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Sample records for biologically active organosulfur

  1. Discovery and characterization of a novel lachrymatory factor synthase in Petiveria alliacea and its influence on alliinase-mediated formation of biologically active organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman

    2009-11-01

    A novel lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) was isolated and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The enzyme is a heterotetrameric glycoprotein comprised of two alpha-subunits (68.8 kD each), one gamma-subunit (22.5 kD), and one delta-subunit (11.9 kD). The two alpha-subunits are glycosylated and connected by a disulfide bridge. The LFS has an isoelectric point of 5.2. It catalyzes the formation of a sulfine lachrymator, (Z)-phenylmethanethial S-oxide, only in the presence of P. alliacea alliinase and its natural substrate, S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (petiveriin). Depending on its concentration relative to that of P. alliacea alliinase, the LFS sequesters, to varying degrees, the sulfenic acid intermediate formed by alliinase-mediated breakdown of petiveriin. At LFS:alliinase of 5:1, LFS sequesters all of the sulfenic acid formed by alliinase action on petiveriin, and converts it entirely to (Z)-phenylmethanethial S-oxide. However, starting at LFS:alliinase of 5:2, the LFS is unable to sequester all of the sulfenic acid produced by the alliinase, with the result that sulfenic acid that escapes the action of the LFS condenses with loss of water to form S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate (petivericin). The results show that the LFS and alliinase function in tandem, with the alliinase furnishing the sulfenic acid substrate on which the LFS acts. The results also show that the LFS modulates the formation of biologically active thiosulfinates that are downstream of the alliinase in a manner dependent upon the relative concentrations of the LFS and the alliinase. These observations suggest that manipulation of LFS-to-alliinase ratios in plants displaying this system may provide a means by which to rationally modify organosulfur small molecule profiles to obtain desired flavor and/or odor signatures, or increase the presence of desirable biologically active small molecules.

  2. Discovery and Characterization of a Novel Lachrymatory Factor Synthase in Petiveria alliacea and Its Influence on Alliinase-Mediated Formation of Biologically Active Organosulfur Compounds1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A.; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman

    2009-01-01

    A novel lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) was isolated and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The enzyme is a heterotetrameric glycoprotein comprised of two α-subunits (68.8 kD each), one γ-subunit (22.5 kD), and one δ-subunit (11.9 kD). The two α-subunits are glycosylated and connected by a disulfide bridge. The LFS has an isoelectric point of 5.2. It catalyzes the formation of a sulfine lachrymator, (Z)-phenylmethanethial S-oxide, only in the presence of P. alliacea alliinase and its natural substrate, S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (petiveriin). Depending on its concentration relative to that of P. alliacea alliinase, the LFS sequesters, to varying degrees, the sulfenic acid intermediate formed by alliinase-mediated breakdown of petiveriin. At LFS:alliinase of 5:1, LFS sequesters all of the sulfenic acid formed by alliinase action on petiveriin, and converts it entirely to (Z)-phenylmethanethial S-oxide. However, starting at LFS:alliinase of 5:2, the LFS is unable to sequester all of the sulfenic acid produced by the alliinase, with the result that sulfenic acid that escapes the action of the LFS condenses with loss of water to form S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate (petivericin). The results show that the LFS and alliinase function in tandem, with the alliinase furnishing the sulfenic acid substrate on which the LFS acts. The results also show that the LFS modulates the formation of biologically active thiosulfinates that are downstream of the alliinase in a manner dependent upon the relative concentrations of the LFS and the alliinase. These observations suggest that manipulation of LFS-to-alliinase ratios in plants displaying this system may provide a means by which to rationally modify organosulfur small molecule profiles to obtain desired flavor and/or odor signatures, or increase the presence of desirable biologically active small molecules. PMID:19692535

  3. Manganese-Loaded Activated Carbon for the Removal of Organosulfur Compounds from High-Sulfur Diesel Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ghouti, M.A.; Al-Degs, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    The adsorptive capacity of activated carbon (AC) is significantly enhanced toward weakly interacting organosulfur compounds (OSC) from sulfur-rich diesel fuel. Sulfur compounds are selectively removed from diesel after surface modification by manganese dioxide (MnO2). A selective surface for OSC removal was created by loading MnO2 on the surface; π-complexation between the partially filled d-orbitals of Mn4+ and the S atom is the controlling mechanism for OSC removal. Principal component anal...

  4. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaili, Peyman; Maadirad, Surush; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Sarahroodi, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Garlic (Allium sativum L. family Liliaceae) is well known in Iran and its leaves, flowers, and cloves have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Research in recent decades has shown widespread pharmacological effects of A. sativum and its organosulfur compounds especially Allicin. Studies carried out on the chemical composition of the plant show that the most important constituents of this plant are organosulfur compounds such as allicin, diallyl disulphide, S-allylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide. Allicin represents one of the most studied among these naturally occurring compounds. In addition to A. sativum, these compounds are also present in A. hirtifolium (shallot) and have been used to treat various diseases. This article reviews the pharmacological effects and traditional uses of A. sativum, A. hirtifolium, and their active constituents to show whether or not they can be further used as potential natural sources for the development of novel drugs. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the authors went through a vast number of sources and articles and all needed data was gathered. The findings were reviewed and classified on the basis of relevance to the topic and a summary of all effects were reported as tables. Conclusion: Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents. PMID:24379960

  6. [Cycloferon biological activity characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkina, T M; Potekhina, L P; Kartashova, O L; Vasilchenko, A S

    2014-01-01

    Study the effect of cycloferon in experimental and clinical conditions on persistence properties of aurococci as well as features of their morpho-functional reaction by atomic force microscopy. The study was carried out in 12 Staphylococcus aureus clones isolated from mucous membrane of nose anterior part of a resident carrier. The effect of cycloferon in vivo was evaluated in 26 resident staphylococci carriers under the control of anti-carnosine activity of staphylococci. Anti-carnosine activity was determined by O.V. Bukharin et al. (1999), biofilm formation -by G.A. O'Toole et al. (2000). Staphylococci treated with cycloferon were studied by atomic force microscopy in contact mode using scanning probe SMM-2000 microscope. The decrease of persistence properties of staphylococci under the effect of cycloferon in vitro and in vivo may be examined as one of the mechanisms of biological activity of the preparation. A significant increase of S. aureus surface roughness and changes in their morphology under the effect of cycloferon allow stating the disorder of barrier functions in the aurococci cell wall. The data obtained expand the understanding of cycloferon biological activity mechanisms.

  7. Sulfur-binding in recent environments: II. Speciation of sulfur and iron and implications for the occurrence of organo-sulfur compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgers, Walter A.; Lòpez, Jordi F.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Reiss, Christine; Maxwell, James R.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    1997-11-01

    Speciation of iron and sulfur species was determined for two recent sediments (La Trinitat and Lake Cisó) which were deposited in environments with a high biological productivity and sulfate-reducing activity. In sediments from calcite ponds of La Trinitat an excess of reactive iron species (iron monosulfides, iron hydroxides) results in a depletion of reactive sulfur which is accompanied by a virtual absence of organo-sulfur compounds, both in low (LMW) and high molecular-weight (HMW) fractions. Small amounts of phytanyl and highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) thiophenes in the extract demonstrate that these molecules exhibit a higher reactivity towards reduced sulfur species as compared to detrital iron. Euxinic sediments from Lake Cisó are characterised by an excess of reduced sulfur species which can rapidly trap reactive iron. High concentrations of H 2S results in the formation of organo-sulfur compounds which were encountered in both LMW and HMW fractions. The major part of the organic sulfur is bound to the carbohydrate portion of woody tissues, whose presence was revealed by a specific alkylthiophene distribution in the flash pyrolysate and by Li/EtNH 2 desulfurisation of the kerogen which resulted in the solubilisation of the sulfur-enriched hemicellulose fraction. Relatively high amounts of sulfurised C 25 HBI compounds in the sediment extract of Lake Cisó reflect the incorporation of sulfur into algal derived organic matter upon early diagenesis. The combined approach of the speciation of iron and sulfur species and the molecular analysis of sedimentary fractions demonstrates that abiotic sulfur binding to organic matter occurs at the earliest stages of diagenesis under specific depositional conditions (anoxic, stratified water column) in which an excess of reduced sulfur species relative to the amount of reactive iron is a controlling factor.

  8. Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Güniz Küçükgüzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antischistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new hydrazones that possess varied biological activities.

  9. Brassinosteroids: synthesis and biological activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oklešťková, Jana; Rárová, Lucie; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2015), s. 1053-1072 ISSN 1568-7767 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Brassinosteroids * Chemical synthesis * Plant biological activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2015

  10. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Allium roseum L. var. grandiflorum Briq. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touihri, Imen; Boukhris, Maher; Marrakchi, Naziha; Luis, José; Hanchi, Belgacem; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    Allium roseum L. (Alliaceae) endemic mediterranean specie was represented in the North Africa by 12 different taxa. In the present study, chemical composition, antiproliferative, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from A. roseum var. grandiflorum Briq. bulbs collected in the North of Tunisia were investigated. Chemical characterization has shown methyl methanethiosulfinate as major sulphurous compounds. A. roseum bulbs essential oil provides interesting antiproliferative activity against two human colonic adenocarcinoma HT29 and CACO2 cell lines in dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 4.64 µg/mL and 8.22 µg/mL respectively. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP assay, was 285 µmol equivalent Trolox/g of essential oil. The scavenging effect on DPPH radicals of essential oil was estimated as IC50 values at 156 µg/mL. The inhibition of superoxide anion production in a model of cancer cell lines was significant for both lines HT29 and CACO2 with IC50 of 20.25 µg/mL and 29.12 µg/mL respectively. Allium roseum essential oil exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Candida albicans given by an MIC value of 0.019 mg/mL. This biological effect appears to be related mainly to the presence of organosulfur compounds.

  11. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

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    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  12. Characterization of the apoptotic response of human leukemia cells to organosulfur compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W Wei-Lynn; Langler, Richard F; Penn, Linda Z; Boutros, Paul C; Wasylishen, Amanda R; Guckert, Kristal D; O'Brien, Erin M; Griffiths, Rebecca; Martirosyan, Anna R; Bros, Christina; Jurisica, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Novel therapeutic agents that selectively induce tumor cell death are urgently needed in the clinical management of cancers. Such agents would constitute effective adjuvant approaches to traditional chemotherapy regimens. Organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as diallyl disulfide, have demonstrated anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. We have previously shown that synthesized relatives of dysoxysulfone, a natural OSC derived from the Fijian medicinal plant, Dysoxylum richi, possess tumor-specific antiproliferative effects and are thus promising lead candidates. Because our structure-activity analyses showed that regions flanking the disulfide bond mediated specificity, we synthesized 18 novel OSCs by structural modification of the most promising dysoxysulfone derivatives. These compounds were tested for anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity in both normal and leukemic cells. Six OSCs exhibited tumor-specific killing, having no effect on normal bone marrow, and are thus candidates for future toxicity studies. We then employed mRNA expression profiling to characterize the mechanisms by which different OSCs induce apoptosis. Using Gene Ontology analysis we show that each OSC altered a unique set of pathways, and that these differences could be partially rationalized from a transcription factor binding site analysis. For example, five compounds altered genes with a large enrichment of p53 binding sites in their promoter regions (p < 0.0001). Taken together, these data establish OSCs derivatized from dysoxysulfone as a novel group of compounds for development as anti-cancer agents

  13. Biological activation of carbon filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bozena; Tomaszewska, Maria; Janus, Magdalena; Morawski, Antoni W

    2006-01-01

    To prepare biological activated carbon (BAC), raw surface water was circulated through granular activated carbon (GAC) beds. Biological activity of carbon filters was initiated after about 6 months of filter operation and was confirmed by two methods: measurement of the amount of biomass attached to the carbon and by the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) test. The effect of carbon pre-washing on WG-12 carbon properties was also studied. For this purpose, the nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra analyses were performed. Moreover, iodine number, decolorizing power and adsorption properties of carbon in relation to phenol were studied. Analysis of the results revealed that after WG-12 carbon pre-washing its BET surface increased a little, the pH value of the carbon water extract decreased from 11.0 to 9.4, decolorizing power remained at the same level, and the iodine number and phenol adsorption rate increased. In preliminary studies of the ozonation-biofiltration process, a model phenol solution with concentration of approximately 10mg/l was applied. During the ozonation process a dose of 1.64 mg O(3)/mg TOC (total organic carbon) was employed and the contact time was 5 min. Four empty bed contact times (EBCTs) in the range of 2.4-24.0 min were used in the biofiltration experiment. The effectiveness of purification was measured by the following parameters: chemical oxygen demand (COD(Mn)), TOC, phenol concentration and UV(254)-absorbance. The parameters were found to decrease with EBCT.

  14. The Global Regulator Spx Functions in the Control of Organosulfur Metabolism in Bacillus subtilis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soon-Yong; Reyes, Dindo; Leelakriangsak, Montira; Zuber, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Spx is a global transcriptional regulator of the oxidative stress response in Bacillus subtilis. Its target is RNA polymerase, where it contacts the α subunit C-terminal domain. Recently, evidence was presented that Spx participates in sulfate-dependent control of organosulfur utilization operons, including the ytmI, yxeI, ssu, and yrrT operons. The yrrT operon includes the genes that function in cysteine synthesis from S-adenosylmethionine through intermediates S-adenosylhomocysteine, ribosylhomocysteine, homocysteine, and cystathionine. These operons are also negatively controlled by CymR, the repressor of cysteine biosynthesis operons. All of the operons are repressed in media containing cysteine or sulfate but are derepressed in medium containing the alternative sulfur source, methionine. Spx was found to negatively control the expression of these operons in sulfate medium, in part, by stimulating the expression of the cymR gene. In addition, microarray analysis, monitoring of yrrT-lacZ fusion expression, and in vitro transcription studies indicate that Spx directly activates yrrT operon expression during growth in medium containing methionine as sole sulfur source. These experiments have uncovered additional roles for Spx in the control of gene expression during unperturbed, steady-state growth. PMID:16885442

  15. Effect of processing and storage time on the contents of organosulfur compounds in pickled blanched garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Victor Manuel; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; de Castro, Antonio; Montaño, Alfredo

    2012-04-04

    The influence of processing, with and without fermentation, on the contents of organosulfur compounds, namely, γ-glutamyl peptides, S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs), and S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), in pickled blanched garlic was evaluated. For each processing type, the effect of the preservation method and storage time was also analyzed. Blanching in hot water (90 °C for 5 min) hardly affected the individual organosulfur compound content. The fermentation and packing steps negatively affected the levels of all compounds except for SAC. The content of this compound increased during storage at room temperature whereas γ-glutamyl peptides and ACSOs were degraded to various extents. The pasteurization treatment itself had no significant effect on the concentrations of organosulfur compounds. Use of the corresponding fermentation brine in the case of the fermented product in conjunction with refrigerated storage was found to be the best method to preserve the levels of organosulfur compounds in pickled garlic stored for up to one year.

  16. Ethnobotanical and biological activities of Leptadenia pyrotechnica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This review includes the substance of different ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and exclusive capability of this plant in the field of anti-microbial and human disease activities. Key words: Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Biological activities, Desert plant, Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical activity, phytochemistry.

  17. Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bílková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Zuzana Bílková, Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil, Thesis, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, thesis author: PharmDr. Jan Martin, PhD., Hradec Králové, 2013, 72 pages. The thesis called "Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil" is interested in biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil, specifically antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, nematicidal and repellency activit...

  18. A review exploring biological activities of hydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel compounds, hydrazones has shown that they possess a wide variety of biological activities viz. antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalarial, anticancer, antifungal, antitubercular, antiviral, cardio protective etc., Hydrazones/azomethines/imines possess-NHN = CH- and constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. A number of researchers have synthesized and evaluated the biological activities of hydrazones. This review aims at highlighting the diverse biological activities of hydrazones.

  19. Publishing activities improves undergraduate biology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle K

    2018-06-01

    To improve undergraduate biology education, there is an urgent need for biology instructors to publish their innovative active-learning instructional materials in peer-reviewed journals. To do this, instructors can measure student knowledge about a variety of biology concepts, iteratively design activities, explore student learning outcomes and publish the results. Creating a set of well-vetted activities, searchable through a journal interface, saves other instructors time and encourages the use of active-learning instructional practices. For authors, these publications offer new opportunities to collaborate and can provide evidence of a commitment to using active-learning instructional techniques in the classroom.

  20. Mechanism of Corrosion by Naphthenic Acids and Organosulfur Compounds at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng

    Due to the law of supply and demand, the last decade has witnessed a skyrocketing in the price of light sweet crude oil. Therefore, refineries are increasingly interested in "opportunity crudes", characterized by their discounted price and relative ease of procurement. However, the attractive economics of opportunity crudes come with the disadvantage of high acid/organosulfur compound content, which could lead to corrosion and even failure of facilities in refineries. However, it is generally accepted that organosulfur compounds may form protective iron sulfide layers on the metal surface and decrease the corrosion rate. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the corrosive property of crudes at high temperatures, the mechanism of corrosion by acids (naphthenic acids) in the presence of organosulfur compounds, and methods to mitigate its corrosive effect. In 2004, an industrial project was initiated at the Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Technology to investigate the corrosion by naphthenic acids and organosulfur compounds. In this project, for each experiment there were two experimentation phases: pretreatment and challenge. In the first pretreatment phase, a stirred autoclave was filled with a real crude oil fraction or model oil of different acidity and organosulfur compound concentration. Then, the stirred autoclave was heated to high temperatures to examine the corrosivity of the oil to different materials (specimens made from CS and 5% Cr containing steel were used). During the pretreatment, corrosion product layers were formed on the metal surface. In the second challenge phase, the steel specimens pretreated in the first phase were inserted into a rotating cylinder autoclave, called High Velocity Rig (HVR). The HVR was fed with a high-temperature oil solution of naphthenic acids to attack the iron sulfide layers. Based on the difference of specimen weight loss between the two steps, the net corrosion rate could be calculated and the protectiveness

  1. Effects of garlic oil and two of its major organosulfur compounds, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, on intestinal damage in rats injected with endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Y.-H.; Jen, L.-N.; Su, H.-Y.; Lii, C.-K.; Sheen, L.-Y.; Liu, C.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Garlic and its active components are known to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. The present study investigated the effects of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds on endotoxin-induced intestinal mucosal damage. Wistar rats received by gavage 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight garlic oil (GO), 0.5 mmol/kg body weight diallyl disulfide or diallyl trisulfide, or the vehicle (corn oil; 2 ml/kg body weight) every other day for 2 weeks before being injected with endotoxin (i.p., 5 mg/kg body weight). Control rats were administered with corn oil and were injected with sterile saline. Samples for the measurement of proinflammatory cytokines were collected 3 h after injection, and all other samples were collected 18 h after injection. The low dose of GO suppressed endotoxin-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, ulceration, and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). The high dose of GO significantly lowered the peripheral level of nitrate/nitrite and endotoxin-induced iNOS activity in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05) but worsened intestinal mucosal damage accompanied by elevated peripheral proinflammatory cytokines. Diallyl trisulfide but not diallyl disulfide showed similar toxic effect as that of high-dose GO. These results suggest the preventive effect and possible toxicity of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds in endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation and intestinal damage

  2. New procedure for the control of the treatment of industrial effluents to remove volatile organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Initially, the extraction parameters were optimized. These included: type and volume of extraction solvent, volume of disperser solvent, salting out effect, pH, time and speed of centrifugation as well as extraction time. The procedure was validated for 30 compounds. The developed procedure has low detection limits of 0.0071-0.49 μg/L and a good precision (relative standard deviation values of 1.2-5.0 and 0.6-4.1% at concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/L, respectively). The procedure was used to determine the content of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of effluents from the production of bitumens before and after chemical treatment, in which six compounds were identified, including 2-mercaptoethanol, thiophenol, thioanisole, dipropyl disulfide, 1-decanethiol, and phenyl isothiocyanate at concentrations ranging from 0.47 to 8.89 μg/L. Problems in the determination of organosulfur compounds related to considerable changes in composition of the effluents, increase in concentration of individual compounds and appearance of secondary pollutants during effluent treatment processes are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Benzimidazoles: A biologically active compounds

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    Salahuddin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of commercially available benzimidazole involves condensation of o-phenylenediamine with formic acid. The most prominent benzimidazole compound in nature is N-riosyldimethylbenzimidazole, which serves as a axial ligand for cobalt in vitamin B12. The benzimidazole and its derivatives play a very important role as a therapeutic agent e.g. antiulcer and anthelmintic drugs. Apart from this the benzimidazole derivatives exhibit pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, etc. The substituted benzimidazoles are summarized in this review to know about the chemistry as well as pharmacological activities.

  4. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  5. Evaluating the Anti-Neuroinflammatory Capacity of Raw and Steamed Garlic as Well as Five Organosulfur Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Chen Ho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The anti-neuroinflammatory capacities of raw and steamed garlic extracts as well as five organosulfur compounds (OSCs were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. According to those results, steaming pretreatment blocked the formation of alliinase-catalyzed OSCs such as allicin and diallyl trisulfide (DATS in crushed garlic. Raw garlic, but not steamed garlic, dose-dependently attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. DATS and diallyl disulfide at 200 and 400 μM, respectively, displayed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity. Meanwhile, even at 1 mM, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine and alliin did not display such activity. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation was the mechanism underlying this protective effect of raw garlic and DATS. Analysis results indicated that the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw garlic is due to the alliin-derived OSCs. Importantly, DATS is a highly promising therapeutic candidate for treating inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  7. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  8. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  9. Biological activities of some Xylooligosaccharides from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylooligosaccharides (XOS's) exhibited considerable biological activities and be incorporated into many food products and in pharmaceutical and drug industry. XOS's were produced from xylose-containing polysaccharides (XPS's) obtained from natural, xylan-rich, agro-industrial wastes, i.e., corncobs and sugarcane ...

  10. Biological activity of SV40 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study on the biological activity of SV40 DNA. The transforming activity of SV40 DNA and DNA fragments is investigated in order to define as precisely as possible the area of the viral genome that is involved in the transformation. The infectivity of SV40 DNA is used to study the defective repair mechanisms of radiation damages of human xeroderma pigmentosum cells. (C.F.)

  11. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus.

  12. Neutron activation analysis of biological substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordogh, M.

    1978-08-01

    A Bowen cabbage sample was used as a reference material for the neutron activation studies, and the method was checked by the analysis of other biological substances (blood or serum etc.). For nondestructive measurements also some non-trace elements were determined in order to decide whether the activation analysis is a useful means for such measurements. The new activation analysis procedure was used for biomedical studies as, e.g., for trace element determination in body fluids, and for the analysis of inorganic components in air samples. (R.P.)

  13. STRUCTURES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF CUPROPHYLLINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov A.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls (a, b are the porphyrin compounds and most common chemical in the plant’s world. In fact, these compounds are an obligatory intermediate product both in energy metabolism and in plant catabolism. At the same time, currently there are few pharmaceutical preparations on the pharmaceutical market based on chlorophylls. Dyes based on hydrolyzed chlorophyll are successfully used in the food industry. Commercial chlorophylline is a copper complex of hydrolyzed chlorophylls. As shown earlier in TLC, the chlorophyllin mixture contains a large number of different compounds. It is like water-soluble saponified derivatives in the form of sodium-magnesium complexes, and similar structures in the form of a complex with copper. The latter are more brightly colored, soluble in water and widely used as coloring agents in cooking. In this case, if the initial chlorophyll was not found to have a pronounced biological activity, the substituted derivatives in the form of copper complexes possessed a number of new unique biological properties. Non-hydrolyzed hydrophobic cuprophylline obtained from eucalyptus leaves possessed high antimicrobial activity to most strains of staphylococci, inclusion resistant to antimicrobials and multiresistant strains. This drug is called Chlorophyllipt, it is allowed to be used as a medicinal product and is one of the oldest antibacterial drugs from plants on the market. It is marketed as ethanoic and oily solutions for topical use, and as an alcohol solution for intravenous injections. Its main purpose is the fight against staphylococcal infections. Recently, found that the oral administration of chlorophyllipt activates cellular immunity and indirectly exhibits antiviral activity. Another compound of cuprophyllin is water-soluble chlorophyllin. Some authors show the variability of the structure and biological activity of cuprophyllins. Different derivatives of chlorophyll have different biological activity

  14. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  15. Marine natural flavonoids: chemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Beatriz T; Correia da Silva, Marta; Pinto, Madalena; Cidade, Honorina; Kijjoa, Anake

    2018-05-04

    As more than 70% of the world's surface is covered by oceans, marine organisms offer a rich and unlimited resource of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. These organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that are, in majority of them, unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts due to the different surrounding ecological systems. Marine flavonoids have been extensively studied in the last decades due to a growing interest concerning their promising biological/pharmacological activities. The most common classes of marine flavonoids are flavones and flavonols, which are mostly isolated from marine plants. Although most of flavonoids are hydroxylated and methoxylated, some marine flavonoids possess an unusual substitution pattern, not commonly found in terrestrial organisms, namely the presence of sulphate, chlorine, and amino groups. This review presents, for the first time in a systematic way, the structure, natural occurrence, and biological activities of marine flavonoids.

  16. Silychristin: Skeletal Alterations and Biological Activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Buchta, M.; Holečková, Veronika; Sedlák, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Cvačka, Josef; Bednárová, Lucie; Křenková, Alena; Kuzma, Marek; Škuta, Ctibor; Peikerová, Žaneta; Bartůněk, Petr; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 12 (2016), s. 3086-3092 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27317A; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Silychristin * skeletal alterations * biological activities Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2016

  17. Radiometallating antibodies and biologically active peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer-Smith, J.A.; Roberts, J.C.; Lewis, D.; Newmyer, S.L.; Schulte, L.D.; Burns, T.P.; Mixon, P.L.; Jeffery, A.L.; Schreyer, S.A.; Cole, D.A.; Figard, S.D.; Lennon, V.A.; Hayashi, M.; Lavallee, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    We have developed methods to radiolabel large molecules, using porphyrins as bifunctional chelating agents for radiometals. The porphyrins are substituted with an N-benzyl group to activate them for radiometallation under mild reaction conditions. Porphyrins that have on functional group for covalent attachment to other molecules cannot cause crosslinking. We have examined the labeling chemistry for antibodies, and we have also developed methods to label smaller biologically active molecules, such as autoantigenic peptides. The autoantigenic peptides, fragments of the acetylcholine receptor, are under investigation for myasthenia gravis research. The methods of covalent attachment of these bifunctional chelating agents to large molecules and the radiometallation chemistry will be discussed

  18. Biologic activity of porphyromonas endodontalis complex lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirucki, Christopher S; Abedi, Mehran; Jiang, Jin; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Safavi, Kamran E; Clark, Robert B; Nichols, Frank C

    2014-09-01

    Periapical infections secondary to pulpal necrosis are associated with bacterial contamination of the pulp. Porphyromonas endodontalis, a gram-negative organism, is considered to be a pulpal pathogen. P. gingivalis is phylogenetically related to P. endodontalis and synthesizes several classes of novel complex lipids that possess biological activity, including the capacity to promote osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation. The purpose of this study was to extract and characterize constituent lipids of P. endodontalis and evaluate their capacity to promote proinflammatory secretory responses in the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, as well as their capacity to promote osteoclastogenesis and inhibit osteoblast activity. Constituent lipids of both organisms were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography and were structurally characterized using electrospray mass spectrometry or electrospray-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The virulence potential of P. endodontalis lipids was then compared with known biologically active lipids isolated from P. gingivalis. P. endodontalis total lipids were shown to promote tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion from RAW 264.7 cells, and the serine lipid fraction appeared to account for the majority of this effect. P. endodontalis lipid preparations also increased osteoclast formation from RAW 264.7 cells, but osteoblast differentiation in culture was inhibited and appeared to be dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 expression. These effects underscore the importance of P. endodontalis lipids in promoting inflammatory and bone cell activation processes that could lead to periapical pathology. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenguţa I. Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  20. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials

  1. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo CAC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae, which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Simkova, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities are briefly summed up of usino. NAA (neutron activation analysis) for determining element traces in foodstuffs and their intake by organisms, for monitoring changes in the content of important trace elements in tissues and body fluids owing to environmental pollution, for verifying the results of other analytical techniques and for certifying the content of element traces in reference materials. Examples are given of the use of NAA, and the results are summed up of the determination of Cd, Mn and Zn in biological reference materials NBS SRM-1577, Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale, IAEA Milk Powder A-11 and IAEA Animal Muscle H-4. (E.S.)

  3. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunghoon Cho

    Full Text Available Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs, which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments.

  5. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  6. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  7. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Carlos E.; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A.; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  8. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  9. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  10. NBS activities in biological reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasberry, S.D.

    1988-12-01

    NBS activities in biological reference materials during 1986-1988 are described with a preview of plans for future certifications of reference materials. During the period, work has been completed or partially completed on about 40 reference materials of importance to health, nutrition, and environmental quality. Some of the reference materials that have been completed during the period and are described include: creatinine (SRM 914a), bovine serum albumin (SRM 927a), cholesterol in human serum (SRM's 1951-1952), aspartate aminotransferase (RM 8430), cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins in coconut oil (SRM 1563), wheat flour (SRM 1567a), rice flour (SRM 1568a), mixed diet (RM 8431a), dinitropyrene isomers and 1-nitropyrene (SRM 1596), and complex PAH's from coal tar (SRM 1597). Oyster tissue (SRM 1566a) is being analyzed and should be available in 1988.

  11. Biological activities of red propolis: a rewiew

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Sonia M; de Freitas, Marcia Christina Dornelas; de Oliveira, Daiana Teixeira; de Miranda, Marina Barcelos; Vieira-Filho, Sidney Augusto; Caligiorne, Rachel Basques

    2018-02-23

    • Background: The red propolis (RdProp) is a resin produced by Apis mellifera bees, which collect the reddish exudate on the surface of its botanic source, the species Dalbergiae castophyllum, popularly known in Brazil as "rabo de bugio". Considered as the 13th type of Brazilian propolis, this resin has been gaining prominence due to its natural composition, rich in bioactive substances not found in other types of propolis. • Objective: This review aims to address the most important characteristics of PV, its botanical origin, the main constituents, its biological properties and the patents related to this natural product. • Method: By means of the SciFinder, Google Patents, Patus® and Spacenet, scientific articles and patents involving the term "red propolis" were searched until August 2017 • Results: A number of biological properties, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, antitumor, antioxidant, metabolic and nutraceutical activities are attributed to RdProp, demonstrating the great potential of its use in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. • Conclusion: The available papers are associated to pharmacological potential of RdProp, but the molecular mechanisms or bioactive compounds responsible for each activity have not yet been fully elucidated. The RdProp patents currently found are directed to components for the pharmaceutical industry (EP2070543A1; WO2014186851A1; FR3006589A1; CN1775277A; CN105797149A; CN1879859A), cosmetic (JP6012138B2; JP2008247830A; JP6012138B2) and food (JP5478392B2; CN101380052A; WO2006038690A1). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. UPLC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of compositional changes for organosulfur compounds in garlic (Allium sativum L.) during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Park, So-Lim; Lee, Sanghee; Lee, So-Young; Ko, Sungho; Yoo, Miyoung

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) for the quantification of 11 organosulfur compounds and analysis of their compositional changes in garlic during fermentation using 3 different microbe strains. The calibration curves of all 11 analytes exhibited good linearity (R⩾0.995), and the mean recoveries measured at three concentrations were greater than 81.63% with relative standard deviations of less than 12.79%. Investigation of the compositional changes revealed that the γ-glutamyl peptides content in fermented blanched garlic reduced, whereas the content of the compounds in biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteines from γ-glutamyl peptides increased significantly. Our results also indicated that starter cultures can be used selectively in the production of fermented garlic to increase the amounts of the desired organosulfur compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cyclobutane-Containing Alkaloids: Origin, Synthesis, and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeiko, Anastasia; Poroikov, Vladimir V; Hanuš, Lumir O; Dembitsky, Valery M

    2008-01-01

    Present review describes research on novel natural cyclobutane-containing alkaloids isolated from terrestrial and marine species. More than 60 biological active compounds have been confirmed to have antimicrobial, antibacterial, antitumor, and other activities. The structures, synthesis, origins, and biological activities of a selection of cyclobutane-containing alkaloids are reviewed. With the computer program PASS some additional biological activities are also predicted, which point toward ...

  14. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  15. Biological activity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Carbonell

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens cytotoxin was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G100 column. The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens. The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. The cytotoxic assays show that 15 min of treatment with the cytotoxin induced irreversible intoxication of the cells, determined by loss of cell viability. Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 µg/ml of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin is distinct from S. marcescens hemolysin. Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. Moreover, we did not detect gene sequences for any of these toxins in S. marcescens by PCR assay. These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli.

  16. Non-coding RNA/microRNA-modulatory dietary factors and natural products for improved cancer therapy and prevention: Alkaloids, organosulfur compounds, aliphatic carboxylic acids and water-soluble vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Biersack

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding small RNA molecules, the microRNAs (miRNAs, contribute decisively to the epigenetic regulation processes in cancer cells. Problematic pathogenic properties of cancer cells and the response of cancers towards anticancer drugs are highly influenced by miRNAs. Both increased drug activity and formation of tumor resistance are regulated by miRNAs. Further to this, the survival and proliferation of cancer cells and the formation of metastases is based on the modulated expression of certain miRNAs. In particular, drug-resistant cancer stem-like cells (CSCs depend on the presence and absence of specific miRNAs. Fortunately, several small molecule natural compounds were discovered that target miRNAs involved in the modulation of tumor aggressiveness and drug resistance. This review gives an overview of the effects of a selection of naturally occurring small molecules (alkaloids, organosulfur compounds, aliphatic carboxylic acids and water-soluble vitamins on miRNAs that are closely tangled with cancer diseases. Keywords: MiRNA, Alkaloids, Organosulfur compounds, Aliphatic carboxylic acids, Water-soluble vitamins, Anticancer drugs

  17. Activation analysis of biological materials at the Activation Analysis Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukula, F.; Obrusnik, I.; Simkova, M.; Kucera, J.; Krivanek, M.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented of the work of the Activation Analysis Centre of the Nuclear Research Institute for different fields of the Czechoslovak economy, aimed primarily at analyzing biological materials with the purpose of determining the contents of the so-called vital trace elements and of elements which already have a toxic effect on the organism in trace concentrations. Another important field of research is the path of trace elements from the environment to the human organism. A destructive method for the simultaneous determination of 12 trace elements in 11 kinds of human tissue has been studied. (Z.M.)

  18. Cephalostatin analogues--synthesis and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Timo; Jautelat, Rolf; Scholz, Ulrich; Winterfeldt, Ekkehard

    2004-01-01

    discussion on this topic: see Chapter 3). In line with this are the observations that 14,15-alpha-epoxides do substantially decrease activity (cephalostatins 14 and 15) while a 14,15-beta-epoxide does not decrease activity (cephalostatin 4). Also in line with the "curvature theory" is the fact that ritterazine B (14-beta-hydrogen) is even more potent than ritterazine G (14,15-double bond). Therefore it is not clear if--at least one--14,15-double bond is essential for high activity. The synthesis and biological evaluation of completely 14-beta-saturated analogues (like 14'-beta-hydrogen ritterazine B) could answer this question. Synthesis of the partially saturated analogues 14' alpha-cephalostatin 1 1c and 7-deoxy-14' alpha-ritterazine B 2a showed that the stronger the divergence of conformation implied by the saturation is, the higher is the loss of activity, thus underlining the "curvature hypothesis". Synthesis showed, that analogues possessing the 14,15-double bond(s) are substantially better soluble, e.g. 26. Furthermore, the D-Ring area turned out to be sensitive for modifications, since substantially differing analogues, like 162, 163, and 164 were completely inactive. At least one 17-hydroxy group is part of all highly active cephalostatins/ritterazines. Loss of one out of two 17-hydroxy groups does not decrease activity (compare ritterazine K and L) but of the second 17-hydroxy groups (along with the 7-hydroxy group) as seen in the ritterazine series (compare ritterazines A/T and B/Y) leads to a significant decrease in activity. Increased activity of 17-ether analogues 178 and 179 points into the same direction All highly active cephalostatins and ritterazines are substantially asymmetric. Cephalostatins and ritterazines that are symmetric--either consisting of two polar units (cephalostatin 12 and ritterazine K) or two unpolar units (ritterazine N and ritterazine R)--or almost symmetric (cephalostatin 13 and ritterazine J, L, M, O, S) show substantially diminished

  19. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  20. Identification of organosulfurs and organonitrogens in the extracts of Pocahontas No. 3 Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing-Pei Cao; Zhi-Min Zong; Xiao-Yan Zhao; Chang-Cheng Liu; Guang-Feng Liu; Hong Zhang; Chul Wee Lee; Xian-Yong Wei [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pocahontas No. 3 coal was extracted with CS{sub 2}, n-hexane, benzene, methanol, acetone and acetone/CS{sub 2} (1:1 vol/vol) mixed solvent sequentially. The resulting six extracts were analyzed with GC and GC/MS. Hexathiane, octathiane, twenty-one organosulfurs (OSs) and twenty-one organonitrogens (ONs) were detected in the extracts. OSs detected in the extracts include ethylmethylsulfane, 1,2-dimethyldisulfane, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate, dimexano and its derivatives, dibenzothiophene, mono- and dimethyldibenzothiophenes, benzonaphthothiophene, mono- and dimethyl benzonaphthothiophenes, among which dimexano and dixanthogen were seldom reported in any sediments. Benzene is effective for extracting aromatic-ring-containing OSs, while OSs without aromatic ring tend to dissolve in methanol. Most of ONs detected in the extracts are acridinone, methylacridinones, carbazole, methylcarbazoles, benzocarbazoles, amines, phenanthridinone and piperidinone. Species and amounts of ONs detected in the extracts were increased along with the increasing of solvent polarity. N and O atoms often coexist in the same compounds. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Surface and airborne measurements of organosulfur and methanesulfonate over the western United States and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements, and the resulting data support the case for vanadium's catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32-0.56 µm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥84%) in submicrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea-salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed.

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas, M.

    1990-01-01

    The elemental compositions of 18 biological reference materials have been processed, for 14 stepped combinations of irradiation/decay/counting times, by the INAA Advance Prediction Computer Program. The 18 materials studied include 11 plant materials, 5 animal materials, and 2 other biological materials. Of these 18 materials, 14 are NBS Standard Reference Materials and four are IAEA reference materials. Overall, the results show that a mean of 52% of the input elements can be determined to a relative standard deviation of ±10% or better by reactor flux (thermal plus epithermal) INAA

  3. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological. Activities of Tinospora crispa ... triterpenes have been isolated, some of which have also shown corresponding biological activities. The current review is an update on the .... were found to exhibit higher antioxidative potency than the synthetic antioxidant.

  4. Dew formation and activity of biological crusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veste, M.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Breckle, S.W.; Littmann, T.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are prominent in many drylands and can be found in diverse parts of the globe including the Atacama desert, Chile, the Namib desert, Namibia, the Succulent-Karoo desert, South Africa, and the Negev desert, Israel. Because precipitation can be negligible in deserts ¿ the

  5. Galloylation of polyphenols alters their biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, D.; Ulrichová, J.; Valentová, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 223-240 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15082; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15084; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/G163 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polyphenols * Gallic acid * Galloylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016

  6. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae: Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukranul Mawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae, its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

  7. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    El Mokhtar Essassi; R. Bouhfid; Y. Kandri Rodi; S. Ferfra; H. Benzeid; Y. Ramli

    2010-01-01

    Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  8. Constituents and biological activities of Schinus polygamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo, Silvia; Delporte, Carla; Negrete, Rosa; García, Rubén; Zaldívar, Mercedes; Iturra, Gladys; Caballero, Esther; López, José Luis; Backhouse, Nadine

    2006-10-11

    The folk medicine employs Schinus polygamus to treat arthritic pain and cleansing of wounds. As no reports of pharmacological studies supporting its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, extracts of increasing polarity were assayed on the base of fever, pain and inflammation, together with its antimicrobial activity. All the extracts showed pharmacological activities. From the most active extracts different metabolites were isolated that can in part explain the antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity: beta-sitosterol, shikimic acid together with quercetin, previously reported. Also, the essential oil of leaves and fruits was obtained and compared with the oil obtained from Schinus polygamus collected in Argentine. Oils differed in composition and in antibacterial activity, where the Chilean species exhibited a wide spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and the most abundant compound found in leaves and fruits was beta-pinene, meanwhile the Argentine species showed high activity against Bacillus cereus, and the main components resulted to be alpha-phellandrene and limonene.

  9. Stimulation of rhamnolipid biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U by organosulfur compounds provided as sulfur sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; Shammary, Sultanah Al; El-Sayed, Wael S; Obuekwe, Christian; El Nayal, Ashraf M; Abdul Raheem, Abdul Salam; Al-Humam, Abdulmohsen

    2015-09-01

    A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U strain produced rhamnolipid biosurfactants to variable extents when grown on MgSO 4 or organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources and glucose as a carbon source. Organosulfur cultures produced much higher biosurfactants amounts compared to the MgSO 4 cultures. The surface tension of the growth medium was reduced from 72 mN/m to 54 and 30 mN/m in cultures containing MgSO 4 and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT), respectively. AK6U cultures produced different rhamnolipid congener profiles depending on the provided sulfur source. The dibenzothiophene (DBT) culture produced more diverse and a higher number of rhamnolipid congeners as compared to the DBT-sulfone and MgSO 4 cultures. The number of mono-rhamnolipid congeners in the DBT culture was also higher than that detected in the DBT-sulfone and MgSO 4 cultures. Di-rhamnolipids dominated the congener profiles in all the analyzed cultures. The sulfur source can have a profound impact on the quality and quantity of the produced biosurfactants.

  10. Stimulation of rhamnolipid biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U by organosulfur compounds provided as sulfur sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Ismail

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U strain produced rhamnolipid biosurfactants to variable extents when grown on MgSO4 or organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources and glucose as a carbon source. Organosulfur cultures produced much higher biosurfactants amounts compared to the MgSO4 cultures. The surface tension of the growth medium was reduced from 72 mN/m to 54 and 30 mN/m in cultures containing MgSO4 and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT, respectively. AK6U cultures produced different rhamnolipid congener profiles depending on the provided sulfur source. The dibenzothiophene (DBT culture produced more diverse and a higher number of rhamnolipid congeners as compared to the DBT-sulfone and MgSO4 cultures. The number of mono-rhamnolipid congeners in the DBT culture was also higher than that detected in the DBT-sulfone and MgSO4 cultures. Di-rhamnolipids dominated the congener profiles in all the analyzed cultures. The sulfur source can have a profound impact on the quality and quantity of the produced biosurfactants.

  11. Biologically active substances from Zanthoxylum capense(thumb.) Harv.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, PS

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation into the composition of Zanthoxylum capense yielded several biologically active compounds, including pellitorine. A convenient HPLC method was developed to determine the presence of pellitorine in crude extracts from plants...

  12. Biologically Active Compounds of Plant Foods: Prospective Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, other biologically active compounds impair health by ... of essential elements through different mechanisms and giving astringent taste, odor, ... The health benefits of selected substances from Ethiopian food crops need to ...

  13. Biological activities of Rumex dentatus L: Evaluation of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... of different the extracts of R. dentatus effectively inhibited tumor ... Plants contain thousands of biologically active mole- .... The vials were kept open over night with .... between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (Stachel and.

  14. Synthetic Approaches and Biological Activities of 4-Hydroxycoumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oee-Sook Park

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review is to summarize recent chemical syntheses and structural modifications of 4-hydroxycoumarin and its derivatives, of interest due to their characteristic conjugated molecular architecture and biological activities.

  15. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a biologically active functionalized electrospun matrix to permit immobilization and long-term delivery of biologically active agents. In particular the invention relates to a functionalized polymer matrix comprising a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin. Examples of active molecules that may be used with the multicomponent polymer of the invention include, for example, a drug, a biopolymer, for example a growth factor, a protein, a peptide, a nucleotide, a polysaccharide, a biological macromolecule or the like. The invention is further directed to the formation of functionalized crosslinked matrices, such as hydrogels, that include at least one functionalized compatibilizing polymer capable of assembly.

  16. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  17. Baltic cyanobacteria- A source of biologically active compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazur-Marzec, H.; Błaszczyk, A.; Felczykowska, A.; Hohlfeld, N.; Kobos, J.; Toruńska-Sitarz, A.; PrabhaDevi; Montalva`o, S.; DeSouza, L.; Tammela, P.; Mikosik, A.; Bloch, S.; Nejman-Faleńczyk, B.; Węgrzyn, G.

    cyanobacteria, enzyme activity, enzyme inhibitors, immunological activity, natural products, nonribosomal peptides, plant growth regulators 2 INTRODUCTION Cyanobacteria are Gram-negative bacteria which are widely distributed in many water bodies..., immunological, 4 antimicrobial and plant growth tests. The overall aim of the experiments was to identify strains showing the most promising biological activity for potential biotechnological application. MATERIALS AND METHODS Isolation, culture...

  18. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with /sup 3/H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled (29-/sup 3/H)-(24-/sup 14/C) fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of /sup 3/H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The (29-/sup 3/H) phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation.

  19. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    3 H and 14 C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with 3 H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled [29- 3 H]-[24- 14 C] fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the 3 H/ 14 C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of 3 H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The [29- 3 H] phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation

  20. Raman Optical Activity of Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Barron, Laurence D.

    Now an incisive probe of biomolecular structure, Raman optical activity (ROA) measures a small difference in Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized light. As ROA spectra measure vibrational optical activity, they contain highly informative band structures sensitive to the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, nucleic acids, viruses and carbohydrates as well as the absolute configurations of small molecules. In this review we present a survey of recent studies on biomolecular structure and dynamics using ROA and also a discussion of future applications of this powerful new technique in biomedical research.

  1. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... Gibbs free energy of the complex compound are 3.1x1011 and -64.15 KJmol-1, respectively, suggesting ... Schiff base and its iron(II) complex showed good activity. Keywords: ... maximum solubility in DMF and DMSO at room.

  2. New uracil derivatives and their biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudecova, D.; Striganova, J.; Chovanec, P.; Uher, M.

    1998-01-01

    Present study is concentrated to the research of antimicrobial activity of some derivatives of the uracil and 1,3-dimethyluracyl. The antimicrobial effects of these compounds have been tested on various strains of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. The highest antimicrobial effects were found with dithiocarbamato-derivatives, which were effective against pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria (IC 50 = 7-25 μg cm -3 ), yeasts (IC 50 = 9-60 μg cm -3 ) and filamentous fungi.The most sensitive fungus to dithiocarbamato-derivatives was Botritis cinerea. It seems to be apparent that the presence of the -NH-C(S)-S- group in molecules of derivatives of uracil and and 1,3-dimethyluracyl influencing the incorporation rate [ 14 ]-adenine and 14 ]-leucine into the biomolecules and also markedly inhibits oxygen consumption (IC 50 = 58 μg cm -3 ). The same derivative demonstrated no mutagenic activity. (authors)

  3. Isolation and biological activity of frankiamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haansuu, J P; Klika, K D; Söderholm, P P; Ovcharenko, V V; Pihlaja, K; Haahtela, K K; Vuorela, P M

    2001-07-01

    An antibiotic produced by the symbiotic actinomycete Frankia strain AiPs1 was isolated from culture broth using optimized thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. The novel compound that was isolated, dubbed frankiamide, displayed antimicrobial activity against all 14 Gram-positive bacterial strains and six pathogenic fungal strains tested. The pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis and the oomycete Phytophthora were especially susceptible. In addition to displaying antimicrobial activity, frankiamide also strongly inhibited 45Ca(2+) fluxes in clonal rat pituitary GH4C1 tumor cells and was comparable to a frequently used calcium antagonist, verapamil hydrochloride. The results of HPLC analysis, supported by both nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy studies, showed that frankiamide has a high affinity for Na(+) ions.

  4. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... CD4+ T cells to enhance the ability of secreting antibody and also enhance the function of CD8+ T cells. (Papatriantafyllou, 2011; Tovey and Lallemand, 2010). GM-CSF also is a key regulator of IL-1beta production. Furthermore, It was reported that GM-CSF play a key role in the activation of Th1 and Th17 ...

  5. Stereoselective synthesis of organosulfur compounds incorporating N-aromatic heterocyclic motifs and quaternary carbon centers via a sulfa-Michael triggered tandem reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tianyou; Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An; Liao, Weiwei

    2015-06-14

    A novel sulfa-Michael addition (SMA)-triggered tandem reaction was developed by combining a SMA reaction with a simultaneous rearomatization process utilizing a less reactive carbonyl group as an intramolecular electrophile partner, which provided a unique synthetic route to access various organosulfur compounds incorporating an N-aromatic heterocyclic motif and quaternary carbon centers.

  6. Synthesis and biological activity of organothiophosphoryl polyoxotungstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengang; Liu, Jutao; Ma, Jianfang; Liu, Jingfu

    2002-01-01

    Organothiophosphoryl polyoxotungstates R(contains)XW(infinityinfinity)O(contains exists) (/-) , R(contains) P(contains)W(infinity),O(infinity) (/-), R(contains)PW( exists)O(contains) (Delta) (-)(X = P, Si, Ge, B or Ga; R = PhP(S), C(6)H(11)P(S)) have been prepared from lacunary polyoxoanions and PhP(S). The products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and NMR spectroscopy. According to spectroscopic observations, the hybrid anions consist of a lacunary anion framework on which are grafted two equivalent or groups through P-O-W bridges. Some of the title compounds showed the antigerm activity.

  7. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  8. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  9. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascu, Mihaela, E-mail: mihhaela_neagu@yahoo.com [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Pascu, Daniela-Elena [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Cozea, Andreea [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, 148 Castle Street, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Bunaciu, Andrei A. [SCIENT – Research Center for Instrumental Analysis, S.C. CROMATEC-PLUS S.R.L., 18 Sos. Cotroceni, Bucharest 060114 (Romania); Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  10. Investigating Antibacterial Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Concentrate and Garlic-Derived Organosulfur Compounds on Campylobacter jejuni by Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Electron Microscopy ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Rasco, Barbara A.; Jabal, Jamie M. F.; Aston, D. Eric; Lin, Mengshi; Konkel, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the cell injury and inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni from exposure to antioxidants from garlic. C. jejuni was treated with various concentrations of garlic concentrate and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds in growth media and saline at 4, 22, and 35°C. The antimicrobial activities of the diallyl sulfides increased with the number of sulfur atoms (diallyl sulfide garlic, much greater than those of garlic phenolic compounds, as indicated by changes in the spectral features of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides in the bacterial cell membranes. Confocal Raman microscopy (532-nm-gold-particle substrate) and Raman mapping of a single bacterium confirmed the intracellular uptake of sulfur and phenolic components. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to verify cell damage. Principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA), and soft independent modeling of class analogs (SIMCA) were performed, and results were cross validated to differentiate bacteria based upon the degree of cell injury. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was employed to quantify and predict actual numbers of healthy and injured bacterial cells remaining following treatment. PLSR-based loading plots were investigated to further verify the changes in the cell membrane of C. jejuni treated with organosulfur compounds. We demonstrated that bacterial injury and inactivation could be accurately investigated by complementary infrared and Raman spectroscopies using a chemical-based, “whole-organism fingerprint” with the aid of chemometrics and electron microscopy. PMID:21642409

  11. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  12. Protein covalent modification by biologically active quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV J. GASIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The avarone/avarol quinone/hydroquinone couple shows considerable antitumor activity. In this work, covalent modification of b-lactoglobulin by avarone and its derivatives as well as by the synthetic steroidal quinone 2,5(10-estradiene-1,4,17-trione and its derivatives were studied. The techniques for studying chemical modification of b-lactoglobulin by quinones were: UV/Vis spectrophotometry, SDS PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. SDS PAGE results suggest that polymerization of the protein occurs. It could be seen that the protein of 18 kD gives the bands of 20 kD, 36 kD, 40 kD, 45 kD, 64 kD and 128 kD depending on modification agent. The shift of the pI of the protein (5.4 upon modification toward lower values (from pI 5.0 to 5.3 indicated that lysine amino groups are the principal site of the reaction of b-lactoglobulin with the quinones.

  13. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu

    2001-01-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  14. Transport of biologically active material in laser cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, M; Mathezloic, F; Stoffel, M H; Zweig, A D; Romano, V; Weber, H P

    1988-01-01

    The transport of biologically active material during laser cutting with CO2 and Er lasers is demonstrated. This transport mechanism removes particles from the surface of gelatin, agar, and liver samples into the depth of the laser-formed craters. The transport phenomenon is explained by a contraction and condensation of enclosed hot water vapor. We show by cultivating transported bacteria in agar that biological particles can survive the shock of the transport. Determination of the numbers of active cells evidences a more pronounced activity of the cultivated bacteria after impact with an Er laser than with a CO2 laser.

  15. Liposomal packaging generates Wnt protein with in vivo biological activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T Morrell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signals exercise strong cell-biological and regenerative effects of considerable therapeutic value. There are, however, no specific Wnt agonists and no method for in vivo delivery of purified Wnt proteins. Wnts contain lipid adducts that are required for activity and we exploited this lipophilicity by packaging purified Wnt3a protein into lipid vesicles. Rather than being encapsulated, Wnts are tethered to the liposomal surface, where they enhance and sustain Wnt signaling in vitro. Molecules that effectively antagonize soluble Wnt3a protein but are ineffective against the Wnt3a signal presented by a cell in a paracrine or autocrine manner are also unable to block liposomal Wnt3a activity, suggesting that liposomal packaging mimics the biological state of active Wnts. When delivered subcutaneously, Wnt3a liposomes induce hair follicle neogenesis, demonstrating their robust biological activity in a regenerative context.

  16. The Biological Activities of Sesterterpenoid-Type Ophiobolins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Deng, Zixin; Hong, Kui

    2017-07-18

    Ophiobolins (Ophs) are a group of tricarbocyclic sesterterpenoids whose structures contain a tricyclic 5-8-5 carbotricyclic skeleton. Thus far, 49 natural Ophs have been reported and assigned into A-W subgroups in order of discovery. While these sesterterpenoids were first characterized as highly effective phytotoxins, later investigations demonstrated that they display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological characteristics such as phytotoxic, antimicrobial, nematocidal, cytotoxic, anti-influenza and inflammation-promoting activities. These bioactive molecules are promising drug candidates due to the developments of their anti-proliferative activities against a vast number of cancer cell lines, multidrug resistance (MDR) cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Despite numerous studies on the biological functions of Ophs, their pharmacological mechanism still requires further research. This review summarizes the chemical structures, sources, and biological activities of the oph family and discusses its mechanisms and structure-activity relationship to lay the foundation for the future developments and applications of these promising molecules.

  17. Comparative study of biological activity of glutathione, sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione (GSH) and sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) are important pharmacological agents. They provide protection to cells against cytotoxic agents and thus reduce their cytotoxicity. It was of interest to study the biological activity of these two pharmacological active agents. Different strains of bacteria were used and the ...

  18. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    2017-01-01

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is…

  19. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mokhtar Essassi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  20. Biological activity of antitumoural MGBG: the structural variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M P M; Gil, F P S C; Calheiros, R; Battaglia, V; Brunati, A M; Agostinelli, E; Toninello, A

    2008-05-01

    The present study aims at determining the structure-activity relationships (SAR's) ruling the biological function of MGBG (methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone)), a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase displaying anticancer activity, involved in the biosynthesis of the naturally occurring polyamines spermidine and spermine. In order to properly understand its biochemical activity, MGBG's structural preferences at physiological conditions were ascertained, by quantum mechanical (DFT) calculations.

  1. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Ivanišová; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Radka Staňková; Lucia Godočíková; Tomáš Krajčovič; Štefan Dráb

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diff...

  2. Biological Activity of Curcuminoids Isolated from Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simay Çıkrıkçı

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is the most important fraction of turmeric which is responsible for its biological activity. In this study, isolation and biological assessment of turmeric and curcumin have been discussed against standard bacterial and mycobacterial strains such as E.coli , S.aureus, E.feacalis, P.aeuroginosa, M.smegmatis, M.simiae, M.kansasii, M. terrae, M.szulgai and the fungi Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity of curcumin and turmeric were also determined by the CUPRAC method.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on biological activity of thyrotropin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbak, V; Macho, L; Sedlak, J; Hromadova, M

    1976-03-01

    The biological activity of thyrotropin (TSH) was tested after sterilization by 0.5 and 12.5 Mrad of gamma irradiation. It was found that the biological activity (McKenzie's assay) of TSH irradiated in dry state was not affected during the first month after sterilization by doses of 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad. However, substantial decrease of TSH biological activity was observed 3 to 5 months after the irradiation, the lower activity being after the former dose. The irradiation of TSH by 12.5 Mrad in dry state and by 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad in solution resulted in a decrease of biological activity already during first month. The structural changes in the molecule of TSH were apparently not very extensive, since a decrease of disulfide bonds from 0.96 to 0.77 M per 1M of TSH was found immediately after the irradiation, while uv absorbancy and electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were unaffected. These changes were followed by the decrease of TSH stability during storage in dry state. It is hypothesized that TSH molecule may be affected in ..beta.. subunit or in its connection with ..cap alpha...

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on biological activity of thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbak, V.; Macho, L.; Sedlak, J.; Hromadova, M.

    1976-01-01

    The biological activity of thyrotropin (TSH) was tested after sterilization by 0.5 and 12.5 Mrad of gamma radiation. It was found that the biological activity (McKenzie's assay) of TSH irradiated in dry state was not affected during the first month after sterilization by doses of 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad. However, substantial decrease of TSH biological activity was observed 3 to 5 months after the irradiation, the lower activity after the 0.5 Mrad dose. The irradiation of TSH by 12.5 Mrad in dry state and by 0.5 and 2.5 Mrad in solution resulted in decreased biological activity already during the first month. The structural changes in the TSH molecule were apparently not very extensive, as a decrease of disulfide bonds from 0.96 to 0.77 M per 1 M of TSH was found immediately after the irradiation, while UV absorbancy and electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were unaffected. These changes were followed by a decrease of TSH stability during storage in dry state. It is hypothesized that a TSH molecule may be affected in a β subunit or in its connection with α. (author)

  5. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia.

  6. Simple glycolipids of microbes: Chemistry, biological activity and metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylated lipids (GLs are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production. We believe that experience of metabolic engineering (ME of microbial lipids for biofuel production can now be harnessed towards a successful synthesis of microbial GLs for biomedical and other applications. This review presents chemical groups of bacterial and fungal GLs, their biological activities, their general biosynthetic pathways and an insight on ME strategies for their production.

  7. Recent Advances in Momordica charantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuo; Shen, Mingyue; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Jianhua

    2017-11-28

    Momordica charantia L. ( M. charantia ), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and its fruit has been used as a vegetable for thousands of years. Phytochemicals including proteins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, ascorbic acid and steroids have been found in this plant. Various biological activities of M. charantia have been reported, such as antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated that M. charantia may also exert toxic or adverse effects under different conditions. This review addresses the chemical constituents of M. charantia and discusses their pharmacological activities as well as their adverse effects, aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry and biological activities of M. charantia .

  8. Biological activity of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2005), s. 123-129 ISSN 0971-4693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biological activity, extract, Fagopyrum esculenthum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.686, year: 2005

  9. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Isothiosemicarbazones with Antimycobacterial Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, E.; Waisser, K.; Kuneš, J.; Palát, K.; Skálová, L.; Szotáková, B.; Buchta, V.; Stolaříková, J.; Ulmann, V.; Pávová, Marcela; Weber, Jan; Komrsková, J.; Hašková, P.; Vokřál, I.; Wsól, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e1700020. ISSN 0365-6233 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological activity * cytotoxicity * isocitrate lyase * isothiosemicarbazone * tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.994, year: 2016

  10. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  11. Biological activities of some Fluoroquinolones-metal complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Metal ions play a vital role in the design of more biologically active drugs. Aim: The paper reviewed the .... 2H2O by direct reaction of copper(II) sulphate pentahydrate with ciprofloxacin in distilled water. ... membered ring and the chloride ion completes the seven coordination around the Ca2+ion.[37-39].

  12. Biological activities of species in the genus Tulbaghia : A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species of the genus Tulbaghia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such rheumatism, fits, fever, earache, tuberculosis etc. It is believed that the species possess several therapeutic properties. This paper evaluates some of the biological activities of the genus Tulbaghia. It is evident from ...

  13. A Review on Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current review is aimed to deliver some updates on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological activities of Beilschmiedia species in order to throw more light on their therapeutic potentials and future research priorities. Phytochemical studies on Beilschmiedia genus yielded essential oils, endiandric acid ...

  14. Students’ learning activities while studying biological process diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students’ learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each

  15. Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga bracteosa wall and Viola odoroto Linn. Anwar Ali Shad, M. Zeeshan, Hina Fazal, Hamid Ullah Shah, Shabir Ahmed, Hasem Abeer, E. F. Abd_Allah, Riaz Ullah, Hamid Afridi, Akash tariq, Muhammad Adnan Asma ...

  16. Polysaccharies of higher fungi: Biological role, structure and antioxidative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.S.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Vrvic, M.M.; Jakovljevic, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging bio-logical properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypo-lipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application

  17. Occurrence, biological activity and synthesis of drimane sesquiterpenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    In this review the names, structures and occurrence of all new drimanes and rearranged drimanes, which have been published between January 1990 and January 2003 have been collected. Subjects that have been treated are biosynthesis, analysis, biological activities, with special attention to cytotoxic

  18. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  19. A Review on Phytoconstituents and Biological activities of Cuscuta species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ateeque; Tandon, Sudeep; Xuan, Tran Dang; Nooreen, Zulfa

    2017-08-01

    The genus Cuscuta belonging to the Cuscutaceae family comprises of about 100-170 species spread around the world. Although several species have been studied for their phytochemical characterization and biological activities but still many species are yet unexplored till date. Cuscuta are parasitic plants generally of yellow, orange, red or rarely green color. The Cuscuta species were reported rich in flavonoid and glycosidic constituents along with alkaloids, fatty acids, fixed oil, minerals, essential oil and others phytomolecules also etc. Flavonoids and other molecules of Cuscuta species were reported for different types of biological activities such as antiproliferative activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial and anxiolytic activity, while some other flavonoids have exhibited potential antiviral and anticancer especially in ovarian and breast cancer activities. This review is an attempt to compile all the available data for the 24 different of Cuscuta species on the basis of different types of phytochemical constituents and biological studies as above. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is why active learning is such an effective instructional tool and the limits of this instructional method’s ability to influence performance. This dissertation builds a case in three steps for why active learning is an effective instructional tool. In step one, I assessed the influence of different types of active learning (clickers, group activities, and whole class discussions) on student engagement behavior in one semester of two different introductory biology courses and found that active learning positively influenced student engagement behavior significantly more than lecture. For step two, I examined over four semesters whether student engagement behavior was a predictor of performance and found participation (engagement behavior) in the online (video watching) and in-class course activities (clicker participation) that I measure were significant predictors of performance. In the third, I assessed whether certain active learning satisfied the psychological needs that lead to students’ intrinsic motivation to participate in those activities when compared over two semesters and across two different institutions of higher learning. Findings from this last step show us that student’s perceptions of autonomy, competency, and relatedness in doing various types of active learning are significantly higher than lecture and consistent across two institutions of higher learning. Lastly, I tie everything together, discuss implications of the research, and address future directions for research on biology student motivation and behavior.

  1. Certification of biological reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanjewar, Mamata R.; Lanjewar, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    A multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method by short and long irradiation has been employed for the determination of 21 minor and trace elements in two standard Reference Materials P-RBF and P-WBF from Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques ,Czechoslovakia. Also some biological standards such as Bowen's kale, cabbage leaves (Poland) including wheat and rice flour samples of local origin were analysed. It is suggested that INAA is an ideal method for the certification of Reference Materials of Biological Matrices. (author)

  2. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced 14 CO 2 from L-[U- 14 C] malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 μg niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays

  3. Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feller, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 0 C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins. (topical review)

  4. Determination of chromium in biological matrices by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClendon, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    Chromium is recognized to be an essential trace element in several biological systems. It exists in many biological materials in a variety of chemical forms and very low concentration levels which cause problems for many analytical techniques. Both instrumental and destructive neutron activation analysis were used to determine the chromium concentration in Orchard Leaves, SRM 1571, Brewers Yeast, SRM 1569, and Bovine Liver, SRM 1577. Some of the problems inherent with determining chromium in certain biological matrices and the data obtained here at the National Bureau of Standards using this technique are discussed. The results obtained from dissolution of brewers yeast in a closed system as described in the DNAA procedure are in good agreement with the INAA results. The same phenomenon existed in the determination of chromium in bovine liver. The radiochemical procedure described for chromium (DNAA) provides the analyst with a simple, rapid and selective technique for chromium determination in a variety of matrices. (T.G.)

  5. Biological activity of soils strongly polluted with sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krol, M; Maliszewska, W; Siuta, J

    1972-01-01

    Studies were carried out on soils strongly polluted with sulfur and acidified (to pH 1.4). The soils were subjected to an intensive liming. In field and pot experiments, the authors determined: the total quantity of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, azotobacter, nitrifiers, proteolytic activity of microorganisms, activity of ammonifiers and the number of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. It was found that intensive liming of sulfur-affected soils restored their biological activity. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  6. Synthesis and biological activity of imidazopyridine anticoccidial agents: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Andrew; Dennis, Richard; Lee, Shuliang; Ouvry, Gilles; Perrey, David; Fisher, Michael; Wyvratt, Matthew; Leavitt, Penny; Liberator, Paul; Gurnett, Anne; Brown, Chris; Mathew, John; Thompson, Donald; Schmatz, Dennis; Biftu, Tesfaye

    2008-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the poultry industry. Protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria invade the intestinal lining of the avian host causing tissue pathology, poor weight gain, and in some cases mortality. Resistance to current anticoccidials has prompted the search for new therapeutic agents with potent in vitro and in vivo activity against Eimeria. Recently, we reported the synthesis and biological activity of potent imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine anticoccidial agents. Antiparasitic activity is due to inhibition of a parasite specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). In this study, we report the synthesis and anticoccidial activity of a second set of such compounds, focusing on derivatization of the amine side chain at the imidazopyridine 7-position. From this series, several compounds showed subnanomolar in vitro activity and commercial levels of in vivo activity. However, the potential genotoxicity of these compounds precludes them from further development.

  7. Biological activity and photostability of biflorin micellar nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Edson R B; Ferreira-Neto, João P; Yara, Ricardo; Sena, Kêsia X F R; Fontes, Adriana; Lima, Cláudia S A

    2015-05-13

    Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR) and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9%) and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures' photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  8. Biological Activity and Photostability of Biflorin Micellar Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson R. B. Santana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9% and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures’ photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  9. The Biological Activities of Sesterterpenoid-Type Ophiobolins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ophiobolins (Ophs are a group of tricarbocyclic sesterterpenoids whose structures contain a tricyclic 5-8-5 carbotricyclic skeleton. Thus far, 49 natural Ophs have been reported and assigned into A–W subgroups in order of discovery. While these sesterterpenoids were first characterized as highly effective phytotoxins, later investigations demonstrated that they display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological characteristics such as phytotoxic, antimicrobial, nematocidal, cytotoxic, anti-influenza and inflammation-promoting activities. These bioactive molecules are promising drug candidates due to the developments of their anti-proliferative activities against a vast number of cancer cell lines, multidrug resistance (MDR cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs. Despite numerous studies on the biological functions of Ophs, their pharmacological mechanism still requires further research. This review summarizes the chemical structures, sources, and biological activities of the oph family and discusses its mechanisms and structure–activity relationship to lay the foundation for the future developments and applications of these promising molecules.

  10. Biological activities of xanthatin from Xanthium strumarium leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibret, Endalkachew; Youns, Mahamoud; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Wink, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biological activities of the major bioactive compound, xanthatin, and other compounds from Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae) leaves. Inhibition of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and leukaemia HL-60 cell proliferation was assessed using resazurin as a vital stain. Xanthatin was found to be the major and most active compound against T. b. brucei with an IC(50) value of 2.63 µg/mL and a selectivity index of 20. The possible mode of action of xanthatin was further evaluated. Xanthatin showed antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis (24% inhibition) and 5-lipoxygenase activity (92% inhibition) at concentrations of 100 µg/mL and 97 µg/mL, respectively. Xanthatin exhibited weak irreversible inhibition of parasite specific trypanothione reductase. Unlike xanthatin, diminazene aceturate and ethidium bromide showed strong DNA intercalation with IC(50) values of 26.04 µg/mL and 44.70 µg/mL, respectively. Substantial induction of caspase 3/7 activity in MIA PaCa-2 cells was observed after 6 h of treatment with 100 µg/mL of xanthatin. All these data taken together suggest that xanthatin exerts its biological activity by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis and 5-lipoxygenase activity thereby avoiding unwanted inflammation commonly observed in diseases such as trypanosomiasis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials using the 31 P(α,n) sup(34m)Cl reaction has been studied. Since sup(34m)Cl is also produced by the 32 S(α,pn) and the 35 Cl(α,α'n) reactions, the thick-target yield curves on phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine were determined in order to choose the optimum irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that the activation analysis for phosphorus without interferences from sulfur and chlorine is possible by bombarding with less than 17 MeV alphas. The applicability of this method to biological samples was then examined by irradiating several standard reference materials. It was confirmed that phosphorus can readily be determined at the detection limit of 1μg free from interferences due to the matrix elements. (author)

  13. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  14. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mishra, Pragya; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, Ashoke K

    2011-10-01

    Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur) (family: Fabaceae) is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  15. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  16. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  17. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L Millsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur (family: Fabaceae is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  18. Detection of biologically active diterpenoic acids by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Orinak, Andrej; Efremov, Evtim V.

    2010-01-01

    Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy is not su......Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy...... few enhanced Raman lines. SERS spectra with 514-nm excitation with Ag colloids were also relatively weak. The best SERS spectrawere obtained with 785-nm excitation on a novel nanostructured substrate, 'black silicon' coated with a 400-nm gold layer. The spectra showed clear differences...

  19. Allobetulin and Its Derivatives: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talgat S. Seitembetov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the chemistry of allobetulin analogs, including their formation by rearrangement from betulin derivatives, their further derivatisation, their fusion with heterocyclic rings, and any further rearrangements of allobetulin compounds including ring opening, ring contraction and ring expansion reactions. In the last part, the most important biological activities of allobetulin derivatives are listed. One hundred and fifteen references are cited and the relevant literature is covered, starting in 1922 up to the end of 2010.

  20. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of imidazopyridine anticoccidial agents: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Andrew; Dennis, Richard; Hong, Jean; Lee, Shuliang; McIntyre, Donald; Perrey, David; Feng, Dennis; Fisher, Michael; Wyvratt, Matthew; Leavitt, Penny; Liberator, Paul; Gurnett, Anne; Brown, Chris; Mathew, John; Thompson, Donald; Schmatz, Dennis; Biftu, Tesfaye

    2007-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the poultry industry. Protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria invade the intestinal lining of the avian host causing tissue pathology, poor weight gain, and in some cases mortality. Resistance to current anticoccidials has prompted the search for new therapeutic agents with potent in vitro and in vivo activity against Eimeria. Antiparasitic activity is due to inhibition of a parasite specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). In this study, we present the synthesis and biological activity of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine anticoccidial agents. From this series, several compounds showed subnanomolar in vitro activity and commercial levels of in vivo activity. However, the potential genotoxicity of these compounds precludes them from further development.

  2. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Expression of biologically active murine interleukin-18 in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Andalib, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    The food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L. lactis to secrete murine IL-18. The mature murine IL-18 gene was inserted downstream of a nisin promoter in pNZ8149 plasmid and the construct was used to transform L. lactis NZ3900. The transformants were selected on Elliker agar and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The expression and secretion of IL-18 protein was verified by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. The biological activity of recombinant IL-18 was determined by its ability to induce interferon (IFN)-γ production in L. lactis co-cultured with murine splenic T cells. The amounts of IL-18 in bacterial lysates and supernatants were 3-4 μg mL -1 and 0.6-0.7 ng mL -1 , respectively. The successfully generated L. lactis strain that expressed biologically active murine IL-18 can be used to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of IL-18 on mucosal surfaces. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  5. Adsorption of Heavy Metals on Biologically Activated Brown Coal Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Praščáková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of cooper (II and zinc (II ions from aqueous solutions on a biologically activated brown coal sludge was investigated. Four families of adsorbents were prepared from the brown coal sludge bya microorganism’s activity. There were used microscopic fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma viride. Prepared sorbents were capable of removing Cu (II and Zn (II. The sorption isotherm has been constructed and the specific metal uptake and the maximum capacity of the adsorbent have been determined.

  6. Phytochemistry and biological activities of Heracleum persicum: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Zahra; Sadati Lamardi, S N

    2018-05-24

    Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch is used in Iranian traditional medicines, for the treatment of various diseases including neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, rheumatological and urinary tract diseases. In phytochemical analysis of H. persicum, several classes of natural chemicals including volatile (aliphatic esters, carbonyls, phenyl propenes and terpenes) and nonvolatile (flavonoids, furanocoumarins, tannins and alkaloids) constituents as well as different minerals have been identified. Scientific studies on H. persicum proved that it has a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. This article has provided comprehensive information on Iranian traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of H. persicum. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan, E-mail: yangbq@nwu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, Northwest University, Shaanxi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  8. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  9. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48 V and 62 Zn. (author)

  10. On the mechanism of biological activation by tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhko, T V; Badun, G A; Razzhivina, I A; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Kudryasheva, N S

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented. The both types of tritium sources revealed similar changes in the bacterial luminescence kinetics: a delay period followed by bioluminescence activation. No monotonic dependences of bioluminescence activation efficiency on specific radioactivities of the films were found. A 15-day exposure to tritiated water (100 MBq/L) did not reveal mutations in bacterial DNA. The results obtained give preference to a "non-genomic" mechanism of bioluminescence activation by tritium. An activation of the intracellular bioluminescence process develops without penetration of tritium atoms into the cells and can be caused by intensification of trans-membrane cellular processes stimulated by ionization and radiolysis of aqueous media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Summary of diamino pyrazoles derived and study their biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagui, Marwa

    2016-01-01

    The work involves the synthesis of new heterocyclic structures diamino pyrazoles derivatives that are present in many natural products and products of pharmacological and therapeutic interests and study their biological activities. In order to develop a radiotracer interest and use in diagnostic nuclear medicine, we are interested to synthesis a pyrazole derivative with the precursor [Re(CO)5Br] and studying the antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3.5-diamino pyrazole and even thioamide complex rhenium. The objectives of our workout: 1/ Synthesis of molecules 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide. 2/ Synthesis of 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium complex. 3/ The in vitro study: Bacteriological Tests (Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide). The first part of this work concerns the chemical synthesis of molecules such as: thioamide, Amp z1 Ampz2 and then we had synthesized the complex 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium. Similarly we determined the physicochemical characteristics of the compounds synthesized by CLHP, CCM and RMN ( 1 H, 13 C). The second part is devoted to the study in vitro of biological activities of the synthesized molecules and complex 3,5 diaminopyrazole-rhenium with concentration 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. The results allow us to say that the thioamide and Ampz2 have antibacterial activity against S. enterica and Ampz2 has low activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginossa. Other pyrazole derivatives have no significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results also show that the synthesized compounds of concentration 2 mg/mL in relation to the inhibition zones of amoxicillin and DMSO: 1/ Escherichia coli, there is antibacterial activity for thioamide, and the Amp z1-Re Ampz2 compound. 2/ Staphylococcus aureus, the complex Ampz 1-Re and the thioamide have significant antibacterial activity. 3/ Salmonella, we observe that the thioamide molecules, Ampz2 and Amp z1-Re have significant antibacterial activity

  12. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  13. Natural products as a resource for biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate various sources of biologically active natural products in an effort to identify the active pesticidal compounds involved. The study is divided into several parts. Chapter 1 contains a discussion of several new compounds from plant and animal sources. Chapter 2 introduces a new NMR technique. In section 2.1 a new technique for better utilizing the lanthanide relaxation agent Gd(fod) 3 is presented which allows the predictable removal of resonances without line broadening. Section 2.2 discusses a variation of this technique for use in an aqueous solvent by applying this technique towards identifying the binding sites of metals of biological interest. Section 2.3 presents an unambiguous 13 C NMR assignment of melibiose. Chapter 3 deals with work relating to the molting hormone of most arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Section 3.1 discusses the use of two-dimensional NMR (2D NMR) to assign the 1 H NMR spectrum of this biologically important compound. Section 3.2 presents a new application for Droplet countercurrent chromatography (DCCC). Chapter 4 presents a basic improvement to the commercial DCCC instrument that is currently being applied to future commercial instruments. Chapter 5 discusses a curious observation of the effects that two previously known compounds, nagilactone C and (-)-epicatechin, have on lettuce and rice and suggest a possible new role for the ubiquitous flavanol (-)-epicatechin in plants

  14. Isolation, structural elucidation and immunomodulatory activity of fructans from aged garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Prashanth, Keelara V Harish; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2011-02-01

    Traditionally, garlic (Allium sativum) is known to be a significant immune booster. Aged garlic extract (AGE) possesses superior immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic; these effects are attributed to the transformed organosulfur compounds. AGE is also known to contain fructans; the amount of fructans in AGE represents a small fraction (0.22%) of the total fructans in raw garlic. In order to evaluate the biological activity of fructans present in AGE, both high molecular weight (>3.5 kDa; HF) and low molecular weight (immunomodulators such as zymosan and mannan. This study clearly demonstrates that garlic fructans also contribute to the immunomodulatory properties of AGE, and is the first such study on the biological effects of garlic fructans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(U-/sup 14/C) malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 ..mu..g niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays.

  16. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  17. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  18. [BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES FROM CHICKENS THROMBOCYTES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycheva, M V; Vasilchenko, A S; Rogozhin, E A; Pashkova, T M; Popova, L P; Kartashova, O L

    2016-01-01

    Isolation and study of biological activity of antimicrobial peptides from chickens thrombocytes. Peptides from chickens thrombocytes, obtained by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with stepped and linear gradients of concentration increase of the organic solvent were used in the study. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by microtitration method in broth; mechanism of biological effect--by using fluorescent spectroscopy method with DNA-tropic dyes. Individual fractions of peptides were isolated from chickens thrombocytes, that possess antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus P209 and Escherichia coli K12. A disruption of integrity of barrier structures of microorganisms under the effect of thrombocyte antimicrobial peptides and predominance of cells with damaged membrane in the population of E. coli was established. The data obtained on antimicrobial activity and mechanism of bactericidal effect of the peptide fractions from chickens thrombocytes isolated for the first time expand the understanding of functional properties of chickens thrombocytes and open a perspective for their further study with the aim of use as antimicrobial means.

  19. Biological activity of Penaeus monodon GILT in shrimp pathogen protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aekkaraj Nualla-ong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT contains a CXXC active site motif that possesses thiol reductase activity by catalyzing the disulfide bond reduction of exogenous antigens. Mutating the active site of human GILT to change the cysteine residues to serine residues eliminates this property. Our previous study reported that Penaeus monodon GILT (PmGILT contained a CXXS active site motif. Therefore, we assessed the enzymatic activity of PmGILT and demonstrated that it displayed identical thiol reductase activity at an acidic pH. In addition, the biological activity of PmGILT against shrimp pathogens, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Gram-negative bacteria, was investigated. The neutralization of WSSV with PmGILT indicated the inhibition of WSSV invasion into shrimp hemocyte cells. Moreover, the relative percentage survival of shrimp injected with PmGILT-treated virus solution was 75%. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of PmGILT was confirmed by the growth inhibition of Vibrio harveyi. These results establish the role of PmGILT in the inhibition of the virulence of two major shrimp pathogens.

  20. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel kader, S.M.; El Sayed, M.M.; El Malt, E.A.; Shaker, E.S.; Abdel Aziz, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  1. Investigating Biological Activity Spectrum for Novel Styrylquinazoline Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Polanski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, series of ring-substituted 2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H-one and 4-chloro-2-styrylquinazoline derivatives were prepared. The syntheses of the discussed compounds are presented. The compounds were analyzed by RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. They were tested for their inhibitory activity on photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was also performed against four mycobacterial strains and against eight fungal strains. Several compounds showed biological activity comparable with or higher than that of the standard isoniazid. It was found that the electronic properties of the R substituent, and not the total lipophilicity of the compound, were decisive for the photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of tested compounds.

  2. Biological Activity Predictions and Hydrogen Bonding Analysis in Quinolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Palvi; Kamni

    The paper has been designed to make a comprehensive review of a particular series of organic molecular assembly in the form of compendium. An overview of general description of fifteen quinoline derivatives has been given. The biological activity spectra of quinoline derivatives have been correlated on structure activity relationships base which provides the different Pa (possibility of activity) and Pi (possibility of inactivity) values. Expositions of the role of intermolecular interactions in the identified derivatives have been discussed with the standard distance and angle cut-off criteria criteria as proposed by Desiraju and Steiner (1999) in an International monogram on crystallography. Distance-angle scatter plots for intermolecular interactions are presented for a better understanding of the packing interactions which exist in quinoline derivatives.

  3. Biological and therapeutic activities, and anticancer properties of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Donatella; Ardito, Fatima; Giannatempo, Giovanni; Dioguardi, Mario; Troiano, Giuseppe; Lo Russo, Lucio; DE Lillo, Alfredo; Laino, Luigi; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant. Curcumin has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine, as it is nontoxic and exhibits a variety of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activities. Recently, certain studies have indicated that curcumin may exert anticancer effects in a variety of biological pathways involved in mutagenesis, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, cell cycle regulation and metastasis. The present study reviewed previous studies in the literature, which support the therapeutic activity of curcumin in cancer. In addition, the present study elucidated a number of the challenges concerning the use of curcumin as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent. All the studies reviewed herein suggest that curcumin is able to exert anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antioxidative, hepatoprotective and antitumor activities, particularly against cancers of the liver, skin, pancreas, prostate, ovary, lung and head neck, as well as having a positive effect in the treatment of arthritis.

  4. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  5. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  6. Activating and inhibiting connections in biological network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of biochemical networks have analyzed network topology. Such work has suggested that specific types of network wiring may increase network robustness and therefore confer a selective advantage. However, knowledge of network topology does not allow one to predict network dynamical behavior – for example, whether deleting a protein from a signaling network would maintain the network's dynamical behavior, or induce oscillations or chaos. Results Here we report that the balance between activating and inhibiting connections is important in determining whether network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. We use a simple dynamical model of a network of interacting genes or proteins. Using the model, we study random networks, networks selected for robust dynamics, and examples of biological network topologies. The fraction of activating connections influences whether the network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. Conclusion The activating fraction may predispose a network to oscillate or reach steady state, and neutral evolution or selection of this parameter may affect the behavior of biological networks. This principle may unify the dynamics of a wide range of cellular networks. Reviewers Reviewed by Sergei Maslov, Eugene Koonin, and Yu (Brandon Xia (nominated by Mark Gerstein. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  7. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocerino N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nunzia Nocerino,1 Andrea Fulgione,1 Marco Iannaccone,1 Laura Tomasetta,1 Flora Ianniello,1 Francesca Martora,1 Marco Lelli,2 Norberto Roveri,2 Federico Capuano,3 Rosanna Capparelli1 1Department of Agriculture Special Biotechnology Center Federico II, CeBIOTEC Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, 2Department of Chemistry, G Ciamician, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, 3Department of Food Inspection IZS ME, Naples, Italy Abstract: The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA. We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. Keywords: lactoferrin, hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, biomimetism, biological activity, drug delivery

  8. Eurotium (Aspergillus) repens metabolites and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podojil, M; Sedmera, P; Vokoun, J; Betina, V; Baráthová, H; Duracková, Z; Horáková, K; Nemec, P

    1978-01-01

    Eurotium repens mycelium cultivated under static conditions was used to isolate and identify metabolities--echinulin, physcion, erythroglaucin, flavoglaucin and asperentin; the filtrate of the culture yielded asperentin 8-methylether. The broadest biological activity spectrum was displayed by asperentin which had antibacterial and antifungal effects and, at a concentration of 86 microgram/ml, caused 50% mor7 tality in Artemia saline larvae. The highest cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells was found in physcion which caused 50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml.

  9. Prompt gamma cold neutron activation analysis applied to biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Hiep, N.T.

    1992-01-01

    Cold neutrons at the external neutron guide laboratory (ELLA) of the KFA Juelich are used to demonstrate their profitable application for multielement characterization of biological materials. The set-up and experimental conditions of the Prompt Gamma Cold Neutron Activation Analysis (PGCNAA) device is described in detail. Results for C, H, N, S, K, B, and Cd using synthetic standards and the 'ratio' technique for calculation are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable and complementary with respect to the elements being determined by INAA. (orig.)

  10. Physicochemical Characteristics and Biological Activity of Irradiated Pectin Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Kang, H.J.; Jo, C.O.; Jeong, I.Y.; Byun, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Pectin was dissolved in HCI, citric acid, and deionized distilled water (DW, 2%, v/v) and irradiated at different irradiation doses (2.5-50 kGy) by gamma ray to investigate its physicochemical characteristics and biological activity. Viscosity of pectin solution was significantly decreased by irradiation up to 10 kGy, then remained constant thereafter. Gamma-irradiation increased monosaccharide and polysaccharide levels up to 30-40 kDa. Electron donating ability of pectin solution was highest when DW was added was increased by increasing irradiation dose (p less than 0.05)

  11. New enamine derivatives of lapachol and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA MAILCAR F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient synthesis of the new enamine derivatives 2-(4-morpholinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione, 2-(1-piperidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphtalenedione and 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione was carried out from natural 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione (lapachol and morpholine, piperidine and pyrrolidine. The structures of the products were established mainly by NMR analysis, including 2D experiments. Biological activities of these products were evaluated against Artemia salina, Aedes aegypti and cytotoxicity using A549 human breast cells.

  12. Secondary metabolites and biological activity of Pentas species: A minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba-tollah M. Sweelam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pentas belongs to the Rubiaceae family, which contains approximately 40 species. Several Pentas species were reported to be used as a folk treatment by African indigenous people in treating some diseases such as malaria, tapeworms, dysentery, gonorrhea, syphilis and snake poisoning. This article covers the period from 1962 to 2017 and presents an overview of the biological activity of different Pentas species and describes their phytochemical traits. As a conclusion, the main secondary metabolites from Pentas species are quinones, highly oxygenated chromene-based structures, and iridoids. Pentas species are widely used in folk medicine but they have to be more investigated for their medicinal properties.

  13. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petunin AI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody–antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs to various targets in vivo.

  14. Radio-active waste disposal and deep-sea biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The deep-sea has been widely thought of as a remote, sparsely populated, and biologically inactive environment, well suited to receive the noxious products of nuclear fission processes. Much of what is known of abyssal biology tends to support this view, but there are a few disquieting contra-indications. The realisation, in recent years, that many animal groups show a previously unsuspected high species diversity in the deep-sea emphasized the paucity of our knowledge of this environment. More dramatically, the discovery of a large, active, and highly mobile abysso-bentho-pelagic fauna changed the whole concept of abyssal life. Finally, while there is little evidence for the existence of vertical migration patterns linking the deep-sea bottom communities with those of the overlying water layers, there are similarly too few negative results for the possibility of such transport mechanisms to be dismissed. In summary, biological knowledge of the abyss is insufficient to answer the questions raised in connection with deep-sea dumping, but in the absence of adequate answers it might be dangerous to ignore the questions

  15. Parsley: a review of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abbasabadi, Zahra; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Rahimi, Roja; Farzaei, Fatemeh

    2013-12-01

    To summarize comprehensive information concerning ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of parsley. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were searched for studies focusing on the ethnomedicinal use, phytochemical compounds and biological and pharmacological activities of parsley. Data were collected from 1966 to 2013. The search terms were: "Parsley" or "Petroselinum crispum" or "Petroselinum hortence". Parsley has been used as carminative, gastro tonic, diuretic, antiseptic of urinary tract, anti-urolithiasis, anti-dote and anti-inflammatory and for the treatment of amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, gastrointestinal disorder, hypertension, cardiac disease, urinary disease, otitis, sniffle, diabetes and also various dermal disease in traditional and folklore medicines. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids particularly apigenin, apiin and 6"-Acetylapiin; essential oil mainly myristicin and apiol; and also coumarins are the active compounds identified in Petroselinum crispum. Wide range of pharmacological activity including antioxidant, hepatoprotective, brain protective, anti-diabetic, analgesic, spasmolytic, immunosuppressant, anti-platelet, gastroprotective, cytoprotective, laxative, estrogenic, diuretic, hypotensive, antibacterial and antifungal activities have been exhibited for this plant in modern medicine. It is expectant that this study resulted in improvement the tendencies toward Petroselinum crispum as a useful and important medicinal plant with wide range of proven medicinal activity.

  16. Exploring rhizosphere bacteria of Eichhornia crassipes for metal tolerance and biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Gomez, S.; Ribeiro, M.; Deshpande, S.A.; Singh, K.S.; DeSouza, L.

    Cl3, They were further screened for antibiotic sensitivity and biological activity according to Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method The MTB under metal stress condition showed significant biological activity against clinical pathogens, fouling...

  17. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of the Cyclodipeptides from Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodipeptides, called 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs, are obtained by the condensation of two amino acids. Fungi have been considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive cyclodipeptides. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal cyclodipeptides with the literature covered up to July 2017. A total of 635 fungal cyclodipeptides belonging to the groups of tryptophan-proline, tryptophan-tryptophan, tryptophan–Xaa, proline–Xaa, non-tryptophan–non-proline, and thio-analogs have been discussed and reviewed. They were mainly isolated from the genera of Aspergillus and Penicillium. More and more cyclodipeptides have been isolated from marine-derived and plant endophytic fungi. Some of them were screened to have cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, vasodilator, radical scavenging, antioxidant, brine shrimp lethal, antiviral, nematicidal, antituberculosis, and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications in agriculture, medicinal, and food industry.

  18. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...... orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion...

  19. Facile Chemical Access to Biologically Active Norcantharidin Derivatives from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Galkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reductive amination of 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF was used to implement the transition from bio-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF to pharmaceuticals. The synthesized bis(aminomethylfurans were utilized as building blocks for the construction of new derivatives with structural cores of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. Using the one-pot procedure, which included the Diels–Alder reaction followed by hydrogenation of the double bond, bio-derived analogues of the anticancer drug norcantharidin were obtained. The cyclization process was diastereoselective, and resulted in the formation of tricyclic products with the endo configuration. Analysis of cytotoxycity for the resulting tricyclic amine-containing compounds showed an increase of anticancer activity as compared with the unsubstituted norcantharimide.

  20. Borrelidin B: isolation, biological activity, and implications for nitrile biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christopher J; Bray, Walter M; Loganzo, Frank; Lam, My-Hanh; Szal, Teresa; Villalobos, Anabella; Koehn, Frank E; Linington, Roger G

    2014-11-26

    Borrelidin (1) is a nitrile-containing bacterially derived polyketide that is a potent inhibitor of bacterial and eukaryotic threonyl-tRNA synthetases. We now report the discovery of borrelidin B (2), a tetrahydro-borrelidin derivative containing an aminomethyl group in place of the nitrile functionality in borrelidin. The discovery of this new metabolite has implications for both the biosynthesis of the nitrile group and the bioactivity of the borrelidin compound class. Screening in the SToPS assay for tRNA synthetase inhibition revealed that the nitrile moiety is essential for activity, while profiling using our in-house image-based cytological profiling assay demonstrated that 2 retains biological activity by causing a mitotic stall, even in the absence of the nitrile motif.

  1. Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Arzu Ucar; Camper, N D

    2002-10-01

    Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus L., Scrophulariaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, asthma, spasmodic coughs, diarrhea and other pulmonary problems. The objective of this study was to assess the biological activity of Common Mullein extracts and commercial Mullein products using selected bench top bioassays, including antibacterial, antitumor, and two toxicity assays--brine shrimp and radish seed. Extracts were prepared in water, ethanol and methanol. Antibacterial activity (especially the water extract) was observed with Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced tumors in potato disc tissue were inhibited by all extracts. Toxicity to Brine Shrimp and to radish seed germination and growth was observed at higher concentrations of the extracts.

  2. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M

    2000-01-01

    orosomucoid and CRP), leukocyte and platelet counts, albumin, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin will be reviewed together with emerging disease markers such as antibodies of the ANCA/ASCA type, cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-2Ralpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha receptors) and with various adhesion......Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  3. Myricetin: A Dietary Molecule with Diverse Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Semwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Myricetin is a common plant-derived flavonoid and is well recognised for its nutraceuticals value. It is one of the key ingredients of various foods and beverages. The compound exhibits a wide range of activities that include strong anti-oxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. It displays several activities that are related to the central nervous system and numerous studies have suggested that the compound may be beneficial to protect against diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. The use of myricetin as a preserving agent to extend the shelf life of foods containing oils and fats is attributed to the compound’s ability to protect lipids against oxidation. A detailed search of existing literature revealed that there is currently no comprehensive review available on this important molecule. Hence, the present work includes the history, synthesis, pharmaceutical applications and toxicity studies of myricetin. This report also highlights structure-activity relationships and mechanisms of action for various biological activities.

  4. Characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) lectin for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Narvekar, Dakshita T; Bhadkariya, Rajni; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2018-05-01

    Lectins are proteins that are subject of intense investigations. Information on lectin from chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) with respect to its biological activities are very limited. In this study, we purified lectin from the seeds of chickpea employing DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and identified its molecular subunit mass as 35 kDa. The free radical scavenging activity of lectin measured by the DPPH assay has IC 50 of 0.88 µg/mL. Lectin exerted antifungal activity against Candida krusei , Fusarium oxysporium oxysporium , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , while antibacterial activity against E. coli , B. subtilis , S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 200, 240, 160 and 140 µg for C. krusei, F. oxysporium , S. cerevisiae and C. albicans respectively. Lectin was further examined for its antiproliferative potential against cancerous cell line. The cell viability assay indicated a high inhibition activity on Ishikawa, HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with IC 50 value of 46.67, 44.20, 53.58 and 37.46 µg/mL respectively. These results can provide a background for future research into the benefits of chickpea lectin to pharmacological perspective.

  5. Bone Scan in Detection of Biological Activity in Nonhypertrophic Fracture Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Rabadiya, Bhavdeep

    2017-01-01

    Biological activity of the fracture site is very important factor in treatment planning of fracture nonunion. If no biological activity is detected, then an autologous bone graft can be supplemented or osteogenic supplementations, such as bone morphogenetic protein is given. If biological activity is present, then secure fixation is sufficient to achieve bony union. Biological activity of nonunions is usually assessed by conventional radiographs. The presence of callus formation is usually as...

  6. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  7. Biotransformation of Lactones with Methylcyclohexane Ring and Their Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to obtain biological active compounds during biotransformation. Three bicyclic halolactones with methylcyclohexane ring (2-chloro-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo-[4.3.0]nonan-8-one, 2-bromo-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nona- -8-one and 2-iodo-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one obtained from the corresponding γ,δ-unsaturated acid were subjected to a screening biotransformation using 22 fungal strains. Two of these strains (Cunninghamella japonica AM472 and Fusarium culmorum AM10 were able to transform halolactones into 2-hydroxy-4-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one by hydrolytic dehalogenation with good yield. The biotransformation product was structurally different from its synthetically prepared analog. All halolactones and hydroxylactones were tested for their biological activity. The chlorolactone inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0, Escherichia coli (max ΔOD = 0.3 and Candida albicans (max ΔOD = 0 strains. Bromolactone caused inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0 and Fusarium linii (max ΔOD = 0 strains. Iodolactone limited growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0, Escherichia coli (max ΔOD = 0.25, Candida albicans (max ΔOD = 0.45 and Pseudomonas fluorescens (max ΔOD = 0.42 strains. Hydroxylactone caused inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus (max ΔOD = 0.36 and Pseudomonas fluorescens (max ΔOD = 0.39 strains only. The test performed on aphids Myzus persicae (Sulz. showed that chloro- and bromolactone exhibited deterrent activity after 24 h (ID = 0.5 and 0.4, respectively, while hydroxylactone was a weak attractant (ID = −0.3.

  8. Biological activity of soil contaminated with cobalt, tin, and molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-07-01

    In this age of intensive industrialization and urbanization, mankind's highest concern should be to analyze the effect of all metals accumulating in the environment, both those considered toxic and trace elements. With this aim in mind, a unique study was conducted to determine the potentially negative impact of Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) in optimal and increased doses on soil biological properties. These metals were applied in the form of aqueous solutions of Sn(2+) (SnCl2 (.)2H2O), Co(2+) (CoCl2 · 6H2O), and Mo(5+) (MoCl5), each in the doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1) soil DM. The activity of dehydrogenases, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and catalase and the counts of twelve microorganism groups were determined on the 25th and 50th day of experiment duration. Moreover, to present the studied problem comprehensively, changes in the biochemical activity and yield of spring barley were shown using soil and plant resistance indices-RS. The study shows that Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) disturb the state of soil homeostasis. Co(2+) and Mo(5+) proved the greatest soil biological activity inhibitors. The residence of these metals in soil, particularly Co(2+), also generated a drastic decrease in the value of spring barley resistance. Only Sn(2+) did not disrupt its yielding. The studied enzymes can be arranged as follows for their sensitivity to Sn(2+), Co(2+), Mo(5+): Deh > Ure > Aryl > Pal > Pac > Cat. Dehydrogenases and urease may be reliable soil health indicators.

  9. Biological Activity and Phytochemical Study of Scutellaria platystegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Khodaie, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine biological activity and phytochemical study of Scutellaria platystegia (family Labiatae). Methanolic (MeOH) extract of aerial parts of S. platystegia and SPE fractions of methanolic extract (specially 20% and 40% methanolic fractions), growing in East-Azarbaijan province of Iran were found to have radical scavenging activity by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl -1- pycryl hydrazyl) assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of this plant exhibited animalarial activity by cell free method providing IC50 at 1.1876 mg/mL. Crude extracts did not exhibit any toxicity assessed by brine shrimp lethality assay. Phytochemical study of methanolic extract by using reverse phase HPLC method and NMR instrument for isolation and identification of pure compounds respectively, yielded 2-(4- hydroxy phenyl) ethyl-O-β-D- glucopyranoside from 10% and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, verbascoside and martynoside from 40% SPE fraction. Occurance of verbascoside and martynoside as biochemical markers appeared to be widespread in this genus. Antioxidant and antimalarial activity of MeOH and DCM extracts, respectively, as well as no general toxicity of them could provide a basis for further in-vitro and in-vivo studies and clinical trials to develop new therapeutical alternatives.

  10. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  11. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production. PMID:24470791

  12. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  13. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  14. Biological regeneration of para-nitrophenol loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, M.A.Q.; Martin, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Biological regeneration is one of several methods that may be used to restore the adsorptive capacity of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC). This study deals with in-situ biological regeneration on a pilot scale. The principal objective of this research was to ascertain whether biological regeneration of GAC could occur under conditions typical of water treatment. The important parameters which may have the greatest impact on bio regeneration of a given adsorbate were studied. The research investigated the extent of bio regeneration for para-nitrophenol (PNP) of concentration 50 mg/L. Bio regeneration in the total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initially exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated for para-nitrophenol (PNP) of concentration 50 mg/L. Bio regeneration in he total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initially exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated with a mixed culture of bacteria, and lastly the carbon was re-saturated. In the totally exhausted GAC system, the bio regeneration was enhanced by increasing the during of regeneration for a fixed initial biomass content of the bioreactor. The bio regeneration efficiency of the totally exhausted (with PNP) GAC the empty bed contact time (EBCT) and the initial concentration of the substrate had a profound effect on the bio regeneration efficiency. Bacterial counts in the effluents of regenerated GAC columns were significantly more than those of fresh carbon effluents. (author)

  15. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF THE LAURUS NOBILIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nasukhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. is an evergreen dioecious, rarely monecious plant up to 12-15 m high. The plant’s name is devoted to an Ancient Greek God of Sun Apollo and is a symbol of peace and victory. It was used in making up wreaths for emperors, generals, and poets. Its natural area includes Mediterranean countries with high level of annual precipitation. It is actively cultivated as a decorative plant in Europe, Russia, USA and other countries. It is cultivated in Turkey, Algeria, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Russia, and Mexico. The aim of the study is the review of available literature about isolation, identification, quantitative determination of biologically active compounds of the Laurus nobilis leaves in the established species and their pharmacological activity. Materialsand methods. The study was carried out using searching (PubMed, CiteSeer, arXiv, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninka, and ResearchGate free social network. Results and discussion. We have established that Laurus nobilis leaves have components of essential oil, phenolic compounds, and sesquiterpenic lactones as the principal active substances. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of these compound groups in these raw materials varies depending on the ecological and geographical, edaphic, climatic factors, phase of the plant growth, cultivation technology, drying method etc. The results of the pharmacological studies of the extracts, summary fractions, and individual compounds of Laurus nobilis leaves characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for a more profound study. Conclusion. As the available open review data showed, the essential oil components, phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc, sesquiterpenic lactones of Laurus nobilis exhibit a diverse spectrum of pharmacological activity. Antimicrobial (widely, anti-virus, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and cytoxic (anticancer activities, established in extracts

  16. Zoanthid mucus as new source of useful biologically active proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Míriam Camargo; de Albuquerque Modesto, Jeanne Claíne; Pérez, Carlos Daniel; Ottaiano, Tatiana Fontes; Ferreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Batista, Fabrício Pereira; de Brito, Marlon Vilela; Campos, Ikaro Henrique Mendes Pinto; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2018-03-01

    Palythoa caribaeorum is a very common colonial zoanthid in the coastal reefs of Brazil. It is known for its massive production of mucus, which is traditionally used in folk medicine by fishermen in northeastern Brazil. This study identified biologically active compounds in P. caribaerum mucus. Crude mucus was collected during low tides by the manual scraping of colonies; samples were maintained in an ice bath, homogenized, and centrifuged at 16,000 g for 1 h at 4 °C; the supernatant (mucus) was kept at -80 °C until use. The enzymatic (proteolytic and phospholipase A 2 ), inhibitory (metallo, cysteine and serine proteases), and hemagglutinating (human erythrocyte) activities were determined. The results showed high levels of cysteine and metallo proteases, intermediate levels of phosholipase A 2 , low levels of trypsin, and no elastase and chymotrypsin like activities. The mucus showed potent inhibitory activity on snake venom metalloproteases and cysteine proteinase papain. In addition, it showed agglutinating activity towards O + , B + , and A + erythrocyte types. The hemostatic results showed that the mucus prolongs the aPTT and PT, and strongly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, epinephrine, ADP, and thrombin. The antimicrobial activity was tested on 15 strains of bacteria and fungi through the radial diffusion assay in agar, and no activity was observed. Compounds in P. caribaeorum mucus were analyzed for the first time in this study, and our results show potential pharmacological activities in these compounds, which are relevant for use in physiopathological investigations. However, the demonstration of these activities indicates caution in the use of crude mucus in folk medicine. Furthermore, the present or absent activities identified in this mucus suggest that the studied P. caribaeorum colonies were in thermal stress conditions at the time of sample collection; these conditions may precede the bleaching

  17. Neutron activation analysis on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: cida@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Aiming at giving support to the Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, an assessment related arsenic was carried out in two galvanising factories by means of hair and toenail samples analysis as biomonitors. The arsenic was determined in all matrixes from the factories where gold electrodeposition process was applied. This is because arsenic salts are usually added to gold bath to improve the metal covering. The high concentration results surprised the health surveillance professionals, and alerted for the need of assessing the influence of a long-term exposure. Studies concerning galvanising process have usually been developed broaching many aspects, but so far few works has pointed out the detection and measurement of other elements like arsenic. The k{sub 0}-Instrumental Neutron Activation method was applied confirming to be a suitable technique on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes. (author)

  18. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  19. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated.

  20. Neutron activation analysis on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at giving support to the Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, an assessment related arsenic was carried out in two galvanising factories by means of hair and toenail samples analysis as biomonitors. The arsenic was determined in all matrixes from the factories where gold electrodeposition process was applied. This is because arsenic salts are usually added to gold bath to improve the metal covering. The high concentration results surprised the health surveillance professionals, and alerted for the need of assessing the influence of a long-term exposure. Studies concerning galvanising process have usually been developed broaching many aspects, but so far few works has pointed out the detection and measurement of other elements like arsenic. The k 0 -Instrumental Neutron Activation method was applied confirming to be a suitable technique on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes. (author)

  1. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides and induced biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi Keizo; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Relationship between irradiation effect of polysaccharides and induced biological activity for plants has been investigated. Sodium alginate was irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). Measurement of molecular weight and analysis of UV spectra of irradiated sodium alginate have been carried out. The molecular weight was decreased by irradiation in both conditions. New absorbance peak derived from double bond or/and carbonyl group was appeared at close to 267 nm by irradiation in UV spectra. It was found that alginate having molecular weight about 10,000 is most suitable to used as growth promoter in plants. To obtain the molecular weight of 10,000 by irradiation, the necessary doses are 100 kGy in liquid state and 500 kGy in solid state, respectively. (author)

  2. Certification of biological candidates reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Denis V.; Nesterova, Yulia V.; Merkulov, Viktor G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper gives the results of interlaboratory certification of new biological candidate reference materials by neutron activation analysis recommended by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland). The correctness and accuracy of the applied method was statistically estimated for the determination of trace elements in candidate reference materials. The procedure of irradiation in the reactor thermal fuel assembly without formation of fast neutrons was carried out. It excluded formation of interfering isotopes leading to false results. The concentration of more than 20 elements (e.g., Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Tb, Yb, U, Zn) in candidate references of tobacco leaves and bottom sediment compared to certified reference materials were determined. It was shown that the average error of the applied method did not exceed 10%.

  3. Laser Polarimeter for Measurement of Optical Activity of Biological Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasov, E. A.; Protasov, D. E.; Ryzhkova, A. V.

    In this paper has been described the polarimetric device for measurement of optical activity of biological tissues, where the source of radiation is an infrared laser with a wave λ=0.808 micron. The polarizers used are polarizing prisms of Glan - Taylor. To obtain required angular resolution (0.180/cm) has been developed a device that converts the angle of rotation of the analyzer into electrical signal, which is fed to the appropriate scan digital oscilloscope. The passage of the polarized light through the fingers of the hand was established and the angles of rotation of the polarization vector of the transmitted radiation were measured, the values of which may be determined by the content of hemoglobin in the blood.

  4. Notes on the genus Paramignya: Phytochemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninh The Son

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Genus Paramignya belongs to Rutaceae family, with interesting secondary metabolites, comprising main classes of compounds coumarin and coumarin glycosides, acridone alkaloids, tirucallane and tirucallane glycosides, phenols, and flavonoids, as well as several compounds limonoid, lignin glycoside and sterol. Paramignya species has been employing as folk medicines against hepatitis, diabetes, cancer, nose infections. Many bioactive reported such as cytotoxic assay, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiumor cancer, α-glucosidase inhibitory activities indicated either Paramignya extracts, fractions, or isolated compounds to become valuable resources for natural new drug developments. However, no evidences are reported for general view about this genus. In current paper, we exhibit overview almost of isolated components and biological evaluations from this genus. These findings are important to improve the values of these medicinal plants for the health benefit, drug discovery and guideline for future researches.

  5. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  6. Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities

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    Iasmine A.B.S. Alves

    Full Text Available The Simaroubaceae family includes 32 genera and more than 170 species of trees and brushes of pantropical distribution. The main distribution hot spots are located at tropical areas of America, extending to Africa, Madagascar and regions of Australia bathed by the Pacific. This family is characterized by the presence of quassinoids, secondary metabolites responsible of a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticide, feeding deterrent, amebicide, antiparasitic and herbicidal. Although the chemical and pharmacological potential of Simaroubaceae family as well as its participation in official compendia; such as British, German, French and Brazilian pharmacopoeias, and patent registration, many of its species have not been studied yet. In order to direct further investigation to approach detailed botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the Simaroubaceae, the present work reviews the information regarding the main genera of the family up to 2013.

  7. Structure and Biological Activity of Pathogen-like Synthetic Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R.; Somogyi, Eszter; Horkay, Ferenc; Chandran, Preethi; Douglas, Jack F.; Szebeni, János; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2011-01-01

    Here we characterize the structure, stability and intracellular mode-of-action of DermaVir nanomedicine that is under clinical development for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. This nanomedicine is comprised of pathogen-like pDNA/PEIm nanoparticles (NPs) having the structure and function resembling spherical viruses that naturally evolved to deliver nucleic acids to the cells. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated spherical 100–200nm NPs with a smooth polymer surface protecting the pDNA in the core. Optical-absorption determined both the NP structural stability and biological activity relevant to their ability to escape from the endosome and release the pDNA at the nucleus. Salt, pH and temperature influence the nanomedicine shelf-life and intracellular stability. This approach facilitates the development of diverse polyplex nanomedicines where the delivered pDNA-expressed antigens induce immune responses to kill infected cells. PMID:21839051

  8. Biological activities of undescribed North American lichen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeash, Erik A; Letwin, Lyndon; Malek, Lada; Suntres, Zacharias; Knudsen, Kerry; Christopher, Lew P

    2017-11-01

    Lichens provide a large array of compounds with the potential for pharmaceutical development. In the present study, extracts from three previously undescribed North American lichen species were examined for antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activities. The results from this study demonstrated the following: (i) Acarospora socialis ethanol extract exhibited significant DPPH antioxidant scavenging activities, which were concentration dependent; (ii) acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Xanthoparmelia mexicana inhibited Gram-positive bacteria but had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria; X. mexicana acetone extract yielded a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 20.9 µg mL -1 against Staphylococcus aureus, and 41.9 µg mL -1 against Enterococcus faecalis; (iii) acetone extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca inhibited growth of cultured breast cancer MCF-7 cells with an effective concentration (EC 50 ) of 87 µg mL -1 ; the MCF-7 cell cycle appears arrested in the G2 phase, whereas the DNA synthesis cell cycle (S) may be inhibited. New lichen species that possess strong biological activities have been identified. These lichens comprise secondary metabolites that possess antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

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    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  10. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  11. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

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    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  12. Preliminary Phytochemical and Biological activities on Russelia juncea Zucc

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    Maryam Bibi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To probe the ethnomedicinal claims of Russelia juncea Zucc. (Plantaginaceae as prescribed traditionally in the folklore history of medicines. Methods: The dichloromethane and methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots were examined for antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiglycation, insecticidal, leishmanicidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Different phytochemical tests were also performed to confirm the presence of various groups of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Results: Phytochemical screening of this plant confirmed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Antibacterial activity was only shown by RJRD with 80% inhibition at the concentration of 150µg/ml against Shigella flexneri. Among the tested samples, RJAM and RJRM displayed significant radical scavenging activity up to 93% and 89% with IC50 values of 184.75 ± 4.05µM and 263.01 ± 9.36µM. The significant antiglycation potential was exhibited by RJAD, RJAM and RJRM with 55.35%, 62.25% and 59.22% inhibition and IC50 values of 0.84 ± 0.08mg/ml, 1.37 ± 0.15mg/ml and 1.52 ± 0.10mg/ml respectively. Moderate leishmanicidal activity was exposed by RJAD and RJRM with IC50 values of 73.04 ± 1.05µg/ml and 77.66 ± 0.23µg/ml while RJAM was found to be more potent and exposed significant leishmanicidal activity having IC50 of 48 ± 0.39µg/ml. However, prominent cytotoxic activity was displayed by RJRM with 66.08% inhibition and IC50 of 31.20 ± 3µg/ml. Non-significant antifungal, insecticidal and phytotoxic activities were demonstrated by all the tested samples. Conclusion: All the above contributions give serious attentiveness to scientists to isolate and purify the biologically active phytoconstituents by using advanced scientific methodologies that serve as lead compounds in the synthesis of new therapeutic agents of desired interest in the world of drug discovery.

  13. Role of Muramyl Dipeptide in Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Biological Activity and Osteoclast Activity

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    Hideki Kitaura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is an endotoxin and bacterial cell wall component that is capable of inducing inflammation and immunological activity. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP, the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is another inflammation-inducing molecule that is ubiquitously expressed by bacteria. Several studies have shown that inflammation-related biological activities were synergistically induced by interactions between LPS and MDP. MDP synergistically enhances production of proinflammatory cytokines that are induced by LPS exposure. Injection of MDP induces lethal shock in mice challenged with LPS. LPS also induces osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption; MDP enhances LPS induction of both processes. Furthermore, MDP enhances the LPS-induced receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, MDP enhances LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling in stromal cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that MDP plays an important role in LPS-induced biological activities. This review discusses the role of MDP in LPS-mediated biological activities, primarily in relation to osteoclastogenesis.

  14. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  15. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, A. M.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  16. A novel conformation of gel grown biologically active cadmium nicotinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Lekshmi P.; Bijini, B. R.; Divya, R.; Nair, Prabitha B.; Eapen, S. M.; Dileep Kumar, B. S.; Nishanth Kumar, S.; Nair, C. M. K.; Deepa, M.; Rajendra Babu, K.

    2017-11-01

    The elimination of toxic heavy metals by the formation of stable co-ordination compounds with biologically active ligands is applicable in drug designing. A new crystalline complex of cadmium with nicotinic acid is grown at ambient temperature using the single gel diffusion method in which the crystal structure is different from those already reported. Single crystal x-ray diffraction reveals the identity of crystal structure belonging to monoclinic system, P21/c space group with cell dimensions a = 17.220 (2) Å, b = 10.2480 (2) Å, c = 7.229(9) Å, β = 91.829(4)°. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallinity of the sample. The unidentate mode of co-ordination between the metal atom and the carboxylate group is supported by the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectral data. Thermal analysis ensures the thermal stability of the complex. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are also calculated. The stoichiometry of the complex is confirmed by the elemental analysis. The UV-visible spectral analysis shows the wide transparency window of the complex in the visible region. The band gap of the complex is found to be 3.92 eV. The complex shows excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  17. Pomegranate Fruit as a Rich Source of Biologically Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Sreeja; Sithul, Hima; Muraleedharan, Parvathy; Azeez, Juberiya Mohammed; Sreeharshan, Sreeja

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate is a widely used plant having medicinal properties. In this review, we have mainly focused on the already published data from our laboratory pertaining to the effect of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME) and have compared it with other relevant literatures on Punica. Earlier, we had shown its antiproliferative effect using human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231), and endometrial (HEC-1A), cervical (SiHa, HeLa), and ovarian (SKOV3) cancer cell lines, and normal breast fibroblasts (MCF-10A) at concentration of 20–320 μg/mL. The expressions of selected estrogen responsive genes (PR, pS2, and C-Myc) were downregulated by PME. Unlike estradiol, PME did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in bilaterally ovariectomized Swiss-Albino mice models and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. We had further assessed the protective role of PME on skeletal system, using MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicated that PME (80 μg/mL) significantly increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) activity, supporting its suggested role in modulating osteoblastic cell differentiation. The antiosteoporotic potential of PME was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model. The results from our studies and from various other studies support the fact that pomegranate fruit is indeed a source of biologically active compounds. PMID:24818149

  18. Syntheses and biological activities of 13-substituted avermectin aglycons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozik, H; Linn, B O; Eskola, P; Lusi, A; Matzuk, A; Preiser, F A; Ostlind, D A; Schaeffer, J M; Fisher, M H

    1989-02-01

    The reactions of sulfonate esters of the allylic/homoallylic 13-alcohol of 5-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a aglycon (1a) were investigated. Nucleophilic substitution gave 13 beta-chloro and 13 beta-iodo derivatives, while solvolytic reaction conditions yielded 13 alpha-methoxy, 13 alpha-fluoro, and 13 alpha-chloro products. A mixture of 13 alpha- and 13 beta-fluorides was obtained upon reaction with DAST. The 13 beta-iodide gave, upon elimination with lutidine, the 8(9),10(11),12(13),14(15)-tetraene. The 13 beta-alcohol and the rearranged 15-ol 13(14)-ene and 15-amino 13(14)-ene derivatives were obtained by substitution via the allylic carbonium ion. MEM ethers 11 and 12 of the two epimeric 13-ols were prepared by alkylation with MEM chloride. In contrast, methylation of 1a with MeI and Ag2O in CH2Cl2 occurred exclusively at the tertiary 7-hydroxy group and not at the secondary 13 alpha-ol. Oxidation of the allylic alcohol 1a proceeded under Swern conditions but not with MnO2 to the 13-oxo aglycon, which was reduced by NaBH4 exclusively to the natural 13 alpha-ol, while reductive amination with NaCNBH3-NH4OAc gave the 13 alpha-amine. The methoxime derivative was obtained in the form of the two geometric isomers. Anthelmintic activities against the sheep nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis, miticidal activities against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), and insecticidal activities against the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) as well as the binding constants to a free living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) derived receptor assay were obtained and compared to avermectin B1a, 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a, and the 13-deoxy-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1 aglycon related to the milbemycins. None of the newly prepared derivatives exceeded the potency of the three reference compounds. Lipophilic 13-substituents such as halogen, alkoxy, and methoxime retained high biological activities in all assays, while the more polar

  19. Actinobacteria from arid and desert habitats: diversity and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim eWink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability.At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria

  20. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  1. Important biological activities induced by Thalassophryne maculosa fish venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Rosales, Josefina Ines; Piran-Soares, Ana Amélia; Farsky, Sandra H P; Takehara, Harumi Ando; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2005-02-01

    The accidents caused by Thalassophryne maculosa fish venoms are frequent and represent a public health problem in some regions of Venezuela. Most accidents occur in the fishing communities and tourists. The clinical picture is characterized by severe pain, dizziness, fever, edema, and necrosis. Due to the lack of efficient therapy it may take weeks, or even months for complete recovery of the victims. The investigations presented here were undertaken to assess the eletrophoretical profile and principal biological properties of the T. maculosa venom. Venom obtained from fresh captured specimens of this fish was tested in vitro or in animal models for a better characterization of its toxic activities. In contrast to other fish venoms, T. maculosa venom showed relative low LD50. The injection of venom in the footpad of mice reproduced a local inflammatory lesion similar to that described in humans. Significant increase of the nociceptive and edematogenic responses was observed followed within 48 h by necrosis. Pronounced alterations on microvascular hemodynamics were visualized after venom application. These alterations were represented by fibrin depots and thrombus formation followed by complete venular stasis and transient arteriolar contraction. T. maculosa venom is devoid of phospholipase A2 activity, but the venom showed proteolytic and myotoxic activities. SDS-Page analysis of the crude venom showed important bands: one band located above 97 M(w), one band between 68 and 97 M(w), one major band between 29 and 43 M(w) and the last one located below 18.4 M(w) Then, the results presented here support that T. maculosa venom present a mixture of bioactive toxins involved in a local inflammatory lesion.

  2. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  3. [Biologically active substances of black currant of new varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasishcheva, N V; Artemova, E N

    2013-01-01

    The assortment of black currant actively replenishes and is constantly updated as a result of successful work of domestic and foreign selectors. New grades of black currant are characterized by the raised content of biologically active substances, including vitamin C, P-active agents, pectin and are of special interest for studying. Fresh berries of seven grades (Azhurnaya, Arapka, Iskushenie, Kreolka, Ladushka, Orel serenade, Ocharovanie) of black currant which were selected by the All-Russian research institute of selection of fruit crops and are perspective for cultivation in the Central Chernozem Region of Russia were chosen as objects for research. The nutritional value of fresh berries was found to vary. Average content of soluble solids was 14.1%, while those below the average were observed in Kreolka (12.1%). The maximum amount of sugars characterized Ladushka grade (11.05%), minimum--Kreolka (9.00%). It has been found that most varieties have fairly high acidity. It is worth noting grade Ladushka, which had the highest sugar-acid index (4.39), with the lowest acidity (2.51%). The highest content of ascorbic acid was found in varieties Orel Serenade--183.7 mg/100 g, the smallest--Ocharovanie--110 mg/100 g, grade Azhurnaya, Kreolka, Ladushka exceeded this indicator average value (144.9 mg/100 g). In terms of the amount of P-active substances stood grades having values above the average (722.2 mg/100 g): Azhurnaya (789.8 mg/100 g), Kreolka (864.5 mg/100 g), Oryol serenade (765.6 mg/100 g). The average content of pectin in the studied berries of black currant was 7.92%, with a minimum of 6.30% was observed in grades Azhurnaya, maximum 9.90%--the kind Oryol serenade. High values of this index were characterized by grade Ladushka, Ocharovanie. Azhurnaya varieties, Creole, Orel serenade had high levels of ascorbic acid and P-active substances. Sort Ladushka marked as a dessert due to the largest sugar-acid ratio. Ladushka, Orel Serenade, Ocharovanie have the

  4. Garlic Organosulfur Compounds Reduce Inflammation and Oxidative Stress during Dengue Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Troupin, Andrea; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Colpitts, Tonya M.

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes significant global human disease and mortality. One approach to develop treatments for DENV infection and the prevention of severe disease is through investigation of natural medicines. Inflammation plays both beneficial and harmful roles during DENV infection. Studies have proposed that the oxidative stress response may be one mechanism responsible for triggering inflammation during DENV infection. Thus, blocking the oxidative stress response could reduce inflammation and the development of severe disease. Garlic has been shown to both reduce inflammation and affect the oxidative stress response. Here, we show that the garlic active compounds diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl sulfide (DAS) and alliin reduced inflammation during DENV infection and show that this reduction is due to the effects on the oxidative stress response. These results suggest that garlic could be used as an alternative treatment for DENV infection and for the prevention of severe disease development. PMID:28644404

  5. Garlic Organosulfur Compounds Reduce Inflammation and Oxidative Stress during Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Troupin, Andrea; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2017-06-23

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes significant global human disease and mortality. One approach to develop treatments for DENV infection and the prevention of severe disease is through investigation of natural medicines. Inflammation plays both beneficial and harmful roles during DENV infection. Studies have proposed that the oxidative stress response may be one mechanism responsible for triggering inflammation during DENV infection. Thus, blocking the oxidative stress response could reduce inflammation and the development of severe disease. Garlic has been shown to both reduce inflammation and affect the oxidative stress response. Here, we show that the garlic active compounds diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl sulfide (DAS) and alliin reduced inflammation during DENV infection and show that this reduction is due to the effects on the oxidative stress response. These results suggest that garlic could be used as an alternative treatment for DENV infection and for the prevention of severe disease development.

  6. Biological activities caused by far-infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoué, Shojiro; Kabaya, Morihiro

    1989-09-01

    Contrary to previous presumption, accumulated evidence indicates that far-infrared rays are biologically active. A small ceramic disk that emist far-infrared rays (4 16 μm) has commonly been applied to a local spot or a whole part of the body for exposure. Pioneering attempts to experimentally analyze an effect of acute and chronic radiation of far-infrared rays on living organisms have detected a growth-promoting effect in growing rats, a sleep-modulatory effect in freely behaving rats and an insomiac patient, and a blood circulation-enhancing effect in human skin. Question-paires to 542 users of far-infrared radiator disks embedded in bedelothes revealed that the majority of the users subjectively evaluated an improvement of their health. These effects on living organisms appear to be non-specifically triggered by an exposure to far-infrared rays, which eventually induce an increase in temperature of the body tissues or, more basically, an elevated motility of body fluids due to decrease in size of water clusters.

  7. Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quideau, Stéphane; Deffieux, Denis; Douat-Casassus, Céline; Pouységu, Laurent

    2011-01-17

    Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables per day! This is what is highly recommended and heavily advertised nowadays to the general public to stay fit and healthy! Drinking green tea on a regular basis, eating chocolate from time to time, as well as savoring a couple of glasses of red wine per day have been claimed to increase life expectancy even further! Why? The answer is in fact still under scientific scrutiny, but a particular class of compounds naturally occurring in fruits and vegetables is considered to be crucial for the expression of such human health benefits: the polyphenols! What are these plant products really? What are their physicochemical properties? How do they express their biological activity? Are they really valuable for disease prevention? Can they be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs? What recent progress has been made toward their preparation by organic synthesis? This Review gives answers from a chemical perspective, summarizes the state of the art, and highlights the most significant advances in the field of polyphenol research. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nonoxidized, biologically active parathyroid hormone determines mortality in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Armbruster, Franz Paul; Grön, Hans Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Background: It was shown that nonoxidized PTH (n-oxPTH) is bioactive, whereas the oxidation of PTH results in a loss of biological activity. Methods: In this study we analyzed the association of n-oxPTH on mortality in hemodialysis patients using a recently developed assay system. Results......: Hemodialysis patients (224 men, 116 women) had a median age of 66 years. One hundred seventy patients (50%) died during the follow-up period of 5 years. Median n-oxPTH levels were higher in survivors (7.2 ng/L) compared with deceased patients (5.0 ng/L; P = .002). Survival analysis showed an increased survival...... in the highest n-oxPTH tertile compared with the lowest n-oxPTH tertile (χ(2), 14.3; P = .0008). Median survival was 1702 days in the highest n-oxPTH tertile, whereas it was only 453 days in the lowest n-oxPTH tertile. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression showed that higher age increased odds for death, whereas...

  9. Fraxinus: A Plant with Versatile Pharmacological and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Iqra; Rasul, Azhar; Jabeen, Farhat; Younis, Tahira; Zahoor, Muhammad Kashif; Arshad, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus , a member of the Oleaceae family, commonly known as ash tree is found in northeast Asia, north America, east and western France, China, northern areas of Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. Chemical constituents of Fraxinus plant include various secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans; therefore, it is considered as a plant with versatile biological and pharmacological activities. Its tremendous range of pharmacotherapeutic properties has been well documented including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective. In addition, its bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites can be effectively used in cosmetic industry and as a competent antiaging agent. Fraxinus presents pharmacological effectiveness by targeting the novel targets in several pathological conditions, which provide a spacious therapeutic time window. Our aim is to update the scientific research community with recent endeavors with specifically highlighting the mechanism of action in different diseases. This potentially efficacious pharmacological drug candidate should be used for new drug discovery in future. This review suggests that this plant has extremely important medicinal utilization but further supporting studies and scientific experimentations are mandatory to determine its specific intracellular targets and site of action to completely figure out its pharmacological applications.

  10. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Nieto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  11. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-08-23

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  12. Essential Oils from Neotropical Piper Species and Their Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Rafaela; Alves, Nayara Sabrina; Figueiredo, Pablo Luís; Maia, José Guilherme S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality. The main volatile compounds identified in Piper EOs are monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and large amounts of phenylpropanoids. In this review, we are reporting the biological potential of Piper EOs from the Neotropical region. There are many reports of Piper EOs as antimicrobial agents (fungi and bacteria), antiprotozoal (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma spp.), acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity against different tumor cells lines (breast, leukemia, melanoma, gastric, among others). These studies can contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Piper species, once they have been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to treat human diseases. PMID:29240662

  13. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  15. Development of Bicarbonate-Activated Peroxide as a Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontaminant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, David E

    2006-01-01

    ...) and other chemistry for the decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. The mechanism of formation of the active oxidant, peroxymonocarbonate, has been investigated in detail. New surfoxidants...

  16. Production of biologically active recombinant human factor H in Physcomitrella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner-Mainik, Annette; Parsons, Juliana; Jérôme, Hanna; Hartmann, Andrea; Lamer, Stephanie; Schaaf, Andreas; Schlosser, Andreas; Zipfel, Peter F; Reski, Ralf; Decker, Eva L

    2011-04-01

    The human complement regulatory serum protein factor H (FH) is a promising future biopharmaceutical. Defects in the gene encoding FH are associated with human diseases like severe kidney and retinal disorders in the form of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis II (MPGN II) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). There is a current need to apply intact full-length FH for the therapy of patients with congenital or acquired defects of this protein. Application of purified or recombinant FH (rFH) to these patients is an important and promising approach for the treatment of these diseases. However, neither protein purified from plasma of healthy individuals nor recombinant protein is currently available on the market. Here, we report the first stable expression of the full-length human FH cDNA and the subsequent production of this glycoprotein in a plant system. The moss Physcomitrella patens perfectly suits the requirements for the production of complex biopharmaceuticals as this eukaryotic system not only offers an outstanding genetical accessibility, but moreover, proteins can be produced safely in scalable photobioreactors without the need for animal-derived medium compounds. Transgenic moss lines were created, which express the human FH cDNA and target the recombinant protein to the culture supernatant via a moss-derived secretion signal. Correct processing of the signal peptide and integrity of the moss-produced rFH were verified via peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. Ultimately, we show that the rFH displays complement regulatory activity comparable to FH purified from plasma. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Characterization of biological macromolecules by electrophoresis and neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.F.; Hancock, D.; Zeisler, R.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure combining polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with INAA and autoradiography was developed to study biological macromolecules and their associated trace elements. Results from the application of this method to several metalloproteins are presented. (author)

  18. Advanced biological activated carbon filter for removing pharmaceutically active compounds from treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, Luca; Comas, Joaquim; Fenu, Alessio; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Weemaes, Marjoleine

    2018-04-28

    Through their release of effluents, conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) represent a major pollution point sources for pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in water bodies. The combination of a biological activated carbon (BAC) filter coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) unit was evaluated as an advanced treatment for PhACs removal at pilot scale. The BAC-UF pilot plant was monitored for one year. The biological activity of the biofilm that developed on the granular activated carbon (GAC) particles and the contribution of this biofilm to the overall removal of PhACs were evaluated. Two different phases were observed during the long-term monitoring of PhACs removal. During the first 9200 bed volumes (BV; i.e., before GAC saturation), 89, 78, 83 and 79% of beta-blockers, psychiatric drugs, antibiotics and a mix of other therapeutic groups were removed, respectively. The second phase was characterized by deterioration of the overall performances during the period between 9200 and 13,800 BV. To quantify the respective contribution of adsorption and biodegradation, a lab-scale setup was operated for four months and highlighted the essential role played by GAC in biofiltration units. Physical adsorption was indeed the main removal mechanism. Nevertheless, a significant contribution due to biological activity was detected for some PhACs. The biofilm contributed to the removal of 22, 25, 30, 32 and 35% of ciprofloxacin, bezafibrate, ofloxacin, azithromycin and sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  20. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  1. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yao, Fangke; Ming, Ke; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2016-12-13

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  2. Biologically active polymers from spontaneous carotenoid oxidation: a new frontier in carotenoid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Johnston

    Full Text Available In animals carotenoids show biological activity unrelated to vitamin A that has been considered to arise directly from the behavior of the parent compound, particularly as an antioxidant. However, the very property that confers antioxidant activity on some carotenoids in plants also confers susceptibility to oxidative transformation. As an alternative, it has been suggested that carotenoid oxidative breakdown or metabolic products could be the actual agents of activity in animals. However, an important and neglected aspect of the behavior of the highly unsaturated carotenoids is their potential to undergo addition of oxygen to form copolymers. Recently we reported that spontaneous oxidation of ß-carotene transforms it into a product dominated by ß-carotene-oxygen copolymers. We now report that the polymeric product is biologically active. Results suggest an overall ability to prime innate immune function to more rapidly respond to subsequent microbial challenges. An underlying structural resemblance to sporopollenin, found in the outer shell of spores and pollen, may allow the polymer to modulate innate immune responses through interactions with the pattern recognition receptor system. Oxygen copolymer formation appears common to all carotenoids, is anticipated to be widespread, and the products may contribute to the health benefits of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables.

  3. Activities in biological radiation research at the AGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AGF is working on a wide spectrum of biological radiation research, with the different scientific disciplines contributing different methodologies to long-term research projects. The following fields are studied: 1. Molecular and cellular modes of action of radiation. 2. Detection and characterisation of biological radiation damage, especially in humans. 3. Medical applications of radiation effects. 4. Concepts and methods of radiation protection. The studies will lead to suggestions for radiation protection and improved radiotherapy. They may also contribute to the development of environmental protection strategies. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  5. Screening of some marine plants from the Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Solimabi; Kamat, S.Y.; DeSouza, L.; Reddy, C.V.G.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Dhawan, B.N.

    Extracts of twenty five seaweeds from Indian coast have been put through a broad biological screen which includes tests for antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antifertility activities and a wide range of pharmacological activities...

  6. Determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols in various objects by chromatographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetova, M V; Semenistaya, E N; Larionov, Oleg G; Revina, A A

    2007-01-01

    Chromatographic techniques for determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols are considered. Various methods for sample preparation and detection are compared. The advantages of high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection for determination of antioxidants are demonstrated. Data on determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols published in the period from 1995 to 2005 are analysed.

  7. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    1105 Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Luiz H...fungal community and micropropagated clones of E. purpurea was re-established after acclimatization to soil and the endophytic fungi produced compounds...Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Micropropagated Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench 5a. CONTRACT

  8. Gifted and Talented Students' Views about Biology Activities in a Science and Art Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özarslan, Murat; Çetin, Gülcan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine gifted and talented students' views about biology activities in a science and art center. The study was conducted with 26 gifted and talented students who studied at a science and art center in southwestern Turkey. Students studied animal and plant genus and species in biology activities. Data were collected…

  9. Biologically Active Macrocyclic Compounds – from Natural Products to Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds are attractive targets when searching for molecules with biological activity. The interest in this compound class is increasing, which has led to a variety of methods for tackling the difficult macrocyclization step in their synthesis. This microreview highlights some recent...... developments in the synthesis of macrocycles, with an emphasis on chemistry developed to generate libraries of putative biologically active compounds....

  10. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEMEŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  11. Profiling the biological activity of oxide nanomaterials with mechanistic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burello, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present three mechanistic models for profiling the potential biological and toxicological effects of oxide nanomaterials. The models attempt to describe the reactivity, protein adsorption and membrane adhesion processes of a large range of oxide materials and are based on properties

  12. Synthesis and biological activity of new homolupanes and homolupane saponins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sidoryk, K.; Korda, A.; Rárová, Lucie; Oklešťková, Jana; Strnad, Miroslav; Cmoch, P.; Pakulski, Z.; Gwardiak, K.; Karczewski, R.; Luboradzki, R.

    Roč. 71, č. 13 ( 2015 ), s. 2004-2012 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Homobetulin * Homobetulinic acid * Glycosylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.645, year: 2015

  13. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Huaiyu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD, Entity Relationship (ER and Activity Flow (AF, allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail.

  14. Evaluation of some biological activities of Abelia triflora R Br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiabetic and cardiovascular activities were determined by screening for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and PPARɣ agonistic activities. In vitro cytotoxic activity was determined against a set of four human cancer cell lines (SK-MEL, KB, BT-549, SK-OV-3) and two non-cancerous kidney cell ...

  15. The half-lives of biological activity of some pesticides in water

    OpenAIRE

    Kyaw Myint Oo,

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of analytical methods, the half-lives of biological activity of pesticides can be estimated by bioassays. To determine the half-lives of biological acivity of pesticides to fish, static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory with ten different formulations of pesticides using Labeo rohita as a bio-indicator. The half-lives of biological activity for ten different pesticides in soft water at pH 7.5 and 27░C, ranged from 4.6 days to 11.8 days. The half-life of biological acti...

  16. Novel and rare prenyllipids - Occurrence and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Renata; Kruk, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    The data presented indicate that there is a variety of unique prenyllipids, often of very limited taxonomic distribution, whose origin, biosynthesis, metabolism and biological function deserves to be elucidated. These compounds include tocoenols, tocochromanol esters, tocochromanol acids, plastoquinones and ubiquinones. Additionally, based on the available data, it can be assumed that there are still unrecognized prenyllipids, like prenylquinols fatty acid esters of the hydroquinone ring, including prenylquinol phosphates, and others, whose biological function might be of great importance. Our knowledge of these compounds is not only important from the scientific point of view, but may also be of practical significance to medicine, pharmacy or cosmetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacological and biological activities of Mirabilis jalapa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Rozina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPlants have been used for health care and medical purposes for several thousands of years. The number of higher plant species on earth is about 250000. It is estimated that 35000 to 70000 species have, at one time or another, been used in some cultures for medicinal purposes. One of these is Mirabilis jalapa L. which is traditionally used as Purgative and emetic, for treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders, including dysentery, diarrhea, muscle pain and abdominal colic. Besides this it also exhibits certain useful activities like Antiviral activity, Antimicrobial activity, Antimalarial activity, Anthelmintic activity, Antioxidant activity, Aytotoxic activity Anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity, Antinociceptive activity, Antifungal activity, Anti-corrosion activity, Antispasmodic activity, Anti-inflammatory activity and many others. Pharmacologically active compounds include active alcoholic extract, ether compound-3,3’-Methylenebis (4- hydroxycoumarin N-D-alpha-Phenylyglycinelaminaribiitol-3-(4-(dimethylamino cinnamoyl 4hydroxycoumarin. The purpose of my review is to find out the areas of scope and to give the detail of the work done on Mirabilis Jalapa L. for future research work.

  18. Correlation between the dielectric properties and biological activities of human ex vivo hepatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hang; You, Fusheng; Fu, Feng; Dong, Xiuzhen; Shi, Xuetao; He, Yong; Yang, Min; Yan, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric properties are vital biophysical features of biological tissues, and biological activity is an index to ascertain the active state of tissues. This study investigated the potential correlation between the dielectric properties and biological activities of human hepatic tissue with prolonged ex vivo time through correlation and regression analyses. The dielectric properties of 26 cases of normal human hepatic tissue at 10 Hz to 100 MHz were measured from 15 min after isolation to 24 h at 37 °C with 90% humidity. Cell morphologies, including nucleus area (NA) and alteration rate of intercellular area (ICAR), were analyzed as indicators of biological activities. Conductivity, complex resistivity, and NA exhibited opposing changes 1 h after isolation. Relative permittivity and ex vivo time were not closely correlated (p > 0.05). The dielectric properties measured at low frequencies (i.e. <1 MHz) were more sensitive than those measured at high frequencies in reflecting the biological activity of ex vivo tissue. Highly significant correlations were found between conductivity, resistivity and the ex vivo time (p < 0.05) as well as conductivity and the cell morphology (p < 0.05). The findings indicated that establishing the correlation between the dielectric properties and biological activities of human hepatic tissue is of great significance for promoting the role of dielectric properties in biological science, particularly in human biology. (paper)

  19. FINASOL OSR 52 active components biodegradation by using the biologic activator Biolen IG 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J. R.; Luengo, M. C.; Socias, S.; Perez, F.; Laseca, D. [Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Perez-Navarro, A.; Morales, N. [Universidad Alfonso X El Sabio, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-10-01

    Degradation of the active ingredients in the FINASOL OSR 52, a commonly used dispersant in the treatment of marine oil spills, was studied. BIOLEN IG 30, comprising a mixture of bacteria, specially selected for their ability to degrade a wide range of chemical compounds, was used as the biodegrading agent. The kinetic coefficients of the degradation process were determined at different conditions, at ambient temperature, and at controlled 20 degrees C. BIOLEN IC 10 biologic activator was found to be adequate for total ionic and anionic dispersant degradation of the FINASOL OSR 52 at room temperature and at controlled 20 degrees C. Weekly addition of one gram of BIOLEN IG 30 was observed to improve biodegradation percentages for both ionic and anionic dispersants at controlled 20 degrees C. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. FINASOL OSR 52 active components biodegradation by using the biologic activator Biolen IG 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J. R.; Luengo, M. C.; Socias, S.; Perez, F.; Laseca, D.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Morales, N.

    1997-01-01

    Degradation of the active ingredients in the FINASOL OSR 52, a commonly used dispersant in the treatment of marine oil spills, was studied. BIOLEN IG 30, comprising a mixture of bacteria, specially selected for their ability to degrade a wide range of chemical compounds, was used as the biodegrading agent. The kinetic coefficients of the degradation process were determined at different conditions, at ambient temperature, and at controlled 20 degrees C. BIOLEN IC 10 biologic activator was found to be adequate for total ionic and anionic dispersant degradation of the FINASOL OSR 52 at room temperature and at controlled 20 degrees C. Weekly addition of one gram of BIOLEN IG 30 was observed to improve biodegradation percentages for both ionic and anionic dispersants at controlled 20 degrees C. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda Beatriz; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-08-13

    The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has nutrients and phytochemicals, which make it an adequate source for the extraction and production of functional food ingredients. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest therapeutic and pharmacological applications for stevia and their extracts because they are not toxic and exhibit several biological activities. This review presents the biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to antidiabetic, anticariogenic, antioxidant, hypotensive, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. Consumption and adverse effects were also reviewed.

  2. Biologically active compounds to develop bioelectronics and bio photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok Kumar; Tiwari, Satya Prakash

    2018-05-01

    Recent reports on biomaterials and biological systems at nano scale provide researchers with a fertile ground with regard to materials, enabling bioelectronics, bio sensing and new nanotechnologies that cover a wide range of applications. The signal transductions have been reported for many biological phenomenons and new field of biophysics namely Biosensors and Bioelectronics have been emerged out. The advances in the study of various aspects of bio molecules like electrical, optical, thermal etc has established the interesting area of research like biophotonics, nanobiotechnology, molecular solid, molecular liquids, bio instrumentation etc. The present study discusses the some aspects and applications of the bioprocess yields nanostructures that are nearly flawless in composition, stereo specific in structure, and flexible. Furthermore, these biomaterials are environment friendly because they are biodegradable in nature. Biological compounds are self assembled into complex nanostructures and behave like a system possessing long range hierarchical nanoscale order. In addition, chemical modification and genetic engineering can be used to modify bio materials to enhance a specific property. Various biomaterials have been reported which allow nanostructure control for nano photonic applications. The dielectric and conduction properties of the bio molecules have been the subject of many investigations. As a result, there exist a wealth of valuable information on the charge transport and rotational properties of many bio molecules. Amino acids and proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, cell and tissues have been characterized over a wide frequency spectrum ranging from a few hertz to Giga hertz. In certain cases, dielectric measurements have been exploited to probe the physical changes taking place in biologically important structures, for example, in lipid phase transition process in membrane. The phase transition in membrane may be analyzed by applying the theory for

  3. Biological activities of Umbilicaria crustulosa (Ach.) frey acetone extract

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatanović Ivana; Stanković Miroslava; Stankov-Jovanović Vesna; Mitić Violeta; Zrnzević Ivana; Đorđević Aleksandra; Stojanović Gordana

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time the effect of an acetone extract of Umbilicaria crustulosa on the micronucleus distribution of human lymphocytes, and on the cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity by the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. Additionally, the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and the antioxidant properties were estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays. Moreover, the antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteri...

  4. Biological activities and nutritional value of Tapinanthus bangwensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions exhibited significant cytotoxic effects towards HeLa cells with IC50 values of 24.25 and 24.43 μg/ml respectively. In the DPPH assay, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest activity while the butanol fraction showed the highest activity in the metal chelating and the lipid ...

  5. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  6. Quinones from plants of northeastern Brazil: structural diversity, chemical transformations, NMR data and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Telma L G; Monte, Francisco J Q; Santos, Allana Kellen L; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Santos, Hélcio S; Oliveira, Mailcar F; Costa, Sonia M O; Pessoa, Otilia D L; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-05-20

    The present review focus in quinones found in species of Brazilian northeastern Capraria biflora, Lippia sidoides, Lippia microphylla and Tabebuia serratifolia. The review cover ethnopharmacological aspects including photography of species, chemical structure feature, NMR datea and biological properties. Chemical transformations of lapachol to form enamine derivatives and biological activities are discussed.

  7. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  8. Aktivitas Biologis Imunoglobulin Yolk Anti Parvovirus Setelah Perlakuan Suhu (BIOLOGY ACTIVITIES OF IgY PARVOVIRUS AFTER HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on the biological activity of various crude and precipitate specific Immunoglobulin (IgY Canine parvovirus (CPV. Hiperimun serum conducted on Isa Brown chickens injected with antigen CPV. Crude yolk Ig preparations derived from chicken serum without purification while the yolk Ig preparations precipitates obtained by the chicken serum was precipitated with ammonium sulfate and dialyzed. Both types of Ig yolk given treatment temperature 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC for 15 minutes. To test Gel Precipitation Test (AGPT is performed to determine whether there is a specific IgY CPV in the serum of chickens. Biological activity of both types of Ig detected with Barriers Haemagglutination test (HI. The design used in this study is completely randomized design factorial. The results of this study indicate that the temperature was highly significant on the activities of IgY crude and precipitates. Activities IgY crude and precipitate down to the treatment temperature of 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC. Geometric Mean Titer crude IgY respectively - were 26.67, 26, 25.33, and <2º Unit HI while IgY precipitates are respectively 26.33, 25.67, 24, and <2º Unit HI. Based on the results of this study concluded that the biological activity of crude IgY better than IgY precipitates after treatment of a wide range of temperatures.

  9. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  10. Biological/Genetic Regulation of Physical Activity Level: Consensus from GenBioPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; DE Geus, Eco J C; Booth, Frank W; Bray, Molly S; DEN Hoed, Marcel; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kelly, Scott A; Pomp, Daniel; Saul, Michael C; Thomis, Martine A; Garland, Theodore; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-04-01

    Physical activity unquestionably maintains and improves health; however, physical activity levels globally are low and not rising despite all the resources devoted to this goal. Attention in both the research literature and the public policy domain has focused on social-behavioral factors; however, a growing body of literature suggests that biological determinants play a significant role in regulating physical activity levels. For instance, physical activity level, measured in various manners, has a genetic component in both humans and nonhuman animal models. This consensus article, developed as a result of an American College of Sports Medicine-sponsored round table, provides a brief review of the theoretical concepts and existing literature that supports a significant role of genetic and other biological factors in the regulation of physical activity. Future research on physical activity regulation should incorporate genetics and other biological determinants of physical activity instead of a sole reliance on social and other environmental determinants.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  12. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doped zinc oxide (Mn-doped ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared ... The antimicrobial activities of the nanoparticles against different bacterial strains were determined using agar diffusion ...... Importance of Clerodendrum Genus: A Current Review.

  13. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  14. Biologically Active Organic Matter in Soils of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. M.; Kogut, B. M.; Zinyakova, N. B.; Masyutenko, N. P.; Malyukova, L. S.; Lebedeva, T. N.; Tulina, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental and literature data on the contents and stocks of active organic matter in 200 soil samples from the forest-tundra, southern-taiga, deciduous-forest, forest-steppe, dry-steppe, semidesert, and subtropical zones have been generalized. Natural lands, agrocenoses, treatments of long-term field experiments (bare fallow, unfertilized and fertilized crop rotations, perennial plantations), and different layers of soil profile are presented. Sphagnum peat and humus-peat soil in the tundra and forest-tundra zones are characterized by a very high content of active organic matter (300-600 mg C/100 g). Among the zonal soils, the content of active organic matter increases from the medium (75-150 mg C/100 g) to the high (150-300 mg C/100 g) level when going from soddy-podzolic soil to gray forest and dark-gray forest soils and then to leached chernozem. In the series from typical chernozem to ordinary and southern chernozem and chestnut and brown semidesert soils, a decrease in the content of active organic matter to the low (35-75 mg C/100 g) and very low (organic matter. Most arable soils are mainly characterized by low or very low contents of active organic matter. In the upper layers of soils, active organic matter makes up 1.2-11.1% of total Corg. The profile distribution of active organic matter in the studied soils coincides with that of Corg: their contents appreciably decrease with depth, except for brown semidesert soil. The stocks of active organic matter vary from 0.4 to 5.4 t/ha in the layer of 0-20 cm and from 1.0 to 12.4/ha in the layer of 0-50 cm of different soil types.

  15. Synthesis and Antiplatelet Activity of Antithrombotic Thiourea Compounds: Biological and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenço

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations.

  16. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer’s disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods.

  17. The chemical structures, plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities of homoisoflavanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Karen; Drewes, Siegfried E; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    This work reviews the four basic structural types of homoisoflavanones. The relationships between the various structures of homoisoflavanones and their plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities are put into perspective.

  18. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Yarovoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of influence of growth regulators and biopreparations affecting on decrease of disease development, increase of yield capacity and final product quality was carried out in tomato. It was shown that all preparations were effective in decreasing the process of diseases development and increasing the yield capacity and product quality. The studies were carried out in the experimental fields at the Institute of Vegetables and Melons NAAS, in Ukraine in 2011-2012. The field studies were performed according to ‘Methodology of Experimental Work in Vegetable and Melon Growing’ on area sown with cultivars ‘Karas’ and ‘Kremenchugskiy’. The fungicides ‘Mars U 77%’, ‘Vimpel with Fitotsid’, ‘Vermistim’ wth ‘Azotofit’ and ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ were used on cultivars of tomato, as control were the plants without treatment. It was determined that all preparations decreased the development of diseases. On average, the development of early dry spot had decreased by 12.2–16.1% and anthracnose by 10.0–12.6% in the cultivars ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’. Thus, biopreparations used on the varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’ were effective in decrease of disease development, such as early dry spot, anthracnose, in a range of 39.1–52.7 %. Generally, during observation period the efficacy index of the preparations ‘Vermistim’ with ‘Azotofit’, ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ was higher than others preparations on the varieties ‘Kremenchug and ‘Karas’ against early dry spot (48.3–50.9%, 50.3–52.7% and anthracnose (46.1–47.0%, 47.6–48.5%. The results showed that the vast majority of biological preparations, phytohormones used against diseases in tomato crops of varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’, were effective in a range of 39.1-52.7% and also maintained the tomato yield within 2.8-5.1 t/ha or 8.1- 13.9%. The biological preparations, phytohormones improved

  19. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil biological activities are vital for the restoration of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. Their role includes the biotransformation of petroleum compounds into harmless compounds. In this paper, the use of biological activities as potential...

  20. Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation of Novel Heterocyclic Pleuromutilin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Yi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of pleuromutilin derivatives were synthesized by two synthetic procedures under mild reaction conditions and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Infrared Spectroscopy (IR, and High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRMS. Most of the derivatives with heterocyclic groups at the C-14 side of pleuromutilin exhibited excellent in vitro antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE in vitro antibacterial activity. The synthesized derivatives which contained pyrimidine rings, 3a, 3b, and 3f, displayed modest antibacterial activities. Compound 3a, the most active antibacterial agent, displayed rapid bactericidal activity and affected bacterial growth in the same manner as that of tiamulin fumarate. Moreover, molecular docking studies of 3a and lefamulin provided similar information about the interactions between the compounds and 50S ribosomal subunit. The results of the study show that pyrimidine rings should be considered in the drug design of pleuromutilin derivatives.

  1. Biological activities of Suaeda heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities of different extracts of Suaeda heterophylla (S. heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi (B. stracheyi. Methods: The extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi were evaluated for antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities using standard experimental methods. Results: The overall antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate extract of S. heterophylla was the strongest, followed by chloroform extract, methanolic extract and n-hexane extract. It is interesting to note that ethyl acetate fraction showed 94.98% inhibition at concentration of 60 µg/mL while standard ascorbic acid showed 98.49% inhibition at same concentration. The crude methanol extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi showed significant phytotoxic activity at the highest dose. Moreover, methanol extract of B. stracheyi possessed strong activity in xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibition. Conclusions: Antioxidant, phytotoxic, and xanthine oxidase activities of different fractions of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi clearly demonstrate that these fractions possess great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  3. Using Active Learning in a Studio Classroom to Teach Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…

  4. Biological activities of Umbilicaria crustulosa (Ach. frey acetone extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time the effect of an acetone extract of Umbilicaria crustulosa on the micronucleus distribution of human lymphocytes, and on the cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity by the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC method. Additionally, the total phenolic compounds (TPC and the antioxidant properties were estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays. Moreover, the antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria were determined. Acetone extract of U. crustulosa at concentration of 1 and 2 μg mL-1 decreased a frequency of micronuclei (MN by 10.8 and 16.8 %, respectively, acting more or slightly less than the synthetic protector amifostine (AMF, WR-2721, 11.4 %, at concentration of 1 μg mL-1. The tested extract did not inhibit cholinesterase activity nor did it exhibit activity toward the examined bacteria. The extract reduced the concentration of DPPH and ABTS radicals by 88.7 and 96.2 %, respectively. Values for total reducing power (TRP and cupric reducing capacity (CUPRAC were 0.6197±0.0166 μg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE per mg of dry extract, and 19.7641±1.6546 μg trolox equivalents (TE per mg of dry extract, respectively. The total phenol content was 350.4188 ±14.587 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAE per mg of dry extract. The results of the present study showed that U. crustulosa acetone extract is a promising candidate for in vivo experiments considering its antioxidant activity and protective effect on human lymphocytes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172047

  5. Fluorine determinations in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.; Guinn, V.P.; Becker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Exploratory studies were carried out at the University of California, Irvine on several freeze-dried human diet materials and on two freeze-dried vegetation materials - all prospective reference materials. The University of California, Irvine equipment includes a 250-kW TRIGA Mark 1 reactor, 2.5 x 10 12 n/cm 2 ·s thermal flux, 3-s sample transfer time, and a typical 18% Ge(Li)/4,096-channel gamma-ray spectrometer with a detector resolution of 3.3 keV at 1,332 keV. In these exploratory studies, it was found that it was not feasible to measure fluorine with adequate precision or accuracy at fluorine concentrations much less than ∼100 ppm. These initial studies, however, defined the magnitudes of the various difficulties. One good outcome of these studies was the demonstration that the otherwise excellent Teflon-mill brittle-fracture method for homogenizing freeze-dried biological samples was not suitable if fluorine was to be determined. Abrasion of the Teflon increased the fluorine content of a human diet sample about sevenfold (compared with similar treatment of the same material in an all-titanium mill)

  6. [BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, A S; Rogozhin, E A; Valyshev, A V

    2015-01-01

    Isolate bacteriocins from Enterococcus faecium metabolites and characterize their effect on cells of Gram positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Methods of solid-phase extraction, ion-exchange and reversed phase chromatography were applied for isolation of bacteriocins from cultural medium of bacteria MALDI time-of-flight mass-spectrometry was used for characterization of the obtained preparations. The mechanism of biological effect of peptides was evaluated using DNA-tropic dyes (SYTO 9 and PI) with subsequent registration of fluorescence spectra: Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) was used for characterization of morpho-functional reaction of target cells. Peptide fractions with mass of 1.0 - 3.0 kDa were isolated from enterococci metabolites, that inhibit the growth of indicator microorganisms. E. faecium strain exoproducts were shown to increase membrane permeability during interaction with L. monocytogenes, that results in subsequent detectable disturbance of normal cell morphology of listeria. Alterations of E. coli surface during the effect of purified peptide fraction was detected using AFM. The studies carried out have revealed the effect of bacteriocins of enterococci on microorganisms with various types of cell wall composition and have confirmed the importance of bacterial barrier structure permeability disturbance in the mechanism of antimicrobial effect of enterocins.

  7. Some Biological Activities of Malaysian Leech Saliva Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Abdualrahman M. Abdualkader; Ahmed Merzouk; Abbas Mohammed Ghawi; and Mohammed Alaama

    2011-01-01

    Leeches were fed on the phagostimulatory solution through parafilm membrane. The satiated leeches were forced to regurgitate the solution by soaking them in an ice-container. The anticoagulant activity was ascertained using thrombin time assay (TT). The result revealed that the saliva concentration which increases TT by 100% (IC100) is 43.205µg/ml plasma. The antimicrobial activity of the saliva was tested against several bacterial spp. (E.coli, P.aeruginosa, B.cereus, Sal.typhi and S...

  8. The biological activity of a novel pyrethroid: metofluthrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Masayo; Ishiwatari, Takao

    2012-01-01

    Metofluthrin (commercial name: SumiOne(®), Eminence(®)) is a novel pyrethroid insecticide developed by Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd. Metofluthrin has extremely high insecticidal activity to various pest insects, especially to mosquitoes. In addition, Metofluthrin has relatively high volatility and low mammalian toxicity. Metofluthrin is therefore suitable for use not only in conventional mosquito control formulations such as coils and liquid vaporizers, but also in a variety of novel devices that do not require heating, such as fan vaporizers and paper and resin emanators. Here we describe the insecticidal activity of Metofluthrin mainly against mosquitoes in various formulations in both laboratory and field trials.

  9. Biological activity and chemical profile of Lavatera thuringiaca L. extracts obtained by different extraction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašković, Pavle Z; Veličković, Vesna; Đurović, Saša; Zeković, Zoran; Radojković, Marija; Cvetanović, Aleksandra; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Mitić, Milan; Vujić, Jelena

    2018-01-01

    Lavatera thuringiaca L. is herbaceous perennial plant from Malvaceae family, which is known for its biological activity and richness in polyphenolic compounds. Despite this, the information regarding the biological activity and chemical profile is still insufficient. Aim of this study was to investigate biological potential and chemical profile of Lavatera thuringiaca L., as well as influence of applied extraction technique on them. Two conventional and four non-conventional extraction techniques were applied in order to obtain extracts rich in bioactive compound. Extracts were further tested for total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins, gallotannins and anthocyanins contents using spectrophotometric assays. Polyphenolic profile was established using HPLC-DAD analysis. Biological activity was investigated regarding antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Four antioxidant assays were applied as well as three different cell lines for cytotoxic and fifteen bacterial strain for antibacterial activity. Results showed that subcritical water extraction (SCW) dominated over the other extraction techniques, where SCW extract exhibited the highest biological activity. Study indicates that plant Lavatera thuringiaca L. may be used as a potential source of biologically compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Phenolic compounds and biological activity of Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal and antioxidant activities of vegetable extracts (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Dora, cv. Strizanka, cv. Morava), grown in Serbia. Different experimental models have included the determination content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and minimum ...

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    lactam) moiety. 23 such as penicillin, cephalosporin and carbapenem (figure 2). It is also associated with a variety of therapeutic activities. 24–28. In continuation of our work to develop potential antimicrobial molecules,. 29,30 we report here the ...

  12. Determination of cephalosporin acylase activity by biological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... microorganisms with cephalosporin acylase activity was developed. The core part of cephalosporin was replaced by 6-amino penicillinic acid (6-APA) to generate new substrates glutaryl-6-APA and adipoyl-6-APA for screen- ing. Serratia marcescens that is sensitive to 6-APA and resistant to penicillin G, ...

  13. Biological activities of four essential oils against Anopheles gambiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control of malaria is still a challenge partly due to mosquito's resistance to current available insecticides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and repellent activities of Lantana camara, Hyptis suaveolens, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum canum essential oils against Anopheles gambiae s.l. ...

  14. Some biological activities of Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings indicate a correlation in the activities of the leaves and as such serve as panacea for infectious diseases and therefore scientific justification to some of the folkloric uses of the plant. Keywords: Antimicrobial; Larvicidal; Brine shrimp lethality; Pycnanthus angolensis. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.

  15. Research on prokaryocyte expression and biological activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the ATPase activity of the protein was also assayed using ultraviolet spectrophotometry based on PiColorLock Gold reagent. An effective expression method was established for BLM protein in E. coli. The obvious bioactivities of the protein were observed in binding to ssDNA or dsDNA, unwinding the dsDNA in ...

  16. Programming biological operating systems: genome design, assembly and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    The DNA technologies developed over the past 20 years for reading and writing the genetic code converged when the first synthetic cell was created 4 years ago. An outcome of this work has been an extraordinary set of tools for synthesizing, assembling, engineering and transplanting whole bacterial genomes. Technical progress, options and applications for bacterial genome design, assembly and activation are discussed.

  17. Phytoconstituents and biological activities of essential Oil from Rhus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determined the major phytoconstituents, the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of Rhus lancea essential oil against eight bacterial and four fungal species. The yield was 0.18% and the major phytoconstituents found were µ-pinene, benzene and d-3-carene. The oil exhibited remarkable ...

  18. chemical constituents and biological activity of three tanzanian wild

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    antimicrobial activities infer that the three mushroom species are potential functional food substrates. INTRODUCTION. Termitomyces is a tropical edible ... extract (32 g) on cooling in the fridge at -. 4°C formed white crystals of mannitol and ... against the bacteria Vibrio cholerae and. Escherichia coli, and the fungus Candida.

  19. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  20. Characterization of aromatic organosulfur model compounds relevant to fossil fuels by using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with CS2 and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weijuan; Sheng, Huaming; Jin, Chunfen; Riedeman, James S; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2016-04-15

    The chemistry of desulfurization involved in processing crude oil is greatly dependent on the forms of sulfur in the oil. Sulfur exists in different chemical bonding environments in fossil fuels, including those in thiophenes and benzothiophenes, thiols, sulfides, and disulfides. In this study, the fragmentation behavior of the molecular ions of 17 aromatic organosulfur compounds with various functionalities was systematically investigated by using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometric experiments were carried out using a linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source. (+)APCI/CS2 was used to generate stable dominant molecular ions for all the compounds studied except for three sulfides that also showed abundant fragment ions. The LQIT coupled with an orbitrap mass spectrometer was used for elemental composition analysis, which facilitated the identification of the neutral molecules lost during fragmentation. The characteristic fragment ions generated in MS(2) and MS(3) experiments provide clues for the chemical bonding environment of sulfur atoms in the examined compounds. Upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), the molecular ions can lose the sulfur atom in a variety of ways, including as S (32 Da), HS(•) (33 Da), H2 S (34 Da), CS (44 Da), (•) CHS (45 Da) and CH2 S (46 Da). These neutral fragments are not only indicative of the presence of sulfur, but also of the type of sulfur present in the compound. Generally, losses of HS(•) and H2 S were found to be associated with compounds containing saturated sulfur functionalities, while losses of S, CS and (•) CHS were more common for heteroaromatic sulfur compounds. High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry with APCI/CS2 ionization is a viable approach to determining the types of organosulfur compounds. It can potentially be applied to analysis of complex mixtures, which is beneficial to improving the

  1. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H; Lopez, Elizabeth M; McFeeters, Robert L; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-Kaf, Ali G; Setzer, William N

    2017-03-05

    Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16.9%), (-)-borneol (2.1%-6.9%), (-)-camphor (0.7%-7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%-4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  2. [Biologically active compounds from the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Willer, F; Kreher, B

    1989-10-01

    From the water extract of the roots of Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) a polysaccharide fraction was isolated which revealed activity in the carrageenan rat paw edema model and lymphocyte transformation test. Ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration of this fraction afforded 4 different polysaccharides, one of which reduced dose dependent hemolysis in the classical pathway of the complement test. The Urtica dioica lectin (UDA) was reisolated and found to stimulate the proliferation of human lymphocytes.

  3. Biological activities and phenolic contents of Argania spinosa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by methyl-thiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: The results revealed abundant polyphenols and flavonoids (221.39 ± 5.70 μg GAEq/1 g and 66.86 ± 3.36 μg CAEq/1 g, respectively) in the leaf extract. UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS profiling showed the presence of ...

  4. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  5. Precision of neutron activation analysis for environmental biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwata, Shiro; Koyama, Mutsuo; Sasajima, Kazuhisa; Numata, Yuichi.

    1977-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1974 a special committee ''Research on the application of neutron activation analysis to the environmental samples'' had been organized at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. Eleven research groups composed mainly of the committee members cooperated in the intercomparison programme of the reactor neutron activation analysis of NBS standard reference material, 1571 Orchard Leaves and 1577 Bovine Liver. Five different type of reactors were used for the neutron irradiation; i.e. KUR reactor of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, TRIGA MARK II reactor of the Institute for Atomic Energy, Rikkyo University, and JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 reactor of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Analyses were performed mainly by instrumental method. Precision of the analysis of 23 elements in Orchard Leaves and 13 elements in Bovine Liver presented by the different research groups was shown in table 4 and 5, respectively. The coefficient of variation for these elements was from several to -- 30 percent. Averages given to these elements agreed well with the NBS certified or reference values. Thus, from the practical point of view for the routine multielement analysis of environmental samples, the validity of the instrumental neutron activation technique for this purpose has been proved. (auth.)

  6. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Chemically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Solkamy, E.N.; Sayed, Sh. R. M.; Khan, M.; Shaik, M.R.; Al-Warthan, A.; Adil, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the earlier reported methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The synthesized materials were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. TEM micrograph showed the spherical morphology of AgNPs with size range of 40-60 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a strong antimicrobial activity and their effect depends upon bacterial strain as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1 mm) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.8?mm) and S. pyogenes (13.6 mm) while the least activity was observed for Salmonella typhi (12.5 mm) at concentration of 5 μg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs against S. aureus was 2.5 μg/disc and less than 2.5 μg/disc for P. aeruginosa. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agent for infectious control in medical field.

  7. Purification, Characterization and Biological Activity of Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwei Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (DOPA from the stem of D. officinale, as well as two fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 of it, were isolated and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, and their structural characteristics and bioactivities were investigated. The average molecular weights of DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were 394 kDa and 362 kDa, respectively. They were mainly composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, and had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-Manp and 1,4-linked β-d-Glcp with O-acetyl groups. Bioactivity studies indicated that both DOPA and its purified fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 could activate splenocytes and macrophages. The D. officinale polysaccharides had stimulatory effects on splenocytes, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, promoting the cell viability and NO production of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, DOPA, DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were found to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, suppressing apoptosis and ameliorating oxidative lesions. These results suggested that D. officinale polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity and mild immunostimulatory activity.

  8. Objectives of research activities in Biology Branch, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The primary responsibility assigned to the Biology Branch within the framework of CRNL has been an active engagement in basic research related to the assessment of radiation hazards, particularly those to be expected after exposure to relatively low doses of radiation delivered at low dose-rates. The present group is characterized by a broad interest in the entire chain of events by which the initial radiation-induced changes in the living cell are translated into biological effects, with a special focus of attention on the mechanisms by which the initial damage can be largely repaired and by which the risks to man are modified under different circumstances. The basic concepts in radiation biology and risk estimates are reviewed in the light of recent literature on these topics. The current and proposed research activities of the Biology Branch are described. General and specific recommendations for future activities are given. (author)

  9. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Avermectin Nano-delivery Systems with Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Yao, Junwei; Yang, Dongsheng; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2018-01-01

    Nano-delivery systems for the active ingredients of pesticides can improve the utilization rates of pesticides and prolong their control effects. This is due to the nanocarrier envelope and controlled release function. However, particles containing active ingredients in controlled release pesticide formulations are generally large and have wide size distributions. There have been limited studies about the effect of particle size on the controlled release properties and biological activities of pesticide delivery systems. In the current study, avermectin (Av) nano-delivery systems were constructed with different particle sizes and their performances were evaluated. The Av release rate in the nano-delivery system could be effectively controlled by changing the particle size. The biological activity increased with decreasing particle size. These results suggest that Av nano-delivery systems can significantly improve the controllable release, photostability, and biological activity, which will improve efficiency and reduce pesticide residues.

  11. Thermal mud maturation: organic matter and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centini, M; Tredici, M R; Biondi, N; Buonocore, A; Maffei Facino, R; Anselmi, C

    2015-06-01

    Many of the therapeutic and cosmetic treatments offered in spas are centred on mud therapy, to moisturize the skin and prevent skin ageing and rheumatic diseases. Thermal mud is a complex matrix composed of organic and inorganic elements which contribute to its functions. It is a natural product derived from the long mixing of clay and thermal water. During its maturation, organic substances are provided by the microalgae, which develop characteristic of the composition of thermal water. The aim of this study was to identify methods for introducing objective parameters as a basis for characterizing thermal mud and assessing its efficacy. Samples of thermal mud were collected at the Saturnia spa, where there are several sulphureous pools. The maturation of the mud was evaluated by organic component determination using extractive methods and chromatographic analysis (HPLC, GC-MS, SPME). We also studied the radical scavenging activity of mud samples at different stages of maturation, in a homogeneous phase, using several tests (DPPH, ORAC, ABTS). We identified several classes of compounds: saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, hydroxyl acids, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, alcohols and others. SPME analysis showed the presence of various hydrocarbons compounds (C(11) -C(17)) and long-chain alcohols (C(12) -C(16)). Six or seven months seemed appropriate to complete the process of maturation, and the main effect of maturation time was the increase of lipids. Six-month mud showed the highest activity. The hydrophilic extract was more active than the lipophilic extract. The results indicate that maturation of thermal mud can be followed on the basis of the changes in its organic composition and antioxidant properties along the time. They also highlight the need to develop reference standards for thermal muds in relation to assess their use for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  13. Some Biological Activities of Malaysian Leech Saliva Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdualrahman M. Abdualkader

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MS X-NONE AR-SA Leeches were fed on the phagostimulatory solution through parafilm membrane. The satiated leeches were forced to regurgitate the solution by soaking them in an ice-container. The anticoagulant activity was ascertained using thrombin time assay (TT. The result revealed that the saliva concentration which increases TT by 100% (IC100 is 43.205µg/ml plasma. The antimicrobial activity of the saliva was tested against several bacterial spp. (E.coli, P.aeruginosa, B.cereus, Sal.typhi and S.aureus  and fungi spp. (C.albicans and C.neoformans. It was found that saliva has an inhibition activity against Sal.typhi (minimal inhibitory concentration MIC 78.253µg/ml, S.aureus (MIC 78.253µg/ml and E.coli (MIC 121.256µg/ml.ABSTRAK: Pacat-pacat diberi makan larutan phagostimulatory menerusi membran parafilem. Pacat-pacat yang kekenyangan itu dipaksa memuntahkan larutan tersebut dengan direndam di dalam bekas berisi ais. Aktiviti antigumpal ditentukan menggunakan cerakin masa trombin (TT. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan air liur pacat menyebabkan pertambahan TT sebanyak 100% (IC100 iaitu 43.205µg/ml plasma. Aktiviti antimikrob air liur telah diuji dengan pelbagai jenis bakteria (E.coli, P.aeruginosa, B.cereus, Sal.typhi dan S.aureus dan pelbagai jenis kulat (C.albicans and C.neoformans. Didapati air liur menghasilkan aktiviti perencatan terhadap Sal.typhi (kepekatan perencat minima (Minimal inhibitory concentration - MIC 78.253µg/ml, S.aureus (MIC 78.253µg/ml dan E.coli (MIC 121.256µg/ml.

  14. Biological and environmental reference materials in neutron activation analysis work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas, M.

    1990-01-01

    The great usefulness of reference materials, especially ones of certified elemental composition, is discussed with particular attention devoted to their use in instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) work. Their use, including both certified and uncertified values, in calculations made by the INAA Advance Prediction Computer Program (APCP) is discussed. The main features of the APCP are described, and mention is made of the large number of reference materials run on the APCP (including the new personal computer version of the program), with NBS Oyster Tissue SRM-1566 used as the principal examle. (orig.)

  15. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great r...

  16. Enhanced biological activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Nchang Che, Denis; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The total polyphenol contents of GPLE and PLE were determined to be 224.44 ± 1.54 and 197.33 ± 5.81 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively, and the total flavonoid contents of GPLE and PLE were 206.27 ± 1.15 and 167.60 ± 2.00 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of GPLE and PLE as measured by DPPH assays were 338.33 ± 30.19 μg/ml (IC50) and 388.68 ± 8.45 μg/ml (IC50), respectively, and those measured by ABTS assays were 510.49 ± 15.12 μg/ml (IC50) and 731.30 ± 10.63 μg/ml (IC50), respectively. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration that reduces the response by 50%. GPLE strongly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 compared with PLE in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GPLE significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines compared with PLE in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 human mast cells. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of PLE can enhance its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of the phenolic contents. Therefore, gamma-irradiated PLE has potential for use in the food and cosmetic

  17. Implications of the use of experimental activities in biology education in public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Cardoso da Silva Morais

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the influence of a didactic sequence with experimental activities on student motivation in relation to the subject matter Biology and check the possibility of applying such a result having as input the cultural-historical perspective and the dynamic of the three pedagogical moments. The work is part of a Master Degree research developed with 70 students from a high school in Patos de Minas city. The analysis of the data collected through observation, questionnaires, reports, testimonies of students, filming and photography of biology classes, points out that the use of experimental activities in Biology classes contributed to the increase of student motivation relating to Biology classes favoring the teaching-learning process and also to promote a converge between the scientific knowledge and reality of the students besides encourage their self-esteem and investigative sense. The results also indicate that it is possible to develop at school a didactic sequence based on the complementarity of two different theoretical lines like the dynamics of the three moments and in the historical and cultural perspective. Based on above considerations, we believe that the use of experimental activities following didactics positively influences student motivation in relation to Biology, favoring the teaching and learning of Biology. However, it is the whole of this, as the theory and the posture of motivating teachers, allowed approximation between scientific knowledge and reality of the students, enabling greater learning of biological concepts.

  18. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Dianthus elegans var. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Kiymet; Sarikahya, Nazli Boke; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Kirmizigul, Suheyla

    2018-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Dianthus elegans var. elegans afforded two previously undescribed saponins, named dianosides M-N (1-2), together with four oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides (3-6). Their structures were elucidated as 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α, 28β-dioic acid (1) and 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α-oic acid, 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glycosyl ester (2) by chemical and extensive spectroscopic methods including IR, 1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Both of the saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against HEK-293, A-549 and HeLa human cancer cells using the MTT method. All compounds showed no substantial cytotoxic activity against tested cell lines. However, dianosides M-N and the n-butanol fraction exhibited considerable haemolysis in human erythrocyte cells. The immunomodulatory properties of dianosides M-N were also evaluated in activated whole blood cells by PMA plus ionomycin. Dianosides M-N increased IL-1β concentration significantly whereas the n-butanol fraction slightly augmented IL-1β secretion. All compounds did not change IL-2 and IFN-γ levels considerably.

  19. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia, Alabama (USA, Western Cape (South Africa, Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%, 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%, (+-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%, (−-borneol (2.1%–6.9%, (−-camphor (0.7%–7.0%, and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%. Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  20. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods. - Highlights: • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro antioxidant activities. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract treatment reduced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO.

  1. Multielement analysis of biological standards by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Up to 28 elements were determined in two IAEA standards: Animal Muscle H4 and Fish Soluble A 6/74, and three NBS standards: Spinach: SRM-1570, Tomato Leaves: SRM-1573 and Pine Needles: SRM-1575 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Seven noble metals were determined in two NBS standards: Coal: SRM-1632 and Coal Fly Ash: SRM-1633 by radiochemical procedure while 11 rare earth elements were determined in NBS standard Orchard Leaves: SRM-1571 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The results are in good agreement with the certified and/or literature data where available. The irradiations were performed at the Cornell TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 1-3x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . The short-lived species were determined after a 2-minute irradiation in the pneumatic rabbit tube, and the longer-lived species after an 8-hour irradiation in the central thimble facility. The standards and samples were counted on coaxial 56-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The system resolution was 1.96 keV (FWHM) with a peak to Compton ratio of 37:1 and counting efficiency of 13%, all compared to the 1.332 MeV photopeak of Co-60. (T.I.)

  2. Synthesis and biological activity of pyridazine amides, hydrazones and hydrazides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Ann M; Yap, Maurice Ch; Hunter, Ricky; Babcock, Jonathan; Huang, Xinpei

    2017-04-01

    Optimization studies on compounds initially designed to be herbicides led to the discovery of a series of [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides exhibiting aphicidal properties. Systematic modifications of the amide moiety as well as the pyridine and pyridazine rings were carried out to determine if these changes could improve insecticidal potency. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies showed that changes to the pyridine and pyridazine rings generally resulted in a significant loss of insecticidal potency against green peach aphids [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] and cotton aphids [(Aphis gossypii (Glover)]. However, replacement of the amide moiety with hydrazines, hydrazones, or hydrazides appeared to be tolerated, with small aliphatic substituents being especially potent. A series of aphicidal [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides were discovered as a result of random screening of compounds that were intially investigated as herbicides. Follow-up studies of the structure-activity relationship of these [6-(3-pyridyl)pyridazin-3-yl]amides showed that biosteric replacement of the amide moiety was widely tolerated suggesting that further opportunities for exploitation may exist for this new area of insecticidal chemistry. Insecticidal efficacy from the original hit, compound 1, to the efficacy of compound 14 produced greater than 10-fold potency improvement against Aphis gossypii and greater than 14-fold potency improvement against Myzus persicae. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of synthetic adjuvants of biological activity of spleen proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartasheva, A.L.; Yuferova, N.V.; Drozhennikov, V.A.; Orlova, E.B.; Perevezentseva, O.S.; Filatov, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration to mice of synthetic adjuvants of a polyanion type increases the spleen mass by 500% and rises the content of proteins with activity of inhibitor of DNAase 1. A protein fraction isolated from the spleen of treated animals administered to exposed (7.7 Gy) mice alone or in a combination with exogenous DNA increases survival up to 61.1 and 80.5%, respectively, as opposed to 36.6% in the case of administration of proteins from intact animals, or 8.3% in the control (no treatment). The protein fraction from treated animals administered to mice exposed to 5.1-5.5 Gy accelerates the recovery of hemopoesis and immune response better than proteins of intact animals

  4. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velandia, J A; Perkons, A K

    1974-01-01

    Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis with Instrumental Ge(Li) Gamma Spectrometry was used to determine the amounts of more than 30 trace constituents in heart tissue of rats and kidney tissue of rabbits. The results were confirmed by a rapid ion-exchange group separation method in the initial stages of the experiments. The samples were exposed to thermal neutrons for periods between 3 minutes and 14 hours. Significant differences in the amounts and types of trace elements in the two different tissue types are apparent, however, are probably due to specific diets. Tables of relevant nuclear data, standard concentrations, radiochemical separation recoveries, and quantitative analytical results are presented. The ion-exchange group separation scheme and typical examples of the instrumental gamma ray spectra are shown. The techniques developed in this study are being used for a large scale constituent survey of various diseased and healthy human tissues.

  5. Isotopic techniques for measuring the biological activity in plant rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warembourg, F.R.

    1975-01-01

    The use of 14 C made it possible to separate root respired CO 2 and microbial CO 2 resulting from exudates utilisation by the rhizosphere microflora. Measurements were done after wheat plants grown under axenic and non axenic conditions were placed during short period of time in an atmosphere contaning 14 CO 2 . Under axenic conditions evolution of 14 CO 2 follows a bell shaped curve due to the brief appearance of labelled compounds translocated from the aerial part of the plants to the roots. In the presence of microorganisms, the maximum of activity due to root respiration is identical but immediately followed by a second peak of 14 CO 2 evolution that was attributed to the decomposition of labelled exudates by the microflora. The same observations resulted from the labelling of a grassland vegetation sampled with its soil and placed in the laboratory. Preliminary results obtained using this method of short term labelling of plants are presented here [fr

  6. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: CULTIVATION OF CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina SÎRBU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Creative achievement is obvious in the arts but it is essential in all other fields including the sciences and business. Creativity allows for the making of connections across different domains of knowledge. It is possible in all areas of human activity and all young people and adults have creative abilities. It is cultivated through rigorous training and by practicing of dynamic capabilities over an extended period of time. Creativity needs time, flow, interaction, suspension of judgement. It is influenced by much more than the shape and content of the formal school curriculum. The roles of teachers are to recognise young people's creative capacities; and to provide the creative climate in which they can be realised. Educational actors have the power to unlock the creative and innovative potential of the young. Creative learning requires innovative and flexible teaching. Creative education involves a balance between teaching knowledge and skills, and encouraging innovation.

  7. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Pseudocalymma elegans: A False Garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Sana; Versiani, Muhammad Ali; Jahangir, Sajid; Jawaid, Khurshid; Shafique, Maryam; Khan, Huma; Faizi, Shaheen

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hexane (PELH), dichloromethane (PELDCM), ethyl acetate (PELEA), and MeOH (PELM) extracts of young leaves of Pseudocalymma elegans have been carried out. Moreover, extracts have also been explored for the presence of sulphur containing compounds, 1,2-dithiolane (33), diallyl disulfide (35), 3-vinyl-1,2-dithiacyclohex-5-ene (37), and diallyl trisulfide (38) responsible for the garlic like smell of P. elegans. All the extracts were found to be antioxidant and showed potent inhibition with IC 50 values of 0.168 ± 0.001, 0.128 ± 0.002, 0.221 ± 0.011, and 0.054 ± 0.001, respectively, as compared to standard drugs ascorbic acid (AA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The ethyl acetate extract (PELE) showed excellent activities against few Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and some fungi as compared with standard drug ceftriaxone (3rd generation cephalosporin) and nystatin, respectively. Chemical constituents of hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass spectral library search. Over all 55 chemical constituents were first time identified from the leaves which included branched and n-hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty alcohols, terpenes, alkaloid, vitamins, glycosides, aromatic compounds, and sulfur containing compounds. Two known chemical constituents, ursolic acid (1) and β-amyrin (2), were also purified for the first time from the MeOH extract. To elucidate the structures of these compounds, UV, IR, EI-MS, 1 H- and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy were used. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Effect of biological activated carbon pre-treatment to control organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2014-10-15

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane (0.1 μm polyvinylidene fluoride) in the treatment of a biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. BAC treatment of the BTSE resulted in a marked improvement in permeate flux, which was attributed to the effective removal of organic foulants and particulates. Although the BAC removed significantly less dissolved organic carbon than the granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment which was used as a control for comparison, it led to a markedly greater flux. This was attributed to the effective removal of the very high molecular weight substances such as biopolymers by the BAC through biodegradation and adsorption of those molecules on the biofilm. Size exclusion chromatography showed the BAC treatment led to approximately 30% reduction in these substances, whereas the GAC did not greatly remove these molecules. The BAC treatment led to a greater reduction of loosely-attached and firmly-attached membrane surface foulant, and this was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. This study demonstrated the potential of BAC pre-treatment for reducing organic fouling and thus improving flux for the microfiltration of BTSE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  10. Crystal growth, morphology, thermal and spectral studies of an organosulfur nonlinear optical bis(guanidinium) 5-sulfosalicylate (BG5SS) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhavamurthy, M.; Peramaiyan, G.; Babu, K. Syed Suresh; Mohan, R.

    2015-04-01

    Organosulfur nonlinear optical single crystals of orthorhombic bis(guanidinium) 5-sulfosalicylate (2CH6N3 +·C7H4O6S2-·H2O) with dimension 14 mm × 4 mm × 5 mm have been grown from methanol and water solvents in 1:1 ratio by the slow evaporation growth technique. The crystal structure and morphology of the crystals have been studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. FTIR spectroscopic studies were carried out to identify the functional groups and vibrational modes present in the grown crystals. The UV-Vis spectrum was studied to analyze the linear optical properties of the grown crystals. The thermal gravimetric analysis was conducted on the grown crystals, and the result revealed that the grown crystal is thermally stable up to 65 °C. The dielectric tensor components ɛ 11, ɛ 22 and ɛ 33 of BG5SS crystal were evaluated as a function of frequency at 40 °C. The surface laser damage threshold for the grown crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser. Further, Vickers micro-hardness study was carried out to analyze the mechanical strength of the grown crystals for various loads.

  11. Polysaccharides from Arctium lappa L.: Chemical structure and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Juliane; de Souza, Lauro M; Baggio, Cristiane H; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-10-01

    The plant Arctium lappa L. is popularly used to relieve symptoms of inflammatory disorders. A crude polysaccharide fraction (SAA) resulting of aqueous extraction of A. lappa leaves showed a dose dependent anti-edematogenic activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, which persisted for up to 48h. Sequential fractionation by ultrafiltration at 50kDa and 30kDa cut-off membranes yielded three fractions, namely RF50, RF30, and EF30. All these maintained the anti-edematogenic effect, but RF30 showed a more potent action, inhibiting 57% of the paw edema at a dose of 4.9mg/kg. The polysaccharide RF30 contained galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, and mannose in a 7:4:2:1:2:1 ratio and had a Mw of 91,000g/mol. Methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy indicated that RF30 is mainly constituted by a type I rhamnogalacturonan branched by side chains of types I and II arabinogalactans, and arabinan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpene lactones of artemisinin was isolated from the aboveground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment.The purpose of the study was the review of the information from the open sources about the study for sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua referring to its pharmacological activity.Methods. The study was carried out using informational and search engines (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, and the results of our own researches.Results. It was established that apart from the essential oil and phenolic compounds, aboveground part of Artemisia annua, it contains a significant amount of sesquiterpene lactones. Qualitative content and quantitative composition of sesquiterpene lactones varies depending on the ecological and geographic factors, plants growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of the extracts from Artemisia annua herb with sesquiterpene lactones, as well as individual compounds of this group characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for more profound research.Conclusion. Our analysis of the open materials on the sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua, including phytochemical and pharmacological ones, allows characterization of the Artemisia annua herb as a perspective source for new drugs working out.

  13. Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius

    2014-07-28

    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  14. Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  15. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in different ways, viz., in foods (like flavouring and preservatives and in pharmaceutical products (therapeutic action as well as in perfumes (fragancias and lotions. The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientific research published in different web-based journals.

  16. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  17. Effects of biology teachers' professional knowledge and cognitive activation on students' achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förtsch, Christian; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the effects of teachers' biology-specific dimensions of professional knowledge - pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge (CK) - and cognitively activating biology instruction, as a feature of instructional quality, on students' learning. The sample comprised 39 German secondary school teachers whose lessons on the topic neurobiology were videotaped twice. Teachers' instruction was coded with regard to cognitive activation using a rating manual. Multilevel path analysis results showed a positive significant effect of cognitive activation on students' learning and an indirect effect of teachers' PCK on students' learning mediated through cognitive activation. These findings highlight the importance of PCK in preservice biology teachers' education. Items of the rating manual may be used to provide exemplars of concrete teaching situations during university seminars for preservice teacher education or professional development initiatives for in-service teachers.

  18. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se H; Kim, Moon S; Lee, Bun Y; Lee, Pyung C

    2016-02-23

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4'-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in Biological Materials by Neutron-Activation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1973-01-01

    A new method was developed for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, manganese, and selenium in biological material by thermal-neutron activation analysis. The use of 81 mSe as indicator for selenium permitted a reduction of activation time to 1 hr for a 1 g sample, and the possibility of loss...

  20. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    primarily sesquiterpene lactones [4,5], diterpenes, coumarins [1], polyacetylenes [6] and flavonoids [1,7,8] as the main metabolites. Biological activity...liver injuries, Gen. Pharmacol. 32(6), 661-667. [62] B. Oomah and G. Mazza (1996). Flavonoids and antioxidative activities in buckwheat, J. Agric. Food

  1. Effects of heat on the biological activity of wild Cordyceps sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengkai Wu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggested that heat treatment does not adversely affect SOD or DNase activity, polysaccharide content, or cordycepin dissolution. Thus, heat treatment might be a safe processing method to extend the storage time of wild C. sinensis without compromising biological activity.

  2. Biological Activity Assessment in Mexican Tropical Soils with Different Hydrocarbon Contamination Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Riveroll-Larios, Jessica; Escalante-Espinosa, Erika; Fócil-Monterrubio, Reyna L.; Díaz-Ramírez, Ildefonso J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of soil health indicators linked to microbial activities, such as key enzymes and respirometric profiles, helps assess the natural attenuation potential of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. In this study, the intrinsic physicochemical characteristics, biological activity and biodegradation potential were recorded for two soils with different contamination histories (>5 years and

  3. Biological Activity Alterations of Human Amniotic Membrane Pre and Post Irradiation Tissue Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Waleed; Bashandy, A S; Araby, Eman; Khamiss, O

    Innate immunity of Human Amniotic Membrane (HAM) and its highly active secretome that rich with various types of growth factors and anti-inflammatory substances proposed it as a promising material for many medical studies and applications. This study evaluate the biological activity of cultivated HAM pre and post tissue banking process in which freeze-dried HAM was sterilized by 25 KGray (kGy) dose of γ radiation. The HAM's antimicrobial activity, viability, growth of isolated human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs), hematopoietic stimulation of co-cultivated murine bone marrow cells (mammalian model), scaffold efficiency for fish brain building up (non-mammalian model) and self re-epithelialization after trypsin denuding treatment were examined as supposed biological activity features. Native HAM revealed viability indications and was active to kill all tested microorganisms; 6 bacterial species (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative) and Candida albicans as a pathogenic fungus. Also, HAM activity promoted colony formation of murine hematopoietic cells, Tilapia nilotica brain fragment building-up and self re-epithelialization after trypsin treatment. In contrary, radiation-based tissue banking of HAM caused HAM cellular death and consequently lacked almost all of examined biological activity features. Viable HAM was featured with biological activity than fixed HAM prepared by irradiation tissue banking.

  4. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  5. Characterization and biological activity of Solidago canadensis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šutovská, M; Capek, P; Kocmálová, M; Fraňová, S; Pawlaczyk, I; Gancarz, R

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide-protein complex has been isolated from flowers of Solidago canadensis L. by hot alkaline extraction procedure. Compositional analyses of S canadensis complex revealed the presence of carbohydrates (43 wt%), protein (27 wt%), phenolics (12 wt%), uronic acids (10 wt%) and inorganic material (8 wt%). The carbohydrate part was rich in neutral sugars (81 wt%) while uronids were determined in lower amount (19 wt%). Monosaccharide analysis of carbohydrate part revealed the presence of five main sugar components, i.e. rhamnose (~23 wt%), arabinose (~20 wt%), uronic acids (~19 wt%), galactose (~17 wt%) and glucose (~14 wt%), and indicated thus the presence of rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan in S. canadensis complex. HPLC analysis of complex showed one single peak of molecule mass at 11.2 kDa. Antitussive activity tests, performed in three doses of Solidago complex, showed the reduction of the number of cough efforts in the dose-dependent manner. Higher doses (50 and 75 mg/kg b.w.) were shown to be by 15 and 20% more effective than that of lower one (25mg/kg b.w.). However, the antitussive effect of the highest dose (75 mg/kg b.w.) was by 10% lower in comparison with that of codeine, the strongest antitussive agent. Besides, the highest dose of the complex (75 mg/kg b.w.) significantly decreased values of specific airways resistance and their effect remained longer as that of salbutamol, a representative of classic antiasthmatic drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. ESSENTIAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpenic lactone of artemisinin was isolated from the above-ground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment. The purpose of the study was to review the data from the open sources about a component composition of Artemisia annua essential oil in the spectrum of its pharmacological activity. Methods. The study was carried out using information and searching sources (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library data bases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, as well as the results of our studies. Results. We have established that aboveground part of Artemisia annua have a significant amount  of essential oil apart from the sesquiterpene lactones. Essential oil contains more than 120 components, which belong to different classes of natural compounds. The study for dynamics of the essential oil accumulation in the Artemisia annua herb showed that the amount of oil in the herb rises significantly during budding, reaching maximum value in blossom. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of certain components varies depending on ecological and  geographical factors,  plant growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of essential oil of the Artemisia annua characterize it as a prospective source for the development of new antimicrobial medicinal drugs. Besides, as the studies shown, it can be related to the 6 class according to K. Sidorov’s classification – “relatively non-hazardous substances”. Conclusion. The analysis of the open sources on the study of essential oil of Artemisia annua made by us, as well as the results of our own studies, including phytochemical studies allow characterizing the essential oil of Artemisia annua as a prospective source for the working out of new antimicrobial drugs.

  7. Mineralogical characteristics of the silica polymorphs in relation to their biological activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heaney, P.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geological and Geophysical Sciences

    1993-10-01

    Numerous aspects of minerals (including the silica polymorphs) can effect their biological activities. These include periodic structures, compositional variations, dissolution characteristics, surface properties, and particle size/shape. In order to understand mineral-induced pathogenesis in a mechanistic way, the links between these properties and biochemical processes must be elucidated. This paper presents some of the basic properties of the silica polymorphs that may relate to pathogenicity and mineralogical strategies for designing biological assays to evaluate these properties.

  8. In vitro gamma irradiation of some purified polypeptide hormones and their biological and radioimmunological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromadova, M.; Macho, L.; Strbak, V.; Vigas, M.; Mikulaj, L.

    1979-01-01

    Some polypeptide hormones (adrenocorticotropin - ACTH, human and bovine growth hormone - GH, human menopausal gonadotropin - HMG, human luteinizing hormone - LH, and bovine thyrotropin - TSH) were irradiated either with 2.5 or 12.5 Mrad (1.1 Mrad/h) or both and their biological activity or immunoreactivity was tested within few days or 3 to 5 months after irradiation. Biological activity of irradiated ACTH (estimation of corticosterone released into medium by incubated adrenals - Saffran and Schally 1955) was not decreased in both time intervals tested. Ten days after irradiation of bovine GH no changes in biological activity (tibia test - Wilhelmi 1973) were found. No decrease of biological activity of irradiated HMG (augmentation of ovarian and uterine weight - Butt 1973) was found 4 months after irradiation and, finaly, no decrease of bovine TSH activity (radioiodine release from prelabelled thyroid in mice - McKenzie 1958) was found 2 to 30 days after irradiation with 2.5 Mrad, while a decrease was observed after 12.5 Mrad. Three to five months after irradiation, however, there was a decrease of biological activity after both doses. The immunological reactivity of irradiated HMG and LH did not differ from that of nonirradiated samples. The same was found with human GH after 2.5 Mrad, while a decrease of reactivity after 12.5 Mrad was detected. It was concluded that, in most of cases, the sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (2.5 Mrad) did not affect the biological activity of polypeptide hormones and that their sensitivity to irradiation appears to differ. (author)

  9. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results showed that fungi isolation from the mangrove habitats had stronger antibacterial activity than others, and the stains isolated from the estuarial habitats had the least antibacterial activity. However, the strains separated from beach habitats strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro, and fungi of mangrove forest habitats had the weakest activity of inhibiting tumor. Meanwhile, 195 fungal strains belonged to 46 families, 84 genera, 142 species and also showed 137 different types of activity combinations by analyzing the inhibitory activity of the metabolites fungi for 4 strains of pathogenic bacteria and B-16 cells. The study investigated the biological activity of marine fungi isolated from different habitats in Haikou coastal regions. The results help us to understand bioactive metabolites of marine fungi from different habitats, and how to selected biological activity fungi from various marine habitats effectively.

  10. On the possibility of biologically active fenole substances forming during irradiation of vegetable origin products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval'skaya, L.P.; Petrash, I.P.; Medvedeva, T.N.; Lezhneva, M.L.; Shchegoleva, G.I.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether biologically active substances of phenol nature can form upon irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables with doses of 200-300 Krad, to ascertain the stability of these substances during storage and processing, and to see whether they display cytostatic effects. The results of the study led to modifications and improvements in the methods used to study biologically active substances of phenol nature in fresh fruits irradiated with 200-300 krad. The total amount of phenolic compounds was found to be somewhat increased upon their extraction with cold ethanol. Of the substances detected in extracts from red tomatoes, the contens of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and naranguenine were appreciably increased. Neither chemical methods nor bioassays revealed in irradiated juices and fruits any biologically active substances affecting the living organism. (E.T.)

  11. Exploiting biological activities of brown seaweed Ecklonia cava for potential industrial applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, W A J P; Jeon, You-Jin

    2012-03-01

    Seaweeds are rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fibres, proteins, polysaccharides and various functional polyphenols. Many researchers have focused on brown algae as a potential source of bioactive materials in the past few decades. Ecklonia cava is a brown seaweed that is abundant in the subtidal regions of Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. This seaweed attracted extensive interest due to its multiple biological activities. E. cava has been identified as a potential producer of wide spectrum of natural substances such as carotenoids, fucoidans and phlorotannins showing different biological activities in vital industrial applications including pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and functional food. This review focuses on biological activities of the brown seaweed E. cava based on latest research results, including antioxidant, anticoagulative, antimicrobial, antihuman immunodeficiency virus, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimutagenic, antitumour and anticancer effects. The facts summarized here may provide novel insights into the functions of E. cava and its derivatives and potentially enable their use as functional ingredients in potential industrial applications.

  12. Suitable activated stable nuclide tracer technique and its applications in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weicheng

    1989-01-01

    Stable isotopes as tracers in biology and medicine have been more extensively used. Mass spectrometry has been a classic technique in the analysis of stable isotopes because it is very sensitive and precise. Activation analysis has recently been introduced as an analytical tool. Its fast speed and simplicity is a great advantage for handling large batches of samples in isotopic tracer experiments. The combination of enriched stable isotope tracer studies and activation analysis techniques has become an ideal and reliable technique, especially in the fields of biology and medicine. This paper presents a survey of the fundamental principle, the character and the applications in biology and medicine for the suitable activated stable isotope tracer techniques

  13. Biological Activity of Ionic Liquids and Their Application in Pharmaceutics and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Ksenia S; Gordeev, Evgeniy G; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2017-05-24

    Ionic liquids are remarkable chemical compounds, which find applications in many areas of modern science. Because of their highly tunable nature and exceptional properties, ionic liquids have become essential players in the fields of synthesis and catalysis, extraction, electrochemistry, analytics, biotechnology, etc. Apart from physical and chemical features of ionic liquids, their high biological activity has been attracting significant attention from biochemists, ecologists, and medical scientists. This Review is dedicated to biological activities of ionic liquids, with a special emphasis on their potential employment in pharmaceutics and medicine. The accumulated data on the biological activity of ionic liquids, including their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties, are discussed in view of possible applications in drug synthesis and drug delivery systems. Dedicated attention is given to a novel active pharmaceutical ingredient-ionic liquid (API-IL) concept, which suggests using traditional drugs in the form of ionic liquid species. The main aim of this Review is to attract a broad audience of chemical, biological, and medical scientists to study advantages of ionic liquid pharmaceutics. Overall, the discussed data highlight the importance of the research direction defined as "Ioliomics", studies of ions in liquids in modern chemistry, biology, and medicine.

  14. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results show...

  15. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  16. Phytotoxicity of vulpia residues: III. Biological activity of identified allelochemicals from Vulpia myuros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, M; Pratley, J E; Haig, T

    2001-02-01

    Twenty compounds identified in vulpia (Vulpia myuros) residues as allelochemicals were individually and collectively tested for biological activity. Each exhibited characteristic allelochemical behavior toward the test plant, i.e., inhibition at high concentrations and stimulation or no effect at low concentrations, but individual activities varied. Allelopathins present in large quantities, such as syringic, vanillic, and succinic acids, possessed low activity, while those present in small quantities, such as catechol and hydrocinnamic acid, possessed strong inhibitory activity. The concept of a phytotoxic strength index was developed for quantifying the biological properties of each individual allelopathin in a concise, comprehensive, and meaningful format. The individual contribution of each allelopathin, assessed by comparing the phytotoxic strength index to the overall toxicity of vulpia residues, was variable according to structure and was influenced by its relative proportion in the residue. The majority of compounds possessed low or medium biological activity and contributed most of the vulpia phytotoxicity, while compounds with high biological activity were in the minority and only present at low concentration. Artificial mixtures of these pure allelochemicals also produced phytotoxicity. There were additive/synergistic effects evident in the properties of these mixtures. One such mixture, formulated from allelochemicals found in the same proportions as occur in vulpia extract, produced stronger activity than another formulated from the same set of compounds but in equal proportions. These results suggest that the exploration of the relative composition of a cluster of allelopathins may be more important than simply focusing on the identification of one or two compounds with strong biological activity and that synergism is fundamental to the understanding of allelopathy.

  17. Expression of novel rice gibberellin 2-oxidase gene is under homeostatic regulation by biologically active gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Miho; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Saito, Tamio; Matsuoka, Makoto; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2003-04-01

    We have cloned two genes for gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidase from rice ( Oryza sativa L.). Expression of OsGA2ox2 was not observed. The other gene, OsGA2ox3, was expressed in every tissue examined and was enhanced by the application of biologically active GA. Recombinant OsGA2ox3 protein catalyzed the metabolism of GA(1) to GA(8) and GA(20) to GA(29)-catabolite. These results indicate that OsGA2ox3 is involved in the homeostatic regulation of the endogenous level of biologically active GA in rice.

  18. Synthesis, Physical Characterization and Biological Activity of Some Schiff Base Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajavel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural modification of organic molecule has considerable biological relevance. Further, coordination of a biomolecules to the metal ions significantly alters the effectiveness of the biomolecules. In view of the antimicrobial activity ligand [bis-(2-aminobenzaldehyde] malonoyl dihydrazone], metal complexes with Cu(II, Ni(II, Zn(II and oxovanadium(IV have been synthesized and found to be potential antimicrobial agents. An attempt is also made to correlate the biological activities with geometry of the complexes. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, spectra and cyclicvoltammetric measurements. The structural assessment of the complexes has been carried out based on electronic, infrared and molar conductivity values.

  19. Characterization of the corrosion resistance of biologically active solutions: The effects of anodizing and welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of fabrication processes, metallurgy, electrochemistry, and microbiology is crucial to the resolution of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) problems. The object of this effort was to use AC impedance spectroscopy to characterize the corrosion resistance of Type II anodized aluminum alloy 2219-T87 in sterile and biologically active media and to examine the corrosion resistance of 316L, alloy 2219-T87, and titanium alloy 6-4 in the welded and unwelded conditions. The latter materials were immersed in sterile and biologically active media and corrosion currents were measured using the polarization resistance (DC) technique.

  20. Active Interaction Mapping as a tool to elucidate hierarchical functions of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Jean-Claude; Kramer, Michael; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh

    2017-07-03

    Increasingly, various 'omics data are contributing significantly to our understanding of novel biological processes, but it has not been possible to iteratively elucidate hierarchical functions in complex phenomena. We describe a general systems biology approach called Active Interaction Mapping (AI-MAP), which elucidates the hierarchy of functions for any biological process. Existing and new 'omics data sets can be iteratively added to create and improve hierarchical models which enhance our understanding of particular biological processes. The best datatypes to further improve an AI-MAP model are predicted computationally. We applied this approach to our understanding of general and selective autophagy, which are conserved in most eukaryotes, setting the stage for the broader application to other cellular processes of interest. In the particular application to autophagy-related processes, we uncovered and validated new autophagy and autophagy-related processes, expanded known autophagy processes with new components, integrated known non-autophagic processes with autophagy and predict other unexplored connections.

  1. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  2. The genus Scrophularia: a source of iridoids and terpenoids with a diverse biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasdaran, Ardalan; Hamedi, Azadeh

    2017-12-01

    Scrophularia genus (Scrophulariaceae) includes about 350 species commonly known as figwort. Many species of this genus grow wild in nature and have not been cultivated yet. However, some species are in danger of extinction. This paper reviews the chemical compounds, biological activities and the ethnopharmacology of some Scrophularia species. All information was obtained through reported data on bibliographic database such as Scopus, United States National Agricultural Library, Biological Abstracts, EMBASE, PubMed, MedlinePlus, PubChem and Springer Link (1934-2017). The information in different Pharmacopoeias on this genus was also gathered from 1957 to 2007. The structures of 204 compounds and their biological activity were presented in the manuscript: glycoside esters, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoids are the most common compounds in this genus. Among them, scropolioside like iridoids have shown potential for anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and wound healing activity. Among the less frequently isolated compounds, resin glycosides such as crypthophilic acids have shown potent antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. The Scrophularia genus seems to be a rich source of iridoids and terpenoids, but isolation and identification of its alkaloids have been a neglected area of scientific study. The diverse chemical compounds and biological activities of this genus will motivate further investigation on Scrophularia genus as a source of new therapeutic medications.

  3. Binding of ferric ions is essential for the biological activity of glycine-extended gastrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, G.S.; Pannequin, J.; Hollande, F.; Shulkes, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Non-amidated gastrins, such as glycine-extended gastrin17 (Ggly), are now known to be biologically active. Ggly stimulates cell proliferation and migration, and was recently shown to bind two ferric ions with high affinity. The objective of the present work was to define the structure of Ggly for the first time, and to investigate the role of ferric ions in biological activity. Methods: The structure of Ggly, and the identity of the ammo acids that act as ferric ion ligands, were determined by NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. The effect on the gastric epithelial cell line IMGE-5 of Ggly fragments, and of Ggy mutants with some or all of the five consecutive glutamate residues replaced by alanine, was measured in terms of cell proliferation, cell migration and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Results: Ggly adopts a well-defined loop stabilised by hydrophobic interactions between Leu5, Tyrl2, Trp 14 and Phe17. Studies with Ggly fragments indicated that ferric ions bind via the pentaglutamate sequence, which is necessary but not sufficient for full activity Selective replacement of some or all of the glutamates results in a reduction in ferric ion binding, and complete loss of biological activity. Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that ferric ion binding is necessary for biological activity

  4. Designing and testing a classroom curriculum to teach preschoolers about the biology of physical activity: The respiration system as an underlying biological causal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tracy S.

    The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of oxytocin analogues containing unnatural amino acids in position 9: structure activity study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Magafa, V.; Borovičková, Lenka; Slaninová, Jiřina; Cordopatis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 5 (2010), s. 1549-1559 ISSN 0939-4451 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : oxytocin antagonists * position 9 * unnatural amino acids * biological activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.106, year: 2010

  6. Comparative SPR study on the effect of nanomaterials on the biological activity of adsorbed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Q.; Chen, Y.; Hong, J.; Chen, H.; Ding, X.; Yin, Y.; Koh, K.; Lee, J.

    2012-01-01

    Bioactivity of proteins is evaluated to test the adverse effects of nanoparticles interjected into biological systems. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy detects binding affinity that is normally related to biological activity. Utilizing SPR spectroscopy, a concise testing matrix is established by investigating the adsorption level of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA on the surface covered with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA); magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), respectively. The immunoactivity of BSA on MNPs and SWCNT decreased by 18 % and 5 %, respectively, compared to that on the gold film modified with MUA. This indicates that MNPs cause a considerable loss of biological activity of adsorbed protein. This effect can be utilized for practical applications on detailed biophysical research and nanotoxicity studies. (author)

  7. Biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun-Woo Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the phylum Echinodermata, commonly known as echinoderms, are exclusively marine invertebrates. Among the Echinodermata, sea cucumber belongs to the family Holothuroidea. The sea cucumber Stichopus (Apostichous japonicus (Selenka is an invertebrate animal inhabiting the coastal sea around Korean, Japan, China, and Russia. Sea cucumber has a significant commercial value, because it contains valuable nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. They possess a number of distinctive biologically and pharmacologically important compounds. In particular, the body wall of sea cucumber is a major edible part. It consists of peptide, collagen, gelatin, polysaccharide, and saponin, which possess several biological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-coagulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, the regenerative capacity of sea cucumber makes it a medically important organism. This review presents the various biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber S. japonicus.

  8. An insight into the biological activities of heterocyclic-fatty acid hybrid molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venepally, Vijayendar; Reddy Jala, Ram Chandra

    2017-12-01

    Heterocyclic compounds are the interesting core structures for the development of new bioactive compounds. Fatty acids are derived from renewable raw materials and exhibit various biological activities. Several researchers are amalgamating these two bioactive components to yield bioactive hybrid molecules with some desirable features. Heterocyclic-fatty acid hybrid derivatives are a new class of heterocyclic compounds with a broad range of biological activities and significance in the field of medicinal chemistry. Over the last few years, many research articles emphasized the significance of heterocyclic-fatty acid hybrid derivatives. The present review article focuses the developments in designing and biological evaluation of heterocyclic-fatty acid hybrid molecules. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. On the possibility of multiple utilization of Bowen's Kale for neutron activation analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, V.M.; Lazarova, M.S.; Mihajlov, M.I.; Apostolov, D.

    1977-01-01

    The results of investigations related to the multiple utilization of Bowen's Kale in developing neutron-activation methods for determining microelements in biological materials carried out in recent years are presented. Bowen's Kale might be used as: (1) experimental material in the development of a method and its verification, i.e. as a test for biological materials; (2) a material where experimental conditions might be optimized; (3) a material for investigating the accuracy, reproducibility and the limit of proof at experimental conditions already defined; (4) a monitor; (5) a multielement volume reference standard for a number of microelements during their simultaneous determination and (6) a standard for verifying the authenticity of the results obtained. In this manner, a reliable criterion for comparison of the potentialities, the accuracy, reproducibility, the limits of proof and the authenticity of the neutron-activation methods of determining microelements in biological materials is introduced. (author)

  10. Introduction to the Symposium "Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    The broad aim of this symposium and set of associated papers is to motivate the use of inquiry-based, active-learning teaching techniques in undergraduate quantitative biology courses. Practical information, resources, and ready-to-use classroom exercises relevant to physicists, mathematicians, biologists, and engineers are presented. These resources can be used to address the lack of preparation of college students in STEM fields entering the workforce by providing experience working on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary problems in mathematical biology in a group setting. Such approaches can also indirectly help attract and retain under-represented students who benefit the most from "non-traditional" learning styles and strategies, including inquiry-based, collaborative, and active learning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Active Learning Not Associated with Student Learning in a Random Sample of College Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. M.; Leonard, M. J.; Colgrove, C. A.; Kalinowski, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning. PMID:22135373

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of γ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine, a naturally occurring organosulfur compound from garlic, by Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Yu; Lo, Huei-Fen; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Lin, Min-Guan; Lin, Long-Liu; Chi, Meng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    In the practical application of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (BlGGT), we describe a straightforward enzymatic synthesis of γ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine (GSAC), a naturally occurring organosulfur compound found in garlic, based on a transpeptidation reaction involving glutamine as the γ-glutamyl donor and S-allyl-L-cysteine as the acceptor. With the help of thin layer chromatography technique and computer-assisted image analysis, we performed the quantitative determination of GSAC. The optimum conditions for a biocatalyzed synthesis of GSAC were 200 mM glutamine, 200 mM S-allyl-L-cysteine, 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0), and BlGGT at a final concentration of 1.0 U/mL. After a 15-h incubation of the reaction mixture at 60 °C, the GSAC yield for the free and immobilized enzymes was 19.3% and 18.3%, respectively. The enzymatic synthesis of GSAC was repeated under optimal conditions at 1-mmol preparative level. The reaction products together with the commercially available GSAC were further subjected to an ESI-MS/MS analysis. A significant signal with m/z of 291.1 and the protonated fragments at m/z of 73.0, 130.1, 145.0, and 162.1 were observed in the positive ESI-MS/MS spectrum, which is consistent with those of the standard compound. These results confirm the successful synthesis of GSAC from glutamine and S-allyl-L-cysteine by BlGGT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PMS2 endonuclease activity has distinct biological functions and is essential for genome maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Johanna M M; Roa, Sergio; Werling, Uwe; Liu, Yiyong; Genschel, Jochen; Hou, Harry; Sellers, Rani S; Modrich, Paul; Scharff, Matthew D; Edelmann, Winfried

    2010-07-27

    The DNA mismatch repair protein PMS2 was recently found to encode a novel endonuclease activity. To determine the biological functions of this activity in mammals, we generated endonuclease-deficient Pms2E702K knock-in mice. Pms2EK/EK mice displayed increased genomic mutation rates and a strong cancer predisposition. In addition, class switch recombination, but not somatic hypermutation, was impaired in Pms2EK/EK B cells, indicating a specific role in Ig diversity. In contrast to Pms2-/- mice, Pms2EK/EK male mice were fertile, indicating that this activity is dispensable in spermatogenesis. Therefore, the PMS2 endonuclease activity has distinct biological functions and is essential for genome maintenance and tumor suppression.

  14. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Bun Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored...... thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid...... structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-atocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid...

  15. Biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant) of fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant) of fractions and methanolic extract of Philonotis hastate (Duby Wijk & MargaDant). ... The fractions and methanolic extract exhibited moderate antioxidant potentials with various models. The flavonoid contents of the methanol extract and fractions ranged between 1.70 ...

  16. In vitro biological activity of tannins from Acacia and other tree fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate impact of tannins on in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters as well as relationships between concentration and in vitro biological activity of tannins present in tree fruits. Dry and mature fruits of known phenolic content harvested from Acacia nilotica, A. erubescens, A. erioloba, ...

  17. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    OpenAIRE

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-01-01

    Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  18. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  19. Late-stage diversification of biologically active pyridazinones via a direct C-H functionalization strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fan, Zhoulong; Geng, Kaijun; Xu, Youjun; Zhang, Ao

    2015-01-14

    Divergent C-H functionalization reactions (arylation, carboxylation, olefination, thiolation, acetoxylation, halogenation, naphthylation) using a pyridazinone moiety as an internal directing group were successfully established. This approach offers a late-stage, ortho-selective diversification of a biologically active pyridazinone scaffold. Seven series of novel pyridazinone analogues were synthesized conveniently as the synthetic precursors of potential sortase A (SrtA) inhibitors.

  20. Beacon Editor: Capturing Signal Transduction Pathways Using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation Activity Flow Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmarakeby, Haitham; Arefiyan, Mostafa; Myers, Elijah; Li, Song; Grene, Ruth; Heath, Lenwood S

    2017-12-01

    The Beacon Editor is a cross-platform desktop application for the creation and modification of signal transduction pathways using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation Activity Flow (SBGN-AF) language. Prompted by biologists' requests for enhancements, the Beacon Editor includes numerous powerful features for the benefit of creation and presentation.

  1. Potential interferences inherent in neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornells, R.; Hoste, J.; Versieck, J.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of how neutron-activation analysis for trace elements in biological matrices can be jeopardized by radiation damage, by the impurities present in the packing material or by nuclear interferences of major elements. Systematic errors during the counting process and the quantitative interpretation of the γ-ray spectra should not be disregarded. (author)

  2. Neutron-Activation Analysis of Biological Material with High Radiation Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1966-09-15

    A method has been developed for the chemical separation and subsequent gamma-spectrometric analysis of the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the rare earths, chromium, hafnium, lanthanum, manganese, phosphorus, scandium and silver in neutron-activated biological material. The separation steps, being fully automatic, are based on a combination of ion-exchange and partition chromatography and require 40 min.

  3. Neutron-Activation Analysis of Biological Material with High Radiation Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.

    1966-09-01

    A method has been developed for the chemical separation and subsequent gamma-spectrometric analysis of the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the rare earths, chromium, hafnium, lanthanum, manganese, phosphorus, scandium and silver in neutron-activated biological material. The separation steps, being fully automatic, are based on a combination of ion-exchange and partition chromatography and require 40 min

  4. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the ...

  5. Tuning the sensitivity of lanthanide-activated NIR nanothermometers in the biological windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortelletti, P.; Skripka, A.; Facciotti, C.; Pedroni, M.; Caputo, G.; Pinna, N.; Quintanilla, M.; Benayas, A.; Vetrone, F.; Speghini, A.

    2018-01-01

    Lanthanide-activated SrF2 nanoparticles with a multishell architecture were investigated as optical thermometers in the biological windows. A ratiometric approach based on the relative changes in the intensities of different lanthanide (Nd3+ and Yb3+) NIR emissions was applied to investigate the

  6. A Review of the Composition of the Essential Oils and Biological Activities of Angelica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Sowndhararajan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of Angelica species have been used in traditional systems of medicine to treat many ailments. Especially, essential oils (EOs from the Angelica species have been used for the treatment of various health problems, including malaria, gynecological diseases, fever, anemia, and arthritis. EOs are complex mixtures of low molecular weight compounds, especially terpenoids and their oxygenated compounds. These components deliver specific fragrance and biological properties to essential oils. In this review, we summarized the chemical composition and biological activities of EOs from different species of Angelica. For this purpose, a literature search was carried out to obtain information about the EOs of Angelica species and their bioactivities from electronic databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley, Springer, ACS, Google, and other journal publications. There has been a lot of variation in the EO composition among different Angelica species. EOs from Angelica species were reported for different kinds of biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immunotoxic, and insecticidal activities. The present review is an attempt to consolidate the available data for different Angelica species on the basis of major constituents in the EOs and their biological activities.

  7. Emergy Evaluations of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Six Biologically Active Elements and Two Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimates of the emergy carried by the flows of biologically active elements (BAE) and compounds are needed to accurately evaluate the near and far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformities and specific emergies of these elements and of their different chemical sp...

  8. Determination of trace elements in biological material by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Teherani, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen trace elements in biological materials [grass (Imperata cylindrica), mimosa plant (Mimosa pudica), rice] by neutron activation method were determined. In the comparative analysis the content of the same element was different in each material, although they were collected at the same place and the same sampling method was applied. (author) 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  9. Metal-containing Complexes of Lactams, Imidazoles, and Benzimidazoles and Their Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukalenko, S. S.; Bovykin, B. A.; Shestakova, S. I.; Omel'chenko, A. M.

    1985-07-01

    The results of the latest investigations of the problem of the synthesis of metal-containing complexes of lactams, imidazoles, and benzimidazoles, their structure, and their stability in solutions are surveyed. Some data on their biological activity (pesticide and pharmacological) and the mechanism of their physiological action are presented. The bibliography includes 190 references.

  10. Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranga Rao Ambati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β, β′-carotene-4,4′-dione is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications.

  11. Natural occurrence, biological activities and synthesis of eight-, nine-, and eleven-membered ring lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. C. Ferraz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural occurrence, biological activities and synthetic approaches to natural eight-, nine-, and eleven-membered lactones is reviewed. These medium ring lactones are grouped according to ring size, and their syntheses are discussed. The structures of some natural products early identified as medium-ring lactones were revised after total synthesis.

  12. Application of Biologically Activated Brown Coal in Cu(II Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Beňová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters using different adsorbents is currently of great interest. Adsorption of cooper ions from aqueous solutions on biologically activated brown coal was investigated. Four families of adsorbents were prepared from brown coal by microorganisms activity. There were used soi microfungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma viride. The equilibrium of the adsorption process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum capacity of the sorbents was determined.

  13. Optically and biologically active mussel protein-coated double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Chae; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Kim, Jin Hee; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2011-12-02

    A method of dispersing strongly bundled double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) via a homogeneous coating of mussel protein in an aqueous solution is presented. Optical activity, mechanical strength, as well as electrical conductivity coming from the nanotubes and the versatile biological activity from the mussel protein make mussel-coated DWNTs promising as a multifunctional scaffold and for anti-fouling materials. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The Role of Biologically Active Ingredients from Natural Drug Treatments for Arrhythmias in Different Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie; Hu, Dan; Song, Xiaoli; Han, Tao; Gao, Yonghong; Xing, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    Arrhythmia is a disease that is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the heart rate or rhythm. It is the major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although several antiarrhythmic drugs have been used in clinic for decades, their application is often limited by their adverse effects. As a result, natural drugs, which have fewer side effects, are now being used to treat arrhythmias. We searched for all articles on the role of biologically active ingredients from natural drug t...

  15. Screening vaccine formulations for biological activity using fresh human whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Brookes, RH; Hakimi, J; Ha, Y; Aboutorabian, S; Ausar, SF; Hasija, M; Smith, SG; Todryk, SM; Dockrell, HM; Rahman, N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relevant biological activity of any pharmaceutical formulation destined for human use is crucial. For vaccine-based formulations, activity must reflect the expected immune response, while for non-vaccine therapeutic agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, a lack of immune response to the formulation is desired. During early formulation development, various biochemical and biophysical characteristics can be monitored in a high-throughput screening (HTS) format. However, it rem...

  16. Influence of Technological Processes on Biologically Active Compounds of Produced Grapes Juices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Strohalm, J.; Novotná, P.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Lefnerová, D.; Landfeld, A.; Híc, P.; Tománková, E.; Veverka, J.; Houška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 421-429 ISSN 1935-5130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1210258; GA MZe QI91B094 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Grapevine juices * Thermomaceration * Biologically active compounds * Antioxidative capacity * Total polyphenols * Antimutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.576, year: 2016

  17. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Anthranilic(Isophthalic) Acid Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Tao; YU Guan-ping; LIU Peng-fei; XIONG Li-xia; YU Shu-jing; LI Zheng-ming

    2012-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign insecticides with high activity,low toxicity and low resistance,a series of novel anthranilic(isophthalic) acid esters was designed and synthesized based on the structure of ryanodine modulating agent.All the compounds were characterized by 1H NMR spectra,elemental analysis or high resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS).The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicate that some of the title compounds exhibit certain but unremarkable insecticidal activity against Mythimna separata Walker at 200 mg/L and fungicidal activities against five funguses at 50 mg/L.

  18. Proximate composition, phytochemical screening, GC-MS studies of biologically active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Isahq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate composition, minerals analysis, phytochemical screening, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS studies of active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica (C. indica leaves, stems, and seeds. Methods: Standard qualitative protocols of phytochemical screening were accomplished for the identification of biologically active phytochemicals. Minerals in plant samples were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The resins of C. indica were analyzed for medicinally active cannabinoid compounds by GC-MS. The sample for GC-MS study was mixed with small quantity of n-hexane and 30 mL of acetonitrile solution for the identification of cannabinoids. Agar well diffusion method was used for antibacterial activity. For antifungal activity, the tested fungal strains were sub-cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar at 28 °C. Results: Mineral analysis revealed the presence of sodium, potassium, magnesium and some other minerals in all parts of C. indica. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenoids. C. indica divulged wide spectrum of antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. The extracts of plant leaves, seeds and stems showed significant antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus oryzae. The biologically active cannabinoids of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (25.040% and cannabidiol (resorcinol, 2-p-mentha-1,8-dien-4-yl-5-pentyl (50.077% were found in Cannabis resin in high percentage. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggested that the existence of biologically active remedial cannabinoids in elevated concentrations and antimicrobial bioassays of C. indica make it a treasured source to be used in herbal preparation for various ailments.

  19. The importance of extremophile cyanobacteria in the production of biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobac-Čik Aleksandra V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to endure extreme conditions, terrestrial cyanobacteria belong to a group of organisms known as "extremophiles". Research so far has shown that these organisms posses a great capacity for producing biologically active compounds (BAC. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of 21 cyanobacterial strains belonging to Anabaena and Nostoc genera, previously isolated from different soil types and water resources in Serbia, were evaluated. In general, larger number of cyanobacterial strains showed antifungal activity. In contrast to Nostoc, Anabaena strains showed greater diversity of antibacterial activity (mean value of percentages of sensitive targeted bacterial strains 3% and 25.9% respectively. Larger number of targeted fungi was sensitive to cultural liquid extract (CL, while crude cell extract (CE affected more bacterial strains. According to this investigation, the higher biological activity of terrestrial strains as representatives of extremophiles may present them as significant BAC producers. This kind of investigation creates very general view of cyanobacterial possibility to produce biologically active compounds but it points out the necessity of exploring terrestrial cyanobacterial extremophiles as potentially excellent sources of these substances and reveals the most prospective strains for further investigations.

  20. Spectral parameters and biological activity of macromolecular compounds of humic etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zykova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials and methods. 18 native humic acids (HAs were received from nine representative types of peat of the Tomsk region. Two extraction methods were used: sodium hydroxide and sodium pyrophosphate. Molecular structure parameters were investigated by IR-spectroscopy. The assessement of qualitative and quantitative features of the IR-spectra of 18 different humic acids was made. When HAs with mouse macrophages were cultured their ability to influence the NO-stimulation was determined. Thus, the biological activity of HAs and its dependence on the parameters of the molecular structure were studied.Results. The results of infrared spectroscopy showed that the HAs of upland types of peat contain more carbonyl, carboxyl, and ester groups, and HAs of lowland types of peat contain more aromatic carbon, phenolic and alcoholic hydroxyl, ether and carbohydrate fragments. The results of biological activity showed that HAs from upland types of peat induce the formation of nitrogen oxide, wherein the cell activation decreases with HAs obtained by alkali. All types of HAs from lowland types of peat contain an admixture of endotoxin. Some HAs obtained by sodium pyrophosphate have higher immunotropic activity; the HAs can cause antigen-specific stimulation of cells. The activity of HAs does not depend on endotoxin admixture. The results of molecular spectroscopy showed that the most biologically active HAs have higher aromaticity and higher concentration of oxygen-containing functional groups. This result can be used as a marker factor in the standardization of HAs. 

  1. Determination of mercury concentration in biological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, L.; Gras, N.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain a confident analytical method for measuring the mercury concentration in biological materials. Destructive neutron activation analysis was used for this purpose and a radiochemical separation method was studied to isolate the mercury from its main interferences: sodium and phosphorus, because these elements in biological materials are in high concentrations. The method developed was based on the copper amalgamation under controlled conditions. Yield and reproductibility studies were performed using 203 Hg as radioactive tracer. Finally, food samples of regular consumption were analyzed and the results were compared with those recommended by FAO/WHO. (Author)

  2. High sensitivity neutron activation analysis of environmental and biological standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.; Fleming, R.F.; Zeisler, R.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive method with unique capabilities for the analysis of environmental and biological samples. Since it is based upon the nuclear properties of the elements, it does not suffer from many of the chemical effects that plague other methods of analysis. Analyses can be performed either with no chemical treatment of the sample (instrumentally), or with separations of the elements of interest after neutron irradiation (radiochemically). Typical examples of both types of analysis are discussed, and data obtained for a number of environmental and biological SRMs are presented. (author)

  3. Occurrence, biological activities and 13C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson C. do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae. Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled 13C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts.

  4. Occurrence, biological activities and 13C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Jeferson C. do; Paula, Vanderlucia F. de; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae). Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled 13 C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts. (author)

  5. Occurrence, biological activities and {sup 13}C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Jeferson C. do; Paula, Vanderlucia F. de [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Exatas; David, Jorge M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; David, Juceni P., E-mail: jmdavid@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae). Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled {sup 13}C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts. (author)

  6. Influence of anoxic sensitizers on the radiation damage in biologically active DNA in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, M.V.M.; Loman, H.

    1982-01-01

    The competition between biologically active single-stranded phiX174 DNA and the anoxic radiosensitizers metronidazole, misonidazole, paranitroacetophenone or nifuroxime for OH radicals is studied. The results are compared with experiments in which the protection of the DNA by t-butanol is determined. Also the effects of the sensitizers on the chemical nature of the damage (immediate and potential break, immediate and potential base damage) is studied. It is found that in diluted aqueous solutions of DNA these radiosensitizers do not sensitize with respect to the biological inactivation. The only effect observed is a shift from potential to immediate breaks with misonidazole and also nifuroxime. (author)

  7. The biological activities and chemical composition of Pereskia species (Cactaceae)--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Scio, Elita

    2014-09-01

    The exploration of nature as a source of sustainable, novel bioactive substances continues to grow as natural products play a significant role in the search for new therapeutic and agricultural agents. In this context, plants of the genus Pereskia (Cactaceae) have been studied for their biological activities, and are evolving as an interesting subject in the search for new, bioactive compounds. These species are commonly used as human foodstuffs and in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. This review focuses on the bioactivity and chemical composition of the genus Pereskia, and aims to stimulate further studies on the chemistry and biological potential of the genus.

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis for the certification of biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambulkar, M.N.; Chutke, N.L.; Garg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    A multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method by short and long irradiation has been employed for the determination of 22 minor and trace constituents in two proposed Standard Reference Materials P-RBF and P-WBF from Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques, Czechoslovakia. Also some biological standards such as Bowen's Kale, Cabbage leaves (Poland) including wheat and rice flour samples of local origin were analysed. It is suggested that INAA is an ideal method for the certification of reference materials of biological matrices. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  9. Influence of Ferrocene and Transition Metals on the Biological Activities of Schiff Bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeq, A.; Fatesh, S.A.; Ibrahim, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    A series of organic and organometallic Schiff bases bearing phenylferrocene and their six transition metal complexes have been prepared and tested for their potential biological applications by using antifungal, antibacterial, antitumor activities, toxicity testing against the brine shrimp and DNA damage analysis. The copper and cobalt complexes of organic Schiff base showed significant antibacterial activity. The antifungal activities tested against six fungal strains revealed that N-(4-hydroxybenzylidene) aniline (A5) had the highest antifungal activity. Most of these compounds showed cytotoxic activity against the brine shrimp. The results of showed that these compounds had significant antitumor activity, up to 97% in the case of N-(4-chlorobenzylidene) aniline (A3). Only two compounds N-(2-hydroxy benzylidene) 4-ferrocenylaniline (F2) and Nickel (II) complex of organic Schiff base (CO/sub 2/) had DNA damaging activity at 20mg/ml concentration. (author)

  10. Review of the genus Ipomoea: traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Meira

    Full Text Available Approximately 600-700 species of Ipomoea, Convolvulaceae, are found throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Several of those species have been used as ornamental plants, food, medicines or in religious ritual. The present work reviews the traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities of Ipomoea species and illustrates the potential of the genus as a source of therapeutic agents. These species are used in different parts of the world for the treatment of several diseases, such as, diabetes, hypertension, dysentery, constipation, fatigue, arthritis, rheumatism, hydrocephaly, meningitis, kidney ailments and inflammations. Some of these species showed antimicrobial, analgesic, spasmolitic, spasmogenic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, psychotomimetic and anticancer activities. Alkaloids, phenolics compounds and glycolipids are the most common biologically active constituents from these plant extracts.

  11. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Georges

    2010-08-01

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 °C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins.

  13. NMR spectroscopy, Hammett correlations and biological activity of some Schiff bases derived from piperonal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echevarria, Aurea; Giesbrecht, Astrea

    1999-01-01

    A series of eleven Schiff Bases have been synthesized. They were obtained by condensation of piperonal (3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde) with the corresponding aromatic primary amines. Their 1 H and 13 C-NMR spectra have been obtained and the Hammett correlations including chemical shifts and the substituent constants (σ p , σR e σI) were studied. Linear and bilinear significant correlations were observed for iminic carbon (C-α) and C-1 ' , showing a more significant resonance effect on chemical shifts. The chemical shifts for C-4 ' were highly affected by substituent effects, especially for halogens in the expected direction. Their biological activity against microorganisms has also been measured and significant activity was showed against Epidermophyton floccosum. The biological activity did not give a reasonable relationship with electronic effects. (author)

  14. Evaluating the biological activity of oil-polluted soils using a complex index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirov, R. R.; Kireeva, N. A.; Kabirov, T. R.; Dubovik, I. Ye.; Yakupova, A. B.; Safiullina, L. M.

    2012-02-01

    A complex index characterizing the biological activity of soils (BAS) is suggested. It is based on an estimate of the level of activity of catalase; the number of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, microscopic fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria; and the degree of development of higher plants and insects in the studied soil. The data on using the BAS coefficient for evaluating the efficiency of rehabilitation measures for oil-polluted soils are given. Such measures included introducing the following biological preparations: Lenoil based on a natural consortium of microorganisms Bacillus brevis and Arthrobacter sp.; the Azolen biofertilizer with complex action based on Azotobacter vinelandii; the Belvitamil biopreparation, which is the active silt of pulp and paper production; and a ready-mixed industrial association of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that contains hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms of the Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Candida, Desulfovibrio, and Pseudomonas genera.

  15. Isolation and characterization of biologically active venom protein from sea snake Enhydrina schistosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damotharan, Palani; Veeruraj, Anguchamy; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2015-03-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the isolation and characterization of biological and biochemical active venom protein from sea snake, Enhydrina schistosa. The highest purification peaks in ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column were obtained for fraction numbers 39-49 when eluted with 0.35-0.45 M NaCl. Eighty per cent purity was obtained in the final stage of purification, and a single protein band of about 44 kDa was visualized in SDS-polyacrylamide gel under reducing condition. Purified venom protein expressed as haemolytic, cytotoxicity and proteolytic activities with lethal concentration (LC50 ) at 2.0 μg/mL. Venom protein exhibits enzymatic activity and hydrolyzed casein and gelatin. Gelatinolytic activity was optimal at pH 5-9. In conclusion, the present results suggested that the sea snake venom might be feasible sources for biologically active substances. Thus, this low molecular weight component of the venom protein could be used in potentially serve biological and pharmaceutical aspects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Yellow-Cedar, Callitropsis (Chamaecyparis) nootkatensis, Secondary Metabolites, Biological Activities, and Chemical Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Joseph J; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P

    2018-05-01

    Yellow-cedar, Callitropsis nootkatensis, is prevalent in coastal forests of southeast Alaska, western Canada, and inland forests along the Cascades to northern California, USA. These trees have few microbial or animal pests, attributable in part to the distinct groups of biologically active secondary metabolites their tissues store for chemical defense. Here we summarize the new yellow-cedar compounds identified and their biological activities, plus new or expanded activities for tissues, extracts, essential oils and previously known compounds since the last review more than 40 years ago. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the most abundant compounds in foliage, while heartwood contains substantial quantities of oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with one or more tropolones. Diterpenes occur in foliage and bark, whereas condensed tannins have been isolated from inner bark. Biological activities expressed by one or more compounds in these groups include fungicide, bactericide, sporicide, acaricide, insecticide, general cytotoxicity, antioxidant and human anticancer. The diversity of organisms impacted by whole tissues, essential oils, extracts, or individual compounds now encompasses ticks, fleas, termites, ants, mosquitoes, bacteria, a water mold, fungi and browsing animals. Nootkatone, is a heartwood component with sufficient activity against arthropods to warrant research focused toward potential development as a commercial repellent and biopesticide for ticks, mosquitoes and possibly other arthropods that vector human and animal pathogens.

  17. Toxicity of Biologically Active Peptides and Future Safety Aspects: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlullah; Niaz, Kamal; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-02-18

    Peptides are fragments of proteins with significant biological activities. These peptides are encoded in the protein sequence. Initially, such peptides are inactive in their parental form, unless proteolytic enzymes are released. These peptides then exhibit various functions and play a therapeutic role in the body. Besides the therapeutic and physiological activities of peptides, the main purpose of this study was to highlight the safety aspects of peptides. We performed an organized search of available literature using PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, EMBASE, Reaxys and Scopus databases. All the relevant citations including research and review articles about the toxicity of biologically active peptides were evaluated and gathered in this study. Biological peptides are widely used in the daily routine ranging from food production to the cosmetics industry and also they have a beneficial role in the treatment and prevention of different diseases. These peptides are manufactured by both chemical and biotechnological techniques, which show negligible toxicity, however, some naturally occurring peptides and enzymes may induce high toxicity. Depending upon the demand and expected use in the food or pharmaceutical industry, we need different approaches to acertain the safety of these peptides preferentially through in silico methods. Intestinal wall disruption, erythrocytes and lymphocytes toxicity, free radical production, enzymopathic and immunopathic tissue damage and cytotoxicity due to the consumption of peptides are the main problems in the biological system that lead to various complicated disorders. Therefore, before considering biologically active peptides for food production and for therapeutic purpose, it is first necessary to evaluate the immunogenicity and toxicities of peptides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Physical Activity, Physical Performance, and Biological Markers of Health among Sedentary Older Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity is associated with better physical health, possibly by changing biological markers of health such as waist circumference and inflammation, but these relationships are unclear and even less understood among older Latinos—a group with high rates of sedentary lifestyle. Methods. Participants were 120 sedentary older Latino adults from senior centers. Community-partnered research methods were used to recruit participants. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein and metabolic markers of health (waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose, physical activity (Yale physical activity survey, and physical performance (short physical performance NIA battery were measured at baseline and 6-month followup. Results. Eighty percent of the sample was female. In final adjusted cross-sectional models, better physical activity indices were associated with faster gait speed (P<0.05. In adjusted longitudinal analyses, change in self-reported physical activity level correlated inversely with change in CRP (β=-0.05; P=0.03 and change in waist circumference (β=-0.16; P=0.02. Biological markers of health did not mediate the relationship between physical activity and physical performance. Conclusion. In this community-partnered study, higher physical activity was associated with better physical performance in cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analysis, increased physical activity was associated with improvements in some metabolic and inflammatory markers of health.

  19. The Importance of Spatiotemporal Information in Biological Motion Perception: White Noise Presented with a Step-like Motion Activates the Biological Motion Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Akiko; Callan, Daniel; Ando, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Humans can easily recognize the motion of living creatures using only a handful of point-lights that describe the motion of the main joints (biological motion perception). This special ability to perceive the motion of animate objects signifies the importance of the spatiotemporal information in perceiving biological motion. The posterior STS (pSTS) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) region have been established by many functional neuroimaging studies as a locus for biological motion perception. Because listening to a walking human also activates the pSTS/pMTG region, the region has been proposed to be supramodal in nature. In this study, we investigated whether the spatiotemporal information from simple auditory stimuli is sufficient to activate this biological motion area. We compared spatially moving white noise, having a running-like tempo that was consistent with biological motion, with stationary white noise. The moving-minus-stationary contrast showed significant differences in activation of the pSTS/pMTG region. Our results suggest that the spatiotemporal information of the auditory stimuli is sufficient to activate the biological motion area.

  20. Effect of biological and chemical preparations on peroxidase activity in leaves of tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Kolomiets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In terms of treating tomato variety Chaika with chemical preparations with active substances if aluminum phosphate, 570 g/l + phosphorous acid 80 g/,l and mankotseb in concentration of 640 g/kg, the maximum increase in peroxidase activity in leaves of plants was observed in12 hours. In terms of use of biological preparations based on living cells Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum its activity was maximum in 24 hours and ranged from 77.7 to 112.7 un.mg-1•s-1

  1. [Study on influence between activated carbon property and immobilized biological activated carbon purification effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-zhi; Li, Wei-guang; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Ding, Chi; Ma, Xiao-na; Qu, Yan-ming

    2006-10-01

    By means of immobilizing five kinds of activated carbon, we studied the influence between the chief activated carbon property items and immobilized bioactivated carbon (IBAC) purification effect with the correlation analysis. The result shows that the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.7 include molasses, abrasion number, hardness, tannin, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter; the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.5 include pH, iodine, butane and tetrachloride. In succession, the partial correlation analysis shows that activated carbon property items mostly influencing on IBAC purification effect include molasses, hardness, abrasion number, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter. The causation of these property items bringing influence on IBAC purification is that the activated carbon holes distribution (representative activated carbon property item is molasses) provides inhabitable location and adjust food for the dominance bacteria; the mechanical resist-crash property of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: abrasion number and hardness) have influence on the stability of biofilm; and the particle diameter size and distribution of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter) can directly affect the force of water in IBAC filter bed, which brings influence on the dominance bacteria immobilizing on activated carbon.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  4. Biological treatment of textile mill wastewater in the. presence of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaquat, F.; Hassan, M.; Mahboob, S.; Rehman, A.; Liaquat, S.; Khalid, Z.M.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to find out effectiveness of biological treatment for the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the textile processing industrial wastewater in the absence and presence of granular activated carbon (GAC) in shake flask experiment. To check the pollution level, physio-chemical analysis of effluent from Amtex industry (Faisalabad) was carried out. The outlet effluent contained high value of COD (1100 mg/l), BOD (309 mg/l) with pH 9.2, electrical conductivity (Ec) 3.7 mS/m, total dissolved solids (TDS) (2640 mg/l), total solids (TS) (3060 mg/l), total suspended solids (TSS) (420 19/l) and phenol (.34 mg/l). After initial period of activated sludge adaptation to wastewater, shake flask batch cultures (with and without activated carbon) were operated on lab scale. The COD and BOD were noted after very 12 hours for 3 days. The maximum reduction in COD (82%) and BOD (90%) was observed biological treatment in presence of activated carbon at retention time of 72 hours. (author)

  5. Correlation between biological activity and electron transferring of bovine liver catalase: Osmolytes effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, H. Sepasi; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A.; Ghourchian, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Proline increases ET in Bovine Liver Catalase (BLC) whereas histidine decreases it. • Proline also increased the biological activity, whereas histidine decreased it. • Electron transferring and biological activity for BLC are directly correlated. • Proline causes favorable ET for BLC shown by positive E 1/2 (E°′) and negative ΔG. • Histidine makes ET unfavorable for BLC, manifested by E 1/2 (E°′) 0. -- Abstract: Catalase is a crucial antioxidant enzyme that protects life against detrimental effects of H 2 O 2 by disproportionating it into water and molecular oxygen. Effect of proline as a compatible and histidine as a non compatible osmolyte on the electron transferring and midpoint potential of catalase has been investigated. Proline increases the midpoint potential (ΔE m > 0), therefore causing the ΔG ET to be less positive and making the electron transfer reaction more facile whereas histidine decreases the E m (ΔE m ET , thereby rendering the electron transfer reaction less efficient. These results indicate the inhibitory effect of histidine evident by a −37% decrease in the cathodic peak current compared to 16% increase in the case of proline indicative of activation. The insight paves the tedious way towards our ultimate goal of elucidating a correlation between biological activity and electron transferring

  6. Screening of some biological activities of Alyssum fulvescens var. fulvescens known as ege madwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay, Cennet; Mammadov, Ramazan

    2017-09-01

    In this research, the phenolic composition, antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of the methanolic extracts obtained from Alyssum fulvescens var. fulvescens aerial parts known as Ege kuduzotu in western Turkey, were firstly investigated. The antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by DPPH, metal chelating, phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene/linoleic acid and ferric reducing power assays. Moreover, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the extract were investigated. The brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) lethality test was used to investigate for the possible cytotoxic activity of the extract. Microdilution broth method was used to study antibacterial potency of extract against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The extract exhibited good biological activities. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the extract were significantly correlated with antioxidant potentials. HPLC analysis showed that chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic in extract tested. The results indicated that the extract of A. fulvescens var. fulvescens may be considered as a potential source of biological agents and in vivo investigations are needed to test the biological effects of A. fulvescens var. fulvescens.

  7. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  8. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by internal micro-electrolysis--coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangle; Liu, Suiqing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Yiliang

    2009-12-01

    Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the combined process of internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption was studied. Internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation served as the pretreatment for the wastewater before biological treatment to reduce the contaminants' toxicity to microbes and improve the biodegradability of wastewater to guarantee the smooth operation of the biological process. Biological treatment was the main body of the whole process which took an unparalleled role in removing COD (chemical oxygen demand). Activated carbon adsorption was adopted as the post-treatment process to further remove the remaining non-biodegradable particles. Results showed that the removal rates of COD and S2- (sulphide ion) by pretreatment were 66.9% and 98.9%, respectively, and the biodegradability, as measured by the ratio of biodegradable COD to initial COD, of the wastewater was greatly improved from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.41 +/- 0.02. The overall removal rate of COD in the wastewater achieved by this combined treatment process was up to 96%, and the effluent COD met the Chinese tertiary discharge standard (GB 8978-1996).

  9. Repurposing High-Throughput Image Assays Enables Biological Activity Prediction for Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simm, Jaak; Klambauer, Günter; Arany, Adam; Steijaert, Marvin; Wegner, Jörg Kurt; Gustin, Emmanuel; Chupakhin, Vladimir; Chong, Yolanda T; Vialard, Jorge; Buijnsters, Peter; Velter, Ingrid; Vapirev, Alexander; Singh, Shantanu; Carpenter, Anne E; Wuyts, Roel; Hochreiter, Sepp; Moreau, Yves; Ceulemans, Hugo

    2018-05-17

    In both academia and the pharmaceutical industry, large-scale assays for drug discovery are expensive and often impractical, particularly for the increasingly important physiologically relevant model systems that require primary cells, organoids, whole organisms, or expensive or rare reagents. We hypothesized that data from a single high-throughput imaging assay can be repurposed to predict the biological activity of compounds in other assays, even those targeting alternate pathways or biological processes. Indeed, quantitative information extracted from a three-channel microscopy-based screen for glucocorticoid receptor translocation was able to predict assay-specific biological activity in two ongoing drug discovery projects. In these projects, repurposing increased hit rates by 50- to 250-fold over that of the initial project assays while increasing the chemical structure diversity of the hits. Our results suggest that data from high-content screens are a rich source of information that can be used to predict and replace customized biological assays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyeon Ryu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  11. Biological regeneration of phenol-loaded activated carbon (up flow system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, M.A.Q.J.; Mirajuddin; Martin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper represents the report on the biological regeneration of totally activated carbon following the experimental studies carried out at the University of Birmingham, U.K. Biological regeneration is one of several methods that may be used to restore the adsorptive capacity of exhausted granular activated carbon. This study deals with in situ biological regeneration on a pilot scale. The principal objective of this research was to ascertain whether biological regeneration of GAC could occur under conditions typical of water treatment. The important parameters which may have the greatest impact on bio regeneration for a given adsorbate were studied. The research investigated the extent of bio regeneration for phenol of concentration 50 mg/l. Bio regeneration in the total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initialing exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated with a mixed culture of bacteria, and lastly the carbon was saturated. In the totally exhausted GAC system, the bio regeneration was enhanced by increasing the duration of regeneration for a fixed initial biomass content of the bioreactor. The regenerated phenol loaded GAC bed had nearly gained its original adsorption after the 5-day period of regeneration. Bacterial counts in the effluents of regenerated GAC columns were significantly more than those of fresh carbon effluents. (author)

  12. Inhibition of biofilm formation, quorum sensing and infection in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by natural products-inspired organosulfur compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel C Cady

    Full Text Available Using a microplate-based screening assay, the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation of several S-substituted cysteine sulfoxides and their corresponding disulfide derivatives were evaluated. From our library of compounds, S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and its breakdown product, diphenyl disulfide, significantly reduced the amount of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa at levels equivalent to the active concentration of 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (NPO (1 mM. Unlike NPO, which is an established inhibitor of bacterial biofilms, our active compounds did not reduce planktonic cell growth and only affected biofilm formation. When used in a Drosophila-based infection model, both S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and diphenyl disulfide significantly reduced the P. aeruginosa recovered 18 h post infection (relative to the control, and were non-lethal to the fly hosts. The possibility that the observed biofilm inhibitory effects were related to quorum sensing inhibition (QSI was investigated using Escherichia coli-based reporters expressing P. aeruginosa lasR or rhIR response proteins, as well as an endogenous P. aeruginosa reporter from the lasI/lasR QS system. Inhibition of quorum sensing by S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was observed in all of the reporter systems tested, whereas diphenyl disulfide did not exhibit QSI in either of the E. coli reporters, and showed very limited inhibition in the P. aeruginosa reporter. Since both compounds inhibit biofilm formation but do not show similar QSI activity, it is concluded that they may be functioning by different pathways. The hypothesis that biofilm inhibition by the two active compounds discovered in this work occurs through QSI is discussed.

  13. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters.

  14. Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Zulane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds. Methods Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and ethanol (EtOH and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa. Results Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 C. ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL. By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50% with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Conclusions Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine.

  15. Supercritical Algal Extracts: A Source of Biologically Active Compounds from Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the potential applicability of the process of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE in the production of algal extracts with the consideration of the process conditions and yields. State of the art in the research on solvent-free isolation of biologically active compounds from the biomass of algae was presented. Various aspects related with the properties of useful compounds found in cells of microalgae and macroalgae were discussed, including their potential applications as the natural components of plant protection products (biostimulants and bioregulators, dietary feed and food supplements, and pharmaceuticals. Analytical methods of determination of the natural compounds derived from algae were discussed. Algal extracts produced by SFE process enable obtaining a solvent-free concentrate of biologically active compounds; however, detailed economic analysis, as well as elaboration of products standardization procedures, is required in order to implement the products in the market.

  16. Traditional Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Biological Activities of Bixa orellana L.: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Araújo Vilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bixa orellana L., popularly known as “urucum,” has been used by indigenous communities in Brazil and other tropical countries for several biological applications, which indicates its potential use as an active ingredient in pharmaceutical products. The aim of this work was to report the main evidence found in the literature, concerning the ethnopharmacology, the biological activity, and the phytochemistry studies related to Bixa orellana L. Therefore, this work comprises a systematic review about the use of Bixa orellana in the American continent and analysis of the data collected. This study shows the well-characterized pharmacological actions that may be considered relevant for the future development of an innovative therapeutic agent.

  17. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  18. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning

    2016-01-01

    the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited...... a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the r......IgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the Ig...

  19. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  20. Insects: an underrepresented resource for the discovery of biologically active natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Seabrooks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature has been the source of life-changing and -saving medications for centuries. Aspirin, penicillin and morphine are prime examples of Nature׳s gifts to medicine. These discoveries catalyzed the field of natural product drug discovery which has mostly focused on plants. However, insects have more than twice the number of species and entomotherapy has been in practice for as long as and often in conjunction with medicinal plants and is an important alternative to modern medicine in many parts of the world. Herein, an overview of current traditional medicinal applications of insects and characterization of isolated biologically active molecules starting from approximately 2010 is presented. Insect natural products reviewed were isolated from ants, bees, wasps, beetles, cockroaches, termites, flies, true bugs, moths and more. Biological activities of these natural products from insects include antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  1. The effect of stereochemistry on the biological activity of natural phytotoxins, fungicides, insecticides and herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Phytotoxins are secondary microbial metabolites that play an essential role in the development of disease symptoms induced by fungi on host plants. Although phytotoxins can cause extensive-and in some cases devastating-damage to agricultural crops, they can also represent an important tool to develop natural herbicides when produced by fungi and plants to inhibit the growth and spread of weeds. An alternative strategy to biologically control parasitic plants is based on the use of plant and fungal metabolites, which stimulate seed germination in the absence of the host plant. Nontoxigenic fungi also produce bioactive metabolites with potential fungicide and insecticide activity, and could be applied for crop protection. All these metabolites represent important tools to develop eco-friendly pesticides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins, seed germination stimulants, fungicides and insecticides, and their stereochemistry. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. South African Helichrysum species: a review of the traditional uses, biological activity and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, A C U; Viljoen, A M; van Heerden, F R

    2008-10-28

    In South Africa, the genus Helichrysum is widely used in traditional medicine. The uses are well documented although renaming of species and the resulting confusing taxonomic nomenclature may cause uncertainty as to which specific species was referred to in some reports. The aim of this paper is to present a collated and coherent overview of the documented traditional uses of Helichrysum species and to update the botanical identity of previously studied species. Databases (Scifinder, ISI Web of Knowledge) and several books were used to collect in information on South African Helichrysum species. The traditional uses, chemistry and biological activity of Helichrysum species have been summarized. It was attempted to give clarity as to exactly which species is refer to in the ethnobotanical literature. Although a large number of ethnopharmacological uses have been documented and the chemistry of the genus has been studied extensively, only a few South African species have been investigated for their biological activity.

  3. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960); Activation biologique du sulfate et son transfert (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author) [French] On examine dans cette etude les stades successifs de la mise en evidence du sulfate actif, son role dans la formation des esters sulfuriques de natures diverses, ainsi que sa participation eventuelle comme intermediaire au cours de la reduction du sulfate. On decrit aussi un procede de preparation du systeme biologique, generateur du sulfate actif et une methode de synthese chimique. (auteur)

  4. The genus Machaerium (Fabaceae): taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Yhiya M; Marzouk, Amani M; Zaghloul, Mona G; Afifi, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Machaerium, in the family Fabaceae, predominantly is a genus of a Neotropical distribution of trees, shrubs, and lianas occurring from southern Mexico to Brazil and northern Argentina and as far as South America. Several Machaerium species are widely used in traditional medicine and are considered to have multiple medicinal properties. This review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities of plants in the genus Machaerium.

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials by Bremsstrahlung measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1986-12-01

    The determination of phosphorus in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation via the reaction 31 P (n,γ) 32 P is described. The Bremsstrahlung produced by 32 P is measured in a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The samples are measured within the polyethylene irradiation container with no changes between irradiation and measurement. The sources of error were studied and the proposed method was applied to the determination of phosphorus in ten internationally certified materials. (author)

  6. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  7. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gigliarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  8. Assessing sub-Saharan Erythrina for efficacy: traditional uses, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    Kone , Witabouna Mamidou; Solange , Kakou-Ngazoa E; Dosso , Mireille

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The genus Erythrina comprises more than 100 species, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. In Africa, 31 wild species and 14 cultivated species have been described. In sub-Saharan Africa, Erythrina species are used to treat frequent parasitic and microbial diseases, inflammation, cancer, wounds. The rationale of these traditional uses in African traditional medicine was established by screening several species for biological activities. Promising activi...

  9. Synthesis and biological activity of the novel indanedione anticoagulant rodenticides containing fluorine

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Feng; Liu, Liping; Bai, Zengguo; Zhang, Tianhua; Zhao, Keke

    2016-01-01

    Here, 3 fluorinated intermediates of drug were synthesized: (M1), (M2), (M3). Three new anticoagulant rodenticides were designed which were based on 4-hydroxycoumarin or 1,3-indandione, added acute toxicity groups containing fluorine. The structures of synthesized compounds were analyzed and proved by FT-IR spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The compounds were also evaluated for their anticoagulant and acute biologic activity. In addition, both the acute orally toxicity ...

  10. A Card-Sorting Activity to Engage Students in the Academic Language of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Robert C; Jasti, Chandana; Hug, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    The activity described in this article is designed to provide biology students with opportunities to engage in a range of academic language as they learn the discipline-specific meanings of the terms "drug," "poison," "toxicant," and "toxin." Although intended as part of an introductory lesson in a comprehensive unit for the high school level, this approach to teaching academic language can be adapted for use with older or younger students and can be modified to teach other terms.

  11. Portuguese Thymbra and Thymus species volatiles: chemical composition and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A C; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Salgueiro, L; Miguel, M G; Faleiro, M L

    2008-01-01

    Thymbra capitata and Thymus species are commonly known in Portugal as thyme and they are currently used as culinary herbs, as well as for ornamental, aromatizing and traditional medicinal purposes. The present work reports on the state of the art on the information available on the taxonomy, ethnobotany, cell and molecular biology of the Portuguese representatives of these genera and on the chemotaxonomy and antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of their essential oils and other volatile-containing extracts.

  12. Methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines as a basis of biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkov, D A; Geisman, A N; Novikov, M S; Khandazhinskaya, A L

    2016-01-01

    The review covers methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines, i.e., fused pyrrolo-, pyrazolo- and triazolopyrimidine heterocyclic systems, which are common core structures of various biologically active compounds. The extensive range of modern synthetic approaches is organized according to target structures and starting building blocks. The presented material is intended to benefit broad audience of specialists in the fields of organic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. The bibliography includes 195 references

  13. Isolation of biologically active peptides from the venom of Japanese carpenter bee, Xylocopa appendiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hiroko; Goto, Shin G; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki; Shigeri, Yasushi; Imura, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Hidetoshi; Shinada, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-guided venom peptide profiling is a powerful tool to explore novel substances from venomous animals in a highly sensitive manner. In this study, this peptide profiling approach is successfully applied to explore the venom peptides of a Japanese solitary carpenter bee, Xylocopa appendiculata (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apidae: Anthophila: Xylocopinae: Xylocopini). Although interesting biological effects of the crude venom of carpenter bees have been reported, the structure and biological function of the venom peptides have not been elucidated yet. The venom peptide profiling of the crude venom of X. appendiculata was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy. The venom was purified by a reverse-phase HPLC. The purified peptides were subjected to the Edman degradation, MS/MS analysis, and/or molecular cloning methods for peptide sequencing. Biological and functional characterization was performed by circular dichroism analysis, liposome leakage assay, and antimicrobial, histamine releasing and hemolytic activity tests. Three novel peptides with m / z 16508, 1939.3, and 1900.3 were isolated from the venom of X. appendiculata . The peptide with m / z 16508 was characterized as a secretory phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) homolog in which the characteristic cysteine residues as well as the active site residues found in bee PLA 2 s are highly conserved. Two novel peptides with m/z 1939.3 and m/z 1900.3 were named as Xac-1 and Xac-2, respectively. These peptides are found to be amphiphilic and displayed antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The potency was almost the same as that of mastoparan isolated from the wasp venom. We found three novel biologically active peptides in the venom of X. appendiculata and analyzed their molecular functions, and compared their sequential homology to discuss their molecular diversity. Highly sensitive mass analysis plays an important role in this study.

  14. Biological activity of 2,3-Di (quinolyl-2)-6-methyl quinoxaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansar, N.; Kaban, S.; Ahmed, R.

    2003-01-01

    The biological activities of the nitrogen containing conjugated heterocyclic compounds are considerably used pharmaceutically as antiulcer, antimalarial, tubercluocidal and sedatives besides their uses as dyes in the textile industries, pesticides, stabilizers and inhibitors etc. 2.3-Di(quinolyl-2)-6-methyl quinoxaline was synthesized by condensation followed by ring closure reaction when 1,2-di(quinolyl-2)-1,2 ethanedione was treated with methyl and substituted o-phenylenediamine. (author)

  15. Biological activity of 2,3-Di (quinolyl-2)-6-methyl quinoxaline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansar, N [Adamjee Government Science College, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry; Kaban, S [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry; Ahmed, R [University of Karachi, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-06-01

    The biological activities of the nitrogen containing conjugated heterocyclic compounds are considerably used pharmaceutically as antiulcer, antimalarial, tubercluocidal and sedatives besides their uses as dyes in the textile industries, pesticides, stabilizers and inhibitors etc. 2.3-Di(quinolyl-2)-6-methyl quinoxaline was synthesized by condensation followed by ring closure reaction when 1,2-di(quinolyl-2)-1,2 ethanedione was treated with methyl and substituted o-phenylenediamine. (author)

  16. Looking through the Lens: Adapting and Modifying Photovoice Projects for Active Learning and Engagement in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Karobi Moitra

    2016-01-01

    Photovoice projects traditionally include original visual imagery and minimal text to tell a powerful story. Photovoice student projects have been utilized in the health and social sciences to involve students with the local community and also in community-based projects to help at-risk youth call attention to their community problems, such as disease and drug use. The tool of the photovoice can be used in the biology classroom to engage students in the active learning process through communi...

  17. Presence and biological activity of antibiotics used in fuel ethanol and corn co-product production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compart, D M Paulus; Carlson, A M; Crawford, G I; Fink, R C; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Dicostanzo, A; Shurson, G C

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotics are used in ethanol production to control bacteria from competing with yeast for nutrients during starch fermentation. However, there is no published scientific information on whether antibiotic residues are present in distillers grains (DG), co-products from ethanol production, or whether they retain their biological activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of various antibiotic residues in DG and determine whether residues were biologically active. Twenty distillers wet grains and 20 distillers dried grains samples were collected quarterly from 9 states and 43 ethanol plants in the United States. Samples were analyzed for DM, CP, NDF, crude fat, S, P, and pH to describe the nutritional characteristics of the samples evaluated. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin M1, using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Additionally, virginiamycin residues were determined, using a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved bioassay method. Samples were extracted and further analyzed for biological activity by exposing the sample extracts to 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/mL concentrations of sentinel bacterial strains Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Extracts that inhibited bacterial growth were considered to have biological activity. Physiochemical characteristics varied among samples but were consistent with previous findings. Thirteen percent of all samples contained low (≤1.12 mg/kg) antibiotic concentrations. Only 1 sample extract inhibited growth of Escherichia coli at 10(4) CFU/mL, but this sample contained no detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues. No extracts inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth. These data indicate that the likelihood of detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues in DG is low; and if detected, they are found in very low concentrations. The inhibition in only 1 DG

  18. Biological Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Phytoalexins and Selected Natural and Synthetic Stilbenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    prenylated flavonoids have been identified as constituents in plants, and display biological activities, such as anticancer, antiandrogen, anti-Leishmania, and...to opioid receptors was examined. ’MATERIALS AND METHODS General Experimental Procedures. HPLC -grade solvents used in the preparation of mobile phases...were obtained from Fisher (Suwanee, GA). HPLC -grade H2Owas prepared with a ZD20 four-bowl Milli-Q water system (Millipore). Deuterium oxide (99.9 atom

  19. Circumventing furin enhances factor VIII biological activity and ameliorates bleeding phenotypes in hemophilia models

    OpenAIRE

    Siner, Joshua I.; Samelson-Jones, Benjamin J.; Crudele, Julie M.; French, Robert A.; Lee, Benjamin J.; Zhou, Shanzhen; Merricks, Elizabeth; Raymer, Robin; Nichols, Timothy C.; Camire, Rodney M.; Arruda, Valder R.

    2016-01-01

    Processing by the proprotein convertase furin is believed to be critical for the biological activity of multiple proteins involved in hemostasis, including coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). This belief prompted the retention of the furin recognition motif (amino acids 1645–1648) in the design of B-domain–deleted FVIII (FVIII-BDD) products in current clinical use and in the drug development pipeline, as well as in experimental FVIII gene therapy strategies. Here, we report that processing by fu...

  20. Problem-solving activities in Biology for Open University students [poster session

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, P.; Robinson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Problem-based learning is a valuable tool for enhancing student learning and for providing remedial help in grasping difficult concepts in Biology. Most teaching at the Open University is by course texts, DVDs and television. Teaching material is written by academics and\\ud expert consultants. An important feature of the material is that it includes interactive in-text and self-assessed questions, and also activities which may be home experiments or computer-based.\\ud Students are provided wi...

  1. Effect of amino acid substitution on biological activity of cyanophlyctin-β and brevinin-2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Aryan, Ehsan; Karimi, Gholamreza; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad

    2018-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), as ancient immune components, are found in almost all types of living organisms. They are bioactive components with strong antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-tumor properties. In this study, we designed three sequences of antimicrobial peptides to study the effects of structural changes in biological activity compared with original peptides, cyanophlyctin β, and brevinin-2R. For antibacterial activity, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa) were assayed. Unlike cyanophlyctin β and brevinin-2R, the synthesized peptide (brevinin-M1, brevinin-M2 and brevinin-M3) showed no considerable antibacterial properties. Hemolytic activity of these peptides was also ignorable even at very high concentrations of 2 mg/ml. However, after proteolytic digestion by trypsin, the peptides showed antibacterial activity comparable to their original template sequences. Structural prediction suggested that the motif sequence responsible for antibacterial activity may be re-exposed to bacterial cell membrane after proteolytic digestion. Also, findings showed that only a small change in primary sequence and therefore structure of peptides may result in a significant alteration in biological activity.

  2. Biological activities of the sulfated polysaccharide from the vascular plant Halodule wrightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. C. Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A sulfated polysaccharide (SPSG was successfully isolated from seagrass Halodule wrightii Asch., Cymodoceaceae, and its antioxidant and anticoagulant activities were investigated. The data presented here showed that the SPSG is a 11 kDa sulfated heterogalactan with a sulfatation degree of 20.63% and it also contains glucose and xylose. SPSG antioxidant activities were evaluated using several in vitro assays and the anticoagulant activity was evaluated by aPTT and PT tests. These assays suggested that the SPSG possessed remarkable antioxidant properties in different in vitro assays and an outstanding anticoagulant activity 2.5-fold higher than that of heparin Clexane® in the aPTT test. This data represents the first reported on the sulfated polysaccharide biological activities from seagrass. These results indicate that SPSG can be considered in the future as a drug utilized in treating diseases from these systems.

  3. [Biological activity of metabolites of the herb Kalanchoe diagremontania (Hamet de la Bbathie) Jacobs et Perr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M M; Gerasimenko, N I; Chaĭkina, E L; Serebriakov, Iu M

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the hemolytic, antimicrobial, and phytoregulatory activity of various classes of lipids (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids (FFA), the glyceroglycolipids monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG)), sterols, all of them were obtained from the medical herb Kalanchoe diagremontiana, and also pigments, phenolic compounds (FC), polysaccharides, and ethanol extract (EE) of the herbal. It was established that EE, FC, FFA, and sterols display pH-dependent membranothropic activity. FFA showed antimicrobial activity and stimulated growth of buckwheat stalk sprouts. K. diagremontiana glyceroglycolopids did not display expressed biological activity. Caroteniods displayed pH-independent membranothopic action and antibacterial activity. Chlorophylls displayed antimicrobial action, but did not influence erythrocytes and buckwheat sprouts. Polysaccharides acted against the microorganisms Safale S-04, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysperum and buckwheat sprouts.

  4. Preparation of Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) and its structural characterization and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Gc protein has been reported to be a precursor of Gc protein-derived macrophage activation factor (GcMAF) in the inflammation-primed macrophage activation cascade. An inducible beta-galactosidase of B cells and neuraminidase of T cells convert Gc protein to GcMAF. Gc protein from human serum was purified using 25(OH)D3 affinity column chromatography and modified to GcMAF using immobilized glycosidases (beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase) The sugar moiety structure of GcMAF was characterized by lectin blotting by Helix pomatia agglutinin. The biological activities of GcMAF were evaluated by a superoxide generation assay and a phagocytosis assay. We successfully purified Gc protein from human serum. GcMAF was detected by lectin blotting and showed a high biological activity. Our results support the importance of the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine moiety in the GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, and the existence of constitutive GcMAF in human serum. These preliminary data are important for designing small molecular GcMAF mimics.

  5. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Sherif E A; Shaaban, Mohamed; Elkholy, Yehya M; Helal, Maher H; Hamza, Akila S; Masoud, Mohamed S; El Safty, Mounir M

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, β-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts, rind and flesh established their unique constituents. Chromatographic purification of the extracts afforded triglyceride fatty acid mixture (1), tetrahydro-thiophene (2), linoleic acid (3), calotropoleanly ester (4), cholesterol (5) and 13(18)-oleanen-3-ol (6). GC-MS analysis of the extract's unpolar fraction revealed the existence of dodecane and tetradecane. Structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were confirmed by NMR and EI-MS spectrometry. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumour activities of the fruit parts were discussed. The promising combined extract of rind and flesh was biologically studied for microbial and cytotoxic activities in comparison with the whole isolated components.

  6. Surface mixing and biological activity in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rossi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS are characterized by a high productivity of plankton associated with large commercial fisheries, thus playing key biological and socio-economical roles. Since they are populated by several physical oceanic structures such as filaments and eddies, which interact with the biological processes, it is a major challenge to study this sub- and mesoscale activity in connection with the chlorophyll distribution. The aim of this work is to make a comparative study of these four upwelling systems focussing on their surface stirring, using the Finite Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLEs, and their biological activity, based on satellite data. First, the spatial distribution of horizontal mixing is analysed from time averages and from probability density functions of FSLEs, which allow us to divide each areas in two different subsystems. Then we studied the temporal variability of surface stirring focussing on the annual and seasonal cycle. We also proposed a ranking of the four EBUS based on the averaged mixing intensity. When investigating the links with chlorophyll concentration, the previous subsystems reveal distinct biological signatures. There is a global negative correlation between surface horizontal mixing and chlorophyll standing stocks over the four areas. To try to better understand this inverse relationship, we consider the vertical dimension by looking at the Ekman-transport and vertical velocities. We suggest the possibility of a changing response of the phytoplankton to sub/mesoscale turbulence, from a negative effect in the very productive coastal areas to a positive one in the open ocean. This study provides new insights for the understanding of the variable biological productivity in the ocean, which results from both dynamics of the marine ecosystem and of the 3-D turbulent medium.

  7. Akttvitas Selulase, Amilase Dan Invertase Pada Tanah Kebun Biologi Wamena*[cellulase, Amylase and Invertase Activities Achieved From Soil of Wamena Biological Research Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmansyah, M; Latupapua, HJD

    2003-01-01

    Enzymatic activities in soil as due to microbes action in organic matter degradation, lead to propose as indicators for determining soil degree enrichment.In this work, the enzymatic activities of cellulase, invertase and amylase were determined in tropical soil collected from Biological Research Station in Wamena. Result of measurement on five soil samples showed that cellulase activity occurred between 0.10 - 0.31 mg reducing sugar/g soil/hour in 2% Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) substrate, a...

  8. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardosová, A; Ebringerová, A; Alföldi, J; Nosál'ová, G; Franová, S; Hríbalová, V

    2003-11-01

    From the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules a low-molecular-weight fructofuranan of the inulin-type has been isolated by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration of the crude precipitate. The methods employed in structural determination were methylation analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectral measurements. In tests for antitussive activity in cats the fructan was found to be equally active as some non-narcotic, synthetic preparations used in clinical practice to treat coughing, and in mitogenic and comitogenic tests its biological response was comparable to that of the commercial Zymosan immunomodulator.

  9. Biological activities of essential oils of Endlicheria citriodora, a methyl geranate-rich lauraceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy K.L.; Veiga-Junior, Valdir F., E-mail: valdirveiga@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho de; Lima, Emerson Silva [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    The essential oils of branches and leaves of Endlicheria citiodora were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using GC-FID, GC-MS and both NMR {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H, resulting in the identification of methyl geranate as major constituent (93%) in both oils. Cytotoxicity, tyrosinase-inhibition and antioxidant activities were studied and characterized. High antioxidant potential (15.52 and 13.53 {mu}g/mL), low cytotoxicity and tyrosinase inhibition (53.85%) were observed. This is the first paper reporting the biological activities and composition of the essential oils of this species. (author)

  10. Biological activities of essential oils of Endlicheria citriodora, a methyl geranate-rich lauraceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy K.L.; Veiga-Junior, Valdir F.; Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho de; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils of branches and leaves of Endlicheria citiodora were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using GC-FID, GC-MS and both NMR 13 C and 1 H, resulting in the identification of methyl geranate as major constituent (93%) in both oils. Cytotoxicity, tyrosinase-inhibition and antioxidant activities were studied and characterized. High antioxidant potential (15.52 and 13.53 μg/mL), low cytotoxicity and tyrosinase inhibition (53.85%) were observed. This is the first paper reporting the biological activities and composition of the essential oils of this species. (author)

  11. Ferrocenyl and organic novobiocin derivatives: Synthesis and their in vitro biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaba, Mziyanda; Mabhula, Amanda N; Boel, Natasha; Edkins, Adrienne L; Isaacs, Michelle; Hoppe, Heinrich C; Khanye, Setshaba D

    2017-07-01

    A focused series of novobiocin derivatives containing a ferrocene unit together with their corresponding organic novobiocin analogues have been synthesized in modest to good yields. These compounds were screened for biological activity against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) and human breast cancer cell line (HCC38). With the exception of compounds 5c and 5d, the general trend observed is that incorporation of the ferrocene moiety into novobiocin scaffold resulted in compounds 6a-d/6f showing enhanced activity compared to organic analogues 5a-b and 5e-f. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activity measurement of tritium in biological samples by azeotropic distillation liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei; Zheng Xiaomin

    1994-01-01

    The authors introduced a method of extracting tissue free water tritium (TFWT) in biological samples by azeotropic distillation with toluene and of measuring its activity by liquid scintillation counter. Measured TFWT recovery ratios of pine needles (fresh), green vegetables, radish, milk, meat, rice are 0.90, 0.95, 0.95, 0.85, 0.53 and 0.90; and the activities of TFWT are 1.8, 3.2, 1.8, 4.0, 3.3 and 2.7 Bq/L, respectively

  13. Reductive methylation of insulin. Production of a biologically active tritiated insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, J W; Nahum, A; Steiner, D F [Department of Biochemistry, University of Chicago, Illinois, USA

    1983-01-01

    Reductive methylation of the three amino groups of porcine insulin was accomplished by incubation with formaldehyde and sodium cyanoborohydride. The two amino termini and the epsilon amino group of B29 lysine were each dimethylated within 1 h of incubation. The fully methylated insulin bound more tightly to a reverse phase column than did native insulin, had a slightly more acid isoelectric point, and maintained approximately 50% biological activity when examined with an insulin sensitive cultured cell line. Reductive methylation with sodium cyanoboro (/sup 3/H) hydride resulted in a (/sup 3/H) methylated insulin with a specific activity of 6 Ci/mmol.

  14. Essential Oils’ Chemical Characterization and Investigation of Some Biological Activities: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhifi, Wissal; Bellili, Sana; Jazi, Sabrine; Bahloul, Nada; Mnif, Wissem

    2016-01-01

    This review covers literature data summarizing, on one hand, the chemistry of essential oils and, on the other hand, their most important activities. Essential oils, which are complex mixtures of volatile compounds particularly abundant in aromatic plants, are mainly composed of terpenes biogenerated by the mevalonate pathway. These volatile molecules include monoterpenes (hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpens), and also sesquiterpenes (hydrocarbon and oxygenated sesquiterpens). Furthermore, they contain phenolic compounds, which are derived via the shikimate pathway. Thanks to their chemical composition, essential oils possess numerous biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, etc…) of great interest in food and cosmetic industries, as well as in the human health field. PMID:28930135

  15. “DNA in the time tunnel”: a report of extensionist activity for biology teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elison de Souza Sevalho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experience of the extension project entitled “DNA in the time tunnel”. This project was developed with high school finalists students of a public school in the city of Coari, State of Amazonas, Brazil, aiming to provide students and teachers of biology and chemistry, teaching and learning about the historical context of the elucidation of DNA. The intervention was carried out in two stages: the first was the bibliographic research and planning and preparation of materials with playful bias, showing the contribution of each researcher and a gymkhana as an instrument to contribute to the learning of biology and the execution of extensionist activities with students and teachers. The project actions have contributed to the planning of the dynamic pedagogical practices, which granted the needs and interests of the involved students; to the enrichment of the knowledge on the subject addressed by secondary students, training them with matters of biology that are in the National Secondary Education Examination (ENEM and other selective processes of entry to higher education; to the teaching and learning of biological disciplines of the curriculum of the respective college freshmen courses of the Institute of health and biotechnology.

  16. A Vision and Change Reform of Introductory Biology Shifts Faculty Perceptions and Use of Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Increasing faculty use of active-learning (AL) pedagogies in college classrooms is a persistent challenge in biology education. A large research-intensive university implemented changes to its biology majors’ two-course introductory sequence as outlined by the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education final report. One goal of the curricular reform was to integrate core biological concepts and competencies into the courses using AL pedagogical approaches. The purpose of this study was to observe the instructional practices used by faculty (N = 10) throughout the 3-year process of reform to determine whether the use of AL strategies (including student collaboration) increased, given that it can maximize student learning gains. Instructors participated in yearly interviews to track any change in their perceptions of AL instruction. Instructors increased their average use of AL by 12% (group AL by 8%) of total class time throughout the 3-year study. Interviews revealed that instructors shifted their definitions of AL and talked more about how to assess student learning over the 3 years of the project. Collaboration, feedback, and time may have been important factors in the reform, suggesting that small shifts over time can accumulate into real change in the classroom. PMID:29146663

  17. Influence of biological activity on sorption by using 65Zn and 109Cd into mangrove sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondermann, Melissa N.; Barros, Joanna F.; Suzuki, Katia N.; Bellido, Alfredo V.B.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the chemical behavior of zinc and cadmium as well as the influence of biological activity in the sorption kinetics under microcosm experiments by mangrove sediments collected in Sepetiba Bay - Rio de Janeiro was carried out. The mentioned area was well contaminated due to the leaching from the tailing pile by the abandoned zinc processing company Inga Mercantil. Radiotracer 65 Zn and 109 Cd were used to follow their exchange across water-sediment interfaces up to 48 hours experiments in six mangrove sediment cores. To determine the benthic activity index (BAI) the cores were treated with formaldehyde (biocide) and it was found that the presence of the radiotracers in the deeper layers of sediment without formaldehyde treatment showed clearly the influence of benthic activity retention (benthic faunal and microbial effects), since the same pattern was not found in the treated sediment. The activity values obtained for 65 Zn and 109 Cd in the untreated sediment with formaldehyde on the first centimeter were 53.79±0.28 % and 67.34±0.16 % respectively, whereas for the treated ones, were 98.72 ± 0.29 % and 98.31 ± 0.24 % respectively. Thus, it was demonstrated that the use of formaldehyde, as biological activity inhibitor, ceases the bioturbation process and allowed the accumulation along the sediment. (author)

  18. Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  19. Cell-Selective Biological Activity of Rhodium Metalloinsertors Correlates with Subcellular Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komor, Alexis C.; Schneider, Curtis J.; Weidmann, Alyson G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiencies in the mismatch repair (MMR) pathway are associated with several types of cancers, as well as resistance to commonly used chemotherapeutics. Rhodium metalloinsertors have been found to bind DNA mismatches with high affinity and specificity in vitro, and also exhibit cell-selective cytotoxicity, targeting MMR-deficient cells over MMR-proficient cells. Ten distinct metalloinsertors with varying lipophilicities have been synthesized and their mismatch binding affinities and biological activities determined. Although DNA photocleavage experiments demonstrate that their binding affinities are quite similar, their cell-selective antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities vary significantly. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) experiments have uncovered a relationship between the subcellular distribution of these metalloinsertors and their biological activities. Specifically, we find that all of our metalloinsertors localize in the nucleus at sufficient concentrations for binding to DNA mismatches. However, the metalloinsertors with high rhodium localization in the mitochondria show toxicity that is not selective for MMR-deficient cells, whereas metalloinsertors with less mitochondrial rhodium show activity that is highly selective for MMR-deficient versus proficient cells. This work supports the notion that specific targeting of the metalloinsertors to nuclear DNA gives rise to their cell-selective cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities. The selectivity in cellular targeting depends upon binding to mismatches in genomic DNA. PMID:23137296

  20. Selenylation Modification of Degraded Polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera and Its Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Haitao; Duan, Ke; Shan, Hu

    2018-04-01

    Polysaccharide extracted from Enteromorpha prolifera possessed excellent biological activities, but its molecular weight was greatly high which influenced the activity. Organic Se had higher biological activities and was safer than inorganic Se species. In the present study, Enteromorpha polysaccharide was degraded to low molecular weight by free-radical degradation method of H2O2 and ascorbic acid. By single factor and orthogonal experiments, the optimal degradation conditions were reaction time of 2 h, reaction temperature of 50°C, H2O2/ascorbic acid (n/n=1:1) concentration of 15 mmol L-1, and solid-liquid ratio of 1:50 (g mL-1). Then, the degraded polysaccharide was chemically modified to obtain its selenide derivatives by nitric acid-sodium selenite method. The selenium content was 1137.29 μg g-1, while the content of sulfate radical had no change. IR spectra indicated that the selenite ester group was formed. Degraded polysaccharide selenide was characterized and evaluated for antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activities. The results showed that degraded polysaccharide selenide had strong capacity of scavenging DPPH and ·OH free radical. It had significant antibacterial properties for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella spp., and it also had significant antifungal properties for Apple anthrax. The result ascertained degradation and selenylation modification did not change the main structure of polysaccharides. It was possible that free-radical degradation was an effective way for enhancing antioxidant activity to decrease molecular weight of polysaccharides.

  1. Refolding Techniques for Recovering Biologically Active Recombinant Proteins from Inclusion Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yamaguchi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  2. Ecological Roles and Biological Activities of Specialized Metabolites from the Genus Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Zare, Somayeh; Asadollahi, Mojtaba; Schuman, Meredith C

    2017-10-11

    Species of Nicotiana grow naturally in different parts of the world and have long been used both medicinally and recreationally by human societies. More recently in our history, Nicotiana tabacum has attracted interest as one of the most economically important industrial crops. Nicotiana species are frequently investigated for their bioactive natural products, and the ecological role of their specialized metabolites in responses to abiotic stress or biotic stress factors like pathogens and herbivores. The interest of tobacco companies in genetic information as well as the success of a few wild tobacco species as experimental model organisms have resulted in growing knowledge about the molecular biology and ecology of these plants and functional studies of the plant's natural products. Although a large number of reviews and books on biologically active natural products already exists, mostly from N. tabacum, we focus our attention on the ecological roles and biological activity of natural products, versus products from cured and processed material, in this Review. The studied compounds include alkaloids, aromatic compounds, flavonoids, volatiles, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenes alcohols, and sugar esters from trichomes of the plants, and recently characterized acyclic hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides (HGL-DTGs). In this Review (1800s-2017), we describe the above-mentioned classes of natural products, emphasizing their biological activities and functions as they have been determined either in bioassay-guided purification approaches or in bioassays with plants in which the expression of specific biosynthetic genes has been genetically manipulated. Additionally, a review on the history, taxonomy, ecology, and medicinal application of different Nicotiana species growing around the globe presented in this Review may be of interest for pharmacognosists, natural products, and ecological chemists.

  3. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  4. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  5. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, In Chul

    2011-01-01

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  6. Removal of novel antiandrogens identified in biological effluents of domestic wastewater by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Environmental antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in effluents from wastewater treatment plants have the potential for negative impacts on wildlife and human health. The aim of our study was to identify chemical contaminants with likely AA activity in the biological effluents and evaluate the removal of these antiandrogens (AAs) during advanced treatment comprising adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in biological effluents and tertiary effluents was conducted using effect-directed analysis (EDA) including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, a recombinant yeast screen containing androgen receptor (YAS), in combination with mass spectrometry analyses. Analysis of a wastewater secondary effluent from a membrane bioreactor revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 14 HPLC fractions and simpler profiles of GAC effluents with only 2 to 4 moderately polar HPLC fractions depending on GAC treatment conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-nanospray mass spectrometry analyses of AA fractions in the secondary effluent resulted in detection of over 10 chemical contaminants, which showed inhibition of YAS activity and were potential AAs. The putative AAs included biocides, food additives, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and industrial contaminants. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the AA properties of N-ethyl-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WS3), cetirizine, and oxcarbazepine are reported. The EDA used in this study was proven to be a powerful tool to identify novel chemical structures with AA activity in the complex aquatic environment. The adsorption process to GAC of all the identified antiandrogens, except WS3 and triclosan, fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetics models. Adsorption to GAC could further remove most of the AAs identified in the biological effluents with high efficiencies. Copyright

  7. Investigating the Spectrum of Biological Activity of Ring-Substituted Salicylanilides and Carbamoylphenylcarbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Jampilek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of twelve ring-substituted salicylanilides and carbamoylphenylcarbamates were prepared and characterized. The compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. They were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. Moreover, their site of action in the photosynthetic apparatus was determined. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was also performed against mycobacterial, bacterial and fungal strains. Several compounds showed biological activity comparable with or higher than the standards 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea, isoniazid, penicillin G, ciprofloxacin or fluconazole. The most active compounds showed minimal anti-proliferative activity against human cells in culture, indicating they would have low cytotoxicity. For all compounds, the relationships between lipophilicity and the chemical structure are discussed.

  8. Multiple, novel biologically active endophytic actinomycetes isolated from upper Amazonian rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascom-Slack, Carol A; Ma, Cong; Moore, Emily; Babbs, Beatrice; Fenn, Kathleen; Greene, Joshua S; Hann, Bradley D; Keehner, Jocelyn; Kelley-Swift, Elizabeth G; Kembaiyan, Vivek; Lee, Sun Jin; Li, Puyao; Light, David Y; Lin, Emily H; Schorn, Michelle A; Vekhter, Daniel; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Hess, W M; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Strobel, Gary A; Strobel, Scott A

    2009-08-01

    Microbial biodiversity provides an increasingly important source of medically and industrially useful compounds. We have isolated 14 actinomycete species from a collection of approximately 300 plant stem samples from the upper Amazonian rainforest in Peru. All of the cultured isolates produce substances with inhibitory activity directed at a range of potential fungal and bacterial pathogens. For some organisms, this activity is very broad in spectrum while other organisms show specific activity against a limited number of organisms. Two of these organisms preferentially inhibit bacterial test organisms over eukaryotic organisms. rDNA sequence analysis indicates that these organisms are not equivalent to any other cultured deposits in GenBank. Our results provide evidence of the untapped biodiversity in the form of biologically active microbes present within the tissues of higher plants.

  9. Ultratrace determination of platinum in biological materials via neutron activation and radiochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Greenberg, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis scheme based upon a radiochemical separation of the activation products has been developed. The method utilizes the inherent sensitivity of the activation reaction 198 Pt(n,ν) 199 Pt and counting of the daughter nuclide 199 Au. This nuclide is radiochemically separated from interfering activities by homogeneous precipitation as elemental gold. The remaining interference of the secondary reaction 197 Au(n,ν) 198 Au(n,ν) 199 Au from gold in the samples is quantitatively assessed and corrected. During this process accurate gold concentrations in the samples are obtained at ultratrace levels. The analysis scheme is applied to gold and platinum determinations in biological Standard Reference Materials and human liver specimens. Gold and platinum are determined at concentrations of 5x10 - 11 g/g, and at higher levels. (author)

  10. Design and biological activity of β-sheet breaker peptide conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Sandra; Cardoso, Isabel; Boerner, Hans; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Coelho, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The sequence LPFFD (iAβ 5 ) prevents amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) fibrillogenesis and neurotoxicity, hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as previously demonstrated. In this study iAβ 5 was covalently linked to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the activity of conjugates was assessed and compared to the activity of the peptide alone by in vitro studies. The conjugates were characterized by MALDI-TOF. Competition binding assays established that conjugates retained the ability to bind Aβ with similar strength as iAβ 5 . Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that iAβ 5 conjugates inhibited amyloid fibril formation, which is in agreement with binding properties observed for the conjugates towards Aβ. The conjugates were also able to prevent amyloid-induced cell death, as evaluated by activation of caspase 3. These results demonstrated that the biological activity of iAβ 5 is not affected by the pegylation process.

  11. Quinoxaline 1, 4-di-N-oxides: Biological activities and mechanisms of actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyue eCheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxaline 1, 4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs have manifold biological properties, including antimicrobial, antitumoral, antitrypanosomal and antiinflammatory/antioxidant activities. These diverse activities endow them broad applications and prospects in human and veterinary medicines. As QdNOs arouse widespread interest, the evaluation of their medicinal chemistry is still in progress. In the meantime, adverse effects have been reported in some of the QdNO derivatives. For example, genotoxicity and bacterial resistance have been found in QdNO antibacterial growth promoters, conferring urgent need for discovery of new QdNO drugs. However, the modes of actions of QdNOs are not fully understood, hindering the development and innovation of these promising compounds. Here, QdNOs are categorized based on the activities and usages, among which the antimicrobial activities are consist of antibacterial, antimycobacterial and anticandida activities, and the antiprotozoal activities include antitrypanosomal, antimalarial, antitrichomonas and antiamoebic activities. The structure-activity relationship and the mode of actions of each type of activity of QdNOs are summarized, and the toxicity and the underlying mechanisms are also discussed, providing insight for the future research and development of these fascinating compounds.

  12. Nanomaterials: biological effects and some aspects of applications in ecology and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, Nickolaj F.; Shavanova, Kateryna E.; Taran, Marina V.; Katsev, Andrey M.; Safronyuk, Sergey L.; Son'ko, Roman V.; Bisio, Chiara; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-10-01

    Nanosized materials have shown a relevant potential for practical application in a broad number of research fields, in industrial production and in everyday life. However, these substances acquire new properties and therefore may be biologically very active. This raise questions their potential toxic effects on living organisms. In some cases the nanosized materials or nano-composites possess distinct positive properties in enhancing the adaptation of plants in unfavorable conditions and in decreasing the negative effect of some chemical substances. The information about the positive and negative effects of nano-materials as well as the data concerned to the innovative approaches used by authors for the rapid assessment of the total toxicity with the exploitation of bacteria, Daphnia and plants are given. In last case a special attention is paid to the control of natural bioluminescence and chemoluminescence of living medium of organisms, the energy of the seed germination and the efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus in growing plants by the estimation of chlorophyll fluorescence by the special "Floratest" biosensor. Three specific clases of nano-materials are analysed: a) nano-particles ZnO, Ag2O, FeOx, TiO2 and others, b) colloidal suspension of the same compounds, and c) nanostructured layered clay materials (acid saponites and Nb-containing saponite clays). The next features are analyzed: the biocidal activity (for nanoparticles), the improvement of the nutrition of plants on calcareous soils (for colloidal structures), the activity and performances as heterogeneous catalysts (for Nb-containing saponites, as selective oxidation catalysts for toxic organosulfur compounds into non-noxious products). The chemical and physical characterization of the nanosized materials described here was studied by different spectrophotometric and microscopic techniques, including AFM and SEM.

  13. Biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different structures of transgenic corn against Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bernardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith is the main target pest of Bt corn technologies, such as YieldGard VT PRO(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2 and PowerCore(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Cry1F. In this study, it was evaluated the biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different plant structures of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn against S. frugiperda . Complete mortality of S. frugiperda neonates was observed on leaf-disc of both Bt corn technologies. However, the mortality in silks and grains was lower than 50 and 6%, respectively. In addition, more than 49% of the surviving larvae in silks and grains completed the biological cycle. However, all life table parameters were negatively affected in insects that developed in silks and grains of both Bt corn events. In summary, the low biological activity of Bt proteins expressed on silks and grains of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn can contribute to the resistance evolution in S. frugiperda populations.

  14. Antibacterial Free Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides: Biological Activities, Experimental Testing, and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bo Kyeong; Jackman, Joshua A.; Valle-González, Elba R.

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial lipids such as fatty acids and monoglycerides are promising antibacterial agents that destabilize bacterial cell membranes, causing a wide range of direct and indirect inhibitory effects. The goal of this review is to introduce the latest experimental approaches for characterizing how antimicrobial lipids destabilize phospholipid membranes within the broader scope of introducing current knowledge about the biological activities of antimicrobial lipids, testing strategies, and applications for treating bacterial infections. To this end, a general background on antimicrobial lipids, including structural classification, is provided along with a detailed description of their targeting spectrum and currently understood antibacterial mechanisms. Building on this knowledge, different experimental approaches to characterize antimicrobial lipids are presented, including cell-based biological and model membrane-based biophysical measurement techniques. Particular emphasis is placed on drawing out how biological and biophysical approaches complement one another and can yield mechanistic insights into how the physicochemical properties of antimicrobial lipids influence molecular self-assembly and concentration-dependent interactions with model phospholipid and bacterial cell membranes. Examples of possible therapeutic applications are briefly introduced to highlight the potential significance of antimicrobial lipids for human health and medicine, and to motivate the importance of employing orthogonal measurement strategies to characterize the activity profile of antimicrobial lipids. PMID:29642500

  15. Circulating Biologically Active Adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) Predicts Hemodynamic Support Requirement and Mortality During Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caironi, Pietro; Latini, Roberto; Struck, Joachim; Hartmann, Oliver; Bergmann, Andreas; Maggio, Giuseppe; Cavana, Marco; Tognoni, Gianni; Pesenti, Antonio; Gattinoni, Luciano; Masson, Serge

    2017-08-01

    The biological role of adrenomedullin (ADM), a hormone involved in hemodynamic homeostasis, is controversial in sepsis because administration of either the peptide or an antibody against it may be beneficial. Plasma biologically active ADM (bio-ADM) was assessed on days 1, 2, and 7 after randomization of 956 patients with sepsis or septic shock to albumin or crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in the multicenter Albumin Italian Outcome Sepsis trial. We tested the association of bio-ADM and its time-dependent variation with fluid therapy, vasopressor administration, organ failures, and mortality. Plasma bio-ADM on day 1 (median [Q1-Q3], 110 [59-198] pg/mL) was higher in patients with septic shock, associated with 90-day mortality, multiple organ failures and the average extent of hemodynamic support therapy (fluids and vasopressors), and serum lactate time course over the first week. Moreover, it predicted incident cardiovascular dysfunction in patients without shock at enrollment (OR [95% CI], 1.9 [1.4-2.5]; P sepsis, the circulating, biologically active form of ADM may help individualizing hemodynamic support therapy, while avoiding harmful effects. Its possible pathophysiologic role makes bio-ADM a potential candidate for future targeted therapies. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00707122. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural products and biological activity of the pharmacologically active cauliflower mushroom Sparassis crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Sparassis crispa, also known as cauliflower mushroom, is an edible mushroom with medicinal properties. Its cultivation became popular in Japan about 10 years ago, a phenomenon that has been attributed not only to the quality of its taste, but also to its potential for therapeutic applications. Herein, I present a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological activities and mechanisms of action of its bioactive components, such as beta-glucan, and other physiologically active substances. In particular, the immunomodulatory mechanisms of the beta-glucan components are presented herein in detail.

  17. Natural Products and Biological Activity of the Pharmacologically Active Cauliflower Mushroom Sparassis crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparassis crispa, also known as cauliflower mushroom, is an edible mushroom with medicinal properties. Its cultivation became popular in Japan about 10 years ago, a phenomenon that has been attributed not only to the quality of its taste, but also to its potential for therapeutic applications. Herein, I present a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological activities and mechanisms of action of its bioactive components, such as beta-glucan, and other physiologically active substances. In particular, the immunomodulatory mechanisms of the beta-glucan components are presented herein in detail.

  18. Nanofibrous matrixes with biologically active hydroxybenzophenazine pyrazolone compound for cancer theranostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandhasamy, Subramani [Organic Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020, Tamilnadu (India); Ramanathan, Giriprasath [Bioproducts Lab, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 600020, Tamilnadu (India); Muthukumar, Thangavelu [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine (IKE), Division of Neuro and Inflammation Sciences (NIV), Linkoping University (Sweden); Thyagarajan, SitaLakshmi [Bioproducts Lab, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 600020, Tamilnadu (India); Umamaheshwari, Narayanan [Organic Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020, Tamilnadu (India); Santhanakrishnan, V P [Department of Plant Biotechnology, TNAU, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu (India); Sivagnanam, Uma Tiruchirapalli, E-mail: suma67@gmail.com [Bioproducts Lab, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 600020, Tamilnadu (India); Perumal, Paramasivan Thirumalai, E-mail: ptperumal@gmail.com [Organic Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-05-01

    The nanomaterial with the novel biologically active compounds has been actively investigated for application in cancer research. Substantial use of nanofibrous scaffold for cancer research with potentially bioactive compounds through electrospinning has not been fully explored. Here, we describe the series of fabrication of nanofibrous scaffold loaded with novel potential biologically active hydroxybenzo[a]phenazine pyrazol-5(4H)-one derivatives were designed, synthesized by a simple one-pot, two step four component condensation based on Michael type addition reaction of lawsone, benzene-1,2-diamine, aromatic aldehydes and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one as the substrates. The heterogeneous solid state catalyst (Fe (III) Y-Zeolite) could effectively catalyze the reaction to obtain the product with high yield and short reaction time. The synthesized compounds (5a–5p) were analyzed by NMR, FTIR and HRMS analysis. Compound 5c was confirmed by single crystal XRD studies. All the compounds were biologically evaluated for their potential inhibitory effect on anticancer (MCF-7, Hep-2) and microbial (MRSA, MTCC 201 and FRCA) activities. Among the compounds 5i exhibited the highest levels of inhibitory activity against both MCF-7, Hep-2 cell lines. Furthermore, the compound 5i (BPP) was evaluated for DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry studies and cytotoxicity against MCF-7, Hep-2 and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines. In addition, molecular docking (PDB ID: (1T46)) studies were performed to predict the binding affinity of ligand with receptor. Moreover, the synthesized BPP compound was loaded in to the PHB-PCL nanofibrous scaffold to check the cytotoxicity against the MCF-7, Hep-2 and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines. The in vitro apoptotic potential of the PHB-PCL-BPP nanofibrous scaffold was assessed against MCF-7, Hep-2 cancerous cells and fibroblast cells at 12, 24 and 48 h respectively. The nanofibrous scaffold with BPP can induce apoptosis and also suppress the

  19. Nanofibrous matrixes with biologically active hydroxybenzophenazine pyrazolone compound for cancer theranostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhasamy, Subramani; Ramanathan, Giriprasath; Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Thyagarajan, SitaLakshmi; Umamaheshwari, Narayanan; Santhanakrishnan, V P; Sivagnanam, Uma Tiruchirapalli; Perumal, Paramasivan Thirumalai

    2017-01-01

    The nanomaterial with the novel biologically active compounds has been actively investigated for application in cancer research. Substantial use of nanofibrous scaffold for cancer research with potentially bioactive compounds through electrospinning has not been fully explored. Here, we describe the series of fabrication of nanofibrous scaffold loaded with novel potential biologically active hydroxybenzo[a]phenazine pyrazol-5(4H)-one derivatives were designed, synthesized by a simple one-pot, two step four component condensation based on Michael type addition reaction of lawsone, benzene-1,2-diamine, aromatic aldehydes and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one as the substrates. The heterogeneous solid state catalyst (Fe (III) Y-Zeolite) could effectively catalyze the reaction to obtain the product with high yield and short reaction time. The synthesized compounds (5a–5p) were analyzed by NMR, FTIR and HRMS analysis. Compound 5c was confirmed by single crystal XRD studies. All the compounds were biologically evaluated for their potential inhibitory effect on anticancer (MCF-7, Hep-2) and microbial (MRSA, MTCC 201 and FRCA) activities. Among the compounds 5i exhibited the highest levels of inhibitory activity against both MCF-7, Hep-2 cell lines. Furthermore, the compound 5i (BPP) was evaluated for DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry studies and cytotoxicity against MCF-7, Hep-2 and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines. In addition, molecular docking (PDB ID: (1T46)) studies were performed to predict the binding affinity of ligand with receptor. Moreover, the synthesized BPP compound was loaded in to the PHB-PCL nanofibrous scaffold to check the cytotoxicity against the MCF-7, Hep-2 and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines. The in vitro apoptotic potential of the PHB-PCL-BPP nanofibrous scaffold was assessed against MCF-7, Hep-2 cancerous cells and fibroblast cells at 12, 24 and 48 h respectively. The nanofibrous scaffold with BPP can induce apoptosis and also suppress the

  20. Does the different mowing regime affect soil biological activity and floristic composition of thermophilous Pieniny meadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Zarzycki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). About 30% of Park's area is covered by meadows. The climax stage of this area is forest. Therefore extensive use is indispensable action to keep semi-natural grassland such as termophilous Pieniny meadows, which are characterized by a very high biodiversity. The purpose of this research was to answer the question, how the different way of mowing: traditional scything (H), and mechanical mowing (M) or abandonment of mowing (N) effect on the biological activity of soil. Soil biological activity has been expressed by microbial and soil fauna activity. Microbial activity was described directly by count of microorganisms and indirectly by enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase - DHA) and the microbial biomass carbon content (MBC). Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae were chosen as representatives of soil fauna. Density and species diversity of this Oligochaeta was determined. Samples were collected twice in June (before mowing) and in September (after mowing). Basic soil properties, such as pH value, organic carbon and nitrogen content, moisture and temperature, were determined. Mean count of vegetative bacteria forms, fungi and Actinobacteria was higher in H than M and N. Amount of bacteria connected with nitrification and denitrification process and Clostridium pasteurianum was the highest in soil where mowing was discontinued 11 years ago. The microbial activity measured indirectly by MBC and DHA indicated that the M had the highest activity. The soil biological activity in second term of sampling had generally higher activity than soil collected in June. That was probably connected with highest organic carbon content in soil resulting from mowing and the end of growing season. Higher earthworm density was in mowing soil (220 and 208 individuals m-2 in H and M respectively) compare to non-mowing one (77 ind. m-2). The density of Enchytraeidae was inversely, the higher density