WorldWideScience

Sample records for biologically active polypeptides

  1. In vitro gamma irradiation of some purified polypeptide hormones and their biological and radioimmunological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromadova, M.; Macho, L.; Strbak, V.; Vigas, M.; Mikulaj, L.

    1979-01-01

    Some polypeptide hormones (adrenocorticotropin - ACTH, human and bovine growth hormone - GH, human menopausal gonadotropin - HMG, human luteinizing hormone - LH, and bovine thyrotropin - TSH) were irradiated either with 2.5 or 12.5 Mrad (1.1 Mrad/h) or both and their biological activity or immunoreactivity was tested within few days or 3 to 5 months after irradiation. Biological activity of irradiated ACTH (estimation of corticosterone released into medium by incubated adrenals - Saffran and Schally 1955) was not decreased in both time intervals tested. Ten days after irradiation of bovine GH no changes in biological activity (tibia test - Wilhelmi 1973) were found. No decrease of biological activity of irradiated HMG (augmentation of ovarian and uterine weight - Butt 1973) was found 4 months after irradiation and, finaly, no decrease of bovine TSH activity (radioiodine release from prelabelled thyroid in mice - McKenzie 1958) was found 2 to 30 days after irradiation with 2.5 Mrad, while a decrease was observed after 12.5 Mrad. Three to five months after irradiation, however, there was a decrease of biological activity after both doses. The immunological reactivity of irradiated HMG and LH did not differ from that of nonirradiated samples. The same was found with human GH after 2.5 Mrad, while a decrease of reactivity after 12.5 Mrad was detected. It was concluded that, in most of cases, the sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (2.5 Mrad) did not affect the biological activity of polypeptide hormones and that their sensitivity to irradiation appears to differ. (author)

  2. Mechanisms Mediating the Biologic Activity of Synthetic Proline, Glycine, and Hydroxyproline Polypeptides in Human Neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Barry; Hanna, Nazeeh; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Heck, Diane E.; Gardner, Carol R.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2005-01-01

    The accumulation of neutrophils at sites of tissue injury or infection is mediated by chemotactic factors released as part of the inflammatory process. Some of these factors are generated as a direct consequence of tissue injury or infection, including degradation fragments of connective tissue collagen and bacterial- or viral-derived peptides containing collagen-related structural motifs. In these studies, we examined biochemical mechanisms mediating the biologic activity of synthetic polypeptides consisting of repeated units of proline (Pro), glycine (Gly), and hydroxyproline (Hyp), major amino acids found within mammalian and bacterial collagens. We found that the peptides were chemoattractants for neutrophils. Moreover, their chemotactic potency was directly related to their size and composition. Thus, the pentameric peptides (Pro-Pro-Gly)5 and (Pro-Hyp-Gly)5 were more active in inducing chemotaxis than the corresponding decameric peptides (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 and (Pro-Hyp-Gly)10. In addition, the presence of Hyp in peptides reduced chemotactic activity. The synthetic peptides were also found to reduce neutrophil apoptosis. In contrast to chemotaxis, this activity was independent of peptide size or composition. The effects of the peptides on both chemotaxis and apoptosis were blocked by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. However, only (Pro-Pro-Gly)5 and (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 induced expression of PI3-K and phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, suggesting a potential mechanism underlying reduced chemotactic activity of Hyp-containing peptides. Although none of the synthetic peptides tested had any effect on intracellular calcium mobilization, each induced nuclear binding activity of the transcription factor NF-κB. These findings indicate that polymeric polypeptides containing Gly-X-Y collagen-related structural motifs promote inflammation by inducing chemotaxis and blocking apoptosis. However, distinct calcium

  3. Expression and biological activity of two recombinant polypeptides related to subunit 1 of the interferon-a receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yoon

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal production of interferon alpha (IFN-a has been found in certain autoimmune diseases and can be also observed after prolonged therapy with IFN-a. IFN-a can contribute to the pathogenesis of allograft rejection in bone marrow transplants. Therefore, the development of IFN-a inhibitors as a soluble receptor protein may be valuable for the therapeutic control of these diseases. We have expressed two polypeptides encoding amino acids 93-260 (P1 and 261-410 (P2 of the extracellular domain of subunit 1 of the interferon-a receptor (IFNAR 1-EC in E. coli. The activities of the recombinant polypeptides and of their respective antibodies were evaluated using antiproliferative and antiviral assays. Expression of P1 and P2 polypeptides was achieved by transformation of cloned plasmid pRSET A into E. coli BL21(DE3pLysS and by IPTG induction. P1 and P2 were purified by serial sonication steps and by gel filtration chromatography with 8 M urea and refolded by dialysis. Under reducing SDS-PAGE conditions, the molecular weight of P1 and P2 was 22 and 17 kDa, respectively. Polyclonal anti-P1 and anti-P2 antibodies were produced in mice. P1 and P2 and their respective polyclonal antibodies were able to block the antiproliferative activity of 6.25 nM IFN-aB on Daudi cells, but did not block IFN-aB activity at higher concentrations (>6.25 nM. On the other hand, the polypeptides and their respective antibodies did not inhibit the antiviral activity of IFN-aB on Hep 2/c cells challenged with encephalomyocarditis virus.

  4. Methods for using polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc D; Harris, Paul

    2016-08-23

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. Ordered biological nanostructures formed from chaperonin polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor); McMillan, R. Andrew (Inventor); Kagawa, Hiromi (Inventor); Paavola, Chad D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The following application relates to nanotemplates, nanostructures, nanoarrays and nanodevices formed from wild-type and mutated chaperonin polypeptides, methods of producing such compositions, methods of using such compositions and particular chaperonin polypeptides that can be utilized in producing such compositions.

  6. An acetylation site in lectin domain modulates the biological activity of polypeptide GalNAc-transferase-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlocowski, Natacha; Lorenz, Virginia; Bennett, Eric Paul

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (ppGalNAc-Ts) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the initiation of mucin-type O-glycosylation. All ppGalNAc-T family members contain a common (QXW)3 motif which is present in R-type lectin group. Acetylation site K521 is part of the QKW motif of ß...

  7. Polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan

    2017-05-02

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  8. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2015-07-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. Hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Shaghasi, Tarana

    2016-11-01

    The present invention provides hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity. The present invention also provides polynucleotides encoding the hybrid polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and processes of using the hybrid polypeptides.

  10. Polypeptides having beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Zhang, Yu; Duan, Junxin

    2017-04-18

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan

    2017-09-26

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2016-06-28

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2016-12-13

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  14. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2017-11-21

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  15. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan

    2017-07-18

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2015-11-17

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  17. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan; Henriksen, Svend Hostgaard Bang

    2016-05-17

    The present invention provides isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also provides nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  18. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2017-05-02

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2018-02-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Polypeptides having laccase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu

    2017-08-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having laccase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-10-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  2. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Shaghasi, Tarana

    2017-06-20

    The present invention relates to polypeptides having xylanase activity, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains, and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains. The present invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains.

  3. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2016-02-23

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  4. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2016-04-05

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Golightly, Elizabeth

    2007-07-17

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  6. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2017-08-08

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. Polypeptides having beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; McBrayer, Brett

    2017-07-04

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  8. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael

    2017-09-26

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Duan, Junxin

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  10. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Junxin; Schnorr, Kirk Matthew; Wu, Wenping

    2013-11-19

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. Chimeric polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Sweeney, Matthew; Heu, Tia

    2017-06-14

    The present invention relates to chimeric GH61 polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the chimeric GH61 polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the chimeric GH61 polypeptides.

  12. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringer, Mary Ann; McBrayer, Brett

    2016-11-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity, catalytic domains, and cellulose binding domains and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, catalytic domains, and cellulose binding domains. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides, catalytic domains, or cellulose binding domains.

  13. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Joergensen, Christian; Kramer, Randall

    2016-11-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  14. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Hanshu, Ding

    2012-10-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  15. Polynucleotides encoding polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Golightly, Elizabeth

    2010-03-02

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyuran, Suchindra; Kramer, Randall; Harris, Paul

    2013-10-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  17. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; Wu, Wenping

    2016-11-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  18. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael

    2016-05-31

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; Wu, Wenping

    2016-06-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Wu, Wenping; Kramer, Randall

    2017-09-19

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  2. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Shagasi, Tarana

    2017-05-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity, catalytic domains, cellulose binding domains and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, catalytic domains or cellulose binding domains. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides, catalytic domains or cellulose binding domains.

  3. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael; Ding, Hanshu; Vlasenko, Elena

    2010-11-02

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  4. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2017-09-05

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  6. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj [Bagsvaed, DK

    2014-01-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The inventino also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  8. Polypeptide from a cellulolytic fungus having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kimberly [Elk Grove, CA; Harris, Paul [Carnation, WA; Zaretsky, Elizabeth [Reno, NV; Re, Edward [Davis, CA; Vlasenko, Elena [Davis, CA; McFarland, Keith [Davis, CA; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo [Davis, CA

    2008-04-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan

    2018-01-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  10. Tissue polypeptide antigen activity in cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F; Söletormos, Georg; Dombernowsky, P

    1991-01-01

    Tissue polypeptide antigen (TPpA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was measured in 59 consecutive breast cancer patients with suspected central nervous system (CNS) metastases. Subsequently, we determined that 13 patients had parenchymal brain metastases, 10 had leptomeningeal carcinomatosis...

  11. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Surface active complexes formed between keratin polypeptides and ionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fang; Lu, Zhiming; Tucker, Ian; Hosking, Sarah; Petkov, Jordan; Lu, Jian R

    2016-12-15

    Keratins are a group of important proteins in skin and hair and as biomaterials they can provide desirable properties such as strength, biocompatibility, and moisture regaining and retaining. The aim of this work is to develop water-soluble keratin polypeptides from sheep wool and then explore how their surface adsorption behaves with and without surfactants. Successful preparation of keratin samples was demonstrated by identification of the key components from gel electrophoresis and the reproducible production of gram scale samples with and without SDS (sodium dodecylsulphate) during wool fibre dissolution. SDS micelles could reduce the formation of disulphide bonds between keratins during extraction, reducing inter-molecular crosslinking and improving keratin polypeptide solubility. However, Zeta potential measurements of the two polypeptide batches demonstrated almost identical pH dependent surface charge distributions with isoelectric points around pH 3.5, showing complete removal of SDS during purification by dialysis. In spite of different solubility from the two batches of keratin samples prepared, very similar adsorption and aggregation behavior was revealed from surface tension measurements and dynamic light scattering. Mixing of keratin polypeptides with SDS and C 12 TAB (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide) led to the formation of keratin-surfactant complexes that were substantially more effective at reducing surface tension than the polypeptides alone, showing great promise in the delivery of keratin polypeptides via the surface active complexes. Neutron reflection measurements revealed the coexistence of surfactant and keratin polypeptides at the interface, thus providing the structural support to the observed surface tension changes associated with the formation of the surface active complexes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Research progress of active polypeptides of Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guangyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized at home and abroad that Cordyceps militaris is a fungus that can be edible and used for medicinal application, and also a common cordyceps taishanensis that is widely distributed and with very high medicinal value in China. Active Cordyceps militaris polypeptide has shown several highlights in its absorption mechanism, such as directly absorbed without the need for digestion, and absorbed quickly and completely, and more and more international researchers are attaching great importance to it. Physiological and pharmacological activities of Cordyceps militaris polypeptide are mainly to activate related enzyme systems, promote intermediary metabolisms or control the DNA transcription and translation, simultaneously activate the reticuloendothelial system and macrophage, promote the transformation of lymphocytes, and as a nonspecific immune enhancer and regulator, activate the immune competent cells, especially lymphocytes, lymphokines, mononuclear macrophage system and NK cells, thereby attacking the target cells to play an antitumor role, and also exerting its anti-aging, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic to enhance the immunity, improve the liver function and delay the aging. In this paper, the immunity improvement, anticancer, antioxidation and antimicrobial activities of active polypeptides from Cordyceps militaris are reviewed, in order to provide a solid theoretical help for the further development and application of active polypeptides of Cordyceps militaris.

  14. Separation, antitumor activities, and encapsulation of polypeptide from Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella pyrenoidosa is a unicellular green algae and has been a popular foodstuff worldwide. However, no reports on the antitumor peptides from such a microalgae are available in the literature. In this study, using low-temperature high-pressure extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis, ion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography, we separated a polypeptide that exhibited inhibitory activity on human liver cancer HepG2 cells, and named the polypeptide CPAP (C. pyrenoidosa antitumor polypeptide). Furthermore, the micro- and nanoencapsulation of CPAP were investigated by using two methods: complex coacervation and ionotropic gelation. The in vitro release tests revealed that CPAP was well preserved against gastric enzymatic degradation after micro/nanoencapsulation and the slowly controlled release in the intestine could be potentially achieved. These results suggest that CPAP may be a useful ingredient in food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. Elastomeric polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldijk, Mark B; McGann, Christopher L; Kiick, Kristi L; van Hest, Jan C M

    2012-01-01

    Elastomeric polypeptides are very interesting biopolymers and are characterized by rubber-like elasticity, large extensibility before rupture, reversible deformation without loss of energy, and high resilience upon stretching. Their useful properties have motivated their use in a wide variety of materials and biological applications. This chapter focuses on elastin and resilin - two elastomeric biopolymers - and the recombinant polypeptides derived from them (elastin-like polypeptides and resilin-like polypeptides). This chapter also discusses the applications of these recombinant polypeptides in the fields of purification, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  17. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagami, Alessandro S; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is found in human trigeminocervical complex and can trigger migraine. PACAP levels were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in cat elevated PACAP levels in cranial blood. Patients...... with moderate or severe migraine headache had elevated PACAP in the external jugular vein during headache (n = 15), that was reduced 1 h after treatment with sumatriptan 6 mg (n = 11), and further reduced interictally (n = 9). The data suggest PACAP, or its receptors, are a promising target for migraine...

  18. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul

    2013-12-17

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Recombinant host cells and nucleic acid constructs encoding polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2017-03-28

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Recent advances in amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides and synthetic polypeptides: chemistry, self-assembly and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Wang, Jing; Song, Ziyuan; Yin, Lichen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Tang, Haoyu; Tu, Chunlai; Lin, Yao; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-01-07

    Polypeptides are fascinating materials with unique properties for various biological materials. We highlight here recent advances in amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) and synthetic polypeptides from the aspects of chemistry, self-assembly and biological applications. New synthetic methodologies, mechanistic studies and optimization of polymerization conditions for the preparation of well-defined novel polypeptides are comprehensively reviewed and evaluated. Functional polypeptides, mostly prepared from novel NCA monomers, with ultra-stable helical conformation, stimuli-sensitive properties, or glycoprotein mimetics are summarized. We also highlight a number of interesting self-assembled structures of polypeptides in solid state and solution, with particular emphasis on those structures other than amphiphilic self-assembly. The biological applications of polypeptides in drug and gene delivery are also reviewed. Future directions and perspectives are discussed in the conclusion.

  1. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  2. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  3. Polypeptide having carbohydrate degrading activity and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; Vlasie, Monica Diana; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2015-08-18

    The invention relates to a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 73% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 73% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  4. Polypeptide having acetyl xylan esterase activity and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; Los, Alrik Pieter

    2015-10-20

    The invention relates to a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 82% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 82% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  5. Processes for the production of hydroxycinnamic acids using polypeptides having tyrosine ammonia lyase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of hydroxycinnamic acids using polypeptides having tyrosine ammonia lyase activity. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having tyrosine ammonia lyase activity and high...... substrate specificity towards tyrosine, which makes them particularly suitable in the production of p-coumaric acid and other hydroxycinnamic acids. The present invention thus provides processes for the production of p-coumaric acid and other hydroxycinnamic acids employing these polypeptides as well...

  6. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates renin secretion via activation of PAC1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautmann, Matthias; Friis, Ulla G; Desch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Besides of its functional role in the nervous system, the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Therefore, PACAP is a potent vasodilator in several vascular beds, including the renal vasculature. Because...

  8. Variants of polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Matt; Wogulis, Mark

    2017-11-14

    The present invention relates to polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity variants. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  9. Effects of side group functionality and molecular weight on the activity of synthetic antimicrobial polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Amanda C; Shukla, Anita; Puranam, Sravanthi; Buss, Hilda G; Jreige, Nina; Hammond, Paula T

    2011-05-09

    The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria along with increasing difficulty in biofilm treatment has caused an immediate need for the development of new classes of antimicrobial therapeutics. We have developed a library of antimicrobial polypeptides, prepared by the ring-opening polymerization of γ-propargyl-L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride and the alkyne-azide cycloaddition click reaction, which mimic the favorable characteristics of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AmPs). AmPs are known not to cause drug resistance as well as prevent bacteria attachment on surfaces. The ease and scale of synthesis of the antimicrobial polypeptides developed here are significantly improved over the traditional Merrifield synthetic peptide approaches needed for naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides and avoids the unique challenges of biosynthetic pathways. The polypeptides range in length from 30 to 140 repeat units and can have varied side group functionality, including primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amines with hydrocarbon side chains ranging from 1 to 12 carbons long. Overall, we find these polypeptides to exhibit broad-spectrum activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely, S. aureus and E. coli , while having very low hemolytic activity. Many of the polypeptides can also be used as surface coatings to prevent bacterial attachment. The polypeptide library developed in this work addresses the need for effective biocompatible therapeutics for drug delivery and medical device coatings.

  10. Recombinant expression of backbone-cyclized polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Radhika; Camarero, Julio A

    2013-09-01

    Here we review the different biochemical approaches available for the expression of backbone-cyclized polypeptides, including peptides and proteins. These methods allow for the production of circular polypeptides either in vitro or in vivo using standard recombinant DNA expression techniques. Polypeptide circularization provides a valuable tool to study the effects of topology on protein stability and folding kinetics. Furthermore, having biosynthetic access to backbone-cyclized polypeptides makes the production of genetically encoded libraries of cyclic polypeptides possible. The production of such libraries, which was previously restricted to the domain of synthetic chemistry, now offers biologists access to highly diverse and stable molecular libraries that can be screened using high-throughput methods for the rapid selection of novel cyclic polypeptide sequences with new biological activities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Directed evolution of DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase activity in a single polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jennifer L; Loakes, David; Jaroslawski, Szymon; Too, Kathleen; Holliger, Philipp

    2006-08-18

    DNA polymerases enable key technologies in modern biology but for many applications, native polymerases are limited by their stringent substrate recognition. Here we describe short-patch compartmentalized self-replication (spCSR), a novel strategy to expand the substrate spectrum of polymerases in a targeted way. spCSR is based on the previously described CSR, but unlike CSR only a short region (a "patch") of the gene under investigation is diversified and replicated. This allows the selection of polymerases under conditions where catalytic activity and processivity are compromised to the extent that full self-replication is inefficient. We targeted two specific motifs involved in substrate recognition in the active site of DNA polymerase I from Thermus aquaticus (Taq) and selected for incorporation of both ribonucleotide- (NTP) and deoxyribonucleotide-triphosphates (dNTPs) using spCSR. This allowed the isolation of multiple variants of Taq with apparent dual substrate specificity. They were able to synthesize RNA, while still retaining essentially wild-type (wt) DNA polymerase activity as judged by PCR. One such mutant (AA40: E602V, A608V, I614M, E615G) was able to incorporate both NTPs and dNTPs with the same catalytic efficiency as the wt enzyme incorporates dNTPs. AA40 allowed the generation of mixed RNA-DNA amplification products in PCR demonstrating DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase as well as reverse transcriptase activity within the same polypeptide. Furthermore, AA40 displayed an expanded substrate spectrum towards other 2'-substituted nucleotides and was able to synthesize nucleic acid polymers in which each base bore a different 2'-substituent. Our results suggest that spCSR will be a powerful strategy for the generation of polymerases with altered substrate specificity for applications in nano- and biotechnology and in the enzymatic synthesis of antisense and RNAi probes.

  12. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), stress, and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S Bradley; Toufexis, Donna J; Hammack, Sayamwong E

    2017-09-01

    Stressor exposure is associated with the onset and severity of many psychopathologies that are more common in women than men. Moreover, the maladaptive expression and function of stress-related hormones have been implicated in these disorders. Evidence suggests that PACAP has a critical role in the stress circuits mediating stress-responding, and PACAP may interact with sex hormones to contribute to sex differences in stress-related disease. In this review, we describe the role of the PACAP/PAC1 system in stress biology, focusing on the role of stress-induced alterations in PACAP expression and signaling in the development of stress-induced behavioral change. Additionally, we present more recent data suggesting potential interactions between stress, PACAP, and circulating estradiol in pathological states, including PTSD. These studies suggest that the level of stress and circulating gonadal hormones may differentially regulate the PACAPergic system in males and females to influence anxiety-like behavior and may be one mechanism underlying the discrepancies in human psychiatric disorders.

  13. Application of ‘Inductive’ QSAR Descriptors for Quantification of Antibacterial Activity of Cationic Polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Jankovic

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the inductive QSAR descriptors we have created a neural network-based solution enabling quantification of antibacterial activity in the series of 101 synthetic cationic polypeptides (CAMEL-s. The developed QSAR model allowed 80% correct categorical classification of antibacterial potencies of the CAMEL-s both in the training and the validation sets. The accuracy of the activity predictions demonstrates that a narrow set of 3D sensitive ‘inductive’ descriptors can adequately describe the aspects of intra- and intermolecular interactions that are relevant for antibacterial activity of the cationic polypeptides. The developed approach can be further expanded for the larger sets of biologically active peptides and can serve as a useful quantitative tool for rational antibiotic design and discovery.

  14. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of polyamides and polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyamides and polypeptides are important polymers in biological systems and industrial processes. Usually polyamides are produced via chemical synthesis, whereas polypeptides and proteins are isolated from living systems or produced from Merrifield synthesis. An area of active research is to use ...

  15. Antimicrobial activity of human islet amyloid polypeptides: an insight into amyloid peptides' connection with antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Liu, Qian; Chen, Jin-Chun; Cui, Yi-Xian; Zhou, Bing; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Li, Yan-Mei

    2012-07-01

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) shows an antimicrobial activity towards two types of clinically relevant bacteria. The potency of hIAPP varies with its aggregation states. Circular dichroism was employed to determine the interaction between hIAPP and bacteria lipid membrane mimic. The antimicrobial activity of each aggregate species is associated with their ability to induce membrane disruption. Our findings provide new evidence revealing the antimicrobial activity of amyloid peptide, which suggest a possible connection between amyloid peptides and antimicrobial peptides.

  16. [New drug developments of snake venom polypeptides and progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sihai; Feng, Mei; Xiong, Yan

    2017-11-28

    The value of snake venom polypeptides in clinical application has drawn extensive attention, and the development of snake polypeptides into new drugs with anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, analgesic or antihypertensive properties has become the recent research hotspot. With the rapid development of molecular biology and biotechnology, the mechanisms of snake venom polypeptides are also gradually clarified. Numerous studies have demonstrated that snake venom polypeptides exert their pharmacological effects by regulating ion channels, cell proliferation, apoptosis, intracellular signaling pathway, and expression of cytokine as well as binding to relevant active sites or receptors.

  17. Expression of a Deschampsia antarctica Desv. Polypeptide with Lipase Activity in a Pichia pastoris Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rabert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study isolated and characterized the Lip3F9 polypeptide sequence of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (GeneBank Accession Number JX846628, which was found to be comprised of 291 base pairs and was, moreover, expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 cells. The enzyme was secreted after 24 h of P. pastoris culture incubation and through induction with methanol. The expressed protein showed maximum lipase activity (35 U/L with an optimal temperature of 37 °C. The lipase-expressed enzyme lost 50% of its specific activity at 25 °C, a behavior characteristic of a psychrotolerant enzyme. Recombinant enzyme activity was measured in the presence of ionic and non-ionic detergents, and a decrease in enzyme activity was detected for all concentrations of ionic and non-ionic detergents assessed.

  18. A hydra with many heads: protein and polypeptide toxins from hydra and their biological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Daniel; Zlotkin, Eliahu

    2009-12-15

    Hydra have been classical model organisms for over 250 years, yet little is known about the toxins they produce, and how they utilize these toxins to catch prey, protect themselves from predators and fulfill other biological roles necessary for survival. Unlike typical venomous organisms the hydra allomonal system is complex and "holistic", produced by various stinging cells (in the hunting tentacles and body ectoderm) as well as by non-nematocystic tissue. Toxic proteins also fulfill novel, non-allomonal roles in hydra. This review described the toxins produced by hydra within the context of their biology and natural history. Hydra nematocyst venom contains a high-molecular weight (>100 kDa) hemolytic and paralytic protein and a protein of approximately 30 kDa which induces a long-lasting flaccid paralysis. No low-molecular weight toxicity is observed, suggesting the lack of "classical" 4-7 kDa neurotoxins. The occurrence of a potent phospholipase activity in the venom is supported by the detection of several venom-like phospholipase A2 genes expressed by hydra. Hydra also produce toxins which are not part of the nematocyst venom. In the green hydra, Hydralysins, a novel family of Pore-Forming Proteins, are secreted into the gastrovascular cavity during feeding, probably helping in disintegration of the prey. Other putative non-nematocystic "toxins" may be involved in immunity, development or regulation of behavior. As the first venomous organism for which modern molecular tools are available, hydra provide a useful model to answer many outstanding questions on the way venomous organisms utilize their toxins to survive.

  19. Polypeptide having or assisting in carbohydrate material degrading activity and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; Los, Alrik Pieter

    2016-02-16

    The invention relates to a polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 76% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 76% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  20. Distribution and protective function of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP in the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya eNakamachi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, which is found in 27- or 38-amino acid forms, belongs to the VIP/glucagon/secretin family. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues, with PACAP known to exert a protective effect against several types of neural damage. The retina is considered to be part of the central nervous system, and retinopathy is a common cause of profound and intractable loss of vision. This review will examine the expression and morphological distribution of PACAP and its receptors in the retina, and will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the protective effect of PACAP against different kinds of retinal damage, such as that identified in association with diabetes, ultraviolet light, hypoxia, optic nerve transection, and toxins. This article will also address PACAP-mediated protective pathways involving retinal glial cells.

  1. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required...... and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression....... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits pleiotropic functions that are mediated via its receptors [PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and VPAC2R]. Although some studies have suggested a role for PACAP in the skin...

  2. Renoprotection by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in multiple myeloma and other kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Maderdrut, Jerome L; Lertora, Juan J L; Arimura, Akira; Batuman, Vecihi

    2008-01-10

    Renal involvement in patients with multiple myeloma complicates their treatment and shortens their life-span. The main renal lesion is a tubulointerstitial transformation with fibrosis, frequently associated with cast formation in the distal nephron that results from co-precipitation of pathological immunoglobulin light chains with Tamm-Horsfall proteins. The human renal proximal tubular reabsorption of excessive light chains by endocytosis causes cellular protein overload and activates the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB). The activation of NFkappaB promotes the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and activates signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, Jun kinase, and p38 MAPK, thus promoting interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. We tested the concept that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the secretin/vasoactive intestinal peptide family, could prevent the development of cast nephropathies. PACAP38 inhibited myeloma light chain-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression with greater potency than dexamethasone, and attenuated the resulting cell damage in the renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. The results indicated that its effects are mediated through inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and nuclear translocation of the p50 subunit of NFkappaB via both the PAC(1) and VPAC(1) receptors. PACAP was also shown to be efficacious in other common in vivo animal models for kidney hypertrophies, including streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy and gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Thus, our studies suggest that PACAP38 could be used as a cytoprotective agent that would be effective in the treatment of renal tubule injury in multiple myeloma and other chronic kidney diseases.

  3. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko eHattori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1. Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC1 genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J x 129SvEv for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased social interaction in Crawley’s three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on social interaction in a home cage. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze and the T-maze, while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the T-maze. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially

  4. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H; Matsumoto, M; Murai, N; Nakamachi, T; Hannibal, J; Fahrenkrug, J; Hashimoto, H; Watanabe, H; Sueki, H; Honda, K; Miyazaki, A; Shioda, S

    2017-02-01

    Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits pleiotropic functions that are mediated via its receptors [PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and VPAC2R]. Although some studies have suggested a role for PACAP in the skin and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression and localization of PACAP and its receptors in mouse and human eccrine sweat glands. We injected PACAP subcutaneously into the footpads of mice and used the starch-iodine test to visualize sweat-secreting glands. Immunostaining showed PACAP and PAC1R expression by secretory cells from mouse and human sweat glands. PACAP immunoreactivity was also localized in nerve fibres around eccrine sweat glands. PACAP significantly promoted sweat secretion at the injection site, and this could be blocked by the PAC1R-antagonist PACAP6-38. VIP, an agonist of VPAC1R and VPAC2R, failed to induce sweat secretion. This is the first report demonstrating that PACAP may play a crucial role in sweat secretion via its action on PAC1R located in eccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms underlying the role of PACAP in sweat secretion may provide new therapeutic options to combat sweating disorders. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide modulates catecholamine storage and exocytosis in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available A number of efforts have been made to understand how pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP functions as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor in Parkinson's disease (PD. Recently its effects on neurotransmission and underlying mechanisms have generated interest. In the present study, we investigate the effects of PACAP on catecholamine storage and secretion in PC12 cells with amperometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. PACAP increases quantal release induced by high K+ without significantly regulating the frequency of vesicle fusion events. TEM data indicate that the increased volume of the vesicle is mainly the result of enlargement of the fluidic space around the dense core. Moreover, the number of docked vesicles isn't modulated by PACAP. When cells are acutely treated with L-DOPA, the vesicular volume and quantal release both increase dramatically. It is likely that the characteristics of amperometric spikes from L-DOPA treated cells are associated with increased volume of individual vesicles rather than a direct effect on the mechanics of exocytosis. Treatment with PACAP versus L-DOPA results in different profiles of the dynamics of exocytosis. Release via the fusion pore prior to full exocytosis was observed with the same frequency following treatment with PACAP and L-DOPA. However, release events have a shorter duration and higher average current after PACAP treatment compared to L-DOPA. Furthermore, PACAP reduced the proportion of spikes having rapid decay time and shortened the decay time of both fast and slow spikes. In contrast, the distributions of the amperometric spike decay for both fast and slow spikes were shifted to longer time following L-DOPA treatment. Compared to L-DOPA, PACAP may produce multiple favorable effects on dopaminergic neurons, including protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurodegeneration and potentially regulating dopamine storage and release, making it a promising

  6. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Hurley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger and hedonic-related (palatability drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding; surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding. In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc, through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive.

  7. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activitiy and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Duan, Junxin

    2015-12-15

    The present invention provides isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also provides nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  8. HIV-neutralizing activity of cationic polypeptides in cervicovaginal secretions of women in HIV-serodiscordant relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Levinson

    Full Text Available HIV exposed seronegative (HESN women represent the population most in need of a prophylactic antiviral strategy. Mucosal cationic polypeptides can potentially be regulated for this purpose and we here aimed to determine their endogenous expression and HIV neutralizing activity in genital secretions of women at risk of HIV infection.Cervicovaginal secretions (CVS of Kenyan women in HIV-serodiscordant relationships (HESN, n = 164; HIV seropositive, n = 60 and low-risk controls (n = 72 were assessed for the cationic polypeptides HNP1-3, LL-37 and SLPI by ELISA and for HIV neutralizing activity by a PBMC-based assay using an HIV primary isolate. Median levels of HNP1-3 and LL-37 in CVS were similar across study groups. Neither HSV-2 serostatus, nor presence of bacterial vaginosis, correlated with levels of HNP1-3 or LL-37 in the HESN women. However, an association with their partner's viral load was observed. High viral load (>10,000 HIV RNA copies/ml plasma correlated with higher levels of HNP1-3 and LL-37 (p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively. SLPI was most abundant in the low-risk group and did not correlate with male partner's viral load in the HESN women. HIV neutralizing activity was found in CVS of all study groups. In experimental studies, selective depletion of cationic polypeptides from CVS rendered the remaining CVS fraction non-neutralizing, whereas the cationic polypeptide fraction retained the activity. Furthermore, recombinant HNP1-3 and LL-37 could induce neutralizing activity when added to CVS lacking intrinsic activity.These findings show that CVS from HESN, low-risk, and HIV seropositive women contain HIV neutralizing activity. Although several innate immune proteins, including HNP1-3 and LL-37, contribute to this activity these molecules can also have inflammatory properties. This balance is influenced by hormonal and environmental factors and in the present HIV serodiscordant couple cohort study we show that a partner

  9. HIV-Neutralizing Activity of Cationic Polypeptides in Cervicovaginal Secretions of Women in HIV-Serodiscordant Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Pauline; Choi, Robert Y.; Cole, Amy L.; Hirbod, Taha; Rhedin, Samuel; Payne, Barbara; Guthrie, Brandon L.; Bosire, Rose; Cole, Alexander M.; Farquhar, Carey; Broliden, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV exposed seronegative (HESN) women represent the population most in need of a prophylactic antiviral strategy. Mucosal cationic polypeptides can potentially be regulated for this purpose and we here aimed to determine their endogenous expression and HIV neutralizing activity in genital secretions of women at risk of HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) of Kenyan women in HIV-serodiscordant relationships (HESN, n = 164; HIV seropositive, n = 60) and low-risk controls (n = 72) were assessed for the cationic polypeptides HNP1–3, LL-37 and SLPI by ELISA and for HIV neutralizing activity by a PBMC-based assay using an HIV primary isolate. Median levels of HNP1–3 and LL-37 in CVS were similar across study groups. Neither HSV-2 serostatus, nor presence of bacterial vaginosis, correlated with levels of HNP1–3 or LL-37 in the HESN women. However, an association with their partner's viral load was observed. High viral load (>10,000 HIV RNA copies/ml plasma) correlated with higher levels of HNP1–3 and LL-37 (p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). SLPI was most abundant in the low-risk group and did not correlate with male partner's viral load in the HESN women. HIV neutralizing activity was found in CVS of all study groups. In experimental studies, selective depletion of cationic polypeptides from CVS rendered the remaining CVS fraction non-neutralizing, whereas the cationic polypeptide fraction retained the activity. Furthermore, recombinant HNP1–3 and LL-37 could induce neutralizing activity when added to CVS lacking intrinsic activity. Conclusions/Significance These findings show that CVS from HESN, low-risk, and HIV seropositive women contain HIV neutralizing activity. Although several innate immune proteins, including HNP1–3 and LL-37, contribute to this activity these molecules can also have inflammatory properties. This balance is influenced by hormonal and environmental factors and in the

  10. A new cotton SDR family gene encodes a polypeptide possessing aldehyde reductase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Song, Wen-Qiang; Chen, Fang-Yuan; Qin, Yong-Mei

    2010-03-01

    To understand regulatory mechanisms of cotton fiber development, microarray analysis has been performed for upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Based on this, a cDNA (GhKCR3) encoding a polypeptide belonging to short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase family was isolated and cloned. It contains an open reading frame of 987 bp encoding a polypeptide of 328 amino acid residues. Following its overexpression in bacterial cells, the purified recombinant protein specifically uses NADPH to reduce a variety of short-chain aldehydes. A fragment between Gly180 and Gly191 was found to be essential for its catalytic activity. Though the GhKCR3 gene shares low sequence similarities to the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YBR159w that encodes 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR) catalyzing the second step of fatty acid elongation, it was surprisingly able to complement the yeast ybr159wDelta mutant. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that very long-chain fatty acids, especially C26:0, were produced in the ybr159wDelta mutant cells expressing GhKCR3. Applying palmitoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA as substrates, GhKCR3 showed KCR activity in vitro. Quantitative real time-PCR analysis indicated GhKCR3 transcripts accumulated in rapidly elongating fibers, roots, and stems. Our results suggest that GhKCR3 is probably a novel KCR contributing to very long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in plants.

  11. Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Güniz Küçükgüzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antischistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new hydrazones that possess varied biological activities.

  12. Brassinosteroids: synthesis and biological activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oklešťková, Jana; Rárová, Lucie; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2015), s. 1053-1072 ISSN 1568-7767 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Brassinosteroids * Chemical synthesis * Plant biological activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2015

  13. Interpretation of sequential measurements of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) based on analytical imprecision and biological variation in the monitoring of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Malgorzata K.; Sölétormos, G; Petersen, P H

    2001-01-01

    patients with serological tumor markers should take into account the stochastic variation, i.e. the probability that observed increases and decreases may solely be due to analytical imprecision and normal intra-individual biological variation. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed characteristic......, the standard deviations, and the coefficients of variation differed among subjects, and iii) the steady state variability differed among the markers. In conclusion, our data indicate that the assessment of sequential CA 125, CEA, and TPA concentrations is more complex than hitherto recognized. We suggest......The main objective with cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) monitoring of ovarian cancer patients is to detect an early change of disease activity with high reliability. We hypothesized that a monitoring scheme for ovarian cancer...

  14. Effect of Cd and UV-B radiation on polypeptide composition and photosystem activities of Vigna unguiculata chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedunchezhian, N.; Kulandaivelu, G.

    1995-01-01

    Rates of whole chain and photosystem 2 activities in chloroplasts isolated from Vigna unguiculata L. seedlings grown under ultraviolet-B (UV-B) enhanced radiation were less affected by 3, 6 and 9 mM CdCl2 for 60 min at 0 degrees C in the dark than the rates in chloroplasts from control plants grown under normal irradiation. The results are in agreement with changes in contents of chloroplast 55, 47, 43, 33, 29, 27-25, 23 and 17 kDa polypeptides that were significantly lowered at 3, 6 and 9 mM CdCl2 only in chloroplasts from control plants. On the other hand, in the simultaneous treatment of chloroplast isolated from control plants the UV-B supported the inhibitory effect of all applied concentrations of CdCl2. The photosystem 1 activity was only marginally affected in the all experimental variants

  15. Kynurenic Acid Inhibits the Electrical Stimulation Induced Elevated Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Expression in the TNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Körtési

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMigraine is a primary headache of imprecisely known mechanism, but activation of the trigeminovascular system (TS appears to be essential during the attack. Intensive research has recently focused on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and the kynurenine systems as potential pathogenic factors.AimWe investigated the link between these important mediators and the effects of kynurenic acid (KYNA and its synthetic analog (KYNA-a on PACAP expression in the rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC in a TS stimulation model related to migraine mechanisms.MethodsAdult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with KYNA, KYNA-a, the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, or saline (vehicle. Next, the trigeminal ganglion (TRG was electrically stimulated, the animals were transcardially perfused following 180 min, and the TNC was removed. In the TNC samples, 38 amino acid form of PACAP (PACAP1–38-like radioimmunoactivity was measured by radioimmunoassay, the relative optical density of preproPACAP was assessed by Western blot analysis, and PACAP1–38 mRNA was detected by real-time PCR.Results and conclusionElectrical TRG stimulation resulted in significant increases of PACAP1–38-LI, preproPACAP, and PACAP1–38 mRNA in the TNC. These increases were prevented by the pretreatments with KYNA, KYNA-a, and MK-801. This is the first study to provide evidence for a direct link between PACAP and the kynurenine system during TS activation.

  16. Investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine attacks induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hougaard, Anders; Schytz, Henrik W

    2014-01-01

    samples (plasma PACAP38 and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and serum tryptase), and vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory frequency, and end-tidal pressure of CO2) was recorded before and up to 5 h after infusion. Twenty-two patients [mean age 24 years (range 19-36)] completed the study...... on both days. Sixteen patients (73%) reported migraine-like attacks after PACAP38 and four after vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (18%) infusion (P = 0.002). Three of four patients, who reported migraine-like attacks after vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, also reported attacks after PACAP38. Both...... the start of PACAP38 infusion only in those patients who later reported migraine attacks. Blood levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and tryptase were unchanged after PACAP38 infusion. In conclusion, PACAP38-induced migraine was associated with sustained dilatation of extracranial arteries...

  17. Expression of endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II in the rat dental follicle and its potential role in tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawen; Wise, Gary E

    2008-08-01

    Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP-II) is an inflammatory cytokine with chemotactic activity. Because the dental follicle (DF) recruits mononuclear cells (osteoclast precursors) to promote the osteoclastogenesis needed for tooth eruption, it was the aim of this study to determine if EMAP-II contributes to this recruitment. Using a DNA microarray, EMAP-II was found to be highly expressed in vivo in the DFs of day 1 to day 11 postnatal rats, with its expression elevated on days 1 and 3. Use of a short interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down EMAP-II expression resulted in a reduction in the expression of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the DF cells. Addition of EMAP-II protein to the DF cells partially restored the expression of CSF-1 and MCP-1. In chemotaxis assays using either conditioned medium of the DF cells with anti-(EMAP-II) immunoglobulin G added or conditioned medium of DF cells with EMAP-II knocked down by siRNA, migration indexes of bone marrow mononuclear cells were significantly reduced. These results suggest that EMAP-II is another chemotactic molecule in the dental follicle involved in the recruitment of mononuclear cells, and that EMAP-II may exert its chemotactic function directly by recruiting mononuclear cells and indirectly by enhancing the expression of other chemotactic molecules (CSF-1 and MCP-1).

  18. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  19. The effects of isatin (indole-2, 3-dione on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-induced hyperthermia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Gábor

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that centrally administered natriuretic peptides and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38 have hyperthermic properties. Isatin (indole-2, 3-dione is an endogenous indole that has previously been found to inhibit hyperthermic effects of natriuretic peptides. In this study the aim was to investigate the effects of isatin on thermoregulatory actions of PACAP-38, in rats. Results One μg intracerebroventricular (icv. injection of PACAP-38 had hyperthermic effect in male, Wistar rats, with an onset of the effect at 2 h and a decline by the 6th h after administration. Intraperitoneal (ip. injection of different doses of isatin (25-50 mg/kg significantly decreased the hyperthermic effect of 1 μg PACAP-38 (icv., whereas 12.5 mg/kg isatin (ip. had no inhibiting effect. Isatin alone did not modify the body temperature of the animals. Conclusion The mechanisms that participate in the mediation of the PACAP-38-induced hyperthermia may be modified by isatin. The capability of isatin to antagonize the hyperthermia induced by all members of the natriuretic peptide family and by PACAP-38 makes it unlikely to be acting directly on receptors for natriuretic peptides or on those for PACAP in these hyperthermic processes.

  20. Development of isoform-specific sensors of polypeptide GalNAc-transferase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lina; Bachert, Collin; Schjoldager, Katrine T

    2014-01-01

    Humans express up to 20 isoforms of GalNAc-transferase (herein T1-T20) that localize to the Golgi apparatus and initiate O-glycosylation. Regulation of this enzyme family affects a vast array of proteins transiting the secretory pathway and diseases arise upon misregulation of specific isoforms....... Surprisingly, molecular probes to monitor GalNAc-transferase activity are lacking and there exist no effective global or isoform-specific inhibitors. Here we describe the development of T2- and T3-isoform specific fluorescence sensors that traffic in the secretory pathway. Each sensor yielded little signal...... when glycosylated but was strongly activated in the absence of its glycosylation. Specificity of each sensor was assessed in HEK cells with either the T2 or T3 enzymes deleted. Although the sensors are based on specific substrates of the T2 and T3 enzymes, elements in or near the enzyme recognition...

  1. Pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide inhibits gli1 gene expression and proliferation in primary medulloblastoma derived tumorsphere cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Joseph R; Resnick, Daniel Z; Niewiadomski, Pawel; Dong, Hongmei; Liau, Linda M; Waschek, James A

    2010-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is critical for the expansion of granule neuron precursors (GNPs) within the external granular layer (EGL) during cerebellar development. Aberrant HH signaling within GNPs is thought to give rise to medulloblastoma (MB) - the most commonly-observed form of malignant pediatric brain tumor. Evidence in both invertebrates and vertebrates indicates that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) antagonizes HH signalling. Receptors specific for the neuropeptide pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, gene name ADCYAP1) are expressed in GNPs. PACAP has been shown to protect GNPs from apoptosis in vitro, and to interact with HH signaling to regulate GNP proliferation. PACAP/ptch1 double mutant mice exhibit an increased incidence of MB compared to ptch1 mice, indicating that PACAP may regulate HH pathway-mediated MB pathogenesis. Primary MB tumorsphere cultures were prepared from thirteen ptch1 +/- /p53 +/- double mutant mice and treated with the smoothened (SMO) agonist purmorphamine, the SMO antagonist SANT-1, the neuropeptide PACAP, the PKA activator forskolin, and the PKA inhibitor H89. Gene expression of gli1 and [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation were assessed to determine drug effects on HH pathway activity and proliferation, respectively. PKA activity was determined in cell extracts by Western blotting using a phospho-PKA substrate antibody. Primary tumor cells cultured for 1-week under serum-free conditions grew as tumorspheres and were found to express PAC1 receptor transcripts. Gli1 gene expression was significantly reduced by SANT-1, PACAP and forskolin, but was unaffected by purmorphamine. The attenuation of gli1 gene expression by PACAP was reversed by the PKA inhibitor H89, which also blocked PKA activation. Treatment of tumorsphere cultures with PACAP, forskolin, and SANT-1 for 24 or 48 hours reduced proliferation. Primary tumorspheres derived from ptch1 +/- /p53 +/- mice exhibit constitutive HH pathway activity

  2. Pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide inhibits gli1 gene expression and proliferation in primary medulloblastoma derived tumorsphere cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hongmei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hedgehog (HH signaling is critical for the expansion of granule neuron precursors (GNPs within the external granular layer (EGL during cerebellar development. Aberrant HH signaling within GNPs is thought to give rise to medulloblastoma (MB - the most commonly-observed form of malignant pediatric brain tumor. Evidence in both invertebrates and vertebrates indicates that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA antagonizes HH signalling. Receptors specific for the neuropeptide pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, gene name ADCYAP1 are expressed in GNPs. PACAP has been shown to protect GNPs from apoptosis in vitro, and to interact with HH signaling to regulate GNP proliferation. PACAP/ptch1 double mutant mice exhibit an increased incidence of MB compared to ptch1 mice, indicating that PACAP may regulate HH pathway-mediated MB pathogenesis. Methods Primary MB tumorsphere cultures were prepared from thirteen ptch1+/-/p53+/- double mutant mice and treated with the smoothened (SMO agonist purmorphamine, the SMO antagonist SANT-1, the neuropeptide PACAP, the PKA activator forskolin, and the PKA inhibitor H89. Gene expression of gli1 and [3H]-thymidine incorporation were assessed to determine drug effects on HH pathway activity and proliferation, respectively. PKA activity was determined in cell extracts by Western blotting using a phospho-PKA substrate antibody. Results Primary tumor cells cultured for 1-week under serum-free conditions grew as tumorspheres and were found to express PAC1 receptor transcripts. Gli1 gene expression was significantly reduced by SANT-1, PACAP and forskolin, but was unaffected by purmorphamine. The attenuation of gli1 gene expression by PACAP was reversed by the PKA inhibitor H89, which also blocked PKA activation. Treatment of tumorsphere cultures with PACAP, forskolin, and SANT-1 for 24 or 48 hours reduced proliferation. Conclusions Primary tumorspheres derived from ptch1+/-/p53

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in fetal cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Stephen J; King, Jeffrey C; Brees, Carol K; Moore, Joseph P

    2014-09-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a centrally-acting peptide with highest concentration within the limbic area of the brain. PACAP is also expressed in and affects the functions of vascular and nervous tissues, endocrine glands, and the placenta. PACAP appears to be associated with the 'fight-or-flight' response to emergency partly through its effect on adrenal production of cortisol and catecholamines. We sought to explore the impact of labor as a stressor on the level of PACAP in the fetus, and hypothesized that PACAP levels would be increased when labor, abnormal fetal heart tracing, or fetal growth impairment was evident. Fetal cord venous blood samples were collected immediately after delivery from a random group of women undergoing either vaginal or Cesarean delivery. The blood was placed in chilled EDTA-aprotinin containing tubes, centrifuged, and stored at -80°C for PACAP immunoassay. Delivery data were abstracted for analysis. The level of PACAP in cord blood was similar in both males and females. There was a trend toward higher levels in the cord blood of fetuses delivered by Cesarean compared to those delivered vaginally. PACAP levels were unrelated to birth weight, Apgar scores, and the presence or absence of labor prior to delivery. While PACAP and its receptor are expressed in placenta, and PACAP protein is found in cord blood, no effect of labor stress on PACAP was found. Further research is needed to understand the role of PACAP in gestation and parturition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Semi-synthesis of murine prion protein by native chemical ligation and chemical activation for preparation of polypeptide-α-thioester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Chen, Huai; Zhang, Si-Yu; Chu, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Li, Yan-Mei

    2017-06-01

    Prions are suspected as pathogen of the fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Strategies to access homogenous prion protein (PrP) are required to fully comprehend the molecular mechanism of prion diseases. However, the polypeptide fragments from PrP show a high tendency to form aggregates, which is a gigantic obstacle of protein synthesis and purification. In this study, murine prion sequence 90 to 230 that is the core three-dimensional structure domain was constructed from three segments murine PrP (mPrP)(90-177), mPrP(178-212), and mPrP(213-230) by combining protein expression, chemical synthesis and chemical ligation. The protein sequence 90 to 177 was obtained from expression and finally converted into the polypeptide hydrazide by chemical activation of a cysteine in the tail. The other two polypeptide fragments of the C-terminal were obtained by chemical synthesis, which utilized the strategies of isopeptide and pseudoproline building blocks to complete the synthesis of such difficult sequences. The three segments were finally assembled by sequentially using native chemical ligation. This strategy will allow more straightforward access to homogeneously modified PrP variants. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Involvement of endogenous antioxidant systems in the protective activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damages in cultured rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douiri, Salma; Bahdoudi, Seyma; Hamdi, Yosra; Cubì, Roger; Basille, Magali; Fournier, Alain; Vaudry, Hubert; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Vaudry, David; Masmoudi-Kouki, Olfa

    2016-06-01

    Astroglial cells possess an array of cellular defense mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase antioxidant enzymes, to prevent damages caused by oxidative stress. Nevertheless, astroglial cell viability and functionality can be affected by significant oxidative stress. We have previously shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent glioprotective agent that prevents hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced apoptosis in cultured astrocytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of PACAP against oxidative-generated alteration of astrocytic antioxidant systems. Incubation of cells with subnanomolar concentrations of PACAP inhibited H2 O2 -evoked reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial respiratory burst, and caspase-3 mRNA level increase. PACAP also stimulated SOD and catalase activities in a concentration-dependent manner, and counteracted the inhibitory effect of H2 O2 on the activity of these two antioxidant enzymes. The protective action of PACAP against H2 O2 -evoked inhibition of antioxidant systems in astrocytes was protein kinase A, PKC, and MAP-kinase dependent. In the presence of H2 O2 , the SOD blocker NaCN and the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole, both suppressed the protective effects of PACAP on SOD and catalase activities, mitochondrial function, and cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-apoptotic effect of PACAP on astroglial cells can account for the activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduction in respiration rate, thus preserving mitochondrial integrity and preventing caspase-3 expression provoked by oxidative stress. Considering its powerful anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties, the PACAPergic signaling system should thus be considered for the development of new therapeutical approaches to cure various pathologies involving oxidative neurodegeneration. We propose the following cascade for the

  6. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP, also called glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are peptide hormones from the gut that enhance nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion (the 'incretin' effect). Judging from experiments in mice with targeted deletions...

  7. Nucleophilic behavior of lysine-501 of the alpha-polypeptide of sodium and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase consistent with a role in binding adenosine triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, K.Y.; Kyte, J.

    1989-01-01

    An immunoadsorbent specific for the carboxy-terminal sequence -GAPER, which comprises residues 502-506 of the alpha-polypeptide of ovine sodium and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase [(Na+ + K+)-ATPase], was used to isolate the products of the reaction between the lysine immediately preceding this sequence in the intact protein and either [3H]acetic anhydride or fluorescein 5'-isothiocyanate. Changes in the apparent nucleophilicity of this lysine, Lys501, were observed with both reagents when ATP was bound by the intact, native enzyme poised in the E1 conformation or when the structure of the enzyme was changed from the E1 conformation into the E2-P conformation. With both reagents, a decrease of more than 4-fold in the yield of incorporation occurred during the former change, but a decrease of only 2-fold occurred during the latter. Because a much larger decrease occurred when ATP was bound in the absence of a conformational change than occurred when a major conformational change took place in the absence of the occupation of the active site, these changes in the incorporation of [3H]acetyl suggest that Lys501 from the alpha polypeptide is directly involved in binding ATP within the active site of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. The immunochemical reactions between the specific polyclonal antibodies raised against the sequence-GAPER and denatured or enzymically active (Na+ + K+)-ATPase were also investigated. Western blots and the inhibition of enzymic activity caused by the antibody have shown that it can bind to both the denatured and the native form of the alpha-polypeptide, respectively

  8. Ethnobotanical and biological activities of Leptadenia pyrotechnica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This review includes the substance of different ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and exclusive capability of this plant in the field of anti-microbial and human disease activities. Key words: Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Biological activities, Desert plant, Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical activity, phytochemistry.

  9. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Juhász

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load.

  10. Rubella virion polypeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho-Terry, L.; Cohen, A.

    1982-01-01

    Four polypeptides with molecular weights of 55K, 47K, 45K, and 33K have been resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of immune precipitated rubella virus. The 47K and 45K components have similar peptide maps but different isoelectric points so that the same polypeptide may exist in more than one charged form. The 55K and 45K components have similar isoelectric points but different peptide maps showing that similarity of isoelectric point is not evidence of identity. (Author)

  11. Molecules-in-molecules fragment-based method for the calculation of chiroptical spectra of large molecules: Vibrational circular dichroism and Raman optical activity spectra of alanine polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, K V Jovan; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2016-12-01

    The molecules-in-molecules (MIM) fragment-based method has recently been adapted to evaluate the chiroptical (vibrational circular dichroism [VCD] and Raman optical activity [ROA]) spectra of large molecules such as peptides. In the MIM-VCD and MIM-ROA methods, the relevant higher energy derivatives of the parent molecule are assembled from the corresponding derivatives of smaller fragment subsystems. In addition, the missing long-range interfragment interactions are accounted at a computationally less expensive level of theory (MIM2). In this work we employed the MIM-VCD and MIM-ROA fragment-based methods to explore the evolution of the chiroptical spectroscopic characteristics of 3 10 -helix, α-helix, β-hairpin, γ-turn, and β-extended conformers of gas phase polyalanine (chain length n = 6-14). The different conformers of polyalanine show distinctive features in the MIM chiroptical spectra and the associated spectral intensities increase with evolution of system size. For a better understanding the site-specific effects on the vibrational spectra, isotopic substitutions were also performed employing the MIM method. An increasing redshift with the number of isotopically labeled 13 C=O functional groups in the peptide molecule was seen. For larger polypeptides, we implemented the two-step-MIM model to circumvent the high computational expense associated with the evaluation of chiroptical spectra at a high level of theory using large basis sets. The chiroptical spectra of α-(alanine) 20 polypeptide obtained using the two-step-MIM model, including continuum solvation effects, show good agreement with the full calculations and experiment. This benchmark study suggests that the MIM-fragment approach can assist in predicting and interpreting chiroptical spectra of large polypeptides. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Some Benzimidazoles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated using NMR and elemental analysis. The biological activity of these compounds as fungicides was tested against three commercially known fungicides (C. albicans, patient isolate C. glabrata and C. krusei).The biological activity of two compounds was found to be ...

  13. Immunolocalisation of members of the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase (ppGalNAc-T) family is consistent with biologically relevant altered cell surface glycosylation in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Susan A; Carter, Tracey M; Bennett, Eric P

    2007-01-01

    understood, may mediate the synthesis of varied glycoforms of cellular proteins with different biological activities. Disruptions in glycosylation are a common feature of cancer and may have functional significance. Immunocytochemistry with confocal scanning laser microscopy was employed to detect members...... of the ppGalNAc-T family, ppGalNAc-T1, -T2, -T3, -T4 and -T6 in a range of breast cell lines. The cells were chosen to represent a range of phenotypes from 'normal'/benign (HMT 3,522), primary, non-metastatic breast cancer (BT 474), to aggressive, metastatic breast cancer (ZR75-1, T47D, MCF-7, DU 4...... tightly restricted ppGalNAc-T's may result in initiation of O-linked glycosylation at normally unoccupied potential glycosylation sites leading to altered glycoforms of proteins with changed biological activity which may contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer....

  14. Alternative Splicing of the Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Receptor PAC1: Mechanisms of Fine Tuning of Brain Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna eBlechman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA encoding for the neuropeptide receptor PAC1/ADCYAP1R1 generates multiple protein products that exhibit pleiotropic activities. Recent studies in mammals and zebrafish have implicated some of these splice isoforms in control of both cellular and body homeostasis. Here, we review the regulation of PAC1 splice variants and their underlying signal transduction and physiological processes in the nervous system.

  15. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors are present and biochemically active in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirger, Zsolt; Laszlo, Zita; Hiripi, Laszlo; Hernadi, Laszlo; Toth, Gabor; Lubics, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Kemenes, Gyorgy; Mark, Laszlo

    2010-11-01

    PACAP is a highly conserved adenylate cyclase (AC) activating polypeptide, which, along with its receptors (PAC1-R, VPAC1, and VPAC2), is expressed in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. In vertebrates, PACAP has been shown to be involved in associative learning, but it is not known if it plays a similar role in invertebrates. To prepare the way for a detailed investigation into the possible role of PACAP and its receptors in a suitable invertebrate model of learning and memory, here, we undertook a study of their expression and biochemical role in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Lymnaea is one of the best established invertebrate model systems to study the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory, including the role of cyclic AMP-activated signaling mechanisms, which crucially depend on the learning-induced activation of AC. However, there was no information available on the expression of PACAP and its receptors in sensory structures and central ganglia of the Lymnaea nervous system known to be involved in associative learning or whether or not PACAP can actually activate AC in these ganglia. Here, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and immunohistochemistry, we established the presence of PACAP-like peptides in the cerebral ganglia and the lip region of Lymnaea. The MALDI-TOF data indicated an identity with mammalian PACAP-27 and the presence of a squid-like PACAP-38 highly homologous to vertebrate PACAP-38. We also showed that PACAP, VIP, and maxadilan stimulated the synthesis of cAMP in Lymnaea cerebral ganglion homogenates and that this effect was blocked by the appropriate general and selective PACAP receptor antagonists.

  16. Molecular Characteristics and Biological Functions of Surface-Active and Surfactant Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunde, Margaret; Pham, Chi L L; Kwan, Ann H

    2017-06-20

    Many critical biological processes take place at hydrophobic:hydrophilic interfaces, and a wide range of organisms produce surface-active proteins and peptides that reduce surface and interfacial tension and mediate growth and development at these boundaries. Microorganisms produce both small lipid-associated peptides and amphipathic proteins that allow growth across water:air boundaries, attachment to surfaces, predation, and improved bioavailability of hydrophobic substrates. Higher-order organisms produce surface-active proteins with a wide variety of functions, including the provision of protective foam environments for vulnerable reproductive stages, evaporative cooling, and gas exchange across airway membranes. In general, the biological functions supported by these diverse polypeptides require them to have an amphipathic nature, and this is achieved by a diverse range of molecular structures, with some proteins undergoing significant conformational change or intermolecular association to generate the structures that are surface active.

  17. Interpretation of sequential measurements of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) based on analytical imprecision and biological variation in the monitoring of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, M.K.; Söletormos, G.; Petersen, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective with cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) monitoring of ovarian cancer patients is to detect an early change of disease activity with high reliability. We hypothesized that a monitoring scheme for ovarian cancer......, the standard deviations, and the coefficients of variation differed among subjects, and iii) the steady state variability differed among the markers. In conclusion, our data indicate that the assessment of sequential CA 125, CEA, and TPA concentrations is more complex than hitherto recognized. We suggest...

  18. Benzimidazoles: A biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of commercially available benzimidazole involves condensation of o-phenylenediamine with formic acid. The most prominent benzimidazole compound in nature is N-riosyldimethylbenzimidazole, which serves as a axial ligand for cobalt in vitamin B12. The benzimidazole and its derivatives play a very important role as a therapeutic agent e.g. antiulcer and anthelmintic drugs. Apart from this the benzimidazole derivatives exhibit pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, etc. The substituted benzimidazoles are summarized in this review to know about the chemistry as well as pharmacological activities.

  19. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  20. Acid dissociation constant and apparent nucleophilicity of lysine-501 of the alpha-polypeptide of sodium and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, K.Y.

    1989-01-01

    A combination of competitive labeling with [ 3 H]acetic anhydride and immunoaffinity chromatography is described that permits the assignment of the acid dissociation constant and the absolute nucleophilicity of individual lysines in a native enzyme. The acid dissociation constant of lysine-501 of the alpha-polypeptide in native (Na+ + K+)-ATPase was determined. This lysine had a normal pKa of 10.4. The rate constant for the reaction of the free base of lysine-501 with acetic anhydride at 10 degrees C is 400 M-1 s-1. This value is only 30% that for a fully accessible lysine in a protein. The lower than normal apparent nucleophilicity suggests that lysine-501 is hindered from reacting with its intrinsic nucleophilicity by the tertiary structure of the enzyme and is consistent with its location within a pocket that forms the active site upon the surface of the native protein

  1. Prebiotic polynucleotides and polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Work on the nonenzymatic replication of polynucleotides is discussed emphasizing sequence dependence and showing that alternating polynucleotides should replicate more easily than any others. Experimental work is described showing that polypeptides in which hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues alternate, adopt a beta structure in aqueous solution. The possible relevance of these observations for the evolution of the genetic code is given.

  2. Elsholtzia: phytochemistry and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhiqin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants of the genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae have a long history of medicinal use in folk. The phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Abundant volatile components are also identified. Pure compounds, volatile constituents and crude extracts from the genus exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities. The aims of this review hopefully provide comprehensive information on the distribution, phytochemistry, volatile components, and pharmacological research of Elsholtzia for exploring the potential and advance researches.

  3. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II modulates endothelial cell responses by degrading hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through interaction with PSMA7, a component of the proteasome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandle, Anita T. [Tumor Angiogenesis Section, Surgery Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Calvani, Maura; Uranchimeg, Badarch [DTP-Tumor Hypoxia Laboratory, SAIC Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 (United States); Zahavi, David [Tumor Angiogenesis Section, Surgery Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Melillo, Giovanni [DTP-Tumor Hypoxia Laboratory, SAIC Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 (United States); Libutti, Steven K., E-mail: slibutti@montefiore.org [Department of Surgery, Montefiore-Einstein Center for Cancer Care, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Greene Medical Arts Pavilion, 4th Floor 3400, Bainbridge Avenue, Bronx, New York 10467 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The majority of human tumors are angiogenesis dependent. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to angiogenesis may offer the best approach to develop therapies to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is an anti-angiogenic cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells (ECs). It inhibits EC proliferation and cord formation, and it suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth in-vivo. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-angiogenic activity of EMAP-II. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by this protein on ECs. Our results demonstrate that EMAP-II binds to the cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin receptor. The cell surface binding of EMAP-II results in its internalization into the cytoplasmic compartment where it interacts with its cytoplasmic partner PSMA7, a component of the proteasome degradation pathway. This interaction increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) degradation under hypoxic conditions. The degradation results in the inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} mediated transcriptional activity as well as HIF-1{alpha} mediated angiogenic sprouting of ECs. HIF-1{alpha} plays a critical role in angiogenesis by activating a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Our results suggest that one of the major anti-angiogenic functions of EMAP-II is exerted through its inhibition of the HIF-1{alpha} activities.

  4. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. Coulomb repulsion in short polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzy, Amir; Assaf, Khaleel I; Zhang, Shuai; Jacob, Maik H; Nau, Werner M

    2015-01-08

    Coulomb repulsion between like-charged side chains is presently viewed as a major force that impacts the biological activity of intrinsically disordered polypeptides (IDPs) by determining their spatial dimensions. We investigated short synthetic models of IDPs, purely composed of ionizable amino acid residues and therefore expected to display an extreme structural and dynamic response to pH variation. Two synergistic, custom-made, time-resolved fluorescence methods were applied in tandem to study the structure and dynamics of the acidic and basic hexapeptides Asp6, Glu6, Arg6, Lys6, and His6 between pH 1 and 12. (i) End-to-end distances were obtained from the short-distance Förster resonance energy transfer (sdFRET) from N-terminal 5-fluoro-l-tryptophan (FTrp) to C-terminal Dbo. (ii) End-to-end collision rates were obtained for the same peptides from the collision-induced fluorescence quenching (CIFQ) of Dbo by FTrp. Unexpectedly, the very high increase of charge density at elevated pH had no dynamical or conformational consequence in the anionic chains, neither in the absence nor in the presence of salt, in conflict with the common view and in partial conflict with accompanying molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast, the cationic peptides responded to ionization but with surprising patterns that mirrored the rich individual characteristics of each side chain type. The contrasting results had to be interpreted, by considering salt screening experiments, N-terminal acetylation, and simulations, in terms of an interplay of local dielectric constant and peptide-length dependent side chain charge-charge repulsion, side chain functional group solvation, N-terminal and side chain charge-charge repulsion, and side chain-side chain as well as side chain-backbone interactions. The common picture that emerged is that Coulomb repulsion between water-solvated side chains is efficiently quenched in short peptides as long as side chains are not in direct contact with each

  6. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  7. Carbohydrate degrading polypeptide and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Roubos, Johannes Andries; Los, Alrik Pieter

    2015-10-20

    The invention relates to a polypeptide having carbohydrate material degrading activity which comprises the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 or SEQ ID NO: 4, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional protein and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  8. Anharmonic Theoretical Vibrational Spectroscopy of Polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Paweł T; Jacob, Christoph R

    2016-08-18

    Because of the size of polypeptides and proteins, the quantum-chemical prediction of their vibrational spectra presents an exceptionally challenging task. Here, we address one of these challenges, namely, the inclusion of anharmonicities. By performing the expansion of the potential energy surface in localized-mode coordinates instead of the normal-mode coordinates, it becomes possible to calculate anharmonic vibrational spectra of polypeptides efficiently and reliably. We apply this approach to calculate the infrared, Raman, and Raman optical activity spectra of helical alanine polypeptides consisting of up to 20 amino acids. We find that while anharmonicities do not alter the band shapes, simple scaling procedures cannot account for the different shifts found for the individual bands. This closes an important gap in theoretical vibrational spectroscopy by making it possible to quantify the anharmonic contributions and opens the door to a first-principles calculation of multidimensional vibrational spectra.

  9. Glucose‐dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon‐like peptide‐1: Incretin actions beyond the pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Seino, Yutaka; Yabe, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Glucose‐dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon‐like peptide‐1 (GLP‐1) are the two primary incretin hormones secreted from the intestine on ingestion of various nutrients to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β‐cells glucose‐dependently. GIP and GLP‐1 undergo degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 (DPP‐4), and rapidly lose their biological activities. The actions of GIP and GLP‐1 are mediated by their specific receptors, the GIP receptor (GIPR) and the GLP‐1 r...

  10. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide ...

  11. Expression and Purification of Soluble, Biologically Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression and Purification of Soluble, Biologically Active Recombinant Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4/CD26/ADAbp) Comprising the Extracellular Domain in the Yeast, Pichia ... Purpose: To investigate Pichia pastoris expression system for producing clinically usable, high-quality dipeptidyl peptidase 4 recombinant protein.

  12. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  13. Biological activity screening of seven Plectranthus species

    OpenAIRE

    Epole Ntungwe N; Joana Marçalo; Catarina Garcia; Catarina Reis; Catarina Teodósio; Carolina Oliveira; Cláudia Oliveira; Amílcar Roberto; Patrícia Rijo

    2017-01-01

    Natural products from Plectranthus spp. plants have an ethnopharmacological use, inspiring several scientific investigations. As such, this work aims to perform a biological activity screening in order to scientifically validate the use of these plants. Assays on in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, antioxidant effects, antimicrobial activity and Artemia salina lethality were performed on seven Plectranthus spp. extracts (P. swynnertonii, P. welwischii, P. woodii, P. cylindraceus,...

  14. Biological activity of SV40 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study on the biological activity of SV40 DNA. The transforming activity of SV40 DNA and DNA fragments is investigated in order to define as precisely as possible the area of the viral genome that is involved in the transformation. The infectivity of SV40 DNA is used to study the defective repair mechanisms of radiation damages of human xeroderma pigmentosum cells. (C.F.)

  15. Intravenous infusion of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in a patient with multiple myeloma and myeloma kidney: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Maderdrut, Jerome L; Lertora, Juan J L; Batuman, Vecihi

    2007-09-01

    We have recently shown significant renoprotective effects with the administration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in models of myeloma kidney. PACAP markedly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines stimulated by immunoglobulin light chains in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells and in the kidneys of rats infused with myeloma light chains. PACAP was also shown to suppress the proliferation of human kappa and lambda light chain-secreting multiple myeloma-derived cells. In this case study, an 81-year-old male patient with active multiple myeloma and myeloma kidney was infused intravenously with synthetic human PACAP38 at a rate of 4 pmol/kg/min for 120 min. The continuous infusion increased the level of PACAP38 in blood, with a plateau at about 0.2 nM during the infusion. The level of PACAP in the blood rapidly declined after the cessation of administration with a half-life of about 5-10 min. The continuous infusion did not significantly alter the basal glucose level, blood gases or blood pressure. There was a large reduction in free lambda light chains in urine after the start of the treatment with PACAP. These studies show that PACAP can be safely used in humans and suggest that it could be used as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of multiple myeloma and myeloma kidney.

  16. Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II alters fibronectin based endothelial cell adhesion and matrix assembly via alpha5 beta1 integrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Margaret A.; Zheng, Hiahua; Liu, Jie; Corbett, Siobhan; Schwarz, Roderich E.

    2005-01-01

    Mature Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (mEMAP) II functions as a potent antiangiogenic peptide. Although the anti-tumor effect of mEMAP II has been described, little is known regarding its mechanism of action. Observations that mEMAP II induced apoptosis only in a subset of migrating and proliferating endothelial cells (EC) suggests a targeted effect on cells engaged in angiogenic activities which are known to rely upon cell adhesion and migration. Indeed, we demonstrate that mEMAP II inhibited fibronectin (FN) dependent microvascular EC (MEC) adhesion and spreading and we show that this depends upon the alpha5 beta1 integrin. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that mEMAP II-dependent blockade of FN-alpha5 beta1 interactions was associated with disassembly of both actin stress fiber networks and FN matrix. These findings suggest that mEMAP II blocks MEC adhesion and spreading on fibronectin, via a direct interaction with the integrin alpha5 beta1, thus implicating that alpha5 integrin may be a mediator of mEMAP II's antiangiogenic function

  17. Mosaic HIV envelope immunogenic polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette T. M.; Gnanakaran, S.; Perkins, Simon; Sodroski, Joseph; Haynes, Barton

    2018-01-02

    Disclosed herein are mosaic HIV envelope (Env) polypeptides that can elicit an immune response to HIV (such as cytotoxic T cell (CTL), helper T cell, and/or humoral responses). Also disclosed are sets of the disclosed mosaic Env polypeptides, which include two or more (for example, three) of the polypeptides. Also disclosed herein are methods for treating or inhibiting HIV in a subject including administering one or more of the disclosed immunogenic polypeptides or compositions to a subject infected with HIV or at risk of HIV infection. In some embodiments, the methods include inducing an immune response to HIV in a subject comprising administering to the subject at least one (such as two, three, or more) of the immunogenic polypeptides or at least one (such as two, three, or more) nucleic acids encoding at least one of the immunogenic polypeptides disclosed herein.

  18. Radiolysis of polypeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Isao; Nakamura, Katsuichi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Katsuhiro; Ozaki, Makoto

    1981-01-01

    Almost the same results were obtained from the additional dipeptide, Gly-DL-Ala and DL-Ala-DL-Phe, by the γ-irradiation as previous report. Tri and tetrapeptide consisted of the same amino acid signified good stability than the others. Every polypeptide composed from sulfur contained amino acid exhaled the smell of hydrogen sulfide by the irradiation. It seemed that the stability by the difference of position of amino group in amino acid increased in order α, β, γ ... amino acid and that by the existence of hydroxyl group became smaller. (author)

  19. Development of Elastomeric Polypeptide BIomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urry, Dan

    1998-01-01

    To design elastic polypeptide biomaterials in order to achieve diverse forms of free energy transduction by these water-miscible hydrophobic folding and assembling macromolecules, thereby to elucidate...

  20. A Novel Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1)/Glucagon Hybrid Peptide with Triple-acting Agonist Activity at Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide, GLP-1, and Glucagon Receptors and Therapeutic Potential in High Fat-fed Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Victor A.; Bhat, Vikas K.; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon bind to related members of the same receptor superfamily and exert important effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and energy regulation. The present study assessed the biological actions and therapeutic utility of novel GIP/glucagon/GLP-1 hybrid peptides. Nine novel peptides were synthesized and exhibited complete DPP-IV resistance and enhanced in vitro insulin secretion. The most promising peptide, [dA2]GLP-1/GcG, stimulated cAMP production in GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptor-transfected cells. Acute administration of [dA2]GLP-1/GcG in combination with glucose significantly lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin in normal and obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. Furthermore, [dA2]GLP-1/GcG elicited a protracted glucose-lowering and insulinotropic effect in high fat-fed mice. Twice daily administration of [dA2]GLP-1/GcG for 21 days decreased body weight and nonfasting plasma glucose and increased circulating plasma insulin concentrations in high fat-fed mice. Furthermore, [dA2]GLP-1/GcG significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by day 21. Interestingly, locomotor activity was increased in [dA2]GLP-1/GcG mice, without appreciable changes in aspects of metabolic rate. Studies in knock-out mice confirmed the biological action of [dA2]GLP-1/GcG via multiple targets including GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptors. The data suggest significant promise for novel triple-acting hybrid peptides as therapeutic options for obesity and diabetes. PMID:24165127

  1. A novel glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/glucagon hybrid peptide with triple-acting agonist activity at glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, GLP-1, and glucagon receptors and therapeutic potential in high fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Victor A; Bhat, Vikas K; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R

    2013-12-06

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon bind to related members of the same receptor superfamily and exert important effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and energy regulation. The present study assessed the biological actions and therapeutic utility of novel GIP/glucagon/GLP-1 hybrid peptides. Nine novel peptides were synthesized and exhibited complete DPP-IV resistance and enhanced in vitro insulin secretion. The most promising peptide, [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG, stimulated cAMP production in GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptor-transfected cells. Acute administration of [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG in combination with glucose significantly lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin in normal and obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. Furthermore, [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG elicited a protracted glucose-lowering and insulinotropic effect in high fat-fed mice. Twice daily administration of [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG for 21 days decreased body weight and nonfasting plasma glucose and increased circulating plasma insulin concentrations in high fat-fed mice. Furthermore, [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by day 21. Interestingly, locomotor activity was increased in [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG mice, without appreciable changes in aspects of metabolic rate. Studies in knock-out mice confirmed the biological action of [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG via multiple targets including GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptors. The data suggest significant promise for novel triple-acting hybrid peptides as therapeutic options for obesity and diabetes.

  2. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  3. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  4. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) contributes to the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in murine bone marrow via PACAP-specific receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhifang; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Jun; Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Murai, Norimitsu; Sasaki, Shun; Matsumoto, Minako; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Hiraizumi, Yutaka; Numazawa, Satoshi; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-02-29

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, encoded by adcyap1) plays an important role in ectodermal development. However, the involvement of PACAP in the development of other germ layers is still unclear. This study assessed the expression of a PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1) gene and protein in mouse bone marrow (BM). Cells strongly expressing PAC1(+) were large in size, had oval nuclei, and merged with CD34(+) cells, suggesting that the former were hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Compared with wild-type mice, adcyap1(-/-) mice exhibited lower multiple potential progenitor cell populations and cell frequency in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Exogenous PACAP38 significantly increased the numbers of colony forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) with two peaks in semi-solid culture. PACAP also increased the expression of cyclinD1 and Ki67 mRNAs. These increases were completely and partially inhibited by the PACAP receptor antagonists, PACAP6-38 and VIP6-28, respectively. Little or no adcyap1 was expressed in BM and the number of CFU-GM colonies was similar in adcyap1(-/-) and wild-type mice. However, PACAP mRNA and protein were expressed in paravertebral sympathetic ganglia, which innervate tibial BM, and in the sympathetic fibers of BM cavity. These results suggested that sympathetic nerve innervation may be responsible for PACAP-regulated hematopoiesis in BM, mainly via PAC1.

  5. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  6. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the circulation after sumatriptan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Petersen, Jesper Troensegaard

    2013-01-01

    The origin of migraine pain is still elusive, but increasingly researchers focus on the neuropeptides in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. The parasympathetic neurotransmitters, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating...... peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be released from parasympathetic fibres and activate sensory nerve fibres during migraine attacks. Triptans are effective and well tolerated in acute migraine management but the exact mechanism of action is still debated. Triptans might...

  7. Silychristin: Skeletal Alterations and Biological Activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Buchta, M.; Holečková, Veronika; Sedlák, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Cvačka, Josef; Bednárová, Lucie; Křenková, Alena; Kuzma, Marek; Škuta, Ctibor; Peikerová, Žaneta; Bartůněk, Petr; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 12 (2016), s. 3086-3092 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27317A; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Silychristin * skeletal alterations * biological activities Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2016

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP has a neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration in rat and snail parkinsonian models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Maasz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP rescues dopaminergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improves motor changes induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA in rat parkinsonian models. Recently, we investigated the molecular background of the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in dopamine (DA-based neurodegeneration using rotenone-induced snail and 6-OHDA-induced rat models of Parkinson's disease. Behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin, metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B and PARK7 protein concentrations were measured before and after PACAP treatment in both models. Locomotion and feeding activity were decreased in rotenone-treated snails, which corresponded well to findings obtained in 6-OHDA-induced rat experiments. PACAP was able to prevent the behavioural malfunctions caused by the toxins. Monoamine levels decreased in both models and the decreased DA level induced by toxins was attenuated by ∼50% in the PACAP-treated animals. In contrast, PACAP had no effect on the decreased serotonin (5HT levels. S-COMT metabolic enzyme was also reduced but a protective effect of PACAP was not observed in either of the models. Following toxin treatment, a significant increase in MB-COMT was observed in both models and was restored to normal levels by PACAP. A decrease in PARK7 was also observed in both toxin-induced models; however, PACAP had a beneficial effect only on 6-OHDA-treated animals. The neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different animal models of Parkinson's disease is thus well correlated with neurotransmitter, enzyme and protein levels. The models successfully mimic several, but not all etiological properties of the disease, allowing us to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration as well as testing new drugs. The rotenone and 6-OHDA rat and snail in vivo parkinsonian models offer an alternative method for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective agents, including PACAP.

  9. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  10. Exploring the biological activities of Echeveria leucotricha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Ruiz, María G; Gómez-Velasco, Anaximandro; Juárez, Zaida N; Hernández, Luis R; Bach, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Echeveria leucotricha J. A. Purpus (Crassulaceae) was evaluated for its potential antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Aerial parts were extracted with hexane, methanol and chloroform, and fractionated accordingly. Biological activity was assessed in vitro against five Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria, four human pathogenic fungi and the protozoan Leishmania donovani. Extracts and fractions showing bioactivities were further investigated for their cytotoxic activities on macrophages. Results show that several extracts and fractions exhibited significant antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activities, but no anti-inflammatory activity was recorded. Here, we report for the first time, and to the best of our knowledge, these bioactivities, which suggest that this plant can be used in the traditional Mexican medicine.

  11. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the prefrontal cortex modulates cued fear learning, but not spatial working memory, in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirry, Adam J; Herbst, Matthew R; Poirier, Sarah E; Maskeri, Michelle M; Rothwell, Amy C; Twining, Robert C; Gilmartin, Marieke R

    2018-05-01

    A genetic polymorphism within the gene encoding the pituitary adenylate cyclase- activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor type I (PAC1R) has recently been associated with hyper-reactivity to threat-related cues in women, but not men, with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PACAP is a highly conserved peptide, whose role in mediating adaptive physiological stress responses is well established. Far less is understood about the contribution of PACAP signaling in emotional learning and memory, particularly the encoding of fear to discrete cues. Moreover, a neurobiological substrate that may account for the observed link between PAC1R and PTSD in women, but not men, has yet to be identified. Sex differences in PACAP signaling during emotional learning could provide novel targets for the treatment of PTSD. Here we investigated the contribution of PAC1R signaling within the prefrontal cortex to the acquisition of cued fear in female and male rats. We used a variant of fear conditioning called trace fear conditioning, which requires sustained attention to fear cues and depends on working-memory like neuronal activity within the prefrontal cortex. We found that cued fear learning, but not spatial working memory, was impaired by administration of a PAC1R antagonist directly into the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex. This effect was specific to females. We also found that levels of mRNA for the PAC1R receptor in the prelimbic cortex were greater in females compared with males, and were highest during and immediately following the proestrus stage of the estrous cycle. Together, these results demonstrate a sex-specific role of PAC1R signaling in learning about threat-related cues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Elastin-like polypeptides: Therapeutic applications for an emerging class of nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despanie, Jordan; Dhandhukia, Jugal P; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F; MacKay, J Andrew

    2016-10-28

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) constitute a genetically engineered class of 'protein polymers' derived from human tropoelastin. They exhibit a reversible phase separation whereby samples remain soluble below a transition temperature (T t ) but form amorphous coacervates above T t . Their phase behavior has many possible applications in purification, sensing, activation, and nanoassembly. As humanized polypeptides, they are non-immunogenic, substrates for proteolytic biodegradation, and can be decorated with pharmacologically active peptides, proteins, and small molecules. Recombinant synthesis additionally allows precise control over ELP architecture and molecular weight, resulting in protein polymers with uniform physicochemical properties suited to the design of multifunctional biologics. As such, ELPs have been employed for various uses including as anti-cancer agents, ocular drug delivery vehicles, and protein trafficking modulators. This review aims to offer the reader a catalogue of ELPs, their various applications, and potential for commercialization across a broad spectrum of fields. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenguţa I. Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  14. Fluid dynamics in biological active nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amanda; Hirst, Linda

    We use biological materials to form a self-mixing active system that consists of microtubules driven by kinesin clusters. Microtubules are rigid biopolymers that are a part of the cytoskeleton. Kinesin motors are molecular motors that walk along microtubules to transport cellular cargo. In this system, microtubules are bundled together, and as the kinesin clusters walk along the filaments, the microtubule bundles move relative to each other. As microtubules shear against each other, they extend, bend, buckle and fracture. When confined in a 2D water-oil interface, the system becomes an active nematic that self-mixes due to the buckling and fracturing. To quantify this self-mixing, we attached beads to the microtubules, and tracked their motion. We quantify the quality of mixing using the bead trajectories. This new active material has potential applications as a self-mixing solvent. CCBM NSF-CREST, UC Merced Health Science Research Institute.

  15. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo CAC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae, which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.

  16. Polysulfides as biologically active ingredients of garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberg, Ute; Anwar, Awais; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Jacob, Claus

    2007-05-21

    Garlic has long been considered as a natural remedy against a range of human illnesses, including various bacterial, viral and fungal infections. This kind of antibiotic activity of garlic has mostly been associated with the thiosulfinate allicin. Even so, recent studies have pointed towards a significant biological activity of trisulfides and tetrasulfides found in various Allium species, including a wide range of antibiotic properties and the ability of polysulfides to cause the death of certain cancer cells. The chemistry underlying the biological activity of these polysulfides is currently emerging. It seems to include a combination of several distinct transformations, such as oxidation reactions, superoxide radical and peroxide generation, decomposition with release of highly electrophilic S(x) species, inhibition of metalloenzymes, disturbance of metal homeostasis and membrane integrity and interference with different cellular signalling pathways. Further research in this area is required to provide a better understanding of polysulfide reactions within a biochemical context. This knowledge may ultimately form the basis for the development of 'green' antibiotics, fungicides and possibly anticancer agents with dramatically reduced side effects in humans.

  17. Role of Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide and Tac1 gene derived tachykinins in sensory, motor and vascular functions under normal and neuropathic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botz, Bálint; Imreh, András; Sándor, Katalin; Elekes, Krisztián; Szolcsányi, János; Reglődi, Dóra; Quinn, John P; Stewart, James; Zimmer, Andreas; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2013-05-01

    Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and Tac1 gene-encoded tachykinins (substance P: SP, neurokinin A: NKA) are expressed in capsaicin-sensitive nerves, but their role in nociception, inflammation and vasoregulation is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the function of these neuropeptides and the NK1 tachykinin receptor (from Tacr1 gene) in the partial sciatic nerve ligation-induced traumatic mononeuropathy model using gene deficient (PACAP(-/-), Tac1(-/-), and Tacr1(-/-)) mice. Mechanonociceptive threshold of the paw was measured with dynamic plantar aesthesiometry, motor coordination with Rota-Rod and cutaneous microcirculation with laser Doppler imaging. Neurogenic vasodilation was evoked by mustard oil stimulating sensory nerves. In wildtype mice 30-40% mechanical hyperalgesia developed one week after nerve ligation, which was not altered in Tac1(-/-) and Tacr1(-/-) mice, but was absent in PACAP(-/-) animals. Motor coordination of the PACAP(-/-) and Tac1(-/-) groups was significantly worse both before and after nerve ligation compared to their wildtypes, but it did not change in Tacr1(-/-) mice. Basal postoperative microcirculation on the plantar skin of PACAP(-/-) mice did not differ from the wildtypes, but was significantly lower in Tac1(-/-) and Tacr1(-/-) ones. In contrast, mustard oil-induced neurogenic vasodilation was significantly smaller in PACAP(-/-) mice, but not in Tacr1(-/-) and Tac1(-/-) animals. Both PACAP and SP/NKA, but not NK1 receptors participate in normal motor coordination. Tachykinins maintain basal cutaneous microcirculation. PACAP is a crucial mediator of neuropathic mechanical hyperalgesia and neurogenic vasodilation. Therefore identifying its target and developing selective, potent antagonists, might open promising new perspectives for the treatment of neuropathic pain and vascular complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bi-directional effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on fear-related behavior and c-Fos expression after fear conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Edward G; Venkataraman, Archana; Donahue, Rachel J; Carlezon, William A

    2016-02-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is implicated in stress regulation and learning and memory. PACAP has neuromodulatory actions on brain structures within the limbic system that could contribute to its acute and persistent effects in animal models of stress and anxiety-like behavior. Here, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula for infusion of PACAP-38 (0.5, 1, or 1.5 μg) or vehicle followed 30 min later by fear conditioning. Freezing was measured early (1, 4, and 7 days) or following a delay (7, 10, and 13 days) after conditioning. PACAP (1.5 μg) produced a bi-phasic response in freezing behavior across test days: relative to controls, PACAP-treated rats showed a reduction in freezing when tested 1 or 7 days after fear conditioning that evolved into a significant elevation in freezing by the third test session in the early, but not delayed, group. Corticosterone (CORT) levels were significantly elevated in PACAP-treated rats following fear conditioning, but not at the time of testing (Day 1). Brain c-Fos expression revealed PACAP-dependent alterations within, as well as outside of, areas typically implicated in fear conditioning. Our findings raise the possibility that PACAP disrupts fear memory consolidation by altering synaptic plasticity within neurocircuits normally responsible for encoding fear-related cues, producing a type of dissociation or peritraumatic amnesia often seen in people early after exposure to a traumatic event. However, fear memories are retained such that repeated testing and memory reactivation (e.g., re-experiencing) causes the freezing response to emerge and persist at elevated levels. PACAP systems may represent an axis on which stress and exposure to trauma converge to promote maladaptive behavioral responses characteristic of psychiatric illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Down-regulation of protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide attenuates tumor progression and is an independent prognostic predictor of survival in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yanlin; Ning, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide (PRKDC) is a critical component of DNA repair machinery and its dysregulated expression has been observed in various cancer types or premalignant cells. However, its role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and its prognostic significance in PCa is unknown. The mRNA and protein levels of PRKDC were analyzed in 15 pairs of PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues as well as PCa cell lines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. Small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of PRKDC, followed by cell proliferation, colony formation, and soft agar assays were performed. Xenograft mouse model was used to evaluate in vivo effects of PRKDC knockdown. The association between PRKDC expression and clinicopathologic features was assessed by χ 2 tests. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to investigate the association between PRKDC expression and overall survival. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the prognostic significance of PRKDC. Expression of PRKDC mRNA and protein was notably higher in PCa tissues and PCa cell lines. Knockdown of PRKDC markedly reduced cell proliferation, colony formation efficiency, and soft agar growth in DU145 cells. Down-regulation of PRKDC inhibited tumor growth of DU145 xenografts and enhance mice survival. In addition, PRKDC expression in PCa was significantly associated with Gleason score (P = 0.01), tumor stage (P = 0.028), and distant metastasis (P = 0.025). Patients with PCa having higher PRKDC expression had substantially shorter survival than patients with lower PRKDC expression. Down-regulation of PRKDC attenuates tumor progression in PCa. PRKDC may potentially be a prognostic biomarker in PCa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  1. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, En-Qin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included. PMID:20386657

  2. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunghoon Cho

    Full Text Available Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs, which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments.

  4. Efficient Gene Delivery Mediated by a Helical Polypeptide: Controlling the Membrane Activity via Multivalency and Light-Assisted Photochemical Internalization (PCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Li, Yongjuan; Liang, Qiujun; Song, Ziyuan; Li, Fangfang; He, Hua; Wang, Jinhui; Zhu, Lipeng; Lin, Zhifeng; Yin, Lichen

    2018-01-10

    The development of robust and nontoxic membrane-penetrating materials is highly demanded for nonviral gene delivery. Herein, a photosensitizer (PS)-embedded, star-shaped helical polypeptide was developed, which combines the advantages of multivalency-enhanced intracellular DNA uptake and light-strengthened endosomal escape to enable highly efficient gene delivery with low toxicity. 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin as a selected PS initiated ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride and yielded a star-shaped helical polypeptide after side-chain functionalization with guanidine groups. The star polypeptide afforded a notably higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity than those of its linear analogue. Light irradiation caused almost complete (∼90%) endosomal release of the DNA cargo via the photochemical internalization (PCI) mechanism and further led to a 6-8-fold increment of the transfection efficiency in HeLa, B16F10, and RAW 264.7 cells, outperforming commercial reagent 25k PEI by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Because the PS and DNA cargoes were compartmentalized distantly in the core and polypeptide layers, respectively, the generated reactive oxygen species caused minimal damage to DNA molecules to preserve their transfection potency. Such multivalency- and PCI-potentiated gene delivery efficiency was also demonstrated in vivo in melanoma-bearing mice. This study thus provides a promising strategy to overcome the multiple membrane barriers against nonviral gene delivery.

  5. Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites from the Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B

    2016-11-01

    Many Fungi have a well-developed secondary metabolism. The diversity of fungal species and the diversification of biosynthetic gene clusters underscores a nearly limitless potential for metabolic variation and an untapped resource for drug discovery and synthetic biology. Much of the ecological success of the filamentous fungi in colonizing the planet is owed to their ability to deploy their secondary metabolites in concert with their penetrative and absorptive mode of life. Fungal secondary metabolites exhibit biological activities that have been developed into life-saving medicines and agrochemicals. Toxic metabolites, known as mycotoxins, contaminate human and livestock food and indoor environments. Secondary metabolites are determinants of fungal diseases of humans, animals, and plants. Secondary metabolites exhibit a staggering variation in chemical structures and biological activities, yet their biosynthetic pathways share a number of key characteristics. The genes encoding cooperative steps of a biosynthetic pathway tend to be located contiguously on the chromosome in coregulated gene clusters. Advances in genome sequencing, computational tools, and analytical chemistry are enabling the rapid connection of gene clusters with their metabolic products. At least three fungal drug precursors, penicillin K and V, mycophenolic acid, and pleuromutilin, have been produced by synthetic reconstruction and expression of respective gene clusters in heterologous hosts. This review summarizes general aspects of fungal secondary metabolism and recent developments in our understanding of how and why fungi make secondary metabolites, how these molecules are produced, and how their biosynthetic genes are distributed across the Fungi. The breadth of fungal secondary metabolite diversity is highlighted by recent information on the biosynthesis of important fungus-derived metabolites that have contributed to human health and agriculture and that have negatively impacted crops

  6. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  7. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  8. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences. PMID:26339647

  9. Biological activity screening of seven Plectranthus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epole Ntungwe N

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural products from Plectranthus spp. plants have an ethnopharmacological use, inspiring several scientific investigations. As such, this work aims to perform a biological activity screening in order to scientifically validate the use of these plants. Assays on in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, antioxidant effects, antimicrobial activity and Artemia salina lethality were performed on seven Plectranthus spp. extracts (P. swynnertonii, P. welwischii, P. woodii, P. cylindraceus, P. spicatus, P. ramosior and P. petiolaris. Acetonic extracts were obtained by sonication (10% w/v, where P. ramosior had the highest yield of dry extract (13.49% w/w. In the AChE inhibition assay, only P. cylindraceus extract decreased enzymatic activity (30.2 ± 3.78%. The antimicrobial activity was screened using the well diffusion method, against Gram positive and negative bacteria and yeast. P. ramosior extract showed not only an inhibition zone against S. aureus and C. albicans (15 and 11 mm, respectively, but also the highest scavenging activity (DPPH method, 36.4 ± 0.04%. On the lethality test in A. salina, P. swynnertonnii extract was the most toxic (LC50 = 0.036 mg/L. These preliminary results showed that P. cylindraceus, P. ramosior and P. swynnertonnii are potential bioactive extracts for further isolation and antimicrobial and cytotoxic studies.

  10. NBS activities in biological reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasberry, S.D.

    1988-12-01

    NBS activities in biological reference materials during 1986-1988 are described with a preview of plans for future certifications of reference materials. During the period, work has been completed or partially completed on about 40 reference materials of importance to health, nutrition, and environmental quality. Some of the reference materials that have been completed during the period and are described include: creatinine (SRM 914a), bovine serum albumin (SRM 927a), cholesterol in human serum (SRM's 1951-1952), aspartate aminotransferase (RM 8430), cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins in coconut oil (SRM 1563), wheat flour (SRM 1567a), rice flour (SRM 1568a), mixed diet (RM 8431a), dinitropyrene isomers and 1-nitropyrene (SRM 1596), and complex PAH's from coal tar (SRM 1597). Oyster tissue (SRM 1566a) is being analyzed and should be available in 1988.

  11. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  12. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  13. CLE polypeptide signaling gene expression in Arabidopsis embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ESR-related (CLE) family of small polypeptides mediate intercellular signaling events in plants. The biological roles of several CLE family members have been characterized, but the function of the majority still remains elusive. We recently performed a system...

  14. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  15. Biological activity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Carbonell

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens cytotoxin was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G100 column. The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens. The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. The cytotoxic assays show that 15 min of treatment with the cytotoxin induced irreversible intoxication of the cells, determined by loss of cell viability. Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 µg/ml of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin is distinct from S. marcescens hemolysin. Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. Moreover, we did not detect gene sequences for any of these toxins in S. marcescens by PCR assay. These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli.

  16. Activation analysis of biological materials at the Activation Analysis Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukula, F.; Obrusnik, I.; Simkova, M.; Kucera, J.; Krivanek, M.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented of the work of the Activation Analysis Centre of the Nuclear Research Institute for different fields of the Czechoslovak economy, aimed primarily at analyzing biological materials with the purpose of determining the contents of the so-called vital trace elements and of elements which already have a toxic effect on the organism in trace concentrations. Another important field of research is the path of trace elements from the environment to the human organism. A destructive method for the simultaneous determination of 12 trace elements in 11 kinds of human tissue has been studied. (Z.M.)

  17. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  18. Galanin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harling, H; Messell, T; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum. The rele......By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum...

  19. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF 3,6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF 3,6-DISUBSTITUTED-1,2,4-. TRIAZOLO-1,3 ... Thus, many chemists reported synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some 1,2,4-triazolothiadiazole derivatives in ..... N.H. Synthesis and biological activity of oxadiazole and triazolothiadiazole derivatives as tyrosinase inhibitors.

  20. Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach geospatial technology activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach (OBIO) in Reston, Virginia, and its Center for Biological Informatics (CBI) in Denver, Colorado, provide leadership in the development and use of geospatial technologies to advance the Nation's biological science activities.

  1. Labelling polypeptide with 99mTc and bioactivity get back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaolin; Jiang Xiaofei; Pang Hua; Liu Fangxin; Shi Qiong

    2001-01-01

    A method for labelling polypeptide (insulin) with technetium-99 ( 99m Tc) was established without marked loss of biological activity. Following reduction of intrinsic disulfide bonds by mercaptoethanol and purification on a Sephadex G50 column, the polypeptide was labelled with 99m Tc by trans-chelation from methylene diphosphonate (MDP). 99m Tc labelled insulin was identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the change of blood sugar of mice injected, their hypo-glycemic shock symptom was also observed. Six hours after labelling, the dissociation of labelled insulin was only 3%, From then on to 24 h, there was no more dissociation. The blood sugar concentration of mice injected with the mercaptoethanol-reduced insulin was (5.0 +- 3.2) μmol·L -1 , while those injected with the original insulin was (1.4 +- 1.2) μmol·L -1 , the difference was significant (Q test, p -1 for the labelled insulin, and was about the same with that for the original insulin. The labelling efficiency was 74.31% for the labelled insulin, whereas the original insulin cannot be labelled with 99m Tc. The result suggests that while disulfide bonds of polypeptide were reduced by mercaptoethanol, it became free sulfhydryl group, and its bioactivity descended. Then free sulfhydryl group was chelated with 99m Tc under mild condition, re-establishing the disulfide bond, therefore, the bioactivity came back. The 99m Tc-labelled insulin was stable during 24 h

  2. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    , although weaker zinc ligands than the hydroxamic acids, generally lead to bioactive molecules and pos- sess higher stability in biological environments. In this respect we prepared both hydroxamic acids and benzamide versions of the target ...

  3. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    The hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa in response to nutrient ingestion. They are called incretin hormones because of their ability to enhance insulin secretion. However...

  4. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Vedtofte, Louise; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means ± SEM] aged 23 ± 1 years, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 5.5 ± 0.1%). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Saline or physiological doses...

  5. Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel B; Calanna, Salvatore; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have clinically relevant disturbances in the effects of the hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the importance of the prevailing plasma glucose levels for the effect of GIP on responses...

  6. Ordered Nanostructures Made Using Chaperonin Polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan; McMillan, Robert; Paavola, Chad; Mogul, Rakesh; Kagawa, Hiromi

    2004-01-01

    A recently invented method of fabricating periodic or otherwise ordered nanostructures involves the use of chaperonin polypeptides. The method is intended to serve as a potentially superior and less expensive alternative to conventional lithographic methods for use in the patterning steps of the fabrication of diverse objects characterized by features of the order of nanometers. Typical examples of such objects include arrays of quantum dots that would serve as the functional building blocks of future advanced electronic and photonic devices. A chaperonin is a double-ring protein structure having a molecular weight of about 60 plus or minus 5 kilodaltons. In nature, chaperonins are ubiquitous, essential, subcellular structures. Each natural chaperonin molecule comprises 14, 16, or 18 protein subunits, arranged as two stacked rings approximately 16 to 18 nm tall by approximately 15 to 17 nm wide, the exact dimensions depending on the biological species in which it originates. The natural role of chaperonins is unknown, but they are believed to aid in the correct folding of other proteins, by enclosing unfolded proteins and preventing nonspecific aggregation during assembly. What makes chaperonins useful for the purpose of the present method is that under the proper conditions, chaperonin rings assemble themselves into higher-order structures. This method exploits such higher-order structures to define nanoscale devices. The higher-order structures are tailored partly by choice of chemical and physical conditions for assembly and partly by using chaperonins that have been mutated. The mutations are made by established biochemical techniques. The assembly of chaperonin polypeptides into such structures as rings, tubes, filaments, and sheets (two-dimensional crystals) can be regulated chemically. Rings, tubes, and filaments of some chaperonin polypeptides can, for example, function as nano vessels if they are able to absorb, retain, protect, and release gases or

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas, M.

    1990-01-01

    The elemental compositions of 18 biological reference materials have been processed, for 14 stepped combinations of irradiation/decay/counting times, by the INAA Advance Prediction Computer Program. The 18 materials studied include 11 plant materials, 5 animal materials, and 2 other biological materials. Of these 18 materials, 14 are NBS Standard Reference Materials and four are IAEA reference materials. Overall, the results show that a mean of 52% of the input elements can be determined to a relative standard deviation of ±10% or better by reactor flux (thermal plus epithermal) INAA

  8. Generation of biologically active endostatin fragments from human collagen XVIII by distinct matrix metalloproteases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heljasvaara, Ritva; Nyberg, Pia; Luostarinen, Jani; Parikka, Mataleena; Heikkilae, Pia; Rehn, Marko; Sorsa, Timo; Salo, Tuula; Pihlajaniemi, Taina

    2005-01-01

    Endostatin, a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and tumor growth, is proteolytically cleaved from the C-terminal noncollagenous NC1 domain of type XVIII collagen. We investigated the endostatin formation from human collagen XVIII by several MMPs in vitro. The generation of endostatin fragments differing in molecular size (24-30 kDa) and in N-terminal sequences was identified in the cases of MMP-3, -7, -9, -13 and -20. The cleavage sites were located in the protease-sensitive hinge region between the trimerization and endostatin domains of NC1. MMP-1, -2, -8 and -12 did not show any significant activity against the C-terminus of collagen XVIII. The anti-proliferative effect of the 20-kDa endostatin, three longer endostatin-containing fragments generated in vitro by distinct MMPs and the entire NC1 domain, on bFGF-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells was established. The anti-migratory potential of some of these fragments was also studied. In addition, production of endostatin fragments between 24-30 kDa by human hepatoblastoma cells was shown to be due to MMP action on type XVIII collagen. Our results indicate that certain, especially cancer-related, MMP family members can generate biologically active endostatin-containing polypeptides from collagen XVIII and thus, by releasing endostatin fragments, may participate in the inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis

  9. Dew formation and activity of biological crusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veste, M.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Breckle, S.W.; Littmann, T.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are prominent in many drylands and can be found in diverse parts of the globe including the Atacama desert, Chile, the Namib desert, Namibia, the Succulent-Karoo desert, South Africa, and the Negev desert, Israel. Because precipitation can be negligible in deserts ¿ the

  10. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanotechnology is interdisciplinary which includes physics, chemistry, biology, material science and medicine. Nanotechnology is a universal term for the creation, manip ... range of medical devices including bone cement, surgical instruments, surgical masks, etc. Synthesis of noble metal na- noparticles, in particular, silver ...

  11. Discovery and Characterization of A Novel Class of Functional Polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qian; Ma, Jiao; Saghatelian, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Molecular biology, genomics and proteomics methods have been utilized to reveal a non-annotated class of endogenous polypeptides (small proteins and peptides) encoded by short open reading frames (sORFs), or small open reading frames (smORFs). We refer to these polypeptides as s(m)ORF-encoded polypeptides or SEPs. The early SEPs were identified via genetic screens, and many of the RNAs that contain s(m)ORFs were originally considered to be non-coding; however, elegant work in bacteria and flies demonstrated that these s(m)ORFs code for functional polypeptides as small as 11-amino acids in length. The discovery of these initial SEPs led to searches for these molecules using methods such as ribosome profiling and proteomics, which have revealed the existence of many SEPs, including novel human SEPs. Unlike screens, –omics methods do not necessarily link a SEP to a cellular or biological function, but functional genomic and proteomic strategies have demonstrated that at least some of these newly discovered SEPs have biochemical and cellular functions. Here, we provide an overview of these results and discuss the future directions in this emerging field. PMID:25857697

  12. Identification and characterization of sORF-encoded polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qian; Ma, Jiao; Saghatelian, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Molecular biology, genomics and proteomics methods have been utilized to reveal a non-annotated class of endogenous polypeptides (small proteins and peptides) encoded by short open reading frames (sORFs), or small open reading frames (smORFs). We refer to these polypeptides as s(m)ORF-encoded polypeptides or SEPs. The early SEPs were identified via genetic screens, and many of the RNAs that contain s(m)ORFs were originally considered to be non-coding; however, elegant work in bacteria and flies demonstrated that these s(m)ORFs code for functional polypeptides as small as 11-amino acids in length. The discovery of these initial SEPs led to search for these molecules using methods such as ribosome profiling and proteomics, which have revealed the existence of many SEPs, including novel human SEPs. Unlike screens, omics methods do not necessarily link a SEP to a cellular or biological function, but functional genomic and proteomic strategies have demonstrated that at least some of these newly discovered SEPs have biochemical and cellular functions. Here, we provide an overview of these results and discuss the future directions in this emerging field.

  13. Egg yolk proteins and peptides with biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins of food reveal biological activity. In the sequence of these proteins also numerous biologically active peptides are encrypted. These peptides are released during proteolysis naturally occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, food fermentation or during designed enzymatic hydrolysis in vitro. Biopeptides may exert multiple activities, affecting the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and immune systems. An especially rich source of bioactive proteins and biopeptides is egg. Bioactive peptides released from egg white proteins have been well described, whereas egg yolk proteins as precursors of biopeptides are less well characterized. This manuscript describes biologically active proteins and peptides originating from egg yolk and presents their potential therapeutic role.

  14. Galloylation of polyphenols alters their biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, D.; Ulrichová, J.; Valentová, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 223-240 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15082; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15084; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/G163 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polyphenols * Gallic acid * Galloylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016

  15. Phycobilisome structure of porphyridium cruentum: polypeptide composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redlinger, T.; Gantt, E.

    1981-01-01

    Purified phycobilisomes of porphyridium cruentum were solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate and resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine colored and nine colorless polypeptides. The colored polypeptides accounted for about 84% of the total stainable protein, and the colorless polypeptides accounted for the remaining 16%. Five of the colored polypeptides ranging in molecular weight from 13,300 to 19,500 were identified as the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of allophycocyanin, R-phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin. Three others (29,000-30,500) were orange and are probably related to the ..gamma.. subunit of phycoerythrin. Sequential dissociation of phycobilisomes, and analysis of the polypeptides in each fraction, revealed the association of a 32,500 molecular weight colorless polypeptide with a phycoerythrin fraction. The remaining eight colorless polypeptides were in the core fraction of the phycobilisome, which also was enriched in allophycocyanin.

  16. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity. Keywords. Trichostatic acid; HDAC; inhibitor. 1. Introduction. Reversible chemical modifications of DNA and his- tones are important cellular events that promote activation or repression of DNA ...

  17. Self-assembly of α-helical polypeptides driven by complex coacervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Dimitrios; Leon, Lorraine; Song, Ziyuan; Perry, Sarah L; Margossian, Khatcher O; Tropnikova, Anna; Cheng, Jianjun; Tirrell, Matthew

    2015-09-14

    Reported is the ability of α-helical polypeptides to self-assemble with oppositely-charged polypeptides to form liquid complexes while maintaining their α-helical secondary structure. Coupling the α-helical polypeptide to a neutral, hydrophilic polymer and subsequent complexation enables the formation of nanoscale coacervate-core micelles. While previous reports on polypeptide complexation demonstrated a critical dependence of the nature of the complex (liquid versus solid) on chirality, the α-helical structure of the positively charged polypeptide prevents the formation of β-sheets, which would otherwise drive the assembly into a solid state, thereby, enabling coacervate formation between two chiral components. The higher charge density of the assembly, a result of the folding of the α-helical polypeptide, provides enhanced resistance to salts known to inhibit polypeptide complexation. The unique combination of properties of these materials can enhance the known potential of fluid polypeptide complexes for delivery of biologically relevant molecules. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Thymus Polypeptide Preparation Tactivin Restores Learning and Memory in Thymectomied Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoseletskaya, A V; Kiseleva, N M; Zimina, I V; Bystrova, O V; Belova, O V; Inozemtsev, A N; Arion, V Ya; Sergienko, V I

    2015-09-01

    We studied the effects of tactivin and splenic polypeptides on learning and memory of thymectomized animals. In 3-week rats, thymectomy blocked active avoidance conditioning. Injections of tactivin (0.5 mg/kg) during 1 month after surgery restored learning capacity; splenic polypeptides were ineffective.

  19. Peptides and polypeptides as scaffolds for optoelectronics and biomaterials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charati, Manoj B.

    effects on peptide conformation. pi-orbital interactions at the molecular level were observed to be very sensitive to intermolecular distance and orientation of the chromophores attached to the alpha-helical peptide templates. When the methylstilbene or Oxa-PPV molecules were arranged on the same side of the helix with intermolecular spacing of 6A, the chromophores interacted strongly with each other forming excimers. Such interactions were absent when the molecules were arranged on the opposite side of the helix. These peptide-templated systems therefore offer enormous opportunities for the elucidation of complex photophysical phenomena that occur in relatively aggregated morphologies of conjugated species, but under dilute solution conditions in which the number of chromphores in the aggregate can be manipulated. Part 2. Synthesis and characterization of biocompatible polypeptide elastomer. Lately, the significance of mechanical forces and biological cues involved in tissue remodeling are highly valued; thus the capacity of a biomaterial to present a fitting mechanical and biological environment for optimal tissue generation has become a key parameter for biomaterial design. In addition to having suitable mechanical properties, materials used for these applications need to be biologically active, i.e. trigger dynamic interactions with cells and stimulate explicit cell and tissue responses. Thus, we have designed a resilin-based modular biomaterial incorporating both mechanically and biologically active domains to sense and aptly respond to the bio-mechanical demand or changes in their environment. The use of resilin-like polypeptides offers access to a class of hydrophilic elastomers with excellent resilience and high frequency responsiveness, which can be used for encapsulating hydrophilic drugs like proteins for drug delivery, and provides hydrophilic extracellular matrix mimicking cell adhesive and enzyme degradable substrate for tissue engineering. Hence, we have

  20. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

  1. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    El Mokhtar Essassi; R. Bouhfid; Y. Kandri Rodi; S. Ferfra; H. Benzeid; Y. Ramli

    2010-01-01

    Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  2. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Barros Brasil, Davi Do Socorro; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2016-01-01

    Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum.

  3. Synthesis and biological activities of substituted N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... The present study describes the synthesis, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of substituted N'- benzoylhydrazone derivatives, to ... addition, the dramatically rising prevalence of multidrug- resistant microbial infections has ...... extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes.

  4. Biological activities of Castela coccinea Griseb. extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Campagna, María Noel; Ratti, María Soledad; Sciara, Mariela; García Vescovi, Eleonora; Gattuso, Martha; Martínez, María Laura

    2011-01-01

    Infusions of leaf and bark of Castela coccinea Griseb. (Simaroubaceae) were traditionally used against dysentery. In this work, anti-bacterial and antioxidant activity were studied in C. coccinea extracts. The higest DPPH scavenging activity was detected in ethanolic leaf extracts with an IC50= 0.015 mg/ml. Bark ethanolic extracts showed inhibition of lipoperoxidation and free radical scavenging. However, a previous work evidenced that this extract is toxic at a concentration needed ...

  5. Polypeptide-based nanogels co-encapsulating a synergistic combination of doxorubicin with 17-AAG show potent anti-tumor activity in ErbB2-driven breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desale, Swapnil S; Raja, Srikumar M; Kim, Jong Oh; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Soni, Kruti S; Luan, Haitao; Williams, Stetson H; Bielecki, Timothy A; Feng, Dan; Storck, Matthew; Band, Vimla; Cohen, Samuel M; Band, Hamid; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2015-06-28

    ErbB2-driven breast cancers constitute 20-25% of the cases diagnosed within the USA. The humanized anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, Trastuzumab (Herceptin™; Genentech), with chemotherapy is the current standard of treatment. Novel agents and strategies continue to be explored, given the challenges posed by Trastuzumab-resistance development in most patients. The HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), which induces ErbB2 degradation and attenuates downstream oncogenic signaling, is one such agent that showed significant promise in early phase I and II clinical trials. Its low water solubility, potential toxicities and undesirable side effects observed in patients, partly due to the Cremophor-based formulation, have been discouraging factors in the advancement of this promising drug into clinical use. Encapsulation of 17-AAG into polymeric nanoparticle formulations, particularly in synergistic combination with conventional chemotherapeutics, represents an alternative approach to overcome these problems. Herein, we report an efficient co-encapsulation of 17-AAG and doxorubicin, a clinically well-established and effective modality in breast cancer treatment, into biodegradable and biocompatible polypeptide-based nanogels. Dual drug-loaded nanogels displayed potent cytotoxicity in a breast cancer cell panel and exerted selective synergistic anticancer activity against ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Analysis of ErbB2 degradation confirmed efficient 17-AAG release from nanogels with activity comparable to free 17-AAG. Furthermore, nanogels containing both 17-AAG and doxorubicin exhibited superior antitumor efficacy in vivo in an ErbB2-driven xenograft model compared to the combination of free drugs. These studies demonstrate that polypeptide-based nanogels can serve as novel nanocarriers for encapsulating 17-AAG along with other chemotherapeutics, providing an opportunity to overcome solubility issues and thereby exploit its full

  6. Synthetic Approaches and Biological Activities of 4-Hydroxycoumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oee-Sook Park

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review is to summarize recent chemical syntheses and structural modifications of 4-hydroxycoumarin and its derivatives, of interest due to their characteristic conjugated molecular architecture and biological activities.

  7. Baltic cyanobacteria- A source of biologically active compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazur-Marzec, H.; Błaszczyk, A.; Felczykowska, A.; Hohlfeld, N.; Kobos, J.; Toruńska-Sitarz, A.; PrabhaDevi; Montalva`o, S.; DeSouza, L.; Tammela, P.; Mikosik, A.; Bloch, S.; Nejman-Faleńczyk, B.; Węgrzyn, G.

    Cyanobacteria are effective producers of bioactive metabolites, including both acute toxins and potential pharmaceuticals. In the current work, the biological activity of 27 strains of Baltic cyanobacteria representing different taxonomic groups...

  8. Biologically active substances from Zanthoxylum capense(thumb.) Harv.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, PS

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation into the composition of Zanthoxylum capense yielded several biologically active compounds, including pellitorine. A convenient HPLC method was developed to determine the presence of pellitorine in crude extracts from plants...

  9. Triazoles: a valuable insight into recent developments and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagdish K; Ganguly, Swastika; Kaushik, Atul

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, heterocyclic compounds, analogs, and derivatives have attracted strong interest due to their useful biological and pharmacological properties. The small and simple triazole nucleus is present in compounds aimed at evaluating new entities that possess anti-microbial, anti-tumor, antitubercular, anti-convulsant, anti-depressant, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory activities. Triazoles display a broad range of biological activities and are found in many potent, biologically active compounds, such as trazodone (antidepressant drug), rizatriptan (antimigrane drug), hexaconazole (antifungal drug) and alprazolam (hyptonic, sedative and tranquilizer drug). So far, modifications of the triazole ring have proven highly effective with improved potency and lesser toxicity. The present review highlights the recently synthesized triazoles possessing important biological activities. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  11. Biological activity of Herissantia crispa (L. Brizicky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igara Oliveira Lima

    Full Text Available The crude methanol extract (EMeOH of the aerial parts of Herissantia crispa (L. Brizicky, plant riches in flavonoids and without pharmacological studies, was tested to value its activity under the behaviour parameters and to determine the lethal dose (LD50 in mice; antimicrobial and antiulcerogenic activities. The EMeOH (5,000 mg/kg, v.o. or 2,000 mg/kg i.p. did not alter the behaviour parameters and there were not mice deaths. The extract inhibited the bacterial growth. The EMeOH (750 mg/kg showed anti-diarroeal activity. The EMeOH (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg decreased the gastric lesions induced by 0.3 M HCl/ethanol 60% in mice. In conclusion, the EMeOH presents anti-ulcerogenic activity;, however it is necessary to value the antiulcerogenic activity in more specific models and to study the action mechanism by which the vegetable sample protects the gastric mucosa.

  12. Controlled Release of Biologically Active Silver from Nanosilver Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A.; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nano-silver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nano-silver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nano-silver ...

  13. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  14. Raman Optical Activity of Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Barron, Laurence D.

    Now an incisive probe of biomolecular structure, Raman optical activity (ROA) measures a small difference in Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized light. As ROA spectra measure vibrational optical activity, they contain highly informative band structures sensitive to the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, nucleic acids, viruses and carbohydrates as well as the absolute configurations of small molecules. In this review we present a survey of recent studies on biomolecular structure and dynamics using ROA and also a discussion of future applications of this powerful new technique in biomedical research.

  15. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with /sup 3/H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled (29-/sup 3/H)-(24-/sup 14/C) fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of /sup 3/H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The (29-/sup 3/H) phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation.

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    3 H and 14 C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with 3 H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled [29- 3 H]-[24- 14 C] fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the 3 H/ 14 C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of 3 H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The [29- 3 H] phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation

  17. Biologically active compounds of semi-metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanka, Tomás; Sigler, Karel

    2008-02-01

    Semi-metals (boron, silicon, arsenic and selenium) form organo-metal compounds, some of which are found in nature and affect the physiology of living organisms. They include, e.g., the boron-containing antibiotics aplasmomycin, borophycin, boromycin, and tartrolon or the silicon compounds present in "silicate" bacteria, relatives of the genus Bacillus, which release silicon from aluminosilicates through the secretion of organic acids. Arsenic is incorporated into arsenosugars and arsenobetaines by marine algae and invertebrates, and fungi and bacteria can produce volatile methylated arsenic compounds. Some prokaryotes can use arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor while others can utilize arsenite as an electron donor to generate energy. Selenium is incorporated into selenocysteine that is found in some proteins. Biomethylation of selenide produces methylselenide and dimethylselenide. Selenium analogues of amino acids, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-infective drugs are often used as analogues of important pharmacological sulfur compounds. Other metalloids, i.e. the rare and toxic tellurium and the radioactive short-lived astatine, have no biological significance.

  18. Copper Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyvaldiev, A. S.; Zhasnakunov, Z. K.; Omurzak, E.; Doolotkeldieva, T. D.; Bobusheva, S. T.; Orozmatova, G. T.; Kelgenbaeva, Z.

    2018-01-01

    By means of XRD and FESEM analysis, it is established that copper nanoparticles with sizes less than 10 nm are formed during the chemical reduction, which form aggregates mainly with spherical shape. Presence of gelatin during the chemical reduction of copper induced formation of smaller size distribution nanoparticles than that of nanoparticles synthesized without gelatin and it can be related to formation of protective layer. Synthesized Cu nano-powders have sufficiently high activity against the Erwinia amylovora bacterium, and the bacterial growth inhibition depends on the Cu nanoparticles concentration. At a concentration of 5 mg / ml of Cu nanoparticles, the exciter growth inhibition zone reaches a maximum value within 72 hours and the lysis zone is 20 mm, and at a concentration of 1 mg / ml this value is 16 mm, which also indicates the significant antibacterial activity of this sample.

  19. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ical scavenging activity was measured by the salicylic acid method [16]. The synthesized AgNPs solution at different concentrations (10 to 80 μg ml. −1. ) was dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water. One millilitre of AgNPs mixed with 1 ml of. 9 mM salicylic acid, 1 ml of 9 mM ferrous sulphate and 1ml of 9 mM hydrogen peroxide.

  20. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... CD4+ T cells to enhance the ability of secreting antibody and also enhance the function of CD8+ T cells. (Papatriantafyllou, 2011; Tovey and Lallemand, 2010). GM-CSF also is a key regulator of IL-1beta production. Furthermore, It was reported that GM-CSF play a key role in the activation of Th1 and Th17 ...

  1. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  2. Production of Elastomeric Polypeptides for Materials Characterizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urry, Dan

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, this effort is to provide 100 gram quantities of six and 10 gram quantities of an additional nine elastomeric polypeptides for conventional and specialized materials characterizations...

  3. A family of microbial lysine transporter polypeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention provides a genetically modified microbial cell for production of lysine, comprising a transgene encoding a polypeptide capable of exporting lysine from the cell. The genetically modified microbial cell for production of lysine may be further characterized by genetic modifica......The present invention provides a genetically modified microbial cell for production of lysine, comprising a transgene encoding a polypeptide capable of exporting lysine from the cell. The genetically modified microbial cell for production of lysine may be further characterized by genetic...... a novel family of lysine transporter polypeptides; and the use of said polypeptide to enhance production of extracellular lysine in a microbial cell....

  4. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  5. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  6. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  7. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascu, Mihaela, E-mail: mihhaela_neagu@yahoo.com [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Pascu, Daniela-Elena [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Cozea, Andreea [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, 148 Castle Street, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Bunaciu, Andrei A. [SCIENT – Research Center for Instrumental Analysis, S.C. CROMATEC-PLUS S.R.L., 18 Sos. Cotroceni, Bucharest 060114 (Romania); Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  8. Methods for engineering polypeptide variants via somatic hypermutation and polypeptide made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Roger Y; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-13

    Methods using somatic hypermutation (SHM) for producing polypeptide and nucleic acid variants, and nucleic acids encoding such polypeptide variants are disclosed. Such variants may have desired properties. Also disclosed are novel polypeptides, such as improved fluorescent proteins, produced by the novel methods, and nucleic acids, vectors, and host cells comprising such vectors.

  9. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  10. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu

    2001-01-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  11. [Oregano: properties, composition and biological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila-Lozano, Cynthia Cristina; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Lecona-Uribe, Salvador; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2004-03-01

    The oregano spice includes various plant species. The most common are the genus Origanum, native of Europe, and the Lippia, native of Mexico. Among the species of Origanum. their most important components are the limonene, gamma-cariofilene, rho-cymenene, canfor, linalol, alpha-pinene, carvacrol and thymol. In the genus Lippia, the same compounds can be found. The oregano composition depends on the specie, climate, altitude, time of recollection and the stage of growth. Some of the properties of this plant's extracts are being currently studied due to the growing interest for substituting synthetic additives commonly found in foods. Oregano has a good antioxidant capacity and also presents antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms like Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, among others. These are all characteristics of interest for the food industry because they may enhance the safety and stability of foods. There are also some reports regarding the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effect of oregano; representing an alternative for the potential treatment and/or prevention of certain chronic ailments, like cancer.

  12. Azaglycomimetics: Natural Occurrence, Biological Activity, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Naoki

    A large number of alkaloids mimicking the structures of monosaccharides or oligosaccharides have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. The sugar mimicking alkaloids with a nitrogen in the ring are called azasugars or iminosugars. Naturally occurring azasugars are classified into five structural classes: polyhydroxylated piperidines, pyrrolidines, indolizidines, pyrrolizidines, and nortropanes. They are easily soluble in water because of their polyhydroxylated structures and inhibit glycosidases because of a structural resemblance to the sugar moiety of the natural substrate. Glycosidases are involved in a wide range of anabolic and catabolic processes, such as digestion, lysosomal catabolism of glycoconjugates, biosynthesis of glycoproteins, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and ER-associated degradation of glycoproteins. Hence, modifying or blocking these processes in vivo by inhibitors is of great interest from a therapeutic point of view. Azasugars are an important class of glycosidase inhibitors and are arousing great interest for instance as antidiabetics, antiobesity drugs, antivirals, and therapeutic agents for some genetic disorders. This review describes the recent studies on isolation, characterization, glycosidase inhibitory activity, and therapeutic application of azaglycomimetics.

  13. Comparative study of biological activity of glutathione, sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione (GSH) and sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) are important pharmacological agents. They provide protection to cells against cytotoxic agents and thus reduce their cytotoxicity. It was of interest to study the biological activity of these two pharmacological active agents. Different strains of bacteria were used and the ...

  14. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    2017-01-01

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is…

  15. Dithiol amino acids can structurally shape and enhance the ligand-binding properties of polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyu; Gopalakrishnan, Ranganath; Schaer, Tifany; Marger, Fabrice; Hovius, Ruud; Bertrand, Daniel; Pojer, Florence; Heinis, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The disulfide bonds that form between two cysteine residues are important in defining and rigidifying the structures of proteins and peptides. In polypeptides containing multiple cysteine residues, disulfide isomerization can lead to multiple products with different biological activities. Here, we describe the development of a dithiol amino acid (Dtaa) that can form two disulfide bridges at a single amino acid site. Application of Dtaas to a serine protease inhibitor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor that contain disulfide constraints enhanced their inhibitory activities 40- and 7.6-fold, respectively. X-ray crystallographic and NMR structure analysis show that the peptide ligands containing Dtaas have retained their native tertiary structures. We furthermore show that replacement of two cysteines by Dtaas can avoid the formation of disulfide bond isomers. With these properties, Dtaas are likely to have broad application in the rational design or directed evolution of peptides and proteins with high activity and stability.

  16. Dithiol amino acids can structurally shape and enhance the ligand-binding properties of polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyu; Gopalakrishnan, Ranganath; Schaer, Tifany; Marger, Fabrice; Hovius, Ruud; Bertrand, Daniel; Pojer, Florence; Heinis, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The disulfide bonds that form between two cysteine residues are important in defining and rigidifying the structures of proteins and peptides. In polypeptides containing multiple cysteine residues, disulfide isomerization can lead to multiple products with different biological activities. Here, we describe the development of a dithiol amino acid (Dtaa) that can form two disulfide bridges at a single amino acid site. Application of Dtaas to a serine protease inhibitor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor that contain disulfide constraints enhanced their inhibitory activities 40- and 7.6-fold, respectively. X-ray crystallographic and NMR structure analysis show that the peptide ligands containing Dtaas have retained their native tertiary structures. We furthermore show that replacement of two cysteines by Dtaas can avoid the formation of disulfide bond isomers. With these properties, Dtaas are likely to have broad application in the rational design or directed evolution of peptides and proteins with high activity and stability.

  17. Multifunctional biomaterial coatings: synthetic challenges and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Mareen; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2017-01-01

    A controlled interaction of materials with their surrounding biological environment is of great interest in many fields. Multifunctional coatings aim to provide simultaneous modulation of several biological signals. They can consist of various combinations of bioactive, and bioinert components as well as of reporter molecules to improve cell-material contacts, prevent infections or to analyze biochemical events on the surface. However, specific immobilization and particular assembly of various active molecules are challenging. Herein, an overview of multifunctional coatings for biomaterials is given, focusing on synthetic strategies and the biological benefits by displaying several motifs.

  18. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mokhtar Essassi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  19. The Transcriptome of the Zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Predicts a Basal Repertoire of Toxin-like and Venom-Auxiliary Polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne Rl; Zhou, Hefeng; Lima, Érica P; Gomes, Paula B; Cai, Jing; Lou, Inchio; Pérez, Carlos D; Lee, Simon Ming; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2016-10-05

    Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids. Here, based on a transcriptome analysis of the zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis, numerous predicted polypeptides with canonical venom protein features are identified. These polypeptides comprise putative proteins from different toxin families: neurotoxic peptides, hemostatic and hemorrhagic toxins, membrane-active (pore-forming) proteins, protease inhibitors, mixed-function venom enzymes, and venom auxiliary proteins. The synthesis and functional analysis of two of these predicted toxin products, one related to the ShK/Aurelin family and the other to a recently discovered anthozoan toxin, displayed potent in vivo neurotoxicity that impaired swimming in larval zebrafish. Altogether, the complex array of venom-related transcripts that are identified in P. variabilis, some of which are first reported in Cnidaria, provides novel insight into the toxin distribution among species and might contribute to the understanding of composition and evolution of venom polypeptides in toxiferous animals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Biological activity of antitumoural MGBG: the structural variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M P M; Gil, F P S C; Calheiros, R; Battaglia, V; Brunati, A M; Agostinelli, E; Toninello, A

    2008-05-01

    The present study aims at determining the structure-activity relationships (SAR's) ruling the biological function of MGBG (methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone)), a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase displaying anticancer activity, involved in the biosynthesis of the naturally occurring polyamines spermidine and spermine. In order to properly understand its biochemical activity, MGBG's structural preferences at physiological conditions were ascertained, by quantum mechanical (DFT) calculations.

  1. Preparation of biologically active 32P-labeled human relaxin. Displaceable binding to rat uterus, cervix, and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osheroff, P.L.; Ling, V.T.; Vandlen, R.L.; Cronin, M.J.; Lofgren, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Relaxin is a member of the insulin family of polypeptide hormones and is known to exert its biological effects on various parts of the mammalian reproductive system. Biologically active human relaxin has been chemically synthesized based on the nucleotide sequence obtained from an ovarian cDNA clone. In the present study synthetic human relaxin was radiolabled by phosphorylation with cAMP-dependent protein kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP to a specific activity of 5000 Ci/mmol. The phosphorylated relaxin was purified on cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography and was shown to co-migrate with relaxin on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry revealed a single phosphorylated site on the B chain of relaxin. The 32P-relaxin was able to bind to a goat anti-relaxin antibody, and this binding could be displaced by unlabeled relaxin in a concentration-dependent manner. A comparison of the concentration responses of cellular cAMP production stimulated by relaxin and phosphorylated relaxin in a primary human uterine cell line showed that phosphorylation did not affect the in vitro biological efficacy of relaxin. This made it suitable for in situ autoradiographic localization of relaxin binding sites in rat uterine, cervical, and brain tissue sections. Displacement of the binding of 100 pM 32P-relaxin by 100, 10, and 3 nM unlabeled relaxin, but not by 100 nM insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and an insulin-like growth factor-I analog, demonstrated the high affinity and specificity of such binding. We conclude that 32P-labeled human relaxin is biologically and immunologically active and that this novel probe binds reversibly and with high affinity to classical (e.g. uterus) and unpredicted (e.g. brain) tissues

  2. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Tava

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers, but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to their possible pharmacological use. In the present paper studies on secondary metabolites from herbaceous plants are reviewed. Indications of the chemical methods used for their analyses, their presence in the green material and their biological activity are also reported.

  3. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Tava

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers, but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to their possible pharmacological use. In the present paper studies on secondary metabolites from herbaceous plants are reviewed. Indications of the chemical methods used for their analyses, their presence in the green material and their biological activity are also reported.

  4. Biological Activity of Curcuminoids Isolated from Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simay Çıkrıkçı

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is the most important fraction of turmeric which is responsible for its biological activity. In this study, isolation and biological assessment of turmeric and curcumin have been discussed against standard bacterial and mycobacterial strains such as E.coli , S.aureus, E.feacalis, P.aeuroginosa, M.smegmatis, M.simiae, M.kansasii, M. terrae, M.szulgai and the fungi Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity of curcumin and turmeric were also determined by the CUPRAC method.

  5. TRAP display: a high-speed selection method for the generation of functional polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Takahiro; Kawakami, Takashi; Reid, Patrick C; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2013-04-10

    Here, we describe a novel method that enables high-speed in vitro selection of functional peptides, peptidomimetics, and proteins via a simple procedure. We first developed a new cell-free translation system, the TRAP system (transcription-translation coupled with association of puromycin linker), which automatically produces a polypeptide library through a series of sequential reactions: transcription, association of puromycin-DNA linker, translation, and conjugation between the nascent polypeptide and puromycin-DNA linker. We then applied the TRAP system for the selection of macrocyclic peptides against human serum albumin. Six rounds of selection using TRAP display were performed in approximately 14 h, yielding macrocyclic peptides with nanomolar affinity to their target protein. Because TRAP display enables high-speed selection of functional polypeptides, it will facilitate the generation of various polypeptides that are useful for biological and therapeutic applications.

  6. Star-Shaped Polypeptides: Synthesis and Opportunities for Delivery of Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Mark; Murphy, Robert; Kapetanakis, Antonios; Ramsey, Joanne; Cryan, Sally-Ann; Heise, Andreas

    2015-09-17

    Significant advances in the synthesis of polypeptides by N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) polymerisation over the last decade have enabled the design of advanced polypeptide architectures such as star-shaped polypeptides. These materials combine the functionality offered by amino acids with the flexibility of creating stable nanoparticles with adjustable cargo space for therapeutic delivery. This review highlights recent advances in the synthesis of star polypeptides by NCA polymerisation followed by a critical review of the applications of this class of polymer in the delivery of therapeutic agents. This includes examples of traditional small-molecule drugs as well as the emerging class of biologics such as genetic therapeutics (gene delivery). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Zwitterionic states in gas-phase polypeptide ions revealed by 157-nm ultra-violet photodissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Silivra, Oleg A; Zubarev, Roman A

    2006-01-01

    within polypeptide clusters. Collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of decarboxylated cations localizes the position of deprotonation. Fragment abundances can be used for the semiquantitative assessment of the branching ratio of deprotonation among different acidic sites, however, the mechanism...

  8. Gemini ester quat surfactants and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyński, Jacek; Frąckowiak, Renata; Włoch, Aleksandra; Kleszczyńska, Halina; Witek, Stanisław

    2013-03-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants are an important class of surface-active compounds that exhibit much higher surface activity than their monomeric counterparts. This type of compound architecture lends itself to the compound being easily adsorbed at interfaces and interacting with the cellular membranes of microorganisms. Conventional cationic surfactants have high chemical stability but poor chemical and biological degradability. One of the main approaches to the design of readily biodegradable and environmentally friendly surfactants involves inserting a bond with limited stability into the surfactant molecule to give a cleavable surfactant. The best-known example of such a compound is the family of ester quats, which are cationic surfactants with a labile ester bond inserted into the molecule. As part of this study, a series of gemini ester quat surfactants were synthesized and assayed for their biological activity. Their hemolytic activity and changes in the fluidity and packing order of the lipid polar heads were used as the measures of their biological activity. A clear correlation between the hemolytic activity of the tested compounds and their alkyl chain length was established. It was found that the compounds with a long hydrocarbon chain showed higher activity. Moreover, the compounds with greater spacing between their alkyl chains were more active. This proves that they incorporate more easily into the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and affect its properties to a greater extent. A better understanding of the process of cell lysis by surfactants and of their biological activity may assist in developing surfactants with enhanced selectivity and in widening their range of application.

  9. Polycondensation of Asparagine-comprising Dipeptides in Aqueous Media-A Simulation of Polypeptide Formation in Primordial Earth Hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munegumi, Toratane; Tanikawa, Naoya

    2017-09-01

    Asparagine and aspartic acid might have mutually transformed in the primordial hydrosphere of the earth, if ammonia and aspartic acid had existed in equilibrium. These amino acids seem to contribute to polypeptides, while the simple amino acids glycine and alanine easily form cyclic dipeptides and do not achieve long peptide chains. Asparagine-comprising dipeptides contribute some kinds of activation forms of dipeptides because these can polymerize faster than asparagine only. The new finding of polypeptide formation suggests a pathway of sequential polypeptides to evolve a diversity of polypeptides.

  10. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  11. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuo; Shen, Mingyue; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Jianhua

    2017-11-28

    Momordica charantia L. ( M. charantia ), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia .

  12. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia.

  13. Simple glycolipids of microbes: Chemistry, biological activity and metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylated lipids (GLs are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production. We believe that experience of metabolic engineering (ME of microbial lipids for biofuel production can now be harnessed towards a successful synthesis of microbial GLs for biomedical and other applications. This review presents chemical groups of bacterial and fungal GLs, their biological activities, their general biosynthetic pathways and an insight on ME strategies for their production.

  14. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Cotula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotula cinerea contains a wide range of phytochemical compounds such as saponins, essential oils, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids. This paper reviews information pertaining its traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, herbicidal, anti-diarrheal and ...

  15. Polysaccharies of higher fungi: Biological role, structure and antioxidative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.S.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Vrvic, M.M.; Jakovljevic, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging bio-logical properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypo-lipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application

  16. Occurrence, biological activity and synthesis of drimane sesquiterpenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    In this review the names, structures and occurrence of all new drimanes and rearranged drimanes, which have been published between January 1990 and January 2003 have been collected. Subjects that have been treated are biosynthesis, analysis, biological activities, with special attention to cytotoxic

  17. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...

  18. A Review on Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current review is aimed to deliver some updates on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological activities of Beilschmiedia species in order to throw more light on their therapeutic potentials and future research priorities. Phytochemical studies on Beilschmiedia genus yielded essential oils, endiandric acid ...

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Isothiosemicarbazones with Antimycobacterial Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, E.; Waisser, K.; Kuneš, J.; Palát, K.; Skálová, L.; Szotáková, B.; Buchta, V.; Stolaříková, J.; Ulmann, V.; Pávová, Marcela; Weber, Jan; Komrsková, J.; Hašková, P.; Vokřál, I.; Wsól, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e1700020. ISSN 0365-6233 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological activity * cytotoxicity * isocitrate lyase * isothiosemicarbazone * tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.994, year: 2016

  20. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  1. SYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE 2-BENZOYL PACLITAXEL ANALOGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GEORG, GI; ALI, SM; BOGE, TC

    1995-01-01

    The influence of aromatic substitution at the 2-benzoyl moiety of paclitaxel on biological activity was investigated, following the Topliss Operational Scheme. Twelve paclitaxel derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in a microtubule assembly assay and for cytotoxicity against B16 melanoma ce...

  2. Biological activities of species in the genus Tulbaghia : A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species of the genus Tulbaghia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such rheumatism, fits, fever, earache, tuberculosis etc. It is believed that the species possess several therapeutic properties. This paper evaluates some of the biological activities of the genus Tulbaghia. It is evident from ...

  3. Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga bracteosa wall and Viola odoroto Linn. Anwar Ali Shad, M. Zeeshan, Hina Fazal, Hamid Ullah Shah, Shabir Ahmed, Hasem Abeer, E. F. Abd_Allah, Riaz Ullah, Hamid Afridi, Akash tariq, Muhammad Adnan Asma ...

  4. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Cotula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Asteraceae, Cotula cinerea, Traditional uses, Phytochemistry, Biological activities. This is an Open .... desert conditions with an average annual rainfall .... Desert area between. Cairo and. Ismailia. (Egypt). Not stated. [33]. The essential oil of C. cinerea has also been subjected to many studies. The essential oil.

  5. Volatile compounds and biological activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile compounds and biological activities of aerial parts of Pituranthos scoparius (Coss and ... mg/mL. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the essential oil of P.scoparius has a potential for use as a preservative and flavorant in ..... Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n=3). Key: control (♢), BHT (□) ...

  6. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  7. Biological activity of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2005), s. 123-129 ISSN 0971-4693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biological activity, extract, Fagopyrum esculenthum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.686, year: 2005

  8. The Biological Activities of Moltkia aurea; an Endemic Species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neslihan BALPINAR

    inclination that studies on medicinal plants, which are basis for the development of new biologically active molecules for pharmaceuticals, have rapidly increased. Recent studies associated with medicinal plants make possible to better understand their properties, safety and efficiency. In this study, Moltkia aurea Boiss.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of manganese-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. Shakeel Ahmad Khan1*, Sammia Shahid1, Waqas Bashir1, Sadia Kanwal2 and. Ahsan Iqbal3. 1Department of Chemistry, University of Management and Technology, Lahore-54000, ...

  10. BIOLOGICALLY ENHANCED OXYGEN TRANSFER IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS (JOURNAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biologically enhanced oxgyen transfer has been a hypothesis to explain observed oxygen transfer rates in activated sludge systems that were well above that predicted from aerator clean-water testing. The enhanced oxygen transfer rates were based on tests using BOD bottle oxygen ...

  11. Biological activities of some Fluoroquinolones-metal complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Metal ions play a vital role in the design of more biologically active drugs. Aim: The paper reviewed the antimicrobial, toxicological and DNA cleavage studies of some synthesized metal complexes of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Literature searches were done using scientific databases.

  12. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Petrelli; Giuseppe Orsomando; Leonardo Sorci; Filippo Maggi; Farahnaz Ranjbarian; Prosper C. Biapa Nya; Dezemona Petrelli; Luca A. Vitali; Giulio Lupidi; Luana Quassinti; Massimo Bramucci; Anders Hofer; Loredana Cappellacci

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucle...

  13. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  14. Secondary metabolites from Inula britannica L. and their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Hamayun, Muhammad; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Ahmad, Shabir; Rehman, Gauhar; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-03-10

    Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids) and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  15. The polymerization of amino acid adenylates on sodium-montmorillonite with preadsorbed polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paecht-Horowitz, Mella; Eirich, Frederick R.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous polymerization of amino acid adenylates on Na-montmorillonite in dilute, neutral suspension, after polypeptides were adsorbed on the clay, is studied. It is found that the degrees of polymerization of the oligopeptides and polypeptides obtained is dependent on the amounts of polypeptides that were preadsorbed. It is concluded that a catalytic activity may derive from c-spacings that offer adsorption sites for the reagent amino acid adenylate within the peripheral recesses of irregularly stacked clay platelets by bringing the anhydride bonds and neutral amino groups into favorable reaction distances.

  16. Synthesis, structure and biological properties of active spirohydantoin derivatives

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    Lazić Anita M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirohidantoins represent an pharmacologically important class of heterocycles since many derivatives have been recognized that display interesting activities against a wide range of biological targets. First synthesis of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins was performed by Bucherer and Lieb 1934 by the reaction of cycloalkanone, potassium cyanide and ammonium-carbonate at reflux in a mixture of ethanol and water. QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship studies showed that a wide range of biological activities of spirohydantoin derivatives strongly depend upon their structure. This paper describes different methods of synthesis of spirohydantoin derivatives, their physico-chemical properties and biological activity. It emphasizes the importance of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins with anticonvulsant, antiproliferative, antipsychotic, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties as well as their importance in the treatment of diabetes. Numerous spirohydantoin compounds exhibit physiological activity such as serotonin and fibrinogen antagonist, inhibitors of the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor also, antagonist of leukocyte cell adhesion, acting as allosteric inhibitors of the protein-protein interactions. Some spirohydantoin derivatives have been identified as antitumor agents. Their activity depends on the substituent presented at position N-3 of the hydantoin ring and increases in order alkene > ester > ether. Besides that, compounds that contain two electron withdrawing groups (e.g. fluorine or chlorine on the third and fourth position of the phenyl ring are better antitumor agents than compounds with a single electron withdrawing group. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  17. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is why active learning is such an effective instructional tool and the limits of this instructional method’s ability to influence performance. This dissertation builds a case in three steps for why active learning is an effective instructional tool. In step one, I assessed the influence of different types of active learning (clickers, group activities, and whole class discussions) on student engagement behavior in one semester of two different introductory biology courses and found that active learning positively influenced student engagement behavior significantly more than lecture. For step two, I examined over four semesters whether student engagement behavior was a predictor of performance and found participation (engagement behavior) in the online (video watching) and in-class course activities (clicker participation) that I measure were significant predictors of performance. In the third, I assessed whether certain active learning satisfied the psychological needs that lead to students’ intrinsic motivation to participate in those activities when compared over two semesters and across two different institutions of higher learning. Findings from this last step show us that student’s perceptions of autonomy, competency, and relatedness in doing various types of active learning are significantly higher than lecture and consistent across two institutions of higher learning. Lastly, I tie everything together, discuss implications of the research, and address future directions for research on biology student motivation and behavior.

  18. Peptides, polypeptides and peptide-polymer hybrids as nucleic acid carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marya

    2017-10-24

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), and protein transduction domains (PTDs) of viruses and other natural proteins serve as a template for the development of efficient peptide based gene delivery vectors. PTDs are sequences of acidic or basic amphipathic amino acids, with superior membrane trespassing efficacies. Gene delivery vectors derived from these natural, cationic and cationic amphipathic peptides, however, offer little flexibility in tailoring the physicochemical properties of single chain peptide based systems. Owing to significant advances in the field of peptide chemistry, synthetic mimics of natural peptides are often prepared and have been evaluated for their gene expression, as a function of amino acid functionalities, architecture and net cationic content of peptide chains. Moreover, chimeric single polypeptide chains are prepared by a combination of multiple small natural or synthetic peptides, which imparts distinct physiological properties to peptide based gene delivery therapeutics. In order to obtain multivalency and improve the gene delivery efficacies of low molecular weight cationic peptides, bioactive peptides are often incorporated into a polymeric architecture to obtain novel 'polymer-peptide hybrids' with improved gene delivery efficacies. Peptide modified polymers prepared by physical or chemical modifications exhibit enhanced endosomal escape, stimuli responsive degradation and targeting efficacies, as a function of physicochemical and biological activities of peptides attached onto a polymeric scaffold. The focus of this review is to provide comprehensive and step-wise progress in major natural and synthetic peptides, chimeric polypeptides, and peptide-polymer hybrids for nucleic acid delivery applications.

  19. Bactericidal activity of human lysozyme, muramidase-inactive lysozyme, and cationic polypeptides against Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus faecalis: inhibition by chitin oligosaccharides.

    OpenAIRE

    Laible, N J; Germaine, G R

    1985-01-01

    The basis of the bactericidal activity of human lysozyme against Streptococcus sanguis was studied. Experiments were designed to evaluate the role of lysozyme muramidase activity in its bactericidal potency. Inactivation of the muramidase activity of lysozyme was achieved by reduction of essential disulfides with dithiothreitol (DTT) or by incubation with the chitin oligosaccharides chitotriose and chitobiose. Muramidase-inactive lysozyme, prepared by reduction with DTT, was equal in bacteric...

  20. Preparation of polypeptides comprising multiple TAA peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing; Jia, Zhengcai; Wu, Yuzhang

    2014-01-01

    Polypeptides consisting of multiple tumor-associated antigen epitopes (multiepitope peptides) are commonly used as therapeutic peptide cancer vaccines in experimental studies and clinical trials. These methods include polypeptides composed of multiple major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted cytotoxic T cell (CTL) epitopes and those containing multiple CTL epitopes and one T helper (Th) epitope. This chapter describes a complete set of methods for preparing multiepitope peptides and branched multiple antigen peptides (MAPs), including sequence design, peptide synthesis, purification, preservation, and the preparation of polypeptide solutions.

  1. Bactericidal activity of human lysozyme, muramidase-inactive lysozyme, and cationic polypeptides against Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus faecalis: inhibition by chitin oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, N J; Germaine, G R

    1985-01-01

    The basis of the bactericidal activity of human lysozyme against Streptococcus sanguis was studied. Experiments were designed to evaluate the role of lysozyme muramidase activity in its bactericidal potency. Inactivation of the muramidase activity of lysozyme was achieved by reduction of essential disulfides with dithiothreitol (DTT) or by incubation with the chitin oligosaccharides chitotriose and chitobiose. Muramidase-inactive lysozyme, prepared by reduction with DTT, was equal in bactericidal potency to native lysozyme. Solutions of native chicken egg white lysozyme and human lysozyme exhibited equal bactericidal potency yet differed ca. fourfold with respect to lytic (muramidase) activity. The above results suggested that the bactericidal activity of lysozyme is not dependent upon muramidase activity. Chitotriose and chitobiose were found to inhibit both lytic and bactericidal activities of lysozyme. The bactericidal activity of muramidase-inactive lysozyme (reduction with DTT) was also inhibited by chitotriose and chitobiose. Further investigations demonstrated that chitotriose and chitobiose were also potent inhibitors of the bactericidal activity of the cationic homopolypeptides poly-L-arginine and poly-D-lysine. These latter results suggested that the essential bactericidal property of lysozyme was its extreme cationic nature and that some bacterial endogenous activities, inhibitable by chitotriose and chitobiose, were essential for expression of the bactericidal activity of either native or muramidase-inactive lysozyme or of the cationic homopolypeptides. Experiments with Streptococcus faecalis whole cells, cell walls, and crude autolysin preparations implicated endogenous autolytic muramidases as the bacterial targets of chitotriose and chitobiose. The essentially identical responses of S. sanguis and S. faecalis to chitotriose in bactericidal assays with muramidase-inactive lysozyme and polylysine suggested that muramidase-like enzymes exist in S

  2. Controlled release of biologically active silver from nanosilver surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H

    2010-11-23

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nanosilver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nanosilver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nanosilver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nanosilver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nanosilver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over 4 orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by preoxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and releasing inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through a bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nanosilver.

  3. Biological activities of phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-02-02

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  4. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Keast

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  5. Should Soil Testing Services Measure Soil Biological Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Franzluebbers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Health of agricultural soils depends largely on conservation management to promote soil organic matter accumulation. Total soil organic matter changes slowly, but active fractions are more dynamic. A key indicator of healthy soil is potential biological activity, which could be measured rapidly with soil testing services via the flush of CO during 1 to 3 d following rewetting of dried soil. The flush of CO is related to soil microbial biomass C and has repeatedly been shown strongly related to net N mineralization during standard aerobic incubations. New research is documenting the close association with plant N uptake in semicontrolled greenhouse conditions ( = 0.77, = 36. Field calibrations are underway to relate the flush of CO to the need for in-season N requirement in a variety of crops. An index of soil biological activity can and should be determined to help predict soil health and soil N availability.

  6. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Cyclic Depsipeptides from Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs are cyclopeptides in which amide groups are replaced by corresponding lactone bonds due to the presence of a hydroxylated carboxylic acid in the peptide structure. These peptides sometimes display additional chemical modifications, including unusual amino acid residues in their structures. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal CDPs reported until October 2017. About 352 fungal CDPs belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, and tridecadepsipeptides have been isolated from fungi. These metabolites are mainly reported from the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Fusarium, Isaria, Metarhizium, Penicillium, and Rosellina. They are known to exhibit various biological activities such as cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, antiviral, anthelmintic, insecticidal, antimalarial, antitumoral and enzyme-inhibitory activities. Some CDPs (i.e., PF1022A, enniatins and destruxins have been applied as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

  7. Indonesian propolis: chemical composition, biological activity and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusheva, Boryana; Popova, Milena; Koendhori, Eko Budi; Tsvetkova, Iva; Naydenski, Christo; Bankova, Vassya

    2011-03-01

    From a biologically active extract of Indonesian propolis from East Java, 11 compounds were isolated and identified: four alk(en)ylresorcinols (obtained as an inseparable mixture) (1-4) were isolated for the first time from propolis, along with four prenylflavanones (6-9) and three cycloartane-type triterpenes (5, 10 and 11). The structures of the components were elucidated based on their spectral properties. All prenylflavanones demonstrated significant radical scavenging activity against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radicals, and compound 6 showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. For the first time Macaranga tanarius L. and Mangifera indica L. are shown as plant sources of Indonesian propolis.

  8. Stimuli responsive synthetic polypeptides derived from N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Heise, Andreas

    2013-09-07

    The progress in NCA polymerisation combined with advanced orthogonal functionalization techniques as well as the integration with other controlled polymerisation techniques significantly widened the scope of polypeptide building blocks in a variety of material designs. Well-defined synthetic stimuli-responsive polypeptides ("smart" polypeptides) with incorporated different functionalities have been extensively explored over the past decades. Their significant potential lies in the fact that they combine natural and synthetic elements both contributing to their properties. These novel materials have potential applications in biomedicine and biotechnology including tissue engineering, drug delivery and biodiagnostics. Responsive polypeptides are capable of undergoing conformational changes and phase transition accompanied by variations in the chemical and physical changes of the polypeptides in response to an external stimulus such as biologically relevant species (i.e. biomolecules), the environment (i.e. temperature, pH), irradiation with light or exposure to a magnetic field. In this review, the recent developments including synthetic strategies and applications of synthetic stimuli-responsive homo- and block polypeptides are reviewed.

  9. Biolubricant Polypeptides and Therapeutic Uses Thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Prashant; Herrmann, Andreas; Kolbe, Anke; Veeregowda, Deepak; van der Mei, Henderina; Busscher, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. In particular, it relates to recombinant cationic polypeptides and their use as biolubricant. Provided is a biolubricant substance comprising the amino acid sequence[(GKGVP)9]n, wherein n is ≧5.

  10. QSAR Study of the Biologically Active Organosulfurs in Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr M. Abu-Awwad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of two sets of a total of 30 different polysulfides were investigated using QSAR. The semiempirical AM1 in Gaussian 2003 for windows was used to optimize the structures whereas a subsequent calculation of hundreds of various types of descriptors at the density functional (B3LYP/6-31G* using CODESSA package was employed. The known 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity data (IC50 of 19 polysulfides out of the whole data set were correlated in a multiple linear regression procedures with the computed descriptors. Statistically, the most significant overall correlations were five- and four- parameter equations with good statistical parameters; R2= 0.9981, R2CV = 0.9970 and R2=9967, R2CV = 0.9933 respectively. The models concluded that biological activity of polysulfides is mainly attributed to quantum-chemical, geometrical and topological descriptors with neither electrostatic contribution nor chief role of sulfur atoms. Also sulfur related descriptors were not the most significant contributors in the concluded models. The obtained models were efficiently employed to estimate the biological activities of the other 11 polysulfides available in natural products such as garlic and mushroom.

  11. Biological activity and photostability of biflorin micellar nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Edson R B; Ferreira-Neto, João P; Yara, Ricardo; Sena, Kêsia X F R; Fontes, Adriana; Lima, Cláudia S A

    2015-05-13

    Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR) and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9%) and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures' photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  12. Biological Activity and Photostability of Biflorin Micellar Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson R. B. Santana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9% and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures’ photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  13. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gladkikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI. These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6 secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO generation.

  14. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkikh, Irina; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Zelepuga, Elena; Sintsova, Oksana; Tabakmakher, Valentin; Gnedenko, Oksana; Ivanov, Alexis; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Kozlovskaya, Emma

    2015-09-24

    Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation.

  15. Characterization of biologically active substances from Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecka, Petra; Lipov, Jan; Thumova, Kamila; Macurkova, Anna

    2018-02-26

    The aim of this work was to compare water and organic extracts, infusions and tinctures from flowers and leaves of Calendula officinalis in terms of their biological activity and composition. The purpose of work was investigation whether the leaves and stems are really the waste or they contain interesting substances which could be utilized. Antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were studied. Then the ability to inhibit collagenase was studied as well. Cytotoxicity was tested for all the samples on mammalian cell lines. To determine the composition of extracts, infusions and tinctures phytochemical analysis (the set of colour reactions for detection of groups of biologically active compounds) was carried out and shown that samples from flowers and leaves contain the same groups of biologically active substances (proteins and amino acids, reducing sugars, flavonoids, saponins, phenolics, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides). The antimicrobial activity of tested samples was proved, where the most sensitive bacterium was Micrococcus luteus and the most sensitive yeast was Geotrichum candidum. The study of anti - collagenase activity has shown that the enzymatic reaction of collagenase was affected by all tested samples and their effect was concentration dependent. Cytotoxicity of water and methanol extracts at cell lines HEK 293T and HepG2 was observed. Cells HepG2 were more sensitive than cells HEK 293T. Using cell line RAW 264.7 anti-inflammatory activity of all samples was observed. Tincture of leaves was the most effective. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Marine Sponge Lectins: Actual Status on Properties and Biological Activities

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    Sandro Mascena Gomes Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  18. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  19. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  20. Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials using the 31 P(α,n) sup(34m)Cl reaction has been studied. Since sup(34m)Cl is also produced by the 32 S(α,pn) and the 35 Cl(α,α'n) reactions, the thick-target yield curves on phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine were determined in order to choose the optimum irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that the activation analysis for phosphorus without interferences from sulfur and chlorine is possible by bombarding with less than 17 MeV alphas. The applicability of this method to biological samples was then examined by irradiating several standard reference materials. It was confirmed that phosphorus can readily be determined at the detection limit of 1μg free from interferences due to the matrix elements. (author)

  1. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  2. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mishra, Pragya; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, Ashoke K

    2011-10-01

    Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur) (family: Fabaceae) is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  3. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L Millsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur (family: Fabaceae is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  4. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, V; Rao, E Upender; P, Srinivas

    2012-07-01

    Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird's eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation.

  5. Propolis volatile compounds: chemical diversity and biological activity: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bankova, Vassya; Popova, Milena; Trusheva, Boryana

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a sticky material collected by bees from plants, and used in the hive as building material and defensive substance. It has been popular as a remedy in Europe since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis use in over-the-counter preparations, “bio”-cosmetics and functional foods, etc., increases. Volatile compounds are found in low concentrations in propolis, but their aroma and significant biological activity make them important for propolis characterisation. Propolis is a plant-derived...

  6. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Tava

    2007-01-01

    In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers), but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to th...

  7. Photoelectron spectra and biological activity of cinnamic acid derivatives revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Igor; Klasinc, Leo; McGlynn, Sean P.

    2018-01-01

    The electronic structures of several derivatives of cinnamic acid have been studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Green's function quantum chemical calculations. The spectra reveal the presence of dimers in the gas phase for p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The electronic structure analysis has been related to the biological properties of these compounds through the analysis of some structure-activity relationships (SAR).

  8. Polymer application for separation/filtration of biological active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylkowski, B.; Tsibranska, I.

    2017-06-01

    Membrane technology is an important part of the engineer's toolbox. This is especially true for industries that process food and other products with their primary source from nature. This review is focused on ongoing development work using membrane technologies for concentration and separation of biologically active compounds, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. We provide the readers not only with the last results achieve in this field but also, we deliver detailed information about the membrane types and polymers used for their preparation.

  9. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  10. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Shuo; Shen, Mingyue; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been report...

  11. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Cyclic Depsipeptides from Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohan Wang; Xiao Gong; Peng Li; Daowan Lai; Ligang Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs) are cyclopeptides in which amide groups are replaced by corresponding lactone bonds due to the presence of a hydroxylated carboxylic acid in the peptide structure. These peptides sometimes display additional chemical modifications, including unusual amino acid residues in their structures. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal CDPs reported until October 2017. About 352 fungal CDPs belonging to the groups of cycli...

  12. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  13. Chemical composition and biological activities of the Agaricus mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Munkhgerel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Agaricus mushroom grown in Mongolia were analyzed for their element content. Biological activity and chemical components study of Agaricus, grown in the Mongolian flora has been investigated for the first time. The ethanol extracts of dried Agaricus sp. mushrooms were analyzed for antioxidant activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and interferon-like activity. The ethanol extracts from Agaricus arvensis showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. The IC50 of A. silvaticus and A. arvensis were 216 and 17.75 g/ml respectively. Among the twenty three mushroom extracts, the extracts from A. silvatisus and A. arvensis have shown the interferon-like activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.197Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p41-45

  14. Expression of biologically active murine interleukin-18 in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Andalib, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    The food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L. lactis to secrete murine IL-18. The mature murine IL-18 gene was inserted downstream of a nisin promoter in pNZ8149 plasmid and the construct was used to transform L. lactis NZ3900. The transformants were selected on Elliker agar and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The expression and secretion of IL-18 protein was verified by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. The biological activity of recombinant IL-18 was determined by its ability to induce interferon (IFN)-γ production in L. lactis co-cultured with murine splenic T cells. The amounts of IL-18 in bacterial lysates and supernatants were 3-4 μg mL -1 and 0.6-0.7 ng mL -1 , respectively. The successfully generated L. lactis strain that expressed biologically active murine IL-18 can be used to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of IL-18 on mucosal surfaces. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Biologically active and biomimetic dual gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, P; Pedraz, J L; Orive, G

    2017-05-01

    We have designed, developed and optimized Genipin cross-linked 3D gelatin scaffolds that were biologically active and biomimetic, show a dual activity both for growth factor and cell delivery. Type B gelatin powder was dissolved in DI water. 100mg of genipin was dissolved in 10ml of DI water. Three genipin concentrations were prepared: 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% (w/v). Solutions were mixed at 40°C and under stirring and then left crosslinking for 72h. Scaffolds were obtained by punching 8 mm-cylinders into ethanol 70% solution for 10min and then freeze-drying. Scaffolds were biologically, biomechanically and morphologically evaluated. Cell adhesion and morphology of D1-Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and L-929 fibroblast was studied. Vascular endothelial grwoth factor (VEGF) and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) were used as model proteins. Swelling ratio increased and younǵs module decreased along with the concentration of genipin. All scaffolds were biocompatible according to the toxicity test. MSC and L-929 cell adhesion improved in 0.2% of genipin, obtaining better results with MSCs. VEGF and SHH were released from the gels. This preliminary study suggest that the biologically active and dual gelatin scaffolds may be used for tissue engineering approaches like bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorption of Heavy Metals on Biologically Activated Brown Coal Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Praščáková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of cooper (II and zinc (II ions from aqueous solutions on a biologically activated brown coal sludge was investigated. Four families of adsorbents were prepared from the brown coal sludge bya microorganism’s activity. There were used microscopic fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma viride. Prepared sorbents were capable of removing Cu (II and Zn (II. The sorption isotherm has been constructed and the specific metal uptake and the maximum capacity of the adsorbent have been determined.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan, E-mail: yangbq@nwu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, Northwest University, Shaanxi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  19. On the mechanism of biological activation by tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhko, T V; Badun, G A; Razzhivina, I A; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Kudryasheva, N S

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented. The both types of tritium sources revealed similar changes in the bacterial luminescence kinetics: a delay period followed by bioluminescence activation. No monotonic dependences of bioluminescence activation efficiency on specific radioactivities of the films were found. A 15-day exposure to tritiated water (100 MBq/L) did not reveal mutations in bacterial DNA. The results obtained give preference to a "non-genomic" mechanism of bioluminescence activation by tritium. An activation of the intracellular bioluminescence process develops without penetration of tritium atoms into the cells and can be caused by intensification of trans-membrane cellular processes stimulated by ionization and radiolysis of aqueous media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that flavonoids may play an important role in the decreased risk of chronic diseases associated with a diet rich in plant-derived foods. Flavonoids are also common constituents of plants used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of diseases. The purpose of this article is to summarize the distribution and biological activities of one of the most common flavonoids: luteolin. This flavonoid and its glycosides are widely distributed in the plant kingdom; they are present in many plant families and have been identified in Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. Dietary sources of luteolin include, for instance, carrots, peppers, celery, olive oil, peppermint, thyme, rosemary and oregano. Preclinical studies have shown that this flavone possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The ability of luteolin to inhibit angiogenesis, to induce apoptosis, to prevent carcinogenesis in animal models, to reduce tumor growth in vivo and to sensitize tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of some anticancer drugs suggests that this flavonoid has cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Modulation of ROS levels, inhibition of topoisomerases I and II, reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity, stabilization of p53, and inhibition of PI3K, STAT3, IGF1R and HER2 are possible mechanisms involved in the biological activities of luteolin.

  1. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48 V and 62 Zn. (author)

  2. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using {sup 48}V and {sup 62}Zn. (author)

  3. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  4. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  5. Summary of diamino pyrazoles derived and study their biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagui, Marwa

    2016-01-01

    The work involves the synthesis of new heterocyclic structures diamino pyrazoles derivatives that are present in many natural products and products of pharmacological and therapeutic interests and study their biological activities. In order to develop a radiotracer interest and use in diagnostic nuclear medicine, we are interested to synthesis a pyrazole derivative with the precursor [Re(CO)5Br] and studying the antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3.5-diamino pyrazole and even thioamide complex rhenium. The objectives of our workout: 1/ Synthesis of molecules 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide. 2/ Synthesis of 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium complex. 3/ The in vitro study: Bacteriological Tests (Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide). The first part of this work concerns the chemical synthesis of molecules such as: thioamide, Amp z1 Ampz2 and then we had synthesized the complex 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium. Similarly we determined the physicochemical characteristics of the compounds synthesized by CLHP, CCM and RMN ( 1 H, 13 C). The second part is devoted to the study in vitro of biological activities of the synthesized molecules and complex 3,5 diaminopyrazole-rhenium with concentration 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. The results allow us to say that the thioamide and Ampz2 have antibacterial activity against S. enterica and Ampz2 has low activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginossa. Other pyrazole derivatives have no significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results also show that the synthesized compounds of concentration 2 mg/mL in relation to the inhibition zones of amoxicillin and DMSO: 1/ Escherichia coli, there is antibacterial activity for thioamide, and the Amp z1-Re Ampz2 compound. 2/ Staphylococcus aureus, the complex Ampz 1-Re and the thioamide have significant antibacterial activity. 3/ Salmonella, we observe that the thioamide molecules, Ampz2 and Amp z1-Re have significant antibacterial activity

  6. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  7. Biological activities of triazine derivatives. Combining DFT and QSAR results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdouline Larif

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the relationship between activities and structures, a 3D-QSAR study is applied to a set of 43 molecules based on triazines. This study was conducted using the principal component analysis (PCA method, the multiple linear regression method (MLR and the artificial neural network (ANN. The predicted values of activities are in good agreement with the experimental results. The artificial neural network (ANN techniques, considering the relevant descriptors obtained from the MLR, showed a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with an 8-3-1 ANN model which is a good result. As a result of quantitative structure–activity relationships, we found that the model proposed in this study is constituted of major descriptors used to describe these molecules. The obtained results suggested that the proposed combination of several calculated parameters could be useful to predict the biological activity of triazine derivatives.

  8. A comparison of the biological activities of four prostaglandins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, E. W.; Main, I. H. M.

    1963-01-01

    The biological activities of prostaglandins E1, E2, E3 and F1α have been compared. Prostaglandins E1, E2, E3 were qualitatively similar; E1 and E2 were about equiactive, but E3 was less active on all preparations. Prostaglandin F1α was a less potent vasodilator than E1 on the cat gastrocnemius muscle blood flow and skin blood flow and a less potent depressor drug on rabbit blood pressure. On the rabbit isolated jejunum F1α was twice as active as E1 but on the guinea-pig isolated ileum E1 was about forty times more active than F1α. One qualitative difference between these prostaglandins was observed; on the rabbit fallopian tube in vivo prostaglandins of the E series decreased both the tone and the peristalsis of the tube whereas prostaglandin F1α increased tubal tone. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5 PMID:14066143

  9. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Mashino, T [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: mashino-td@pha.keio.ac.jp

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C{sub 60}-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C{sub 60}-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC{sub 50} values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  10. Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, or amylin plays a role in glucose homeostasis but aggregates to form islet amyloid in type-2 diabetes. Islet amyloid formation contributes to β-cell dysfunction and death in the disease and to the failure of islet transplants. Recent work suggests a role for IAPP aggregation in cardiovascular complications of type-2 diabetes and hints at a possible role in type-1 diabetes. The mechanisms of IAPP amyloid formation in vivo or in vitro are not understood and the mechanisms of IAPP induced β-cell death are not fully defined. Activation of the inflammasome, defects in autophagy, ER stress, generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane disruption, and receptor mediated mechanisms have all been proposed to play a role. Open questions in the field include the relative importance of the various mechanisms of β-cell death, the relevance of reductionist biophysical studies to the situation in vivo, the molecular mechanism of amyloid formation in vitro and in vivo, the factors which trigger amyloid formation in type-2 diabetes, the potential role of IAPP in type-1 diabetes, the development of clinically relevant inhibitors of islet amyloidosis toxicity, and the design of soluble, bioactive variants of IAPP for use as adjuncts to insulin therapy.

  11. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  12. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  13. Micelles Formed by Polypeptide Containing Polymers Synthesized Via N-Carboxy Anhydrides and Their Application for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Skoulas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of multifunctional polymeric materials for biological applications is mainly guided by the goal of achieving the encapsulation of pharmaceutical compounds through a self-assembly process to form nanoconstructs that control the biodistribution of the active compounds, and therefore minimize systemic side effects. Micelles are formed from amphiphilic polymers in a selective solvent. In biological applications, micelles are formed in water, and their cores are loaded with hydrophobic pharmaceutics, where they are solubilized and are usually delivered through the blood compartment. Even though a large number of polymeric materials that form nanocarrier delivery systems has been investigated, a surprisingly small subset of these technologies has demonstrated potentially curative preclinical results, and fewer have progressed towards commercialization. One of the most promising classes of polymeric materials for drug delivery applications is polypeptides, which combine the properties of the conventional polymers with the 3D structure of natural proteins, i.e., α-helices and β-sheets. In this article, the synthetic pathways followed to develop well-defined polymeric micelles based on polypeptides prepared through ring-opening polymerization (ROP of N-carboxy anhydrides are reviewed. Among these works, we focus on studies performed on micellar delivery systems to treat cancer. The review is limited to systems presented from 2000–2017.

  14. Separation and nanoencapsulation of antitumor polypeptide from Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bochao; Zhang, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a multicellular edible blue-green alga with abundant proteins (∼ 60%). No report is available on the antitumor polypeptides from the whole proteins of S. platensis. In this study, for the first time, an antitumor polypeptide Y2 from trypsin digest of S. platensis proteins was obtained by using freeze-thawing plus ultrasonication extraction, hydrolysis with four enzymes (trypsin, alcalase, papain, and pepsin), and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that the degree of hydrolysis can be ordered as: trypsin (38.5%) > alcalase (31.2%) > papain (27.8%) > pepsin (7.1%). For MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, at 250 µg/mL, the maximum inhibitory rate of Y2 was 97%, while standard drug 5-FU was 55 and 97%, respectively. Furthermore, the nanoencapsulation of Y2 with chitosan (CS) was also investigated. After nanoencapsulation, the maximum encapsulation efficiency and polypeptides contents are 49 and 15%, respectively; and the antitumor activity is basically not lost. These data demonstrated the potential of nanopolypeptides (Y2-CS) in food and pharmaceutical applications. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Investigating Biological Activity Spectrum for Novel Styrylquinazoline Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Polanski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, series of ring-substituted 2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H-one and 4-chloro-2-styrylquinazoline derivatives were prepared. The syntheses of the discussed compounds are presented. The compounds were analyzed by RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. They were tested for their inhibitory activity on photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was also performed against four mycobacterial strains and against eight fungal strains. Several compounds showed biological activity comparable with or higher than that of the standard isoniazid. It was found that the electronic properties of the R substituent, and not the total lipophilicity of the compound, were decisive for the photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of tested compounds.

  16. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel kader, S.M.; El Sayed, M.M.; El Malt, E.A.; Shaker, E.S.; Abdel Aziz, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  17. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  18. Chemical synthesis of human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein: autonomous protein domains for induction of cellular DNA synthesis and for trans activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rawls, J A; Pusztai, R; Green, M

    1990-01-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein belongs to a family of nuclear oncoproteins that share amino acid sequences and functional homology. To localize biochemical activities associated with E7, we chemically synthesized the full-length 98-amino-acid polypeptide and several deletion mutant peptides. We show that the E7 polypeptide is biologically active and possesses at least two functional domains; the first induces cellular DNA synthesis in quiescent rodent cells, and the second trans ...

  19. Activating and inhibiting connections in biological network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of biochemical networks have analyzed network topology. Such work has suggested that specific types of network wiring may increase network robustness and therefore confer a selective advantage. However, knowledge of network topology does not allow one to predict network dynamical behavior – for example, whether deleting a protein from a signaling network would maintain the network's dynamical behavior, or induce oscillations or chaos. Results Here we report that the balance between activating and inhibiting connections is important in determining whether network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. We use a simple dynamical model of a network of interacting genes or proteins. Using the model, we study random networks, networks selected for robust dynamics, and examples of biological network topologies. The fraction of activating connections influences whether the network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. Conclusion The activating fraction may predispose a network to oscillate or reach steady state, and neutral evolution or selection of this parameter may affect the behavior of biological networks. This principle may unify the dynamics of a wide range of cellular networks. Reviewers Reviewed by Sergei Maslov, Eugene Koonin, and Yu (Brandon Xia (nominated by Mark Gerstein. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  20. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocerino N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nunzia Nocerino,1 Andrea Fulgione,1 Marco Iannaccone,1 Laura Tomasetta,1 Flora Ianniello,1 Francesca Martora,1 Marco Lelli,2 Norberto Roveri,2 Federico Capuano,3 Rosanna Capparelli1 1Department of Agriculture Special Biotechnology Center Federico II, CeBIOTEC Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, 2Department of Chemistry, G Ciamician, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, 3Department of Food Inspection IZS ME, Naples, Italy Abstract: The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA. We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. Keywords: lactoferrin, hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, biomimetism, biological activity, drug delivery

  1. Synthesis and biological activities of turkesterone 11?-acyl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Dinan

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkesterone is a phytoecdysteroid possessing an 11alpha-hydroxyl group. It is an analogue of the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Previous ecdysteroid QSAR and molecular modelling studies predicted that the cavity of the ligand-binding domain of the ecdysteroid receptor would possess space in the vicinity of C-11/C-12 of the ecdysteroid. We report the regioselective synthesis of a series of turkesterone 11alpha-acyl derivatives in order to explore this possibility. The structures of the analogues have been unambiguously determined by spectroscopic means (NMR and low-resolution mass spectrometry. Purity was verified by HPLC. Biological activities have been determined in Drosophila melanogaster BII cell-based bioassay for ecdysteroid agonists and in an in vitro radioligand-displacement assay using bacterially expressed D. melanogaster EcR/USP receptor proteins. The 11alpha-acyl derivatives do retain a significant amount of biological activity relative to the parent ecdysteroid. Further, although activity initially drops with the extension of the acyl chain length (C2 to C4, it then increases (C6 to C10, before decreasing again (C14 and C20. The implications of these findings for the interaction of ecdysteroids with the ecdysteroid receptor and potential applications in the generation of affinity-labelled and fluorescently-tagged ecdysteroids are discussed.

  2. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petunin AI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody–antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs to various targets in vivo.

  3. Detection of biologically active diterpenoic acids by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Orinak, Andrej; Efremov, Evtim V.

    2010-01-01

    is not suitable for their unambiguous identification, especially not in solution. We attempted to increase the sensitivity by applying UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) techniques. The UV-Raman spectra of the three compounds in ethanol/water 50 : 50 showed only very......Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy...

  4. New enamine derivatives of lapachol and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mailcar F; Lemos, Telma G; de Mattos, Marcos C; Segundo, Taciana A; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2002-06-01

    A convenient synthesis of the new enamine derivatives 2-(4-morpholinyl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthalenedione, 2-(1-piperidinyl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphtalenedione and 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthalenedione was carried out from natural 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthalenedione (lapachol) and morpholine, piperidine and pyrrolidine. The structures of the products were established mainly by NMR analysis, including 2D experiments. Biological activities of these products were evaluated against Artemia salina, Aedes aegypti and cytotoxicity using A549 human breast cells.

  5. New enamine derivatives of lapachol and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA MAILCAR F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient synthesis of the new enamine derivatives 2-(4-morpholinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione, 2-(1-piperidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphtalenedione and 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione was carried out from natural 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione (lapachol and morpholine, piperidine and pyrrolidine. The structures of the products were established mainly by NMR analysis, including 2D experiments. Biological activities of these products were evaluated against Artemia salina, Aedes aegypti and cytotoxicity using A549 human breast cells.

  6. Secondary metabolites and biological activity of Pentas species: A minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba-tollah M. Sweelam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pentas belongs to the Rubiaceae family, which contains approximately 40 species. Several Pentas species were reported to be used as a folk treatment by African indigenous people in treating some diseases such as malaria, tapeworms, dysentery, gonorrhea, syphilis and snake poisoning. This article covers the period from 1962 to 2017 and presents an overview of the biological activity of different Pentas species and describes their phytochemical traits. As a conclusion, the main secondary metabolites from Pentas species are quinones, highly oxygenated chromene-based structures, and iridoids. Pentas species are widely used in folk medicine but they have to be more investigated for their medicinal properties.

  7. Radio-active waste disposal and deep-sea biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The deep-sea has been widely thought of as a remote, sparsely populated, and biologically inactive environment, well suited to receive the noxious products of nuclear fission processes. Much of what is known of abyssal biology tends to support this view, but there are a few disquieting contra-indications. The realisation, in recent years, that many animal groups show a previously unsuspected high species diversity in the deep-sea emphasized the paucity of our knowledge of this environment. More dramatically, the discovery of a large, active, and highly mobile abysso-bentho-pelagic fauna changed the whole concept of abyssal life. Finally, while there is little evidence for the existence of vertical migration patterns linking the deep-sea bottom communities with those of the overlying water layers, there are similarly too few negative results for the possibility of such transport mechanisms to be dismissed. In summary, biological knowledge of the abyss is insufficient to answer the questions raised in connection with deep-sea dumping, but in the absence of adequate answers it might be dangerous to ignore the questions

  8. Algorithm to design inhibitors using stereochemically mixed l,d polypeptides: Validation against HIV protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pooja; Durani, Susheel

    2015-11-01

    Polypeptides have potential to be designed as drugs or inhibitors against the desired targets. In polypeptides, every chiral α-amino acid has enantiomeric structural possibility to become l or d amino acids and can be used as design monomer. Among the various possibilities, use of stereochemistry as a design tool has potential to determine both functional specificity and metabolic stability of the designed polypeptides. The polypeptides with mixed l,d amino acids are a class of peptidomimitics, an attractive drug like molecules and also less susceptible to proteolytic activities. Therefore in this study, a three step algorithm is proposed to design the polypeptides against desired drug targets. For this, all possible configurational isomers of mixed l,d polyleucine (Ac-Leu8-NHMe) structure were randomly modeled with simulated annealing molecular dynamics and the resultant library of discrete folds were scored against HIV protease as a model target. The best scored folds of mixed l,d structures were inverse optimized for sequences in situ and the resultant sequences as inhibitors were validated for conformational integrity using molecular dynamics. This study presents and validates an algorithm to design polypeptides of mixed l,d structures as drugs/inhibitors by inverse fitting them as molecular ligands against desired target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel Triazole Hybrids of Betulin: Synthesis and Biological Activity Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bębenek, Ewa; Jastrzębska, Maria; Kadela-Tomanek, Monika; Chrobak, Elwira; Orzechowska, Beata; Zwolińska, Katarzyna; Latocha, Małgorzata; Mertas, Anna; Czuba, Zenon; Boryczka, Stanisław

    2017-11-01

    Betulin derivatives containing a 1,2,3-triazole ring possess a wide spectrum of biological activities, including antiviral, anticancer, and antibacterial activity. A series of novel triazoles were prepared by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the alkyne derivatives of betulin and organic azides. The chemical structures of the obtained compounds were defined by ¹H and 13 C NMR, IR, and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) analysis. The target triazoles were screened for their antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses. The cytotoxic activity of the obtained compounds 5a - k and 6a - h was determined using five human cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, SNB-19, Colo-829, and C-32) by a WST-1 assay. The bistriazole 6b displayed a promising IC 50 value (0.05 μM) against the human ductal carcinoma T47D (500-fold higher potency than cisplatin). The microdilution method was applied for an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of all of the compounds. The triazole 5e containing a 3'-deoxythymidine-5'-yl moiety exhibited antibacterial activity against two gram-negative bacteria vz. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 0.95-1.95 μM).

  10. Novel Triazole Hybrids of Betulin: Synthesis and Biological Activity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Bębenek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Betulin derivatives containing a 1,2,3-triazole ring possess a wide spectrum of biological activities, including antiviral, anticancer, and antibacterial activity. A series of novel triazoles were prepared by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the alkyne derivatives of betulin and organic azides. The chemical structures of the obtained compounds were defined by 1H and 13C NMR, IR, and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS analysis. The target triazoles were screened for their antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses. The cytotoxic activity of the obtained compounds 5a–k and 6a–h was determined using five human cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, SNB-19, Colo-829, and C-32 by a WST-1 assay. The bistriazole 6b displayed a promising IC50 value (0.05 μM against the human ductal carcinoma T47D (500-fold higher potency than cisplatin. The microdilution method was applied for an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of all of the compounds. The triazole 5e containing a 3′-deoxythymidine-5′-yl moiety exhibited antibacterial activity against two gram-negative bacteria vz. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC range of 0.95–1.95 μM.

  11. Hippeastrum reticulatum (Amaryllidaceae: Alkaloid Profiling, Biological Activities and Molecular Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana R. Tallini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amaryllidaceae family has proven to be a rich source of active compounds, which are characterized by unique skeleton arrangements and a broad spectrum of biological activities. The aim of this work was to perform the first detailed study of the alkaloid constituents of Hippeastrum reticulatum (Amaryllidaceae and to determine the anti-parasitological and cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities of the epimers (6α-hydroxymaritidine and 6β-hydroxymaritidine. Twelve alkaloids were identified in H. reticulatum: eight known alkaloids by GC-MS and four unknown (6α-hydroxymaritidine, 6β-hydroxymaritidine, reticulinine and isoreticulinine by NMR. The epimer mixture (6α-hydroxymaritidine and 6β-hydroxymaritidine showed low activity against all protozoan parasites tested and weak AChE-inhibitory activity. Finally, a molecular docking analysis of AChE and BuChE proteins showed that isoreticulinine may be classified as a potential inhibitory molecule since it can be stabilized in the active site through hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions.

  12. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, Nunzia; Fulgione, Andrea; Iannaccone, Marco; Tomasetta, Laura; Ianniello, Flora; Martora, Francesca; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Capuano, Federico; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA). We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications.

  13. Facile Chemical Access to Biologically Active Norcantharidin Derivatives from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Galkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reductive amination of 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF was used to implement the transition from bio-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF to pharmaceuticals. The synthesized bis(aminomethylfurans were utilized as building blocks for the construction of new derivatives with structural cores of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. Using the one-pot procedure, which included the Diels–Alder reaction followed by hydrogenation of the double bond, bio-derived analogues of the anticancer drug norcantharidin were obtained. The cyclization process was diastereoselective, and resulted in the formation of tricyclic products with the endo configuration. Analysis of cytotoxycity for the resulting tricyclic amine-containing compounds showed an increase of anticancer activity as compared with the unsubstituted norcantharimide.

  14. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of the Cyclodipeptides from Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodipeptides, called 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs, are obtained by the condensation of two amino acids. Fungi have been considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive cyclodipeptides. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal cyclodipeptides with the literature covered up to July 2017. A total of 635 fungal cyclodipeptides belonging to the groups of tryptophan-proline, tryptophan-tryptophan, tryptophan–Xaa, proline–Xaa, non-tryptophan–non-proline, and thio-analogs have been discussed and reviewed. They were mainly isolated from the genera of Aspergillus and Penicillium. More and more cyclodipeptides have been isolated from marine-derived and plant endophytic fungi. Some of them were screened to have cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, vasodilator, radical scavenging, antioxidant, brine shrimp lethal, antiviral, nematicidal, antituberculosis, and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications in agriculture, medicinal, and food industry.

  15. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...... orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion...

  16. Enhanced biological activity of carotenoids stabilized by phenyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji Suk; Jeon, Sunhwa; Byun, Youn Jung; Koo, Sangho; Choi, Shin Sik

    2015-06-15

    Carotenoids are lipid soluble food ingredients with multifunction including antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, carotenoids are destructively oxidized upon reaction with radicals resulting in toxic effects on biological systems. Two synthetic carotenoids (BAS and BTS) containing the aromatic phenyl groups with a para-substituent (OMe and Me, respectively) at C-13 and C-13' position were prepared in order to overcome a structural instability of carotenoid. Both BAS and BTS exerted stronger radical scavenging activity than β-carotene in DPPH and ABTS assays. In particular, BTS significantly reduced in vivo ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and improved body growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditiselegans. BTS has a great potential for the advanced and modified carotenoid material with stability leading to enhanced bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Župančić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach to reversed nucleosides which enables their synthesis in gram quantities is described. N-1′-Pyrimidine reversed nucleosides were prepared by treating of the sodium salt of pyrimidine bases with protected 5-tosyl ribose. Additionally, N-1′,N-3′-disubstituted reversed nucleosides were isolated in the condensation reactions with the 5-halogen pyrimidines. Using the Sonogashira coupling of 5′-iodouracil reversed nucleoside with ethynyltrimethyl silane gave 5′-ethynyl derivative which was further transformed into 5′-acetyl reversed nucleoside. Biological activity of deprotected reversed nucleosides was validated on the panel of six human carcinoma cell lines (HeLa, MIAPaCa2, Hep2, NCI-H358, CaCo-2, and HT-29. 5′-Iodouracil derivative displayed moderate growth inhibition activity against human colon carcinoma (CaCo-2 cells.

  18. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion......Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  19. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  20. Template Synthesis of Tubular Nanostructures for Loading Biologically Active Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Aysegul; Algan, Aslıhan Hilal

    2017-01-01

    The template synthesis is a low cost, simple and versatile nanofabrication method to produce cylindrical/tubular nanostructures with controllable dimensions such as length, diameter and aspect ratio. This method utilizes nanoporous membranes such as anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) or polycarbonate (PC) as templates which have nanosized specific, cylindrical and uniform inner pores to be coated with the desired material. Template synthesized nanotubular structures have been produced from variety of materials including ceramics, polymers and proteins for loading biologically active molecules. Available procedures of material deposition into the template nanopores consist of several techniques like wetting (melt or solution wetting), layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and sol-gel chemistry. Template synthesis enables not only control of the geometry of the resulting nanostructures but also provides nanovehicles having separated inner and outer surfaces which can be variously functionalized. Tubular nanostructures fabricated by this method have numerous potential applications including delivery of biologically active molecules such as drugs, gene, enzymes and proteins. In this review we aimed to present up-to-date works on the template based synthesis which has greatly facilitated the fabrication of polymer and protein tubular nanostructures, principally. The strategies regarding the synthesis and designing of these promising tubular nanostructures together with recent approaches relevant of drug delivery was also presented. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Phytochemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Salvia suffruticosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Rustaie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Salvia suffruticosa is a perennial plant from Lamiaceae family. Many Salvia species have been employed as medicinal plants; despite the medicinal potentials of S. suffruticosa, there is limited studies regarding its phytochemical profile or biological properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical constituents of the essential oil and extract of the plant and evaluate its biological activities. Methods: Essential oil from the aerial parts of the plant was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Isolation of compounds from methanol and petroleum ether fractions was achieved by using column chromatography with different stationary phases. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR techniques. Cytotoxicity potentials were evaluated using MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH method. Results: Hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes were identified as the predominant components of the oil, with β-caryophyllene (27.35%, bicyclogermacrene (22.15%, germacrene-D (9.49% and β-farnesene (9.08% as the major constituents. Phytochemical analysis of the extract resulted in isolation of lupeol (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, caffeic acid (4 and 1-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (5. Among the tested samples, lupeol demonstrated the most potent inhibitory activity toward breast cancer cell lines including MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values equal to 33.38±2.6, 36.70±3.1 and 23.66±1.4 μg/mL, respectively; caffeic acid with IC50 value of 12.1±1.2 μg/mL showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested S. suffruticosa as a promising source of bioactive compounds useful in prevention and treatment of cancer.

  2. The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, K; Buckiová, D; Kren, V; Peknicová, J; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2006-03-01

    The biological activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts from dehydrated hypocotyls of Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae, vernacular name "maca"), was studied on rat hepatocytes and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity in hepatocyte primary cultures up to 10 mg/ml as measured by the MTT viability test, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) leakage. Moreover, after 72 h, extracts inhibited LDH and AST leakage from the hepatocytes. When hepatocytes were intoxicated by t-butyl hydroperoxide, neither extract prevented oxidative damage. Both extracts showed weak antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging test with IC(50) values of 3.46 +/- 0.16 and 0.71 +/- 0.10 mg/ml, for aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively. Thus, the observed effect on spontaneous enzyme leakage is probably mediated through mechanisms other than antioxidant activity. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts have shown estrogenic activity comparable with that of silymarin in MCF-7 cell line. Maca estrogenicity was exhibited in the range from 100 to 200 mug of extract per ml. The findings in the present study show that maca does not display in vitro hepatotoxicity. In contrast, a slight cytoprotective effect, probably not mediated by antioxidant capacity, was noted. Maca extracts exhibited estrogenic activity comparably to the effect of silymarin in MCF-7 cells.

  3. Characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) lectin for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Narvekar, Dakshita T; Bhadkariya, Rajni; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2018-05-01

    Lectins are proteins that are subject of intense investigations. Information on lectin from chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) with respect to its biological activities are very limited. In this study, we purified lectin from the seeds of chickpea employing DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and identified its molecular subunit mass as 35 kDa. The free radical scavenging activity of lectin measured by the DPPH assay has IC 50 of 0.88 µg/mL. Lectin exerted antifungal activity against Candida krusei , Fusarium oxysporium oxysporium , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , while antibacterial activity against E. coli , B. subtilis , S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 200, 240, 160 and 140 µg for C. krusei, F. oxysporium , S. cerevisiae and C. albicans respectively. Lectin was further examined for its antiproliferative potential against cancerous cell line. The cell viability assay indicated a high inhibition activity on Ishikawa, HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with IC 50 value of 46.67, 44.20, 53.58 and 37.46 µg/mL respectively. These results can provide a background for future research into the benefits of chickpea lectin to pharmacological perspective.

  4. Bone Scan in Detection of Biological Activity in Nonhypertrophic Fracture Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Rabadiya, Bhavdeep

    2017-01-01

    Biological activity of the fracture site is very important factor in treatment planning of fracture nonunion. If no biological activity is detected, then an autologous bone graft can be supplemented or osteogenic supplementations, such as bone morphogenetic protein is given. If biological activity is present, then secure fixation is sufficient to achieve bony union. Biological activity of nonunions is usually assessed by conventional radiographs. The presence of callus formation is usually as...

  5. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  6. Biological activity of soil contaminated with cobalt, tin, and molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-07-01

    In this age of intensive industrialization and urbanization, mankind's highest concern should be to analyze the effect of all metals accumulating in the environment, both those considered toxic and trace elements. With this aim in mind, a unique study was conducted to determine the potentially negative impact of Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) in optimal and increased doses on soil biological properties. These metals were applied in the form of aqueous solutions of Sn(2+) (SnCl2 (.)2H2O), Co(2+) (CoCl2 · 6H2O), and Mo(5+) (MoCl5), each in the doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1) soil DM. The activity of dehydrogenases, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and catalase and the counts of twelve microorganism groups were determined on the 25th and 50th day of experiment duration. Moreover, to present the studied problem comprehensively, changes in the biochemical activity and yield of spring barley were shown using soil and plant resistance indices-RS. The study shows that Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) disturb the state of soil homeostasis. Co(2+) and Mo(5+) proved the greatest soil biological activity inhibitors. The residence of these metals in soil, particularly Co(2+), also generated a drastic decrease in the value of spring barley resistance. Only Sn(2+) did not disrupt its yielding. The studied enzymes can be arranged as follows for their sensitivity to Sn(2+), Co(2+), Mo(5+): Deh > Ure > Aryl > Pal > Pac > Cat. Dehydrogenases and urease may be reliable soil health indicators.

  7. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  8. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production. PMID:24470791

  9. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  10. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  11. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  13. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  14. GLYCOSYLATED YGHJ POLYPEPTIDES FROM ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI (ETEC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to glycosylated YghJ polypeptides from or derived from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that are immunogenic. In particular, the present invention relates to compositions or vaccines comprising the polypeptides and their application in immunization, vaccination...

  15. The Beads of Translation: Using Beads to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    During this activity, by making beaded bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (beads). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…

  16. Biological regeneration of para-nitrophenol loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, M.A.Q.; Martin, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Biological regeneration is one of several methods that may be used to restore the adsorptive capacity of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC). This study deals with in-situ biological regeneration on a pilot scale. The principal objective of this research was to ascertain whether biological regeneration of GAC could occur under conditions typical of water treatment. The important parameters which may have the greatest impact on bio regeneration of a given adsorbate were studied. The research investigated the extent of bio regeneration for para-nitrophenol (PNP) of concentration 50 mg/L. Bio regeneration in the total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initially exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated for para-nitrophenol (PNP) of concentration 50 mg/L. Bio regeneration in he total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initially exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated with a mixed culture of bacteria, and lastly the carbon was re-saturated. In the totally exhausted GAC system, the bio regeneration was enhanced by increasing the during of regeneration for a fixed initial biomass content of the bioreactor. The bio regeneration efficiency of the totally exhausted (with PNP) GAC the empty bed contact time (EBCT) and the initial concentration of the substrate had a profound effect on the bio regeneration efficiency. Bacterial counts in the effluents of regenerated GAC columns were significantly more than those of fresh carbon effluents. (author)

  17. Polypeptide electrophoretic pattern of Matricaria chamomilla and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effects of salinity and Fe-deficiency on electrophoresis pattern of polypeptides in two chamomile genera (Matricaria chamomilla and Anthemis nobilis), a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized block design with three replications, in 2010. The experimental factors were two ...

  18. Recombinant Supercharged Polypeptides Restore and Improve Biolubrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeregowda, Deepak H.; Kolbe, Anke; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Herrmann, Andreas; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant supercharged polypeptides (SUPs) with low cytotoxicity are developed and applied to rejuvenate the lubrication of naturally occurring salivary conditioning films (SCFs). SUPs with 72 positive charges adsorbed and rigidified the SCFs and recruited mucins to form a hydrated layer. These

  19. Tuning Ice Nucleation with Supercharged Polypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huige; Ma, Chao; Li, Kaiyong; Liu, Kai; Loznik, Mark; Teeuwen, Rosalie; van Hest, Jan C. M.; Zhou, Xin; Herrmann, Andreas; Wang, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Supercharged unfolded polypeptides (SUPs) are exploited for controlling ice nucleation via tuning the nature of charge and charge density of SUPs. The results show that positively charged SUPs facilitate ice nucleation, while negatively charged ones suppress it. Moreover, the charge density of the

  20. Endogenous pancreatic polypeptide in different vascular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Schwartz, Tania; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    The plasma concentration of pancreatic polypeptide (PP-like immunoreactivity) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous PP in fasting, supine subjects with normal or moderately decreased kidney function. Patients with kidney disease (n = 10) had...

  1. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF THE LAURUS NOBILIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nasukhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. is an evergreen dioecious, rarely monecious plant up to 12-15 m high. The plant’s name is devoted to an Ancient Greek God of Sun Apollo and is a symbol of peace and victory. It was used in making up wreaths for emperors, generals, and poets. Its natural area includes Mediterranean countries with high level of annual precipitation. It is actively cultivated as a decorative plant in Europe, Russia, USA and other countries. It is cultivated in Turkey, Algeria, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Russia, and Mexico. The aim of the study is the review of available literature about isolation, identification, quantitative determination of biologically active compounds of the Laurus nobilis leaves in the established species and their pharmacological activity. Materialsand methods. The study was carried out using searching (PubMed, CiteSeer, arXiv, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninka, and ResearchGate free social network. Results and discussion. We have established that Laurus nobilis leaves have components of essential oil, phenolic compounds, and sesquiterpenic lactones as the principal active substances. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of these compound groups in these raw materials varies depending on the ecological and geographical, edaphic, climatic factors, phase of the plant growth, cultivation technology, drying method etc. The results of the pharmacological studies of the extracts, summary fractions, and individual compounds of Laurus nobilis leaves characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for a more profound study. Conclusion. As the available open review data showed, the essential oil components, phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc, sesquiterpenic lactones of Laurus nobilis exhibit a diverse spectrum of pharmacological activity. Antimicrobial (widely, anti-virus, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and cytoxic (anticancer activities, established in extracts

  2. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIFFERENT MOLECULAR FORMS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN A AND RECOMBINANT DERIVATIVES POLYPEPTIDES OF BAC RECEPTOR PROTEINS FROM GROUP B STREPTOCOCCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Korzhueva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article concerns interactions between immunoglobulin A and recombinant P6, P7, P8 polypeptides, designed on the basis of externally localized Bac protein of the Group B streptococci, possessing IgA-binding activity.There is a current demand for immunochemical reagents that are strictly specific for IgA, in order to develop antigenic standards for detection of IgA levels in biological fluids, as well as for affinity purification of IgA and its fragments.To analyze an opportunity of the abovementioned application ways for these proteins, a special study was performed to assay an interaction capability of recombinant P6, P7, P8 polypeptides binding to Fc regions of different IgA forms (serum IgA, secretory IgA, subclasses of serum IgA – IgA1, IgA2. Selectivity of ligand binding was specially confirmed.It was found out that, among three presented polypeptides, the structure of recombinant P6 derivative proved to be optimal for IgA-binding ability of Bac protein.Structural features of IgA-binding fragments of Bac protein, i.e., binding site position on the IgA molecule (proximity to epitopes for three monoclonal antibodies, variability of the site structure, as well as resistance of binding site for P6, P7, P8 in IgA molecule against partial disulfide bonds reduction. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 4-5, pp 327-336.

  3. Iodine and tritium labelling of curarizing and cardiotoxic agents. Study of the conformation of toxic polypeptides extracted from snake venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menez, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    A short review of present-day knowledge on the action mechanism of toxic snake venom polypeptides is followed by a study of the radioactive labelling of some toxic compounds. Those dealt with more especially are Naja nigricollis α toxin and Laticauda semifasciata b erabutoxin, then (+) tubocurarin, a non-peptidic curarizing alkaloid, and two cardiotoxic polypeptides: cytotoxin II and cardiotoxin γ extracted from the venom of Naja naja and Naja nigricollis respectively. The labelling principle is based on the specific fixation of one or more iodine atoms then tritium substitution of the halogen by catalytic hydrogenolysis. As predicted from titration of the aromatic groups the halogenation process, obtained by addition of iodine monochloride, takes place sometimes on the phenolic nuclei and sometimes on the imidazole nuclei, the position of which targets within each sequence has been identified. From results of the study of reactivity towards iodine combined with those of basic titration, the accessibility of several aromatic nuclei has also been defined. Each iodinated polypeptide is then hydrogenolysed in the presence of tritium gas giving a specific activity between 4 and 27 Ci/mmole according to the compound treated. In all cases the biological potential and physical properties of the radioactive material obtained by the above titration process remained intact. An example of the bonding kinetics of short toxins with the partially purified choligenic receptor is given in the special case of tritiated b erabutoxin. The affinity of this toxin for its receptor target is strong, though slightly less so than that of tritiated Naja nigricollis α toxin [fr

  4. Zoanthid mucus as new source of useful biologically active proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Míriam Camargo; de Albuquerque Modesto, Jeanne Claíne; Pérez, Carlos Daniel; Ottaiano, Tatiana Fontes; Ferreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Batista, Fabrício Pereira; de Brito, Marlon Vilela; Campos, Ikaro Henrique Mendes Pinto; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2018-03-01

    Palythoa caribaeorum is a very common colonial zoanthid in the coastal reefs of Brazil. It is known for its massive production of mucus, which is traditionally used in folk medicine by fishermen in northeastern Brazil. This study identified biologically active compounds in P. caribaerum mucus. Crude mucus was collected during low tides by the manual scraping of colonies; samples were maintained in an ice bath, homogenized, and centrifuged at 16,000 g for 1 h at 4 °C; the supernatant (mucus) was kept at -80 °C until use. The enzymatic (proteolytic and phospholipase A 2 ), inhibitory (metallo, cysteine and serine proteases), and hemagglutinating (human erythrocyte) activities were determined. The results showed high levels of cysteine and metallo proteases, intermediate levels of phosholipase A 2 , low levels of trypsin, and no elastase and chymotrypsin like activities. The mucus showed potent inhibitory activity on snake venom metalloproteases and cysteine proteinase papain. In addition, it showed agglutinating activity towards O + , B + , and A + erythrocyte types. The hemostatic results showed that the mucus prolongs the aPTT and PT, and strongly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, epinephrine, ADP, and thrombin. The antimicrobial activity was tested on 15 strains of bacteria and fungi through the radial diffusion assay in agar, and no activity was observed. Compounds in P. caribaeorum mucus were analyzed for the first time in this study, and our results show potential pharmacological activities in these compounds, which are relevant for use in physiopathological investigations. However, the demonstration of these activities indicates caution in the use of crude mucus in folk medicine. Furthermore, the present or absent activities identified in this mucus suggest that the studied P. caribaeorum colonies were in thermal stress conditions at the time of sample collection; these conditions may precede the bleaching

  5. Laser Polarimeter for Measurement of Optical Activity of Biological Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasov, E. A.; Protasov, D. E.; Ryzhkova, A. V.

    In this paper has been described the polarimetric device for measurement of optical activity of biological tissues, where the source of radiation is an infrared laser with a wave λ=0.808 micron. The polarizers used are polarizing prisms of Glan - Taylor. To obtain required angular resolution (0.180/cm) has been developed a device that converts the angle of rotation of the analyzer into electrical signal, which is fed to the appropriate scan digital oscilloscope. The passage of the polarized light through the fingers of the hand was established and the angles of rotation of the polarization vector of the transmitted radiation were measured, the values of which may be determined by the content of hemoglobin in the blood.

  6. Relationships between the stereochemistry and biological activity of fungal phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Toxins produced by phytopathogenic fungi assume great importance because of their involvement in several plant diseases. Although such pathogens are known to have seriously damaged crops, forest, and environmental resources, they represent a very important tool to develop new environmentally friendly herbicides and fungicides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for major forest plants and for damaging weeds and their stereochemistry. In particular, the methods used to determine their relative and/or absolute configuration will be illustrated. These include the application of Mosher's and Murata's methods, X-ray diffractometric analysis, circular dichroism, and the use of computational methods to determine the theoretical optical rotatory power as well as the CD spectrum. The importance of determining the absolute configuration to achieve the total synthesis of some phytotoxins, interesting for their potential practical application, is also discussed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides and induced biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi Keizo; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Relationship between irradiation effect of polysaccharides and induced biological activity for plants has been investigated. Sodium alginate was irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). Measurement of molecular weight and analysis of UV spectra of irradiated sodium alginate have been carried out. The molecular weight was decreased by irradiation in both conditions. New absorbance peak derived from double bond or/and carbonyl group was appeared at close to 267 nm by irradiation in UV spectra. It was found that alginate having molecular weight about 10,000 is most suitable to used as growth promoter in plants. To obtain the molecular weight of 10,000 by irradiation, the necessary doses are 100 kGy in liquid state and 500 kGy in solid state, respectively. (author)

  8. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  9. Neutron activation analysis on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at giving support to the Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, an assessment related arsenic was carried out in two galvanising factories by means of hair and toenail samples analysis as biomonitors. The arsenic was determined in all matrixes from the factories where gold electrodeposition process was applied. This is because arsenic salts are usually added to gold bath to improve the metal covering. The high concentration results surprised the health surveillance professionals, and alerted for the need of assessing the influence of a long-term exposure. Studies concerning galvanising process have usually been developed broaching many aspects, but so far few works has pointed out the detection and measurement of other elements like arsenic. The k 0 -Instrumental Neutron Activation method was applied confirming to be a suitable technique on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes. (author)

  10. Structure and Biological Activity of Pathogen-like Synthetic Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R.; Somogyi, Eszter; Horkay, Ferenc; Chandran, Preethi; Douglas, Jack F.; Szebeni, János; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2011-01-01

    Here we characterize the structure, stability and intracellular mode-of-action of DermaVir nanomedicine that is under clinical development for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. This nanomedicine is comprised of pathogen-like pDNA/PEIm nanoparticles (NPs) having the structure and function resembling spherical viruses that naturally evolved to deliver nucleic acids to the cells. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated spherical 100–200nm NPs with a smooth polymer surface protecting the pDNA in the core. Optical-absorption determined both the NP structural stability and biological activity relevant to their ability to escape from the endosome and release the pDNA at the nucleus. Salt, pH and temperature influence the nanomedicine shelf-life and intracellular stability. This approach facilitates the development of diverse polyplex nanomedicines where the delivered pDNA-expressed antigens induce immune responses to kill infected cells. PMID:21839051

  11. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated.

  12. Certification of biological candidates reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Denis V.; Nesterova, Yulia V.; Merkulov, Viktor G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper gives the results of interlaboratory certification of new biological candidate reference materials by neutron activation analysis recommended by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland). The correctness and accuracy of the applied method was statistically estimated for the determination of trace elements in candidate reference materials. The procedure of irradiation in the reactor thermal fuel assembly without formation of fast neutrons was carried out. It excluded formation of interfering isotopes leading to false results. The concentration of more than 20 elements (e.g., Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Tb, Yb, U, Zn) in candidate references of tobacco leaves and bottom sediment compared to certified reference materials were determined. It was shown that the average error of the applied method did not exceed 10%.

  13. The Role of miR-330-3p/PKC-α Signaling Pathway in Low-Dose Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide-II Increasing the Permeability of Blood-Tumor Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine whether EMAP II increases the permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB by affecting the expression of miR-330-3p as well as its possible mechanisms. We determined the over-expression of miR-330-3p in glioma microvascular endothelial cells (GECs by Real-time PCR. Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II significantly decreased the expression of miR-330-3p in GECs. Pre-miR-330-3p markedly decreased the permeability of BTB and increased the expression of tight junction (TJ related proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5, however, anti-miR-330-3p had the opposite effects. Anti-miR-330-3p could enhance the effect of EMAP-II on increasing the permeability of BTB, however, pre-miR-330-3p partly reversed the effect of EMAP-II on that. Similarly, anti-miR-330-3p improved the effects of EMAP-II on increasing the expression levels of PKC-α and p-PKC-α in GECs and pre-miR-330-3p partly reversed the effects. MiR-330-3p could target bind to the 3′UTR of PKC-α. The results of in vivo experiments were similar to those of in vitro experiments. These suggested that EMAP-II could increase the permeability of BTB through inhibiting miR-330-3p which target negative regulation of PKC-α. Pre-miR-330-3p and PKC-α inhibitor decreased the BTB permeability and up-regulated the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 while anti-miR-330-3p and PKC-α activator brought the reverse effects. Compared with EMAP-II, anti-miR-330-3p and PKC-α activator alone, the combination of the three combinations significantly increased the BTB permeability. EMAP-II combined with anti-miR-330-3p and PKCα activator could enhance the DOX’s effects on inhibiting the cell viabilities and increasing the apoptosis of U87 glioma cells. Our studies suggest that low-dose EMAP-II up-regulates the expression of PKC-α and increases the activity of PKC-α by inhibiting the expression of miR-330-3p, reduces the expression of ZO-1

  14. Biological activities of undescribed North American lichen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeash, Erik A; Letwin, Lyndon; Malek, Lada; Suntres, Zacharias; Knudsen, Kerry; Christopher, Lew P

    2017-11-01

    Lichens provide a large array of compounds with the potential for pharmaceutical development. In the present study, extracts from three previously undescribed North American lichen species were examined for antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activities. The results from this study demonstrated the following: (i) Acarospora socialis ethanol extract exhibited significant DPPH antioxidant scavenging activities, which were concentration dependent; (ii) acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Xanthoparmelia mexicana inhibited Gram-positive bacteria but had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria; X. mexicana acetone extract yielded a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 20.9 µg mL -1 against Staphylococcus aureus, and 41.9 µg mL -1 against Enterococcus faecalis; (iii) acetone extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca inhibited growth of cultured breast cancer MCF-7 cells with an effective concentration (EC 50 ) of 87 µg mL -1 ; the MCF-7 cell cycle appears arrested in the G2 phase, whereas the DNA synthesis cell cycle (S) may be inhibited. New lichen species that possess strong biological activities have been identified. These lichens comprise secondary metabolites that possess antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  16. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  17. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  18. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical and Biological activities on Russelia juncea Zucc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bibi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To probe the ethnomedicinal claims of Russelia juncea Zucc. (Plantaginaceae as prescribed traditionally in the folklore history of medicines. Methods: The dichloromethane and methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots were examined for antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiglycation, insecticidal, leishmanicidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Different phytochemical tests were also performed to confirm the presence of various groups of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Results: Phytochemical screening of this plant confirmed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Antibacterial activity was only shown by RJRD with 80% inhibition at the concentration of 150µg/ml against Shigella flexneri. Among the tested samples, RJAM and RJRM displayed significant radical scavenging activity up to 93% and 89% with IC50 values of 184.75 ± 4.05µM and 263.01 ± 9.36µM. The significant antiglycation potential was exhibited by RJAD, RJAM and RJRM with 55.35%, 62.25% and 59.22% inhibition and IC50 values of 0.84 ± 0.08mg/ml, 1.37 ± 0.15mg/ml and 1.52 ± 0.10mg/ml respectively. Moderate leishmanicidal activity was exposed by RJAD and RJRM with IC50 values of 73.04 ± 1.05µg/ml and 77.66 ± 0.23µg/ml while RJAM was found to be more potent and exposed significant leishmanicidal activity having IC50 of 48 ± 0.39µg/ml. However, prominent cytotoxic activity was displayed by RJRM with 66.08% inhibition and IC50 of 31.20 ± 3µg/ml. Non-significant antifungal, insecticidal and phytotoxic activities were demonstrated by all the tested samples. Conclusion: All the above contributions give serious attentiveness to scientists to isolate and purify the biologically active phytoconstituents by using advanced scientific methodologies that serve as lead compounds in the synthesis of new therapeutic agents of desired interest in the world of drug discovery.

  20. Phenolic compounds characterization and biological activities of Citrus aurantium bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Hendra, Rudi; Oskoueian, Armin; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-30

    Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP). The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to appreciable

  1. Role of Muramyl Dipeptide in Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Biological Activity and Osteoclast Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kitaura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is an endotoxin and bacterial cell wall component that is capable of inducing inflammation and immunological activity. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP, the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is another inflammation-inducing molecule that is ubiquitously expressed by bacteria. Several studies have shown that inflammation-related biological activities were synergistically induced by interactions between LPS and MDP. MDP synergistically enhances production of proinflammatory cytokines that are induced by LPS exposure. Injection of MDP induces lethal shock in mice challenged with LPS. LPS also induces osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption; MDP enhances LPS induction of both processes. Furthermore, MDP enhances the LPS-induced receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, MDP enhances LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling in stromal cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that MDP plays an important role in LPS-induced biological activities. This review discusses the role of MDP in LPS-mediated biological activities, primarily in relation to osteoclastogenesis.

  2. Measles virus polypeptides in purified virions and in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaeae, R.; Ziola, B.; Salmi, A.

    1978-01-01

    A wild-type measles virus was radiolabeled during growth in VERO cells and purified by two successive potassium tartrate gradient centrifugations. The virion polypeptide composition was determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis employing two different buffer systems. Six virus-specific polypeptides were consistently detected. The largest (L) had a molecular weight (MW) of greater than 150,000. The second largest polypeptide, G (MW 79,000), was the only glycoprotein found. The proteins designated polypeptide 2 (MW 66 to 70,000) and nucleocapsid protein or NP (MW 61,000) were phosphorylated. The remaining virus-coded proteins were polypeptide 5 (MW 40,000) and the matrix or M protein (MW 37,000). Measles virions also contained a polypeptide (MW 42,000) thought to be actin due to co-migration with this component of uninfected cells. Analysis of in vitro 3 H-acetic anhydride radiolabeled virions confirmed the presence of these seven polypeptides. Acetic anhydride also labeled a protein designated polypeptide 4 (MW 53,000) which was not consistently radiolabeled in vivo, as well as several other minor proteins believed to be cellular in origin. Synthesis of the six virus-specific structural polypeptides was detected in lysates of infected cells by SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Virus specificity of polypeptide 4 could not be confirmed due to the similar MW of several cellular polypeptides. Two non-virion, but virus-specified polypeptides, of MW 38,000 and 18,000 were also detected. Synthesis of the virus structural proteins was in the same proportions as the polypeptides found in virions except for under production of polypeptide G and over production of polypeptide 2. (author)

  3. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  5. Modeling large scale cohesive sediment transport affected by small scale biological activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, Bastiaan Wijnand; de Vries, Mindert; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; de Boer, Gerben J.

    2008-01-01

    Biological activity on the bottom of the seabed is known to have significant influence on the dynamics of cohesive sediment on a small spatial and temporal scale. In this study, we aim to understand the large-scale effects of small-scale biological activity. Hereto, effects of biology are

  6. A novel conformation of gel grown biologically active cadmium nicotinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Lekshmi P.; Bijini, B. R.; Divya, R.; Nair, Prabitha B.; Eapen, S. M.; Dileep Kumar, B. S.; Nishanth Kumar, S.; Nair, C. M. K.; Deepa, M.; Rajendra Babu, K.

    2017-11-01

    The elimination of toxic heavy metals by the formation of stable co-ordination compounds with biologically active ligands is applicable in drug designing. A new crystalline complex of cadmium with nicotinic acid is grown at ambient temperature using the single gel diffusion method in which the crystal structure is different from those already reported. Single crystal x-ray diffraction reveals the identity of crystal structure belonging to monoclinic system, P21/c space group with cell dimensions a = 17.220 (2) Å, b = 10.2480 (2) Å, c = 7.229(9) Å, β = 91.829(4)°. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallinity of the sample. The unidentate mode of co-ordination between the metal atom and the carboxylate group is supported by the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectral data. Thermal analysis ensures the thermal stability of the complex. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are also calculated. The stoichiometry of the complex is confirmed by the elemental analysis. The UV-visible spectral analysis shows the wide transparency window of the complex in the visible region. The band gap of the complex is found to be 3.92 eV. The complex shows excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  7. Chemical constituents and biological activities of two Iranian Cystoseira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegdaneh, Afsaneh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Dayani, Ladan

    2016-07-01

    The marine environment represents approximately half of the global biodiversity and could provide unlimited biological resources for the production of therapeutic drugs. Marine seaweeds comprise few thousands of species representing a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Extracts of the Cystoseira indica and Cystoseira merica were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity evaluation. The amount of total phenol was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) using Sulforhodamin assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant constituents in these Cystoseira species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. C. indica had the higher content of total phenolics and also showed higher antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic results showed that both species inhibited cell growth effectively, especially against MCF-7 cell line. The present findings suggest potential pharmacological applications of selected seaweeds but require further investigation and identification of their bioactive principles.

  8. Pomegranate Fruit as a Rich Source of Biologically Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Sreeja; Sithul, Hima; Muraleedharan, Parvathy; Azeez, Juberiya Mohammed; Sreeharshan, Sreeja

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate is a widely used plant having medicinal properties. In this review, we have mainly focused on the already published data from our laboratory pertaining to the effect of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME) and have compared it with other relevant literatures on Punica. Earlier, we had shown its antiproliferative effect using human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231), and endometrial (HEC-1A), cervical (SiHa, HeLa), and ovarian (SKOV3) cancer cell lines, and normal breast fibroblasts (MCF-10A) at concentration of 20–320 μg/mL. The expressions of selected estrogen responsive genes (PR, pS2, and C-Myc) were downregulated by PME. Unlike estradiol, PME did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in bilaterally ovariectomized Swiss-Albino mice models and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. We had further assessed the protective role of PME on skeletal system, using MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicated that PME (80 μg/mL) significantly increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) activity, supporting its suggested role in modulating osteoblastic cell differentiation. The antiosteoporotic potential of PME was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model. The results from our studies and from various other studies support the fact that pomegranate fruit is indeed a source of biologically active compounds. PMID:24818149

  9. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, A. M.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  10. Analysis of urine composition in type Ⅱ diabetic mice after intervention therapy using holothurian polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Xu, Jiajie; Su, Xiurong

    2017-07-01

    Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF) obtained from sea cucumber with commercial enzyme were studied on the hpyerglycemic and renal protective effects on db/db rats using urine metabolomics. Compared with the control group the polypeptides from the two species could significantly reduce the urine glucose and urea. We also tried to address the compositions of highly expressed urinary proteins using a proteomics approach. They were serum albumins, AMBP proteins, negative trypsin, elastase and urinary protein, GAPDH, a receptor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR), and Ig kappa chain C region. We used the electronic nose to quickly detect changes in the volatile substances in mice urine after holothurian polypeptides fed, and the results show it can identify the difference between treatment groups with the control group without overlapping. The protein express mechanism of holothurian polypeptides treating diabetes was discussed, and we suggested these two peptides with the hypoglycemic and renal protective activity might be utilized as nutraceuticals.

  11. A signaling polypeptide derived from an innate immune adaptor molecule can be harnessed as a new class of vaccine adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobiyama, Kouji; Takeshita, Fumihiko; Ishii, Ken J; Koyama, Shohei; Aoshi, Taiki; Akira, Shizuo; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Yamanaka, Yuko; Hirano, Hisashi; Suzuki, Koichi; Okuda, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Modulation of intracellular signaling using cell-permeable polypeptides is a promising technology for future clinical applications. To develop a novel approach to activate innate immune signaling by synthetic polypeptides, we characterized several different polypeptides derived from the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of IFN-beta promoter stimulator 1, each of which localizes to a different subcellular compartment. Of particular interest was, N'-CARD, which consisted of the nuclear localization signal of histone H2B and the IFN-beta promoter stimulator 1CARD and which localized to the nucleus. This polypeptide led to a strong production of type I IFNs and molecular and genetic analyses showed that nuclear DNA helicase II is critically involved in this response. N'-CARD polypeptide fused to a protein transduction domain (N'-CARD-PTD) readily transmigrated from the outside to the inside of the cell and triggered innate immune signaling. Administration of N'-CARD-PTD polypeptide elicited production of type I IFNs, maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, and promotion of vaccine immunogenicity by enhancing Ag-specific Th1-type immune responses, thereby protecting mice from lethal influenza infection and from outgrowth of transplanted tumors in vivo. Thus, our results indicate that the N'-CARD-PTD polypeptide belongs to a new class of vaccine adjuvant that directly triggers intracellular signal transduction by a distinct mechanism from those engaged by conventional vaccine adjuvants, such as TLR ligands.

  12. Actinobacteria from arid and desert habitats: diversity and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim eWink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability.At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria

  13. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  14. Isolation, Biological Activities and Synthesis of Indoloquinoline Alkaloids: Cryptolepine, Isocryptolepine and Neocryptolepine

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvatkar, P.T.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    of biological properties. This review describes the isolation, brief biological activities and various synthetic methodologies developed during recent years for the preparation of this important class of alkaloids, with special emphasis on preparation...

  15. The Generation of Dehydroalanine Residues in Protonated Polypeptides: Ion/Ion Reactions for Introducing Selective Cleavages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhou; Bu, Jiexun; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-09-01

    We examine a gas-phase approach for converting a subset of amino acid residues in polypeptide cations to dehydroalanine (Dha). Subsequent activation of the modified polypeptide ions gives rise to specific cleavage N-terminal to the Dha residue. This process allows for the incorporation of selective cleavages in the structural characterization of polypeptide ions. An ion/ion reaction within the mass spectrometer between a multiply protonated polypeptide and the sulfate radical anion introduces a radical site into the multiply protonated polypeptide reactant. Subsequent collisional activation of the polypeptide radical cation gives rise to radical side chain loss from one of several particular amino acid side chains (e.g., leucine, asparagine, lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid) to yield a Dha residue. The Dha residues facilitate preferential backbone cleavages to produce signature c- and z-ions, demonstrated with cations derived from melittin, mechano growth factor (MGF), and ubiquitin. The efficiencies for radical side chain loss and for subsequent generation of specific c- and z-ions have been examined as functions of precursor ion charge state and activation conditions using cations of ubiquitin as a model for a small protein. It is noted that these efficiencies are not strongly dependent on ion trap collisional activation conditions but are sensitive to precursor ion charge state. Moderate to low charge states show the greatest overall yields for the specific Dha cleavages, whereas small molecule losses (e.g., water/ammonia) dominate at the lowest charge states and proton catalyzed amide bond cleavages that give rise to b- and y-ions tend to dominate at high charge states. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. O-Glycosylation Modulates Proprotein Convertase Activation of Angiopoietin-like Protein 3: POSSIBLE ROLE OF POLYPEPTIDE GalNAc-TRANSFERASE-2 IN REGULATION OF CONCENTRATIONS OF PLASMA LIPIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Vester-Christensen, Malene B; Bennett, Eric Paul

    2010-01-01

    immediately C-terminal (TT(226)). We developed an in vivo model system in CHO ldlD cells that was used to show that O-glycosylation in the processing site blocked processing of ANGPTL3. Genome-wide SNP association studies have identified the polypeptide GalNAc-transferase gene, GALNT2, as a candidate gene...... for low HDL and high triglyceride blood levels. We hypothesized that the GalNAc-T2 transferase performed critical O-glycosylation of proteins involved in lipid metabolism. Screening of a panel of proteins known to affect lipid metabolism for potential sites glycosylated by GalNAc-T2 led to identification...

  17. [Biologically active substances of black currant of new varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasishcheva, N V; Artemova, E N

    2013-01-01

    The assortment of black currant actively replenishes and is constantly updated as a result of successful work of domestic and foreign selectors. New grades of black currant are characterized by the raised content of biologically active substances, including vitamin C, P-active agents, pectin and are of special interest for studying. Fresh berries of seven grades (Azhurnaya, Arapka, Iskushenie, Kreolka, Ladushka, Orel serenade, Ocharovanie) of black currant which were selected by the All-Russian research institute of selection of fruit crops and are perspective for cultivation in the Central Chernozem Region of Russia were chosen as objects for research. The nutritional value of fresh berries was found to vary. Average content of soluble solids was 14.1%, while those below the average were observed in Kreolka (12.1%). The maximum amount of sugars characterized Ladushka grade (11.05%), minimum--Kreolka (9.00%). It has been found that most varieties have fairly high acidity. It is worth noting grade Ladushka, which had the highest sugar-acid index (4.39), with the lowest acidity (2.51%). The highest content of ascorbic acid was found in varieties Orel Serenade--183.7 mg/100 g, the smallest--Ocharovanie--110 mg/100 g, grade Azhurnaya, Kreolka, Ladushka exceeded this indicator average value (144.9 mg/100 g). In terms of the amount of P-active substances stood grades having values above the average (722.2 mg/100 g): Azhurnaya (789.8 mg/100 g), Kreolka (864.5 mg/100 g), Oryol serenade (765.6 mg/100 g). The average content of pectin in the studied berries of black currant was 7.92%, with a minimum of 6.30% was observed in grades Azhurnaya, maximum 9.90%--the kind Oryol serenade. High values of this index were characterized by grade Ladushka, Ocharovanie. Azhurnaya varieties, Creole, Orel serenade had high levels of ascorbic acid and P-active substances. Sort Ladushka marked as a dessert due to the largest sugar-acid ratio. Ladushka, Orel Serenade, Ocharovanie have the

  18. A Survey of Biology Teachers Use of Activity-Oriented, Laboratory Practical Exercises to Promote Functional Biology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Mgboyibo Osuafor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of science education is fostering students’ intellectual competencies such as independent learning, problem-solving, decision-making and critical thinking. This goal can only be achieved when students are actively involved in the teaching-learning process through activity-based, practical-oriented instructional methods involving the use of laboratories. This study therefore, investigated the extent to which the biology teachers employ activity-oriented, laboratory/practical instructional methods in order to improve the learning outcome of their students. The descriptive survey involved 73 Biology teachers randomly selected from all the six education zones of Anambra state, Nigeria. Four research questions were posed and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the conduct of the study. A 32-item structured questionnaire which has reliability co-efficient of 0.82 was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-tests. Results show that Biology teachers adopt practical-oriented strategies in teaching biology, conduct practical activities to a high extent, and perceive practical exercises as essential to effective teaching and learning of the subject. Provision of adequate number of laboratory materials, employment of adequate number of biology teachers, making provision for well designed laboratory activities in the curriculum and training of teachers on how to effectively combine theory with practical are some of the strategies that will encourage biology teachers to conduct practical lessons. There was no significant difference between male and female biology teachers in their responses to the different aspects investigated. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made that include that curriculum designers should incorporate guides for practical activities that go with each topic in the curriculum so as to encourage the teachers to teach theory with practical as a unified whole to

  19. Congenital deficiency of two polypeptide subunits of the iron-protein fragment of mitochondrial complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreadith, R W; Cleeter, M W; Ragan, C I; Batshaw, M L; Lehninger, A L

    1987-02-01

    Recently, we described a patient with severe lactic acidosis due to congenital complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) deficiency. We now report further enzymatic and immunological characterizations. Both NADH and ferricyanide titrations of complex I activity (measured as NADH-ferricyanide reductase) were distinctly altered in the mitochondria from the patient's tissues. In addition, antisera against complex I immunoprecipitated NADH-ferricyanide reductase from the control but not the patient's mitochondria. However, immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of complex I polypeptides demonstrated that the majority of the 25 polypeptides comprising complex I were present in the affected mitochondria. A more detailed analysis using subunit selective antisera against the main polypeptides of the iron-protein fragments of complex I revealed a selective absence of the 75- and 13-kD polypeptides. These findings suggest that the underlying basis for this patient's disease was a congenital deficiency of at least two polypeptides comprising the iron-protein fragment of complex I, which resulted in the inability to correctly assemble a functional enzyme complex.

  20. Nanostructured complexes of polyelectrolytes and charged polypeptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, M.; Ouyang, W.; Bohatá, Karolína; Kessler, B.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, Sp. Iss. 9 (2010), B519-B528 ISSN 1438-1656. [Sino-German Symposium on Advanced Biomedical Nanostructures /1./. Jena, 26.10.2009-30.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : situ ATR-FTIR * alpha-helical polypeptides * multilayer films Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.746, year: 2010

  1. Essential Oils from Neotropical Piper Species and Their Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Rafaela; Alves, Nayara Sabrina; Figueiredo, Pablo Luís; Maia, José Guilherme S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality. The main volatile compounds identified in Piper EOs are monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and large amounts of phenylpropanoids. In this review, we are reporting the biological potential of Piper EOs from the Neotropical region. There are many reports of Piper EOs as antimicrobial agents (fungi and bacteria), antiprotozoal (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma spp.), acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity against different tumor cells lines (breast, leukemia, melanoma, gastric, among others). These studies can contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Piper species, once they have been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to treat human diseases. PMID:29240662

  2. Isoflavone profile and biological activity of soy bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Chu; Albrecht, Daniel; Bomser, Joshua; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael

    2003-12-17

    The present study examines the ability of isoflavone extracts from whole soy bread and two soy bread fractions, crumb and crust, to modulate the proliferation of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Total isoflavone content in the two fractions of soy bread were similar (3.17 micromol/g dry basis). However, their conjugate patterns were altered. Both fractions of soy bread contained a similar level of isoflavone aglycones ( approximately 24%). Low concentrations of soy bread extracts increased PC-3 cell proliferation as much as 47% compared to untreated control. This proliferative effect in cell growth was reduced at higher extract concentration. Soy bread crust extract (10 mg/mL) reduced PC-3 cell proliferation by 15% compared to untreated control. Interestingly, wheat bread extracts increased cell proliferation at all concentrations tested. Although extracts from both breads possessed biological activity, only soy bread crust extract reduced PC-3 cell proliferation. This observation may be related to the presence of soy in this bread.

  3. Nonoxidized, biologically active parathyroid hormone determines mortality in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Armbruster, Franz Paul; Grön, Hans Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Background: It was shown that nonoxidized PTH (n-oxPTH) is bioactive, whereas the oxidation of PTH results in a loss of biological activity. Methods: In this study we analyzed the association of n-oxPTH on mortality in hemodialysis patients using a recently developed assay system. Results......: Hemodialysis patients (224 men, 116 women) had a median age of 66 years. One hundred seventy patients (50%) died during the follow-up period of 5 years. Median n-oxPTH levels were higher in survivors (7.2 ng/L) compared with deceased patients (5.0 ng/L; P = .002). Survival analysis showed an increased survival...... in the highest n-oxPTH tertile compared with the lowest n-oxPTH tertile (χ(2), 14.3; P = .0008). Median survival was 1702 days in the highest n-oxPTH tertile, whereas it was only 453 days in the lowest n-oxPTH tertile. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression showed that higher age increased odds for death, whereas...

  4. Synthesis of Combretastatin A-4 Analogs and their Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Agnieszka; Gensicka, Monika; Cholewinski, Grzegorz; Dzierzbicka, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) is a natural product, which consists of two phenyl rings, linked by an ethylene bridge. CA-4, inhibitor of polymerization of tubulin to microtubules, possesses a strong antitumor and anti-vascular properties both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies showed that disodium phosphate salt of CA-4, a water-soluble prodrug is well tolerated at therapeutically useful doses. However, it should be noted that the cis-configuration of the double bond and the 3,4,5-trimethoxy group on ring A is necessary for the biological activity of CA-4. Structure of CA-4 renders the compound readily susceptible to isomerization, which reduces the potency and bioavailability. To circumvent this problem, a lot of scientists in the world synthesized a series of cis-restricted CA-4 analogs, where the double bond has been replaced by introduction of non-heterocyclic groups or heterocyclic groups like β -lactam and oxadiazole. This paper reviews the most important approaches in analogs of combretastatin synthesis and presents structure-reactivity relationships for these compounds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Nieto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  6. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-08-23

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  7. Improved docking of polypeptides with Glide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubert-Brohman, Ivan; Sherman, Woody; Repasky, Matt; Beuming, Thijs

    2013-07-22

    Predicting the binding mode of flexible polypeptides to proteins is an important task that falls outside the domain of applicability of most small molecule and protein-protein docking tools. Here, we test the small molecule flexible ligand docking program Glide on a set of 19 non-α-helical peptides and systematically improve pose prediction accuracy by enhancing Glide sampling for flexible polypeptides. In addition, scoring of the poses was improved by post-processing with physics-based implicit solvent MM-GBSA calculations. Using the best RMSD among the top 10 scoring poses as a metric, the success rate (RMSD ≤ 2.0 Å for the interface backbone atoms) increased from 21% with default Glide SP settings to 58% with the enhanced peptide sampling and scoring protocol in the case of redocking to the native protein structure. This approaches the accuracy of the recently developed Rosetta FlexPepDock method (63% success for these 19 peptides) while being over 100 times faster. Cross-docking was performed for a subset of cases where an unbound receptor structure was available, and in that case, 40% of peptides were docked successfully. We analyze the results and find that the optimized polypeptide protocol is most accurate for extended peptides of limited size and number of formal charges, defining a domain of applicability for this approach.

  8. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  9. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Elastin-like polypeptides: A strategic fusion partner for biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Agnes; Cohen, Rick I; Rabolli, Charles; Yarmush, Martin L; Berthiaume, Francois

    2016-08-01

    Elastin-like peptides (ELPs) are derivatives of tropoelastin with a unique property that allows them to stay soluble below a certain critical temperature but reversibly form aggregates above that temperature. Since they are derived from tropoelastin, ELPs are biocompatible, non-toxic, and non-immunogenic. The unique properties of ELPs have made them a desirable class of fusion tags used in several biomedical applications including targeted drug delivery and enhancing the half-life of protein drugs. The most significant property of an ELP is that when fused to other proteins, the phase transition property of the ELP is maintained, and the target protein can be purified using the thermally driven property of the ELP. The ELP tag purification process is simple and inexpensive, and involves cycling the protein above and below the transition temperature of the ELP fusion followed by centrifugation to obtain the desired protein, without any need for chromatography. Consequently, using ELPs as a purification tag should be potentially interesting to biopharmaceutical companies who spend a significant percentage of their manufacturing costs on expensive protein purification techniques such as chromatography and filtration. However, ELP tags have not yet been used for commercial protein purification due to some challenges of translating this technique, which has been demonstrated mostly in academic laboratories, to a biotechnology manufacturing environment. The article first reviews the state-of-the-art in protein "ELPylation," and discusses some applications which have benefitted from using ELP as a fusion tag. Then, the article discusses the main advantages of using ELP as a purification tag, and evaluates the remaining hurdles for its implementation in industrial protein production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1617-1627. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Production of biologically active recombinant human factor H in Physcomitrella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner-Mainik, Annette; Parsons, Juliana; Jérôme, Hanna; Hartmann, Andrea; Lamer, Stephanie; Schaaf, Andreas; Schlosser, Andreas; Zipfel, Peter F; Reski, Ralf; Decker, Eva L

    2011-04-01

    The human complement regulatory serum protein factor H (FH) is a promising future biopharmaceutical. Defects in the gene encoding FH are associated with human diseases like severe kidney and retinal disorders in the form of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis II (MPGN II) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). There is a current need to apply intact full-length FH for the therapy of patients with congenital or acquired defects of this protein. Application of purified or recombinant FH (rFH) to these patients is an important and promising approach for the treatment of these diseases. However, neither protein purified from plasma of healthy individuals nor recombinant protein is currently available on the market. Here, we report the first stable expression of the full-length human FH cDNA and the subsequent production of this glycoprotein in a plant system. The moss Physcomitrella patens perfectly suits the requirements for the production of complex biopharmaceuticals as this eukaryotic system not only offers an outstanding genetical accessibility, but moreover, proteins can be produced safely in scalable photobioreactors without the need for animal-derived medium compounds. Transgenic moss lines were created, which express the human FH cDNA and target the recombinant protein to the culture supernatant via a moss-derived secretion signal. Correct processing of the signal peptide and integrity of the moss-produced rFH were verified via peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. Ultimately, we show that the rFH displays complement regulatory activity comparable to FH purified from plasma. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Creating cellular patterns using genetically engineered, gold- and cell-binding polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linying; Mo, Chia-Kuei; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Lopez, Gabriel P; Carroll, Nick J

    2016-06-27

    Patterning cells on material surfaces is an important tool for the study of fundamental cell biology, tissue engineering, and cell-based bioassays. Here, the authors report a simple approach to pattern cells on gold patterned silicon substrates with high precision, fidelity, and stability. Cell patterning is achieved by exploiting adsorbed biopolymer orientation to either enhance (gold regions) or impede (silicon oxide regions) cell adhesion at particular locations on the patterned surface. Genetic incorporation of gold binding domains enables C-terminal chemisorption of polypeptides onto gold regions with enhanced accessibility of N-terminal cell binding domains. In contrast, the orientation of polypeptides adsorbed on the silicon oxide regions limit the accessibility of the cell binding domains. The dissimilar accessibility of cell binding domains on the gold and silicon oxide regions directs the cell adhesion in a spatially controlled manner in serum-free medium, leading to the formation of well-defined cellular patterns. The cells are confined within the polypeptide-modified gold regions and are viable for eight weeks, suggesting that bioactive polypeptide modified surfaces are suitable for long-term maintenance of patterned cells. This study demonstrates an innovative surface-engineering approach for cell patterning by exploiting distinct ligand accessibility on heterogeneous surfaces.

  13. Effects of surface hydrophobicity on the conformational changes of polypeptides of different length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yan

    2011-09-01

    We studied the effects of surface hydrophobicity on the conformational changes of different length polypeptides by calculating the free energy difference between peptide structures using the bias-potential Monte Carlo technique and the probability ratio method. It was found that the hydrophobic surface plays an important role in the stability of secondary structures of the polypeptides with hydrophobic side chains. For short GAAAAG peptides, the hydrophobic surface destabilizes the α helix but stabilizes the β hairpin in the entire temperature region considered in our study. Interestingly, when the surface hydrophobic strength ε(hpsf)≥ε(hp), the most stable structure in the low temperature region changes from α helix to β hairpin, and the corresponding phase transition temperature increases slightly. For longer GAAAAAAAAAAG peptides, the effects of the relatively weak hydrophobic surface (ε(hpsf) ε(hp)) may further disturb the formation of both α-helical and β structures. Moreover, the phase transition temperature between α-helical structures and random coils significantly decreases due to the helicity loss when ε(hpsf)>ε(hp). Our findings provide a basic and quantitative picture for understanding the effects of a hydrophobic surface on the conformational changes of the polypeptides with hydrophobic side chains. From an application viewpoint, the present study is helpful in developing alternative strategies of producing high-quality biological fibrillar materials and functional nanoscale devices by the self-assembly of the polypeptides on hydrophobic surfaces.

  14. Characterization of biological macromolecules by electrophoresis and neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.F.; Hancock, D.; Zeisler, R.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure combining polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with INAA and autoradiography was developed to study biological macromolecules and their associated trace elements. Results from the application of this method to several metalloproteins are presented. (author)

  15. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  16. Improvement of Learning and Memory Induced by Cordyceps Polypeptide Treatment and the Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxin Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research revealed that Cordyceps militaris can improve the learning and memory, and although the main active ingredient should be its polypeptide complexes, the underlying mechanism of its activity remains poorly understood. In this study, we explored the mechanisms by which Cordyceps militaris improves learning and memory in a mouse model. Mice were given scopolamine hydrobromide intraperitoneally to establish a mouse model of learning and memory impairment. The effects of Cordyceps polypeptide in this model were tested using the Morris water maze test; serum superoxide dismutase activity; serum malondialdehyde levels; activities of acetyl cholinesterase, Na+-k+-ATPase, and nitric oxide synthase; and gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate contents in brain tissue. Moreover, differentially expressed genes and the related cellular signaling pathways were screened using an mRNA expression profile chip. The results showed that the genes Pik3r5, Il-1β, and Slc18a2 were involved in the effects of Cordyceps polypeptide on the nervous system of these mice. Our findings suggest that Cordyceps polypeptide may improve learning and memory in the scopolamine-induced mouse model of learning and memory impairment by scavenging oxygen free radicals, preventing oxidative damage, and protecting the nervous system.

  17. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  18. Protective effect of Cordyceps militaris polypeptide against acute alcoholic liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Qi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the protective effect of Cordyceps militaris polypeptide against acute alcoholic liver injury in rats and related mechanism. MethodsA total of 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose Cordyceps militaris polypeptide groups. All rats except those in the blank control group were given 10 ml/kg 56° liquor by gavage once a day; the rats in the blank control group were given distilled water of the same dose by gavage once a day. At 1 hour after gavage with liquor, the rats in the model group and low-, medium-, and high-dose Cordyceps militaris polypeptide groups were given distilled water or Cordyceps militaris polypeptide solution (6 ml/kg by gavage. Blood samples were collected from the orbit 4 weeks later. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and level of malondialdehyde (MDA in the liver were measured for each group, and the pathological changes in the liver were observed under a light microscope. Analysis of variance was applied for comparison between multiple groups, and the SNK-q test was applied for comparison between any two groups. ResultsCompared with the model group, the low-, medium-, and high-dose Cordyceps militaris polypeptide groups showed significant reductions in the serum levels of ALT and AST and the level of MDA in the liver (all P<0.05, as well as a significant increase in the activity of SOD in the liver (all P<0.05, while these indices showed significant differences between the low-, medium-, and high-dose Cordyceps militaris polypeptide groups (all P<0.05. The liver pathological sections from the low-, medium-, and high-dose Cordyceps militaris polypeptide groups showed alleviated hepatocyte fatty degeneration and necrosis induced by alcohol under a light microscope. ConclusionCordyceps militaris polypeptide has a protective effect

  19. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  20. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yao, Fangke; Ming, Ke; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2016-12-13

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  1. Effects on DPPH inhibition of egg-white protein polypeptides treated by pulsed electric field technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Jia; Liu, Bolong; Lin, Songyi; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Jingbo; Jones, Gregory; Huang, Hsiang-Chi

    2013-05-01

    Egg-white protein polypeptides are potentially used as a functional ingredient in food products. In this study, the effects on DPPH inhibition of egg-white protein polypeptides ranging from 10 to 30 kDa treated by pulsed electric field (PEF) technology were investigated. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition (%) was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of polypeptides. In order to develop and optimize a pulsed electric field (PEF) mathematical model for improving the antioxidant activity, we have investigated three variables, including concentration (6, 8 and 10 mg mL(-1)), electric field intensity (10, 20 and 30 kV cm(-1)) and pulse frequency (2000, 2350 and 2700 Hz) and subsequently optimized them by response surface methodology (RSM). The concentration (8 mg mL(-1)), electric field intensity (10 kV cm(-1)) and pulse frequency (2000 Hz) were found to be the optimal conditions under which the DPPH inhibition increased 28.44%, compared to the sample without PEF treatment. Both near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) were used to analyze the change of functional groups. The results showed that PEF technology could improve the antioxidant activity of antioxidant polypeptides from egg-white protein under the optimized conditions. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of peptides, polypeptides and proteins II reactions at side-chain loci in model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, W.M.

    1983-11-01

    The major emphasis in radiation biology at the molecular level has been on the nucleic acid component of the nucleic acid-protein complex because of its primary genetic importance. But there is increasing evidence that radiation damage to the protein component also has important biological implications. Damage to capsid protein now appears to be a major factor in the radiation inactivation of phage and other viruses. And, there is increasing evidence that radiation-chemical change in the protein component of chromation leads to changes in the stability of the repressor-operator complexes involved in gene expression. Knowledge of the radiation chemistry of protein is also of importance in other fields such as the application of radiation sterilization to foods and drugs. Recent findings that a class of compounds, the α,α'-diaminodicarboxylic acids, not normally present in food proteins, are formed in protein radiolysis is of particular significance since certain of their peptide derivatives have been showing to exhibit immunological activity. The purpose of this review is to bring together and to correlate our present knowledge of products and mechanisms in the radiolysis of peptides, polypeptides and proteins both aqueous and solid-state. In part 1 we presented a discussion of the radiation-induced reactions of the peptide main-chain in model peptide and polypeptide systems. Here in part 2 the emphasis is on the competing radiation chemistry at side-chain loci of peptide derivatives of aliphatic, aromatic-unsaturated and sulfur-containing amino acids in similar systems. Information obtained with the various experimental techniques of product analysis, competition kinetics, spin-trapping, pulse radiolysis, and ESR spectroscopy are included

  3. Phase transitions in polypeptides: analysis of energy fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    The helix random coil transition in alanine, valine, and leucine polypeptides consisting of 30 amino acids is studied in vacuo using the Langevin molecular dynamics approach. The influence of side chain radicals on internal energy and heat capacity of the polypeptides is discussed. The heat...... capacity of these polypeptides is calculated as a function of temperature using two different methods, namely, as the derivative of the energy with respect to temperature, and on the basis of energy fluctuations in the system. The convergence of the fluctuations based approach is analyzed as a function...... of simulation time. This study provides a comparison of methods for the description of structural transitions in polypeptides....

  4. Activities in biological radiation research at the AGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AGF is working on a wide spectrum of biological radiation research, with the different scientific disciplines contributing different methodologies to long-term research projects. The following fields are studied: 1. Molecular and cellular modes of action of radiation. 2. Detection and characterisation of biological radiation damage, especially in humans. 3. Medical applications of radiation effects. 4. Concepts and methods of radiation protection. The studies will lead to suggestions for radiation protection and improved radiotherapy. They may also contribute to the development of environmental protection strategies. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  6. Screening of some marine plants from the Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Solimabi; Kamat, S.Y.; De; Reddy, C.V.G.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Dhawan, B

    Extracts of twenty five seaweeds from Indian coast have been put through a broad biological screen which includes tests for antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antifertility activities and a wide range of pharmacological activities...

  7. Determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols in various objects by chromatographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetova, M V; Semenistaya, E N; Larionov, Oleg G; Revina, A A

    2007-01-01

    Chromatographic techniques for determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols are considered. Various methods for sample preparation and detection are compared. The advantages of high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection for determination of antioxidants are demonstrated. Data on determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols published in the period from 1995 to 2005 are analysed.

  8. Biologically Active Macrocyclic Compounds – from Natural Products to Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds are attractive targets when searching for molecules with biological activity. The interest in this compound class is increasing, which has led to a variety of methods for tackling the difficult macrocyclization step in their synthesis. This microreview highlights some recent...... developments in the synthesis of macrocycles, with an emphasis on chemistry developed to generate libraries of putative biologically active compounds....

  9. Detection of Specific Polypeptide(s Synthesized during the Sequential Stages of Differentiation in Dioscorea species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present investigation was aimed to detect the specific polypeptide(s appeared during the sequential stages of differentiation. Among different explants, only nodal explants showed good results for callusing. Depending on the fresh and dry weight, best callus growth was observed on MS medium supplemented with NAA (2.5 mg/L inDioscorea alata and 2, 4-D (2.0 mg/L inD. deltoidea, respectively. This callus was used for the regeneration. Roots differentiation was observed on MS medium + NAA (2.0 mg/L + IBA (0.5 mg/L and shoots on MS medium + BAP (2.0 mg/L + NAA (0.5 mg/L in D. alata while in D. deltoidea, roots on RT medium + IAA (1.0 mg/L and shoots on RT medium + BAP (1.0 mg/L + NAA (0.5 mg/L. Continuous decrease was seen in the total soluble protein during the differentiation inD. alatawhereas inD. deltoidea, the protein content decreased upto initiation stage. Four root specific polypeptides (MW 25.56, 24.35, 19.13 and 18.2 kDa and three shoot specific polypeptides (MW 53.7, 25.12 and 19.13 kDa were synthesized during the differentiation inD. alata. Similarly, two root specific (MW 33.9 and 31.69 kDa and one shoot specific (MW 16.98 kDa polypeptide band were appeared during differentiation in D. deltoidea.

  10. Primary Structure of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Activase and Evidence for a Single Polypeptide 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Keith R.; Ogren, William L.

    1990-01-01

    Immunoblot analysis of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) activase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii indicated the presence of a single polypeptide. This observation contrasts with the Spinacea oleracea (spinach) and Arabidopsis thaliana proteins, in which two polypeptide species are generated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing. A Chlamydomonas rubisco activase cDNA clone containing the entire coding region was isolated and sequenced. The open reading frame encoded a 408 amino acid, 45 kilodalton polypeptide that included a chloroplast transit peptide. The presumptive mature polypeptide possessed 62% and 65% amino acid sequence identity, respectively, with the spinach and Arabidopsis mature polypeptides. The Chlamydomonas rubisco activase transit peptide possessed almost no amino acid sequence identity with the higher plant transit peptides. The nucleotide sequence of Chlamydomonas rubisco activase cDNA provided no evidence for alternative mRNA splicing, consistent with the immunoblot evidence for only one polypeptide. Genomic DNA blot analysis indicated the presence of a single Chlamydomonas rubisco activase gene. In the presence of spinach rubisco activase, a lower extent and rate of activation were obtained in vitro with Chlamydomonas rubisco than with spinach rubisco. We conclude Chlamydomonas rubisco activase comprises a single polypeptide which differs considerably from the higher plant polypeptides with respect to primary structure. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:16667924

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of new homolupanes and homolupane saponins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sidoryk, K.; Korda, A.; Rárová, Lucie; Oklešťková, Jana; Strnad, Miroslav; Cmoch, P.; Pakulski, Z.; Gwardiak, K.; Karczewski, R.; Luboradzki, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 13 (2015), s. 2004-2012 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Homobetulin * Homobetulinic acid * Glycosylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.645, year: 2015

  12. Investigation of nonfouling polypeptides of poly(glutamic acid) with lysine side chains synthesized by EDC·HCl/HOBt chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Li, Wenchen; Wang, Longgang; Wang, Guangzhi; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Lingyun; Chen, Shengfu

    2014-01-01

    Nonfouling polypeptides with homogenous alternating charges draw peoples' attentions for their potential capability in biodegradation. Homogenous glutamic acid (E) and lysine (K) polypeptides were proposed and synthesized before. In this work, a new polypeptide formed by poly(glutamic acid) with lysine side chains (poly(E)-K) was synthesized by facile EDC·HCl/HOBt chemistry and investigated. Results show that these polypeptides also have good nonspecific protein resistance determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The lowest nonspecific adsorption of the model proteins, anti-IgG and fibrinogen (Fg), on the self-assembling monolayers (SAMs) surface of poly(E)-K was only 3.3 ± 1.8 and 4.4 ± 1.6%, respectively, when protein adsorption on tissue culture polystyrene surface was set as 100%. And, the relative nonspecific protein adsorption increases when the polypeptide molecular weight increases due to the repression of low density polymer brushes. Moreover, almost no obvious cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity in vitro were detected. This work suggests that polypeptides with various formats of homogenous balanced charges could achieve excellent nonspecific protein resistance, which might be the intrinsic reason for the coexistence of high concentration serum proteins in blood.

  13. Biological activities of Peganum harmala leaves | Hayet | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant activity was evaluated using ammonium thiocyanate method. Among tested extracts, methanol and chloroform extracts displayed a higher antibacterial activity against gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria. The methanol extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity and good antiviral activity ...

  14. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Huaiyu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD, Entity Relationship (ER and Activity Flow (AF, allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail.

  15. Synthesis, biological activities, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel camptothecin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Liu, Ying-Qian; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Zhu, Gao-Xiang; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Liu, Huan-Xiang; Chen, An-Liang

    2015-05-13

    In continuation of our program aimed at the development of natural product-based pesticidal agents, three series of novel camptothecin derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their biological activities against T. Cinnabarinus, B. brassicae, and B. xylophilus. All of the derivatives showed good-to-excellent activity against three insect species tested, with LC50 values ranging from 0.00761 to 0.35496 mmol/L. Remarkably, all of the compounds were more potent than CPT against T. Cinnabarinus, and compounds 4d and 4c displayed superior activity (LC50 0.00761 mmol/L and 0.00942 mmol/L, respectively) compared with CPT (LC50 0.19719 mmol/L) against T. Cinnabarinus. Based on the observed bioactivities, preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations were also discussed. Furthermore, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was built. The model gave statistically significant results with the cross-validated q2 values of 0.580 and correlation coefficient r2 of 0.991 and  of 0.993. The QSAR analysis indicated that the size of the substituents play an important in the activity of 7-modified camptothecin derivatives. These findings will pave the way for further design, structural optimization, and development of camptothecin-derived compounds as pesticidal agents.

  16. Pharmacological and biological activities of Mirabilis jalapa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Rozina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPlants have been used for health care and medical purposes for several thousands of years. The number of higher plant species on earth is about 250000. It is estimated that 35000 to 70000 species have, at one time or another, been used in some cultures for medicinal purposes. One of these is Mirabilis jalapa L. which is traditionally used as Purgative and emetic, for treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders, including dysentery, diarrhea, muscle pain and abdominal colic. Besides this it also exhibits certain useful activities like Antiviral activity, Antimicrobial activity, Antimalarial activity, Anthelmintic activity, Antioxidant activity, Aytotoxic activity Anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity, Antinociceptive activity, Antifungal activity, Anti-corrosion activity, Antispasmodic activity, Anti-inflammatory activity and many others. Pharmacologically active compounds include active alcoholic extract, ether compound-3,3’-Methylenebis (4- hydroxycoumarin N-D-alpha-Phenylyglycinelaminaribiitol-3-(4-(dimethylamino cinnamoyl 4hydroxycoumarin. The purpose of my review is to find out the areas of scope and to give the detail of the work done on Mirabilis Jalapa L. for future research work.

  17. The half-lives of biological activity of some pesticides in water

    OpenAIRE

    Kyaw Myint Oo,

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of analytical methods, the half-lives of biological activity of pesticides can be estimated by bioassays. To determine the half-lives of biological acivity of pesticides to fish, static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory with ten different formulations of pesticides using Labeo rohita as a bio-indicator. The half-lives of biological activity for ten different pesticides in soft water at pH 7.5 and 27░C, ranged from 4.6 days to 11.8 days. The half-life of biological acti...

  18. FINASOL OSR 52 active components biodegradation by using the biologic activator Biolen IG 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J. R.; Luengo, M. C.; Socias, S.; Perez, F.; Laseca, D.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Morales, N.

    1997-01-01

    Degradation of the active ingredients in the FINASOL OSR 52, a commonly used dispersant in the treatment of marine oil spills, was studied. BIOLEN IG 30, comprising a mixture of bacteria, specially selected for their ability to degrade a wide range of chemical compounds, was used as the biodegrading agent. The kinetic coefficients of the degradation process were determined at different conditions, at ambient temperature, and at controlled 20 degrees C. BIOLEN IC 10 biologic activator was found to be adequate for total ionic and anionic dispersant degradation of the FINASOL OSR 52 at room temperature and at controlled 20 degrees C. Weekly addition of one gram of BIOLEN IG 30 was observed to improve biodegradation percentages for both ionic and anionic dispersants at controlled 20 degrees C. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Interplay between Folding and Assembly of Fibril-Forming Polypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, R.; Abeln, S.; Schor, M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Bolhuis, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Polypeptides can self-assemble into hierarchically organized fibrils consisting of a stack of individually folded polypeptides driven together by hydrophobic interaction. Using a coarse-grained model, we systematically studied this self-assembly as a function of temperature and hydrophobicity of the

  20. Measles virus-specified polypeptides in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaepae, R.

    1979-01-01

    The synthesis of wild-type measles virus-specified polypeptides in Vero cells in pulse-chase experiments, in cells with synchronized protein synthesis by high salt concentration, and in the presence of proteolytic enzyme inhibitors was analyzed by polyacrylamide slab-gel electrophoresis. Six major (L, G, 2, NP, 5 and M) structural polypeptides were identified in infected cells. The results of pulse-chase experiments suggested that most of the structural polypeptides were synthesized at their final length. Polypeptide M was found to be sensitive to trypsin. In TLCK-treated cells its molecular weight was about 1000-2000 daltons higher than in untreated cells. A minor virus-specific polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 23,000 was found as a very faint and diffuse band. In addition, three nonstructural polypeptides with molecular weights of 65,000, 38,000 and 18,000 were also detected. The experiments with proteolytic enzyme inhibitors and with synchronized protein synthesis suggested that the polypeptide with a molecular weight of 65,000 might be a precursor of the structural polypeptide 5. (author)

  1. Biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda Beatriz; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-08-13

    The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has nutrients and phytochemicals, which make it an adequate source for the extraction and production of functional food ingredients. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest therapeutic and pharmacological applications for stevia and their extracts because they are not toxic and exhibit several biological activities. This review presents the biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to antidiabetic, anticariogenic, antioxidant, hypotensive, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. Consumption and adverse effects were also reviewed.

  2. An anti-cancer WxxxE-containing azurin polypeptide inhibits Rac1-dependent STAT3 and ERK/GSK-3β signaling in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Luo, Zhiyong; Min, Wenpu; Zhang, Lin; Wu, Yaqun; Hu, Xiaopeng

    2017-06-27

    In our previous study, we characterized a mycoplasmal small GTPase-like polypeptide of 240 amino acids that possesses an N-terminal WVLGE sequence. The N-terminal WVLGE sequence promotes activation of Rac1 and subsequent host cancer cell proliferation. To investigate the function of the WxxxE motif in the interaction with Rac1 and host tumor progression, we synthesized a 35-amino acid WVLGE-containing polypeptide derived from a cell-penetrating peptide derived from the azurin protein. We verified that the WVLGE-containing polypeptide targeted MCF-7 cells rather than MCF-10A cells. However, the WVLGE-containing polypeptide inhibited activation of Rac1 and induced cellular phenotypes that resulted from inhibition of Rac1. In addition, the WVLGE-containing polypeptide down-regulated phosphorylation of the STAT3 and ERK/GSK-3β signaling pathways, and this effect was abolished by either stimulation or inhibition of Rac1 activity. We also found that the WVLGE-containing polypeptide has a Rac1-dependent potential to suppress breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that by acting as a Rac1 inhibitor, this novel polypeptide may be useful for the treatment of breast cancer.

  3. Chirality-selected phase behaviour in ionic polypeptide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah L.; Leon, Lorraine; Hoffmann, Kyle Q.; Kade, Matthew J.; Priftis, Dimitrios; Black, Katie A.; Wong, Derek; Klein, Ryan A.; Pierce, Charles F.; Margossian, Khatcher O.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Qin, Jian; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes present new opportunities for self-assembled soft matter. Factors determining whether the phase of the complex is solid or liquid remain unclear. Ionic polypeptides enable examination of the effects of stereochemistry on complex formation. Here we demonstrate that chirality determines the state of polyelectrolyte complexes, formed from mixing dilute solutions of oppositely charged polypeptides, via a combination of electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Fluid complexes occur when at least one of the polypeptides in the mixture is racemic, which disrupts backbone hydrogen-bonding networks. Pairs of purely chiral polypeptides, of any sense, form compact, fibrillar solids with a β-sheet structure. Analogous behaviour occurs in micelles formed from polypeptide block copolymers with polyethylene oxide, where assembly into aggregates with either solid or fluid cores, and eventually into ordered phases at high concentrations, is possible. Chirality is an exploitable tool for manipulating material properties in polyelectrolyte complexation. PMID:25586861

  4. Structural variation and inhibitor binding in polypeptide deformylase from four different bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathrine J; Petit, Chantal M; Aubart, Kelly; Smyth, Martin; McManus, Edward; Jones, Jo; Fosberry, Andrew; Lewis, Ceri; Lonetto, Michael; Christensen, Siegfried B

    2003-02-01

    Polypeptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the deformylation of polypeptide chains in bacteria. It is essential for bacterial cell viability and is a potential antibacterial drug target. Here, we report the crystal structures of polypeptide deformylase from four different species of bacteria: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Escherichia coli. Comparison of these four structures reveals significant overall differences between the two Gram-negative species (E. coli and H. influenzae) and the two Gram-positive species (S. pneumoniae and S. aureus). Despite these differences and low overall sequence identity, the S1' pocket of PDF is well conserved among the four enzymes studied. We also describe the binding of nonpeptidic inhibitor molecules SB-485345, SB-543668, and SB-505684 to both S. pneumoniae and E. coli PDF. Comparison of these structures shows similar binding interactions with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species. Understanding the similarities and subtle differences in active site structure between species will help to design broad-spectrum polypeptide deformylase inhibitor molecules.

  5. Self-assemble nanoparticles based on polypeptides containing C-terminal luminescent Pt-cysteine complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakh, E. G.; Grachova, E. V.; Zhukovsky, D. D.; Hubina, A. V.; Mikhailova, A. S.; Shakirova, J. R.; Sharoyko, V. V.; Tunik, S. P.; Tennikova, T. B.

    2017-02-01

    The growing attention to the luminescent nanocarriers is strongly stimulated by their potential application as drug delivery systems and by the necessity to monitor their distribution in cells and tissues. In this communication we report on the synthesis of amphiphilic polypeptides bearing C-terminal phosphorescent label together with preparation of nanoparticles using the polypeptides obtained. The approach suggested is based on a unique and highly technological process where the new phosphorescent Pt-cysteine complex serves as initiator of the ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides to obtain the polypeptides bearing intact the platinum chromophore covalently bound to the polymer chain. It was established that the luminescent label retains unchanged its emission characteristics not only in the polypeptides but also in more complicated nanoaggregates such as the polymer derived amphiphilic block-copolymers and self-assembled nanoparticles. The phosphorescent nanoparticles display no cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity in the tested range of concentrations and easily internalize into living cells that makes possible in vivo cell visualization, including prospective application in time resolved imaging and drug delivery monitoring.

  6. Biologically Active Chorionic Gonadotropin: Synthesis by the Human Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, W. G.; Kuhn, R. W.; Jaffe, R. B.

    1983-04-01

    The kidney, and to a slight extent the liver, of human fetuses were found to synthesize and secrete the α subunit common to glycoprotein hormones. Fetal lung and muscle did not synthesize this protein. Since fetal kidney and liver were previously found to synthesize β chorionic gonadotropin, their ability to synthesize bioactive chorionic gonadotropin was also determined. The newly synthesized hormone bound to mouse Leydig cells and elicited a biological response: namely, the synthesis of testosterone. These results suggest that the human fetus may participate in metabolic homeostasis during its development.

  7. Folding and self-assembly of polypeptides: Dynamics and thermodynamics from molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluitt, Aaron Michael

    Empowered by their exquisite three-dimensional structures, or "folds," proteins carry out biological tasks with high specificity, efficiency, and fidelity. The fold that optimizes biological function represents a stable configuration of the constituent polypeptide molecule(s) under physiological conditions. Proteins and polypeptides are not static, however: battered by thermal motion, they explore a distribution of folds that is determined by the sequence of amino acids, the presence and identity of other molecules, and the thermodynamic conditions. In this dissertation, we apply molecular simulation techniques to the study of two polypeptides that have unusually diffuse distributions of folds under physiological conditions: polyglutamine (polyQ) and islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Neither polyQ nor IAPP adopts a predominant fold in dilute aqueous solution, but at sufficient concentrations, both are prone to self-assemble into stable, periodic, and highly regular aggregate structures known as amyloid. The appearance of amyloid deposits of polyQ in the brain, and of IAPP in the pancreas, are associated with Huntington's disease and type 2 diabetes, respectively. A molecular view of the mechanism(s) by which polyQ and IAPP fold and self-assemble will enhance our understanding of disease pathogenesis, and it has the potential to accelerate the development of therapeutics that target early-stage aggregates. Using molecular simulations with spatial and temporal resolution on the atomic scale, we present analyses of the structural distributions of polyQ and IAPP under various conditions, both in and out of equilibrium. In particular, we examine amyloid fibers of polyQ, the IAPP dimer in solution, and single IAPP fragments at a lipid bilayer. We also benchmark the molecular models, or "force fields," available for such studies, and we introduce a novel simulation algorithm.

  8. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chi-cheng [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); de Pablo, Juan J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  9. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-09-01

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 - 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 - 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  10. Protein Encapsulation via Polypeptide Complex Coacervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Katie A.; Priftis, Dimitrios; Perry, Sarah L.; Yip, Jeremy; Byun, William Y.; Tirrell, Matthew

    2014-10-21

    Proteins have gained increasing success as therapeutic agents; however, challenges exist in effective and efficient delivery. In this work, we present a simple and versatile method for encapsulating proteins via complex coacervation with oppositely charged polypeptides, poly(L-lysine) (PLys) and poly(D/L-glutamic acid) (PGlu). A model protein system, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was incorporated efficiently into coacervate droplets via electrostatic interaction up to a maximum loading of one BSA per PLys/PGlu pair and could be released under conditions of decreasing pH. Additionally, encapsulation within complex coacervates did not alter the secondary structure of the protein. Lastly the complex coacervate system was shown to be biocompatible and interact well with cells in vitro. A simple, modular system for encapsulation such as the one presented here may be useful in a range of drug delivery applications.

  11. Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Plants Growing in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the oils showed anti-candida activity, with oils from Ocimum species being the most active compared to the others. Thus, Ocimum suave oils merit further investigation towards the development of safe and biodegradable larvicides. Furthermore, oils from Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum kilimandscharicum could offer ...

  12. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A number of 1-substituted-2-methyl benzimidazole derivatives have been synthesized and tested for their antibacterial activities. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were verified on the basis of spectral and elemental methods of analyses. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of the compounds ...

  13. Biological activities and nutritional value of Tapinanthus bangwensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the brine shrimp lethality assay, the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions showed cytotoxic activity with LD50 values of 11.22 and 15.84 μg/ml, respectively. ... These results demonstrate the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of T. bangwensis leaves and support the traditional use of the plant in cancer treatment.

  14. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anis

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... Total phenol content and the antioxidant activities of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. were evaluated. The results show that the ecotypes were significantly different according to their fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activity, as well as their polyphenol profiles. Rossa fruit.

  15. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    antiprotozoal. 20,21 and anti-hepatitis B virus activity. 22. In addition, a large number of antibiotics contain the 2-azetidinone. (commonly known as β-lactam) moiety. 23 such as penicillin, cephalosporin and carbapenem (figure 2). It is also associated with a variety of therapeutic activities. 24–28. In continuation of our work to.

  16. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol content and the antioxidant activities of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. were evaluated. The results show that the ecotypes were significantly different according to their fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activity, as well as their polyphenol profiles. Rossa fruit collected in August ...

  17. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  18. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  19. A glimpse on biological activities of tellurium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. O. R. Cunha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tellurium is a rare element which has been regarded as a toxic, non-essential trace element and its biological role is not clearly established to date. Besides of that, the biological effects of elemental tellurium and some of its inorganic and organic derivatives have been studied, leading to a set of interesting and promising applications. As an example, it can be highlighted the uses of alkali-metal tellurites and tellurates in microbiology, the antioxidant effects of organotellurides and diorganoditellurides and the immunomodulatory effects of the non-toxic inorganic tellurane, named AS-101, and the plethora of its uses. Inasmuch, the nascent applications of organic telluranes (organotelluranes as protease inhibitors and its applications in disease models are the most recent contribution to the scenario of the biological effects and applications of tellurium and its compounds discussed in this manuscript.O telúrio é um elemento não-essencial raro que vem sendo considerado tóxico, e o seu papel biológico é ainda pouco esclarecido. Apesar disso, os efeitos biológicos do telúrio elementar e de alguns derivados inorgânicos e orgânicos que têm sido estudados revelam um conjunto de aplicações diversificadas interessantes e promissoras. Como exemplo, pode-se destacar os usos de teluritos e teluratos de metais alcalinos em microbiologia, o efeito antioxidante de teluretos e diteluretos orgânicos, os efeitos imunomodulatórios e a diversidade de usos correlacionados a este efeito de uma telurana inorgânica denominada AS-101. Ademais, as aplicações de teluranas orgânicas (organoteluranas como inibidoras de proteases e as aplicações em modelos de doenças compõem a mais recente contribuição ao cenário dos efeitos e aplicações biológicas do telúrio e seus compostos discutidas neste manuscrito.

  20. Quinones from plants of northeastern Brazil: structural diversity, chemical transformations, NMR data and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Telma L G; Monte, Francisco J Q; Santos, Allana Kellen L; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Santos, Hélcio S; Oliveira, Mailcar F; Costa, Sonia M O; Pessoa, Otilia D L; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-05-20

    The present review focus in quinones found in species of Brazilian northeastern Capraria biflora, Lippia sidoides, Lippia microphylla and Tabebuia serratifolia. The review cover ethnopharmacological aspects including photography of species, chemical structure feature, NMR datea and biological properties. Chemical transformations of lapachol to form enamine derivatives and biological activities are discussed.

  1. Learning Activity Package, Biology, LAPs 20, 30, 31, 32, and 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Bruce

    Included is a set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in biology. The units cover the topics of genetic continuity, methods of investigation, cell biology, genetics, and animal physiology. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of behavioral objectives for the unit; a…

  2. An Introduction to Biological Modeling Using Coin Flips to Predict the Outcome of a Diffusion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Greg Q.; Rodriguez, Juan; Chirhart, Scott; Messina, Troy C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase students' awareness for and comfort with mathematical modeling of biological processes, and increase their understanding of diffusion, the following lab was developed for use in 100-level, majors/non-majors biology and neuroscience courses. The activity begins with generation of a data set that uses coin-flips to replicate…

  3. Biologically Active Organic Matter in Soils of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. M.; Kogut, B. M.; Zinyakova, N. B.; Masyutenko, N. P.; Malyukova, L. S.; Lebedeva, T. N.; Tulina, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental and literature data on the contents and stocks of active organic matter in 200 soil samples from the forest-tundra, southern-taiga, deciduous-forest, forest-steppe, dry-steppe, semidesert, and subtropical zones have been generalized. Natural lands, agrocenoses, treatments of long-term field experiments (bare fallow, unfertilized and fertilized crop rotations, perennial plantations), and different layers of soil profile are presented. Sphagnum peat and humus-peat soil in the tundra and forest-tundra zones are characterized by a very high content of active organic matter (300-600 mg C/100 g). Among the zonal soils, the content of active organic matter increases from the medium (75-150 mg C/100 g) to the high (150-300 mg C/100 g) level when going from soddy-podzolic soil to gray forest and dark-gray forest soils and then to leached chernozem. In the series from typical chernozem to ordinary and southern chernozem and chestnut and brown semidesert soils, a decrease in the content of active organic matter to the low (35-75 mg C/100 g) and very low (<35 mg C/100 g) levels is observed. Acid brown forest soil in the subtropical zone is characterized by a medium supply with active organic matter. Most arable soils are mainly characterized by low or very low contents of active organic matter. In the upper layers of soils, active organic matter makes up 1.2-11.1% of total Corg. The profile distribution of active organic matter in the studied soils coincides with that of Corg: their contents appreciably decrease with depth, except for brown semidesert soil. The stocks of active organic matter vary from 0.4 to 5.4 t/ha in the layer of 0-20 cm and from 1.0 to 12.4/ha in the layer of 0-50 cm of different soil types.

  4. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  5. Biological activity of camel milk casein following enzymatic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Moosavi-Movahedi, Faezeh; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Farhadi, Mohammad; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis with digestive enzymes of camel whole casein and beta-casein (β-CN) on their antioxidant and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory properties. Peptides in each hydrolysate were fractionated with ultra-filtration membranes. The antioxidant activity was determined using a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) scale. After enzymatic hydrolysis, both antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of camel whole casein and camel β-CN were enhanced. Camel whole casein and β-CN showed significant ACE-inhibitory activities after hydrolysis with pepsin alone and after pepsinolysis followed by trypsinolysis and chymotrypsinolysis. Camel β-CN showed high antioxidant activity after hydrolysis with chymotrypsin. The results of this study suggest that when camel milk is consumed and digested, the produced peptides start to act as natural antioxidants and ACE-inhibitors.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  7. Adhesive polypeptides of Staphylococcus aureus identified using a novel secretion library technique in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Liisa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial adhesive proteins, called adhesins, are frequently the decisive factor in initiation of a bacterial infection. Characterization of such molecules is crucial for the understanding of bacterial pathogenesis, design of vaccines and development of antibacterial drugs. Because adhesins are frequently difficult to express, their characterization has often been hampered. Alternative expression methods developed for the analysis of adhesins, e.g. surface display techniques, suffer from various drawbacks and reports on high-level extracellular secretion of heterologous proteins in Gram-negative bacteria are scarce. These expression techniques are currently a field of active research. The purpose of the current study was to construct a convenient, new technique for identification of unknown bacterial adhesive polypeptides directly from the growth medium of the Escherichia coli host and to identify novel proteinaceous adhesins of the model organism Staphylococcus aureus. Results Randomly fragmented chromosomal DNA of S. aureus was cloned into a unique restriction site of our expression vector, which facilitates secretion of foreign FLAG-tagged polypeptides into the growth medium of E. coli ΔfliCΔfliD, to generate a library of 1663 clones expressing FLAG-tagged polypeptides. Sequence and bioinformatics analyses showed that in our example, the library covered approximately 32% of the S. aureus proteome. Polypeptides from the growth medium of the library clones were screened for binding to a selection of S. aureus target molecules and adhesive fragments of known staphylococcal adhesins (e.g coagulase and fibronectin-binding protein A as well as polypeptides of novel function (e.g. a universal stress protein and phosphoribosylamino-imidazole carboxylase ATPase subunit were detected. The results were further validated using purified His-tagged recombinant proteins of the corresponding fragments in enzyme-linked immunoassay and

  8. Manipulating the membrane penetration mechanism of helical polypeptides via aromatic modification for efficient gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Song, Ziyuan; Yang, Jiandong; Liu, Yang; Li, Fangfang; Cheng, Jianjun; Yin, Lichen

    2017-08-01

    The delivery performance of non-viral gene vectors is greatly related to their intracellular kinetics. Cationic helical polypeptides with potent membrane penetration properties and gene transfection efficiencies have been recently developed by us. However, they suffer from severe drawbacks in terms of their membrane penetration mechanisms that mainly include endocytosis and pore formation. The endocytosis mechanism leads to endosomal entrapment of gene cargos, while the charge- and helicity-induced pore formation causes appreciable cytotoxicity at high concentrations. With the attempt to overcome such critical challenges, we incorporated aromatic motifs into the design of helical polypeptides to enhance their membrane activities and more importantly, to manipulate their membrane penetration mechanisms. The aromatically modified polypeptides exhibited higher cellular internalization level than the unmodified analogue by up to 2.5 folds. Such improvement is possibly because aromatic domains promoted the polypeptides to penetrate cell membranes via direct transduction, a non-endocytosis and non-pore formation mechanism. As such, gene cargos were more efficiently delivered into cells by bypassing endocytosis and subsequently avoiding endosomal entrapment, and the material toxicity associated with excessive pore formation was also reduced. The top-performing aromatic polypeptide containing naphthyl side chains at the incorporated content of 20mol% revealed notably higher transfection efficiencies than commercial reagents in melanoma cells in vitro (by 11.7 folds) and in vivo (by 9.1 folds), and thus found potential utilities toward topical gene delivery for cancer therapy. Cationic helical polypeptides, as efficient gene delivery materials, suffer from severe drawbacks in terms of their membrane penetration mechanisms. The main cell penetration mechanisms involved are endocytosis and pore formation. However, the endocytosis mechanism has the limitation of endosomal

  9. Synthesis and Antiplatelet Activity of Antithrombotic Thiourea Compounds: Biological and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenço

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations.

  10. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  11. Bioactive components and functional properties of biologically activated cereal grains: A bibliographic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita

    2017-09-22

    Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibers, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. A wide range of these compounds is affected by germination. While some compounds, such as β-glucans are degraded, others, like antioxidants and total phenolics are increased by means of biological activation of grains. The water and oil absorption capacity as well as emulsion and foaming capacity of biologically activated grains are also improved. Application of biological activation of grains is of emerging interest, which may significantly enhance the nutritional, functional, and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability of grain foods in a natural way. Therefore, biological activation of cereals can be a way to produce food grains enriched with health-promoting compounds and enhanced functional attributes.

  12. The chemical structures, plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities of homoisoflavanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Karen; Drewes, Siegfried E; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    This work reviews the four basic structural types of homoisoflavanones. The relationships between the various structures of homoisoflavanones and their plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities are put into perspective.

  13. Biological activities of Suaeda heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities of different extracts of Suaeda heterophylla (S. heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi (B. stracheyi. Methods: The extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi were evaluated for antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities using standard experimental methods. Results: The overall antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate extract of S. heterophylla was the strongest, followed by chloroform extract, methanolic extract and n-hexane extract. It is interesting to note that ethyl acetate fraction showed 94.98% inhibition at concentration of 60 µg/mL while standard ascorbic acid showed 98.49% inhibition at same concentration. The crude methanol extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi showed significant phytotoxic activity at the highest dose. Moreover, methanol extract of B. stracheyi possessed strong activity in xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibition. Conclusions: Antioxidant, phytotoxic, and xanthine oxidase activities of different fractions of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi clearly demonstrate that these fractions possess great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

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    G. I. Yarovoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of influence of growth regulators and biopreparations affecting on decrease of disease development, increase of yield capacity and final product quality was carried out in tomato. It was shown that all preparations were effective in decreasing the process of diseases development and increasing the yield capacity and product quality. The studies were carried out in the experimental fields at the Institute of Vegetables and Melons NAAS, in Ukraine in 2011-2012. The field studies were performed according to ‘Methodology of Experimental Work in Vegetable and Melon Growing’ on area sown with cultivars ‘Karas’ and ‘Kremenchugskiy’. The fungicides ‘Mars U 77%’, ‘Vimpel with Fitotsid’, ‘Vermistim’ wth ‘Azotofit’ and ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ were used on cultivars of tomato, as control were the plants without treatment. It was determined that all preparations decreased the development of diseases. On average, the development of early dry spot had decreased by 12.2–16.1% and anthracnose by 10.0–12.6% in the cultivars ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’. Thus, biopreparations used on the varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’ were effective in decrease of disease development, such as early dry spot, anthracnose, in a range of 39.1–52.7 %. Generally, during observation period the efficacy index of the preparations ‘Vermistim’ with ‘Azotofit’, ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ was higher than others preparations on the varieties ‘Kremenchug and ‘Karas’ against early dry spot (48.3–50.9%, 50.3–52.7% and anthracnose (46.1–47.0%, 47.6–48.5%. The results showed that the vast majority of biological preparations, phytohormones used against diseases in tomato crops of varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’, were effective in a range of 39.1-52.7% and also maintained the tomato yield within 2.8-5.1 t/ha or 8.1- 13.9%. The biological preparations, phytohormones improved

  15. Methods for chemical synthesis of biologically active compounds using supramolecular protective groups and novel compounds obtainable Thereby

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Andreas; Bastian, Andreas Alexander; Marcozzi, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to drug development and synthetic chemistry, in particular to the manufacture of biologically active compounds based on naturally occurring molecules. It also relates to novel biologically active compounds, for example aminoglycoside antibiotics, in a substantially pure

  16. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  17. Using Active Learning in a Studio Classroom to Teach Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…

  18. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity

  19. Phytochemical components and biological activities of Silene arenarioides Desf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golea, Lynda; Benkhaled, Mohammed; Lavaud, Catherine; Long, Christophe; Haba, Hamada

    2017-12-01

    In this study, six known compounds 1-6 were isolated from the aerial parts of Silene arenarioides Desf. using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these compounds were identified as maltol glycoside (1), soyacerebroside I (2), chrysin (3), apigenin (4), quercetin (5) and stigmasterol glucoside (6). The compounds (1) and (2) are reported for the first time from this genus. The isolated compounds were determined using NMR techniques ( 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). The antibacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts and of compound (1) have been evaluated. The antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH radical scavenging method, which showed that methanol extract possesses a good antioxidant activity with value of IC 50  = 8.064 ± 0.005 μg/mL.

  20. Synthesis and biological activities of diflunisal hydrazide-hydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükgüzel, S Güniz; Mazi, Adil; Sahin, Fikrettin; Oztürk, Suzan; Stables, James

    2003-01-01

    Several diflunisal hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives namely 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxybiphenyl-3-carboxylic acid [(5-nitro-2-furyl/substitutedphenyl)methylene] hydrazide (3a-o) have been synthesised. Methyl 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxybiphenyl-3-carboxylate (1) and 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxybiphenyl-3-carboxylic acid hydrazide (2) were also synthesised and used as intermediate compounds. All synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv, antimicrobial activities against various bacteria, fungi and yeast species. Compound 3a have shown activity against Staphylococcus epidermis HE-5 and Staphylococcus aureus HE-9 at 18.75 and 37.5 microg mL(-1), respectively. Compound 3o have exhibited activity against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IO-16 at a concentration of 37.5 microg mL(-1), whereas Cefepime, the drug used as standard, have been found less active against the microorganisms mentioned above. The synthesised compounds were found to provide 12-34% inhibition of mycobacterial growth of M. tuberculosis H37 Rv in the primary screen at 6.25 microg mL(-1). Anticonvulsant activity of the compounds were also determined by maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous metrazole (scMET) tests in mice and rats following the procedures of antiepileptic drug development (ADD) program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Compound 3k showed 25% protection against MES induced seizures in p.o. rat screening at a dose level of 30 mg kg(-1) whereas 3n and 3o showed neurotoxicity after 4 and 0.5 h at a dose level of 100 and 300 mg kg(-1), respectively.