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,like garlic essential oil,acted as fumigants,produced behavioral deterfence and inhibited oviposition against angoumois grain moth.Our work here indicates that diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide may serve as potential alternatives for grain protectants since both of them can be prepared easily from readily available chemicals.

  6. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  7. Biological Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Phytoalexins and Selected Natural and Synthetic Stilbenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    for their effects on economically important plant pathogenic fungi of the genera Colletotrichum, Botrytis, Fusarium, and Phomopsis. We further...hypogaea, peanuts, groundnuts, stilbenoids, resveratrol, phytoalexins, biological activity, antifungal, antitumor, anticancer , cytotoxic, antioxidant...prenylated flavonoids have been identified as constituents in plants, and display biological activities, such as anticancer , antiandrogen, anti-Leishmania, and

  8. Determination of biological activity from fluorescence-lifetime measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Hartmann, P.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of fluorescence lifetime measurement as an optical analysis tool is growing. Many applications already exist in order to determine the fluorescence lifetime, but the majority of these require the addition of fluorescence-active substances to enable measurements. Every usage of such foreign materials has an associated risk. This paper investigates the use of auto-fluorescing substances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) as a risk free alternative to fluorescence-active substance enabled measurements. The experimental setup uses a nitrogen laser with a pulse length of 350 ps and a wavelength of 337 nm. The excited sample emits light due to fluorescence of NADH/NADPH and collagen. A fast photodiode collects the light at the output of an appropriate high-pass edge-filter at 400 nm. Fluorescence lifetimes can be determined from the decay of the measurement signals, which in turn characterizes the individual materials and their surrounding environment. Information about the quantity of the fluorescence active substances can also be measured based on the received signal intensity. The correlation between the fluorescence lifetime and the metabolic state of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and is presented here.

  9. Zinc polycarboxylate dental cement for the controlled release of an active organic substance: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Naseem; Edwards, Mark; Nicholson, John W

    2010-04-01

    The potential of employing zinc polycarboxylate dental cement as a controlled release material has been studied. Benzalkonium chloride was used as the active ingredient, and incorporated at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% by mass within the cement. At these levels, there was no observable effect on the speed of setting. Release was followed using an ion-selective electrode to determine changes in chloride ion concentration with time. This technique showed that the additive was released when the cured cement was placed in water, with release occurring by a diffusion mechanism for the first 3 h, but continuing beyond that for up to 1 week. Diffusion coefficients were in the range 5.62 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 1% concentration) to 10.90 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 3% concentration). Up to 3% of the total loading of benzalkonium chloride was released from the zinc polycarboxylate after a week, which is similar to that found in previous studies with glass-ionomer cement. It is concluded that zinc polycarboxylate cement is capable of acting as a useful material for the controlled release of active organic compounds.

  10. [The effect of aryloxyaminopropanol substances on the photosynthetic activity of chloroplasts in Spinacia oleracea L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmáriková, R; Kráĺová, K; Sersen, F

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 18 compounds of the aryloxyaminopropanol type--potential beta-adrenolytics (differing each from other by modifications in the hydrophilic and lipophilic part of the molecule) on the inhibition of oxygen evolution rate in spinach chloroplasts has been investigated. The compounds with n-octyloxymethyl and n-nonyloxymethyl group in position 3 of aromatic ring were found to exhibit the highest inhibitory activity (IC50 = 67, resp. 120 mumol dm-3). The compounds containing a heterocycle or the dimethylamino group in the hydrophilic part of the molecule and with propoxymethyl group on the aromatic ring were not active. Using EPR spectroscopy it was found that the studied compounds interact with Z+/D+ intermediates, i.e. tyrosine radicals TyrZ and TyrD situated in D1 and D2 proteins on the donor side of photosystem 2. Higher concentrations of the studied inhibitors cause release of Mn2+ ions from the oxygen evolving complex which is situated in photosystem 2. The interaction of the tested compounds with chlorophyll occurring in the photosynthetic centres has been confirmed by fluorescence measurements as well.

  11. The role of extracellular polymeric substances in the toxicity response of activated sludge bacteria to chemical toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Inês D S; Love, Nancy G

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiration inhibition induced by octanol, cadmium, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and cyanide on activated sludge biomasses with different floc structures but similar physiological characteristics. Mechanical shearing was applied to fresh mixed liquor to produce biomasses with different floc structure properties. Specific oxygen uptake rate assays were conducted on the sheared and unsheared mixed liquors. The results showed that mechanical shearing resulted in release of biopolymers from the floc extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix into the bulk liquid and a simultaneous reduction in floc size. Shearing did not impact biomass viability. The respiration inhibition by octanol and cadmium was more severe in sheared mixed liquor than in the unsheared biomass. Conversely, the respiration inhibition induced by NEM and cyanide was similar for the different mixed liquors tested. We conclude that the EPS matrix functions as a protective barrier for the bacteria inside activated sludge flocs to chemicals that it has the potential to interact with, such as hydrophobic (octanol) and positively charged (cadmium) compounds, but that the toxicity response for soluble, hydrophilic toxins (NEM and cyanide) is not influenced by the presence of the polymer matrix.

  12. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Benzoyl Hydrazines Containing Pyrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫涛; 于淑晶; 刘鹏飞; 刘卓; 王宝雷; 熊丽霞; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign compounds with high biological activity, low toxicity and low resistance, 8 novel benzoyl hydrazines containing pyrazole were designed and synthesized. All compounds were characterized by I H NMR spectra and HRMS. The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicated that most of title compounds exhibited certain insecticidal activities against M),thimna separata Walker at 200 mg L-1 but excellent fungicidal activities against six fungus at 50 mg L-1, which were better than the control.

  13. DEET, Active Substance Of Repellent That Effective And Safe For Travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Lestari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Increased flow of tourism to the tropics and the changing patterns of vector-borne diseases require increased protection against insects. To prevent transmission of the disease is done several ways that increase self-protection by using mosquito repellent can protect travelers while outdoor activities. One option is active formula mosquito repellent DEET. The purpose of this paper is to determine the best dosage forms for travelers DEET., To determine the effectiveness and safety of DEET and to know the workings of the active ingredient DEET. The method of writing is the literature search through medical journals and articles. From the search was obtained, the most appropriate anti-mosquito travelers to use while on the move outdoors in the dosage form is DEET lotion applied to the skin as the most secure and durable because it does not easily evaporate. Mosquito repellent containing DEET has been proven effective and safe for use in adults, children, and pregnant women, but should still follow the instructions. The workings of the mosquito repellent DEET mosquito dispel is manipulating 1-Octen-3-ol used by mosquitoes to detect human presence. So ORN (olfactory receptor neurons in the mosquitoes can not respond anymore to the maximum, so that people avoid the bites nyamuk. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New

  14. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms.

  15. Protocatechuic acid, a novel active substance against avian influenza virus H9N2 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbo Ou

    Full Text Available Influenza virus H9N2 subtype has triggered co-infection with other infectious agents, resulting in huge economical losses in the poultry industry. Our current study aims to evaluate the antiviral activity of protocatechuic acid (PCA against a virulent H9N2 strain in a mouse model. 120 BALB/c mice were divided into one control group, one untreated group, one 50 mg/kg amantadine hydrochloride-treated group and three PCA groups treated 12 hours post-inoculation with 40, 20 or 10 mg/kg PCA for 7 days. All the infected animals were inoculated intranasally with 0.2 ml of a A/Chicken/Hebei/4/2008(H9N2 inoculum. A significant body weight loss was found in the 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg PCA-treated and amantadine groups as compared to the control group. The 14 day survivals were 94.4%, 100% and 95% in the PCA-treated groups and 94.4% in the amantadine hydrochloride group, compared to less than 60% in the untreated group. Virus loads were less in the PCA-treated groups compared to the amantadine-treated or the untreated groups. Neutrophil cells in BALF were significantly decreased while IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α and IL-6 decreased significantly at days 7 in the PCA-treated groups compared to the untreated group. Furthermore, a significantly decreased CD4+/CD8+ ratio and an increased proportion of CD19 cells were observed in the PCA-treated groups and amantadine-treated group compared to the untreated group. Mice administered with PCA exhibited a higher survival rate and greater viral clearance associated with an inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and activation of CD8+ T cell subsets. PCA is a promising novel agent against bird flu infection in the poultry industry.

  16. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of Test Endpoints for Detecting the Effects of Endocrine Active Substances in Fish Full Life Cycle Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish full life cycle (FFLC) tests are increasingly required in the ecotoxicological assessment of endocrine active substances. However, FFLC tests have not been internationally standardized or validated, and it is currently unclear how such tests should best be designed to provid...

  17. Studies on Isolation and Application of Active Substance of Endophyte in Medicinal Plants%药用植物内生菌及其产生活性物质的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜云; 陈长卿; 尹望

    2013-01-01

    内生菌广泛分布于药用植物体内,与药用植物在长期协同进化过程中形成了互惠共生关系.其能够产生多种活性物质,在药用植物的生长、抗逆性、活性成分产量积累中起到了促进作用,因此在生物防治、医药等领域有着广阔的前景.本文对药用植物内生菌的分离及活性物质的作用等方面进行了综述.%Endophyte widely distributed in medicinal plants,it and its host medicinal plants formed a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship in the long-term co-evolution process.Endophyte could produce a variety of active substances,and played a catalytic role in the medicinal plant growth,stress resistance and the yield accumulation of active ingredient which having important application on medicine and biological controL The isolation ofendophytes in medicinal plant and the function of active substances were summarized in the paper.

  18. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEMEŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  19. Risk assessment of hazardous impacts on urbanization and industrialization activities based upon toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

  20. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies.

  1. TASTE MASKING TECHNOLOGIES: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTY OF PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVE SUBSTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Acceptability of any dosage form are mainly depends over its taste i.e. mouth feel. Drug molecule interacts with taste receptor on the tongue to give bitter, sweet or salty taste sensation, when they dissolve in saliva. This sensation of the taste is the result of signal transduction from the receptor organs for taste, commonly known as taste buds. In market, there are numbers of pharmaceutical preparations available in which actives are bitter in taste. The improved palatability in these products has prompted the development of numerous formulations, which improved performance and acceptability. The bitterness of preparation also leads to patient incompliance. So masking of bitterness becomes essential. To overcome this problem, many techniques have been developed to mask the bitter taste of drugs. These techniques are not only mask the bitter taste of drug but also enhance the bioavailability and performance of drug dosage form. It includes adding sugars, flavors, sweeteners, use of lipoproteins, numbing taste buds, granulation, use of adsorbates ,coating drug, microencapsulation, multiple emulsion, viscosity modifier, vesicles and liposomes, prodrug and salt formation, inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion and Ion Exchange Resins (IERs which have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review article highlights different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

  2. Phlorotannins from Ecklonia cava (Phaeophyceae): biological activities and potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekara, Isuru; Yoon, Na Young; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    The importance of bioactive derivatives as functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and characterization of novel functional ingredients with biological activities from seaweeds have gained much attention. Ecklonia cava Kjellman is an edible seaweed, which has been recognized as a rich source of bioactive derivatives mainly, phlorotannins. These phlorotannins exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, antihypertensive, matrix metalloproteinase enzyme inhibition, hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition, radioprotective, and antiallergic activities. This review focuses on biological activities of phlorotannins with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  4. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and remission of vital oxidative injury by low dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, K. [Okayama University Medical School, Okayama (Japan); Nomura, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Excessive active oxygen produced in vivo by various causes is toxic. Accumulation of oxidation injuries due to excessive active causes cell and tissue injuries, inducing various pathologic conditions such as aging and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, there are chemical defense mechanisms in the body that eliminate active oxygen or repair damaged molecules, defending against resultant injury. It is interesting reports that appropriate oxidation stress activate the chemical biological defense mechanisms. In this study, to elucidate these phenomena and its mechanism by low dose radiation, we studied on the below subjects. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms by low dose radiation: (1) The effects radiation on lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the organs, membrane fluidity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined in rats and rabbits. Rats were irradiated with low dose X-ray over their entire bodies, and rabbits inhaled vaporized radon spring water, which primarily emitted {alpha}-ray. The following results were obtained. Unlike high dose X-ray, low dose X-ray and radon inhalation both reduced LPO levels and made the state of the SH-group on membrane-bound proteins closer to that of juvenile animals, although the sensitivity to radioactivity varied depending on the age of the animals and among different organs and tissues. The SOD activity was elevated, suggesting that low dose X-ray and radon both activate the host defensive function. Those changes were particularly marked in the organs related to immune functions of the animals which received low dose X-ray, while they were particularly marked in the brain after radon inhalation. It was also found that those changes continued for longer periods after low dose X-irradiation. (2) Since SOD is an enzyme that mediates the dismutation of O{sub 2}- to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the question as to whether the resultant H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is further detoxicated into H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} or not must

  5. Surface-active Substances in the biomass burning and atmospheric particles in the North China Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijun; Bai, Yao; Liu, Yuechen; Wang, Yujue; Qiao, Kai; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min

    2016-04-01

    Surface active materials, such as HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS), play an important role in particle hygroscopicity and activation by taking up water and acting as surfactants. They account for large proportions of water soluble organic carbon. Currently, the information on the chemical composition, hygroscopicity, and surface active properties of HULIS is still very scarce in china, which is suffering from heavy air pollution. Therefore, we promoted this study to investigate the hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of HULIS particles using hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser and condensation cloud nuclei counter and surface tension depression using contact angle meter (KRÜSS GmbH). Two different types of particles were investigated in our study. One is the particles emitted from biomass burning. The wheat and corn straw residuals were burned in a lab burning simulator. The PM2.5 samples were collected onto quartz filters. Another is PM2.5 taken during the heavy hazy days. The HULIS were isolated from PM2.5 samples by water exaction, C18 solid phase extraction (SPE), CH3OH elution, and N2 drying. Then, the water solution of HULIS was generated to particles using TSI atomizer. The hygroscopicity of HULIS particles were detected by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. The temperature dependency of HULIS surface tension was detected using contact angle meter. The primary results showed that PM2.5 consists of a large amount of surface active materials during severe air pollution episodes. A clear temperature dependency of surface tension was observed. At temperature of 20 degree, the surface tension of HULIS exacted from ambient samples is around 50 N/m2, which is much lower than that of pure water. The future investigations will include the effects of burning conditions on the HULIS concentration and surface tensions. In the presentation, a full picture of the hygroscopicity and CCN activity, and surface active properties of HULIS will

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, palladium metal and hydrogen gas, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances palladium metal (CAS No 7440-05-3, FCM No 993 and hydrogen gas (CAS No 1333-74-0, FCM No 1038, which are intended to be used as an oxygen scavenger in packages of foods and beverages at room temperature or below. The active article is designed as a gas permeable but liquid impermeable laminated pad, which is placed within a cap or closure or as an adhesive label on tray lids. The palladium metal is not in direct contact with the food being separated from it by different layers of passive materials. The specific migration of palladium metal into conventional food simulants was not detected at the limit of quantification of 0.6 µg/kg. Palladium was considered to be non genotoxic and of no toxicological concern under a low exposure level resulting from a concentration up to 50 µg/kg food in a previous evaluation (EFSA CEF Panel, 2012. Based on these previously drawn conclusions and given the intended conditions of use leading to non-detectable migration, the CEF Panel concluded that the active substances palladium and hydrogen do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as an oxygen scavenger in packages for foods and beverages at room temperatures or below. Palladium should not be in direct contact with food and should be incorporated in a passive structure impermeable to liquids which prevents the migration at detectable levels.

  7. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.

  8. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance S-abscisic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance S-abscisic acid are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of S-abscisic acid as a plant growth regulator on tomato seedlings and grapes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified in the areas of residues and ecotoxicology, as the consumer risk assessment and the risk assessment for higher aquatic plants for some metabolites could not be finalised based on the data available.

  9. Functional neurokinin and NMDA receptor activity in an animal naturally lacking substance P: the naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Brand

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats are extremely unusual among mammals in that their cutaneous C-fibers lack the neuropeptide Substance P (SP. In other mammals, SP plays an important role in nociception: it is released from C-fibers onto spinal neurons where it facilitates NMDA receptor activity and causes sensitization that can last for minutes, hours or days. In the present study, we tested the effects of intrathecal application of: 1 SP, 2 an SP antagonist (GR-82334, and 3 an NMDA antagonist (APV on heat-evoked foot withdrawal. In the naked mole-rat, at a high enough concentration, application of SP caused a large, immediate, and long-lasting sensitization of foot withdrawal latency that was transiently reversed by application of either antagonist. However, neither SP nor NMDA antagonists had an effect when administered alone to naïve animals. In contrast, both antagonists induced an increase in basal withdrawal latency in mice. These results indicate that spinal neurons in naked mole-rats have functional SP and NMDA receptors, but that these receptors do not participate in heat-evoked foot withdrawal unless SP is experimentally introduced. We propose that the natural lack of SP in naked mole-rat C-fibers may have resulted during adaptation to living in a chronically high carbon dioxide, high ammonia environment that, in other mammals, would stimulate C-fibers and evoke nocifensive behavior.

  10. Physicochemical and porosity characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon polluted with biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lihua; Liu, Wenjun; Jiang, Renfu; Wang, Zhansheng

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon (AC) polluted with biological activated carbon (BAC) process were investigated. The results showed that the true micropore and sub-micropore volume, pH value, bulk density, and hardness of regenerated AC decreased compared to the virgin AC, but the total pore volume increased. XPS analysis displayed that the ash contents of Al, Si, and Ca in the regenerated AC respectively increased by 3.83%, 2.62% and 1.8%. FTIR spectrum showed that the surface functional groups of virgin and regenerated AC did not change significantly. Pore size distributions indicated that the AC regeneration process resulted in the decrease of micropore and macropore (D>10 μm) volume and the increase of mesopore and macropore (0.1 μmbiological waste (spent AC) from BAC process.

  11. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  12. Accuracy of self-report, biological tests, collateral reports and clinician ratings in identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Van Dorn, Richard A; Sellers, Brian G; Young, M Scott; Swartz, Marvin S

    2013-09-01

    Identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia presents unique challenges but is critical to research and practice. This study examined: (a) the accuracy of assessments completed using various approaches in identifying substance use disorders, (b) their ability to discriminate between disorders of abuse and dependence, and (c) the benefits of using multiple indicators to identify substance use disorders. Data are from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The sample comprised 1,460 community-based adults with schizophrenia, 15.8% (n = 230) of whom were positive for a current (past month) drug or alcohol use disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). Clinician ratings, self-report, collateral reports, and results of hair and urine tests were compared to SCID diagnoses. Congruence with SCID diagnoses was good across approaches and evidence for superiority of one approach over another was limited. No approach discriminated between abuse and dependence. There was limited benefit of using multiple indicators. Findings suggest that the decision regarding the "best" approach for identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia may be made through consideration of practical issues and assessment purpose, rather than selection of the approach that yields the most accurate diagnostic assessment.

  13. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  14. Biological Opinion Compliance Report and Permit Activity Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    T.W. Custer. 1986. Hatching Success of Caspian Terns Nesting on the Lower Laguna Madre , Texas , USA. Colonial Birds. 9(1). Pp 86-89. Persons working with...U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on November 14,’ 1 990. Initial District implementation of that Biological Opinion began in 1 992, following the...known as the "Red Book." The Red Book was reviewed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and approved for implementation by the Missouri River Division

  15. CHANGE OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF RENDZINA SOILS OF WESTERN CAUCASUS AT POLLUTION BY ZINC, CADMIUM, MOLYBDENUM AND SELENIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatlok D. R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rendzina soils are very widespread in the Caucasus. Because of their ecological and genetic characteristics Rendzina has significant buffering capacity to chemical pollution. The object of investigation was calcareous leached soil. Location selection - Azishskaya ridge on the border of the Republic of Adygea and the Krasnodar region. As pollutants, we have selected Zn, Cd, Mo, Se, since soil contamination with these elements in the south of Russia is not uncommon. Contamination of zinc, cadmium, molybdenum and selenium causes deterioration in the biological properties of calcareous soils of the Western Caucasus. We have investigated the toxicity of the elements formed following series due to their influence on Rendzina soils: Zn> Se> Cd> = Mo. The study attempted to analyze the entire range of concentrations of the examined elements in the soil, currently occurring in nature. In most cases, all the investigated substances registered direct correlation between the concentration of the pollutant in the soil and the degree of reduction of biological indicators. The activity of catalase and dehydrogenase cellulolytic ability, plenty of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, length of roots of radish can be used to monitor, diagnose and regulation of chemical pollution of soil Zn, Cd, Mo, Se

  16. Evaluation of in vivo biological activity profile of isoorientin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpeli, Esra; Aslan, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Yesilada, Erdem

    2004-01-01

    Anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of the known C-glycosyl flavonoid, isoorientin, were studied in rats and mice. For the anti-nociceptive activity assessment the p-benzoquinone-induced writing test, for the anti-inflammatory activity the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice, and for the gastroprotective activity the EtOH-induced ulcerogenesis model in rats were used. Isoorientin was shown to possess significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities at 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg doses, without inducing any apparent acute toxicity as well as gastric damage. However, the compound did not possess any significant gastroprotective activity against EtOH-induced ulcerogenesis.

  17. Synthesis and biological activity of benzamide DNA minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gul Shahzada; Pilkington, Lisa I; Barker, David

    2016-02-01

    A range of di- and triaryl benzamides were synthesised to investigate the effect of the presence and nature of a polar sidechain, bonding and substitution patterns and functionalisation of benzylic substituents. These compounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity as well as their DNA binding activity. The most active compounds in all assays were unsymmetrical triaryl benzamides with a bulky or alkylating benzylic substituent and a polar amino sidechain.

  18. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chotigeat, W.; Phongdara, A.; Choosawad, D.

    2005-01-01

    Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at ...

  19. Studies on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3-Dioxolane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nine title compounds were synthesized. Their strucures were identified by means of IR, EA, 1H NMR and MS. The results from the primary biological test show that all the compounds have some activitiies of fungicide and plant growth regulator. When R group is 2,4-Cl2C6H3, compound 2 or compound 4 shows better biological activities.

  20. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  1. Peak purity assessment in a triple-active fixed-dose combination drug product related substances method using a commercial two-dimensional liquid chromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Jonathan G; Kleintop, Brent L

    2014-10-01

    Pharmaceutical formulations containing multiple active components challenge the development of analytical methods, especially as the individual active ingredients diverge in their physicochemical properties. Establishing specificity, especially peak purity, is one of the major evaluation criteria when developing a related substances method for drug substances or products. Fixed-dose combination products may not be amenable to common strategies for assessing peak purity, such as performing orthogonal separations, due to the complexity of the separation and/or diversity of the active ingredients. An alternate approach to evaluating peak purity is demonstrated for a triple-active component fixed-dose combination product under development. A commercially available automated two-dimensional liquid chromatography system was used to perform a selective comprehensive multidimensional separation of an active ingredient peak. The first dimension performed the drug product impurity/degradant profiling method; the second dimension assayed these fractions using the drug substance profiling method, which was pseudo-orthogonal to the first dimension. A total of 14 targeted fractions were sampled across the first dimension main peak, with 11 containing detectable analytes and the remaining fractions bracketing the main peak. This degree of sampling allowed profiling of a coeluting degradant present at a 0.2% w/w level throughout the main peak.

  2. Biodegradability enhancement of a leachate after biological lagooning using a solar driven photo-Fenton reaction, and further combination with an activated sludge biological process, at pre-industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-06-15

    This work proposes an integrated leachate treatment strategy, combining a solar photo-Fenton reaction, to enhance the biodegradability of the leachate from an aerated lagoon, with an activated sludge process, under aerobic and anoxic conditions, to achieve COD target values and nitrogen content according to the legislation. The efficiency and performance of the photo-Fenton reaction, concerning a sludge removal step after acidification, defining the optimum phototreatment time to reach a biodegradable wastewater that can be further oxidized in a biological reactor and, activation sludge biological process, defining the nitrification and denitrification reaction rates, alkalinity balance and methanol dose necessary as external carbon source, was evaluated in the integrated system at a scale close to industrial. The pre-industrial plant presents a photocatalytic system with 39.52 m(2) of compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) and 2 m(3) recirculation tank and, an activated sludge biological reactor with 3 m(3) capacity. Leachate biodegradability enhancement by means of a solar driven photo-Fenton process was evaluated using direct biodegradability tests, as Zahn-Wellens method, and indirect measure according to average oxidation state (AOS), low molecular carboxylic acids content (fast biodegradable character) and humic substances (recalcitrant character) concentration. Due to high variability of leachate composition, UV absorbance on-line measurement was established as a useful parameter for photo-Fenton reaction control.

  3. ACTIVATION REACTION ON THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM IN SUBSTANCE DEPENDENT PATIENTS: LINKS TO ADDICTION STUDIES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AND CHANGES IN NEUROFEEDBACK TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. e Melnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depth of activation reaction (α-activity suppression during the eyes-opening task is considered to be an important quantitative characteristic of α-band brainwaves. Activation reaction was assessed from O1 and O2 leads in 31 male substance dependent subjects. In 7 cases it was measured twice: before and after α- or β-brainwave biofeedback training. The correlations were found between grade of α suppression in eyes-opening task and attitude towards disease and treatment, personality maturity, and level of pathological personality traits. Activation reaction was significantly improved by α-training and non-significantly diminished after β-1-training.

  4. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  5. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  6. Synthesis and Antiplatelet Activity of Antithrombotic Thiourea Compounds: Biological and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenço

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations.

  7. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards on the Evaluation of the efficacy of peroxyacids for use as an antimicrobial substance applied on poultry carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrung, Birgit

    The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the efficacy of peroxyacids as an antimicrobial substance applied to poultry carcasses. Particularly, the BIOHAZ panel was asked to assess the efficacy of the peroxyacids on the growth and/or prevalence of some microorganisms and pathogens on pou...... and it must not be used as a substitute for normal good hygienic practice. Moreover, the experimental evaluation of the efficacy of peroxyacids must be under conditions comparable to European industrial processing conditions and practices....

  8. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  9. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  10. Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Artemisia herba-alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou El-Hamd H. Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia, one of the larger genera in the family Asteraceae and the largest genus in the tribe Anthemideae, comprises from 200 to more than 500 taxa at the specific or subspecific level. Many Artemisia species have a high economic value in several fields, as food plants and as antihelminthic and antimalaria in medicine. Artemisia herba-alba was known for its therapeutic and medicinal properties, it was used in both traditional and modern medicine. Several papers have been published on the chemical composition of specimens of A. herba-alba. The aim of this work is to review all available scientific literature published on A. herba-alba. The focus will be on the chemical constitutions which have been identified from this species, in addition to all of the reported biological activites of this species have been included as well as the pharmacology and toxicology

  11. Isolation, biological activity, synthesis, and medicinal chemistry of the pederin/mycalamide family of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosey, R Adam; Floreancig, Paul E

    2012-09-01

    This review highlights the broad range of science that has arisen from the isolation of pederin, the mycalamides, theopederins, and onnamides, and psymberin. Specific topics include structure determination, biological activity, synthesis, and analog preparation and analysis.

  12. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring in Selected Wetlands of Wyoming: Biologically Active Elements Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, water and biota were collected from selected wetlands in Wyoming for the Biologically Active Elements (BAE) Study in 1988, 1989 and 1990 to identify...

  13. Bioactive Components and Functional Properties of Biologically Activated Cereal Grains: A Bibliographic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita

    2015-10-14

    Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. A wide range of these compounds is affected by germination. While some compounds, such as β-glucans are degraded, others, like antioxidants and total phenolics are increased by means of biological activation of grains. The water and oil absorption capacity as well as emulsion and foaming capacity of biologically activated grains are also improved. Application of biological activation of grains is of emerging interest, which may significantly enhance the nutritional, functional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability of grain foods in a natural way. Therefore, biological activation of cereals can be a way to produce food grains enriched with health promoting compounds and enhanced functional attributes.

  14. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  15. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotigeat, W.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT at 4.47 IU/mg.

  16. Investigations of the Biological Effects of Airborne and Inhalable Substances by Cell-Based In Vitro Methods: Fundamental Improvements to the ALI Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Ritter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art for cell-based in vitro investigations of airborne and inhalable material is “air-liquid interface” (ALI technology. Cell lines, primary cells, complex 3D models, or precision-cut lung slices (PCLS are used to represent the lung or skin by way of an in vitro barrier model. These models have been applied in toxicity or pharmacological testing. However, contrasting with a clear demand for alternative methods, there is still no widely accepted procedure for cell-based in vitro testing of inhalable substances. In the light of this, an analysis was undertaken of common drawbacks of current approaches. Hence, the pivotal improvements aimed at were the cellular exposure environment, overall performance and applicability, operability of online investigations during exposure and routine setup. It resulted in an improved device (P.R.I.T. ExpoCube based on an “all-in-one-plate” concept including all phases of the experiment (cell culture, exposure, and read-out and all experimental groups (two test gas groups, controls in one single commercial multiwell plate. Verification of the concept was demonstrated in a first experimental series using reference substances (formaldehyde, ozone, and clean air. The resulting ALI procedure enables the application of inhalable substances and mixtures under highly effective exposure conditions in routine utilization.

  17. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  18. Chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis and their biological activity 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Ying Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis Sieb., Et Zucc, and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs agonist activity. Materials and Methods: The leaves of C. officinalis were extracted three times with 90% EtOH at room temperature. The ethanol extracts were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield residue, which was isolated and purified by silica gel and reverse-phase C 18 column chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and their physiochemical characteristics. Cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays were used to evaluate PPARα/γ agonistic activities. Results: Five compounds were isolated and elucidated as 10-hydroxyhastatoside (1, β-dihydrocornin (2, isoquercitrin (3, loganin (4 and oleanolic acid (5. Conclusion: Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained from C. officinalis for the first time. Compound 3 exhibited moderate agonistic activities for PPARα, with EC 50 values of 29.5 μM.

  19. Synthesis and biological activity of novel tiliroside derivants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Li, Chun-Bao; Jin, Mei-Na; Shi, Li-Huan; Duan, Hong-Quan; Niu, Wen-Yan

    2011-10-01

    A series of new tiliroside derivatives were synthesized and characterized by analytical (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry. All of the compounds were evaluated for anti-diabetic properties in vitro using HepG2 cells. Compounds 3c, 3d, and 3i-l caused significant enhancements in glucose consumption by insulin-resistant HepG2 cells compared with control cells and cells that were exposed to metformin (an anti-diabetic drug). Moreover, compound 3l significantly activated adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Thus, the tiliroside derivative 3l offers potential to be developed as a new approach for treating type II diabetes.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  1. Baltic cyanobacteria- A source of biologically active compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazur-Marzec, H.; Błaszczyk, A; Felczykowska, A; Hohlfeld, N; Kobos, J.; Toruńska-Sitarz, A; PrabhaDevi; Montalva`o, S.; DeSouza, L.; Tammela, P.; Mikosik, A; Bloch, S.; Nejman-Faleńczyk, B.; Węgrzyn, G.

    and chemotypes were tested in a wide variety of assays. The cyanobacteria showed strain-specific differences in the induced effects. The extracts from Nodularia spumigena CCNP1401 were active in the highest number of tests, including protease and phosphatase...

  2. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF AMIDE DERIVATIVES OF GINKGOLIDE A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-HONG HU; ZHONG-LIANG CHEN; YU-YUAN XIE

    2001-01-01

    Amide derivatives of ginkgolide A were prepared and evaluated for their in vitro ability to inhibit the PAF-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets. They showed less activities than their parent compound ginkgolide A.

  3. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Camphor Hydrazone and Imine Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson T.; da Silva Araújo, Adriele; Moraes, Adriana M.; de Souza, Leidiane A.; Silva Lourenço, Maria Cristina; de Souza, Marcus V. N.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Both sonochemical and classical methodologies have been employed to convert camphor, 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, C9H16C=O, into a number of derivatives including hydrazones, C9H16C=N-NHAr 3, imines, C9H16C=N-R 7, and the key intermediate nitroimine, C9H16C=N-NO2 6. Reactions of nitroamine 6 with nucleophiles by classical methods provided the desired compounds in a range of yields. In evaluations of activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, compound 7j exhibited the best activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.12 µg/mL), comparable to that of the antitubercular drug ethambutol. The other derivatives displayed modest antimycobacterial activities at 25–50 µg/mL. In in vitro tests against cancer cell lines, none of the synthesized camphor compounds exhibited cytotoxic activities.

  4. Synthesis and biological activity of nifuroxazide and analogs. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, L C; Chisté, J J; Santos, M G; Penna, T C

    1999-09-01

    Nifuroxazyde and six analogs were synthesized by varying the substitute from the para-position of the benzenic ring and the heteroatom of the heterocyclic ring. The MIC of seven resultant compounds was determined by serial dilutions, testing the ATCC 25923 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. A significant increase in the anti-microbial activity of thyophenic analogs, as compared with furanic and pyrrholic analogs, was observed. In addition, unlike the cyano and hydroxyl groups, the acetyl group promoted anti-microbial activity.

  5. Terpenes from the soft corals of the genus Sarcophyton: chemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin-Fu; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2013-12-01

    This review covers structural diversity and biological activities of terpenes from soft corals of the genus of Sarcophyton, reported from 1995 to July, 2011. During this period, besides undefined species, 16 species of the genus Sarcophyton, from different geographical areas, had been chemically examined. Two hundred and five terpenes had been isolated from this genus, including eleven sesquiterpenes, 165 diterpenes, 29 biscembranoids, some of which had novel skeletons. They exhibited various biological features, such as antifeedant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antifouling activities.

  6. Using Active Learning in a Studio Classroom to Teach Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…

  7. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  8. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer’s disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods.

  9. Biologic therapy improves psoriasis by decreasing the activity of monocytes and neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Keiichi; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Yamagiwa, Akisa; Saeki, Hidehisa; Kondo, Makoto; Gabazza, Esteban C; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Therapy with monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the interleukin (IL)-12/23 p40 subunit has significantly improved the clinical outcome of patients with psoriasis. These antibodies inhibit the effects of the target cytokines and thus the major concern during their use is the induction of excessive immunosuppression. Recent studies evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of biologic therapy in psoriasis have shown no significant appearance of serious adverse effects including infections and malignancies. However, the immunological consequence and the mechanism by which the blockade of a single cytokine by biologics can successfully control the activity of psoriasis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of biologic therapy on cytokine production of various lymphocytes and on the activity of monocytes and neutrophils in psoriatic patients. Neutrophils, monocytes and T cells were purified from heparinized peripheral venous blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, and γ-interferon, TNF-α and IL-17 production from lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometer. The activation maker of neutrophils and the activated subsets of monocytes were also analyzed. Biologic therapy induced no significant changes in the cytokine production by lymphocytes from the skin and gut-homing T cells. However, neutrophil activity and the ratio of activated monocyte population increased in severely psoriatic patients were normalized in psoriatic patients receiving biologic therapy. The present study showed that biologic therapy ameliorates clinical symptoms and controls the immune response in patients with psoriasis.

  10. Current parallel chemistry principles and practice: application to the discovery of biologically active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Paul J

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the use of parallel chemistry techniques for drug discovery, based on publications from January 2006 to December 2008. Chemical libraries that yielded active compounds across a range of biological targets are presented, together with synthetic details when appropriate. Background information for the biological targets involved and any SAR that could be discerned within members of a library series also is discussed. New technological developments, as applied to library design and synthesis and, more generally, in the discovery of biologically active entities, are highlighted. In addition, the likely future directions for parallel chemistry in its ability to impact upon drug discovery are also presented.

  11. Smart interactive electronic system for monitoring the electromagnetic activities of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Sorin G.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2001-08-01

    A novel electronic device capable of sensing and monitoring the myoelectric, polarization wave and electromagnetic activities of the biological systems and in particular the human body is presented. It is known that all the physical and chemical processes within biological systems are associated with polarization, depolarization waves from the brain, neural signals and myoelectric processes that manifest themselves in ionic and dipole motion. The technology developed in our laboratory is based on certain charge motion sensitive electronics. The electronic system developed is capable of sensing the electromagnetic activities of biological systems. The information obtained is then processed by specialized software in order to interpret it from physical and chemical point of view.

  12. The chemistry and biological activity of heterocycle-fused quinolinone derivatives: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiro, Tomoya; Fukaya, Takayuki; Tobe, Masanori

    2015-06-05

    Among all heterocycles, the heterocycle-fused quinolinone scaffold is one of the privileged structures in drug discovery as heterocycle-fused quinolinone derivatives exhibit various biological activities allowing them to act as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antipsychotic agents. This wide spectrum of biological activity has attracted a great deal of attention in the field of medicinal chemistry. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of the biological and pharmacological properties of various heterocycle-fused quinolinone scaffolds and discuss the synthetic methods of some of their derivatives.

  13. Spectroscopic study of molecular structure, antioxidant activity and biological effects of metal hydroxyflavonol complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonowicz, Mariola; Regulska, Ewa

    2017-02-01

    Flavonols with varied hydroxyl substitution can act as strong antioxidants. Thanks to their ability to chelate metals as well as to donate hydrogen atoms they have capacity to scavenge free radicals. Their metal complexes are often more active in comparison with free ligands. They exhibit interesting biological properties, e.g. anticancer, antiphlogistic and antibacterial. The relationship between molecular structure and their biological properties was intensively studied using spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis, IR, Raman, NMR, ESI-MS). The aim of this paper is review on spectroscopic analyses of molecular structure and biological activity of hydroxyflavonol metal complexes.

  14. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of methylene blue active substances by spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Mark R.; Cinotto, Pete J.; Frahm, Galen W.; Woodworth, Mark T.; Pritt, Jeffrey W.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of methylene blue active substances in whole-water samples by liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric detection is described. Sulfate and sulfonate-based surfectants are reacted with methylene blue to form a blue-colored complex. The complex is extracted into chloroform, back-washed with an acidified phosphate-based buffer solution, and measured against external standards with a probe spectrophotometer. The method detection limt for routine analysis is 0.02 milligram per liter. The precision is plus/minus 10 percent relative standard deviation. The positive bias from nitrate and chloride and U.S. Geological Survey method O-3111-83 for methylene blue active substances is minized by adding a back-washing step.

  15. Biological activity of alkaloids from Solanum dulcamara L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Padma; Sharma, Bindu; Bakshi, Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known for their antimicrobial activity. Though all natural alkaloids come from plants, not all plants produce alkaloids. Plants of the Solanaceae family are known for their high alkaloid content. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. In the present study, those plant parts of Solanum dulcamara were selected which have been reported to produce a high content of a specific alkaloid: solanine (from unripe fruits), solasodine (from flowers) and beta-solamarine (from roots). These alkaloids were extracted from various parts of S. dulcamara by well-established methods and were screened for their antibacterial activity. Human pathogenic bacteria, viz., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, were selected for the study. All three alkaloids inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. However, no significant activity was observed against E. aerogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were also evaluated.

  16. Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Yoshimoto, Motoko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Asai, Yumi; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2007-05-30

    In the present study, papaya (Carica papaya) seed and edible pulp were carefully separated and then the contents of benzyl isothiocyanate and the corresponding glucosinolate (benzyl glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin) quantified in each part. The papaya seed with myrosinase inactivation contained >1 mmol of benzyl glucosinolate in 100 g of fresh seed. This content is equivalent to that of Karami daikon (the hottest Japanese white radish) or that of cress. The papaya seed extract also showed a very high activity of myrosinase and, without myrosinase inactivation, produced 460 micromol of benzyl isothiocyanate in 100 g of seed. In contrast, papaya pulp contained an undetectable amount of benzyl glucosinolate and showed no significant myrosinase activity. The n-hexane extract of the papaya seed homogenate was highly effective in inhibiting superoxide generation and apoptosis induction in HL-60 cells, the activities of which are comparable to those of authentic benzyl isothiocyanate.

  17. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  19. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Substituted Triazolethione Schiff Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN, Xiao-Hong; TAO, Yan; LIU, Yuan-Fa; CHEN, Bang

    2007-01-01

    Six novel Schiff bases have been synthesized by the condensation reaction of 4-amino-5-(4-pyridyl)-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione with various benzaldehydes. The structures of the compounds have been confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassay indicated that the title compounds possessed good fungicidal activities to several vegetable pathogens.

  20. Biological activity of Schinus molle on Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A A; Werdin González, J O; Sánchez Chopa, C

    2006-07-01

    Hexanic extracts from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle were tested for repellent and insecticidal properties against first instar nymphs and eggs of Triatoma infestans, the vector of Chagas' disease. Leaf and fruit extracts were highly repellent for first nymphs. Fruit extracts had also ovicidal activity.

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of salinomycin conjugates with floxuridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huczyński, Adam; Antoszczak, Michał; Kleczewska, Natalia; Lewandowska, Marta; Maj, Ewa; Stefańska, Joanna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Janczak, Jan; Celewicz, Lech

    2015-03-26

    As part of our program to develop anticancer agents, we have synthesized new compounds, which are conjugates between well-known anticancer drug, floxuridine and salinomycin which is able to selectivity kill cancer stem cells. The conjugates were obtained in two ways i.e. by copper(I) catalysed click Huisgen cycloaddition reaction performed between 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluorouridine and salinomycin propargyl amide, and by the ester synthesis starting from salinomycin and floxuridine under mild condition. The compounds obtained were characterized by spectroscopic methods and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against seven human cancer cell lines as well as antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). The conjugate obtained by esterification reaction showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity against the drug-resistant cancer cells and lower toxicity than those of salinomycin and floxuridine towards normal cells, as well as standard anticancer drugs, such as cisplatin and doxorubicin. The conjugate compound revealed also moderate activity against MRSA and MRSE bacterial strains. Very high activity of floxuridine and 5-fluorouracil against MRSA and MRSE has been also observed.

  2. Programming biological operating systems: genome design, assembly and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    The DNA technologies developed over the past 20 years for reading and writing the genetic code converged when the first synthetic cell was created 4 years ago. An outcome of this work has been an extraordinary set of tools for synthesizing, assembling, engineering and transplanting whole bacterial genomes. Technical progress, options and applications for bacterial genome design, assembly and activation are discussed.

  3. Biologically active dibenzofurans from Pilidiostigma glabrum, an endemic Australian Myrtaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Qingyao; Banbury, Linda K; Renshaw, Dane E; Lambley, Eleanore H; Mon, Htwe; Macfarlane, Graham A; Griesser, Hans J; Heinrich, Michael M; Wohlmuth, Hans

    2012-09-28

    In an effort to identify new anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents with potential application in wound healing, five new dibenzofurans, 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4,6-di(2-methylbutanoyl)dibenzofuran (1), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (2), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4,6-di(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (3), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-2-(2-methylbutanoyl)-8-(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (4), and 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-2,8-di(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (5), were isolated from the leaves of Pilidiostigma glabrum together with one previously described dibenzofuran. Structure elucidation was achieved by way of spectroscopic measurements including 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Compounds with 2,8-acyl substitutions had potent antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive strains (MIC in the low micromolar range), while compounds with 4,6-acyl substitutions were less active. All compounds except 3 inhibited the synthesis of nitric oxide in RAW264 macrophages with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Compounds with 2,8-acyl substitutions also inhibited the synthesis of PGE(2) in 3T3 cells, whereas 4,6-acyl-substituted compounds were inactive. None of the compounds inhibited the synthesis of TNF-α in RAW264 cells. The compounds showed variable but modest antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. These findings highlight that much of the Australian flora remains unexplored and may yet yield many new compounds of interest. Initial clues are provided on structure/activity relationships for this class of bioactives, which may enable the design and synthesis of compounds with higher activity and/or selectivity.

  4. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  5. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritu; DiMenna, Lauren J; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Evans, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  6. Mangiferin: A review of sources and interventions for biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotshna; Khare, Puja; Shanker, Karuna

    2016-09-10

    Xanthones are naturally synthesized in various biological systems such as plants, lichens, and fungi and are stored as by-products. In addition to taxonomic significance they are also important in the treatment/management of a number of human disorders. Mangiferin and its derived lead molecule have never qualified for use in a clinical trial despite a number of pharmacological studies that have proven its effectiveness as an antioxidant, analgesic, antidiabetic, antiproliferative, chemopreventive, radioprotective, cardiotonic, immunomodulatory, and diuretic. For centuries in the traditional practice of medicine in India and China the use of plants containing mangiferin has been a major component for disease management and health benefits. While it resembles biflavones, the C-glucosyl xanthone (mangiferin) has great nutritional and medicinal significance due to its unique structural characteristics. The C-glycoside link of mangiferin, mimicked to nucleophilic phloroglucinol substitution, facilitates its bioavailability and also is responsible for its antioxidant properties. Researchers have also utilized its xanthonic framework for both pharmacophoric backbone and for its use as a substitution group for synthesis and prospects. To date more than 500 derivatives using about 80 reactions have been generated. These reactions include: lipid peroxidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, methylation, fermentation, deglycosylation, hydrolysis, polymerization, sulfation, acylation, etherification, peroxidation among others. Multiple studies on efficacy and safety have increased the global demand of mangiferin-based food supplements. This review highlights the distribution of mangiferin in plants, its isolation, and assay methods applicable to different sample matrices. In addition we include updates on various strategies and derived products intended for designated pharmacological actions. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(5):504-514, 2016.

  7. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication.

  8. Synthesis and biological activity studies of some thiazolidinones and azetidinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 4-thiazolidinones and 2-azetidinones have been synthesized by condensation of 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulphone with various aromatic or heterocyclic aldehydes to yield the Schiff′s bases. Cyclocondensation of Schiff′s bases with 2-mercaptopropionic acid afforded 4-thiazolidinone derivatives, and cyclocondensation of Schiff′s bases with chloroacetylchloride in presence of triethylamine afforded 2-azetidinone derivatives. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectral (IR, NMR, and Mass data. All these compounds were evaluated for their in vitro growth-inhibitory activity against several microbes. Compound 4b and 4c exhibited equipotent antibacterial activity with the reference standard ampicillin against Bacillus subtilis.

  9. Structure-biological activity relationship of synthetic trihydroxilated chalcones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devia Cristina M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriostatic activity of 2?,4?,2-trihydroxychalcone; 2?,4?,3-trihydroxychalcone and 2?,4?,4-trihydroxychalcone, prepared by condensation of 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone and benzaldehyde substituted, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was assayed by agar plate method. The three compounds presented important inhibition halos. In order to elucidate structure-activity relationships, the minimal inhibitory concentrations against S. aureus were determined by the broth dilution method and the results obtained were compared to that of 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone. The sequence observed was: MIC 2?,4?,3-(OH3 > MIC 2?,4?-(OH2 > MIC 2?,4?,4-(OH3 > > MIC 2?,4?,2-(OH3. These results showed that the introduction of an electron donating group (-OH in the aromatic B-ring causes an increase in bioactivity, and that the intensity of action depends on the position of the OH substitute.

  10. Microwave assisted synthesis and biological activity of novel coumarinyltriazolothiadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of new 3-(4-methylcoumarinyl-7-oxymethyl-6-substitutedphenyl-5,6-dihydro-s-triazolo (3,4-b(1,3,4-thiadiazoles 2(a-j have been synthesized by reacting 5-(4-methyl coumarinyl-7-oxymethyl-4-amino-3-mercapto(4H-1,2,4-triazole with various aromatic aldehydes by microwave assisted organic synthesis. The structure of the compounds 2 (a-j has been confirmed by IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectral data. All the compounds were screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Among the compounds tested, compounds 2d (4-dimethyl amino phenyl derivative and 2h (3,4-dimethoxy phenyl derivative showed better antimicrobial and antioxidant activity than rest of the compounds in the series.

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of Wuweizisu C and analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J B; Wang, Q; Li, Y F

    2009-01-01

    Lignans are widely distributed in nature. The earliest recorded medicinal use of lignans dated back to over 1000 years ago. Lignan-rich plant products were also active ingredients in Chinese and Japanese folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The dried root and stem of this plant are listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, gastric, duodenal ulcers and many other diseases. This review highlights synthetic strategies for the Wuweizisu C analogs and the important pharmacological activities as well as therapeutic findings related to the treatment of HBV and other diseases. Notably a significant and ongoing project on Wuweizisu C and its analogs has led to the discovery and development of two potent derivatives alpha-DDB and BICYCLOL which are currently in clinical trials against HBV, especially in lowering elevated SGPT levels. Further design, synthesis, and evaluation of Wuweizisu C analogs are discussed.

  12. Truancy, Grade Point Average, and Sexual Activity: A Meta-Analysis of Risk Indicators for Youth Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallfors, Denise; Vevea, Jack L.; Iritani, Bonita; Cho, HyunSan; Khatapoush, Shereen; Saxe, Leonard

    2002-01-01

    Compared three risk measures associated with adolescent substance use (truancy, grade point average, and recent sexual intercourse) to assess the reliability of risk measures across different survey instruments, communities, and points in time. Truancy appeared superior because of its strong predictive value, particularly among younger children,…

  13. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  14. New Conjugated Benzothiazole-N-oxides: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Foltínová

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven new 2-styrylbenzothiazole-N-oxides have been prepared by aldol – type condensation reactions between 2-methylbenzothiazole–N-oxide and para-substituted benzaldehydes. Compounds with cyclic amino substituents showed typical push-pull molecule properties. Four compounds were tested against various bacterial strains as well as the protozoan Euglena gracilis as model microorganisms. Unlike previously prepared analogous benzothiazolium salts, only weak activity was recorded.

  15. Chemical or Biological Activity in Open Chaotic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Karolyi, G; Toroczkai, Z; Tél, T; Grebogi, C; Karolyi, Gy.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of particle ensembles in open chaotic hydrodynamical flows. Active processes of the type A+B --> 2B and A+B --> 2C are considered in the limit of weak diffusion. As an illustrative advection dynamics we consider a model of the von Kármán vortex street, a time periodic two-dimensional flow of a viscous fluid around a cylinder. We show that a fractal unstable manifold acts as a catalyst for the process, and the products cover fattened-up copies of this manifold. This may account for the observed filamental intensification of activity in environmental flows. The reaction equations valid in the wake are derived either in the form of dissipative maps or differential equations depending on the regime under consideration. They contain terms that are not present in the traditional reaction equations of the same active process: the decay of the products is slower while the productivity is much faster than in homogeneous flows. Both effects appear as a consequence of underlying fractal st...

  16. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Chemically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the earlier reported methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. The synthesized materials were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. TEM micrograph showed the spherical morphology of AgNPs with size range of 40–60 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a strong antimicrobial activity and their effect depends upon bacterial strain as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1 mm followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.8 mm and S. pyogenes (13.6 mm while the least activity was observed for Salmonella typhi (12.5 mm at concentration of 5 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of AgNPs against S. aureus was 2.5 µg/disc and less than 2.5 µg/disc for P. aeruginosa. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agent for infectious control in medical field.

  17. Chemical or biological activity in open chaotic flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karolyi, G. [Department of Civil Engineering Mechanics, Technical University of Budapest, Muegyetem rkp. 3, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Pentek, A. [Marine Physical Laboratory, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0238 (United States); Toroczkai, Z. [Center for Stochastic Processes in Science and Engineering and Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virgina 24061-0435 (United States); Toroczkai, Z.; Tel, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eoetvoes University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Grebogi, C. [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    We investigate the evolution of particle ensembles in open chaotic hydrodynamical flows. Active processes of the type A+B{r_arrow}2B and A+B{r_arrow}2C are considered in the limit of weak diffusion. As an illustrative advection dynamics we consider a model of the von K{acute a}rm{acute a}n vortex street, a time-periodic two-dimensional flow of a viscous fluid around a cylinder. We show that a fractal unstable manifold acts as a catalyst for the process, and the products cover fattened-up copies of this manifold. This may account for the observed filamental intensification of activity in environmental flows. The reaction equations valid in the wake are derived either in the form of dissipative maps or differential equations depending on the regime under consideration. They contain terms that are not present in the traditional reaction equations of the same active process: the decay of the products is slower while the productivity is much faster than in homogeneous flows. Both effects appear as a consequence of underlying fractal structures. In the long time limit, the system locks itself in a dynamic equilibrium state synchronized to the flow for both types of reactions. For particles of finite size an emptying transition might also occur leading to no products left in the wake. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Purification, Characterization and Biological Activity of Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwei Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (DOPA from the stem of D. officinale, as well as two fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 of it, were isolated and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, and their structural characteristics and bioactivities were investigated. The average molecular weights of DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were 394 kDa and 362 kDa, respectively. They were mainly composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, and had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-Manp and 1,4-linked β-d-Glcp with O-acetyl groups. Bioactivity studies indicated that both DOPA and its purified fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 could activate splenocytes and macrophages. The D. officinale polysaccharides had stimulatory effects on splenocytes, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, promoting the cell viability and NO production of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, DOPA, DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were found to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, suppressing apoptosis and ameliorating oxidative lesions. These results suggested that D. officinale polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity and mild immunostimulatory activity.

  19. Core biological marker candidates of Alzheimer's disease - perspectives for diagnosis, prediction of outcome and reflection of biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, H; Mitchell, A; Blennow, K; Frank, R A; Brettschneider, S; Weller, L; Möller, H-J

    2004-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative dementing illness. Over the past few years, however, remarkable advances have taken place in understanding both the genetic and molecular biology with the intracellular processing of amyloid and tau and the changes leading to the pathologic formation of extracellular amyloid plaques and the intraneuronal aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau into neurofibrillary tangles. This progress in our understanding of the molecular pathology has set the stage for clinically meaningful advances in the development of biomarkers. Emerging diagnostic methods that are based on biochemical and imaging biomarkers of disease specific pathology hold the potential to provide effective measures of natural history (marker of disease that is predictive of outcome), biological activity (such as magnitude and frequency of response correlating with drug potency) and markers of surrogate endpoints (single or composite marker that accounts for clinical benefit of the therapy). Markers of biological activity should be also evaluated regarding their value to reflect disease progression, heterogeneity of the clinical population, for early decision making and characterization of new treatments. We focussed on the current status of core analytes which provide reasonable evidence for association with key mechanisms of pathogenesis or neurodegeneration in AD. In addition, feasibility was important, such as availability of a validated assay for the biological measure in question, with properties that included high precision and reliability of measurement, reagents and standards well described. On this basis we reviewed the body of literature that has examined CSF total tau (t-tau) and beta-amyloid 1-42 (Abeta(1-42)), phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and beta-amyloid-antibodies as diagnostic tests for AD versus clinically representative comparison groups. Measurement of t-tau and Abeta(1-42) in the CSF seems useful to discriminate early and incipient

  20. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    began an in- tensive research for the clarification of the mechanism of the effect of psychotomimetic substances. In addition to the semi-synthetically...Dibenamine i.v. 200,000 ... 6oo,000 Ethyl ether p.o. 200,000 ... 400,000 Cocaine s.c. 80,000 ... 300,000 Mescaline p.o. 10,000 ... 20,000 Morphia s.c. 5,000...Autonomic functions Excitement, mood Pyramidal and extra- Meso-diencephalic changes: pyramidal effects: effects: Euphoria , depres- Ataxia, spastic